S-1 1 d859236ds1.htm FORM S-1 Form S-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 15, 2015.

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

OOMA, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware 7372 06-1713274

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

1880 Embarcadero Road

Palo Alto, CA 94303

(650) 566-6600

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Eric B. Stang

President and Chief Executive Officer

Ooma, Inc.

1880 Embarcadero Road

Palo Alto, CA 94303

(650) 566-6600

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent of Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Stephen J. Venuto, Esq.

Christopher J. Austin, Esq.

Andrew D. Thorpe, Esq.

Joseph Z. Perkins, Esq.

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

1000 Marsh Road

Menlo Park, CA 94025

(650) 614-7400

Spencer D. Jackson, Esq.

Vice President and General Counsel

Ooma, Inc.

1880 Embarcadero Road

Palo Alto, CA 94303

(650) 566-6600

Andrew S. Williamson, Esq.

Charles S. Kim, Esq.

David G. Peinsipp, Esq.

Cooley LLP

101 California Street, 5th Floor

San Francisco, CA 94111

(415) 693-2000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ¨

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer x  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) Smaller reporting company ¨

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title Of Each Class Of

Securities To Be Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(1)(2)

  Amount Of
Registration Fee

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

$86,250,000

 

$10,023.00

 

 

(1) Includes shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
(2) Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 15, 2015

Preliminary Prospectus

             Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

This is the initial public offering of shares of common stock of Ooma, Inc. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. The initial public offering price of our common stock is expected to be between $         and $         per share.

We are applying to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OOMA.”

We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

The underwriters have an option to purchase a maximum of              additional shares of common stock from us at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14.

 

     Price to
Public
     Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)
     Proceeds to
Ooma
 

Per Share

   $                    $                    $                

Total

   $                    $                    $                

 

(1) See “Underwriting” beginning on page 154 for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

Delivery of the shares of common stock will be made on or about                     , 2015.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

Credit Suisse     BofA Merrill Lynch
  JMP Securities  
William Blair     Wunderlich

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2015


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1   

RISK FACTORS

     14   

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     50   

USE OF PROCEEDS

     52   

DIVIDEND POLICY

     53   

CAPITALIZATION

     54   

DILUTION

     57   

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

     60   

MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     63   

BUSINESS

     93   

MANAGEMENT

 

    

 

115

 

  

 

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

     126   

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     138   

PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

     140   

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     143   

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

     148   

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     150   

UNDERWRITING

     154   

LEGAL MATTERS

     161   

EXPERTS

     161   

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     161   

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1   

 

i


Table of Contents

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or contained in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with additional information or information different from that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our common stock.

Through and including                     , 2015 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the U.S. Persons outside the U.S. who obtain this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the U.S.

 

ii


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Ooma,” the “company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Ooma, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiary, and this “offering” refers to the offering contemplated in this prospectus.

Overview

Ooma is a leading provider of innovative communications solutions and other connected services to small business, home and mobile users. Our unique hybrid SaaS platform, consisting of our proprietary cloud, on-premise appliances, mobile applications and end-point devices, provides the connectivity and functionality that power our solutions. Our communications solutions deliver our proprietary PureVoice HD voice quality, advanced features and integration with mobile devices at extremely competitive pricing and value. Our platform helps create smart workplaces and homes by providing value-added communications and other connected services and by integrating end-point devices to enable the Internet of Things. Our platform and solutions have the power to provide communications, productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security and networking infrastructure applications to our users.

We drive the adoption of our platform by providing communications solutions to the large and growing markets for small business, home and mobile users and then accelerate growth by offering new and innovative connected services to our user base. Our small business and home customers adopt our platform by making a one-time purchase of one of our on-premise appliances, connecting the appliance to the internet, and activating subscription services, for which they primarily pay on a monthly basis. We believe we have achieved high levels of customer retention and loyalty by delivering exceptional quality and customer satisfaction.

 

    Small business communications solutions. The readers of PC Magazine selected Ooma’s small business solution as the best internet phone service for small businesses two years in a row in PC Magazine’s Business Choice Awards (2014 and 2015). Ooma’s unique platform for small business, called Ooma Office, delivers a low-cost, complete business communications solution with rich, enterprise-grade functionality and mobile integration to small businesses, defined as businesses that have fewer than 20 employees, which we believe have traditionally been underserved.

 

    Home communications solutions. For four years in a row from 2011 to 2014, the readers of the leading U.S. consumer research publication have ranked Ooma as the number one home phone service for overall satisfaction and value. Our home communications appliance, called Ooma Telo, is a complete home communications solution with proprietary HD voice quality and premium features, many of which are unique to Ooma. Additionally, our full-featured mobile app allows our customers to make calls, manage their accounts and access our platform for other services while on the go.

 

    Mobile communications applications. Our mobile applications are available to customers who have purchased Ooma Office or Ooma Telo, as well as any other consumers with a Wi-Fi or cellular data connected mobile device. For mobile-only customers, we provide free domestic calling and messaging, and low rates for international calling through our Talkatone mobile app, available on both iOS and Android. According to data available from App Annie, a provider of mobile app market data, out of over one million apps available as of December 31, 2014, in each of Google Play and the Apple App Store, our Talkatone app was ranked in the top 100 and top 300, respectively.

 

 

1


Table of Contents

Our services run on our unique platform consisting of four proprietary elements:

 

    Multi-tenant cloud service. Our cloud provides a high-quality, secure, managed and reliable connection, integrating every element of our platform.

 

    Custom on-premise appliances. Our on-premise appliances incorporate both a custom-designed, Linux-based computer and a high-speed network router with several key features, including wireless connectivity to end-point devices and custom firmware and software applications that are remotely upgradable and extensible to new services.

 

    Mobile applications. Our mobile applications enable customers to access our product features on their mobile devices from anywhere they have a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection.

 

    End-point devices. Our end-point devices, such as our Linx, HD2 Handset, Ooma Headset and Wireless + Bluetooth adapter, enable additional functionality and services.

We currently offer our solutions in the U.S. and Canadian markets. We believe our differentiated platform and our long-term customer relationships uniquely position us to add new connected services, and exploit adjacent markets, all without significant capital investment or high customer acquisition costs to drive their adoption. We offer and are developing connected services for the following applications:

 

    Productivity. We offer a small business productivity service, called “Business Promoter,” which provides lead generation services to small businesses using proprietary techniques. In the future, we expect to launch additional connected services to enhance productivity for small businesses.

 

    Automation, monitoring, safety and security. Our platform creates an ecosystem for connected services by integrating with other automation solutions. For example, we have integrated Ooma Telo with products from Nest Labs, Inc., a Google company specializing in home monitoring and control. We are currently developing additional connected services for small businesses and homes to enable the Internet of Things, including a home monitoring solution using proprietary sensors.

 

    Networking infrastructure. Our on-premise appliances include a high-speed router that has the capacity to provide networking infrastructure solutions. In the future, we expect to launch connected services with applications for networking infrastructure for small businesses and homes.

We have experienced significant revenue and user growth in recent periods, growing our “core users” from approximately 174,000 as of January 31, 2011 to approximately 678,000 as of April 30, 2015, representing a compound annual growth rate of approximately 38%. We define core users as the number of home user accounts, office user extensions, and standalone Business Promoter accounts, which means Business Promoter users who do not subscribe to any other services from us. We believe we have one of the lowest customer churn rates in the industry, with an average monthly core user churn rate of 0.55% for the 12-month period ending on April 30, 2015. Additionally, we had approximately 1.5 million and 1.6 million Talkatone monthly active users as of January 31, 2015 and April 30, 2015, respectively. We have a predictable revenue model with growth in recurring revenue, with total revenue of $39.2 million, $53.7 million and $72.2 million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively. Our total revenue for the three months ended April 30, 2014 and 2015 was $16.3 million and $19.9 million, respectively. Subscription and services revenue, which includes the recurring portion of our total revenue, has increased as a percentage of our total revenue over the last four years, from approximately 30% in fiscal 2011 to 75% in fiscal 2015. It has also increased as a percentage of our total revenue from 67% for the three months ended April 30, 2014 to 78% for the three months ended April 30, 2015. We have continued to make significant investments in research and development, brand marketing and channel development, incurring net losses of $(3.7) million, $(2.0) million and $(6.4) million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively, and a net loss of $(3.9) million for the three months ended April 30, 2015. In addition, we had net income of $0.5 million for the three months ended April 30, 2014. Therefore, our Adjusted EBITDA was $(2.2) million, $(0.4) million and $(3.5) million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively, and $1.0 million and $(1.9) million for the three months ended April 30, 2014 and 2015, respectively. See footnote (3) in “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” for a description of how we define

 

 

2


Table of Contents

Adjusted EBITDA, why we believe it is useful to investors, and a reconciliation to our net loss, which is our most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP.

Industry Background

Overall Industry Trends

Several key trends are driving changes within the small business, home and mobile communications markets. Consumers in all three markets are demanding higher quality and performance from products and services, but at a lower cost. The rapid proliferation of ubiquitous connectivity, connected devices, cloud computing, big data, and the widespread availability of broadband internet, have been coupled with a steady decline in component and computing costs. The convergence of these powerful technologies at a lower cost is leading the market toward a more integrated and connected network of devices enabling smart workplaces, smart homes, remote access and automation and a host of potential products and services. As companies and consumers embrace the Internet of Things, we believe the market for connected services and products will expand rapidly.

The Small Business Market

Small businesses struggle to compete with larger enterprises that leverage their size to cover the high costs of communications and other connected services. While small businesses seek top-quality communications services and high-end productivity solutions, such services are seldom tailored to the unique needs and price sensitivities of small businesses, resulting in an underserved small business community.

Small businesses have traditionally had only three choices when deciding on their communications infrastructure: traditional landline solutions, PBX solutions and internet-based solutions. Each of these choices presents challenges, such as high cost and limited functionality for traditional landlines and PBX solutions and inconsistent quality and complexity for internet-based solutions.

The Home Market

The market for consumers of communications and other connected services in the home shows a shift from traditional home telephone lines to internet-based service providers. We believe many consumers, particularly families with children in the household, desire home telephone services, but are frustrated with current offerings due to high costs and lack of value-added functionality. These frustrations have caused a shift in the market from traditional landline services to internet-based solutions. However, many internet-based solutions present challenges, such as limited features, bundled phone service by cable companies with poor customer service or poor voice quality due to the inability to effectively cope with internet bottlenecks.

Consumers are adopting new technologies in the home, including new connected devices enabling the Internet of Things. Current product offerings, including many of the single-use end-point devices, are difficult to network together and do not effectively integrate communications services into a complete solution. The market has failed to provide an affordable solution that facilitates easy adoption and seamless integration of the home telephone, home connectivity and mobile offerings, leaving consumers with sub-optimal options.

The Mobile Communications Applications Market

Due to the limited functionality and high cost of traditional cellular service plans, consumers with mobile devices are increasingly relying on a variety of apps to provide calling, messaging, and other communications and connectivity solutions. The competition in this space is fragmented across a number of companies, and consumers face limitations with many of the apps currently on the market, including limited feature sets and restrictions on calls.

 

 

3


Table of Contents

Our Opportunity

We believe there is a significant opportunity to gain market share in the small business, home and mobile applications markets due to the following factors:

 

    Ooma Office solves many of the frustrations that small businesses encounter with other communications services by offering affordable communications solutions with an extensive feature set tailored to small businesses.

 

    Our home communications solution features high-quality voice communications at a low cost, consisting of the initial cost of the on-premise appliance and then only modest applicable monthly taxes and fees. Additionally, we offer a suite of advanced features through our Ooma Premier service.

 

    The number of users adopting our mobile communications applications is growing rapidly as we prove we can deliver high-quality voice solutions coupled with useful features and services at a low cost to the end user.

 

    As we expand the number of customers subscribing to our office, home, or mobile communications solutions, we believe we will be able to leverage our existing strong customer relationships and customer loyalty to increase revenue by providing an expanded set of features and services, including productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security, and networking infrastructure applications.

 

    The opportunities for us to expand into additional geographic areas provide the potential to significantly increase our customer base and source of revenue.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe the following strengths position us well to capitalize on the expected growth in our target markets:

 

    Unique hybrid SaaS connectivity platform. We have invested significant resources in creating and maintaining our unique hybrid SaaS connectivity platform that is scalable and extensible to new services. We built our platform from the ground up to be powerful, secure, always-connected, and to enable us to remotely monitor and configure our products and services. We believe our platform positions us to add new connected services and exploit adjacent markets, all without significant additional capital investment or high customer acquisition costs.

 

    Better products and services. Our products and services provide complete, easy-to-use solutions for voice communications, with differentiated features and seamless integration with mobile devices. Our products are easy to install, use and support, and take just minutes to activate. Our patent-pending PureVoice HD technology provides our proprietary HD voice quality, even when our customers encounter poor internet performance from their internet service providers. We believe our communications solutions are the first step in providing additional connected services to our users, which we expect to increase the growth of our recurring revenue stream.

 

    Compelling value proposition. We believe we provide a unique combination of quality, services and affordability that is unmatched by our competitors. As of January 31, 2015, we estimate we have saved our small business and home customers an aggregate of approximately $700 million since our inception.

 

    Top ranked customer satisfaction and strong brand loyalty. Our compelling value proposition has been validated by our customers. The readers of the leading U.S. consumer research publication have ranked Ooma as the number one home phone service for overall satisfaction and value for four years in a row from 2011 to 2014, and readers of PC Magazine have ranked Ooma Office as the number one internet phone service for small businesses in 2014 and 2015. We believe that our high level of customer satisfaction enables us to grow our recurring revenue stream by marketing additional connected services to a customer base that already trusts us and values the services we provide.

 

 

4


Table of Contents
    Integrated multi-channel marketing and sales strategy. We utilize an effective, integrated marketing and sales strategy to maximize reach, increase brand awareness and grow our user base. Our retail, online and direct channels are fully integrated and complement each other, and they are supported by a combination of television, print and online advertising that builds brand awareness among small business, home and mobile customers. We maintain strong retail channel relationships with leading online and traditional retailers in the U.S. and Canada, including national retailers such as Amazon.com, Costco.com and Best Buy. We believe our integrated sales strategy enables us to effectively grow our sales at a relatively low cost of customer acquisition.

 

    Experienced senior management team. Our executive management team has a strong track record of success across a broad range of disciplines in high-growth companies, such as Apple, Cisco, Gigamon, Intuit and Lexar, with deep experience building both consumer and enterprise businesses.

Our Growth Strategy

Our objective is to enable smarter and more affordable communications solutions and other connected services through the use of our platform. The following are the key elements of our growth strategy:

 

    Continue to expand our user base for communications solutions. We believe that the adoption of internet-based communications services will continue to grow rapidly for the foreseeable future and our communications solutions provide a compelling option to those users. Accordingly, we intend to continue investing in our sales and marketing capabilities, and to execute our integrated multi-channel sales strategy to acquire new users and significantly increase our market share.

 

    Sell existing users additional services. As customers experience the benefits of our communications solutions, we intend to focus on increasing their spending with us by selling current customers additional premium communications services, as well as other connected services we develop and offer in the future.

 

    Develop new connected services. We are continuing to introduce new connected services focused on productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security and networking infrastructure applications. We also intend to cultivate new relationships with other technology companies, in addition to Nest, to enhance the value of our connected services.

 

    Expand globally. To date, our focus has been on the U.S. and Canadian markets. We believe there is a significant opportunity for our communications and other connected services to disrupt incumbent communications providers internationally.

 

    Opportunistically pursue strategic acquisitions. We intend to actively and selectively explore acquisition opportunities of companies and technologies to expand the functionality of our solutions, provide access to new customers or markets, or both.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to many risks and uncertainties, as more fully described under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. For example, you should be aware of the following before investing in our common stock:

 

    If we are unable to attract new customers on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

 

    Our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service at any time without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and encourage them to add users and purchase additional services, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

 

 

5


Table of Contents
    We face intense competition and aggressive business tactics in our markets by our competitors and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.

 

    We rely significantly on retailers and reseller partnerships to sell our products; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our retail sales and reseller partnership channels could materially and adversely affect our revenue.

 

    We depend on four vendors to manufacture the on-premise appliances and end-point devices we sell, and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may harm our business.

 

    Interruptions in our services could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell our services.

 

    To deliver our services, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co-location facilities for certain features in our services and for certain elements of providing our services.

 

    We rely on third parties for some of our software development, quality assurance and operations.

 

    We rely on third parties to provide the majority of our customer service and support representatives.

 

    Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.

 

    We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015, and if we fail to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner.

 

    We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

 

    Our insiders, including Worldview Technology Partners and its affiliates, will continue to hold approximately     % of our stock after this offering, and will continue to have substantial control over our corporate matters.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in 2003 as a Delaware corporation. Our headquarters are located at 1880 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, and our telephone number is (650) 566-6600. Our corporate website address is www.ooma.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock. We have included our website address only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, was enacted in April 2012 with the intention of encouraging capital formation in the U.S. and reducing the regulatory burden on newly public companies that qualify as “emerging growth companies.” We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various public reporting requirements, including the requirement that our internal control over financial reporting be audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, certain requirements related to the disclosure of executive compensation in this prospectus and in our periodic

 

 

6


Table of Contents

reports and proxy statements and the requirement that we hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering.

This prospectus includes statistical, market and industry data and forecasts we obtained from publicly available information and independent industry publications and reports we believe to be reliable sources. These publicly available industry publications and reports generally state that they obtain their information from sources they believe to be reliable, but they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information. Certain estimates and forecasts involve uncertainties and risks and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the headings “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.

The last day of our fiscal year is January 31, and we refer to our fiscal year ended January 31, 2013 as fiscal 2013, our fiscal year ended January 31, 2014 as fiscal 2014, our fiscal year ended January 31, 2015 as fiscal 2015 and our fiscal year ending January 31, 2016 as fiscal 2016. All other references to years are references to calendar years.

“Ooma,” “Ooma Telo,” “Instant Second Line” and “The smart phone for your home” are our registered trademarks in the U.S. and, in some cases, in certain other countries. Our unregistered trademarks and service marks in the U.S. include: “Ooma Office,” “PureVoice,” “Talkatone,” “The smart phone for your business” and “The smart phone for your home or business.” This prospectus also contains trademarks, service marks and trade names of other companies. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ®, TM or SM symbols, but such references do not constitute a waiver of any rights that might be associated with the respective trademarks, service marks or trade names.

 

 

7


Table of Contents

The Offering

The following information assumes that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares in the offering. See “Underwriting.”

 

Common stock offered by us

            shares

 

Common stock to be outstanding after the offering

            shares

 

Option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us

The underwriters have an option to purchase a maximum of             additional shares of common stock from us. The underwriters can exercise this option at any time within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, including working capital, sales and marketing activities, general and administrative matters, capital expenditures and further development of our solutions. We will also use a portion of the net proceeds to repay outstanding borrowings under our credit facilities and we may use a portion to acquire other businesses, products or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments for any specific acquisitions at this time. See “Use of Proceeds” for a more complete description.

 

Listing

We are applying to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OOMA.”

 

Material U.S. federal income tax considerations for non-U.S. holders

For a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations that may be relevant to prospective investors who are non-U.S. holders, please see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders.”

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully read and consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” and all other information in this prospectus before investing in our common stock.

We refer to our Series Alpha, Series Alpha-1 and Series Beta convertible preferred stock collectively as our “convertible preferred stock” in this prospectus.

 

 

8


Table of Contents

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus is based upon                  shares of our common stock (including 847,160 unvested shares of restricted common stock subject to our repurchase right) outstanding as of April 30, 2015, and excludes:

 

    3,922,041 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $2.04 per share;

 

                shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options granted after April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $         per share;

 

                shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2015 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2015 Plan (which includes 116,134 shares of our common stock as of April 30, 2015 reserved for future grant under our 2005 Stock Plan, or 2005 Plan, that will be added to the shares reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Plan upon effectiveness of that plan if the shares are not issued or subject to outstanding grants under the 2005 Plan at that time), which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation – Employee Benefit Plans;”

 

                shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation – Employee Benefit Plans;”

 

    176,005 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $3.10 per share;

 

    174,651 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share;

 

    68,802 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which will either terminate upon the closing of this offering, or will be exercised prior thereto; and

 

    140,575 shares of our common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of an outstanding warrant to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which may be exercised or settled in cash, net of the aggregate exercise price, upon the closing of this offering.

 

 

9


Table of Contents

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus reflects and assumes:

 

    the automatic conversion immediately prior to or upon the completion of this offering of all of our outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of                  shares of common stock, including the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Alpha and Series Alpha-1 convertible preferred stock into 16,707,522 shares of common stock and the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock into                  shares of common stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus;

 

    the automatic conversion of warrants to purchase an aggregate of 174,651 shares of convertible preferred stock into warrants to purchase an equivalent number of shares of common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

 

    no exercise or termination of outstanding stock options or warrants after April 30, 2015, except for (i) the termination or net exercise of warrants to purchase 68,802 shares of our Series Alpha convertible preferred stock and (ii) the exercise or cash settlement, net of the aggregate exercise price, of a warrant to purchase 140,575 shares of our Series Alpha convertible preferred stock upon the closing of this offering (and in each case, if exercised, the automatic conversion of such shares of convertible preferred stock into an equivalent number of shares of common stock);

 

    the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the adoption of our amended and restated bylaws immediately prior to the closing of this offering; and

 

    no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us in this offering.

 

 

10


Table of Contents

Summary Consolidated Financial Data

The following tables summarize our historical consolidated financial data and should be read together with our consolidated financial statements, the notes to our consolidated financial statements and the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained elsewhere in this prospectus.

We derived the summary consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and summary consolidated balance sheet for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2014 and 2015 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the unaudited consolidated statements of operations data for the first three months of fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2016 and the unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of April 30, 2015 from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited financial information on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and have included, in our opinion, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information set forth in those statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period, and our interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year.

