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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
10-K
 
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2023
or
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from
     
to
     
Commission File Number
001-34791
 
 
 
Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
83-0406195
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
c/o Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd.
15F, 76 Jikji-daero 436beon-gil
,
Heungdeok-gu
Cheongju-si,
Chungcheongbuk-do,
Republic of Korea
28581
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +
82
(2) 6903-3000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
MX
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐  Yes ☒  
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐  Yes ☒  
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒  
Yes
 ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files. ☒  
Yes
 ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large Accelerated Filer
     Accelerated Filer  
Non-Accelerated
Filer
     Smaller Reporting Company  
     Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. 
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to
§240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Act). ☐  Yes 
 No
State the aggregate market value of the voting and
non-voting
common equity held by
non-affiliates
computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. $
439,134,938
.
As of February 29, 2024, the
registrant had
38,260,814
 shares of common stock outstanding.
 
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders will be incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on
Form 10-K
or included by amendment to this report within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.

Table of Contents
MAGNACHIP SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORM
10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
    
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Table of Contents
PART I
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA
We have made statements in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2023 (this “Report”) regarding our industry and our position in the industry based on our experience in the industry and our own views of market conditions, but we have not independently verified those statements. We do not have any obligation to announce or otherwise make publicly available updates or revisions to forecasts contained in these documents.
Statements made in this Report, unless the context otherwise requires, include the use of the terms “us,” “we,” “our,” the “Company” and “Magnachip” to refer to Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. The term “Korea” refers to the Republic of Korea or South Korea. On September 1, 2020, we completed the sale of our Foundry Services Group business and our fabrication facility located in Cheongju, Korea to SK keyfoundry Inc. Unless otherwise noted herein, historical operational metrics presented herein do not include those of the Foundry Services Group.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We have made certain “forward-looking” statements in this Report within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements give our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. You can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements may include words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe” and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of the timing or nature of future operating or financial performance or other events. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this Report that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements.
These forward-looking statements are largely based on our expectations and beliefs concerning future events, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management. These estimates and assumptions reflect our best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Although we believe our estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control. In addition, management’s assumptions about future events may prove to be inaccurate. Management cautions all readers that the forward-looking statements contained in this Report are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that those statements will be realized or the forward-looking events and circumstances will occur. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements due to the factors listed in the “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business” sections and elsewhere in this Report.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Report. We do not intend to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information or future events or otherwise, except as required by law. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.
 
 
“Magnachip” is a registered trademark of us and our subsidiaries and “Magnachip Everywhere” is our registered trademark and service mark. All other product, service and company names mentioned in this Report are the service marks or trademarks of their respective owners.
 
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Item 1. Business
General
We are a designer and manufacturer of analog and mixed-signal semiconductor platform solutions for communication, Internet of Things (“IoT”), consumer, computing, industrial and automotive applications. We have a proven record with more than 40 years of operating history, a portfolio of approximately 1,100 registered patents and pending applications and extensive engineering and manufacturing process expertise. Our standard products business includes our Display Solutions and Power Solutions business lines. Our Display Solutions products provide panel display solutions to major suppliers of large and small rigid and flexible panel displays, and a wide range of applications including smartphones, TVs, automotive and IT applications such as monitors, notebook PCs, tablet PCs as well as AR/VRs. Our Power Solutions products include discrete and integrated circuit solutions for power management in communication, consumer, computing, servers, automotive, and industrial applications.
The wide variety of our analog and mixed-signal semiconductor products allows us to address multiple high-growth end markets and rapidly develop and introduce new products in response to market demands. Our design center and substantial manufacturing operations in Korea place us at the core of the global electronics device supply chain. We believe this enables us to quickly and efficiently respond to our customers’ needs, and allows us to better serve and capture additional demand from existing and new customers. Certain of our organic light emitting diodes (“OLEDs”) products are produced using external foundries. Through a strategic cooperation with external foundries, we strive to outsource wafers at competitive prices and produce quality products.
We have a long history of supplying and collaborating on product and technology development with leading innovators in the consumer electronics market. As a result, we have been able to strengthen our technology and develop products that are in high demand by our customers and end consumers. We sold approximately 400 distinct products in the year ended December 31, 2023 with a substantial portion of our revenues derived from a concentrated number of customers.
Our business is largely driven by innovation in the consumer electronics markets and the growing adoption by consumers of worldwide of electronic devices for use in their daily lives. The consumer electronics market is large and growing rapidly, largely due to consumers increasingly accessing a wide variety of rich media content, such as high definition audio and video, mobile devices, televisions and games on advanced consumer electronic devices. Electronics manufacturers are continuously implementing advanced technologies in new generations of electronic devices using analog and mixed-signal semiconductor components, such as display drivers that enable display of high resolution images, encoding and decoding devices that allow playback of high definition audio and video, and power semiconductors that increase power efficiency, thereby improving heat dissipation and extending battery life.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated total revenues of $230.1 million, net loss of $36.6 million, operating loss of $57.6 million, Adjusted EBITDA of negative $24.2 million, Adjusted Operating Loss of $41.2 million and Adjusted Net Loss of $22.5 million. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” elsewhere in this Report for an explanation of our use of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) and Adjusted Net Income (Loss) and a reconciliation to net loss and operating loss prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”).
Our History
Our business was named “MagnaChip Semiconductor” when it was acquired from SK hynix Inc., formerly known as Hynix Semiconductor, Inc. (“SK hynix”), in October 2004.
On March 10, 2011, we completed our initial public offering. In connection with our initial public offering, we converted from a Delaware limited liability company to a Delaware corporation.
 
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On December 30, 2020, we changed our name from “MagnaChip Semiconductor Corporation” to “Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation.”
On May 30, 2023, we announced a plan to separate our standard products business, consisting of Display Solutions and Power Solutions business lines, into two different entities to better align our product strategies by enabling each entity to allocate its resources more effectively to the specific needs of its customers, as well as to enhance transparency, accountability and flexibility in business (the “Internal Separation”). To effectuate the Internal Separation, we reorganized our standard products business into two distinct businesses: (i) our Display IC and Power IC businesses, which are fabless businesses, were grouped together to form the Mixed-Signal Solutions (“MSS”) business, and (ii) our Power Discrete business, which is an integrated device manufacturing (“IDM”) business, became the Power Analog Solutions (“PAS”) business. On January 10, 2024, we completed the Internal Separation by forming a new Korean limited liability company named “Magnachip Mixed-Signal, Ltd.” and transferring the MSS business into such subsidiary. Following the Internal Separation, our MSS business is primarily operated by Magnachip Mixed-Signal, Ltd., and our PAS business is primarily operated by Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd., our already-existing Korean operating company. Both companies are indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company.
Legacy Foundry Services Group Business
On September 1, 2020, we completed the sale of our Foundry Services Group business and our fabrication facility located in Cheongju, Korea (known as “Fab 4”) to SK keyfoundry Inc. This sale was part of a strategic shift in our operational focus to our standard products business. The Foundry Services Group business provided specialty analog and mixed-signal foundry services mainly for fabless and Integrated Device Manufacturer semiconductor companies.
Our Products
Our Display Solutions line of products provide flat panel display solutions to major suppliers of large and small flat panel displays. These products include source and gate drivers and timing controllers that cover a wide range of flat panel displays used in mobile communications, automobiles, entertainment devices, notebook PCs, monitors and liquid crystal display (“LCD”), OLEDs and micro light emitting diode (“Micro LED”) televisions. Our Display Solutions products support the industry’s most advanced display technologies, such as OLEDs, and low temperature polysilicon thin film transistor (“LTPS TFT”), as well as high-volume display technologies such as amorphous silicon thin film transistors
(a-Si
TFTs). Since 2007, we have designed and manufactured OLED display driver integrated circuit (“IC”) products. Our current portfolio of OLED solutions address a wide range of resolutions ranging from HD (High Definition) to WQHD (Wide Quadruple High Definition) for wide range of applications including smartphones, TVs, automotive applications and IT applications such as monitors, notebook PCs, tablet PCs as well as AR/VRs. Our Display Solutions products represented 14.0%, 21.2% and 43.3% of our total revenues for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We expanded our business and market opportunity by establishing our Power Solutions product line in late 2007. We have introduced a number of power management semiconductor products, including discrete and integrated circuit solutions for power management in high-volume consumer applications. These products include metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (“MOSFETs”), insulated-gate bipolar transistors (“IGBTs”),
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters, LED drivers, regulators and power management integrated circuits (“PMICs”) for a range of devices, including televisions, smartphones, mobile phones, wearable devices, desktop PCs, notebooks, tablet PCs, other consumer electronics, automotive, and industrial applications such as power suppliers,
e-bikes,
photovoltaic inverters, LED lighting and motor drives. Our Power Solutions products represented 71.1%, 68.3% and 48.0% of our total revenues for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
 
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Market Opportunity
The semiconductor market is large and is expanding its applications. Growth in this market is being driven by consumers seeking to enjoy a wide variety of rich media content, such as high definition audio and video, mobile devices, televisions and games. Recently, industrial applications such as power suppliers,
e-bikes,
photovoltaic inverters, LED lighting, motor drives, and automotive applications such as on board chargers, electric motor drives, electric pumps,
DC-DC
converters and powertrain inverters in hybrid & battery electric vehicle (HEV & BEV) are also driving growth in the semiconductor market. Electronics device manufacturers recognize that the consumer entertainment experience plays a critical role in differentiating their products. To address and further stimulate consumer demand, electronics manufacturers have been driving rapid advances in the technology, functionality, form factor, cost, quality, reliability and power consumption of their products. Electronics manufacturers are continuously implementing advanced technologies in new generations of electronic devices using analog and mixed-signal semiconductor components, such as display drivers that enable display of high resolution images, encoding and decoding devices that allow playback of high definition audio and video, and power semiconductors that increase power efficiency, thereby improving heat dissipation and extending battery life. These advanced generations of consumer devices are growing faster than the overall electronics device market.
The user experience delivered by a consumer electronic device is substantially driven by the quality of the display, audio and video processing capabilities and power efficiency of the device. Analog and mixed-signal semiconductors enable and enhance these capabilities. Examples of these analog and mixed-signal semiconductors include display drivers, timing controllers, audio encoding and decoding devices, or codecs, and interface circuits, as well as power semiconductors such as voltage regulators, converters and switches.
Requirements of Leading Electronic Devices Manufacturers
We believe our target customers view the following characteristics and capabilities as key differentiating factors among available analog and mixed-signal semiconductor suppliers:
 
 
Broad Offering of Differentiated Products with Advanced System-Level Features and Functions.
Leading electronic devices manufacturers seek to differentiate their products by incorporating innovative semiconductor products that enable unique system-level functionality and enhance performance. These consumer electronics manufacturers seek to closely collaborate with semiconductor solutions providers that continuously develop new and advanced products, and technologies that enable state of the art features and functions, such as bright and thin displays, small form factor and energy efficiency.
 
 
Fast
Time-to-Market
with New Products.
As a result of rapid technological advancements and short product lifecycles, our target customers typically prefer suppliers who have a compelling pipeline of new products and capacity to leverage a substantial intellectual property and technology base to accelerate product design and manufacturing when needed.
 
 
Ability to Deliver Cost Competitive Solutions.
Electronics manufacturers are under constant pressure to deliver cost-competitive solutions. To accomplish this objective, they need strategic semiconductor suppliers that have the ability to provide system-level solutions, highly integrated products and a broad product offering at a range of price points and have the design and manufacturing infrastructure and logistical support to deliver cost competitive products.
 
 
Focus on Delivering Highly Energy-Efficient Products.
Consumers increasingly seek longer
run-time,
environmentally friendly and energy-efficient consumer electronic products. In addition, there is an increasing regulatory focus on reducing energy consumption of consumer electronic products. As a result of a global focus on more environmentally friendly products, our customers are seeking analog and mixed-signal semiconductor suppliers that have the technological expertise to deliver solutions that satisfy these ever increasing regulatory and consumer power efficiency demands.
 
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Our Competitive Strengths
Designing and manufacturing analog and mixed-signal semiconductors capable of meeting the evolving functionality requirements for electronics devices are challenging. In order to grow and succeed in the industry, we believe semiconductor suppliers must have a broad, advanced intellectual property portfolio, product design expertise, comprehensive product offerings and specialized manufacturing process technologies and capabilities. Our competitive strengths enable us to offer our customers solutions to solve their key challenges. We believe our strengths include:
 
 
Advanced Analog and Mixed-Signal Semiconductor Technology.
Our long operating history, large patent portfolio, extensive engineering and manufacturing process expertise and analog and mixed-signal intellectual property allow us to leverage our technology and develop new products across multiple end markets. Our product development efforts are supported by a team of over 220 engineers as of the date of this Annual Report. Our platform allows us to develop and introduce new products quickly and integrate numerous functions into a single product. For example, we were one of the first companies to introduce a commercial OLED display driver for mobile phones.
 
 
Established Relationships and Close Collaboration with Leading Global Electronics Companies.
We have a long history of supplying and collaborating on product and technology development with leading innovators in the consumer electronics market. Our close customer relationships have been built based on many years of close collaborative product development, which provides us with deep system-level knowledge and key insights into our customers’ needs. As a result, we are able to continuously strengthen our technology in areas of strategic interest for our customers and focus on those products that our customers and end consumers demand the most.
 
 
Longstanding Presence in Asia and Proximity to Global Electronics Devices Supply Chain.
Our presence in Asia facilitates close contact with our customers and fast response to their needs, and enhances our visibility into new product opportunities, markets and technology trends. Our design center and substantial manufacturing operations in Korea place us close to many of our largest customers and to the core of the global electronics devices supply chain. We have active applications, engineering, product design and customer support resources, as well as senior management and marketing resources, in geographic locations close to our customers. This allows us to strengthen our relationship with customers through better service, faster turnaround time and improved product design collaboration. We believe this also helps our customers to deliver products faster than their competitors and to solve problems more efficiently than would be possible with other suppliers.
 
 
Broad Portfolio of Product Offerings Targeting Large, High-Growth Markets.
We continue to develop a wide variety of analog and mixed-signal semiconductor solutions for multiple high-growth electronics device end markets. We believe our expanding product offerings allow us to provide additional products to new and existing customers and to cross-sell our products to our established customers. For example, we have leveraged our technology expertise and customer relationships to develop and grow power management solutions to customers. Our power management solutions enable our customers to increase system stability and improve heat dissipation and energy use, resulting in improved system efficiency and system cost savings for our customers, as well as environmental benefits. We have been able to sell these new products to our existing customers as well as expand our customer base.
 
 
Highly Efficient Manufacturing Capabilities.
Our manufacturing strategy is focused on optimizing our asset utilization across our display driver and power management products, which enables us to maintain the price competitiveness of our products through our
low-cost
operating structure and improve our operational efficiency. We believe the location of our primary manufacturing and research and development facilities in Asia and the relatively low need for ongoing capital expenditures provide us with a number of cost advantages. Since 2007, we design and manufacture OLED display driver ICs in our internal manufacturing facilities. As we expanded our design capabilities to products that require lower geometries unavailable at our existing manufacturing facilities, we began outsourcing manufacturing of certain OLED display driver ICs to external
12-inch
foundries starting in the second half of 2015 and we started outsourcing
8-inch
wafer
 
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for OLED TV ICs after the sale of our fabrication facility located in Cheongju, Korea in 2020. This additional source of manufacturing is an increasingly important part of our supply chain management. By outsourcing manufacturing of OLED products to external foundries, we are able to adapt dynamically to changing customer requirements and address growing markets without substantial capital investments by us.
Our Strategy
Our objective is to grow our business, cash flow and profitability and to continue strengthening our position in the semiconductor industry as a leading provider of analog and mixed-signal semiconductor products for high-volume markets. Our business strategy emphasizes the following key elements:
 
 
Increase Business with Existing Customers.
We have a global customer base consisting of leading consumer electronics original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) that sell to multiple end markets. We intend to continue to strengthen our relationships with our customers by collaborating on critical design and product development in order to improve our
design-win
rates. We seek to increase our customer penetration by more closely aligning our product roadmap with those of our key customers and take advantage of our broad product portfolio, our deep knowledge of customer needs and existing relationships to sell more existing and new products.
 
 
Broaden Our Customer Base.
We expect to continue to expand our global customer base, particularly in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, and other high-growth geographies, to penetrate new accounts. In addition, we intend to introduce new products and variations of existing products to address a broader customer base. In order to broaden our market penetration, we are complementing our direct customer relationships and sales with an improved base of distributors, with a particular focus on the growth of our power management business.
 
 
Drive Execution Excellence.
 We intend to improve our execution through a number of management initiatives, new processes for product development, customer service and personnel development. We expect these ongoing initiatives will contribute to improvement of our new product development and customer service as well as enhance our commitment to a culture of quick action and execution by our workforce. In addition, we have focused on improving our manufacturing efficiency during the past several years.
 
 
Return on Capital Investments and Cash Flow Generation.
We manufacture most of our Display Solutions products at external foundries. Through strategic cooperation with external foundries, we are able to adapt dynamically to changing customer requirements and address growing markets without substantial capital investments. We manufacture our Power Solutions products by utilizing our
in-house
manufacturing facility and external foundry to address a broad portfolio of power products while we seek to maximize return on capital investments and our cash flow generation. We intend to keep our capital expenditures relatively low by maintaining our focus on specialty process technologies that do not require substantial investment in frequent upgrades to the latest manufacturing equipment. However, from time to time, we make special investments to enhance our manufacturing capabilities by investing in new equipment and expanding our facility, which we expect will have a positive impact on our future new product development and revenue, particularly during the period of global shortage of capacity.
Our Technology
We continuously strengthen our advanced analog and mixed-signal semiconductor technology platform by developing innovative technologies and integrated circuit building blocks that enhance the functionality of electronics devices through brighter, thinner displays, enhanced image quality, smaller form factor and longer battery life. Our goal is to leverage our experience and development initiatives across multiple end markets and utilize our understanding of system-level issues our customers face to introduce new technologies that enable our customers to develop more advanced, higher performance products.
Our display technology portfolio includes building blocks for display drivers and timing controllers, processor and interface technologies, as well as sophisticated production techniques, such as
chip-on-glass
 
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(COG),
chip-on-film
(COF) and
chip-on-plastic
(COP) for rigid and flexible OLED displays. Our advanced display drivers incorporate Oxide,
Low-Temperature
Poly Silicon (LTPS),
Low-Temperature
Polycrystalline Oxide (LTPO) OLED panel technologies that enable the highest resolution displays. Furthermore, we are developing a broad intellectual property portfolio to improve the quality and the power efficiency of displays, including the development of our high speed interface, high quality image enhancement display data compression and optical compensation technology for OLED displays.
Expertise in ultra-high voltage (UHV), high voltage and deep trench BCDMOS process technologies, low power analog and mixed-signal design capabilities and packaging
know-how
are key requirements in the power management market. We are currently leveraging our capabilities in these areas with products such as
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters, LED drivers, regulators, PMICs, power MOSFETs and IGBTs. We believe our system-level understanding of applications such as LCD televisions, smartphones, computing, and servers, automotive, and industrial applications will allow us to more quickly develop and customize power management solutions for our customers in these markets.
Products by Business Line
Our broad portfolio of products addresses multiple high-growth, consumer-focused end markets. A key component of our product strategy is to supply multiple related product offerings to each of the end markets that we serve.
Display Solutions
Display Driver Characteristics.
Display drivers deliver defined analog voltages and currents that activate pixels to exhibit images on displays. The following key characteristics determine display driver performance and
end-market
application:
 
 
Resolution and Number of Channels.
Resolution determines the level of detail displayed within an image and is defined by the number of pixels per line multiplied by the number of lines on a display. For large displays, higher resolution typically requires more display drivers for each panel. Display drivers that have a greater number of channels, however, generally require fewer display drivers for each panel and command a higher selling price per unit. Mobile displays, conversely, are typically single chip solutions designed to deliver a specific resolution. We cover resolutions ranging from VGA (640 x 480) to UHD (3840 x 2160).
 
 
Color Depth.
Color depth is the number of colors that can be displayed on a panel. For example, for
TFT-LCD
panels, 262 thousand colors are supported by
6-bit
source drivers; 16 million colors are supported by
8-bit
source drivers; and 1 billion colors are supported by
10-bit
source drivers.
 
 
Operational Voltage.
Display drivers are characterized by input and output voltages. Source drivers typically operate at input voltages from 1.62 to 3.6 volts and output voltages between 9 and 18 volts. Gate drivers typically operate at input voltages from 1.62 to 3.6 volts and output voltages from 30 to 45 volts. Lower input voltage results in lower power consumption and electromagnetic interference (EMI).
 
 
Gamma Curve.
The relationship between the light passing through a pixel and the voltage applied to the pixel by the source driver is referred to as the gamma curve. The gamma curve of the source driver can correct some imperfections in picture quality in a process generally known as gamma correction. Some advanced display drivers feature up to three independent gamma curves to facilitate this correction.
 
 
Driver Interface.
Driver interface refers to the connection between the timing controller and the display drivers. Display drivers increasingly require higher bandwidth interface technology to address the larger data transfer rate necessary for higher definition images. The principal types of interface technologies are embedded clock point to point interface (EPI),
mini-low
voltage differential signaling
(m-LVDS),
unified standard interface (USI) and mobile industry processor interface (“MIPI”).
 
 
Package Type.
The assembly of display drivers typically uses COF, COG and COP package types.
 
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Large Display Solutions.
We provide display solutions for a wide range of flat panel display sizes used in LCD TVs, OLED TVs, Micro LED TVs as well as IT applications such as monitors, notebook PCs, tablet PCs, automobiles and public information displays.
Our large display solutions include source and gate drivers and timing controllers with a variety of interfaces, voltages, frequencies and packages to meet customers’ needs. These products include advanced technologies such as high channel count, with products in mass production to provide up to 1,542 channels. Our large display solutions are designed to allow customers to cost-effectively meet the increasing demand for high resolution displays. We have focused extensively on reducing the die size of our large display drivers and other solutions products to reduce costs without having to migrate to smaller geometries. For example, we have implemented several solutions to reduce die size in large display drivers, such as optimizing design schemes and design rules and applying specific technologies that we have developed internally.
The table below sets forth the features of our products, both in mass production and in customer qualification, which is the final stage of product development, for
large-sized
displays:
 
Product
 
Key Features
 
Applications
TFT-LCD
Source Drivers
 
•  480 to 1,542 output channels
•  6-bit
(262 thousand colors),
8-bit
(16 million colors),
10-bit
(1 billion colors)
•  Output voltage ranging from 9V to 18V
•  Low power consumption and low EMI
•  COF package types
•  EPI,
m-LVDS,
USI interface technologies
 
•  LCD/LED TVs
•  Notebooks
•  LCD/LED monitors
•  Automotive
TFT-LCD
Gate Drivers
 
•  272 to 960 output channels
•  Output voltage ranging from 30V to 45V
•  COF and COG package types
 
•  Tablet PCs
•  LCD/LED TVs
•  Notebooks
•  Automotive
Timing Controllers
 
•  Wide range of resolutions
•  EPI,
m-LVDS,
MIPI,
USI-T
interface technologies
•  Input voltage ranging from 1.6V to 3.6V
 
•  Tablet PCs
•  Public information display
OLED Source Drivers
 
•  960 output channels
•  10 bit (1 billion colors)
•  Output voltage: 18V
•  COF package type
•  EPI interface technology
 
•  OLED TVs
Micro LED Drivers
 
•  480 to 552 output channels (3 Mux)
•  10 bit (1 billion colors)
•  Output voltage: max 18V
•  COF package type
•  USI interface technology
 
•  Micro LED TVs
 
Mobile Display Solutions.
Our mobile display solutions incorporate the industry’s most advanced display technologies, such as OLED and LTPS, as well as high-volume technologies such as
a-Si
TFT. Our mobile
 
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display products offer specialized capabilities, including high speed serial interfaces, such as mobile display digital interface (“MDDI”), MIPI, reduced swing differential signaling interface (RSDS) and logic-based OTP memory. We focus extensively on reducing the die size of our mobile display drivers and other solutions products to reduce costs. For example, we have implemented several solutions to reduce die size in mobile display drivers, such as optimizing design schemes and design rules and applying specific technologies that we have developed internally. Further, we are building a distinctive intellectual property portfolio that allows us to provide features that reduce power consumption, such as CABC and ACL. This intellectual property portfolio will also support our power management product development initiatives, as we leverage our system level understanding of power efficiency. Our OLED driver ICs can support various configurations such as high resolution from FHD+(2,880x1,284) to QHD+(3,360x1,440), wide aspect ratio from 16:9 to 21:9 and rigid and flexible OLED displays. In the transition to, and adoption of, 5G, fast responses and high frame rates such as 90Hz, 120Hz and 144Hz are becoming essential product offerings. To meet this new and evolving demand, we have developed and mass produced our OLED display driver IC, which supports 90Hz/120Hz/144Hz high frame rates.
The following table summarizes the features of our products, both in mass production and in customer qualification, which is the final stage of product development, for mobile displays:
 
Product
  
Key Features
  
Applications
OLED
  
•  Resolutions of HD720, WXGA, FHD, FHD+, QHD and QHD+
•  Aspect ratio from 16:9 to 21:9
•  Color depth of 1 billion
•  MIPI, eRVDS interface
•  Logic-based OTP
•  Image enhancement IP
•  Display data compression IP
  
•  Smartphones
•  Game consoles
•  Digital still cameras
•  Tablet PCs
•  Virtual reality headsets
•  Automotive
LTPS
  
•  Resolutions of VGA, WSVGA, WVGA and DVGA
•  Color depth of 16 million
•  MDDI, MIPI interface
•  Logic-based OTP
•  Separated gamma control
  
•  Smartphones
•  Digital still cameras
a-Si
TFT
  
•  Resolutions of WQVGA and HVGA
•  Color depth of 16 million
•  RSDS, MDDI, MIPI interface
•  CABC
•  Separated gamma control
  
•  Mobile phones
•  Digital still cameras
•  Automotive
 
Power Solutions
We develop, manufacture and market power management solutions for a wide range of
end-market
customers. The products include MOSFETs, IGBTs,
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters, LED drivers, regulators, PMICs for a range of devices, including LCD, LED, and UHD televisions, digital signage, smartphones, mobile phones, wearable devices, desktop PCs, notebooks, tablet PCs, other consumer electronics, consumer appliances, automotive, and industrial applications such as power suppliers,
e-bikes,
photovoltaic inverters, LED lighting and motor drives.
 
 
MOSFETs.
Our MOSFETs include
low-voltage
from 12V to 30V, medium-voltage from 40V to 200V, high-voltage planar MOSFETs, 200V through 650V, and super junction MOSFETs, 250V through 900V.
 
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MOSFETs are used in applications to switch, shape or transfer electricity under varying power requirements. The key application segments are smartphones, mobile phones, wearable devices, LCD, LED, and UHD televisions, desktop PCs, notebooks, tablet PCs, servers, lighting and power supplies for consumer electronics automotive (electric vehicles) and industrial equipment. MOSFETs allow electronics manufacturers to achieve specific design goals of high efficiency and low standby power consumption. For example, computing solutions focus on delivering efficient controllers and MOSFETs for power management in VCORE, DDR and chipsets for audio, video and graphics processing systems.
 
 
IGBTs.
Our IGBTs include 650V to 1200V field stop trench IGBTs. IGBTs are used in automotive and high power industrial applications, such as UPSs, power supplies, motor drives, solar inverters, welding machines and consumer appliances.
 
 
AC-DC/DC-DC
Converters.
We offer
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters targeting mobile applications and high power applications like LCD, LED, and UHD televisions, notebooks, smartphones, mobile phones,
set-top
boxes and display modules. We expect our
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters will meet customer’s green power requirements by featuring wide input voltage ranges, high efficiency and small size.
 
 
LED Drivers.
LED backlighting drivers serve the fast-growing LCD and LED panel backlighting market for LCD and LED televisions, LCD monitors, digital signage, notebooks, smartphones and tablet PCs. Our products are designed to provide high efficiency and wide input voltage range, as well as pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming for accurate white LED dimming control. LED lighting drivers have a wide input voltage range applicable to incandescent bulb and fluorescent lamp replacement.
 
 
Regulators.
We also provide analog regulators for mobile, computing and consumer applications. Our products are designed for high efficiency and low power consumption in mobile applications.
 
 
SSD PMICs.
We also provide solid state drive power management integrated circuits (SSD PMICs) for the computing segment. Our product is designed for high frequency switching, high efficiency and pulse frequency modulation (PFM) function to reduce power consumption in low load converters.
 
 
Logic PMICs.
We also provide logic PMICs for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display panel. Our PMICs provide optimized power to source driver, gate driver and timing controller
(T-CON)
of OLED display panel with multi-channel power block (boost converter, buck converter,
Op-Amps
and positive/negative LDOs.)
Our power management solutions enable customers to increase system stability and improve heat dissipation and energy use, resulting in cost savings for our customers and consumers, as well as environmental benefits. Our
in-house
process technology capabilities and eight-inch wafer production lines increase efficiency and contribute to the competitiveness of our products.
The following table summarizes the features of our products, both in mass production and in customer qualification, which is the final stage of product development:
 
Product
  
Key Features
  
Applications
Low Voltage MOSFET
  
•  Voltage options of
12V-30V
•  Advanced Trench MOSFET Process
•  High cell density
•  Advanced packages to enable reduction of PCB mounting area
  
•  Smartphones, mobile phones, and wearable devices
•  Tablet PCs, Notebooks
•  Desktop PCs, Servers
•  LCD/LED TVs
•  Industrial applications
•  Automotive
Medium Voltage MOSFET
  
•  Voltage options of
40V-200V
•  Advanced Trench MOSFET Process
•  High cell density
  
•  e-Bikes
and Motor controls
•  Battery Management Systems
•  Power tools and Servers
 
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Product
  
Key Features
  
Applications
  
•  High system efficiency
•  Advanced packages to enable reduction of PCB mounting area
  
•  Energy Storage System
•  Other computing applications (Tablet PCs, Notebooks, Desktops)
•  Consumer applications (TV)
•  Industrial applications
•  Automotive
High Voltage MOSFET
  
•  Voltage options of 200V-650V
•  R2FET (rapid recovery) option to shorten reverse diode recovery time
•  Zener diode option for MOSFET protection for abnormal input
•  Advanced Planar MOSFET Process
•  Advanced packages to enable reduction of PCB mounting area
  
•  Adaptors for tablet PC/mobile phone/smartphone
•  Power supplies
•  Lighting (ballast, HID, LED)
•  Industrial applications
•  LCD/LEDTVs
•  Automotive
Super Junction MOSFET
  
•  Voltage options of 250V-900V
•  Low R
DS(ON)
•  Epi stack process
•  Zener diode option for MOSFET protection for abnormal input
•  Advanced SJ MOSFET process
•  Advanced packages to enable reduction of PCB mounting area
•  Low power loss by high speed switching
  
•  LCD/LED/UHD TVs
•  Lightings applications (ballast, HID, LED)
•  Smartphones
•  Power supplies
•  Servers and Telecom powers
•  Industrial applications
•  EV charging station
•  On board charger
IGBTs
  
•  Voltage options of 650V/1200V
•  Field Stop Trench IGBT
•  Current options from 15A to 100A
  
•  Automotive
•  Solar inverters
•  Industrial applications
•  Consumer appliances
AC-DC/DC-DC
Converter
  
•  Wide control range for high power application (>150W)
•  Advanced BCDMOS process
•  High Precision Voltage Reference
•  Very low startup current consumption
•  Fast load and line regulation
•  Accurate output voltage
•  OCP, SCP and thermal protections
  
•  LCD/LED/UHD TVs
•  Power supplies
•  Smartphones
•  Mobile phones
•  Notebooks
•  Set-top
boxes
 
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Product
  
Key Features
  
Applications
LED Backlighting Drivers
  
•  High efficiency, wide input voltage range
•  Advanced BCDMOS process
•  OCP, SCP, OVP and UVLO protections
•  Accurate LED current control and multi-channel matching
•  Programmable current limit, boost up frequency
  
•  Tablet PCs
•  Notebooks
•  Smartphones
•  LED/UHD TVs
•  LED monitors
Digital Controlled LED Driver
  
•  Multi-channel constant current control
•  12Bit gray scale with SPI
  
•  Digital signage
LED Lighting Drivers
  
•  High efficiency, wide input voltage range
•  Simple solutions with external components fully integrated
•  Advanced high voltage BCDMOS process
•  Accurate LED current control and high power factor and low THB
  
•  AC and DC LED lighting
Regulators
  
•  Single and multi-regulators
•  Low Noise Output regulators
•  Wide range of input voltage and various output current
•  CMOS and BCDMOS processes
•  LDO (Low Drop Out — Linear Regulator)
  
•  Smartphones and Mobile phones
•  Notebooks
•  Computing applications
SSD PMIC
  
•  High current buck
•  PFM function
•  High frequency switching
•  High efficiency
•  High integration technology
•  Small QFN package
  
•  Computing applications
Logic PMIC
  
•  High current boost
•  Integrated pass transistor
•  LDO
•  3channel high current buck
•  Negative Charge Pump
•  2channel buffer
Op-Amp.
•  Tiny Wafer Level CSP
  
•  Notebooks
•  Tablet PCs
 
Sales and Marketing
We focus our sales and marketing strategy on continuing to grow and leverage our existing relationships with leading consumer electronics OEMs, while expanding into industrial and automotive end markets. We believe our close collaboration with customers allows us to align our product and technology development with
 
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our customers’ existing and future needs. Because our customers often service multiple end markets, our product sales teams are organized by customers within the major geographies. We believe this facilitates the sale of products that address multiple
end-market
applications to each of our customers.
We sell our products through a direct sales force and a network of authorized agents and distributors. We have strategically located our sales and technical support offices near our customers. Our direct sales force consists primarily of representatives
co-located
with our design center in Korea, as well as our local sales and support offices and sales liaisons in Japan, Greater China, Taiwan and Europe. We have a network of agents and distributors in the U.S., Europe and the Asia Pacific region. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we derived 34%, 48% and 62% of net sales from our standard products business through our direct sales force, respectively, and 66%, 52% and 38% of net sales from our standard products business through our network of authorized agents and distributors, respectively.
Customers
We sell our Display Solutions and Power Solutions products to consumer, computing, communication, automotive and industrial electronics OEMs, original design manufacturers and electronics manufacturing services companies, as well as subsystem designers. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, our ten largest customers accounted for 69.2%, 69.4% and 79.8% of net sales from our standard products business, respectively. Our arrangements with and reliance on key customers, particularly customers for our display products, may make it less practicable to pursue certain opportunities with other potential new and existing customers. For the year ended December 31, 2023, sales to SAMT represented 16.7% of net sales from our standard products business, and Samsung Display represented 13.4% of net sales from our standard products business. For the year ended December 31, 2022, sales to Samsung Display represented 19.0% of net sales from our standard products business, and SAMT represented 13.8% of net sales from our standard products business. For the year ended December 31, 2021, sales to Samsung Display represented 42.5% of net sales from our standard products business, and SAMT represented 10.4% of net sales from our standard products business. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded revenues of $2.8 million from customers in the U.S. and $192.9 million from all foreign countries, of which 41.4% was from Greater China and 34.6% was from Korea. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we recorded revenues of $10.4 million from customers in the U.S. and $291.5 million from all foreign countries, of which 42.2% was from Greater China and 36.1% was from Korea. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded revenues of $6.1 million from customers in the U.S. and $427.0 million from all foreign countries, of which 47.2% was from Greater China, 26.6% from Korea and 18.9% from Vietnam. All information pertaining to the geographic source of revenues is with respect to the geographic location to which our products are billed.
Intellectual Property
As of December 31, 2023, our portfolio of intellectual property assets included approximately 927 registered patents and 170 pending applications. Approximately 394 and 54 of our registered patents and pending applications, respectively, are novel in that they are not a foreign counterpart of an existing registered patent or pending application. Because we file patents in multiple jurisdictions, we additionally have approximately 533 registered patents and 116 pending applications that relate to identical technical claims in our base patent portfolio. Our registered patents expire at various times approximately over the next 19 years. While these patents are, in the aggregate, important to our competitive position, we do not believe that any single registered patent or pending application is material to us.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology and
know-how,
as well as our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others.”
 