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2014     2015  
    

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

          

Revenue:

          

Subscription and services

   $ 24,107      $ 35,377      $ 53,828      $ 10,886      $ 15,576   

Product and other

     15,126        18,288        18,373        5,413        4,276   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  39,233      53,665      72,201      16,299      19,852   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

Subscription and services

  13,899      15,894      18,284      3,817      5,624   

Product and other

  11,590      15,573      18,440      4,775      4,207   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue(1)

  25,489      31,467      36,724      8,592      9,831   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

  13,744      22,198      35,477      7,707      10,021   

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing(1)

  7,471      13,192      22,276      3,730      5,895   

Research and development(1)

  7,023      7,888      12,290      2,301      4,097   

General and administrative(1)

  2,508      2,573      6,650      930      2,961   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  17,002      23,653      41,216      6,961      12,953   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

  (3,258   (1,455   (5,739   746      (2,932

Interest expense, net

  (550   (269   (323   (53   (285

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

  153      (250   (795   (184   (716

Other expense, net

  (8   (26   (55   (10   (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax benefit

  (3,663   (2,000   (6,912   499      (3,935

Income tax benefit

  —        —        502      —        —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

  (3,663   (2,000   (6,410   499      (3,935

Less: Undistributed earnings to participating securities holders

  —        —        —        (499   —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$ (3,663 $ (2,000 $ (6,410 $ —      $ (3,935
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

11


Table of Contents
     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2014      2015  
    

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders(2):

           

Basic and diluted

   $ (1.77   $ (0.59   $ (1.40   $ —         $ (0.76
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

  2,071,914      3,377,692      4,568,483      4,018,563      5,182,483   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders(2):

Basic and diluted

$      $     
      

 

 

      

 

 

 

As adjusted(3)

      

 

 

      

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted average shares outstanding(2):

Basic and diluted

      

 

 

      

 

 

 

As adjusted(3)

      

 

 

      

 

 

 

Other Financial Data:

Adjusted EBITDA(4)

$ (2,241 )   $ (445 $ (3,455 $ 1,001    $ (1,885

 

(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended January 31,      Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013      2014      2015      2014      2015  

Total cost of revenue

   $ 11       $ 7       $ 36       $ 4       $ 58   

Sales and marketing

     1         6         41         5         56   

Research and development

     50         26         169         15         217   

General and administrative

     111         33         180         17         220   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

$ 173    $ 72    $ 426    $ 41    $ 551   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(2) See Note 14 of the notes to our consolidated financial statements for a description of the method used to compute basic and diluted net (loss) income per share attributable to common stockholders and pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders.
(3) Pro forma as adjusted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders gives effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into an aggregate of                  shares of our common stock; (ii) the automatic conversion of all outstanding convertible preferred stock warrants into warrants to purchase shares of our common stock; (iii) the application of $     million of the estimated net proceeds from the sale of common stock by us in this offering to cash settle a warrant to purchase 140,575 shares of convertible preferred stock; (iv) the net exercise of warrants to purchase 68,802 shares of convertible preferred stock, that will be converted into              shares of our common stock; and (v) the application of $     million of the estimated net proceeds from the sale of common stock by us in this offering to repay the outstanding amounts under our existing loans with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, as if the offering and those transactions had occurred on February 1, 2014. The pro forma as adjusted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing pro forma as adjusted net loss attributable to common stockholders by pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares outstanding. Pro forma as adjusted net loss attributable to common stockholders is computed by decreasing pro forma net loss attributable to common stockholders by $         of interest expense that would not be incurred if the offering had occurred on February 1, 2014 and the existing loans with SVB of $         were repaid as of that date. Pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares outstanding is computed by increasing the pro forma weighted-average shares outstanding by only the minimum number of shares required for repayment of the existing loans with SVB or         shares. The number of incremental shares is computed assuming the shares are offered at $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

 

12


Table of Contents
(4) See footnote (4) in “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” for a description of how we define Adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure, why we believe that it is useful to investors, and a reconciliation to our net (loss) income, which is our most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with GAAP.

 

     As of April 30, 2015
     Actual     Pro
Forma(5)
    Pro Forma As
Adjusted(6)
     (In thousands)

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

      

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 13,635      $ 12,209     

Working capital

     (5,822     (5,822  

Total assets

     34,805        34,079     

Convertible preferred stock warrant liability, current and long-term

     1,933        —       

Debt obligations, current and long-term

     11,481        11,481     

Deferred revenue, current and long-term

     12,300        12,300     

Total liabilities

     44,221        42,288     

Convertible preferred stock

     38,637        —       

Stockholders’ deficit

   $ (48,053   $              

 

(5) The pro forma column reflects the following, effective upon the closing of this offering: (i) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Alpha and Series Alpha-1 convertible preferred stock into 16,707,522 shares of our common stock and the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock into                      shares of our common stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus; (ii) the reclassification of our convertible preferred stock warrant liability related to warrants to purchase 174,651 shares of our convertible preferred stock that will convert into warrants to purchase common stock to additional paid-in capital, as if such conversion, effectiveness and reclassification had occurred on February 1, 2015; (iii) the net exercise of warrants to purchase 68,802 shares of our convertible preferred stock that will be converted to                      shares of our common stock; and the termination of the associated preferred stock warrant liability and the reclassification of the associated convertible preferred stock liability to additional paid-in capital, as if such effectiveness and reclassification had occurred on February 1, 2015; and (iv) the derecognition of our convertible preferred stock warrant liability related to a warrant to purchase 140,575 shares of our convertible preferred stock that may be exercised or cash settled upon the closing of this offering with the application of $         million of the estimated net proceeds from the sale of common stock by us in this offering to cash settle that warrant, as if those transactions had occurred on February 1, 2015.
(6) The pro forma as adjusted column gives effect to the pro forma adjustments set forth in footnote 5 above and further reflects: (i) the sale by us of                      shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and (ii) the application of $         million of net proceeds from the sale of common stock by us in this offering to repay the outstanding amounts under existing loans with Silicon Valley Bank (assuming such repayment had occurred on February 1, 2015).

 

 

13


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors and all other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face and include risks we consider material of which we are currently aware. If any of the following risks materialize, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

If we are unable to attract new users of our services on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

In order to grow our business, we must continue to attract new users on a cost-effective basis. We use and periodically adjust the mix of advertising and marketing programs to promote our services. Significant increases in the pricing of one or more of our advertising channels could increase our advertising costs or may cause us to choose less expensive and perhaps less effective channels to promote our services. As we add to or change the mix of our advertising and marketing strategies, we may need to expand into channels with significantly higher costs than our current programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. We will incur advertising and marketing expenses in advance of when we anticipate recognizing any revenue generated by such expenses, and we may fail to experience an increase in revenue or brand awareness as a result of such expenditures. We have made in the past, and may make in the future, significant expenditures and investments in new advertising campaigns, and we cannot assure you that any such investments will lead to the cost-effective acquisition of additional customers. New users are drawn to our products and services by rankings circulated by organizations such as Amazon.com, Apple and Google app stores and highly regarded publications such as PC Magazine. If we are unable to maintain effective advertising programs and garner favorable rankings, our ability to attract new customers could be materially and adversely affected, our advertising and marketing expenses could increase substantially, and our results of operations may suffer.

We market our products and services principally to small businesses and households. Many of these consumers tend to be less technically knowledgeable and may be resistant to new technologies such as our cloud-based communications solutions and our connected services. Because our potential customers need to connect additional hardware at their location and take other technical steps not required for the use of traditional communications services such as telephone, fax and e-mail, these consumers may be reluctant to use our service. These customers may also lack sufficient resources, financial or otherwise, to invest in learning about our services, and therefore may be unwilling to adopt them. If these consumers choose not to adopt our services, our ability to grow our business will be limited.

Our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service at any time without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and encourage them to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities and premium service editions, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our customers generally do not have long-term contracts with us, and they may terminate their subscription for our service at any time without penalty or early termination charges. We cannot accurately predict the rate of customer terminations or average monthly service cancellations or failures to renew, which we refer to as churn. Our Ooma Office customers may choose to reduce the number of lines or remove some of the solutions to which they subscribe. Additionally, our Ooma Telo customers subscribing to Premium Services have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for such services and may elect to terminate their subscription for any number of reasons, including changes in financial or employment status, perceived reduction in quality or value, and other unique and personal reasons.

 

14


Table of Contents

We may not be able to predict the renewal rates for our customers. In addition, small business customers generally pay more for their subscriptions than home or mobile customers, so any increased churn in small business customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and user churn, resulting in a significant impact on our results of operations, and an increase in the cost we incur in our efforts to retain our customers and encourage them to upgrade their services and increase their number of users. Our core user churn rate could increase in the future if customers are not satisfied with our service, the value proposition of our services or our ability to otherwise meet their needs and expectations. Churn and reductions in the number of users for whom a small business customer subscribes may also increase due to factors beyond our control. Because of churn and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes, we have to acquire new customers, or acquire new users within our existing customer base, on an ongoing basis simply to maintain our existing level of customers and revenue. If a significant number of customers terminate, reduce or fail to renew their subscriptions, we may need to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures than we currently anticipate in order to increase the number of new customers or to sell existing customers additional services, and such additional marketing expenditures could harm our business and results of operations. Different factors may affect the churn of business, home, and mobile customers, and Talkatone customers differently. As a result, our business is susceptible to a broad array of market forces, and any of our efforts to mitigate risk of customer churn due to one factor may divert management’s time and focus away from efforts to mitigate risk of customer churn due to other factors. This broad-based susceptibility to churn could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional subscriptions and additional functionalities to our current customers. This may require increasingly sophisticated and more costly sales efforts and a longer sales cycle. Any increase in the costs necessary to upgrade, expand and retain existing customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. If our efforts to convince customers to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities are not successful, our business may suffer. In addition, such increased costs could cause us to increase our subscription rates, which could increase our turnover rate.

We face intense competition in our markets by our competitors and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are highly competitive. We face continued intense competition from (i) established communications providers, such as AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation and Verizon Communications Inc. in the U.S., and Rogers Communications Inc. and others in Canada; (ii) other communications companies such as 8x8, Inc., magicJack VocalTec Ltd., RingCentral, Inc. and Vonage Holdings Corp.; (iii) companies such as Broadsoft, Inc. and Microsoft Corporation (that generally license their software) and their resellers; (iv) traditional on-premise, hardware communications providers, such as Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc., ShoreTel, Inc. and their resellers; (v) mobile communications app companies providing “over-the-top” solutions, such as LINE Corporation, Pinger, Inc., Viber Media S.à.r.l. and WhatsApp Inc.; and (vi) other large internet companies, such as Google Inc. All of these companies currently or may in the future host their solutions through the cloud. In addition, as we expand our connected services, we face competition from lead-generation and internet search engine optimization companies and home automation companies.

Aggressive business tactics by our competitors may reduce our revenue.

Increased competition may result in aggressive business tactics by our competitors, including:

 

    selling at a discount or loss;

 

    offering products similar to our platform and solutions on a bundled basis at no charge;

 

    announcing competing products combined with extensive marketing efforts;

 

    providing financial incentives to consumers; and

 

    asserting intellectual property rights irrespective of the validity of the claims.

 

15


Table of Contents

Our retail partners may offer the products and services of competing companies, which would adversely affect our business. Competition from other companies may also adversely affect our negotiations with service providers and suppliers, including, in some cases, requiring us to lower our prices. We may not be able to compete successfully with the offerings and sales tactics of other companies, which could result in the loss of customers and, as a result, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.

Mergers or other strategic transactions involving our competitors could weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and harm our results of operations; additionally, mergers or other strategic transactions we engage in may not be successful.

We believe that some of our existing competitors may consolidate or be acquired. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with systems integrators, third-party consulting firms or other parties. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and lead to pricing pressure and our loss of market share, and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In the past we have decided, and in the future may decide, to enter into mergers or other strategic transactions in which we acquire other companies. We cannot guarantee we will be able to successfully integrate the teams, assets, or business of these target companies into our business, that we will be able to fully recover the costs of such transactions or that we will be successful in leveraging such strategic transactions into increased business for our products.

We rely significantly on retailers and reseller partnerships to sell our products; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our retail sales and reseller partnership channels could materially and adversely affect our revenue.

We currently sell our Ooma Telo and Ooma Office products through a combination of direct sales, leading retailers such as Amazon.com, Costco.com, Best Buy, Fry’s Electronics, Future Shop and Walmart, and our reseller partnership with Vivint Inc., and a significant portion of our product sales are made through our retail and reseller partnership channels. Similarly, to date, the vast majority of our Business Promoter accounts are obtained through a limited number of reseller partnerships. In addition, our Talkatone division relies significantly on the Apple and Google app stores for distribution. Our future success depends on our continued ability to establish and maintain a network of productive retailers, to maintain and expand our reseller partnership arrangements, and to maintain the ability of Talkatone to be distributed through the app stores and increase Talkatone’s visibility therein. We expect that we will need to maintain and expand our retail channel and reseller partnership sales and Talkatone’s distribution and visibility in the app stores as we seek to expand our customer base. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our retailers, distributors and reseller partners, and we have in the past and may in the future experience a loss of or reduction in sales through any of these third parties, which could materially reduce our revenue. In addition, if Apple or Google determine that Talkatone is non-compliant with their app store vendor policies, they may revoke our rights to sell Talkatone through their app store at any time. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in causing our current and potential retailers, and reseller partners to favor their services or prevent or reduce sales of our services. If we fail to maintain relationships with current retailers and reseller partners, fail to develop relationships with new retailers and reseller partners in new markets or expand the number of retailers and reseller partners in existing markets, or if we fail to manage, train, or provide appropriate incentives to our existing retailers and reseller partners, or if they are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products and services may decrease and our results of operations would suffer.

 

16


Table of Contents

We depend on four vendors to manufacture the on-premise appliances and end-point devices we sell, and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may harm our business.

We primarily rely on Mitac Computing Technology Corporation and Kentec Technology (SUZHOU) Co., Ltd. for production of our on-premise appliances and primarily on Hualin Precision Technology Co., Ltd and VTech Telecommunication Ltd. for production of our end-point devices we sell to our customers. We currently do not have long-term contracts with these vendors. As a result, these third parties are not obligated to provide products to or perform services for us for any specific period, in any specific quantities or at any specific price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. If these third parties are unable to deliver on-premise appliances or end-point devices of acceptable quality or in a timely manner, our ability to bring services to market, the reliability of our services and our reputation could suffer. We expect that it could take several months to effectively transition to new third-party manufacturers or fulfillment agents. Additionally, several components used in our on-premise appliances and end point devices are “single sourced” and any interruption in the suppliers of such components could cause our business to suffer as we identify alternative sources of components. Due to the recent West Coast port strikes, we experienced delayed shipments of our products from our manufacturers. Future repetition of such delays could negatively affect our ability to deliver product to our customers in a timely manner and may harm our business and hinder our growth.

To deliver our services, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co-location facilities for certain features in our services and for certain elements of providing our services.

We currently use the infrastructure of third-party service providers for hosting, internet access and other services that are vital to our service offering. Equinix, Inc. provides data center facilities; Internap, Zao and NTT Inc. provide backbone internet access; and Bandwidth.com, Onvoy, Level 3, Broadvox and EarthLink provide origination services. We also rely on third-party services for our SMS and speech-to-text services which are sole-sourced. Intrado is our sole provider of 911 services. We expect that we will continue to rely heavily on third-party network service providers to provide these services for the foreseeable future. If any of these network service providers stop providing us with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party network service provider, if one is available, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may be required to transfer our servers to new data center facilities if we are unable to renew our leases on acceptable terms, if at all, or the owners of the facilities decide to close their facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure, faced by our third-party data center operators or any of the service providers with which we or they contract, may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers are unable to keep up with our increasing needs for capacity, our ability to grow our business could be materially and adversely impacted.

If problems occur with any of these third-party network or service providers, it may cause errors or reduced quality in our services, and we could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or reduced quality in our service, whether caused by our systems or a third-party network or service provider, may result in the loss of our existing customers, delay or loss of market acceptance of our services, termination of our relationships and agreements with our resellers or liability for failure to meet service level agreements, and may seriously harm our business and results of operations.

We rely on purchased or leased hardware and software licensed from third parties in order to offer our service. In some cases, we integrate third-party licensed software components into our platform. This hardware and software may not continue to be available at reasonable prices or on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this hardware or software could significantly increase our expenses and

 

17


Table of Contents

otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our service until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated. Any errors or defects in third-party hardware or software could result in errors or a failure of our service which could harm our business.

We also contract with third parties to provide enhanced 911, or E-911, services, including assistance in routing emergency calls and terminating E-911 calls. Our providers operate a national call center that is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to receive certain emergency calls and maintain public service answering point, or PSAP, databases for the purpose of deploying and operating E-911 services. On mobile devices, we generally rely on the underlying cellular or wireless carrier to provide E-911 services. Any failure to perform, including interruptions in service, by our vendors, could cause failures in our customers’ access to E-911 services and expose us to significant liability and damage our reputation.

Interruptions in our services could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell our services.

Because our technology platform is complex, incorporates a variety of new computer hardware, and the platform continues to evolve, our services may have errors or defects that are identified after customers begin using such services, which could result in unanticipated service interruptions. Although we test our services to detect and correct errors and defects before their initial release and before we make updates or other changes to such services, we have occasionally experienced significant service interruptions as a result of undetected errors or defects and may experience future interruptions of service if we fail to detect and correct errors and defects. For example, in April and May 2015 while working to upgrade our network, we encountered unexpected problems with the communications between our data centers, as well as certain server capacity issues, which led to multiple intermittent service outages, some of which lasted for up to approximately eight hours for some of our customers. While we have identified root causes of these service outages, and in each case were able to restore service to all of the affected customers, we continue to take corrective actions to address these root causes. We were able to correct such root causes without incurring material expenses, and we do not expect the outages in April and May to materially affect our results of operations. However, the costs incurred in correcting root causes for future service outages may be substantial and these and other related consequences could negatively impact our results of operations.

We currently serve our customers from two data center hosting facilities located in Northern California, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc. The second data center in Northern California was added in early 2015, and while we believe that such second data center and certain new procedures we have adopted will enable us to restore services quickly in the event of a service outage, these new procedures and our second data center, by themselves, will not prevent future outages. Any damage to, or failure of, these facilities, the communications network providers with whom we or they contract or with the systems by which our communications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could result in interruptions in our service. Additionally, in connection with the expansion or consolidation of our existing data center facilities, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other data centers. Despite precautions we take during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair or cause disruptions in the delivery of our service.

Despite precautions taken at our hosting facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. Even with the disaster recovery arrangements that we have in place, our service could be interrupted.

Any defects in, or unavailability of, the components of our platform that cause interruptions of our services could, among other things:

 

    cause a reduction in revenue or a delay in market acceptance of our services;

 

    require us to issue refunds to our customers or expose us to claims for damages;

 

18


Table of Contents
    cause us to lose existing customers and make it more difficult to attract new customers;

 

    divert our development resources or require us to make extensive changes to our software, which would increase our expenses and slow innovation;

 

    increase our technical support costs; and

 

    harm our reputation and brand.

We rely on third parties for some of our software development, quality assurance and operations.

We currently depend on various third parties for some of our software development efforts, quality assurance and operations. Specifically, we outsource some of our software development and design, quality assurance and operations activities to third-party contractors that have employees and consultants located in Canada, India, China, New Zealand, Russia and Ukraine. Our dependence on third-party contractors creates a number of risks, in particular, the risk that we may not maintain control or effective management with respect to these business operations.

Our agreements with these third-party contractors are either not terminable by them (other than at the end of the term or upon an uncured breach by us) or require at least 30 days’ prior written notice of termination. If we experience problems with our third-party contractors, the costs charged by our third-party contractors increase or our agreements with our third-party contractors are terminated, we may not be able to develop new solutions, enhance or operate existing solutions or provide customer support in an alternate manner that is equally or more efficient and cost-effective.

We anticipate we will continue to depend on these and other third-party relationships in order to grow our business for the foreseeable future. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer.

We rely on third parties to provide the majority of our customer service and support representatives. If these third parties do not provide our customers with reliable, high-quality service, our reputation will be harmed, and we may lose customers.

We offer customer support through both our online account management website and our toll-free customer support number. Our customer support is currently provided via a third-party provider located in the Philippines, as well as our employees in the U.S. We currently offer support almost exclusively in English. Our third-party providers generally provide customer service and support to our customers without identifying themselves as independent parties. The ability to support our customers may be disrupted by natural disasters, inclement weather conditions, civil unrest, strikes, acts of terrorism and other adverse events in the Philippines. Furthermore, as we expand our operations internationally, we may need to make significant expenditures and investments in our customer service and support to adequately address the complex needs of international customers, such as support in multiple foreign languages.

If any of these third parties do not provide reliable, high-quality service, our reputation and our business will be harmed and we may be exposed to significant liability. In addition, a significant service outage may cause a high volume of customer support inquiries, and our third-party customer service call center might be unable to respond to a significant spike in customer support inquiries in a timely manner. In addition, industry consolidation among providers of services to us may impact our ability to obtain these services or increase our costs for these services.

 

19


Table of Contents

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.

Although we were incorporated in 2003, we did not formally introduce Ooma Telo until 2009 or Ooma Office until 2013. In addition, we acquired our Business Promoter business in 2012 and our Talkatone business in 2014. Our limited operating history limits our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and expect to continue encountering risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing markets. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not manage or address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer. Any success we may experience in the future will depend, in large part, on our ability to, among other things:

 

    retain and expand our customer base;

 

    increase revenue from existing customers as they add users and, in the future, purchase additional functionalities and premium service subscriptions;

 

    successfully acquire customers on a cost-effective basis;

 

    improve the performance and capabilities of our services, applications, and hardware through research and development;

 

    successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;

 

    successfully compete in our markets;

 

    continue to innovate and expand our service offerings;

 

    continue our relationships with strategic partners like Nest Labs, Inc. and reseller partners like Vivint, Inc.;

 

    continue our relationships with our current retail partners and develop relationships with additional retail partners;

 

    continue our relationships with our digital marketing agency partners, advertising agencies and digital advertising networks;

 

    continue our relationships with third-party vendors that enable our solutions;

 

    successfully protect our intellectual property and defend against intellectual property infringement claims;

 

    generate leads and convert potential customers into paying customers;

 

    maintain and enhance our third-party data center hosting facilities to minimize interruptions in the use of our services;

 

    determine appropriate prices for the marketplace; and

 

    hire, integrate and retain professional and technical talent.