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National Core Technology
Under the Act on Prevention of Leakage and Protection of Industrial Technology of Korea (the “ITA”), any export (including various means of outflow such as sale or transfer outside Korea) of technology designated as “national core technology” (“National Core Technology” or “NCT”) by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (the “MOTIE”) requires the filing of a prior-report with, and the acceptance of the same by, the MOTIE. Any such export of NCT without the acceptance of the prior report with the MOTIE may be subject to corrective orders by the relevant authorities, and failure to comply with such corrective orders may potentially result in criminal liabilities.
The Notification Regarding Designation of National Core Technologies issued by the MOTIE was amended on July 14, 2021 to add certain technologies to the list of National Core Technology designated by the MOTIE, and the amended list includes the OLED Display Driver IC (“OLED DDI”) design technology for driving display panels. Since then, the Act on Special Measures for Strengthening and Protecting the Competitiveness of the National High-Tech Strategic Industry (the “Special Act”) was enacted and became effective on August 4, 2022, and more recently, on June 2, 2023, the MOTIE designated 17 technologies, including the OLED DDI design technology for driving display panels, as National High-Tech Strategic Technology (“NHST”) under the Special Act. Under the Special Act, any export of NHST requires prior approval from the MOTIE. Any such export of NHST without the approval of the MOTIE may be subject to corrective orders by the relevant authorities and may also be subject to criminal sanctions.
In the ordinary course of business, our Korean subsidiary may provide certain information relating to its products, including OLED DDI, to customers, suppliers or vendors, and such disclosure of information may be subject to the
NCT-related
regulations under the ITA and NHST-related regulations under the Special Act, and therefore the MOTIE’s acceptance of prior-reports (under the ITA) and the MOTIE’s prior approval (under the Special Act). Since the amendment of the foregoing NCT list in July 2021, we have filed prior-reports with the MOTIE for the export of our OLED DDI product-related information to certain overseas vendors that manufacture our products, and all such reports have thus far been accepted by the MOTIE.
Competition
We operate in highly competitive markets characterized by rapid technological change and continually advancing customer requirements. Although no one company competes with us in all of our product lines, we face significant competition in each of our market segments. Our competitors include other independent and captive manufacturers and designers of analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits, including display driver and power management semiconductor devices.
We compete based on design experience, manufacturing capabilities, the ability to satisfy customer needs from the design phase through the shipping of a completed product, length of design cycle and quality of technical support and sales personnel. Our ability to compete successfully will depend on internal and external variables, both within and outside of our control. These variables include the timeliness with which we can develop new products and technologies, product performance and quality, manufacturing yields, capacity availability, customer service, pricing, industry trends and general economic trends.
Human Capital
Our worldwide workforce consisted of 891 employees (full- and part-time) as of December 31, 2023, of which 201 were involved in sales, marketing, general and administrative, 228 in research and development (including 78 with advanced degrees), 40 in quality, reliability and assurance, and 422 in manufacturing (comprised of 40 in engineering and 382 in operations, maintenance and others). Our employees leverage their extensive expertise in engineering, design and process to accelerate the advancement of technology and be leaders in our industry. We pride our company on being a great workplace where employees from diverse backgrounds can reach their full potential.
 
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Labor Unions
As disclosed in previous reports, we have a labor union at our Korean subsidiary (the “First Union”). On September 16, 2021, the formation of a second labor union at our Korean subsidiary (the “Second Union”) was approved by local authorities (the First Union and the Second Union are collectively referred to as the “Magnachip Semiconductor Labor Unions”). Both the First Union and the Second Union are members of a supervisory association named “Federation of Korean Trade Unions.” The First Union represents member employees who are factory workers and the Second Union represents member employees who are office workers, in both cases at our Korean subsidiary.
As of December 31, 2023, of the 857 employees at our Korean subsidiary, 387 were represented by the First Union, and 83 employees were represented by the Second Union. Approximately 55% of our employees at our Korean subsidiary were represented by the Magnachip Semiconductor Labor Unions.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—If we encounter future labor problems, we may fail to deliver our products and services in a timely manner, which would adversely affect our revenues and profitability.”
Values and Culture
Our core values represent a commitment to building an environment of trust with our employees, customers, investors and the communities in which we operate. Through our values and culture, we strive to shape a better future not only for ourselves and our customers, but for humanity as a whole. At Magnachip, we strive to foster effective collaboration by respecting different perspectives, giving and receiving constructive feedback, and supporting one another.
Inclusion and Diversity
We support all employees, regardless of gender, gender identity or expression, age, veteran status, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion or disability. We place great importance on inclusion and diversity within the workplace, and believe that an inclusive and diverse culture creates a happier, more relaxed work environment.
Labor and Ethics
Magnachip strives to provide and maintain a working environment where management and employees are happy and treated with dignity and respect. Magnachip adheres to human rights and labor standards of international labor organizations, such as the United Nations and the International Labor Organization. Magnachip prohibits all forms of discrimination based on gender, race, nationality, religion and age to ensure all employees work in a safe and fair environment.
Empowering Great Talent
We offer a variety of offline training programs, including courses in the areas of design, engineering and technology, as well as courses at different job levels and leadership education. We also offer a number of online training programs, including in the areas of management/leadership and business skills such as presentation, negotiation, reporting, Information Technology and foreign language, which allow employees to improve their capabilities without time and space constraints. Every year, a majority of our employees are required to complete certain educational programs in the areas of information security, industrial safety and health, and sexual harassment prevention.
We believe the foundation of Magnachip is our research and development (“R&D”) talent. To ensure R&D technical professionals continue to advance their skills and knowledge, we have technology committees that attend regular seminars and conduct periodic research. We have a reward program for exemplary research.
 
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We also offer a Vision Seminar, which is led by our CEO and is designed to share our company’s vision, strategy and the management’s key messages to employees. Additionally, the CEO and management regularly communicate with employees through CEO letters and town hall meetings.
Compensation and Benefits
We strive to reward employees with competitive compensation based on contribution and performance. We periodically evaluate market practices for compensation and benefits, including with respect to job function, role and responsibility, job level and region, and regularly review whether our compensation levels and distribution methods are fair and equitable. Additionally, we have long-and
mid-term
retention programs to attract and retain high-performing key talent.
We offer various employee benefits under the company philosophy that ensuring employees enjoy a happier life with their families is as critical as promoting their own health and well-being. All employees and their family members have access to annual medical checkup programs. Employees also have access to other benefits such as personal pensions, housing assistance, medical reimbursement plans and educational assistance programs.
Safety and Wellness
We appreciate the fact that our employees constitute one of the most critical assets of Magnachip, and therefore, their safety and wellness are key factors to our success. We have a dedicated Environmental Health & Safety (“EHS”) team that establishes and reviews internal EHS regulations based on international agreements as well as local laws and regulations. Our EHS team is also responsible for identifying, evaluating and improving EHS issues within the overall manufacturing process to ensure a safe and comfortable work environment. Magnachip has implemented and maintains an Occupational Health and Safety Management System as well as an Environmental Management System. Our sites are certified to the internationally recognized ISO 45001 and ISO 14001 standards.
In January 2021, the Korean legislature enacted the Serious Accident Punishment Act (“SAPA”), which imposes criminal liability on individuals and entities responsible for “serious accidents,” including industrial accidents that cause death, serious injury or occupational illness. SAPA essentially requires enterprises to establish relevant standards and measures to ensure a certain level of operational safety, including the health and safety of all employees. SAPA went into effect in January 2022, and in connection therewith, we appointed Mr. Seunghoon Lee as the Chief Safety Officer of Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd. (“MSK”), who then formed a dedicated team to evaluate, improve and monitor the policies, practices, standards and systems relating to health and safety to ensure compliance with SAPA. Mr. Lee, who has over 35 years of manufacturing and industrial EHS experience at Magnachip, concurrently serves as the Chief of Manufacturing of MSK.
Environmental
We are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate, governing, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, the generation, use, handling, storage and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous substances (including asbestos) and waste, soil and groundwater contamination and employee health and safety. These laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. Since 2015, our Korean subsidiary has been subject to a new set of greenhouse gas emissions regulation, the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme, or
K-ETS,
under the Act on Allocation and Trading of Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances. Under
K-ETS,
our Korean subsidiary was allocated a certain amount of emissions allowance in accordance with the National Allocation Plan prepared by the Korean government and is required to meet its allocated target by either reducing the emission or purchasing the allowances from other participants in the emission trading market.
Another example is the newly reinforced regulations on chemicals under Chemicals Control Act and
K-REACH,
which came into effect on January 1, 2015. Under these laws, our Korean subsidiary is required to
 
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comply with various requirements to report, evaluate, manage and ensure the safe usage of the chemicals used in its facilities. There can be no assurance that we have been or will be in compliance with all of these laws and regulations, or that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in connection with these laws and regulations in the future. The adoption of new environmental, health and safety laws and the failure to comply with new or existing laws or issues relating to hazardous substances could subject us to material liability (including substantial fines or penalties), impose the need for additional capital equipment or other process requirements upon us, curtail our operations or restrict our ability to expand operations.
Raw Materials
We use processes that require specialized raw materials that are generally available from a limited number of suppliers. We continue to attempt to qualify additional suppliers for our raw materials. The Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), as mandated by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, has adopted disclosure regulations for public companies that manufacture products containing certain minerals that are mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. These “conflict minerals” are commonly found in metals used in the manufacture of semiconductors. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of metals used in the manufacture of our products. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Compliance with regulations regarding the use of “conflict minerals” could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain raw materials used in manufacturing our products.”
Available Information
Our principal executive office is located at: c/o Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd., 15F, 76, Jikji-daero
436beon-gil,
Heungdeok-gu,
Cheongju-si,
Chungcheongbuk-do, 28581, Republic of Korea, and our email address is investors@magnachip.com. Our website address is www.magnachip.com. Our annual, quarterly and current reports on
Forms 10-K,
10-Q
or
8-K,
respectively, and all amendments thereto filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, can be accessed, free of charge, at our website as soon as practicable after such reports are filed with the SEC. In addition, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Compensation Recovery Policy, Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating and Governance Committee Charter and Risk Committee Charter are available on our website. Information contained on our website does not constitute, and shall not be deemed to constitute, part of this Report and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Report. In addition, the SEC maintains an internet site, www.sec.gov, from which you can access our annual, quarterly and current reports on Form
10-K,
10-Q
and
8-K,
respectively, and all amendments to these materials after such reports and amendments are filed with the SEC. You may also request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number: c/o Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd., 15F, 76 Jikji-daero
436beon-gil,
Heungdeok-gu,
Cheongju-si,
Chungcheongbuk-do, 28581, Republic of Korea; Attention: Investor Relations; email address: investors@magnachip.com.
Information About Our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our current executive officers:
 
Name
  
Age
    
Position
Young-Joon (YJ) Kim
     59      Director and Chief Executive Officer
Shin Young Park
     43      Chief Financial Officer
Theodore Kim
     54      Chief Compliance Officer, General Counsel and Secretary
Woung Moo Lee
     61      General Manager of Mixed-Signal Solutions
Chan Ho Park
     60     
Co-General
Manager of Power Analog Solutions
 
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Young-Joon (YJ) Kim, Director on the Board of Directors, Member of the Risk Committee and Chief Executive Officer.
Mr. YJ Kim became our Chief Executive Officer in May 2015 and has also served as a director on our Board since that time. In February 2023, Mr. Kim held the additional role of Acting
Co-General
Manager of our Power business to capitalize on the attractive growth opportunities in the Power sector. In February 2020 to February 2023, Mr. Kim assumed the additional role of General Manager of the Display business to capitalize on the attractive growth opportunities in OLED display and other relevant emerging markets. He also served as the acting General Manager of Foundry Services Group from January 2019 until the completion of the sale of the Foundry Services Group and the factory in Cheongju (“Fab 4”) on September 1, 2020. Mr. Kim joined our company in May 2013 and served as our Executive Vice President and General Manager, Display Solutions Division. He was promoted to Interim Chief Executive Officer in May 2014. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Kim held a variety of senior management roles at several global semiconductor firms. His past roles include marketing, engineering, product development and strategic planning, and his product expertise includes microprocessors, network processors, multi-core processors, FLASH, EPROM, analog, mixed-signal, sensors, 3G/4G/5G base stations, workstations and servers. Immediately before joining our company, Mr. Kim served as Vice President, Infrastructure Processor Division, and General Manager of the OCTEON Multi-Core Processor Group of Cavium, Inc., where he worked from 2006 to 2013. Prior to Cavium, Mr. Kim served as Core Team Lead and General Manager of the Tolapai Program at Intel Corporation from 2004 to 2006. In 1998, Mr. Kim
co-founded
API Networks, a joint venture between Samsung and Compaq, where he served as the head of product management, worldwide sales and business development for Alpha processors. Prior to API Networks, Mr. Kim served as Director of Marketing at Samsung Semiconductor, Inc. from 1996 to 1998. Mr. Kim began his career as a product engineer at Intel Corporation in 1988. Mr. Kim holds B.S. and M. Eng. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University. Our Board has concluded that Mr. YJ Kim is a valuable member of the Board based on his understanding of our company’s products and technology as our Chief Executive Officer and his deep knowledge of the semiconductor industry.
Shin Young Park, Chief Financial Officer
.
Ms. Shin Young Park became our Chief Financial Officer in January 2022 and became our Chief Accounting Officer in March 2020. Ms. Park previously served as the Company’s Corporate Controller from November 2018 to February 2020. Prior to that, she served as the SEC Reporting and Accounting Director from April 2015 to October 2018. Before joining the Company in April 2014, from 2005 to March 2014, Ms. Park served in various senior advisory and audit service positions at Deloitte, a public accounting firm. From 2005 to 2009, she worked at Deloitte & Touche in Chicago, Illinois; from 2009 to 2011 and then from 2013 to March 2014, she worked at Deloitte Anjin in Seoul, South Korea; and from 2011 to 2013, she worked at Deloitte in London, U.K. Ms. Park holds a B.A. degree in business administration from Sogang University, Seoul, Korea, and a Master’s degree in hospitality industry studies from New York University.
Theodore Kim, Chief Compliance Officer, General Counsel and Secretary.
Mr. Theodore (“Ted”) Kim became our Chief Compliance Officer in May 2015 and became our General Counsel and Secretary in November 2013. Mr. Kim previously served as our Senior Vice President from November 2013 to May 2015. Prior to joining Magnachip, Mr. Kim served as Head Lawyer, Global Business Development at Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance from October 2012 to October 2013. Mr. Kim was employed by Gibson Dunn, a law firm, from October 2005 to July 2012, serving most recently as Of Counsel. Prior to that, he served as Foreign Legal Consultant at Kim & Chang, a law firm in Korea, from 2001 to 2005, and prior to that, he worked as an associate attorney at Morrison & Foerster, a law firm, from 1997 to 2001. Mr. Kim holds a B.A. degree in Economics and a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of California, Irvine, and a J.D. degree from University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law.
Woung Moo Lee, General Manager of Mixed-Signal Solutions.
Mr. Woung Moo Lee was named General Manager of Mixed-Signal Solutions in tandem with the Internal Separation. Prior to that, Mr. Lee served as General Manager of Worldwide Sales, to which position he was appointed in February 2020. Prior to that, Mr. Lee served as General Manager of Power Solutions from February 2020 to June 2020 and as General Manager of the Standard Products Group from 2015 to 2020. Prior to that, he served as our Senior Vice
 
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President, Korea Sales from 2013 to 2015. Before joining Magnachip, he was one of the founding executives and served as Vice President of Global Strategy and Marketing, Samsung LED Co., Ltd. from 2009 to 2011. In 1984, Mr. Lee began his career as a memory semiconductor design engineer and served as Vice President of Memory Strategy & Marketing Team at Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. until 2009. Mr. Lee received the prestigious “Proud Samsung Employee Award” in 2005 and holds a B.S. degree in Electronic Engineering from Inha University.
Chan Ho Park
, Co-
General Manager of Power Analog Solutions.
 
Dr. Chan Ho Park was named
Co-General
Manager of Power Analog Solutions in tandem with the Internal Separation. Prior to that, Mr. Park served as General Manager of Power Solutions from June 2020. Mr. Park has over 30 years of
hands-on
experience in the development of discrete power devices and market insights throughout the power semiconductor industry. Prior to joining Magnachip, he was a senior staff at Vishay Intertechnology Inc. since March, 2014. He developed cutting-edge technology platforms for low voltage MOSFETs having 1.5 giga-cell density and provided high and low side MOSFETs for DrMOS to various power stage solutions. Mr. Park started his professional career in 1986 as a design engineer in the field of BJT,
J-FET
and Schottky Diode at Samsung Electronics, located in Bucheon, Korea. Afterwards, he worked for Fairchild Semiconductor in West Jordan, Utah and for Vishay Siliconix in San Jose, California. He rejoined Samsung Electronics, System LSI Business in 2011 as the Vice President of Discrete Development Team, where he led R&D, PE, FAE and high voltage power IC technologies for IGBTs, super-junction MOSFETs, split gate MOSFETs and driver ICs. He received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) and a B.S. in Physics from Seoul National University. He is a member of IEEE and a peer reviewer for IEEE transactions on Electron Devices and Electron Device Letters.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below as well as the other information contained in this Report. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. As a result, the price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or those currently viewed by us to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the risk factors included herein.
 
 
We manufacture our products based on our estimates of customer demand, and if our estimates are incorrect, our financial results could be negatively impacted.
 
 
A significant portion of our sales comes from a relatively limited number of customers, the loss of which could adversely affect our financial results.
 
 
The average selling prices of our semiconductor products have at times declined rapidly and will likely do so in the future, which could harm our revenue and gross profit.
 
 
We are subject to risks associated with currency fluctuations, and changes in the exchange rates of applicable currencies could impact our results of operations.
 
 
Global shortages in manufacturing capacities could interrupt or negatively affect our operations, increase cost to manufacture and negatively impact our results of operations.
 
 
Expanded trade restrictions may limit our ability to sell to certain customers.
 
 
Recent changes in international trade policy and the imposition and threats of international tariffs, including tariffs applied to goods traded between the United States and China, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
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Our Korean subsidiary has been designated as a regulated business under Korean environmental law, and such designation could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
 
 
Our compliance with the Serious Accidents Punishment Act (the “SAPA”) could require significant expenditures and management time and expose us to liability for violations.
 
 
Our business depends on international customers, suppliers and operations in Asia, and as a result we are subject to regulatory, operational, financial and political risks, which could adversely affect our financial results.
 
 
We cannot guarantee that our share repurchase program will be successfully consummated, or that it will enhance shareholder value, and share repurchases could affect the price of our common stock.
 
 
Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware Law may make it difficult for a third party to acquire us and could depress the price of our common stock.
 
 
We have not historically paid dividends and do not currently have any dividend or distribution policy, and therefore, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.
Risks Related to Our Business
We operate in the highly cyclical semiconductor industry, which is subject to significant downturns that may negatively impact our results of operations.
The semiconductor industry is highly cyclical and is characterized by constant and rapid technological change and price erosion, evolving technical standards, short product life cycles (for semiconductors and for the
end-user
products in which they are used) and wide fluctuations in product supply and demand. From time to time, these and other factors, together with changes in general economic conditions, cause significant upturns and downturns in the industry in general and in our business in particular. Periods of industry downturns have been characterized by diminished demand for
end-user
products, high inventory levels, underutilization of manufacturing capacity, changes in revenue mix and accelerated erosion of average selling prices. We have experienced these conditions in our business in the past and may experience renewed, and possibly more severe and prolonged, downturns in the future as a result of such cyclical changes. This may reduce our results of operations. Current global macroeconomic conditions, including higher inflation and interest rates and uncertainty caused by the Russian-Ukraine war, Israel-Hamas war, sustained military action and conflict in the Red Sea, and trade tensions between the U.S. and China have led to weaker
end-market
demand and unstable supply chain. We continue to monitor these trends and uncertainties, and any decline in
end-market
demand and increase in inventory levels could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We base our planned operating expenses in part on our expectations of future revenue, and a significant portion of our expenses is relatively fixed in the short term. If revenue for a particular quarter is lower than we expect, we likely will be unable to proportionately reduce our operating expenses for that quarter, which would harm our operating results for that quarter.
Our restructuring activities and dispositions of assets and businesses could result in lost business and other costs that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
From time to time, we may choose to sell assets, restructure business operations, shut down manufacturing lines or otherwise dispose of assets and businesses as part of management’s strategies to better align our product offerings with market demands and our customers’ needs. In connection with these activities, we face risks that we will disrupt service to our customers, lose business and incur significant costs related to such activities. These risks include potential damage to our reputation and customer relationships if we are unable to effectively transition such customer relationships to other production lines or products or if we cannot effectively manage our supplier and vendor relationships during such activities. In addition, we may also face claims or costs
 
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associated with transitioning or eliminating certain employee positions and modifying or terminating vendor relationships in connection with those exit activities.
If we fail to develop new products and technologies or enhance our existing products in order to react to rapid technological change and market demands, our business will suffer.
Our industry is subject to constant and rapid technological change and product obsolescence as customers and competitors create new and innovative products and technologies. Products or technologies developed by other companies may render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive, and we may not be able to access advanced process technologies, including smaller geometries, or to license or otherwise obtain essential intellectual property required by our customers.
We must develop new products and enhance our existing products to meet rapidly evolving customer requirements. We design products for customers that continually require higher performance and functionality at lower costs. We must, therefore, continue to enhance the performance and functionality of our products. The development process for these advancements is lengthy and requires us to accurately anticipate technological changes and market trends. Developing and enhancing these products is uncertain and can be time-consuming, costly and complex.
Customer and market requirements can change during the development of a product. There is a risk that these developments and enhancements will be late, fail to meet customer or market specifications or not be competitive with products from our competitors that offer comparable or superior performance and functionality. Any new products, such as our expanding line of power management solutions, or product enhancements, may not be accepted in new or existing markets. Our business will suffer if we fail to develop and introduce new products or product enhancements on a timely and cost-effective basis.
We manufacture our products based on our estimates of customer demand, and if our estimates are incorrect, our financial results could be negatively impacted.
We make significant decisions, including determining the levels of business that we will seek and accept, production schedules, component procurement commitments, personnel needs and other resource requirements, based on our estimates of customer demand and expected demand for and success of their products. The short-term nature of commitments by many of our customers and the possibility of rapid changes in demand for their products reduces our ability to estimate accurately future customer demand for our products. On occasion, customers may require rapid increases in supply, which can challenge our production resources and reduce margins. We may not have sufficient capacity at any given time to meet our customers’ increased demand for our products. Conversely, downturns in the semiconductor industry have caused and may in the future cause our customers to reduce significantly the amount of products they order from us. Because many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, a reduction in customer demand would decrease our results of operations, including our gross profit.
Our customers may cancel their orders, reduce quantities or delay production, which would adversely affect our margins and results of operations.
We generally do not obtain firm, long-term purchase commitments from our customers. Customers may cancel their orders, reduce quantities or delay production for a number of reasons. Cancellations, reductions or delays by a significant customer or by a group of customers, which we have experienced as a result of periodic downturns in the semiconductor industry, or failure to achieve design-wins, have affected and may continue to affect our results of operations adversely. These risks are exacerbated because many of our products are customized, which hampers our ability to sell excess inventory to the general market. We may incur charges resulting from the
write-off
of obsolete inventory. In addition, while we do not obtain long-term purchase commitments, we generally agree to the pricing of a particular product over a set period of time. If we
 
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underestimate our costs when determining pricing, our margins and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Our fab manufacturing depends on high utilization of our manufacturing capacity, a reduction of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and the results of our operations.
An important factor in our success is the extent to which we are able to utilize the available capacity in our fabrication facility. As many of our costs are fixed, a reduction in capacity utilization, as well as changes in other factors, such as reduced yield or unfavorable product mix, could reduce our profit margins and adversely affect our operating results. A number of factors and circumstances may reduce utilization rates, including periods of industry overcapacity, the inability to source sufficient materials necessary for manufacturing, low levels of customer orders, operating inefficiencies, strategic evaluations and decisions by our Board related our overall business, divisions and business lines, mechanical failures and disruption of operations due to expansion or relocation of operations, power interruptions and fire, flood or other natural disasters or calamities. The potential delays and costs resulting from these factors and circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our sales comes from a relatively limited number of customers, the loss of which could adversely affect our financial results.
Historically, we have relied on a limited number of customers for a substantial portion of our total revenue. If we were to lose key customers or if customers cease to place orders for our high-volume products, particularly our display products, our financial results could be adversely affected. In addition, our arrangements with and reliance on key customers may make it less practicable to pursue certain opportunities with other potential new and existing customers. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, our ten largest customers accounted for 69.2%, 69.4% and 79.8% of net sales from our standard products business, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2023, sales to SAMT represented 16.7% of net sales from our standard products business, and Samsung Display represented 13.4% of net sales from our standard products business. For the year ended December 31, 2022, sales to Samsung Display represented 19.0% of net sales from our standard products business, and SAMT represented 13.8% of net sales from our standard products business. For the year ended December 31, 2021, sales to Samsung Display represented 42.5% of net sales from our standard products business, and SAMT represented 10.4% of net sales from our standard products business. Significant reductions in sales to any of these customers, especially our few largest customers, the loss of other major customers or a general curtailment in orders for our high-volume products within a short period of time could adversely affect our business.
The average selling prices of our semiconductor products have at times declined rapidly and will likely do so in the future, which could harm our revenue and gross profit.
The semiconductor products we develop and sell are subject to rapid declines in average selling prices. From time to time, we have had to reduce our prices significantly to meet customer requirements, and we may be required to reduce our prices in the future. This would cause our gross profit to decrease. Our financial results will suffer if we are unable to offset any reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volumes, reducing our costs or developing new or enhanced products on a timely basis with higher selling prices or gross profit.
Our industry is highly competitive, and our ability to compete could be negatively impacted by a variety of factors.
The semiconductor industry is highly competitive and includes hundreds of companies, a number of which have achieved substantial market share within both our product categories and end markets. Current and prospective customers for our products and services evaluate our capabilities against the merits of our
 
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competitors. Some of our competitors are well established as independent companies and have substantially greater market share and manufacturing, financial, research and development and marketing resources than we do. We also compete with emerging companies that are attempting to sell their products in certain of our end markets and with the internal semiconductor design and manufacturing capabilities of many of our significant customers. We expect to experience continuing competitive pressures in our markets from existing competitors and new entrants.
Any consolidation among our competitors could enhance their product offerings and financial resources, further enhancing their competitive position. Our ability to compete will depend on a number of factors, including the following:
 
 
our ability to offer cost-effective and high quality products and services on a timely basis using our technologies;
 
 
our ability to accurately identify and respond to emerging technological trends and demand for product features and performance characteristics;
 
 
our ability to continue to rapidly introduce new products that are accepted by the market;
 
 
our ability to adopt or adapt to emerging industry standards;
 
 
the number and nature of our competitors and competitiveness of their products and services in a given market;
 
 
entrance of new competitors into our markets;
 
 
our ability to enter the highly competitive power management market; and
 
 
our ability to supply power products to our customers reliably through our own fabrication facility.
Many of these factors are outside of our control. In the future, our competitors may replace us as a supplier to our existing or potential customers, and our customers may satisfy more of their requirements internally. As a result, we may experience declining revenues and results of operations.
Changes in demand for consumer electronics in our end markets can impact our results of operations.
Demand for our products will depend in part on the demand for various consumer electronics products, in particular, mobile phones and multimedia devices, digital televisions, flat panel displays, mobile PCs and digital cameras, which in turn depends on general economic conditions and other factors beyond our control. If our customers fail to introduce new products that employ our products or component parts, demand for our products will suffer. To the extent that we cannot offset periods of reduced demand that may occur in these markets through greater penetration of these markets or reduction in our production and costs, our sales and gross profit may decline, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to achieve design-wins for our semiconductor products, we may lose the opportunity for sales to customers for a significant period of time and be unable to recoup our investments in our products.
We expend considerable resources on winning competitive selection processes, known as design-wins, to develop semiconductor products for use in our customers’ products. These selection processes are typically lengthy and can require us to incur significant design and development expenditures. We may not win the competitive selection process and may never generate any revenue despite incurring significant design and development expenditures. Once a customer designs a semiconductor into a product, that customer is likely to continue to use the same semiconductor or enhanced versions of that semiconductor from the same supplier across a number of similar and successor products for a lengthy period of time due to the significant costs associated with qualifying a new supplier and potentially redesigning the product to incorporate a different semiconductor. If we fail to achieve initial design-wins in a customer’s qualification process, we may lose the
 
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opportunity for significant sales to that customer for a number of products and for a lengthy period of time. This may cause us to be unable to recoup our investments in our semiconductor products, which would harm our business.
We have lengthy and expensive
design-to-mass
production and manufacturing process development cycles that may cause us to incur significant expenses without realizing meaningful sales, the occurrence of which would harm our business.
The cycle time from the design stage to mass production for some of our products is long and requires the investment of significant resources with many potential customers without any guarantee of sales. Our
design-to-mass
production cycle typically begins with a
three-to-twelve
month semiconductor development stage and test period followed by a
three-to-twelve
month
end-product
qualification period by our customers. The fairly lengthy front end of our sales cycle creates a risk that we may incur significant expenses but may be unable to realize meaningful sales. Moreover, prior to mass production, customers may decide to cancel their products or change production specifications, resulting in sudden changes in our product specifications, increasing our production time and costs. Failure to meet such specifications may also delay the launch of our products or result in lost sales.
Research and development investments may not yield profitable and commercially viable products, and thus will not necessarily result in increases in revenues for us.
We invest significant resources in our research and development. Our research and development efforts, however, may not yield profitable or commercially viable products. During each stage of research and development, there is a substantial risk that we will have to abandon a potential product that is no longer marketable and in which we have invested significant resources. In the event we are able to develop viable new products, a significant amount of time will have elapsed between our investment in the necessary research and development effort and the receipt of any related revenues.
We face numerous challenges relating to executing our growth strategy, and if we are unable to execute our growth strategy effectively, our business and financial results could be materially and adversely affected.
Our growth strategy is to leverage our advanced analog and mixed-signal technology platform, continue to innovate and deliver new products, increase business with existing customers, broaden our customer base, aggressively grow our power business, and drive execution excellence. If we are unable to execute our growth strategy effectively, we may not be able to take advantage of market opportunities, execute our business plan or respond to competitive pressures. Moreover, if our allocation of resources does not correspond with future demand for particular products, we could miss market opportunities and our business and financial results could be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to risks associated with currency fluctuations, and changes in the exchange rates of applicable currencies could impact our results of operations.
Historically, a portion of our revenues and greater than the majority of our operating expenses and costs of sales have been denominated in
non-U.S.
currencies, principally the Korean won, and we expect that this will remain true in the future. Because we report our results of operations in U.S. dollars, changes in the exchange rate between the Korean won and the U.S. dollar could materially impact our reported results of operations and distort period to period comparisons. In particular, because of the difference in the amount of our consolidated revenues and expenses that are in U.S. dollars relative to Korean won, a depreciation in the U.S. dollar relative to the Korean won could result in a material increase in reported costs relative to revenues, and therefore could cause our profit margins and operating income to appear to decline materially, particularly relative to prior periods. The converse is true if the U.S. dollar were to appreciate relative to the Korean won. For example, foreign currency fluctuations had a favorable impact on our reported profit margins and operating income from
 
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operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 due to a relatively weaker Korean won during the periods. Moreover, our foreign currency gain or loss would be affected by changes in the exchange rate between the Korean won and the U.S. dollar as a substantial portion of
non-cash
translation gain or loss is associated with the intercompany long-term loans to our Korean subsidiary, which is denominated in U.S. dollars. As of December 31, 2023, the outstanding intercompany loan balance including accrued interests between our Korean subsidiary and our Dutch subsidiary was $285.1 million. Our Dutch subsidiary uses the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. As a result of foreign currency fluctuations, it could be more difficult to detect underlying trends in our business and results of operations. In addition, to the extent that fluctuations in currency exchange rates cause our results of operations to differ from our expectations or the expectations of our investors, the trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
From time to time, we may engage in exchange rate hedging activities in an effort to mitigate the impact of exchange rate fluctuations. Our Korean subsidiary enters into foreign currency forward and zero cost collar contracts in order to mitigate a portion of the impact of U.S. dollar-Korean won exchange rate fluctuations on our operating results. These foreign currency forward and zero cost collar contracts typically require us to sell specified notional amounts in U.S. dollars and provide us the option to sell specified notional amounts in U.S. dollars during successive months to our counterparty in exchange for Korean won at specified exchange rates. Obligations under these foreign currency forward and zero cost collar contracts must be cash collateralized if our exposure exceeds certain specified thresholds. These forward and zero cost collar contracts may be terminated by the counterparty in a number of circumstances, including if our total cash and cash equivalents is less than $30 million at the end of a fiscal quarter. We cannot assure that any hedging technique we implement will be effective. If our hedging activities are not effective, changes in currency exchange rates may have a more significant impact on our results of operations. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors Affecting our Results of Operations” for further details.
The loss of our key employees would materially adversely affect our business, and we may not be able to attract or retain the technical or management employees necessary to compete in our industry.
Our key executives have substantial experience and have made significant contributions to our business, and our continued success is dependent upon the retention of our key management executives. The loss of such key personnel would have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, our future success depends on our ability to attract and retain skilled technical and managerial personnel. We do not know whether we will be able to retain all of these employees as we continue to pursue our business strategy. The loss of the services of key employees, especially our key design and technical personnel, or our inability to retain, attract and motivate qualified design and technical personnel, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. This could hinder our research and product development programs or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business.
If we encounter future labor problems, we may fail to deliver our products and services in a timely manner, which would adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
As of December 31, 2023, 470 employees, or approximately 55% of our employees, were represented by the Magnachip Semiconductor Labor Unions. We can offer no assurance that any issues with the labor union and other employees will be resolved favorably for us in the future, that we will not experience work stoppages or other labor problems in future years or that we will not incur significant expenses related to such issues.
We may incur costs to engage in future business combinations or strategic investments, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of those transactions.
As part of our business strategy, we may seek to enter into business combinations, investments, joint ventures and other strategic alliances with other companies in order to maintain and grow revenue and market presence as well as to provide us with access to technology, products and services. Any such transaction would
 