We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We have incurred substantial net losses since our inception, including net losses of approximately $(3.7) million, $(2.0) million and $(6.4) million for fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively, and a net loss of $(3.9) million for the three months ended April 30, 2015. We had an accumulated deficit of $(54.7) million as of April 30, 2015. We have spent considerable amounts of time and money since inception to develop new communications solutions and connected services. Additionally, we have incurred substantial losses and expended significant resources to market, promote, develop and sell our products and solutions. We also expect to continue investing for future growth, including for advertising, customer acquisition, technology infrastructure, storage capacity, services development and international expansion. In addition, as a public company, we will incur significant additional accounting, legal and other expenses.

 

20


Table of Contents

As a result of our increased expenditures, we will have negative operating cash flows for the foreseeable future and will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to achieve future profitability. Achieving profitability will require us to increase revenue, manage our cost structure and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow, revenue may decline or we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of possible reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition (including competitive pricing pressures), a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete or failure for any reason to continue capitalizing on growth opportunities. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, service delivery and quality problems and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed and our stock price could be volatile or decline.

Our business could suffer if we cannot obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers, or DIDs, are prohibited from obtaining local or toll-free numbers, or are limited to distributing local or toll-free numbers to only certain customers.

Our future success depends on our ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free DIDs in the U.S. and foreign countries in desirable locations at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Our ability to procure and distribute DIDs depends on factors outside of our control, such as applicable regulations, the practices of the communications carriers that provide DIDs, the cost of these DIDs, and the level of demand for new DIDs. Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes we generally cannot obtain. Our inability to acquire DIDs for our operations would make our services less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in our customer base, together with growth in the customer bases of other providers of internet-based business communications, has increased, which increases our dependence on needing sufficiently large quantities of DIDs.

If we are unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner, our growth may be negatively affected.

We support local number and toll-free number portability, which allows our customers to transfer to us and thereby retain their existing phone numbers when subscribing to our small business, home, and mobile services. Transferring numbers can be a manual process that can take up to 15 business days or longer to complete. A new customer of our services must maintain both our service and the customer’s existing phone service during the number transferring process. Any delay we experience in transferring these numbers typically results from the fact that we depend on third-party carriers to transfer these numbers, a process we do not control, and these third-party carriers may refuse or substantially delay the transfer of these numbers to us. Local number portability is considered an important feature by many potential customers, and if we fail to reduce any related delays, we may experience increased difficulty in acquiring new customers. Moreover, the FCC requires us to comply with specified number porting timeframes when customers leave our service for the services of another provider. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, or CRTC, has imposed a similar number portability requirement on service providers like us. If we, or our third-party carriers, are unable to process number portability requests within the requisite timeframes, we could be subject to fines and penalties. Additionally, in the U.S., both customers and carriers may seek relief from the relevant state public utility commission, the FCC, or in state or federal court for violation of local number portability requirements.

If small businesses opt to perform advertising tasks on their own, demand for our lead-generation services would decrease, thereby negatively affecting our revenue.

Large internet marketing providers such as Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft offer online advertising products to small businesses through self-service platforms. As small businesses become more familiar with such platforms, they may increasingly choose to actively manage their own internet presence and their demand for the lead-generation services may decrease. We cannot predict the evolving experiences and preferences of small

 

21


Table of Contents

businesses and cannot assure you that we can develop our lead generation business, or develop similar new services, in a manner that will suit their needs and expectations faster or more effectively than our competitors, or at all. If we are not able to do so, our results of operations would suffer.

Our access to the majority of our lead-generation customers is currently through a limited number of digital agencies, which creates a significant risk that we could lose a majority of our lead generation service customers due to factors beyond our control.

We currently contract with five digital agencies to provide our lead-generation services as a component of their service to third parties who we include as our core users. If our relationship with these digital agencies degrades, they could elect not to use our lead-generation service, which would lead to the loss of a portion of our lead generation business revenue as well as a number of our core users. Also, for reasons beyond our control, the digital agencies we work with may lose their business relationships with third parties who purchase lead generation services for their customers, causing the digital agency to terminate its business relationship with us and the loss of such lead generation business revenue. Prior to February 2015, we contracted with three digital agencies to provide our lead generation service to third parties. In February 2015, one of them unexpectedly lost a key business relationship, which led that digital agency to terminate its business relationship with us, which in turn caused us to lose a few thousand of our core users. This concentration of our access to lead generation customers creates volatility in the churn of our core users, which risk will remain unless and until we significantly grow the number of digital agencies we contract with, and/or increase the number of small businesses that obtain lead generation services directly from us.

If we fail to continue developing our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.

We believe that continuing to strengthen our current brand will be critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our services and will require continued focus on active marketing efforts. The demand for and cost of online and traditional advertising have been increasing and may continue to increase. Accordingly, we may need to increase our investment in, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other efforts to create and maintain brand loyalty among users. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses incurred in building our brands. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur substantial expense in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brands, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

Our services, as well as those of our competitors, are regularly reviewed and commented upon by online and social media sources, as well as computer and other business publications. Negative reviews, or reviews in which our competitors’ products and services are rated more highly than our solutions, could negatively affect our brand and reputation. From time to time, our customers have expressed dissatisfaction with our services, including dissatisfaction with our customer support, our billing policies and the way our services operate. If we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our brand and reputation may suffer, we may lose our customers’ confidence, and they may choose to terminate, reduce or not to renew their subscriptions. In addition, many of our customers participate in social media and online blogs about internet-based services, including our services, and our success depends in part on our ability to minimize negative and generate positive customer feedback through such online channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions we take or changes we make to our services upset these customers, their blogging could negatively affect our brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about our services or customer service could materially and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A security breach could delay or interrupt service to our customers, compromise the integrity of our systems or data that we collect, result in the loss of our intellectual property or confidential information, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.

Our operations depend on our ability to protect our network from interruption or damage resulting from unauthorized access or entry, computer viruses or malware or other events beyond our control. In the past, we

 

22


Table of Contents

may have been subject to undetected distributed denial-of-service, or DDOS, cyberattacks by hackers intent on bringing down our services, and we may be subject to DDOS and other forms of cyberattacks in the future. We cannot assure you that our backup systems, regular data backups, physical, technological and organizational security protocols and measures and other procedures that are currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to prevent unauthorized access to our systems, significant damage, system interruption, degradation or failure, or data loss or to respond to a cyberattack once launched. Additionally, hackers may attempt to directly gain access to a customer’s on-premise appliance, which may delay or interrupt services, or may subject our customers to further security risks, including in relation to any connected household devices a customer might have now or in the future, such as Nest devices or other household sensors, or to our network more generally. Also, our services are web-based, and the amount of data we store for our users on our servers has been increasing as our business has grown. Despite the implementation of security measures, our infrastructure may be vulnerable to hackers, computer viruses, worms, other malicious software programs or similar disruptive problems caused by our customers, employees, consultants or other internet users who attempt to invade public and private data networks. In some cases we do not have in place disaster recovery facilities for certain ancillary services, such as email delivery of messages. Currently, nearly all of our customers authorize us to bill their credit or debit card accounts directly for all transaction fees that we charge. We rely on encryption and authentication technology to ensure secure transmission of confidential information, including customer credit and debit card numbers. Despite our efforts to encrypt and secure customer payment card information, hackers with sufficiently sophisticated technology or methods may still be able to infiltrate our systems to gain unauthorized access to payment card information. Further, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect transaction data.

Additionally, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information, such as user names, passwords or customer proprietary network information, or CPNI, or other information in order to gain access to our customers’ data or to our data. CPNI includes information such as the phone numbers called by a customer, the frequency, duration, and timing of such calls, and any services purchased by the customer, such as call waiting, call forwarding and caller ID, in addition to other information that may appear on a customer’s bill. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information regarding our intellectual property and other confidential business information, or our information technology systems. In addition, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any system failure or security breach that causes interruptions or data loss in our operations or in the computer systems of our customers or leads to the misappropriation of our or our customers’ confidential or personal information, or CPNI, could result in significant liability to us. Such failure or breach could cause our service to be perceived as not being secure, subject us to regulatory requirements such as FCC notification, result in significant monetary costs, such as fines, legal fees and expenditures to improve and enhance our security measures, cause considerable harm to us and our reputation (including requiring notification to customers, regulators or the media) and deter current and potential customers from using our services. Additionally, we could incur significant costs, both monetary and with respect to management’s time and attention, to investigate and remediate a data security breach. Because our onboarding and billing functions are conducted through a single data center, any security breach in that data center may cause an interruption in our business operations. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failures in internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential customers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading our current customers to switch to our competitors or potential customers to avoid using our services.

Many of our services depend on our customers’ broadband access to the internet, usually provided through a cable or digital subscriber line, or DSL, connection. In addition, users who access our services and applications

 

23


Table of Contents

through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, must have a high-speed connection, such as Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G or LTE, to use our services and applications. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant and increasing market power in the broadband and internet access marketplace, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies and wireless companies. Increasing numbers of users and increasing bandwidth requirements may degrade the performance of internet and mobile infrastructure, resulting in outages or deteriorations in connectivity and negatively impacting the quality with which we can deliver our solutions. As our customer base grows and their usage of communications capacity increases, we will be required to make additional investments in network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited, or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance. Furthermore, as the rate of adopting new technologies increases, the networks on which our services and applications rely may not be able to sufficiently adapt to the increased demand for these services, including ours. In the past, we have experienced disruptions to our service. For example, in August 2011, we experienced an outage for approximately three hours, and in April and May 2015, we experienced multiple intermittent service outages that lasted for up to eight hours for some of our customers. Frequent or persistent interruptions could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems or services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our services, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands. Because some of our services rely on integration between features that use both wired and wireless infrastructures, any of the aforementioned problems with either wired or wireless infrastructure may result in the inability of customers to take advantage of our integrated services and therefore may decrease the attractiveness of our collective services to current and potential customers.

The success of our business relies on customers’ continued and unimpeded access to broadband service. Providers of broadband services may be able to block our services or charge their customers more for using our services, which could adversely affect our revenue and growth.

Some of the providers of broadband internet access and high-speed mobile access, such as AT&T and Verizon, offer products and services that directly compete with our own offerings, which can potentially give such providers a competitive advantage. For example, these providers may market and sell a bundle of services to our current and potential customers that includes services directly competitive to ours, and our current and potential customers may prefer these bundled offerings. Some providers of broadband access, including providers outside of the U.S., may take measures that affect their customers’ ability to use our service, such as degrading the quality of the data packets we transmit over their lines, giving those packets low priority, giving other packets higher priority than ours, blocking our packets entirely or attempting to charge their customers more for also using our services. While actions like these by U.S. providers would violate the net neutrality rules recently adopted by the FCC and described below, most foreign countries have not adopted formal net neutrality or open internet rules, and there continues to be some uncertainty regarding whether the net neutrality rules will be upheld by courts or modified by legislative action.

On March 12, 2015 the FCC released new network neutrality and open internet rules that it had adopted on February 26, 2015. In that order, the FCC reclassified broadband Internet access services as a telecommunications service subject to some elements of common carrier regulation, including the obligation to provide service on just and reasonable terms, requirements related to customer privacy and requirements for accessibility for people with disabilities. The order also prohibits blocking or discriminating against lawful services and applications and prohibits “paid prioritization,” or providing faster speeds or other benefits in return for compensation. The order does not go into effect until June 12, 2015 and is the subject of pending appeals by several parties. The net neutrality rules could affect the market for broadband internet access service in a way that impacts our business, for example by increasing the cost of broadband internet service and thereby depressing demand for our services or by increasing the costs of services we purchase.

 

24


Table of Contents

Our quarterly and annual results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

Our quarterly and annual results of operations have varied historically from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:

 

    our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers;

 

    our ability to sell premium solutions to our existing customers;

 

    our ability to introduce new solutions;

 

    the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions;

 

    our ability to effectively manage our growth;

 

    our ability to successfully penetrate the communications and connected services markets for small businesses, home, and mobile;

 

    the number of monthly and annual subscriptions at any given time;

 

    the timing, cost and effectiveness of our advertising and marketing efforts;

 

    the timing, operating cost and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance, and expansion of our business;

 

    the timing of our decisions with regard to product resource allocation;

 

    seasonality of consumers’ purchasing patterns;

 

    service outages or security breaches and any related impact on our reputation;

 

    our ability to accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses;

 

    costs associated with defending and resolving intellectual property infringement and other claims;

 

    changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting rules;

 

    the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses and our ability to successfully manage any such acquisitions; and

 

    the impact of worldwide economic, industry, and market conditions.

Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some or all of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our internal operating plan or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period, which could cause our stock price to decline. In addition, a significant percentage of our operating expenses is fixed in nature and is based on forecasted revenue trends. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on net income (loss) and margins in the short term. If we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, the market price of our shares could fall substantially and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class-action suits.

We may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances. If capital is not available to us or only under unfavorable terms, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We intend to continue making expenditures and investments to support the growth of our business and may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including the need to develop new solutions or enhance our existing solutions, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. However, additional funds may not be available

 

25


Table of Contents

when we need them on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Our credit agreements with Silicon Valley Bank include restrictive covenants and any debt financing we secure in the future could involve further restrictive covenants, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.

In addition, volatility in the credit markets may have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, our ability to continue pursuing our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We face a risk of non-compliance with certain covenants in our loan agreements with Silicon Valley Bank. If we are unable to meet the financial or other covenants under the agreements or to negotiate future waivers or amendments of the covenants, we could be in default under the agreements.

We have credit agreements with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, consisting of (i) a credit facility comprised of a $4.0 million senior secured term loan facility and a $12.0 million senior secured revolving facility, and (ii) a mezzanine facility comprised of a $5.0 million subordinated secured term loan facility and a conditional subordinated secured term loan facility of up to an aggregate of $5.0 million. As of April 30, 2015, we had an aggregate of approximately $10.7 million in outstanding borrowings including accrued interest under these agreements. Our credit agreements with SVB contain customary negative covenants that limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, make investments, repurchase stock, pay dividends, transfer assets and merge or consolidate. The SVB facilities are secured by substantially all of our assets, though certain intellectual property collateral may be released if an initial public offering has occurred and no event of default under the SVB credit agreements exists. The SVB credit agreements also contain customary affirmative covenants, including requirements to, among other things, maintain minimum cash balances tied to the maximum commitment amounts outstanding under the SVB credit agreements following any initial public offering, and deliver audited financial statements. Upon the occurrence and during the continuation of an event of default, amounts due under the loan agreement may be accelerated by SVB. If we are unable to meet the financial or other covenants under the credit agreements or negotiate future waivers or amendments of such covenants, an event of default could occur under the credit agreements. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of an event of default under the credit agreements, SVB has available a range of remedies customary in these circumstances, including declaring all outstanding debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, to be due and payable, foreclosing on the assets securing the loan agreement and/or ceasing to provide additional credit, which could have a material adverse effect on us. We were in compliance with all of the covenants as of April 30, 2015.

Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.

We have recently experienced substantial growth in our business, including an increase in the number of customers we consider to be our core users. This growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. As our operations grow in size, scope and complexity, we will need to increase our sales and marketing efforts and add additional sales and marketing personnel worldwide and to improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to attract, service, and retain an increasing number of users. For example, we expect the volume of simultaneous calls to increase significantly as our user base grows. Our network hardware and software may not be able to accommodate this additional simultaneous call volume. The expansion of our systems and infrastructure will require us to commit substantial financial, operational and technical resources in advance of an increase in the volume of business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Any such additional capital investments will increase our cost base. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our users, develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls, enhance our reporting systems

 

26


Table of Contents

and procedures and recruit, train, and retain highly skilled personnel. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as we grow, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Shifts in trends or the emergence of new technologies may render our solutions obsolete or require us to expend significant resources to develop, license, or acquire new services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis in order to remain competitive.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are emerging markets characterized by rapid changes in customer requirements, frequent introductions of new and enhanced services, and continuing and rapid technological advancement. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business. To compete successfully in these emerging markets, we must anticipate and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards and continue to design, develop, manufacture and sell new and enhanced services that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability at lower cost. For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2015 and for the three months ended April 30, 2015, we derived approximately 83% and 79%, respectively, of our revenue from Ooma Telo, and we expect Ooma Telo will continue to account for a majority of our revenue for the foreseeable future. However, our future success will also depend on our ability to introduce and sell new services, features and functionality that enhance or are beyond the voice, fax, text and connected services we currently offer, as well as to improve usability and support and increase customer satisfaction. Our failure to develop solutions that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner may harm our ability to renew our subscriptions with existing customers and to create or increase demand for our services and may materially and adversely impact our results of operations.

The introduction of new services by competitors or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could make our solutions obsolete or adversely affect our business and results of operations. Announcements of future releases and new services and technologies by our competitors or by us could cause customers to defer purchases of our existing services, which also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We may experience difficulties with software development, operations, design or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction or implementation of new or enhanced services and applications. We have in the past experienced delays in the planned release dates of new features and upgrades, and have discovered defects in new services and applications after their introduction. We cannot assure you that new features or upgrades will be released according to schedule, or that, when released, they will not contain defects. Either of these situations could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenue, delay in market acceptance or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, the development of new or enhanced services or applications may require substantial investment, and we must continue to invest a significant amount of resources in our research and development efforts to develop these services and applications to remain competitive. We do not know whether these investments will be successful. If customers do not widely adopt any new or enhanced services and applications, we may not be able to realize a return on our investment. If we are unable to develop, license or acquire new or enhanced services and applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, or if such new or enhanced services and applications do not achieve market acceptance, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our success depends on the public acceptance of our connected services and applications.

Our future growth depends on our ability to significantly increase revenue generated from our communications solutions and other connected services that integrate voice communications technology with other functions, such as business promotion, automation, security and others. The markets for cloud-based communications and connected services are evolving rapidly and are characterized by an increasing number of market entrants. As is typical of a rapidly evolving industry, the demand for, and market acceptance of, these applications is uncertain. If the markets for cloud-based communications solutions or for other connected services fail to develop, develop more slowly than we anticipate or develop in a manner different than we expect, our services could fail to achieve market acceptance, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

27


Table of Contents

Our future growth in the small business market depends on the continued use of voice communications by businesses, as compared to e-mail and other data-based methods. A decline in the overall rate of voice communications by businesses would harm our business. Furthermore, our continued growth depends on future demand for and adoption of internet voice communications systems and services and on future demand for connected communications services. Although the number of broadband subscribers worldwide has grown significantly in recent years, only a small percentage of businesses have adopted internet voice communications services to date. For demand and adoption of internet voice communications services by businesses to increase, internet voice communications networks must improve the quality of their service for real-time communications by managing the effects of and reducing packet loss, packet delay, and packet jitter, as well as unreliable bandwidth, so that high-quality service can be consistently provided. Additionally, the cost and feature benefits of internet voice communications must be sufficient to cause customers to switch from traditional phone service providers. We must devote substantial resources to educate potential customers about the benefits of internet voice communications solutions, in general, and of our services in particular. If any or all of these factors fail to occur, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our Ooma Telo product and services are being sold to individuals and families. With the growth in cellular and other mobile technologies, many consumers have chosen to eliminate altogether their home telephone service. Our ability to continue growing our user base depends on our ability to convince our customers and potential customers that our service is sufficiently useful and cost-effective, such that it makes sense to maintain or reestablish home telephone services with us. Our growth could slow and our financial condition could be adversely affected if the trend of eliminating home telephone service continues or accelerates.

Our mobile platform, available to any consumer with a Wi-Fi or cellular data connected mobile device, operates in a market that is fragmented and difficult to get noticed by consumers. Many of our competitors in this market have been able to establish a significant user base and reputation in the market, which may make it more difficult for our products to be adopted. Furthermore, as new mobile devices are released, we may encounter difficulties supporting these devices and services, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of our mobile applications. Additionally, our competitors may allocate additional resources to marketing and promotion of their products, making it even more difficult to be noticed. It is also unclear how the adoption of “over-the-top” based communications will continue to grow. If the number of consumers using “over-the-top” based communications stagnates or declines, such movement may result in an intensified competition for consumers in this space.

Accusations of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

There has been substantial litigation in the areas in which we operate regarding intellectual property rights. In the past, we have been sued by third parties claiming infringement of their intellectual property rights and we may be sued for infringement from time to time in the future. In the past, we have settled infringement litigation brought against us; however, we cannot assure you that we will be able to settle any future claims or, if we are able to settle any such claims, that the settlement will be on terms favorable to us. Our broad range of technology may increase the likelihood that third parties will claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights.

We have in the past received, and may in the future receive, notices of claims of infringement, misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights. For example, on April 17, 2015, plaintiff UrgenSync, LLC filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas against us and other companies in the business of providing internet-based communications services, alleging infringement of U.S. Patent No. 8,295,802. The complaint seeks unspecified monetary damages, costs, attorneys’ fees and other appropriate relief. Based upon our preliminary investigation, we do not believe that our products infringe any valid or enforceable claim of the aforementioned patent and we plan to contest the claim vigorously. Notwithstanding their merits, accusations and lawsuits like these often require significant time and expense to defend, may negatively affect customer relationships, may divert management’s attention away from other

 

28


Table of Contents

aspects of our operations and, upon resolution, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Certain technology necessary for us to provide our services may, in fact, be patented by other parties either now or in the future. If such technology were validly patented by another person, we would have to negotiate a license for the use of that technology. We may not be able to negotiate such a license at a price that is acceptable to us or at all. The existence of such a patent, or our inability to negotiate a license for any such technology on acceptable terms, could force us to cease using the technology and cease offering products and services incorporating the technology, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we were found to be infringing on the intellectual property rights of any third party, we could be subject to liability for such infringement, which could be material. We could also be prohibited from using or selling certain products or services, prohibited from using certain processes, or required to redesign certain products or services, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

These and other outcomes may:

 

    result in the loss of a substantial number of existing customers or prohibit the acquisition of new customers;

 

    cause us to pay license fees for intellectual property we are deemed to have infringed;

 

    cause us to incur costs and devote valuable technical resources to redesigning our services;

 

    cause our cost of goods sold to increase;

 

    cause us to accelerate expenditures to preserve existing revenue;

 

    cause existing or new vendors to require prepayments or letters of credit;

 

    materially and adversely affect our brand in the marketplace and cause a substantial loss of goodwill;

 

    cause us to change our business methods or services;

 

    require us to cease certain business operations or offering certain products, services or features; and

 

    lead to our bankruptcy or liquidation.