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be accompanied by risks that may harm our business, such as difficulties in assimilating the operations, personnel and products of an acquired business or in realizing the projected benefits, disruption of our ongoing business, potential increases in our indebtedness and contingent liabilities and charges if the acquired company or assets are later determined to be worth less than the amount paid for them in an earlier original acquisition. In addition, our indebtedness may restrict us from making acquisitions that we may otherwise wish to pursue.
The failure to achieve acceptable manufacturing yields could adversely affect our business.
The manufacturing of semiconductors involves highly complex processes that require precision, a highly regulated and sterile environment and specialized equipment. Defects or other difficulties in the manufacturing process can prevent us from achieving acceptable yields in the manufacturing of our products, which could lead to higher costs, a loss of customers or delay in market acceptance of our products. Slight impurities or defects in the photomasks used to print circuits on a wafer or other factors can cause significant difficulties, particularly in connection with the production of a new product, the adoption of a new manufacturing process or any expansion of our manufacturing capacity and related transitions. We may also experience manufacturing problems in achieving acceptable yields as a result of, among other things, transferring production to other facilities, upgrading or expanding existing facilities or changing our process technologies. Yields below our target levels can negatively impact our gross profit and may cause us to eliminate underperforming products.
We rely on a number of independent subcontractors and the failure of any of these independent subcontractors to perform as required could adversely affect our operating results.
A substantial portion of our net sales are derived from semiconductor devices assembled in packages or on film. The packaging and testing of semiconductors require technical skills and specialized equipment. For the portion of packaging and testing that we outsource, we use subcontractors located in Korea and China. We rely on these subcontractors to package and test our devices with acceptable quality and yield levels, and, while we specify quality standards, we are not able to directly oversee their
day-to-day
operations and the packaging and testing of our devices. Onboarding of a new subcontractor, including as a result of switching from one subcontractor to another, takes approximately three to six months to verify the subcontractor’s capabilities and an additional six to twelve months to receive approval from our customers to use such subcontractor. We could be adversely affected by political disorders, labor disruptions, public health issues (including viral outbreaks such as
COVID-19)
and natural disasters where our subcontractors are located due to the time it would take to onboard a new subcontractor. If our semiconductor packagers and test service subcontractors experience problems in packaging and testing our semiconductor devices, experience prolonged quality or yield problems, experience shutdowns or delays associated with public health issues (such as those associated with
COVID-19),
or decrease the capacity of their operations available to us, our operating results could be adversely affected.
We cooperate with independent foundries to produce certain Display Solutions and Power Solutions products, and the failure of such independent foundries to satisfy our demand could materially disrupt our business.
We use independent foundry services for certain of our Display Solutions products and Power Solutions products. Silicon wafer production at these facilities is allocated solely by our vendors and beyond our direct control. Therefore, any disruption in wafer supply from these vendors could have a material impact on our revenue and results of operations.
Global shortages in manufacturing capacities could interrupt or negatively affect our operations, increase cost to manufacture and negatively impact our results of operations.
Increases in demand for semiconductor products have in the past and may again in the future result in a global shortage of manufacturing capacity. As a result, we may experience increases in the costs to manufacture our products and may not be able to manufacture and deliver all of the orders placed by our customers. If we are unable to secure manufacturing capacities from our current subcontractors, our ability to deliver our products to
 
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our customers may be negatively impacted. Also, our subcontractors may increase their fees, which would result in an increase in our manufacturing costs, which we may not be fully able to pass to our customers. These factors could cause a negative impact on our results of operations.
We depend on successful parts and materials procurement for our manufacturing processes, and a shortage or increase in the price of these materials could interrupt our operations and result in a decline of revenues and results of operations.
We procure materials and electronic and mechanical components from international sources and original equipment manufacturers. We use a wide range of parts and materials in the production of our semiconductors, including silicon, processing chemicals, processing gases, precious metals and electronic and mechanical components, some of which, such as silicon wafers, are specialized raw materials that are generally only available from a limited number of suppliers. If demand increases or supply decreases for any reason, the costs of our raw materials could significantly increase. For example, worldwide supplies of silicon wafers, an important raw material for the semiconductors we manufacture, have been constrained in recent years due to an increased demand for silicon. We from time to time may enter into multi-year agreements, which specify future quantities and pricing of materials to be supplied by the vendors of these materials; however, this option may not be available to us and we cannot assure that supply increases will match demand increases. If we cannot obtain adequate materials in a timely manner or on favorable terms for the manufacture of our products, revenues and results of operations will decline.
Compliance with regulations regarding the use of “conflict minerals” could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain raw materials used in manufacturing our products.
The SEC, as mandated by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, adopted disclosure regulations for public companies that manufacture products containing certain minerals that are mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries and procedures pertaining to a manufacturer’s efforts regarding the source of such minerals. These “conflict minerals” are commonly found in metals used in the manufacture of semiconductors. Manufacturers are also required to disclose their efforts to prevent the sourcing of such minerals and metals produced from them. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of metals used in the manufacture of our products. We may also incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to determining the source of any of the relevant minerals used in our products. We may also face difficulties in satisfying customers who may require that our products be certified as free of “conflict materials,” which could harm our relationships with these customers and lead to a loss of revenue.
We face warranty claims, product return, litigation and liability risks and the risk of negative publicity if our products fail.
Our semiconductors are incorporated into a number of end products, and our business is exposed to product return, warranty and product liability risk and the risk of negative publicity if our products fail. Although we maintain insurance for product liability claims, the amount and scope of our insurance may not be adequate to cover a product liability claim that is asserted against us. In addition, product liability insurance could become more expensive and difficult to maintain and, in the future, may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. In addition, we are exposed to the product liability risk and the risk of negative publicity affecting our customers. Our sales may decline if any of our customers are sued on a product liability claim. We also may suffer a decline in sales from the negative publicity associated with such a lawsuit or with adverse public perceptions in general regarding our customers’ products. Further, if our products are delivered with impurities or defects, we could incur additional development, repair or replacement costs, and our credibility and the market’s acceptance of our products could be harmed.
 
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We could suffer adverse tax and other financial consequences as a result of changes in, or differences in the interpretation of, applicable tax laws, or the adoption of new U.S. or international tax legislation.
Our company’s organizational structure was created in part based on certain interpretations and conclusions regarding various tax laws, including withholding tax and other tax laws of applicable jurisdictions. Our interpretations and conclusions regarding tax laws, however, are not binding on any taxing authority and, if these interpretations and conclusions are incorrect, if our business were to be operated in a way that rendered us ineligible for tax exemptions or caused us to become subject to incremental tax, or if the authorities were to change, modify or have a different interpretation of the relevant tax laws, we could suffer adverse tax and other financial consequences, and the anticipated benefits of our organizational structure could be materially impaired. Our company’s organizational structure and other tax positions are subject to review by tax authorities in the local and other jurisdictions where we operate our business.
Our provision for income taxes is subject to volatility and could be negatively affected by earnings being (i) lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates or (ii) higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates. In addition, our provision for income taxes could be negatively affected by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes to global intangible
low-tax
income tax laws, transfer pricing adjustments, or changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles.
Additional changes in the U.S. tax regime or in how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign income, including changes in how existing tax laws are interpreted or enforced, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recommended changes to numerous long-standing international tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project. These changes, to the extent adopted, may increase tax uncertainty, result in higher compliance costs and adversely affect our provision for income taxes, results of operations and/or cash flow.
On August 16, 2022, the U.S. enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”), which, among other things, implements a 15% alternative minimum tax on the adjusted financial statement income of large corporations with average annual financial income exceeding $1 billion, a 1% excise tax on net stock repurchases and several tax incentives to promote clean energy. The IRA provisions are effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022. On December 12, 2022, the European Union member states agreed to implement the OECD’s Pillar 2 global minimum effective tax rate of 15% on multinational enterprise (“MNE”) groups with consolidated revenues of at least EUR 750 million during two of the four preceding fiscal years, which will be effective for fiscal years beginning on January 1, 2024. Additionally, South Korea became one of the first countries to enact global minimum tax rules. At this time, we do not anticipate that changes in the tax laws will have a material impact to our consolidated tax provision for the year ending December 31, 2023 or December 31, 2024. We will continue to monitor as new information and guidance becomes available.
We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the IRS and other taxing authorities, including the Korean National Tax Service, with respect to income and
non-income
based taxes both within and outside the U.S. In connection with the OECD’s BEPS project, companies are required to disclose more information to tax authorities on operations around the world, which may lead to greater audit scrutiny of income earned in various countries. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenues in jurisdictions in which we operate, or the adoption of new or reformed tax legislation or regulation, may make resolving tax disputes more difficult and the final resolution of tax audits and any related litigation could differ from our historical provisions and accruals, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Expanded trade restrictions imposed by the United States may limit our ability to sell to certain customers.
On August 17, 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce expanded the scope of export restrictions as applied to products directed to Huawei and its affiliates listed on the Bureau of Industry and Security’s Entity List (collectively, “Huawei”). While prior restrictions had minimal effect on our ability to supply to customers, the
 
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newly expanded restrictions would limit our ability to supply to a variety of customers who we believe incorporate our products to those customers’ products directly or indirectly sold to Huawei. As of the date of this Annual Report, we are uncertain on the seriousness of the restrictions’ impact or duration and the future trajectory of our business from customers who directly or indirectly supply Huawei with products that incorporate our products. For export of some of our products, we have successfully obtained the necessary export licenses, and if exports of other products require export licenses due to the restrictions, we will consider applying for the necessary export licenses to continue to sell to the affected customers. Although we have thus far successfully obtained the necessary export licenses for exporting some of our products, we are unsure whether our other applications will be successful. There is also a possibility that export restrictions may be further expanded to target companies in addition to Huawei, which may have an additional impact on our ability to sell to our customers. Export restrictions may also affect our contractors, suppliers or customers, and we cannot assure that they will not violate the restrictions, and any such violations may result in fines or criminal sanctions against us and damage our reputation.
Additionally, the U.S. has published significant changes to U.S. export control regulations with respect to Russia and China, and we anticipate additional changes to export control regulations in the future. For example, the U.S. government has implemented controls on advanced computing ICs, computer commodities that contain such ICs, and certain semiconductor manufacturing items, as well as controls on transactions involving items for supercomputer and semiconductor manufacturing
end-users.
The new controls expand the scope of foreign-produced items subject to license requirements for certain entities on the U.S. government’s Entity List. Future changes in the U.S. export control regulations, including changes in the enforcement and scope of such regulations, may create delays in the introduction of our products or services in international markets or could prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our products or services globally. In some cases, such changes could prevent the export or import of our products, which could have a material impact on our future results of operations and financial condition.
Expanded trade restrictions imposed by South Korea may limit our ability to sell to certain customers or engage in any potential strategic opportunities.
Under the ITA, any export (including various means of outflow, such as sale or transfer outside Korea) of National Core Technology by the MOTIE requires the filing of a prior-report with, and the acceptance of the same by, the MOTIE. Under the Special Act, any export of NHST requires prior approval from the MOTIE. Any such export of NCT without the acceptance of the prior-report with the MOTIE may be subject to corrective orders by the relevant authorities, and failure to comply with such corrective orders may potentially result in criminal liabilities. Any such export of NHST without the prior approval from the MOTIE may be subject to corrective orders by the relevant authorities and may also be subject to criminal sanctions.
The Notification Regarding Designation of National Core Technologies issued by the MOTIE was amended on July 14, 2021 to add certain technologies to the list of National Core Technology designated by the MOTIE, and the amended list includes the OLED DDI design technology for driving display panels. On June 2, 2023, the MOTIE designated 17 technologies, including the OLED DDI design technology for driving display panels, as NHST under the Special Act. In the ordinary course of business, our Korean subsidiary may provide certain information relating to its products, including OLED DDI, to customers, suppliers or vendors, and such disclosure of information may be subject to both NCT and NHST restrictions, and therefore the MOTIE’s acceptance of prior reports and prior approval. Since the amendment of the foregoing NCT list in July 2021, we have filed prior-reports with the MOTIE for the export of our OLED DDI product-related information to certain overseas vendors that manufacture our products, and all such reports have thus far been accepted by the MOTIE.
There is no assurance, however, that any future prior-reports for the export of our product-related information will be accepted by the MOTIE or we will obtain any future prior approval for the export from the MOTIE. In the event that any future prior-report or application is not accepted or not approved, we may be unable to continue our business with the overseas customers, suppliers or vendors, including the manufacturing and delivery of our OLED DDI products.
 
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In addition, in the event that there is any M&A transaction with respect to our Korean subsidiary that results in
non-Korean
ownership of 50% or more, or exertion of control over the appointment of officers/management by a
non-Korean
person or entity as the largest shareholder, a prior-report with and the acceptance by the MOTIE is required under the ITA and a prior approval from the MOTIE is required under the Special Act. There is no assurance that any report for an M&A transaction involving
non-Korean
acquirers or investors will be accepted by the MOTIE, nor we can assure approval for the M&A transaction from the MOTIE when such transaction is pursued in the future.
Recent changes in international trade policy and the imposition and threats of international tariffs, including tariffs applied to goods traded between the United States and China, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Since the beginning of 2018, there have been increasing public threats and, in some cases, legislative or executive action, from U.S. and foreign leaders regarding instituting tariffs against foreign imports of certain materials. More specifically, since March of 2018, the U.S. and China have applied tariffs to certain of each other’s exports. The institution of trade tariffs globally, and between the U.S. and China specifically, may negatively impact the affected countries’ economic conditions, which could negatively affect demand for our products in those countries and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations of our customers serving the affected markets. Imposition of tariffs could increase costs of the
end-user
products we supply that we may not be able to pass on to our customers, which could in turn cause a decrease in the sales of our products and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology and
know-how,
as well as our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others.
We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights, both in the U.S. and in foreign countries, through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, mask works and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements and third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements. Because of the differences in foreign trademark, patent and other laws concerning proprietary rights, our intellectual property rights may not receive the same degree of protection in foreign countries as they would in the U.S. In particular, the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property in China, where we derive a significant portion of our net sales, and certain other countries where we derive net sales, are uncertain and still evolving and historically have not protected, and may not protect in the future, intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws and enforcement procedures in the U.S. Our failure to obtain or maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property rights for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We seek to protect our proprietary technologies and
know-how
through the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and other security measures. The process of seeking patent protection takes a long time and is expensive. There can be no assurance that patents will issue from pending or future applications or that, if patents issue, they will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that the rights granted under the patents will provide us with meaningful protection or any commercial advantage. Many of our patents are subject to cross licenses, several of which are with our competitors. Some of our technologies are not covered by any patent or patent application. The confidentiality agreements on which we rely to protect these technologies may be breached and may not be adequate to protect our proprietary technologies. Further, it is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technologies, even without access to our proprietary technologies.
We rely on our trademarks, trade names, and brand names to distinguish our products from the products of our competitors, and have registered or applied to register many of these trademarks. We cannot assure you that our trademark applications will be approved. Third parties may also oppose our trademark applications, or otherwise challenge our use of the trademarks. In the event that our trademarks are successfully challenged, we
 