Our limited ability to protect our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

We rely, in part, on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and abroad. We cannot assure you that the particular forms of intellectual property protection we seek, including business decisions about when to file patents and when to maintain trade secrets, will be adequate to protect our business. We seek to protect our technology, software, documentation and other information under trade secret and copyright law, which afford only limited protection. For example, we typically enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers and vendors in an effort to control access to use and distribution of our technology, software, documentation and other information. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of such unauthorized use or disclosure, and it may be possible for a third party to legally reverse engineer, copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization. In addition, improper disclosure of trade secret information by our current or former employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers or vendors to the public or others who could make use of the trade secret information would likely preclude that information from being protected as a trade secret.

We also rely, in part, on patent law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and internationally. Our intellectual property portfolio includes four issued U.S. patents, which we expect to expire between December

 

29


Table of Contents

2028 and February 2032. We also have eleven patent applications pending for examination in the U.S. and two patent applications pending for examination in foreign jurisdictions, all of which are related to U.S. applications. We cannot predict whether such pending patent applications will result in issued patents or whether any issued patents will effectively protect our intellectual property. Even if a pending patent application results in an issued patent, the patent may be circumvented or its validity may be challenged in various proceedings in U.S. District Court, before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or before their foreign equivalents, such as reexamination, which may require legal representation and involve substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources. In addition, we cannot assure you that every significant feature of our solutions is protected by our patents, or that we will mark our products with any or all patents they embody. As a result, we may be prevented from seeking damages in whole or in part for infringement of our patents.

The unlicensed use of our brand, including domain names, by third parties could harm our reputation, cause confusion among our customers and impair our ability to market our products and services. To that end, we have registered numerous trademarks and service marks, have applied for registration of additional trademarks and service marks and have acquired a number of domain names in and outside the U.S. to establish and protect our brand names as part of our intellectual property strategy. If our applications receive objections or are successfully opposed by third parties, it will be difficult for us to prevent third parties from using our brand without our permission. Moreover, successful opposition to our applications might encourage third parties to make additional oppositions or commence trademark infringement proceedings against us, which could be costly and time consuming to defend against. There have been in the past, and may be in the future, instances where third parties have used our trade names, or have adopted confusingly similar trade names to ours. We have been successful in asserting our rights in our trade names and causing such third parties to cease such use, but we may not be successful in the future. If we are not successful in protecting our trademarks, our trademark rights may be diluted and subject to challenge or invalidation, which could materially and adversely affect our brand.

Despite our efforts to implement our intellectual property strategy, we may not be able to protect or enforce our proprietary rights in the U.S. or internationally (where effective intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited). For example, we have entered into agreements containing confidentiality and invention assignment provisions in connection with the outsourcing of certain software development, quality assurance and development activities to third-party contractors located in Canada, India, New Zealand, Russia and Ukraine. We have also entered into an agreement containing a confidentiality provision with a third-party contractor located in the Philippines, where we have outsourced a significant portion of our customer support function. We cannot assure you that agreements with these third-party contractors or their agreements with their employees and contractors will adequately protect our proprietary rights in the applicable jurisdictions and foreign countries, as their respective laws may not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. In addition, our competitors may independently develop technologies similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology in a manner that does not infringe our intellectual property rights or design around any of our patents. Furthermore, detecting and policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and resource-intensive. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We license technology from third parties we do not control and cannot be assured of retaining such licenses.

We rely upon certain technology, including hardware and software, licensed from third parties. There can be no assurance that the technology licensed by us will continue to provide competitive features and functionality or that the licenses for technology currently utilized by us or other technology which we may seek to license in the future, will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The loss of, or inability to maintain, existing licenses could result in shipment delays or reductions until equivalent technology or suitable alternative

 

30


Table of Contents

products are developed, identified, licensed and integrated, and could harm our business. These licenses are typically offered on standard commercial terms made generally available by the companies providing the licenses. The cost and terms of these licenses individually are not material to our business.

If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.

Nearly all of our customers authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that we charge. If people pay for our services with stolen credit cards, we could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which we may not be reimbursed. Further, our customers provide us with credit card billing information online or over the phone, and we do not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases our risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. We also incur charges, which we refer to as chargebacks, from the credit card companies’ claims that the customer did not authorize the credit card transaction to purchase our service, something we have experienced in the past. If the number of unauthorized credit card transactions becomes excessive, we could be assessed substantial fines for excess chargebacks and we could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment. We have also been affected by the credit card breaches at various retail stores, which have caused millions of consumers to cancel credit cards as a result of the breach. We have found that some consumers do not renew their services after a card cancellation, which can have a material negative impact on our revenue. In addition, credit card issuers may change merchant standards, including data protection and documentation standards, required to utilize their services from time to time. If we fail to maintain compliance with current merchant standards, such as Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI, or fail to meet new standards, the credit card associations could fine us or terminate their agreements with us, and we would be unable to accept credit cards as payment for our services. Our services may also be subject to fraudulent usage, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams, and other fraudulent schemes. Although our customers are required to set passwords and Personal Identification Numbers, or PINs, to protect their accounts and may configure in which destinations international calling is enabled from their extensions, third parties may be able to access and use their accounts through fraudulent means. In addition, third parties may have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees or consultants into disclosing customer credentials and other account information. Communications fraud can result in unauthorized access to customer accounts and customer data, unauthorized use of customers’ services, and charges to customers for fraudulent usage and expenses we must pay to carriers. We may be required to pay for these charges and expenses with no reimbursement from the customer, and our reputation may be harmed if our services are subject to fraudulent usage. Although we implement multiple fraud prevention and detection controls, we cannot assure you that these controls will be adequate to protect against fraud. Substantial losses due to fraud or our inability to accept credit card payments, which could cause our paid customer base to significantly decrease, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to grow our business.

Potential problems with our information systems could interfere with our business and operations.

We rely on our information systems and those of third parties for processing customer orders, distribution of our services, billing our customers, processing credit card transactions, customer relationship management, supporting financial planning and analysis, accounting functions and financial statement preparation and otherwise running our business. Information systems may experience interruptions, including interruptions of related services from third-party providers, which may be beyond our control. Such business interruptions could cause us to fail to meet customer requirements. All information systems, both internal and external, are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including without limitation, computer viruses, security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures and employee or other theft, as well as third-party provider failures. Any disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon which we rely could have a significant impact on our business.

 

31


Table of Contents

We may implement enhanced information systems in the future to meet the demands resulting from our growth and to provide additional capabilities and functionality. The implementation of new systems and enhancements is frequently disruptive to the underlying business of an enterprise, and can be time-consuming and expensive, increase management responsibilities and divert management attention. Any disruptions relating to our systems enhancements or any problems with the implementation, particularly any disruptions impacting our operations or our ability to accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis during the implementation period, could materially and adversely affect our business. Even if we do not encounter these material and adverse effects, the implementation of these enhancements may be much more costly than we anticipated. If we are unable to successfully implement the information systems enhancements as planned, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.

Our use of open source technology could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our services.

We use open source software in our platform on which our services operate. There is a risk that the owners of the copyrights in such software may claim that such licenses impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market or provide our services. If such owners prevail in such claim, we could be required to make the source code for our proprietary software (which contains our valuable trade secrets) generally available to third parties, including competitors, at no cost, to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our services, to re-engineer our technology, or to discontinue offering our services in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or at all, any of which could cause us to discontinue our services, harm our reputation, result in customer losses or claims, increase our costs or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. If a copyright holder of such open source software were to allege we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our solutions that contained the open source software and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our solutions.

We depend largely on the continued services of our senior management and other key employees, the loss of any of whom could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our future performance depends on the continued services and contributions of our senior management and other key employees to execute on our business plan, and to identify and pursue opportunities and services innovations. The loss of services of senior management or other key employees could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. In particular, we depend to a considerable degree on the vision, skills, experience and effort of our Chief Executive Officer, Eric B. Stang. All of our executive officers and senior management may terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. The replacement of any of these senior management personnel would likely involve significant time and costs, and such loss could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Many members of our senior management have been our employees for many years and therefore have significant experience and understanding of our business that would be difficult to replace. In addition, certain members of our senior management team, including our general counsel, who joined us in December of 2013, and our chief financial officer, who joined us in December of 2014, have worked together for only a relatively short period of time and it may be difficult to evaluate their effectiveness, on an individual or collective basis, and ability to address future challenges to our business. Our inability to attract and retain the necessary personnel could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of business. We do not maintain key person insurance for any of our personnel.

If we are unable to hire, retain and motivate qualified personnel, our business will suffer.

Our future success depends, in part, on our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We believe there is, and will continue to be, intense competition for highly skilled technical and other personnel with experience in our industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters is located, and in other

 

32


Table of Contents

locations where we may maintain offices in the future. We must provide competitive compensation packages and a high-quality work environment to hire, retain and motivate employees. If we are unable to retain and motivate our existing employees or attract qualified personnel to fill key positions, we may be unable to manage our business effectively, including the development, marketing and sale of existing and new services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations such personnel have been improperly solicited or divulged proprietary or other confidential information.

We may expand through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.

Our business strategy may, from time to time, include acquiring or investing in complementary services, technologies or businesses. We cannot assure you we will successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates, integrate or manage disparate technologies, lines of business, personnel and corporate cultures, realize our business strategy or the expected return on our investment, or manage a geographically dispersed company. Any such acquisition or investment could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Acquisitions and other strategic investments involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:

 

    the potential failure to achieve the expected benefits of the combination or acquisition;

 

    unanticipated costs and liabilities;

 

    difficulties in integrating new products and services, software, businesses, operations and technology infrastructure in an efficient and effective manner;

 

    difficulties in maintaining customer relations;

 

    the potential loss of key employees of the acquired businesses;

 

    the diversion of the attention of our senior management from the operation of our daily business;

 

    the potential adverse effect on our cash position to the extent that we use cash for the purchase price;

 

    the potential significant increase of our interest expense, leverage, and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition;

 

    the potential issuance of securities that would dilute our stockholders’ percentage ownership;

 

    the potential to incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses; and

 

    the inability to maintain uniform standards, controls, policies and procedures.

Any acquisition or investment could expose us to unknown liabilities. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition or investment. In addition, our inability to successfully operate and integrate newly acquired businesses appropriately, effectively, and in a timely manner could impair our ability to take advantage of future growth opportunities and other advances in technology, as well as on our revenue, gross margins and expenses.

Additionally, we have recently acquired companies which form the basis for our Business Promoter and Talkatone solutions. We are still going through the process of integrating the employee bases and technologies acquired from those companies, and cannot assure you we will be able to effectively integrate those assets with our resources; we may not be able to realize the potential growth and gain we anticipated at the time of acquisition.

 

33


Table of Contents

We may expand our international operations, which may expose us to significant risks.

To date, we have not generated significant revenue from outside of the U.S. and Canada, but we expect to grow our international revenue in the future. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic and political risks different from those in the U.S. Because of our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales and distribution channels in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could materially and adversely affect our business, including:

 

    our ability to comply with differing technical and environmental standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations, and certification requirements outside the U.S.;

 

    difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

    potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;

 

    the need to adapt and localize our services for specific countries;

 

    the need to offer customer care in various native languages;

 

    reliance on third parties over which we have limited control, including international resellers, for marketing and reselling our services;

 

    availability of reliable broadband connectivity and wide area networks in targeted areas for expansion;

 

    lower levels of adoption of credit or debit card usage for internet related purchases by foreign customers and compliance with various foreign regulations related to credit or debit card processing and data privacy requirements;

 

    difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations, and customs in foreign jurisdictions;

 

    export controls and trade and economic sanctions administered by the Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control;

 

    tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;

 

    compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA;

 

    limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

    adverse tax consequences;

 

    fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the price of our services outside of the U.S., increase the expenses of our international operations, including expenses related to foreign contractors, and expose us to foreign currency exchange rate risk;

 

    exchange control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit our conversion of other currencies into U.S. Dollars;

 

    restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

    deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and other countries; and

 

    political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region, which could have an adverse impact on our third-party software development and quality assurance operations there.

Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our future international operations and our overall business.

 

34


Table of Contents

We may not be able to manage our inventory levels effectively, which may lead to excess inventory or inventory obsolescence that would force us to incur inventory write-downs.

Our vendor-supplied on-premise appliances and end-point devices have lead times of up to 32 weeks for delivery and are built to satisfy our demand forecasts that are necessarily imprecise. It is likely that from time to time we will have either excess or insufficient product inventory. In addition, because we rely on third-party vendors for the supply of our devices, our inventory levels are subject to the conditions regarding the timing of purchase orders and delivery dates not within our control. Excess inventory levels would subject us to the risk of inventory obsolescence, while insufficient levels of inventory may negatively affect relations with customers. For instance, our customers rely upon our ability to meet committed delivery dates, and any disruption in the supply of our services could result in loss of customers or harm to our ability to attract new customers. Retailers may elect to return any unsold inventory without any penalty, which could result in a write down for excess inventory. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our corporate headquarters, both of our data centers and co-location facilities and our third-party customer service and support facility are located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake, tsunami or other catastrophic disaster could damage our facilities or the facilities of our contractors, which could cause us to curtail our operations. Increased energy costs, power outages and limited availability of electrical resources may adversely affect our operating results.

Our corporate headquarters, both of our data centers and our customer service call center for Ooma office are located in northern California, our other customer service call center operated by our contractor is located in the Philippines, and our contract manufacturer facilities are located near the coast in China. All of these locations are on the Pacific Rim near known earthquake fault zones and, therefore, are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes and tsunamis. Additionally, our China facility and our sole third-party customer service and support facility in the Philippines are located in areas subject to typhoons. We and our contractors are also vulnerable to other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire, floods, pandemics, cyber-attack, war, political unrest and terrorist attacks and similar events that are beyond our control. If any disasters were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired, and we may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, loss of intellectual property, delays in our services development, lengthy interruptions in our services, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our future results of operations. In addition, we do not carry earthquake insurance and we may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from other disasters or other similar significant business interruptions. Any significant losses not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition.

Changes in effective tax rates, or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

 

    changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

 

    expiration of, or lapses in, the research and development tax credit laws;

 

    expiration or non-utilization of net operating loss carryforwards;

 

    tax effects of share-based compensation;

 

    certain non-deductible expenses as a result of acquisitions;

 

    expansion into new jurisdictions;

 

    potential challenges to and costs related to implementation and ongoing operation of our intercompany arrangements; and

 

    changes in tax laws and regulations and accounting principles, or interpretations or applications thereof.

 

35


Table of Contents

Any changes in our effective tax rate could adversely affect our results of operations.

We may be unable to use some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could materially and adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.

As of January 31, 2015, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $56.2 million and $56.1 million, respectively, available to offset future taxable income, due to prior period losses, each of which, if not utilized, will begin to expire in 2029, however, California research and development tax credits can be carried forward indefinitely. We also have federal research and development tax credit carryforwards that will begin to expire in 2029. Realization of these net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards depends on future income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, such as research tax credits, in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders, who own at least 5% of our stock, increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We completed a Section 382 analysis through January 31, 2015 and determined that an ownership change, as defined under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, occurred in prior years. Based on the analysis, we determined that we had undergone three ownership changes. The first and second ownership changes occurred in April 2005 and the third change occurred in February 2009. NOLs presented account for any limited and potential lost attributes due to the ownership changes and their respective expiration dates. The NOLs in the second table of Note 10 of the notes to our consolidated financial statements reflect the available NOLs we expect to use.

No deferred tax assets have been recognized on our balance sheet related to these NOLs, as they are fully reserved by a valuation allowance. If we have previously had, or have in the future, one or more Section 382 “ownership changes,” including in connection with our initial public offering or this offering, or if we do not generate sufficient taxable income, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we achieve profitability. If we are limited in our ability to use our NOLs in future years in which we have taxable income, we will pay more taxes than if we were able to fully utilize our NOLs. This could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. The estimates and forecasts in this prospectus relating to the size and expected growth of our market, including our estimated annual recurring revenue based on various assumptions, may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Risks Related to Federal, State and International Regulation

Our services are subject to regulation and future legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business and expose us to liability.

Federal Regulation

Our business is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission, or FCC. As a communications services provider, we are subject to FCC regulations relating to privacy, disability access, porting of numbers,

 

36


Table of Contents

Federal Universal Service Fund, or USF, contributions, E-911, and other matters. If we do not comply with FCC rules and regulations, we could be subject to FCC enforcement actions, fines, loss of licenses, and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our services. Any enforcement action by the FCC, which may include a public process, would hurt our reputation in the industry, possibly impair our ability to sell our services to customers and could have a materially adverse impact on our revenue.

If the FCC classifies interconnected VoIP service as a telecommunications service subject to common carrier regulation, we could be subject to additional regulation under federal and state telecommunications laws. Compliance with such laws could increase our cost of doing business.

State Regulation

We are also subject to state consumer protection laws, as well as U.S. state, municipal and local sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees or surcharges. The imposition of such regulatory obligations or the imposition of additional taxes on our services could increase our cost of doing business and limit our growth.

International Regulation

As we expand internationally, we may be subject to telecommunications, consumer protection, data privacy and other laws and regulations in the foreign countries where we offer our services. For example, we are a provider of internet voice telecommunications services in Canada. As a provider of internet voice communications services, we are subject to regulation in Canada by the CRTC. We are also subject to Canadian federal privacy laws and provincial consumer protection legislation.

In addition, our international operations are potentially subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that may increase our cost or impact our product and service offerings or prevent us from offering or providing our products and services in certain countries. Certain of our services may be used by customers located in countries where VoIP and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing. In countries where local laws and regulations prohibit (or come to prohibit) the use of our products, users may continue to use our products and services, which could subject us to costly penalties or governmental action adverse to our business and damaging to our brand and reputation, our international expansion efforts, or our business and operating results.

The FCC continues to consider additional 911 requirements, including requiring us to deploy an E-911 service that automatically determines the location of our customers. The adoption of such requirements could increase our costs that could make our service more expensive, decrease our profit margins, or both.

The FCC is actively considering additional 911 requirements for interconnected VoIP providers, non-interconnected VoIP providers and texting providers. The outcome of the FCC’s proceedings cannot be determined at this time and we may or may not be able to comply with any such obligations that may be adopted. At present, we have no means to automatically identify the physical location of our customers on the internet. Changes to the FCC’s VoIP E-911 rules may adversely affect our ability to deliver our service to new and existing customers in all geographic regions or to nomadic customers who move to a location where emergency calling services compliant with the FCC’s mandates are unavailable. Our compliance with the FCC’s VoIP E-911 order and related costs puts us at a competitive disadvantage to VoIP service providers who are either not subject to the requirements or have chosen not to comply with the FCC’s mandates. We cannot guarantee emergency calling service consistent with the VoIP E-911 order will be available to all of our customers, especially those accessing our services on a mobile device or from outside of the U.S. The FCC’s current VoIP E-911 order or follow-on orders or clarifications, the impact on our customers due to service price increases or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

 

37


Table of Contents

The FCC order reforming the system of payments between regulated carriers we partner with to interface with the public switched telephone network, or PSTN, could increase our costs of providing service, which could result in increased rates for service, making our offerings less competitive than others in the marketplace, or reduce our profitability.

In 2011, the FCC reformed the system under which regulated providers of telecommunications services compensate each other for various types of traffic, including VoIP traffic that terminates on the PSTN and applied new call signaling requirements to VoIP and other service providers. The FCC’s rules concerning charges for transmission of VoIP traffic could result in an increased cost to terminate the traffic, could reduce the availability of services or increase the price of services from our underlying providers, or could otherwise impact the wholesale telecommunications market in a way that adversely impacts our business. To the extent that we transmit traffic not subject to a specific intercarrier compensation arrangement and another provider were to assert that the traffic we exchange with them is subject to higher levels of compensation than what we, or the third parties terminating our traffic to the PSTN, pay today (if any), our termination costs could increase.

If we cannot comply with the FCC’s rules imposing call signaling requirements on VoIP providers like us, we may be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

The FCC order reforming the system of compensation for various types of traffic also included rules to address calls for which identifying information is missing or masked in ways that impede billing for such traffic. The FCC’s rules require, among other things, interconnected VoIP providers like us, who originate interstate or intrastate traffic destined for the PSTN, to transmit the telephone number associated with the calling party to the next provider in the call path. Intermediate providers must pass unaltered calling party number or charge number signaling information they receive from other providers to subsequent providers in the call path. To the extent that we pass traffic that does not have appropriate calling party number or charge number information, we could be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

We may not be able to comply with FCC rules governing completion of calls to rural areas and related reporting requirements.

On November 8, 2013, the FCC issued a Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking adopting rules to address problems with rural call completion and proposing additional requirements. The new rules apply to interconnected VoIP providers like us. The Commission imposed recording, retention, and reporting requirements to increase its ability to monitor and redress rural call completion problems. These new rules also support the Commission’s efforts to enforce restrictions on blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls. Under the rules, a covered provider must record and retain, for at least six months, information about calls attempts to rural areas and must report that data to the FCC on a quarterly basis. If we cannot comply with these rules, we could be subject to investigation and enforcement action and could be exposed to substantial liability. In addition, complying with these rules may increase our cost of doing business and may also increase the cost of services we purchase from our underlying telecommunications providers. The FCC also has increased enforcement activity related to completion of calls to rural customers, and we could be subject to substantial fines and to conduct requirements that could increase our costs if we are the subject of an enforcement proceeding and cannot demonstrate calls from our customers to rural customers are completed at a satisfactory rate.

The FCC has continued to increase regulation of interconnected VoIP services and may at any time determine certain VoIP services are telecommunications services subject to traditional common carrier regulation.

The FCC is considering, in various proceedings, issues arising from the transition from traditional copper networks to IP networks. It has, among other things, launched a series of trials and experiments designed to gather data about this transition, and to support the FCC’s effort to ensure public safety, enable universal access, and protect consumers and competition. The FCC is also considering whether interconnected VoIP services

 

38


Table of Contents

should be treated as telecommunications services, which could subject interconnected VoIP services to additional common carrier regulation. The FCC’s efforts may result in additional regulation of IP network and service providers, which may negatively affect our business.

The FCC adopted rules concerning disabilities access requirements that may expand disabilities access requirements to additional services we offer.

In October 2010, the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act, or the CVAA, was signed into law. The CVAA and the FCC’s implementing rules imposes disability access, recordkeeping, certification, and other compliance obligations on interconnected VoIP providers and on providers of other Advanced Communications services, including non-interconnected VoIP and electronic messaging services. In addition, the CVAA and the FCC’s implementing rules include complaint filing procedures to address accessibility complaints. These new obligations could increase our expenses, which would have an adverse effect on our operating results. Failure to comply with these obligations could expose us to FCC enforcement actions and liability.

Reform of federal and state Universal Service Fund programs could increase the cost of our service to our customers, diminishing or eliminating our pricing advantage.

The FCC and a number of states are considering reform or other modifications to Universal Service Fund programs. The way we calculate our contribution may change if the FCC or certain states engage in reform or adopt other modifications. In April 2012, the FCC released a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to consider reforms to the manner in which companies, like us, contribute to the federal Universal Service Fund program, and in August 2014, the FCC ordered the Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service to make a recommendation on how to reform the universal service contribution rules by April 7, 2015, although the recommendation has not been released as of the date hereof. In addition, the FCC is considering whether non-interconnected VoIP providers, texting providers, and broadband providers, among others, should contribute to the USF. We cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding nor its impact on our business at this time.

Should the FCC or certain states adopt new contribution mechanisms or otherwise modify contribution obligations that increase our contribution burden, we will either need to raise the amount we currently collect from our customers to cover this obligation or absorb the costs, which would reduce our profit margins. Furthermore, the FCC has ruled that states can require us to contribute to state Universal Service Fund programs. A number of states already require us to contribute, while others are actively considering extending their programs to include the services we provide. We currently pass through Universal Service Fund contributions to our customers which may result in our services becoming less competitive as compared to those provided by others.

Our products must comply with industry standards, FCC regulations, state, local, country-specific and international regulations, and changes may require us to modify existing products and/or services.

In addition to reliability and quality standards, the market acceptance of telephony over broadband IP networks is dependent upon the adoption of industry standards so that products from multiple manufacturers are able to communicate with each other. Our unique hybrid SaaS connectivity platform relies on communication standards such as SIP, SRTP and network standards such as TCP/IP and UDP to interoperate with other vendors’ equipment. There is currently a lack of agreement among industry leaders about which standard should be used for a particular application and about the definition of the standards themselves. These standards, as well as audio and video compression standards, continue to evolve. We also must comply with certain rules and regulations of the FCC regarding electromagnetic radiation and safety standards established by Underwriters Laboratories, as well as similar regulations and standards applicable in other countries. Standards are frequently modified or replaced. As standards evolve, we may be required to modify our existing products or develop and support new versions of our products. We must comply with certain federal, state and local requirements regarding how we

 

39


Table of Contents

interact with our customers, including marketing practices, consumer protection, privacy, and billing issues, the provision of 9-1-1 emergency service and the quality of service we provide to our customers. The failure of our products and services to comply, or delays in compliance, with various existing and evolving standards could delay or interrupt volume production of our VoIP telephony products, subject us to fines or other imposed penalties, or harm the perception and adoption rates of our service, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

Failure to comply with communications and telemarketing laws could result in significant fines or place significant restrictions on our business.

We rely on a variety of marketing techniques, including telemarketing and email marketing campaigns. We also record certain telephone calls between our customers or potential customers and our sales and service representatives for training and quality assurance purposes. These activities are subject to a variety of state and federal laws such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (also known as the Federal Do-Not-Call law, or the TCPA), the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (also known as the CAN-SPAM Act) and various U.S. state laws regarding telemarketing and telephone call recording. These laws are subject to varying interpretations by courts and governmental authorities and often require subjective interpretation, making it difficult to predict their application and therefore making our compliance efforts more challenging. We cannot be certain our efforts to comply with these laws, rules and regulations will be successful, or, if they are successful, that the cost of such compliance will not be material to our business. Changes to these or similar laws, or to their application or interpretation, or new laws, rules and regulations governing our communication and marketing activities could adversely affect our business. In the event that any of these laws, rules or regulations significantly restricts our business, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative communication and marketing strategies. Further, non-compliance with these laws, rules and regulations carries significant financial penalties and the risk of class action litigation, which would adversely affect our financial performance and significantly harm our reputation and our business.

We process, store, and use personal information and other data, which subjects us and our customers to a variety of evolving governmental regulation, industry standards and self-regulatory schemes, contractual obligations, and other legal obligations related to privacy, which may increase our costs, decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and expose us to liability.

There are a number of U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that provide for certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, and the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. The scope of these obligations and restrictions is changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules, and their status remains uncertain. Within the European Union, or EU, strict laws already apply in connection with the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. The EU model has been replicated in many jurisdictions outside the U.S., including Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation countries. Regulators have the power to impose significant fines on non-compliant organizations. As internet commerce, communication technologies and the Internet of Things continue to evolve, increasing online service providers’ and network users’ capacity to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process and transmit large volumes of personal information, increasingly restrictive regulation by federal, state or foreign agencies becomes more likely. For example, a variety of regulations that would increase restrictions on online service providers in the area of data privacy are currently being proposed, both in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions, and we believe that the adoption of increasingly restrictive regulation in the field of data privacy and security is likely. In Canada, new anti-spam legislation prescribing certain rules regarding the use of electronic messages for commercial purposes took effect on July 1, 2014. This new law also contains provisions that took effect in January 2015, which impose certain restrictions on a service provider’s ability to electronically automatically update or change software used in a customer’s service without the customer’s consent. Penalties for non-compliance with the new Canadian anti-

 

40


Table of Contents

spam legislation are considerable, including administrative monetary penalties of up to $10 million and a private right of action. Obligations and restrictions imposed by current and future applicable laws, regulations, contracts and industry standards may affect our ability to provide all the current features of our small business, home and mobile products and services and our customers’ ability to use our products and services, and could require us to modify the features and functionality of our products and services. Such obligations and restrictions may limit our ability to collect, store, process, use, transmit and share data, and to allow our customers to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process, transmit, share and disclose data with others through our products and services. Compliance with such obligations and restrictions could increase the cost of our operations. Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to data privacy and security could subject us to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity and other losses that could harm our business.

Our customers can use our services to store contact and other personal or identifying information, and to process, transmit, receive, store and retrieve a variety of communications and messages, including, for our Ooma Office customers, information about their own customers and other contacts. In addition, customers may use our services to transmit and store protected health information, or PHI, that is protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA. Noncompliance with laws and regulations relating to privacy such as HIPAA, as amended, and the HIPAA regulations, may lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities. Our actual compliance, our customers’ perception of our compliance, costs of compliance with such regulations and customer concerns regarding their own compliance obligations (whether factual or in error) may limit the use and adoption of our service and reduce overall demand. Furthermore, privacy concerns, including the inability or impracticality of providing advance notice to customers of privacy issues related to the use of our services, may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing the personal data necessary to allow our customers to use our services effectively. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our service in certain industries.

In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and industry groups have adopted and are considering the adoption of various self-regulatory standards and codes of conduct that may place additional burdens on us and our customers, which may further reduce demand for our services and harm our business.

While we try to comply with all applicable data protection laws, regulations, standards, and codes of conduct, as well as our own posted privacy policies and contractual commitments to the extent possible, any failure by us to protect our users’ privacy and data, including as a result of our systems being compromised by hacking or other malicious or surreptitious activity, could result in a loss of user confidence in our services and ultimately in a loss of users, which could materially and adversely affect our business. Our customers may also accidentally disclose their passwords, store them on a mobile device that is lost or stolen, or otherwise fall prey to attacks outside our system, creating the perception that our systems are not secure against third-party access. Additionally, our third-party contractors in the Philippines, India, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and China may have access to customer data. If these or other third-party vendors violate applicable laws or our policies, such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business.

Use or delivery of our services may become subject to new or increased regulatory requirements, taxes or fees.

The increasing growth and popularity of internet voice communications heighten the risk that governments will regulate or impose new or increased fees or taxes on internet voice communications services. To the extent the use of our services continues to grow, regulators may be more likely to seek to regulate or impose new or additional taxes, surcharges or fees on our services. Similarly, advances in technology, such as improvements in locating the geographic origin of internet voice communications, could cause our services to become subject to additional regulations, fees or taxes, or could require us to invest in or develop new technologies, which may be costly. In addition, as we continue to expand our user base and offer more services, we may become subject to new regulations, taxes, surcharges or fees. Increased regulatory requirements, taxes, surcharges or fees on internet voice communications services, which could be assessed by governments retroactively or prospectively,

 

41


Table of Contents

would substantially increase our costs, and, as a result, our business would suffer. In addition, the tax status of our services could subject us to conflicting taxation requirements and complexity with regard to the collection and remittance of applicable taxes. Any such additional taxes could harm our results of operations.

We are subject to anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws with respect to our operations and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal and/or civil liability and harm our business.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We use third-party representatives for product testing, customs, export, and import matters outside of the U.S. In addition, as we increase our international sales and business, we may engage with business partners and third party intermediaries to sell our products and services abroad and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. We or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.

Noncompliance with anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls, economic embargoes and trade sanctions that could impair our ability to expand our business to, and compete in, international markets and could subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.

Our products and services are subject to export and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of our products and services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular sale may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers, and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

Moreover, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions programs generally prohibit the export of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons subject to U.S. economic embargoes and trade sanctions unless a license, approval, or other authorization is obtained from the U.S. Government. Obtaining such licenses and authorizations may be time-consuming and is not guaranteed. Any violations of such economic embargoes and trade sanctions regulations could have negative consequences, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm.

 

42


Table of Contents

In addition, any changes in our products or services, or changes in applicable export, import, embargo and trade sanctions regulations, may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products and services in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products and services to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in export, import, embargo, or trade sanctions regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products and services, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products and services to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products and services or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products and services would likely adversely affect our business.

We may be subject to liabilities on past services for taxes, surcharges and fees.

We collect and remit state or municipal sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees, or surcharges on the charges to our customers for our services or goods in only those jurisdictions where we believe we have a legal obligation to do so or for business reasons to reduce risk. In addition, we have historically substantially complied with the collection of certain California sales/use taxes and financial contributions to the California 9-1-1 system (the Emergency Telephone Users Surcharge) and federal USF. With limited exception, we believe we are generally not subject to taxes, fees, or surcharges imposed by other state and municipal jurisdictions or that such taxes, fees, or surcharges do not apply to our service. There is uncertainty as to what constitutes sufficient “in state presence” for a state to levy taxes, fees and surcharges for sales made over the internet. Therefore, taxing authorities may challenge our position and may decide to audit our business and operations with respect to sales, use, telecommunications and other taxes, which could result in increased tax liabilities for us or our customers, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our relationships with our customers.

Finally, the application of other indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, value added tax, or VAT, goods and services tax, business tax, and gross receipt tax) to e-commerce businesses, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. In November 2007, the U.S. federal government enacted legislation extending the moratorium on states and other local authorities imposing access or discriminatory taxes on the internet through November 2014. This moratorium does not prohibit federal, state, or local authorities from collecting taxes on our income or from collecting taxes due under existing tax rules. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether in the U.S. or internationally, could have adverse effects on our business, prospects, and results of operations. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.

Risks Related to Being a Public Company

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015. If we fail to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company.

We will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2017. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting.

In connection with our financial statement close process for fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, we identified a material weakness in the design and operating effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, that creates a reasonable possibility a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

 

43


Table of Contents

The material weakness we identified resulted from a lack of sufficient number of qualified personnel within our accounting function who possessed an appropriate level of expertise to effectively perform the following functions:

 

    identify, select and apply GAAP sufficiently to provide reasonable assurance that transactions were being appropriately recorded; and

 

    assess risk and design appropriate control activities over information technology systems and financial and reporting processes necessary to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements.

We are taking numerous steps we believe will address the underlying causes of the material weakness described above, primarily through the hiring of additional accounting and finance personnel with technical accounting and financial reporting experience, development and implementation of policies, and improved processes and documented procedures. If we fail to effectively remediate deficiencies in our control environment or are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting to meet the demands that will be placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results, or report them within the timeframes required by law or exchange regulations.

Even if we are able to report our financial statements accurately and in a timely manner, if we do not make all necessary improvements to address the material weakness, continued disclosure of a material weakness will be required in future filings with the SEC, which could cause our reputation to be harmed and our stock price to decline.

We have not performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, such as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, nor have we engaged our independent registered public accounting firm to perform an audit of our internal control over financial reporting as of any balance sheet date or for any period reported in our financial statements. Had we performed such an evaluation or had our independent registered public accounting firm performed an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, control deficiencies, including material weaknesses and significant deficiencies, in addition to those discussed above, may have been identified. In addition, we are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, and as such we will elect to avail ourselves of the exemption from the requirement that our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until we cease to be an “emerging growth company.”

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and qualified board members.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the stock exchange on which our common stock is traded and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations may increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and results of operations. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our costs and expenses.

 

44


Table of Contents

The expenses incurred by public companies for reporting and corporate governance purposes have increased dramatically over the past several years. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs substantially and to make some activities more time consuming and costly. We are unable currently to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty. As a public company we also expect it will be more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

However, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we will take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, exemption from the requirement to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”

We will cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest of (i) January 31, 2021, (ii) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.0 billion, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities or (iv) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.

As a result of filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition has become more visible, which we believe may result in more litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor. These claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our actual operating results may differ significantly from our guidance.

From time to time, we plan to release guidance in our quarterly earnings conference calls, quarterly earnings releases, or otherwise, regarding our future performance that represents our management’s estimates as of the date of release. This guidance, which will include forward-looking statements, will be based on projections prepared by our management. These projections will not be prepared with a view toward compliance with published guidelines of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and neither our registered public accountants nor any other independent expert or outside party compiles or examines the projections. Accordingly, no such person will express any opinion or any other form of assurance with respect to the projections.

Projections are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. We intend to state possible outcomes as high and low ranges which are intended to provide a sensitivity analysis as variables are changed but are not intended to imply that actual results could not fall outside of the suggested ranges. The principal reason that we release guidance is to provide a basis for our management to discuss our business outlook with analysts and investors. We do not accept any responsibility for any projections or reports published by any such third parties.

Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results.

 

45


Table of Contents

Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results may vary from our guidance and the variations may be material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged not to rely upon our guidance in making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

Any failure to successfully implement our operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances set forth in this “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus could result in the actual operating results being different from our guidance, and the differences may be adverse and material.

Risks Related to Owning Our Common Stock and This Offering

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause our share price to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market after this offering, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. After this offering, we will have              outstanding shares of our common stock, based on the number of shares outstanding as of             .

All of the shares of our common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, except for any shares held by our “affiliates” as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. The remaining              shares are currently restricted as a result of market stand-off agreements restricting their sale for 180 days after the date of this prospectus. In addition, substantially all of these shares are also subject to lock-up agreements with the underwriters. Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated may, in their sole discretion, permit our officers, directors, employees, and current security holders who are subject to lock-up agreements to sell shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements.

Additionally, the shares of common stock subject to outstanding options under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations.

After this offering, the holders of an aggregate of              shares of our common stock as of             , will have rights, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements we may file for ourselves or our stockholders. We also will register shares of common stock we may issue under our employee equity incentive plans. Once we register these shares, they will be able to be sold freely in the public market upon issuance, subject to existing market stand-off or lock-up agreements.

We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our stockholders or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our common stock. See “Underwriting” and “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

We may also issue shares of our common stock or other securities from time to time as consideration for future acquisitions and investments. If any such acquisition or investment is significant, the number of shares of our common stock or the number or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of other securities we may issue may in turn be substantial. We may also grant registration rights covering those shares of our common stock or other securities in connection with any such acquisitions and investments.

 

46


Table of Contents

Worldview Technology Partners and its affiliates own a significant portion of our stock and may limit your ability to influence corporate matters.

As of April 30, 2015, Worldview Technology Partners beneficially owned approximately 56.5% of our outstanding voting securities (assuming no conversion of preferred stock into common stock) and will beneficially own approximately         % upon the completion of this offering. This significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price for our common stock because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with controlling stockholders. Also, Worldview Technology Partners will be able to control our management and affairs and matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations or the sale of substantially all of our assets. Consequently, this concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change of control would benefit our other stockholders.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

We expect that the trading price for our common stock will be affected by any research or reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who may elect to cover us downgrade their evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company, our stock may lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause its price to decline.

Our common stock could trade at prices below the initial public offering price.

There has not been a public trading market for shares of our common stock prior to this offering. An active trading market may not develop or be sustained after this offering. The initial public offering price for the shares of common stock sold in this offering will be determined by negotiations among us and representatives of the underwriters. This price may not be indicative of the price at which our common stock will trade after this offering, and our common stock could easily trade below the initial public offering price.

Our management has broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use the net proceeds effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds of this offering. We cannot specify with certainty the uses to which we will apply these net proceeds. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could adversely affect our ability to continue maintaining and expanding our business.

We have never paid cash dividends and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. If we do not pay cash dividends, you would receive a return on your investment in our common stock only if the market price of our common stock increases before you sell your shares. Furthermore, we are party to credit agreements with Silicon Valley Bank which contain negative covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends. See the section entitled “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws will contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:

 

    providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three year terms;

 

47


Table of Contents
    authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares to discourage a takeover attempt;

 

    prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

    providing that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

 

    prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;

 

    limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders; and

 

    requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporate Law govern us. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time without the consent of our board of directors.

These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and result in the market price of our common stock being lower than it would be without these provisions. See the section entitled “Description of Capital Stock—Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws.”

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon completion of this offering will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon completion of this offering provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws to be in effect upon completion of this offering, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.

The market price of our common stock is likely to be volatile and could decline following this offering, resulting in a substantial loss of your investment.

The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section or otherwise, and other factors beyond our control, such as fluctuations in the valuations of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us.

Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market fluctuations,

 

48


Table of Contents

as well as general economic, systemic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

Factors that could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly include:

 

    our operating and financial performance and prospects and the performance of other similar companies;

 

    our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;

 

    conditions that impact demand for our services;

 

    the public’s reaction to our press releases, financial guidance, and other public announcements, and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC;

 

    changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities or research analysts who track our common stock;

 

    market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;

 

    strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

 

    changes in government and other regulations;

 

    changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

    arrival and departure of key personnel;

 

    the number of shares to be publicly traded after this offering;

 

    sales of common stock by us, our investors or members of our management team; and

 

    changes in general market, economic, and political conditions in the U.S. and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, civil unrest in various parts of the world, acts of war, terrorist attacks, or other catastrophic events.

In the past, many companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have become subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.

Because the public offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock following this offering, new investors will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The public offering price of our common stock is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately following this offering based on the total value of our tangible assets less our total liabilities. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution of approximately $        per share, the difference between the public offering price of $        per share and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock as of April 30, 2015, after giving effect to the issuance of shares of our common stock in this offering. See the section entitled “Dilution.”

 

49


Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

    our future financial performance, including trends in revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and income taxes;

 

    our estimates of the size of our market opportunity and forecasts of market growth;

 

    changes to our business resulting from increased competition or changes in market trends;

 

    our ability to develop, launch or acquire new products and services, improve our existing products and services and increase the value of our products and services;

 

    our ability to increase our revenue and our revenue growth rate;

 

    our ability to anticipate demand for our products;

 

    our ability to effectively manage our future growth;

 

    our ability to successfully maintain our relationships with our resellers;

 

    our ability to attract and retain customers, including our ability to maintain adequate customer care and manage increases in our churn rate;

 

    our ability to improve local number portability provisioning and obtain direct inward dialing numbers;

 

    our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our brand and intellectual property;

 

    government regulation, including compliance with regulatory requirements and changes in market rules, rates and tariffs;

 

    our ability to comply with the FCC’s regulations regarding E-911 services;

 

    increasing regulation of our services and the imposition of federal, state and municipal sales and use taxes, fees or surcharges on our services;

 

    the effects of industry trends on our results of operations;

 

    server or system failures that could affect the quality or disrupt the services we provide and our ability to maintain data security;

 

    our ability to borrow additional funds and access capital markets, as well as our ability to comply with the terms of our indebtedness and the possibility that we may incur additional indebtedness in the future;

 

    the differences between our services, including our emergency calling service, compared to traditional phone services;

 

    the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from operations to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements;

 

    our ability to successfully enter new markets and manage our international expansion;

 

    our ability to successfully identify, evaluate and consummate acquisitions; and

 

    our use of the net proceeds from this offering.

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus.

 

50


Table of Contents

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described principally in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. As a result, we cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

 

51


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $         million, or approximately $         million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in full, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $         million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Each increase or decrease of 1,000,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $         million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

We will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds in this offering. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify all of the particular uses for the net proceeds from this offering. We currently will use the net proceeds to us from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, including working capital, sales and marketing activities, general and administrative matters, capital expenditures and further development of our solutions.

We intend to invest the net proceeds in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government, pending their use as described above. We cannot predict whether the invested proceeds will yield a favorable return.

Approximately $        of the net proceeds from this offering, based upon the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), may be paid to the holder of a warrant exercisable for 140,575 shares of our Series Alpha convertible preferred stock, which may be exercised or settled in cash, net of the aggregate exercise price, upon the closing of this offering.