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could be forced to rebrand our products, which could result in loss of brand recognition, and could require us to devote resources advertising and marketing new brands. Further, we cannot assure you that competitors will not infringe our trademarks, or that we will have adequate resources to enforce our trademarks.
Our ability to compete successfully depends on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others. We have no means of knowing what patent applications have been filed until they are published. In addition, the semiconductor industry is characterized by frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. We may need to file lawsuits to enforce our patents or intellectual property rights, and we may need to defend against claimed infringement of the rights of others. Any litigation could result in substantial costs to us and divert our resources, and we cannot assure you that we will prevail. Any claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation against use, even those without merit, could require us to:
 
 
pay substantial damages or indemnify customers or licensees for damages they may suffer if the products they purchase from us or the technology they license from us violate the intellectual property rights of others;
 
 
stop our manufacture, use, sale or importation of the accused products;
 
 
redesign, reengineer or rebrand our products, if feasible;
 
 
expend significant resources to develop or acquire
non-infringing
technologies;
 
 
discontinue processes; or
 
 
obtain licenses to a third party’s intellectual property.
There can be no assurance that we would be successful in such development or acquisition or that such licenses would be available under reasonable terms, or at all.
We license certain intellectual property from third parties. The termination of key third-party licenses relating to the use of intellectual property in our products and our design processes would adversely affect certain areas of our business.
We are subject to many environmental laws and regulations that could affect our operations or result in significant expenses.
We are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate, governing, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, the generation, use, handling, storage and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous substances (including asbestos) and wastes, soil and groundwater contamination and employee health and safety. These laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. Among them is the Act on Remediation and Compensation for Damages arising from Environmental Contamination which came into effect in Korea on January 1, 2016 and provides for strict liability of business entities in violation of the act and alleviates the burden of proof for the damaged party. Further, under the amendment to the Act on the Control and Aggravated Punishment of Environmental Offenses that becomes effective on November 27, 2020, certain environmental offenses such as illegally emitting specified hazardous air pollutants or emitting air pollutants without necessary permits will be subject to penalties of up to 5% of the sales amount generated from the relevant business. Moreover, to effectively respond to environmental crimes, on November 14, 2022, a joint investigation team was established, consisting of experts from both national and local governments, including the prosecutor’s office, the Ministry of Environment. As a result, we have increased potential exposure to liability for environmental contaminations that might have existed in the past or would arise in the future. There can be no assurance that we have been, or will be, in compliance with all such laws and regulations or that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in connection with these laws and regulations in the future. The adoption of new environmental, health and safety laws, the failure to comply with new or existing laws, or issues relating to hazardous substances could subject us to material liability (including substantial fines or penalties), impose the
 
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need for additional capital equipment or other process requirements upon us, curtail our operations or restrict our ability to expand operations.
Our Korean subsidiary has been designated as a regulated business under Korean environmental law, and such designation could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Since 2015, our Korean subsidiary has been subject to
K-ETS,
a new set of greenhouse gas emissions regulations, under the Act on Allocation and Trading of Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances. Under
K-ETS,
our Korean subsidiary was allocated a certain amount of emissions allowance in accordance with the National Allocation Plan prepared by the Korean government, and is required to meet its allocated target by either reducing emissions or purchasing allowances from other participants or the government in the emission trading market. Reduction of our emissions or energy consumption may result in additional and potentially costly compliance or remediation expenses, including potentially the installation of equipment and changes in the type of materials we use in manufacturing, as well as cost of procuring emission allowances to cover the excess emissions, which could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations. During the first implementation period from 2015 to 2017 and second implementation period from 2018 to 2020, we did not exceed the allocated emission amount. Our Korean subsidiary has been allocated emissions allowance in the third implementation period from 2021 to 2025, and we do not expect to exceed the allocated emission amount during the third implementation period. If, however, our Korean subsidiary exceeds the allocated emission amount the third implementation period, we will be required to pay for the excess emissions and may be subject to other regulatory action. We will continue to monitor our compliance with the emissions allowance on a yearly basis. In addition, from time to time, if we assess that we have excess allowances, we may sell such excess allowances to manufacturers in the emission market in Korea.
Furthermore, the Korean legislature enacted the Framework Act on Carbon Neutrality and Green Growth for Responding to Climate Change (the “Carbon Neutrality Framework Act”) on September 24, 2021. The Carbon Neutrality Framework Act aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 35% by 2030 (compared to 2018) and proclaims the achievement of carbon neutrality by 2050 as a national vision. The Carbon Neutrality Framework Act is significant in that it legislates carbon neutrality and greenhouse gas
 
reduction objectives, and enables the central administrative agencies, local governments and public institutions to implement various measures towards such objectives.
 
On March 25, 2022, the Enforcement Decree of the Carbon Neutrality Framework Act (the “Enforcement Decree”) was enacted. The Enforcement Decree aims to provide details required for the execution of items prescribed under the Carbon Neutrality Framework Act. The key provisions of the Enforcement Decree include those setting the
mid-to
long-term greenhouse gas
 
reduction goal at 40% and implementing the climate change impact assessment scheme. Based on that, On April 11, 2023, the Korean government published the 1st National Basic Plan for Carbon Neutrality and Green Growth (the “Basic Plan”). The Basic Plan is a national plan for responding to the climate crisis and sustainable development. Including annual reduction goals and implementation measures for each sector (e.g., industry and transportation), the Basic Plan will be updated every five years over the next 20 years between 2023 and 2042. It is anticipated that the Carbon Neutrality Framework Act and the Basic Plan, which aims to promote the harmonious development of the economy and the environment in conjunction with active greenhouse gas
 
reduction measures, will serve as the foundation for the government’s climate change response policy going forward.
Our compliance with the Serious Accidents Punishment Act (the “SAPA”) could require significant expenditures and management time and expose us to liability for violations.
Enacted on January 26, 2021 and effective as of January 27, 2022 in Korea, the SAPA will impose enhanced liability exposure for workplace accidents. The legislative goal of the SAPA is to prevent serious accidents by prescribing punishments and punitive damages liability for business owners or responsible management personnel who have violated safety and health measures in the event of such serious accidents (serious industrial accidents and serious civil accidents). Since the law applies to businesses in Korea with 50 or more full-time employees starting from January 27, 2022, our Korean subsidiary becomes subject to the law after the effective
 
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date. According to the SAPA, if a serious occupational accident occurs that results in at least one deceased person, at least two persons wounded for six months or more, or at least three persons suffering from occupational diseases within a one year period, if the “business owners or responsible management personnel” of the relevant business place is found to have failed to perform its “obligation to secure safety and health,” that person may be subject to imprisonment for up to 7 year or a fine of up to KRW 100 million (in case of death, imprisonment for not less than 1 year or a fine of not less than KRW 1 billion). Additionally, if there was negligence of the company in giving due attention and supervision to prevent such accident, the company will be subject to a fine up to KRW 1 billion (in case of death, a fine up to KRW 5 billion) under joint penalty provisions. Relevant responsible management personnel will also be required to spend more time, effort and cost to comply with the SAPA and perform the necessary additional duties imposed by the law to ensure compliance.
We may need additional capital in the future, and such capital may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may require more capital in the future from equity or debt financings to fund operating expenses, such as research and development costs, finance investments in equipment and infrastructure, acquire complementary businesses and technologies, and respond to competitive pressures and potential strategic opportunities. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new shares we issue could have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of the holders of our common stock. There can be no assurance that any additional equity or debt financing would be available to us, or if available, that such financing would be on favorable terms to us. Accordingly, if we are unable to obtain additional capital or our business does not generate sufficient cash flows from operating activities to fund our working capital needs and planned capital expenditures, and our cash reserves are depleted, we may need to take various actions, such as
down-sizing
and/or eliminating certain operations, which could include additional exit costs, reducing or delaying capital expenditures, selling assets, or other restructuring actions. There can be no assurance that we would be successful in taking such actions and, in any event, such actions may result in a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, our indebtedness limits our ability to incur additional indebtedness under certain circumstances.
Our business depends on international customers, suppliers and operations in Asia, and as a result we are subject to regulatory, operational, financial and political risks, which could adversely affect our financial results.
We rely on, and expect to continue to rely on, suppliers, subcontractors and operations located primarily in Asia. As a result, we face risks inherent in international operations, such as unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs and other market barriers, political, social and economic instability, adverse tax consequences, war, civil disturbances and acts of terrorism, public health issues (including viral outbreaks such as
COVID-19),
difficulties in accounts receivable collection, extended payment terms and differing labor standards, enforcement of contractual obligations and protection of intellectual property. These risks may lead to increased costs or decreased revenue growth, or both.
Tensions with North Korea could have an adverse effect on us and the market value of our shares.
Relations between South Korea and North Korea have been tense throughout Korea’s modern history. The level of tension between the two Koreas has fluctuated and may increase abruptly as a result of current and future events. In particular, in recent years, there have been heightened security concerns stemming from North Korea’s nuclear weapon and long-range missile programs and increased uncertainty regarding North Korea’s actions and possible responses from the international community.
North Korea’s economy also faces severe challenges, and any adverse economic developments may further aggravate social and political tensions within North Korea.
 
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Although we do not derive any revenue from, nor sell any products in, North Korea, any future increase in tensions between South Korea and North Korea that may occur, for example, if North Korea experiences a leadership crisis, high-level contacts between South Korea and North Korea break down, or military hostilities occur, could have a material adverse effect on the South Korean economy and on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the market value of our common stock.
We may be subject to disruptions, breaches or cyber-attacks of our secured networks and information technology systems that could damage our reputation, harm our business, expose us to liability and materially adversely affect our results of operations.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including IP and other proprietary information about our business and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners. Secure maintenance, processing and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. We may be subject to disruptions, breaches or cyber-attacks of our secured networks and information technology systems caused by illegal hacking, criminal fraud or impersonation, computer viruses, acts of vandalism or terrorism or employee error, and our security measures or those of any third party service providers we use may not detect or prevent such security breaches. We may incur significant costs to eliminate or alleviate cybersecurity breaches and vulnerabilities, which could be significant, and our efforts to protect against such breaches or vulnerabilities may not be successful and could result in system interruptions that may materially impede our sales, manufacturing, distribution, finance or other critical functions. Any such compromise of our information security could also result in the unauthorized publication of our confidential business or proprietary information or that of other parties with which we do business, an interruption in our operations, the unauthorized transfer of cash or other assets, the unauthorized release of customer or employee data or a violation of privacy or other laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Any of the foregoing could irreparably damage our reputation and business and/or expose us to material monetary liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
You may not be able to bring an action or enforce any judgment obtained in United States courts, or bring an action in any other jurisdiction, against us or our subsidiaries or our directors, officers or independent auditors that are organized or residing in jurisdictions other than the United States.
Most of our subsidiaries are organized or incorporated outside of the U.S. and some of our directors and executive officers as well as our independent auditors are organized or reside outside of the U.S. Most of our and our subsidiaries’ assets are located outside of the U.S. and in particular, in Korea. Accordingly, any judgment obtained in the U.S. against us or our subsidiaries may not be collectible in the U.S. As a result, it may not be possible for you to effect service of process within the U.S. upon these persons or to enforce against them or us court judgments obtained in the U.S. that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the U.S. or of the securities laws of any state of the U.S. In particular, there is doubt as to the enforceability in Korea or any other jurisdictions outside the U.S., either in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of civil liabilities predicated on the federal securities laws of the U.S. or the securities laws of any state of the U.S.
We are a holding company and depend on the business of our subsidiaries to make payments to us.
We are a holding company with no independent operations of our own. Our subsidiaries conduct substantially all of the operations necessary to fund our obligations. Our ability to pay dividends or to make payments on any future obligations will depend on our subsidiaries’ cash flow and their payment of funds to us. Our subsidiaries’ ability to make payments to us will depend on:
 
 
their earnings;
 
 
covenants contained in agreements to which we or our subsidiaries are or may become subject;
 
 
business and tax considerations; and
 
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applicable law, including any restrictions under Korean law that may be imposed on our Korean subsidiary that would restrict its ability to make payments on intercompany loans from our Dutch subsidiary.
We cannot assure that the operating results of our subsidiaries at any given time will be sufficient to make distributions or other payments to us.
We may at times need to incur impairment, restructuring and other restructuring related charges, which could materially affect our results of operations and financial condition.
During industry downturns and for other reasons, we may need to record impairment, restructuring or other restructuring related charges. In the future, we may need to record additional impairment charges or to further restructure our business or incur additional restructuring charges, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
We are subject to litigation risks, which may be costly to defend and the outcome of which is uncertain.
All industries, including the semiconductor industry, are subject to legal claims, with and without merit, that may be particularly costly and which may divert the attention of our management and our resources in general. We are involved in a variety of legal matters, most of which we consider routine matters that arise in the normal course of business. These routine matters typically fall into broad categories such as those involving customers, employment and labor and intellectual property. Even if the final outcome of these legal claims does not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows, defense and settlement costs can be substantial. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the litigation process, the resolution of any particular legal claim or proceeding could have a material effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
The price of our common stock may be volatile and you may lose all or a part of your investment.
The trading price of our common stock might be subject to wide fluctuations. Factors, some of which are beyond our control, that could affect the trading price of our common stock may include:
 
 
actual or anticipated variations in our results of operations from quarter to quarter or year to year;
 
 
announcements by us or our competitors of significant agreements, technological innovations or strategic alliances;
 
 
changes in recommendations or estimates by any securities analysts who follow our securities;
 
 
addition or loss of significant customers;
 
 
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
 
 
changes in economic performance or market valuations of competing companies in our industry;
 
 
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market;
 
 
market conditions in our industry, end markets and the economy as a whole;
 
 
subsequent sales of stock and other financings; and
 
 
litigation, legislation, regulation or technological developments that adversely affect our business.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a public company’s securities, securities class action litigation often has been instituted against the public company. Regardless of its outcome, this type of litigation could result in substantial costs to us and a likely diversion of our management’s attention. You may not receive a positive return on your investment when you sell your shares, and you could lose some or the entire amount of your investment.
 
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We cannot guarantee that our share repurchase program will be successfully consummated, or that it will enhance shareholder value, and share repurchases could affect the price of our common stock.
On December 21, 2021, the Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase up to $75.0 million of our outstanding common stock and we entered into an accelerated stock repurchase agreement (the “ASR Agreement”) with JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“JPM”) to repurchase an aggregate of $37.5 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the terms of the ASR Agreement, we paid JPM $37.5 million in cash and received an initial delivery of 994,695 shares of our common stock. Upon final settlement of the ASR Agreement, we received an additional 1,031,576 shares of common stock from JPM. On August 31, 2022, the Board of Directors authorized an expansion of our previously announced stock repurchase program from $75 million to $87.5 million of our common stock. The remaining $50 million of the expanded $87.5 million program was planned to be repurchased in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. From September 2022 to June 2023, we repurchased 4,941,093 shares of common stock under the expanded stock repurchase program using the remaining $50 million through open market purchases. On July 19, 2023, the Board of Directors authorized a new $50 million stock buyback program. Purchases have been and will be made in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, depending upon market conditions and other factors. In connection with the repurchase program, we established a stock trading plan with Needham & Company, LLC in accordance with Rule
10b5-1
under the Securities Exchange Act. This share repurchase program could affect the price of our common stock, increase volatility and diminish our cash reserves. The IRA enacted in August 2022 imposes a 1% excise tax on the fair market value of stock repurchases made by covered corporations after December 31, 2022. The total taxable value of shares repurchased is reduced by the fair market value of any newly issued shares during the taxable year.
See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 12. Stockholders’ Equity and Stock-Based Compensation” for more information.
Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware Law may make it difficult for a third party to acquire us and could depress the price of our common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Among other things, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws:
 
 
authorize our Board of Directors to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock with such terms as the Board of Directors may determine;
 
 
prohibit action by written consent of our stockholders;
 
 
prohibit any person other than our Board of Directors, the chairman of our Board of Directors, our Chief Executive Officer or holders of at least 25% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors to call a special meeting of our stockholders; and
 
 
specify advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations.
In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), regulating corporate takeovers and which has an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by our Board of Directors, including discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for shares of our common stock. In general, those provisions prohibit a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:
 
 
the transaction is approved by the board of directors before the date the interested stockholder attained that status;
 
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upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced; or
 
 
on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at a meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by at least
two-thirds
of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, DGCL Section 203 defines a business combination to include the following:
 
 
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
 
 
any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
 
 
subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
 
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any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
 
 
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, DGCL Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by any such entity or person.
A Delaware corporation may opt out of this provision by express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or by amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws approved by its stockholders. However, we have not opted out of, and do not currently intend to opt out of, this provision.
We have not historically paid dividends and do not currently have any dividend or distribution policy, and therefore, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.
We have not historically paid cash dividends and do not currently have any dividend or distribution policy. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors. Accordingly, unless the Board implements a future dividend or distribution policy, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
Cybersecurity risks and data protection are key components of our long-term strategy and enterprise risk management program and are integrated into our overall risk management systems and processes. We maintain processes for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, and we routinely invest in the development and implementation of essential cybersecurity systems, infrastructures and processes to protect the security and integrity of our systems, networks, databases and proprietary information. Key areas of our cybersecurity risk management processes and strategy currently include:
 
   
Compliance with industry standards and regulatory frameworks
: Our information security management system is ISO 27001 certified. In addition, we align our standards to comply with South Korea’s industrial technology protection law (Act on Prevention of Divulgence and Protection of Industrial Technology), which prevents technologies vital to South Korean national security or economic competitiveness from being divulged to or shared with foreign countries or corporations without the government’s approval.
 
   
Ongoing Evaluation and Assessment of Systems and Procedure
: We monitor compliance with regulatory, industry and evolving data privacy requirements and update our cybersecurity risk management program from time to time as appropriate. We also continuously monitor our information security systems and processes on an ongoing basis to identify and remediate cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities that could be exploited to adversely impact our business operations. To better preemptively identify risks and vulnerabilities in our security systems, we perform penetration testing for security controls using external third-party tools and encourage vulnerability reporting within our organization,
 
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Cross-Collaboration and Coordination
: Cybersecurity risks related to our business, privacy and compliance issues are identified and managed through a multifaceted approach, including third-party monitoring, internal and external IT security audits and reviews by relevant committees.
 
   
Third-Party Service Providers
: We engage leading third-party product and service providers to assist us with our cybersecurity risk management. We use an Information Prevention and Data Loss Prevention System on networks and endpoints, which is designed to prevent unauthorized access to or transfer of sensitive data. We also use centrally managed antivirus systems for blocking illegal software to detect and remove malware and illegal software from devices in real time. In particular, we use a Managed Security Service provider for Security Information and Event Management services for matters such as firewall management, intrusion detection and prevention, vulnerability management and incident response.
 