We will also use approximately $         of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the outstanding principal and accrued interest on our existing loans with Silicon Valley Bank (assuming such repayment takes place on                 , 2015). As of April 30, 2015, the outstanding aggregate balance of these loans and accrued interest was approximately $10.7 million. Such indebtedness is being used for general corporate purposes. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Silicon Valley Bank Credit Agreements” for a description of the current interest rates and maturity dates on our outstanding loans.

In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to expand our current business through acquisitions or investments in other complementary strategic businesses, products or technologies. We have no commitments with respect to any acquisitions at this time.

Some of the other principal purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our common stock and increase our visibility in the marketplace. A public market for our common stock will facilitate future access to public equity markets and enhance our ability to use our common stock as a means of attracting and retaining key employees and as consideration for acquisitions.

 

52


Table of Contents

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions including compliance with covenants under our credit facilities and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, under the terms of our current credit facilities, we are prohibited from paying cash dividends without the prior consent of Silicon Valley Bank.

 

53


Table of Contents

CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of April 30, 2015:

 

    on an actual basis;

 

    on a pro forma basis to give effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Alpha and Series Alpha -1 convertible preferred stock into 16,707,522 shares of our common stock and the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock into                      shares of our common stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $                     per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus; (ii) the reclassification of our convertible preferred stock warrant liability associated with warrants to purchase 174,651 shares of our convertible preferred stock to additional paid-in capital effective upon the closing of this offering; (iii) the net exercise of warrants to purchase 68,802 shares of our convertible preferred stock, and the termination of the associated preferred stock warrant liability and the reclassification of the associated preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital effective upon the closing of this offering; and (iv) the derecognition of our convertible preferred stock warrant liability related to a warrant to purchase 140,575 shares of our convertible preferred stock that may be exercised or cash settled upon the closing of this offering; and

 

    on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to (i) the application of net proceeds from the sale of                      shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $                     per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus; and (ii) the application of outstanding amounts under our existing loans with Silicon Valley Bank (assuming such repayment had occurred on February 1, 2015)

You should read this table in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of April 30, 2015  
     Actual     Pro
Forma
    Pro Forma,
As
Adjusted(1)(2)
 
     (In thousands, except share and per
share data)
 

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 13,635      $ 12,909      $                
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Debt

$ 11,481    $ 11,481    $     

Convertible preferred stock warrant liability

  1,933      —     

Convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value: 18,034,820 shares authorized, 17,190,468 issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

  38,637      —     

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value: no shares authorized, issued or outstanding, actual;             shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

  —        —     

Common stock, $0.0001 par value: 30,000,000 shares authorized, 5,300,354 shares issued and outstanding, actual;             shares authorized,              shares issued and outstanding, pro forma;             shares authorized,             shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

  1   

Additional paid-in capital

  6,637   

Accumulated deficit

  (54,691   (54,691
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

  (48,053
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

$ 3,998    $     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

54


Table of Contents

 

(1) The terms of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock provide that the ratio at which each share of Series Beta convertible preferred stock will automatically convert into shares of our common stock upon completion of this offering is dependent upon the actual initial public offering price of our common stock to be determined at pricing. Based on the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, the outstanding shares of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock would convert into an aggregate of              shares of our common stock upon completion of this offering. Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the number of shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of the outstanding shares of our Series Beta convertible preferred stock prior to or upon completion of this offering by approximately              shares, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same.
(2) Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the amount of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $         million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase or decrease of 1,000,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the amount of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $         million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The total number of shares of our common stock reflected in the discussion and table above is based upon             shares of our common stock outstanding on a pro forma basis as of April 30, 2015, and excludes:

 

    847,160 unvested shares of restricted common stock subject to our repurchase right;

 

    3,922,041 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $2.04 per share;

 

                shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options granted after April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $         per share;

 

                shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2015 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2015 Plan (which includes 116,134 shares of our common stock as of April 30, 2015 reserved for future grant under our 2005 Plan that will be added to the shares reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Plan upon effectiveness of that plan if the shares are not issued or subject to outstanding grants under the 2005 Plan at that time), which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans;”

 

                shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans;”

 

    176,005 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $3.10 per share;

 

    174,651 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share;

 

55


Table of Contents
    68,802 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which will either terminate upon the closing of this offering, or will be exercised prior thereto; and

 

    140,575 shares of our common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which may be exercised or settled in cash, net of the aggregate exercise price, upon the closing of this offering.

 

56


Table of Contents

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. Our historical net tangible book value as of April 30, 2015 was $(11.7) million, or $(2.21) per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015. Our pro forma net tangible book value at April 30, 2015, before giving effect to this offering, was $(10.5) million, or $(0.47) per share of our common stock. Our pro forma net tangible book value before the issuance of shares in this offering gives effect to the automatic conversion of our outstanding convertible preferred stock into our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering and the related reclassification of the convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

After giving effect to our sale of             shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of April 30, 2015 would have been $        , or $         per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $         per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $         per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Initial public offering price per share

$                

Historical net tangible book value per share as of April 30, 2015

$ (2.21

Pro forma increase in net tangible book value per share

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of April 30, 2015

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

  

 

 

   

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

    

 

 

 

Dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering

$     
    

 

 

 

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately $         million, or approximately $         per share, and would increase or decrease, as applicable, dilution per share to new investors in this offering by $        , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. An increase or decrease of 1,000,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately $         million, or approximately $         per share, and would increase or decrease, as applicable, dilution per share to new investors in this offering by approximately $         per share, assuming an initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share would be $         per share, and the dilution per share to new investors in this offering would be $         per share.

 

57


Table of Contents

The following table summarizes the pro forma as adjusted basis described above, as of April 30, 2015, the differences between the existing stockholders and new investors with respect to the number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration paid to us and the average price per share paid or to be paid to us at an assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us:

 

     Shares Purchased     Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Share
 
     Number    Percent     Amount      Percent    

Existing stockholders

               $                             $                

New investors

               $                  $     
  

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total

  100.0 $        100.0
  

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the total consideration paid to us by new investors and total consideration paid to us by all stockholders by $         million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. An increase or decrease of 1,000,000 shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease the total consideration paid to us by new investors and total consideration paid to us by all stockholders by $         million, assuming an initial public offering price of $         per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The total number of shares of our common stock reflected in the discussion and table above is based upon              shares of our common stock outstanding on a pro forma basis as of April 30, 2015, and excludes:

 

    847,160 unvested shares of restricted common stock subject to our repurchase rights;

 

    3,922,041 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $2.04 per share;

 

                shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options granted after April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $         per share;

 

                shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2015 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2015 Plan (which includes 116,134 shares of our common stock as of April 30, 2015 reserved for future grant under our 2005 Plan that will be added to the shares reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Plan upon effectiveness of that plan if the shares are not issued or subject to outstanding grants under the 2005 Plan at that time), which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans”;

 

                 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering and contains provisions that automatically increase its share reserve each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans”;

 

    176,005 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having a weighted-average exercise price of $3.10 per share;

 

    174,651 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share;

 

58


Table of Contents
    68,802 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which will either terminate upon the closing of this offering, or will be exercised prior thereto; and

 

    140,575 shares of our common stock, on an as-converted basis, issuable upon the exercise of an outstanding warrant to purchase Series Alpha convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2015, having an exercise price of $2.35 per share, which may be exercised or settled in cash, net of the aggregate exercise price, upon the closing of this offering.

To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised, new options are issued under our stock-based compensation plans or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

59


Table of Contents

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

You should read the selected consolidated financial data set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the notes to our consolidated financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained elsewhere in this prospectus.

We derived the selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and summary consolidated balance sheet for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2014 and 2015 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the unaudited consolidated statements of operations data for the first three months of fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2016 and the unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of April 30, 2015 from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited financial information on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and have included, in our opinion, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information set forth in those statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period, and our interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year.

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2014     2015  
     (In thousands, except share and per share data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

          

Revenue:

          

Subscription and services

   $ 24,107      $ 35,377      $ 53,828      $ 10,886      $ 15,576   

Product and other

     15,126        18,288        18,373        5,413        4,276   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  39,233      53,665      72,201      16,299      19,852   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

Subscription and services

  13,899      15,894      18,284      3,817      5,624   

Product and other

 

 

 

11,590

 

  

  15,573      18,440      4,775      4,207   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,489

 

 

 

  

  31,467      36,724      8,592      9,831   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,744

 

 

 

  

  22,198      35,477      7,707      10,021   

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing(1)

  7,471      13,192      22,276      3,730      5,895   

Research and development(1)

  7,023      7,888      12,290      2,301      4,097   

General and administrative(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,508

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

2,573

 

 

  

 

 

 

6,650

 

  

  930      2,961   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

 
17,002
  
  23,653      41,216      6,961      12,953   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

 

 

 

(3,258

 

  (1,455   (5,739   746      (2,932

Interest income (expense), net

  (550   (269   (323   (53   (285

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

  153      (250   (795   (184   (716

Other expense, net

  (8   (26   (55   (10   (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax benefit

  (3,663  
(2,000

 
(6,912

  499      (3,935

Income tax benefit

  —        —        502      —        —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

  (3,663   (2,000   (6,410   499      (3,935

Less: Undistributed earnings to participating securities holders

  —        —        —        (499   —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$ (3,663 $ (2,000 $ (6,410 $ —      $ (3,935
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders(2):

Basic and diluted

$ (1.77 $ (0.59 $ (1.40 $ —      $ (0.76
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

  2,071,914      3,377,692      4,568,483      4,018,563      5,182,483   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders(2):

Basic and diluted

$      $     
      

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

60


Table of Contents
     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2014      2015  
    

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Pro forma weighted average shares outstanding(2):

           

Basic and diluted

           
      

 

 

      

 

 

 

Other Financial Data:

Adjusted EBITDA(3):

$ (2,241 $ (445 $ (3,455 $ 1,001    $ (1,885

 

(1) Stock-based compensation expense is included in our results of operations as follows (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended January 31,      Three months Ended  
     2013      2014      2015      April 30,
2014
     April 30,
2015
 

Total cost of revenue

   $ 11       $ 7       $ 36       $ 4       $ 58   

Sales and marketing

     1         6         41         5         56   

Research and development

     50         26         169         15         217   

General and administrative

     111         33         180         17         220   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

$ 173    $ 72    $ 426    $ 41    $ 551   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(2) See Note 14 of the notes to our consolidated financial statements for a description of the method used to compute basic and diluted net (loss) income per share attributable to common stockholders and proforma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders.
(3) We monitor Adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP financial measure) to manage our business, evaluate our performance and make planning decisions. Adjusted EBITDA represents net income (loss) before net interest (income) expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, change in the fair value of our convertible preferred stock warrants and change in fair value of our acquisition-related contingent consideration. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is a useful supplemental financial measure to evaluate our operating performance across periods and against other companies that may have different capital structures or different stock-based compensation policies. Our Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies because other companies may not calculate similarly titled measures in the same manner as we do. Adjusted EBITDA has important limitations as an analytical tool, and should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:

 

    although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the physical assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;

 

    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;

 

    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the potentially dilutive impact of stock-based compensation;

 

    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect interest associated with debt used for corporate purposes that may represent a reduction in cash available to us; and

 

    other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently, which reduces its usefulness as a comparative measure.

 

61


Table of Contents

Because of these limitations, we consider, and you should consider, Adjusted EBITDA together with our GAAP-based financial performance measures. The following table provides a reconciliation of net (loss) income to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

    Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
    2013     2014     2015     2014     2015  

Net (loss) income

  $ (3,663   $ (2,000   $ (6,410   $ 499      $ (3,935

Reconciling items:

         

Interest expense and other income and expense, net

    558        295        378        63        287   

Depreciation and amortization

    844        938        1,202        214        415   

Income tax benefit

    —          —          (502     —          —     

Stock-based compensation

    173        72        426        41        551   

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

    (153     250        795        184        716   

Change in fair value of acquisition-related contingent consideration

    —          —          656        —          81   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

$ (2,241 $ (445 $ (3,455 $ 1,001    $ (1,885
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     As of January 31,      As of April 30,
2015
 
     2014      2015     
     (In thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 6,364       $ 9,133       $ 13,635   

Working capital

     (6,959      (5,863      (5,822

Total assets

     17,716         31,277         34,805   

Convertible preferred stock warrant liability, current and long-term

     361         1,217         1,933   

Debt obligations, current and long-term

     2,415         11,960         11,481   

Deferred revenue, current and long-term

     10,356         14,383         12,300   

Total liabilities

     24,034         42,785         44,221   

Convertible preferred stock

     33,541         33,637         38,637   

Stockholders’ deficit

     (39,859      (45,145      (48,053

 

62


Table of Contents

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results and timing of selected events may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. The last day of our fiscal year is January 31, and we refer to our fiscal year ended January 31, 2013 as fiscal 2013, our fiscal year ended January 31, 2014 as fiscal 2014, our fiscal year ended January 31, 2015 as fiscal 2015, and our fiscal year ending January 31, 2016 as fiscal 2016. All other references to years are references to calendar years.

Overview

Ooma is a leading provider of innovative communications solutions and other connected services to small business, home, and mobile users. Our unique hybrid SaaS platform, consisting of our proprietary cloud, on-premise appliances, mobile applications, and end-point devices, provides the connectivity and functionality that power our solutions. Our communications solutions deliver our proprietary HD voice quality, advanced features, and integration with mobile devices, at extremely competitive pricing and value. Our platform helps create smart workplaces and homes by providing value-added communications and other connected services and by integrating end-point devices to enable the Internet of Things. Our platform and solutions have the power to provide communications, productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security, and networking infrastructure applications to our users.

The following is a chronology of some of our significant corporate milestones:

 

    We were founded and commenced operations in late 2003 to provide innovative communications solutions and other connected services.

 

    We launched our first-generation home communications solution, the Ooma Hub, in the U.S. in 2007.

 

    In 2008, we began selling our products through retailers, such as Amazon.com, Best Buy and Costco.com.

 

    We launched our second-generation home communications solution, the Ooma Telo, in the U.S. in 2009.

 

    We expanded into Canada in 2011.

 

    We acquired the Business Promoter business in 2012 for a nominal amount, which provides lead generation services to small businesses.

 

    We launched Ooma Office in the U.S. in 2013 and in Canada in 2014.

 

    We entered into a reseller agreement with Vivint in December 2013.

 

    We acquired Talkatone, which is a mobile app that provides free domestic calling and messaging and low rates for international calling, in 2014.

 

    We announced our partnership with Nest Labs, Inc., a Google company, in January 2015.

We drive the adoption of our platform by providing communications solutions to the large and growing markets for small business, home, and mobile users and then accelerate growth by offering new and innovative connected services to our user base. Our small business and home customers adopt our platform by making a one-time purchase of one of our on-premise appliances, connecting the appliance to the internet and activating services, for which they primarily pay on a monthly basis. Our communications solutions are distinguished by the combination of our proprietary HD voice quality, exceptional value, an advanced feature set enhanced by a

 

63


Table of Contents

number of end-point devices and integration with mobile devices. We believe we have achieved high levels of customer retention and loyalty by delivering exceptional quality and customer satisfaction.

We generate our subscription and services revenue by selling subscriptions and other services for our communications solutions, as well as other connected services. We have experienced significant revenue and user growth in recent periods, growing our core users from approximately 174,000 as of January 31, 2011 to approximately 678,000 as of April 30, 2015, representing a compound annual growth rate of approximately 38%. We define core users as the number of home user accounts, office user extensions and standalone Business Promoter accounts, which means Business Promoter users who do not subscribe to any other services from us. We derive our subscription and services revenue primarily from recurring monthly and annual payments related to our services, such as Ooma Office services, Ooma Basic and Premier, international calling plans and other subscriptions. Our subscription and services revenue also includes revenue generated from payments for qualified lead generation, pre-paid minutes for international calling and directory assistance, and the display of advertisements through our Talkatone mobile app. We believe that our recurring subscription and services revenue is reliable and predictable, and provides us with visibility into our near-term results. Our subscription and services revenue has increased as a percentage of our total revenue in recent periods, from 61% for fiscal 2013 to 75% for fiscal 2015. It also increased from 67% for the three months ended April 30, 2014 to 78% for the three months ended April 30, 2015. We expect our subscription and services revenue to continue increasing as a percentage of our total revenue for the foreseeable future as we continue to add new users, retain a high proportion of our existing user base and introduce subscriptions to new connected services.

We generate our product and other revenue from the sale of our on-premise appliances and our end-point devices, as well as from porting fees to enable customers to transfer their existing phone numbers to the Ooma service. Our product and other revenue has decreased as a percentage of our total revenue in recent periods, from 39% for fiscal 2013 to 25% for fiscal 2015. It also decreased from 33% for the three months ended April 30, 2014 to 22% for the three months ended April 30, 2015, which is a trend we expect to continue for the foreseeable future.

We believe that our integrated multi-channel sales and marketing strategy enables us to effectively grow our sales at a relatively low cost of customer acquisition. Our sales and marketing strategy utilizes multiple retail and online channels, our direct sales organization, and select reseller partners, such as Vivint. We support our retail, online and direct sales channels through a combination of television, print and online advertising that builds brand awareness amongst small business, home and mobile customers. We maintain retail channel relationships with online and traditional retailers in the U.S. and Canada, including national retailers such as Amazon.com, Best Buy, Costco.com, Future Shop and Walmart, and regional retailers such as Fry’s Electronics and PC Richard.

Our total revenue was $39.2 million, $53.7 million and $72.2 million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively, and $16.3 million and $19.9 million for the three months ended April 30, 2014 and 2015, respectively. We have continued to make significant investments in research and development, brand marketing and channel development, incurring net losses of $(3.7) million, $(2.0) million and $(6.4) million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively, and a net loss of $(3.9) million for the three months ended April 30, 2015. Over the past year, we have significantly increased our expenditures to support the development and expansion of our business, which has resulted in continuing losses. We plan to continue investing for future growth, including additional investment in sales and marketing and research and development, and as a result, we do not expect to be profitable in the near future. Our Adjusted EBITDA was $(2.2) million, $(0.4) million and $(3.5) million in fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, respectively and $1.0 million and $(1.9) million for the three months ended April 30, 2014 and 2015, respectively. See footnote (3) in “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” for a description of how we define Adjusted EBITDA, why we believe that it is useful to investors and a reconciliation to our net loss.

 

64


Table of Contents

Our Customer Economics

Our business focuses on acquiring and retaining our customers and encouraging our customers to purchase additional services. While we generally incur customer acquisition costs in advance of, or at the time of, the acquisition of a customer, we recognize subscription and services revenue ratably over the service period. As a result, a customer relationship is typically not profitable at the beginning of the service period, even though we expect it to generate value to us over the lifetime of that customer relationship.

We estimate that our payback period for each new customer is generally shorter than 18 months. We define the payback period as the amount of time it takes to earn sufficient margin from any new customer to offset our up-front customer acquisition costs.

In connection with our acquisition of new customers, we typically incur and recognize significant upfront costs, consisting primarily of sales and marketing costs. We separately recognize costs of subscription and services revenue, including our data center and communications costs, in the period in which they are incurred. When a customer purchases additional subscription-based services from us in subsequent periods, the value we realize from that customer increases because we generally do not incur significant incremental acquisition costs when we provide additional services to our existing customers.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Our historical financial performance and key business metrics have been, and we expect that our financial performance and key business metrics in the future will be, primarily driven by the following factors.

 

    Core user growth. Our core user growth is a key indicator of our market penetration, the growth of our business and our anticipated future subscription and services revenue. Our core users have increased from approximately 174,000 as of January 31, 2011 to approximately 645,000 as of January 31, 2015, and 678,000 as of April 30, 2015.

 

    Low core user churn. We believe that maintaining our current low core user churn is an important factor in our ability to continue to improve our financial performance and is a distinguishing advantage over many of our competitors. We focus on providing high-quality services and support to our users so that they are motivated to remain with us. Our core user churn rate is higher for Ooma Office customers than Ooma Telo customers, which is driven in part by the failure rate of small businesses. Accordingly, if sales of Ooma Office increase relative to sales of Ooma Telo, we expect that our overall core user churn rate will increase.

 

    Growth in additional services. We believe that there is a significant opportunity for us to increase the additional subscription services that our customers purchase from us. Customers who purchase additional subscription services from us generate more value to us over the life of our customer relationship. In order to drive adoption of additional subscription services, we will need to continually add valuable new features to our existing solutions and develop new connected services.

 

    Investing in growth. We intend to continue focusing on long-term revenue growth. We believe that our market opportunity is large and we intend to continue investing in sales and marketing to grow our user base. We also expect to continue investing in research and development to enhance our platform and develop additional connected services. We also may acquire complementary technologies or additional connected services. To support our expected growth and our operation as a public company, we intend to invest in other operational and administrative functions.

Key Business Metrics

We regularly review a number of metrics, including the following key business metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions.

 

65


Table of Contents

Core Users

We believe that the number of our core users is an indicator of our market penetration, the growth of our business and our anticipated future subscription and services revenue. We define our core users as the number of home user accounts, office user extensions and standalone Business Promoter accounts, which means Business Promoter users who do not subscribe to any other services from us. We believe that the relationship that we establish with our core users positions us to sell additional premium communications services and other new connected services to them. The increase in our core users was primarily due to the increases in our Ooma Telo customers, as well as our launch of Ooma Office.

 

     As of January 31,      Three months Ended April 30,  
     2013      2014      2015              2014                      2015          

Core Users

     354,000         481,000         645,000         523,000         678,000   

Annualized Exit Recurring Revenue

We believe that our annualized exit recurring revenue, or AERR, for our core users is an indicator of recurring subscription and services revenue for near-term future periods. We calculate our AERR as of the end of a quarter by dividing our recurring revenue (which is defined as total subscription and service revenue, excluding Talkatone revenue) for a quarter by the average of the number of core users at the beginning and end of that quarter, and annualize by multiplying by four. We then multiply that result by the number of core users at the end of the period to calculate AERR. We have generally experienced a year over year increase in AERR due to an increase in our recurring revenue per user and an increase in the number of core users.