   
Cyber Incident Response Plan
: We maintain a comprehensive cyber incident response plan that sets forth the applicable processes, roles, engagements, escalations and notifications to promptly respond to a cybersecurity incident. This plan covers steps to be taken upon the detection of a cybersecurity incident detection, review by relevant committees, identification of damages, recovery process, post-incident analysis and the introduction of improvement measures. Such incident responses are managed in a timely manner by a dedicated team and overseen by relevant organizations, including IT, finance, legal and compliance.
 
   
Security Awareness Training for Personnel
: We provide comprehensive employee training on cybersecurity awareness, confidential information protection and simulated phishing attacks.
 
   
Review of Third-Party Risks
: We routinely conduct risk and compliance assessments of third-party service providers prior to exchanging any sensitive data or integrating with any key third-party provider.
As of December 31, 2023, we have not identified any risks from cybersecurity threats, including any previous cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected the Company, our business strategy, our results of operations or our financial condition. For a discussion of risks from cybersecurity threats (including any previous cybersecurity incidents) that could be reasonably likely to materially affect us, please refer to our Risk Factors discussion under the heading ‘We may be subject to disruptions, breaches or cyber-attacks of our secured networks and information technology systems that could damage our reputation, harm our business, expose us to liability and materially adversely affect our results of operations’ in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
Cybersecurity Governance
In line with our overall risk management governance structure, management is responsible for the
day-to-day
management of cybersecurity risks while the Company’s Board of Directors and its Risk Committee actively and continuously provide oversight.
Our Risk Committee oversees the Company’s management of key risks including those arising from cybersecurity threats. Our management team reports to the Risk Committee on a quarterly basis, presenting their assessment of key enterprise risks, including cybersecurity. The topics include trends in cyber threats and the initiatives designed to strengthen our security systems and enhance the cyber readiness of our organization. Additionally, at least annually, our management team and our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) update the members of the Risk Committee and the Board of Directors on existing and new cybersecurity risks, status of risk mitigation efforts, cybersecurity incidents, if any, and the progress of key information security initiatives.
In 2020, we established the Information Security Steering Committee (the “IS Steering Committee”), a management-level and cross-functional committee, led by our Chief Executive Officer, and comprised of our Chief Compliance Officer, Chief Financial Officer, CISO, Chief Privacy Officer and relevant teams including
 
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Information Security, HR, Compliance & Internal Audit and Legal. The IS Steering Committee holds quarterly meetings, during which they review and take action on a wide range of topics, including cybersecurity threat matters such as prevention monitoring, detection mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents.
Our CISO leads a dedicated Information Security team in charge of cybersecurity matters. Collectively, the members of our Information Security team have over 35 years of relevant experience in various roles involving information technology, information security, compliance and systems. Also, our Information Security team oversees compliance with our cybersecurity framework, facilitates cybersecurity risk management activities, assists with the review and approval of policies, and oversees the security awareness program. At least annually, our Information Security team and CISO update the members of the Risk Committee and the Board of Directors on compliance and risk matters. The Information Security team also reports to the IS Steering Committee on a quarterly basis. We invest in ongoing cybersecurity training for our Information Security team.
Item 2. Properties
Our manufacturing operations take place in a single fabrication facility located in Korea in Gumi. Our facility has a capacity of approximately 36,000 eight-inch equivalent wafers per month. We manufacture wafers utilizing geometries ranging from 0.18 to 0.35 microns. The Gumi facility has one main building with 41,022 square meters devoted to manufacturing, testing and packaging.
In addition to our fabrication facility in Gumi, we lease facilities in Cheongju and Seoul, Korea. Each of these facilities includes administration, sales and marketing and research and development functions. We lease sales and marketing offices through our subsidiaries in several other countries.
The ownership of our wafer manufacturing assets is an important component of our business strategy. Maintaining manufacturing control enables us to develop proprietary, differentiated products and results in higher production yields, as well as shortened design and production cycles. We believe our facilities are suitable and adequate for the conduct of our business for the foreseeable future and that we have sufficient production capacity to service our business as currently contemplated without significant capital investment.
All of our assembly, test and packaging services for our Display Solutions business and for our Power Solutions business are outsourced with the balance handled
in-house.
The independent providers of these outsourced services are located in Korea and China. The relative cost of outsourced services, as compared to
in-house
services, depends upon many factors specific to each product and circumstance. However, we generally incur higher costs for outsourced services, which can result in lower margins.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are involved in a variety of legal matters, most of which we consider routine matters that arise in the normal course of business. These routine matters typically fall into broad categories such as those involving customers, employment and labor and intellectual property. Intellectual property litigation and infringement claims, in particular, could cause us to incur significant expenses or prevent us from selling our products. We are currently not involved in any legal proceedings that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
See also “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Report for additional information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
 
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MX.”
Stock Performance Graph
The graph and table below compare the cumulative total stockholder return of our common shares with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index and the Philadelphia Semiconductor Index (PHLX) from December 29, 2017 (the last trading day before the beginning of our fifth preceding fiscal year) through December 31, 2023. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 29, 2017 in our common shares and in each index and that any dividends were reinvested. No cash dividends have been declared on our common shares during the five-year period ended December 31, 2023.
Comparison of Cumulative Total Return*
Among Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation, the S&P 500 Index and the PHLX
 
 
 
*
The stock performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock performance.
 
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Total Return to Stockholders (Including Reinvestment of Dividends)
Indexed Returns
 
Company/Index
  Base Period
12/31/2018
    12/31/2019     12/31/2020     12/31/2021     12/30/2022     12/29/2023  
Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation
    100       186.96       217.71       337.68       151.21       120.77  
S&P 500 Index
    100       129.96       149.83       190.13       153.16       190.27  
Philadelphia Semiconductor Index
    100       160.12       242.00       341.61       219.20       361.46  
Holders
The approximate number of record holders of our outstanding common stock as of February 29, 2024 was 67. This number does not include beneficial owners for whom shares are held by nominees in street name.
Stock-Based Compensation
For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Dividends
We have not historically paid any cash dividends on our common stock. Our Board of Directors continuously evaluates our capital allocation strategy and liquidity targets, but has not currently implemented any dividend or distribution policy. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table shows the monthly activity related to our repurchases of common stock for the quarter ended December 31, 2023.
 
Period
  
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased(1)
    
Average
Price Paid
per Share
    
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as Part
of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs(2)
    
Approximate dollar
value of Shares that
may yet be
Purchased under the
Plans or Programs
(in thousands)(2)
 
October 2023
     904,977      $ 7.78        904,977      $ 37,594  
November 2023
     153,699      $ 7.53        153,699      $ 36,437  
December 2023(1)
     72,595      $ 7.50             $ 36,437  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
     1,131,271      $ 7.73        1,058,676      $ 36,437  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes 72,595 shares withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units issued under our equity incentive plans.
(2)
On July 19, 2023, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a new $50 million stock buyback program. Purchases have been and will be made in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, depending upon market conditions and other factors. In connection with the repurchase program, the Company established a stock trading plan with Needham & Company, LLC in accordance with Rule
10b5-1
under the Exchange Act.
 
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Item 6. [Reserved]
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements, together in each case with the related notes, included elsewhere in this Report. This discussion and analysis contains, in addition to historical information, forward-looking statements that include risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Report.
The following section generally discusses our financial condition and results of operations for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (“fiscal year 2023”) compared to our fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 (“fiscal year 2022”). A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal year 2022 compared to our fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (“fiscal year 2021”) can be found in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form
10-K
for fiscal year 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 22, 2023.
Overview
We are a designer and manufacturer of analog and mixed-signal semiconductor platform solutions for communication, Internet of Things (“IoT”), consumer, computing, industrial and automotive applications. We have a proven record with more than 40 years of operating history, a portfolio of approximately 1,100 registered patents and pending applications and extensive engineering and manufacturing process expertise.
Our standard products business includes our Display Solutions and Power Solutions business lines.
Our Display Solutions line of products provide flat panel display solutions to major suppliers of large and small flat panel displays. These products include source and gate drivers and timing controllers that cover a wide range of flat panel displays used in mobile communication, automotive, entertainment devices, IT applications such as monitors, notebook PCs, tablet PC and TVs applied with liquid crystal display (“LCD”), organic light emitting diodes (“OLED”) and micro light emitting diode (“Micro LED”) panel. Since 2007, we have designed and manufactured OLED display driver integrated circuit (“IC”) products. Our current portfolio of OLED solutions address a wide range of resolutions ranging from HD (High Definition) to UHD (Ultra High Definition) for a wide range of applications including smartphones, TVs, automotive and IT applications such as monitors, notebook PCs, tablet PCs as well as AR/VRs.
Our Power Solutions business line produces power management semiconductor products including discrete and integrated circuit solutions for power management in communication, consumer, computing, servers, automotive, and industrial applications. These products include metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (“MOSFETs”), insulated-gate bipolar transistors (“IGBTs”),
AC-DC/DC-DC
converters, LED drivers, regulators and power management integrated circuits (“PMICs”) for a range of devices, including televisions, smartphones, mobile phones, wearable devices, desktop PCs, notebooks, tablet PCs, other consumer electrics, automotive, and industrial applications such as power suppliers,
e-bikes,
solar inverters, LED lighting and motor drives.
Our wide variety of analog and mixed-signal semiconductor products combined with our mature technology platform allow us to address multiple high-growth end markets and rapidly develop and introduce new products and services in response to market demands. Our design center in Korea and substantial manufacturing operation in global place us at the core of the global electronics device supply chain. We believe this enables us to quickly and efficiently respond to our customers’ needs, and allows us to better serve and capture additional demand from existing and new customers. Certain of our OLED products are produced using external foundries. Through a strategic cooperation with external foundries, we manage to ensure outsourcing wafers at competitive price and produce quality products.
 
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To maintain and increase our profitability, we must accurately forecast trends in demand for electronics devices that incorporate semiconductor products we produce. We must understand our customers’ needs as well as the likely end market trends and demand in the markets they serve. We must also invest in relevant research and development activities and purchase necessary materials on a timely basis to meet our customers’ demand while maintaining our target margins and cash flow.
The semiconductor markets in which we participate are highly competitive. The prices of our products tend to decrease regularly over their useful lives, and such price decreases can be significant as new generations of products are introduced by us or our competitors. We strive to offset the impact of declining selling prices for existing products through cost reductions and the introduction of new products that command selling prices above the average selling price of our existing products. In addition, we seek to manage our inventories and manufacturing capacity so as to mitigate the risk of losses from product obsolescence.
Demand for our products and services is driven by overall demand for communication, IoT, consumer, industrial and automotive products and can be adversely affected by periods of weak consumer and enterprise spending or by market share losses by our customers. In order to mitigate the impact of market volatility on our business, we continually strive to diversify our portfolio of products, customers, and target applications. We also expect that new competitors will emerge in these markets that may place increased pressure on the pricing for our products and services. While we believe we are well positioned competitively to compete in these markets and against these new competitors as a result of our long operating history, existing manufacturing capacity and our worldwide customer base, if we are not effective in competing in these markets, our operating results may be adversely affected.
Net sales for our standard products business are driven by design wins in which we are selected by an electronics original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) or other potential customer to supply its demand for a particular product. A customer will often have more than one supplier designed into multi-source components for a particular product line. Once we have design wins and the products enter into mass production, we often specify the pricing of a particular product for a set period of time, with periodic discussions and renegotiations of pricing with our customers. In any given period, our net sales depend heavily upon the
end-market
demand for the goods in which our products are used, the inventory levels maintained by our customers and, in some cases, allocation of demand for components for a particular product among selected qualified suppliers.
In contrast to completely fabless semiconductor companies, our internal manufacturing capacity provides us with greater control over certain manufacturing costs and the ability to implement process and production improvements for our internally manufactured products, which can favorably impact gross profit margins. Our internal manufacturing capacity also allows for better control over delivery schedules, improved consistency over product quality and reliability and improved ability to protect intellectual property from misappropriation on these internally manufactured products. However, having internal manufacturing capacity exposes us to the risk of under-utilization of manufacturing capacity that results in lower gross profit margins, particularly during downturns in the semiconductor industry.
Our standard products business requires investments in capital equipment. Analog and mixed-signal manufacturing facilities and processes are typically distinguished by the design and process implementation expertise rather than the use of the most advanced equipment. Many of these processes also tend to migrate more slowly to smaller geometries due to technological barriers and increased costs. For example, some of our products use high-voltage technology that requires larger geometries and that may not migrate to smaller geometries for several years, if at all. As a result, our manufacturing base and strategy do not require substantial investment in leading edge process equipment for those products, allowing us to utilize our facilities and equipment over an extended period of time with moderate required capital investments. In addition, we are less likely to experience significant industry overcapacity, which can cause product prices to decline significantly. In general, we seek to invest in manufacturing capacity that can be used for multiple high-value applications over an extended period of time. In addition, we outsource manufacturing of those products which do require advanced
 
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technology and
12-inch
and
8-inch
wafer capacity, such as OLED. We believe this balanced capital investment strategy enables us to optimize our capital investments and facilitates more diversified product and service offerings.
Since 2007, we had designed and manufactured OLED display driver ICs in our internal manufacturing facilities. As we expanded our design capabilities to products that require lower geometries unavailable at our existing manufacturing facilities, we began outsourcing manufacturing of certain OLED display driver ICs to external
12-inch
foundries starting in the second half of 2015 and we have started outsourcing
8-inch
wafer for OLED TV ICs after the sale of our fabrication facility located in Cheongju, Korea in 2020. This additional source of manufacturing is an increasingly important part of our supply chain management. By outsourcing manufacturing of OLED products to external foundries, we are able to adapt dynamically to changing customer requirements and address growing markets without substantial capital investments by us. However, relying on external foundries exposes us to the risk of being unable to secure manufacturing capacity, particularly during the global shortage of foundry services. Although we are working strategically with external foundries to ensure long-term wafer capacity, if these efforts are unsuccessful, our ability to deliver products to our customers may be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our relationship with customers and opportunities to secure new design-wins.
Our success going forward will depend upon our ability to adapt to future challenges such as the emergence of new competitors for our products and services or the consolidation of current competitors. Additionally, we must innovate to remain ahead of, or at least rapidly adapt to, technological breakthroughs that may lead to a significant change in the technology necessary to deliver our products and services. We believe that our established relationships and close collaboration with leading customers enhance our awareness of new product opportunities, market and technology trends and improve our ability to adapt and grow successfully.
Recent Developments
Internal Separation
On May 30, 2023, we announced a plan to separate our standard products business, consisting of Display Solutions and Power Solutions business lines, into two different entities to better align our product strategies by enabling each entity to allocate its resources more effectively to the specific needs of its customers, as well as to enhance transparency, accountability and flexibility in business (the “Internal Separation”). To effectuate the Internal Separation, we reorganized our standard products business into two distinct businesses: (i) our Display IC and Power IC businesses, which are fabless businesses, were grouped together to form the Mixed-Signal Solutions (“MSS”) business, and (ii) our Power Discrete business, which is an integrated device manufacturing (“IDM”) business, became the Power Analog Solutions (“PAS”) business. On January 10, 2024, we completed the Internal Separation by forming a new Korean limited liability company named “Magnachip Mixed-Signal, Ltd.” and transferring the MSS business into such subsidiary. Following the Internal Separation, our MSS business is primarily operated by Magnachip Mixed-Signal, Ltd., and our PAS business is primarily operated by Magnachip Semiconductor, Ltd., our already-existing Korean operating company. Both companies are indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2024, the changes from the Internal Separation will be reflected in the Company’s financial reporting, including segments.
New Stock Repurchase Program
On July 19, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a new $50 million stock buyback program. Purchases have been and will be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, depending upon market conditions and other factors.
 