 

     As of January 31,    Three months Ended April 30,
           2013                2014                2015          2014    2015
    

(In millions)

Annualized Exit Recurring Revenue

   $29.8    $42.3    $61.9    $45.4    $60.8

Annual Net Dollar Subscription Retention Rate

We believe that our annual net dollar subscription retention rate for our core users, or our annual net dollar retention rate, provides insight into our ability to retain and grow our subscription and services revenue, and is an indicator of the long-term value of our customer relationships and the stability of our revenue base. Our annual net dollar retention rate measures the percentage year-over-year change in our recurring revenue (which is defined as total subscription and service revenue, excluding Talkatone revenue) for the period per core user, which is then adjusted by factoring in the percentage of our core users we have retained during the same period. Our annual net dollar retention rate is affected by changes in average amounts that our core users pay to us, fluctuations in the number of our core users, and our core user churn rate. Annual Net Dollar Subscription Retention Rate has remained flat year over year as our churn rate has been relatively consistent and we have experienced steady growth in average recurring revenue per core user in the periods presented.

We calculate our annual net dollar subscription retention rate for our core users by multiplying:

 

  (i) our year-over-year percentage change in annual recurring revenue per core user, which is calculated by:

 

    determining the annual recurring revenue per core user by dividing annual recurring revenue for the period ended by the number of core users at the end of that particular period; and

 

    calculating the year-over-year percentage change in annual recurring revenue per core user by dividing the current period recurring revenue per core user by the annual recurring revenue per core user for the same period in the prior year.

 

  by:

 

  (ii) our core user annual retention rate, which is calculated by:

 

   

determining our core user churn, by identifying the number of paying core users who terminate service during a month, excluding infant churn, which we define as office

 

66


Table of Contents
 

extensions and home users who terminate service prior to the end of the second full calendar month after their activation date;

 

    calculating our monthly churn rate by dividing our churn in a month by the number of core users at the beginning of that month; and

 

    calculating our annual retention rate as one minus the sum of our monthly churn rates for the preceding 12-month period.

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended April 30,  
         2013             2014             2015               2014                 2015        

Annual Net Dollar Subscription Retention Rate

     102     102     102     97    
97

Adjusted EBITDA

We use Adjusted EBITDA to manage our business, evaluate our performance and make planning decisions. Adjusted EBITDA represents net income (loss) before interest (income) expense, net, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, change in the fair value of our convertible preferred stock warrants and change in fair value of our acquisition-related contingent consideration. See footnote (3) in “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” for a description of how we define Adjusted EBITDA, why we believe that it is useful to investors and a reconciliation to our net loss.

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended April 30,  
     2013     2014     2015           2014                  2015        
    

(In thousands)

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (2,241   $ (445   $ (3,455   $ 1,001       $ (1,885
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate revenue primarily through the sale of subscriptions to our communications solutions and other connected services. We also generate revenue from the sale of our on-premise appliances and end-point devices that enable our solutions, as well as from porting fees to enable our customers to transfer their existing phone numbers to the Ooma service. See “Critical Accounting Policies—Revenue Recognition” below for a more detailed discussion of our revenue recognition policy.

Subscription and services revenue. Our subscription and services revenue consists primarily of fees we bill to our customers in connection with their subscriptions to our communications solutions. Our revenue varies based upon the services and features utilized by our core users. We derive subscription and services revenue primarily from recurring monthly payments related to service plans, such as Ooma Premier, Ooma Office, international calling plans, and other subscriptions, which we refer to as service subscription plans. Subscription and services revenue also includes revenue generated from payments for qualified lead generation, prepaid international and directory assistance calling and mobile advertising from customers who have subscribed for these services, which we refer to as usage-based subscriptions. We recognize revenue under service subscription plans on a straight-line basis over their contractual service term. We recognize revenue under usage-based subscriptions based on actual usage. We also earn revenue from the display of advertisements through our Talkatone mobile application, primarily based on advertisement impressions displayed. We generally recognize revenue from mobile advertising on a net basis, because we are not the primary obligor to advertisers. We expect our subscription and services revenue to generally increase as a percentage of total revenue, as we continue to grow our user base.

Product and other revenue. Our product and other revenue consists primarily of the sale of our on-premise appliances and end-point devices used in connection with our services and includes shipping and handling fees.

 

67


Table of Contents

We also generate other revenue from porting fees we charge our customers to enable them to transfer their existing phone numbers to Ooma Office or Telo. We recognize product and other revenue when the product has been delivered to the customer. We expect our product and other revenue to remain relatively flat in absolute dollars, but to decrease as a percentage of total revenue, as we expect to continue to sell our on-premise appliances at an attractive price point to facilitate the adoption of our platform.

Cost of Revenue

Our cost of revenue consists of the cost of our subscription and services revenue and the cost of our product and other revenue.

Cost of subscription and services revenue. Our cost of subscription and services revenue primarily consists of payments we make for third-party network operations and telecommunications services, credit card processing fees, costs to maintain data centers, including co-location fees for the right to place our servers in data centers owned by third parties, depreciation of servers and equipment, along with related utilities and maintenance costs, personnel costs associated with customer care and network operations support, and allocated costs of facilities and information technology.

Cost of product and other revenue. Cost of product and other revenue is comprised primarily of the costs associated with the manufacturing of our on-premise appliances and end-point devices, as well as personnel costs for employees and contractors, costs related to porting our customers’ phone numbers to our service, shipment of on-premise appliances and end-point devices, and allocated costs of facilities and information technology.

Gross Margin

Our gross margin consists of our subscription and services gross margin and our product and other gross margin.

Subscription and services gross margin. Subscription and services gross margin, which we define as subscription and services revenue minus cost of subscription and services revenue expressed as a percentage of subscription and services revenue, can fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the costs we pay to third-party telecommunications providers, the timing of capital expenditures and related depreciation charges and changes in headcount. We expect to continue investing in our network infrastructure and customer support function to support our growth and maintain quality of service and security. We expect our subscription and services gross margin to increase over the long term as users adopt additional connected services we introduce in the future, although our subscription and services gross margin may fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of all of these factors.

Product and other gross margin. Product and other gross margin, which we define as product and other revenue minus cost of product and other revenue expressed as a percentage of product and other revenue, can fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the number of our on-premise appliances and end-point devices we sell during a period, as compared to the cost to produce those units and the relatively fixed personnel costs for employees and contractors incurred during the period. We sell our on-premise appliances at an attractive price point to facilitate the adoption of our platform. We therefore expect our product and other gross margin to remain negligible to slightly negative for the foreseeable future.

Our subscription and services gross margin is significantly higher than our product and other gross margin. As a result, any significant change in the mix between subscription and services revenue and product and other revenue will cause our total gross margin to change. For example, in periods where we sell significantly more on-premise appliances than we forecasted, we would expect our total gross margin to decline.

 

68


Table of Contents

Operating Expenses

We classify our operating expenses as sales and marketing expenses, research and development expenses, and general and administrative expenses.

Sales and marketing expenses. Our sales and marketing expenses are the largest component of our operating expenses and consist primarily of personnel costs for employees and contractors directly associated with our sales and marketing activities, internet, radio and billboard advertising fees, public relations expenses, commissions we pay to resellers and other third parties, trade show expenses, travel expenses, marketing and promotional activities and allocated costs of facilities and information technology. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to continue increasing in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we expand our sales and marketing efforts and continue to build our brand. However, we expect our sales and marketing expenses to decrease as a percentage of our total revenue over the long term, although our sales and marketing expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period depending on the timing of these expenses.

In fiscal 2015, we increased our sales and marketing expenditures associated with our Ooma Office appliance and services as a percentage of our total sales and marketing expenditures. Our average blended sales and marketing expenditures to attract a new customer increased as we focused on acquiring new Ooma Office customers, which in turn caused an increase in our sales and marketing expenses as a percentage of our product and other revenue. We expect that this increase in sales and marketing expenditures will result in growth of our recurring subscription and services revenue attributable to our Ooma Office service.

Research and development expenses. Our research and development efforts are focused on developing new and expanded features for our services and improvements to our platform and backend architecture. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for employees and contractors and allocated costs of facilities and information technology, software tools, and product certification. We expense research and development costs as incurred. We believe that continued investment in our products and services is important for our future growth, and as a result, we expect our research and development expenses to continue increasing in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future. However, we expect our research and development expenses to decrease as a percentage of our total revenue over the long term, although our research and development expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period depending on the timing of these expenses.

General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for employees engaged in administrative activities to support the day-to-day operations of our business. Other significant components of our general and administrative expenses include professional service fees, legal fees and allocated costs of facilities and information technology. Following the completion of this offering, we expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, and increased expenses for insurance, investor relations, and professional services. As a result, we expect our general and administrative expenses to continue increasing in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future. However, we expect our general and administrative expenses to decrease as a percentage of our total revenue over the long term, although our general and administrative expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period depending on the timing of these expenses.

 

69


Table of Contents

Consolidated Results of Operations

The following table sets forth selected consolidated statements of operations for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2014     2015  
    

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Consolidated statements of operations data:

          

Revenue:

          

Subscription and services

   $ 24,107      $ 35,377      $ 53,828      $ 10,886      $ 15,576   

Product and other

     15,126        18,288        18,373        5,413        4,276   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  39,233      53,665      72,201      16,299      19,852   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

Subscription and services

  13,899      15,894      18,284      3,817      5,624   

Product and other

  11,590      15,573      18,440      4,775      4,207   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

  25,489      31,467      36,724      8,592      9,831   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

  13,744      22,198      35,477      7,707      10,021   

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing

  7,471      13,192      22,276      3,730      5,895   

Research and development

  7,023      7,888      12,290      2,301      4,097   

General and administrative

  2,508      2,573      6,650      930      2,961   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  17,002      23,653      41,216      6,961      12,953   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

  (3,258   (1,455   (5,739   746      (2,932

Interest expense, net

  (550   (269   (323   (53   (285

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

  153      (250   (795   (184   (716

Other expense, net

  (8   (26   (55   (10   (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax benefit

  (3,663   (2,000   (6,912   499      (3,935

Income tax benefit

  —        —        502      —        —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

  (3,663   (2,000   (6,410   499      (3,935

Less: Undistributed earnings to participating securities holders

  —        —        —        (499   —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$ (3,663 $ (2,000 $ (6,410 $ —      $ (3,935
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted:

$ (1.77 $ (0.59 $ (1.40 $ —      $ (0.76
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding used to compute net loss of per share, basic and diluted:

  2,071,914      3,377,692      4,568,483      4,018,563      5,182,483   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

70


Table of Contents

The following table sets forth selected consolidated statements of operations, expressed as a percentage of total revenue, for each of the periods indicated:

 

    Year Ended January 31,     Three months
Ended April 30,
 
        2013             2014             2015             2014             2015      

Consolidated statement of operations data:

         

Revenue:

         

Subscription and services

    61     66     75     67     78

Product and other

    39        34        25        33        22   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  100      100      100      100      100   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

Subscription and services

  35      30      25      23      28   

Product and other

  30      29      26      30      21   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

  65      59      51      53      49   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

  35      41      49      47      51   

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing

 
19
  
  25      31      23      30   

Research and development

  18      14      17      14      21   

General and administrative

  6      5      9      6      15   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  43      44      57      43      66   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

  (8   (3   (8   4      (15

Interest expense, net

  (1   (1   —        —        (1

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

  —        —        (2   (1   (4

Other expense, net

  —        —        —        —        —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax benefit

  (9   (4   (10   3      (20

Income tax benefit

  —        —        1      —        —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

  (9 )%    (4 )%    (9 )%    3   (20 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations:

Comparison of the Three Months Ended April 30, 2014 and 2015

Revenue

 

     Three months
Ended April 30,
     Change  
         2014              2015          $     %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 10,886       $ 15,576       $ 4,690        43

Product and other

     5,413         4,276         (1,137     (21 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   
$ 16,299    $ 19,852    $ 3,553      22
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Our subscription and services revenue increased by $4.7 million, primarily due to growth in our subscriber base, which increased from approximately 523,000 core users as of April 30, 2014 to approximately 678,000 core users as of April 30, 2015. In addition to the increase in our core users, our average quarterly subscription and services revenue per core user, excluding Talkatone, increased from $21.68 for the three months ended April 30, 2014 to $22.42 for the three months ended April 30, 2015.

Our product and other revenue decreased by $1.1 million due to a decrease in sales to one of our reseller partners and a decrease in the average sales price per unit. The sales to our reseller partners are typically large and the timing varies from quarter to quarter.

 

71


Table of Contents

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

     Three months Ended
April 30,
    Change  
         2014             2015         $     %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 3,817      $ 5,624      $ 1,807        47

Product and other

     4,775        4,207        (568     (12 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total cost of revenue

$ 8,592    $ 9,831      1,239      14
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross profit

$ 7,069    $ 9,952      2,883      41

Product and other gross profit

  638      69      (569   (89 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total gross profit

$ 7,707    $ 10,021    $ 2,314      30
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross margin

  65   64   (1 )% 

Product and other gross margin

  12   2   (10 )% 

Total gross margin

  47   50   3

The increase in cost of subscription and services revenue of $1.8 million was primarily due to an increase in telecommunications provider and related fees of $0.7 million, an increase in personnel and consultant costs of $0.8 million and an increase in credit processing fees of $0.2 million.

The decrease of $0.6 million in cost of product and other revenue was primarily due to a decrease in units sold, which was driven by a decrease in sales to one of our reseller partners for the three months ended April 30, 2014 compared to the three months ended April 30, 2015.

Total gross profit increased by $2.3 million, from $7.7 million for the three months ended April 30, 2014 to $10.0 million for the three months ended April 30, 2015. This increase was due to an increase in subscription and services gross profit of $2.9 million, which was offset in part by a decrease in product and other gross profit of $0.6 million. Our total gross margin increased from 47% for the three months ended April 30, 2014 compared to 50% for the three months ended April 30, 2015, primarily due to an increase in our subscription and services as we provided additional higher margin services to our core users, as well as due to economies of scale.

Operating Expenses

 

     Three months ended
April 30,
     Change  
         2014              2015          $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Sales and marketing expenses

   $ 3,730       $ 5,895       $ 2,165         58

Research and development expenses

     2,301         4,097         1,796         78

General and administrative expenses

     930         2,961         2,031         218
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total operating expenses

$ 6,961    $ 12,953    $ 5,992      86
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

The $2.2 million increase in the sales and marketing expenses was primarily due to an increase in advertising and marketing expenses of $1.4 million as we expanded partner programs and lead generation activities, and an increase in personnel and consultant costs of $0.6 million, as we increased both sales headcount and consultants to support growth.

The $1.8 million increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to an increase in personnel and consultant costs of $1.4 million, an increase in facilities-related costs of $0.2 million and an increase in stock-based compensation of $0.2 million.

 

72


Table of Contents

The $2.0 million increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase in professional service fees of $0.9 million, an increase in personnel and consultant costs of $0.8 million and an increase in stock-based compensation of $0.2 million.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

     Three months Ended
April 30,
    Change  
         2014             2015         $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Interest (expense) income, net

   $ (53   $ (285   $ (232      N/M

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

     (184     (716     (532      N/M

Other (expense) income

     (10     (2     8         N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total other (expense), income net

$ (247 $ (1,003 $ (756   N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

* Not meaningful

Interest expense is comprised primarily of interest related to outstanding debt during the period. The increase of $0.2 million for the three months ended April 30, 2015 compared to the three months ended April 30, 2014 was due to an increase in outstanding debt.

The change in fair value of the convertible preferred stock warrants of $0.5 million resulted from an increase in expense associated with the change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants, which resulted from a greater proportional increase in the fair value of the warrants period to period. We will continue to record adjustments to the fair value of these warrants until they are exercised, converted into warrants to purchase shares of common stock or expire, at which time we will no longer remeasure the fair value of these warrants at each balance sheet date. However, at the closing of this offering, we will reclassify the then-current aggregate fair value of these warrants from liabilities to additional paid-in capital, and we will cease to record any related fair value adjustments.

Comparison of Years Ended January 31, 2014 and 2015

Revenue

 

     Year Ended January 31,      Change  
          2014                2015           $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 35,377       $ 53,828       $ 18,451         52

Product and other

     18,288         18,373         85         —  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total revenue

$ 53,665    $ 72,201    $ 18,536      35
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Our subscription and services revenue increased by $18.5 million, primarily due to growth in our subscriber base, which increased from approximately 481,000 core users as of January 31, 2014 to approximately 645,000 core users as of January 31, 2015. In addition to the increase in our core users, our average annual subscription and services revenue per core user, excluding revenue from Talkatone, increased from $84.76 in fiscal 2014 to $92.08 in fiscal 2015.

Our product and other revenue increased by $0.1 million due to increased sales of our on-premise appliances, end-point devices and porting fees to enable customers to transfer their existing phone numbers. During fiscal 2015, we had a 22% increase in the number of units sold, offset by a lower average price per unit sold during the period, as compared to fiscal 2014.

 

73


Table of Contents

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Change  
         2014             2015         $     %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 15,894      $ 18,284      $ 2,390        15

Product and other

     15,573        18,440        2,867        18
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total cost of revenue

$ 31,467    $ 36,724    $ 5,257      17
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross profit

$ 19,483    $ 35,544    $ 16,061      82

Product and other gross profit

  2,715      (67   (2,782   (102 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total gross profit

$ 22,198    $ 35,447    $ 13,279      60
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross margin

  55   66   11

Product and other gross margin

  15   —     (15 )% 

Total gross margin

  41   49   8

The increase in cost of subscription and services revenue of $2.4 million was primarily the result of an increase in personnel and consulting costs of $1.3 million as we increased headcount to support our growth, an increase in telecommunications provider and other fees of $0.6 million, and an increase in credit card processing fees of $0.3 million.

The increase of $2.9 million in cost of product and other revenue was primarily due to a $1.4 million increase in the product cost of our on-premise appliances due to the increase in units sold, an increase in shipping costs of $0.4 million and an increase in personnel and consulting related costs by $0.3 million. In addition, the increase was due to an increase in scrap of obsolete inventory and internal usage of product by $0.3 million.

Total gross profit increased by $13.3 million in fiscal 2015 to $35.4 million from $22.2 million in fiscal 2014, primarily as a result of the increase in subscription and services revenue gross profit of $16.1 million, offset by a decline of $2.8 million in our product and other gross profit. Our total gross margin increased to 49% in fiscal 2015 as compared to 41% in fiscal 2014, primarily due to the increase in subscription and services as we offered additional higher margin services to our core users, as well as due to economies of scale.

Operating Expenses

 

     Year Ended January 31,      Change  
           2014                  2015            $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Sales and marketing expenses

   $ 13,192       $ 22,276       $ 9,084         69

Research and development expenses

     7,888         12,290         4,402         56

General and administrative expenses

     2,573         6,650         4,077         158
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total operating expense

$ 23,653    $ 41,216    $ 17,563      74
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

The increase in sales and marketing expenses was $9.1 million, primarily due to an increase in advertising and marketing expenses of $6.9 million, as we expanded customer and partner programs and lead generation activities, an increase in personnel costs of $1.5 million as we increased sales headcount to support growth, and an increase in consulting costs of $0.4 million to supplement our sales and marketing team. The increase was also attributable to an increase in facilities-related costs of $0.1 million and increased travel costs of $0.1 million.

The $4.4 million increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to an increase in personnel related-costs of $1.7 million due to an increased headcount, an increase in consulting costs by $1.6 million, an increase in facilities-related costs of $0.5 million and an increase in stock-based compensation of $0.2 million.

 

74


Table of Contents

General and administrative expenses increased by $4.1 million in fiscal 2015 compared to fiscal 2014,

primarily due to an increase in personnel related costs of $1.9 million due to the increase in headcount, an increase in professional services fees of $1.4 million to supplement our legal, finance and human resources organizations to support our growth, an increase in stock-based compensation of $0.2 million and an increase in the amortization of intangibles of $0.2 million due to our acquisition of Talkatone during fiscal 2015.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Change  
         2014             2015         $     %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Income (expense), net

   $ (269   $ (323   $ (54     N/M

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

     (250     (795     (545     N/M

Other expense, net

     (26     (55     (29     N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total other (expense), income net

$ (545 $ (1,173 $ (628   N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

* Not meaningful

Interest expense is comprised primarily of interest expense associated with debt outstanding during the periods. The increase of $0.1 million from fiscal 2014 to fiscal 2015 was due to additional interest expense incurred during fiscal 2015 as a result of the increase in our outstanding debt.

The change in fair value of the convertible preferred stock warrants of $0.5 million resulted from an increase in expense associated with the change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants, which resulted from a greater proportional increase in the fair value of the warrants period over period. We will continue to record adjustments to the fair value of these warrants until they are exercised, converted into warrants to purchase shares of common stock or expire, at which time we will no longer remeasure the fair value of these warrants at each balance sheet date. However, at the closing of this offering, we will reclassify the then-current aggregate fair value of these warrants from liabilities to additional paid-in capital and we will cease to record any related fair value adjustments.

Income Tax Benefit

 

     Years Ended January 31,      Change  
          2014              2015          $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Income tax benefit

     —         $ 502         502         N/M

In May 2014, we acquired Talkatone, Inc., or Talkatone, a privately held voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) company that develops and markets a smart device application. We recorded a tax benefit of $0.5 million arising from the release of deferred tax valuation allowances subsequent to the acquisition of Talkatone. The release of the valuation allowances was triggered by the recognition of $0.5 million of long term net deferred tax liabilities that were primarily related to the acquired intangible assets and R&D credits recorded upon the acquisition of Talkatone.

 

75


Table of Contents

Comparison of Years Ended January 31, 2013 and 2014

Revenue

 

    

Year Ended January 31,

     Change  
     2013      2014      $      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 24,107       $ 35,377       $ 11,270         47

Product and other

     15,126         18,288         3,162         21
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total revenue

$ 39,233    $ 53,665    $ 14,432      37
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Our subscription and services revenue increased by $11.3 million, primarily due to growth in our subscriber base, including following the launch of Ooma Office in the second quarter of fiscal 2014. Our core users increased from approximately 354,000 as of January 31, 2013 to approximately 481,000 as of January 31, 2014. In addition to the increase in our core users, our average annual subscription and services revenue per core user increased from $78.09 in fiscal 2013 to $84.76 in fiscal 2014.