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From August 2023 to December 2023, we repurchased 1,730,173 shares of our common stock in the open market for an aggregate purchase price of $13.6 million and a weighted average price per share of $7.84 under the new stock repurchase program.
Macroeconomic Industry Conditions
The semiconductor industry continues to face a number of macroeconomic challenges, including rising inflation, increased interest rates, supply chain disruptions, inventory corrections, shifting customer and
end-user
demand, fluctuations in currency rates, and geopolitical tensions, including without limitation ongoing conflicts involving Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas and sustained military action and conflict in the Red Sea, any one of and all of which may cause volatility and unpredictability in the market for semiconductor products and
end-user
demand. The length and severity of these macroeconomic events and their overall impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition remain uncertain.
Developments in Export Control Regulations
On October 7, 2022, the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce published changes to U.S. export control regulations (U.S. Export Regulations), including new restrictions on Chinese entities’ ability to obtain advanced computing chips, develop and maintain supercomputers, and manufacture advanced semiconductors. Further, on October 12, 2022, a new rule went into effect requiring U.S. persons to obtain a license prior to engaging in certain activities that could “support” certain
end-uses
and
end-users,
including those related to weapons of mass destruction. Additionally, on October 21, 2022, the Bureau of Industry and Security brought into effect a series of new Foreign Direct Product (FDP) rules and various new controls on advanced computing items, significantly expanding the scope of items that are subject to export control under the U.S. Export Regulations. More recently, on October 25, 2023, the Bureau of Industry and Security published additional rules, which went into effect on November 17, 2023 to expand, clarify, and correct the rules published in October 2022. Based on our understanding of the U.S. Export Regulations and related rules currently in effect, we do not anticipate that they will have a material impact on our current business, but we will continue reviewing and assessing these rules and regulations and their potential impact on our business. Additional changes to the U.S. Export Regulations are expected, but the scope or timing of such changes is unknown. We will continue to monitor such developments, including potential additional trade restrictions, and other regulatory or policy changes by the U.S. and foreign governments.
Explanation and Reconciliation of
Non-U.S. GAAP
Measures
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) and Adjusted Net Income (Loss)
We use the terms Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) and Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) in this Report. Adjusted EBITDA, as we define it, is a
non-U.S.
GAAP measure. We define Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated as EBITDA (as defined below), adjusted to exclude (i) equity-based compensation expense, (ii) foreign currency loss (gain), net, (iii) derivative valuation loss (gain), net and (iv) early termination and other charges, net. EBITDA for the periods indicated is defined as net loss before interest income, interest expense, income tax expense (benefit), and depreciation and amortization.
See the footnotes to the table below for further information regarding these items. We present Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure of our performance because:
 
 
we believe that Adjusted EBITDA, by eliminating the impact of a number of items that we do not consider to be indicative of our core ongoing operating performance, provides a more comparable measure of our operating performance from
period-to-period
and may be a better indicator of future performance;
 
 
we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is commonly requested and used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in the evaluation of a company as an enterprise level performance measure that
 
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eliminates the effects of financing, income taxes and the accounting effects of capital spending, as well as other one time or recurring items described above; and
 
 
we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful for investors, among other reasons, to assess a company’s
period-to-period
core operating performance and to understand and assess the manner in which management analyzes operating performance.
We use Adjusted EBITDA in a number of ways, including:
 
 
for planning purposes, including the preparation of our annual operating budget;
 
 
to evaluate the effectiveness of our enterprise level business strategies;
 
 
in communications with our Board of Directors concerning our consolidated financial performance; and
 
 
in certain of our compensation plans as a performance measure for determining incentive compensation payments.
We encourage you to evaluate each adjustment and the reasons we consider them appropriate. In evaluating Adjusted EBITDA, you should be aware that in the future we may incur expenses (income) similar to the adjustments in this presentation. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure defined in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be construed as an alternative to net income or any other performance measure derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP, or as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity. A reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA is as follows:
 
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2023
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2022
 
    
(Dollars in millions)
 
Net loss
   $ (36.6    $ (8.0
Interest income
     (10.4      (6.0
Interest expense
     0.8        1.2  
Income tax expense (benefit)
     (10.9      5.2  
Depreciation and amortization
     16.7        15.0  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
EBITDA
   $ (40.5    $ 7.3  
Adjustments:
     
Equity-based compensation expense(a)
     7.2        6.0  
Foreign currency loss (gain), net(b)
     (0.5      3.0  
Derivative valuation loss (gain), net(c)
     0.3        (0.1
Early termination and other charges, net(d)
     9.3        3.3  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
   $ (24.2    $ 19.5  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(a)
This adjustment eliminates the impact of
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses. Although we expect to incur
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses in the future, these expenses do not generally require cash settlement, and, therefore, are not used by us to assess the profitability of our operations. We believe that analysts and investors will find it helpful to review our operating performance without the effects of these
non-cash
expenses as supplemental information.
(b)
This adjustment mainly eliminates the impact of
non-cash
foreign currency translation associated with intercompany debt obligations and foreign currency denominated receivables and payables, as well as the cash impact of foreign currency transaction gains or losses on collection of such receivables and payment of such payables. Although we expect to incur foreign currency translation gains or losses in the future, we believe that analysts and investors will find it helpful to review our operating performance without the effects of these primarily
non-cash
gains or losses, which we cannot control. Additionally, we believe the isolation of this adjustment provides investors with enhanced comparability to prior and future periods of our operating performance results.
 
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(c)
This adjustment eliminates the impact of gain or loss recognized in income on derivatives, which represents derivatives value changes excluded from the risk being hedged. We enter into derivative transactions to mitigate foreign exchange risks. As our derivative transactions are limited to a certain portion of our expected cash flows denominated in U.S. dollars, and we do not enter into derivative transactions for trading or speculative purposes, we do not believe that these charges or gains are indicative of our core operating performance.
(d)
For the year ended December 31, 2023, this adjustment eliminates the termination related charges of $8.4 million in connection with the voluntary resignation program (the “2023 Voluntary Resignation Program”) that we offered and paid to certain employees during the first half of 2023 and $0.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives. For the year ended December 31, 2022, this adjustment eliminates $2.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives and professional service fees and expenses of $1.0 million incurred in connection with certain strategic evaluations, which was offset in part by a $0.5 million gain on sale of certain legacy equipment of the closed
back-end
line in our fabrication facility in Gumi. As these adjustments meaningfully impacted our operating results and are not expected to represent an ongoing operating expense or income to us, we believe our operating performance results are more usefully compared if these adjustments are excluded.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
 
   
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our cash expenditures, or future requirements, for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
 
   
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
 
   
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our debt;
 
   
although depreciation and amortization are
non-cash
charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often need to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
 
   
Adjusted EBITDA does not consider the potentially dilutive impact of issuing equity-based compensation to our management team and employees;
 
   
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the costs of holding certain assets and liabilities in foreign currencies; and
 
   
other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as a measure of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our U.S. GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only supplementally.
We present Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) as supplemental measures of our performance. We prepare Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) by adjusting operating income (loss) to eliminate the impact of equity-based compensation expenses and other items that may be either one time or recurring that we do not consider to be indicative of our core ongoing operating performance. We believe that Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) is useful to investors to provide a supplemental way to understand our underlying operating performance and allows investors to monitor and understand changes in our ability to generate income from ongoing business operations.
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) is not a measure defined in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be construed as an alternative to operating income (loss) or any other performance measure derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We encourage you to evaluate each adjustment and the reasons we consider them
 
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appropriate. Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure. In addition, in evaluating Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), you should be aware that in the future we may incur expenses (income) similar to the adjustments in this presentation. We define Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) for the periods indicated as operating income adjusted to exclude (i) equity-based compensation expense and (ii) early termination and other charges, net.
The following table summarizes the adjustments to operating loss that we make in order to calculate Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) for the periods indicated:
 
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2023
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2022
 
    
(Dollars in millions)
 
Operating loss
   $ (57.6    $ (5.2
Adjustments:
     
Equity-based compensation expense(a)
     7.2        6.0  
Early termination and other charges, net(b)
     9.3        3.3  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss)
   $ (41.2    $ 4.1  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(a)
This adjustment eliminates the impact of
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses. Although we expect to incur
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses in the future, these expenses do not generally require cash settlement, and, therefore, are not used by us to assess the profitability of our operations. We believe that analysts and investors will find it helpful to review our operating performance without the effects of these
non-cash
expenses as supplemental information.
(b)
For the year ended December 31, 2023, this adjustment eliminates the termination related charges of $8.4 million in connection with the 2023 Voluntary Resignation Program that we offered and paid to certain employees during the first half of 2023 and $0.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives. For the year ended December 31, 2022, this adjustment eliminates $2.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives and professional service fees and expenses of $1.0 million incurred in connection with certain strategic evaluations, which was offset in part by a $0.5 million gain on sale of certain legacy equipment of the closed
back-end
line in our fabrication facility in Gumi. As these adjustments meaningfully impacted our operating results and are not expected to represent an ongoing operating expense or income to us, we believe our operating performance results are more usefully compared if these adjustments are excluded.
We present Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) as a further supplemental measure of our performance. We prepare Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) by adjusting income (loss) to eliminate the impact of a number of
non-cash
expenses and other items that may be either one time or recurring that we do not consider to be indicative of our core ongoing operating performance. We believe that Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) is particularly useful because it reflects the impact of our asset base and capital structure on our operating performance. We present Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) for a number of reasons, including:
 
   
we use Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) in communications with our Board of Directors concerning our consolidated financial performance without the impact of
non-cash
expenses and the other items as we discussed below since we believe that it is a more consistent measure of our core operating results from period to period; and
 
   
we believe that reporting Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) is useful to readers in evaluating our core operating results because it eliminates the effects of
non-cash
expenses as well as the other items we discuss below, such as foreign currency gains and losses, which are out of our control and can vary significantly from period to period.
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) is not a measure defined in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be construed as an alternative to net income or any other performance measure
 
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derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP, or as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity. We encourage you to evaluate each adjustment and the reasons we consider them appropriate. Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure. In addition, in evaluating Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis), you should be aware that in the future we may incur expenses (income) similar to the adjustments in this presentation. We define Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis); for the periods indicated as income (loss), adjusted to exclude (i) equity-based compensation expense, (ii) foreign currency loss (gain), net, (iii) derivative valuation loss (gain), net, (iv) early termination and other charges, net, and (v) income tax effect on
non-GAAP
adjustments.
The following table summarizes the adjustments to income (loss) that we make in order to calculate Adjusted Net Income (Loss) (including on a per share basis) for the periods indicated:
 
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2023
    
Year Ended
December 31,
2022
 
    
(Dollars in millions, except per
share data)
 
Net loss
   $ (36.6    $ (8.0
Adjustments:
     
Equity-based compensation expense(a)
     7.2        6.0  
Foreign currency loss (gain), net(b)
     (0.5      3.0  
Derivative valuation loss (gain), net(c)
     0.3        (0.1
Early termination and other charges, net(d)
     9.3        3.3  
Income tax effect on
non-GAAP
adjustments(e)
     (2.2      4.6  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Adjusted Net Income (Loss)
   $ (22.5    $ 8.8  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Reported loss per share—basic
   $ (0.89    $ (0.18
Reported loss per share—diluted
   $ (0.89    $ (0.18
Weighted average number of shares—basic
     41,013,069        44,850,791  
Weighted average number of shares—diluted
     41,013,069        44,850,791  
Adjusted earnings (loss) per share—basic
   $ (0.55    $ 0.20  
Adjusted earnings (loss) per share—diluted
   $ (0.55    $ 0.19  
Weighted average number of shares—basic
     41,013,069        44,850,791  
Weighted average number of shares—diluted
     41,013,069        45,795,559  
 
 
(a)
This adjustment eliminates the impact of
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses. Although we expect to incur
non-cash
equity-based compensation expenses in the future, these expenses do not generally require cash settlement, and, therefore, are not used by us to assess the profitability of our operations. We believe that analysts and investors will find it helpful to review our operating performance without the effects of these
non-cash
expenses as supplemental information.
(b)
This adjustment mainly eliminates the impact of
non-cash
foreign currency translation associated with intercompany debt obligations and foreign currency denominated receivables and payables, as well as the cash impact of foreign currency transaction gains or losses on collection of such receivables and payment of such payables. Although we expect to incur foreign currency translation gains or losses in the future, we believe that analysts and investors will find it helpful to review our operating performance without the effects of these primarily
non-cash
gains or losses, which we cannot control. Additionally, we believe the isolation of this adjustment provides investors with enhanced comparability to prior and future periods of our operating performance results.
(c)
This adjustment eliminates the impact of gain or loss recognized in income on derivatives, which represents derivatives value changes excluded from the risk being hedged. We enter into derivative transactions to mitigate foreign exchange risks. As our derivative transactions are limited to a certain portion of our expected cash flows denominated in U.S. dollars, and we do not enter into derivative transactions for trading
 
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  or speculative purposes, we do not believe that these charges or gains are indicative of our core operating performance.
(d)
For the year ended December 31, 2023, this adjustment eliminates the termination related charges of $8.4 million in connection with the 2023 Voluntary Resignation Program that we offered and paid to certain employees during the first half of 2023 and $0.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives. For the year ended December 31, 2022, this adjustment eliminates $2.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives and professional service fees and expenses of $1.0 million incurred in connection with certain strategic evaluations, which was offset in part by a $0.5 million gain on sale of certain legacy equipment of the closed
back-end
line in our fabrication facility in Gumi. As these adjustments meaningfully impacted our operating results and are not expected to represent an ongoing operating expense or income to us, we believe our operating performance results are more usefully compared if these adjustments are excluded.
(e)
For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, income tax effect on
non-GAAP
adjustments were calculated by calculating the tax expense (benefit) of each jurisdiction with or without the
non-GAAP
adjustments. For the year ended December 31, 2023, this adjustment eliminates the income tax effect on
non-GAAP
adjustments of negative $2.2 million, which mainly related to our Korean subsidiary. For the year ended December 31, 2022, income tax effect on
non-GAAP
adjustments related to our Korean subsidiary and the U.S. parent entity were $6.2 million and negative $1.7 million, respectively.
We believe that all adjustments to income (loss) used to calculate Adjusted Net Income (Loss) was applied consistently to the periods presented.
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
 
   
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
 
   
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) does not consider the potentially dilutive impact of issuing equity-based compensation to our management team and employees;
 
   
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) does not reflect the costs of holding certain assets and liabilities in foreign currencies; and
 
   
other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted Net Income (Loss) differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted Net Income (Loss) should not be considered as a measure of profitability of our business. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our U.S. GAAP results and using Adjusted Net Income (Loss) only as a supplement.
Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
Net
Sales.
We derive substantially all of our sales (net of sales returns and allowances) from our standard products business. We outsource manufacturing of mobile OLED products to external
12-inch
foundries. Our product inventory is primarily located in Korea and is available for drop shipment globally. Outside of Korea, we maintain limited product inventory, and our sales representatives generally relay orders to our fabrication facility in Korea for fulfillment. We have strategically located our sales offices near concentrations of major customers. Our sales offices are located in Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Greater China. Our network of authorized agents and distributors is in the United States, Europe and the Asia Pacific region.
We recognize revenue when a customer obtains control of the product, which is generally upon product shipment, delivery at the customer’s location or upon customer acceptance, depending on the terms of the arrangement. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we sold products to 165 and 175 customers, respectively, and our net sales to our ten largest customers (which does not include the Transitional Fab 3 Foundry Services) represented 69% of our net sales—standard products business, in each period.
 
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We are currently in the process of winding down the Transitional Fab 3 Foundry Services, which represented 14.9% and 10.6% of our total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Gross Profit.
Our overall gross profit generally fluctuates as a result of changes in overall sales volumes and in the average selling prices of our products and services. Other factors that influence our gross profit include changes in product mix, the introduction of new products and services and subsequent generations of existing products and services, shifts in the utilization of our manufacturing facility and the yields achieved by our manufacturing operations, changes in material, labor and other manufacturing costs including outsourced manufacturing expenses, and variation in depreciation expense.
Average
Selling
Prices.
Average selling prices for our products tend to be highest at the time of introduction of new products which utilize the latest technology and tend to decrease over time as such products mature in the market and are replaced by next generation products. We strive to offset the impact of declining selling prices for existing products through our product development activities and by introducing new products that command selling prices above the average selling price of our existing products. In addition, we seek to manage our inventories and manufacturing capacity so as to preclude losses from product and productive capacity obsolescence.
Material Costs.
Our material costs consist of costs of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, chemicals, gases and tape and packaging supplies. We use processes that require specialized raw materials, such as silicon wafers, that are generally available from a limited number of suppliers. If demand increases or supplies decrease, the costs of our raw materials could increase significantly.
Labor
Costs.
A significant portion of our employees are located in Korea. Under Korean labor laws, most employees and certain executive officers with one or more years of service are entitled to severance benefits upon the termination of their employment based on their length of service and rate of pay. As of December 31, 2023, 96% of our employees were eligible for severance benefits.
Depreciation Expense.
We periodically evaluate the carrying values of long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, as well as the related depreciation periods. We depreciated our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets. Depreciation rates vary from
30-40
years on buildings to
3-12
years for certain equipment and assets. Our evaluation of carrying values is based on various analyses including cash flow and profitability projections. If our projections indicate that future undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover the carrying value of the related long-lived assets, the carrying value of the assets is impaired and will be reduced, with the reduction charged to expense so that the carrying value is equal to fair value.
Selling
Expenses.
We sell our products worldwide through a direct sales force as well as a network of sales agents and representatives to OEMs, including major branded customers and contract manufacturers, and indirectly through distributors. Selling expenses consist primarily of the personnel costs for the members of our direct sales force, a network of sales representatives and other costs of distribution. Personnel costs include base salary, benefits and incentive compensation.
General
and
Administrative
Expenses.
General and administrative expenses consist of the costs of various corporate operations, including finance, legal, human resources and other administrative functions. These expenses primarily consist of payroll-related expenses, consulting and other professional fees and office facility-related expenses.
Research
and
Development.
The rapid technological change and product obsolescence that characterize our industry require us to make continuous investments in research and development. Product development time frames vary but, in general, we incur research and development costs one to two years before generating sales
 
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from the associated new products. These expenses include personnel costs for members of our engineering workforce, cost of photomasks, silicon wafers and other
non-recurring
engineering charges related to product design. Additionally, we develop base line process technology through experimentation and through the design and use of characterization wafers that help achieve commercially feasible yields for new products. The majority of research and development expenses of our display business are material and design-related costs for OLED display driver IC product development involving
28-nanometer
or finer processes. The majority of research and development expenses of our power business are certain equipment, material and design-related costs for power discrete products and material and design-related costs for power IC products. Power IC uses standard BCD process technologies which can be sourced from multiple foundries.
Impact of Foreign Currency Exchange Rates on Reported Results of Operations.
Historically, a portion of our revenues and cost of sales and greater than the majority of our operating expenses have been denominated in
non-U.S.
currencies, principally the Korean won, and we expect that this will remain true in the future. Because we report our results of operations