Our product and other revenue increased by $3.2 million due to increased sales of our on-premise appliances, end-point devices and porting fees to enable customers to transfer their existing phone numbers. During fiscal 2014, we had a 33% increase in the number of units sold, offset by a lower average price per unit sold during the period, as compared to fiscal 2013.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

      Year Ended January 31,     Change  
     2013     2014     $     %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Subscription and services

   $ 13,899      $ 15,894      $ 1,995        14

Product and other

     11,590        15,573        3,983        34
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total cost of revenue

$ 25,489    $ 31,467    $ 5,978      23
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross profit

$ 10,208    $ 19,483    $ 9,275      91

Product and other gross profit

  3,536      2,715      (821   (23 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total gross profit

$ 13,744    $ 22,198    $ 8,454      62
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Subscription and services gross margin

  42   55   13

Product and other gross margin

  23   15   (8 )% 

Total gross margin

  35   41   6

The increase in cost of subscription and services revenue of $2.0 million was primarily the result of an increase in telecommunications provider and other fees of $1.2 million, credit card processing fees of $0.5 million, and an increase in personnel and consulting costs of $0.3 million as we increased headcount to support our growth. The increase of $4.0 million in the cost of product and other revenue was primarily due to a $3.3 million increase in the product cost of our on-premise appliances due to the increase in units sold, as well as an increase in shipping costs of $0.2 million.

Total gross profit increased by $8.5 million in the year ended January 31, 2014 to $22.2 million from $13.7 million in the year ended January 31, 2013, primarily as a result of the increase in subscription and services revenue gross profit of $9.3 million, partially offset by a decline of $0.8 million in our product and other gross profit. Our total gross margin increased to 41% in fiscal 2014 as compared to 35% in fiscal 2013, primarily due to the increased percentage of our total revenue attributable to subscription and services, which had a gross margin of 55% during fiscal 2014, as compared to our product and other gross margin of 15%.

 

76


Table of Contents

Operating Expenses

 

     Year Ended January 31,      Change  
     2013      2014      $          %      
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Sales and marketing expenses

   $ 7,471       $ 13,192       $ 5,721         77

Research and development expenses

     7,023         7,888         865         12

General and administrative expenses

     2,508         2,573         65         3
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total operating expense

$ 17,002    $ 23,653    $ 6,651      39
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

The increase in sales and marketing expenses was $5.7 million, primarily due to an increase in advertising and marketing expense of $5.2 million, as we expanded customer and partner programs and lead generation activities, as well as an increase in personnel costs of $0.4 million as we increased sales headcount to support growth, partially offset by decrease of $0.3 million in trade show and marketing development expenses.

The $0.9 million increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to a $0.7 million increase in salary and related costs due to growth in the number of employees in research and development functions. Research and development expense also increased by $0.3 million for outside consulting costs related to support for our growing organization.

General and administrative expenses increased by $65,000 in fiscal 2014 compared to fiscal 2013, primarily due to an increase in professional services fees of $136,000, to supplement our legal, finance and human resources organizations to support our growth, offset by a decrease in stock-based compensation expense of $78,000.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Change  
     2013     2014     $           %       
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Income (expense), net

   $ (550   $ (269   $ 281         N/M

Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants

     153        (250     (403      N/M

Other expense, net

     (8     (26     (18      N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total other (expense), income net

$ (405 $ (545 $ (140   N/M
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

* Not meaningful

Interest expense is comprised primarily of interest expense associated with debt outstanding during the periods. The decrease of $0.3 million from fiscal 2013 to fiscal 2014 was due to additional interest expense incurred during fiscal 2013 as a result of the repayment of our outstanding debt and the final early termination payments due under our credit facility with MMV Finance Inc., which we replaced with a debt facility with Silicon Valley Bank in April 2012.

The change in fair value of the convertible preferred stock warrants of $0.4 million resulted from the difference in decrease in fair value of preferred warrants of $0.1 million in fiscal 2013 and increase in fair value of preferred warrants of $0.3 million in fiscal 2014. We will continue to record adjustments to the fair value of these warrants until they are exercised, converted in warrants to purchase shares of common stock or expire, at which time we will no longer remeasure the fair value of these warrants at each balance sheet date. However, at the closing of this offering, we will reclassify the then-current aggregate fair value of these warrants from liabilities to additional paid-in capital and we will cease to record any related fair value adjustments.

 

77


Table of Contents

Quarterly Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our unaudited consolidated statement of operations data for each of the nine quarters in the period ended April 30, 2015. The unaudited consolidated statement of operations data set forth below have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, that are necessary for the fair statement of such data. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. You should read this unaudited consolidated statement of operations data in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    Quarter Ended  
    April 30,
2013
    July 31,
2013
    Oct 31,
2013
    Jan 31,
2014
    April 30,
2014
    July 31,
2014
    Oct 31,
2014
    Jan 31,
2015
    April 30,
2015
 
    (in thousands)        

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:

  

 

Revenue:

                 

Subscription and services

  $ 7,731      $ 8,333      $ 9,205      $ 10,108      $ 10,886      $ 12,702      $ 14,316      $ 15,924      $ 15,576   

Product and other

    4,237        4,409        4,646        4,996        5,413        3,999        3,971        4,990        4,276   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  11,968      12,742      13,851      15,104      16,299      16,701      18,287      20,914      19,852   

Cost of revenue:

Subscription and services

  4,073      3,766      3,945      4,110      3,817      4,405      4,830      5,232      5,624   

Product and other

  3,268      3,727      3,862      4,716      4,775      3,770      4,065      5,830      4,207   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

  7,341      7,493      7,807      8,826      8,592      8,175      8,895      11,062      9,831   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

  4,627      5,249      6,044      6,278      7,707      8,526      9,392      9,852      10,021   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing

  2,112      3,058      3,738      4,284      3,730      5,830      5,958      6,758      5,895   

Research and development

  1,793      1,963      2,090      2,042      2,301      2,930      3,365      3,694      4,097   

General and administrative

  591      646      636      700      930      1,288      1,565      2,867      2,961   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  4,496      5,667      6,464      7,026      6,961      10,048      10,888      13,319      12,953   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

  131      (418   (420   (748   746      (1,522   (1,496   (3,467   (2,932

Interest (expense) income, net

  (76   (71   (65   (57   (53   (51   (61   (158   (285

Change in fair value of warrants

  2      2      (141   (113   (184   (31   (151   (429   (716

Other (expense) income

  (5   (8   (7   (6   (10   1      (11   (35   (2
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income tax benefit

  52      (495   (633   (924   499      (1,603   (1,719   (4,089   (3,935
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax benefit

  —       
—  
  
 
—  
  
 
—  
  
 
—  
  
  502     
—  
  
 
—  
  
  —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Income (loss)

$ 52    $ (495 $ (633 $ (924 $ 499    $ (1,101 $ (1,719 $ (4,089 $ (3,935
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

78


Table of Contents

The following table presents our unaudited consolidated statement of operations data for each of the nine quarters in the period ended April 30, 2015 as a percentage of our total revenue:

 

    April 30,
2013
    July 31,
2013
    Oct 31,
2013
    Jan 31,
2014
    April 30,
2014
    July 31,
2014
    Oct 31,
2014
    Jan 31,
2015
    April 30,
2015
 

Revenue

                 

Subscription and services

    65     65     66     67     67     76     78     76     78

Product and other

    35        35        34        33        33        24        22        24        22   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

  100      100      100      100      100      100      100      100      100   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

  61      59      56      58      53      49      48      53      49   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross margin

  39      41      44      42      47      51      52      47      51   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

Sales and marketing

  18      24      27      28      23      35      33      32      30   

Research and development

  15      15      15      14      14      18      18      18      21   

General and administrative

  5      5      5      5      6      8      9      14      15   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  38      44      47      47      43      61      60      64      66   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

  1      (3   (3   (5   4      (10   (8   (17   (15

Interest (expense) income, net

  —        —        —        —        —        —        —        (1   (1

Change in fair value of warrants

  —        —        (1   (1   (1   —        (1   (2   (4

Other (expense) income

  —        —        —        —        —        —        —        —        —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income tax benefit

  1      (3   (4   (6   3      (10   (9   (20   (20
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax benefit

  —        —        —        —        —        3   —        —        —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

  1   (3 )%    (4 )%    (6 )%    3   (7 )%    (9 )%    (20 )%    (20 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Quarterly Trends

Revenue

Our quarterly total revenue increased sequentially in all quarters presented except for the first quarter of fiscal 2016, as our core users continued to increase. Our total revenue decreased during the first quarter of fiscal 2016 because in February 2015, one of the three digital agencies we contract with lost a key business relationship, which led that digital agency to terminate its business relationship with us and the loss of such lead generation business revenue. Product revenue also decreased due to a decrease in sales of our product to one of our reseller partners. Our subscription and service revenue has grown quarter-over-quarter, primarily due to an increase in core users, which include home user accounts, office user extensions and standalone Business Promoter accounts. Additionally, compared to prior quarterly periods in fiscal 2014, our subscription and service revenue increased starting in the second quarter of fiscal 2015 due to our acquisition of Talkatone in May 2014. During the first and fourth quarters of fiscal 2015, we experienced an increase in purchases by one of our reseller partners, which is the primary driver for the increase in product revenue quarter-over-quarter. During the second and third quarters of fiscal 2015, we experienced a decrease in product revenue because we transitioned from an older to a newer version of Telo and also due to a decrease in purchases by one of our reseller partners, which resulted in a decrease in product revenue quarter-over-quarter. We believe that comparisons of our quarterly year-over-year product revenue are more meaningful than comparisons of our quarterly sequential product revenue due to factors such as seasonality and the timing of product purchases by our reseller partners. Except for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015, product revenue as a percentage of total revenue has declined, as continued growth in our subscriber base has the effect of increasing subscription and service revenue as a percentage of total revenue.

 

79


Table of Contents

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Our gross profit has increased quarter-over-quarter in absolute dollars and our gross margin has ranged from 39% to 52% during the periods presented. The fourth quarter of fiscal 2015 was impacted by an increase in period costs due to higher personnel costs and freight charges as well as due to sales of our product at lower margins to one of our reseller partners.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses are primarily driven by headcount and headcount-related expenses, including stock-based compensation expenses, and by sales and marketing initiatives. Quarterly operating expenses in absolute dollars generally increased sequentially for all the periods presented, except for the first quarters of fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2016, due to reduced tradeshow costs. The quarterly increase in operating expenses is primarily due to an increase in headcount and marketing and advertising expenses from our efforts to increase sales of our products and services.

Our sales and marketing expenses in absolute dollars continued to increase due to the increase in the advertising and tradeshow related expenses. We experienced some seasonality in the sales and marketing costs, which is dependent on the timing of the tradeshows in which we participate.

Our research and development expenses in absolute dollars increased consistently quarter-over-quarter, except for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014, which remained relatively flat. The quarterly increases were due to an increase in headcount and consultant-related expenses. We experienced a significant increase in the expenses starting the second quarter of fiscal 2015 due to our acquisition of Talkatone in May 2014.

Our general and administrative expenses in absolute dollars have increased primarily due to an increase in headcount and an increase in professional services incurred in connection with our growth.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash generated from operations, private placements of our convertible preferred stock, and to a lesser extent from borrowings under credit facilities. As of April 30, 2015, we had cash and cash equivalents of $13.6 million. In April 2015, we raised $5.0 million in proceeds, net of issuance costs, from the sale of 482,946 shares of our Series Beta preferred stock. The proceeds from the sale of our Series Beta preferred stock are expected to be used for working capital. Our principal use of cash is to fund our operations to support our growth.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and funds available for borrowing under our credit facilities will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our growth rate, our needs for increased data center capacity to support our expanding customer base, the timing and extent of our sales and marketing and research and development expenditures, and the continuing market acceptance of our solutions. In the event that we need to borrow funds or issue additional equity, we cannot assure you that any such additional financing will be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when we need it, it would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Silicon Valley Bank Credit Agreements

In April 2012, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, as lender, comprised of a $4.0 million senior secured term loan facility. This original loan agreement was amended and restated in December 2012, and further amended in July 2014 and January 2015, such that the credit facility with SVB was expanded to an aggregate principal amount of $16.0 million comprised of (i) a $4.0 million senior secured term loan facility, and (ii) a $12.0 million senior secured revolving facility. The senior term facility has a

 

80


Table of Contents

floating per annum interest rate that is 2.50% above the prime rate and such interest is payable monthly. The senior revolving facility has a floating per annum interest rate that is 2.75% above the prime rate and is also payable monthly. The outstanding principal under the senior term facility is being amortized through monthly repayments and is to be repaid in full by September 2015. The senior revolving facility matures in full in July 2016. As of April 30, 2015, the outstanding principal balance under the senior term facility and the senior revolving facility was $0.6 million and $5.0 million, respectively. As of April 30, 2015, we had borrowing capacity of $7.0 million available on our senior revolving facility.

In January 2015, we entered into a Mezzanine Loan and Security Agreement, or mezzanine facility, which is comprised of (i) a $5.0 million conditional subordinated secured term loan facility, and (ii) an additional conditional subordinated secured loan facility of up to an aggregate of $5.0 million to be drawn down in $1.0 million increments. The mezzanine facility currently matures in full in January 2018, but the maturity will be extended to 30 months after the final draw on the conditional term facility (if such date is after January 2018), which is not to be later than July 2018. The interest rate on advances under the mezzanine facility is 11% per annum and is to be paid monthly. As of April 30, 2015, the outstanding principal balance under the mezzanine facility was $5.0 million and we had an additional $5.0 million of borrowing capacity available for draw downs.

Our credit agreements with SVB contain customary negative covenants that limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, make investments, repurchase stock, pay dividends, transfer assets and merge or consolidate. The SVB facilities are secured by substantially all of our assets, though certain intellectual property collateral may be released if an initial public offering has occurred and no event of default under the SVB credit agreements exists. The SVB credit agreements also contain affirmative covenants, including requirements to, among other things, maintain a minimum number of subscribers, maintain minimum cash balances tied to the maximum commitment amounts outstanding under the SVB credit agreements following any initial public offering, and deliver audited financial statements. We were in compliance with the debt covenants as of April 30, 2015.

Historical Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows:

 

     Year Ended January 31,     Three months Ended
April 30,
 
     2013         2014             2015             2014             2015      
    

(In thousands)

 

Consolidated cash flow data:

          

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities

   $ (323   $ 2,222      $ (4,067   $ (79   $ 1,371   

Net cash used in investing activities

     (696     (898     (1,858     (237     (408

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

     959        (1,264     8,694        (249     3,539   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

$ (60 $ 60    $ 2,769    $ (565 $ 4,502   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating Activities

We have historically used cash in operating activities due to our net losses, offset by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, particularly from accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, adjusted for non-cash expense items such as depreciation and amortization, and stock-based compensation expense.

For the three months ended April 30, 2015, our operating activities provided cash of $1.4 million. The cash provided by operating activities primarily resulted from an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses of $2.5 million, a decrease in accounts receivable of $1.9 million, a decrease in inventory and deferred cost of sales

 

81


Table of Contents

of $1.1 million, and non-cash items totaling $1.8 million including $0.5 million of stock-based compensation, $0.4 million of depreciation and amortization and $0.7 million due to change in the value of preferred stock warrant liability. The cash provided was partially offset by a decrease in deferred revenue of $2.1 million and our net loss of $3.9 million.

For the three months ended April 30, 2014, we used approximately $0.1 million of cash in operating activities. The cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from increases in accounts receivable of $1.5 million and $0.6 million of prepaid expenses and other assets, offset by an increase of $0.7 million in accounts payable and accrued expenses and an increase in deferred revenue of $0.2 million. The cash used in operating activities was also offset in part due to net income of $0.5 million and non-cash items such as depreciation and amortization of $0.2 million and change in fair value of warrant liability of $0.2 million.

In fiscal 2015, we used approximately $4.1 million of cash in operating activities. The cash used in operating activities primarily resulted from a net loss of $6.4 million, increased by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, including an increase in inventory of $3.2 million, and increase in accounts receivable of $2.1 million, offset by increase of $4.0 million in deferred revenue and $1.4 million in accounts payable and accrued expenses and long-term liabilities. The cash used in operating activities was reduced in part by non-cash items including $1.2 million in depreciation and amortization expense and $0.4 million in stock-based compensation expense. The increases in net loss, accounts receivable, inventory and depreciation and amortization expense reflect the additional investments necessary to support the growing requirements of our sales and marketing, research and development, data center, and customer support operations functions.

In fiscal 2014, operating activities provided $2.2 million in cash. This cash resulted primarily from a net loss of $2.0 million, offset by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, including an increase in our inventory of $1.0 million and an increase in our accounts receivable of $0.6 million, offset by an increase in our accounts payable and accrued expenses of $2.9 million and deferred revenue of $1.9 million. The cash used in operating activities was offset in part by non-cash items such as depreciation and amortization of $0.9 million and stock-based compensation of $0.1 million. The increases in net loss, accounts receivable, inventory and depreciation and amortization expense reflect the additional investments necessary to support the growing requirements of our sales and marketing, research and development, data center, and customer support operations functions.

For fiscal 2013, cash used in operating activities was approximately $0.3 million. The cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from a net loss of $3.7 million offset by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, including an increase in inventory of $1.6 million, offset by a decrease in our accounts receivable of $1.2 million and an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses of $2.4 million and an increase in deferred revenue of $0.3 million. the cash used in operating activities was also offset in part by non-cash items such as deprecation and amortization of $0.8 million and stock-based compensation of $0.2 million.

Investing Activities

Our investing activities include business acquisitions and capital expenditures for property and equipment purchases. Our capital expenditures have primarily been for general business purposes, including leasehold improvements as we have expanded our office space to accommodate our growth in headcount, computer equipment used internally, and expansion of our network operations centers.

For the three months ended April 30, 2015, we used $0.4 million in investing activities primarily for the purchase of property and equipment.

For the three months ended April 30, 2014, we used $0.2 million for the purchase of property and equipment.

In fiscal 2015, we used approximately $1.9 million of cash in investing activities, including $1.2 million for the purchase of property and equipment and $0.7 million in connection with a business acquisition.

 

82


Table of Contents

For fiscal 2013 and fiscal 2014, we used approximately $0.7 million and $0.9 million in investing activities, primarily for the purchase of property and equipment.

Financing Activities

Cash generated by financing activities includes proceeds from borrowings under our credit facilities, proceeds from our issuance of common stock following employee stock option exercises and issuance of preferred stock. Cash used in financing activities includes repayment of debt under our credit facility and payment of acquisition related earn-out.

For the three months ended April 30, 2015, we generated $3.5 million from financing activities primarily from the issuance of Series Beta preferred stock of $5.0 million, net of issuance costs, offset by $0.5 million in repayment of debt and capital leases, $0.5 million payment of acquisition-related earn-out and payment of $0.5 million in deferred offering costs.

For the three months ended April 30, 2014, we used $0.2 million in financing activities primarily due to the repayment of $0.3 million of debt offset by proceeds of $0.1 million from the exercise of preferred stock warrants.

During fiscal 2015, we had net proceeds of $8.7 million from financing activities, primarily due to $9.9 million from borrowings under our credit facility and $0.3 million from our issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock option exercises, offset by $1.5 million in repayment of debt and capital leases, and payment of $0.1 million in deferred offering costs.

During fiscal 2014, we used approximately $1.3 million of cash in financing activities, primarily due to our repayment of outstanding debt.

During fiscal 2013, we generated approximately $1.0 million of cash from financing activities, primarily due to new borrowings of $4.0 million under a new credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank that we entered into in April 2012, offset by our repayment of $3.1 million of outstanding debt.

Contractual Obligations

Set forth below is information concerning our contractual commitments and obligations as of January 31, 2015:

 

     Total      Less Than
1 Year
     1-3 Years      3-5 Years      More Than
5 Years
 
     (In thousands)  

Debt obligations

   $ 12,356       $ 1,724       $ 10,632       $ —         $ —     

Operating lease obligations

   $ 4,177         1,490         2,687         —           —     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

$ 16,533    $ 3,214    $ 13,319    $ —      $ —     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The contractual commitment amounts in the table above are associated with enforceable and legally binding agreements. Obligations under contracts that we can cancel without a significant penalty are not included in the table above.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, including entities such as structured finance or special purpose entities that were established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.

 

83


Table of Contents

Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Prior to this offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in connection with our financial statement close process for fiscal 2013, fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, we identified a material weakness in the design and operating effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the standards established by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The material weakness we identified resulted from a lack of sufficient number of qualified personnel within our accounting function who possessed an appropriate level of expertise to effectively perform the following functions:

 

    identify, select and apply GAAP sufficiently to provide reasonable assurance that transactions were being appropriately recorded; and

 

    assess risk and design appropriate control activities over information technology systems and financial and reporting processes necessary to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements.

We have taken a number of steps to remediate this material weakness and have hired a number of individuals, including additional certified public accountants, with appropriate knowledge and capacity to fulfill our obligations to comply with the accounting and reporting requirements applicable to public companies. These key hires include a new chief financial officer, a general counsel, a vice president worldwide controller, a director of SEC and SOX and a director of accounting.

In addition, we also hired a number of other accounting personnel to help strengthen our finance organization. We reorganized the roles and responsibilities within our accounting and finance team.

The additional resources added to the finance function (i) allow separate preparation and review of reconciliations and other account analysis and (ii) enable us to develop a more structured close process, including enhancing our existing policies and procedures, to improve the completeness, timeliness and accuracy of our financial reporting.

While we believe our efforts will be successful, we cannot assure you that our remediation efforts will be sufficient to remediate the identified deficiencies and prevent further internal control deficiencies

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, cash flows and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Our future consolidated financial statements will be affected to the extent that our actual results materially differ from these estimates. Our most critical accounting policies are summarized below. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for a description of our other significant accounting policies.

Revenue Recognition

We derive revenue from two sources: (1) subscription and services revenue, which is generated from the sale of subscription plans and other services; and (2) product and other revenue. Products and services are sold directly to end-customers via our website and through distributors and retailers.

 

84


Table of Contents

We recognize revenue when the following criteria are met:

 

    Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists.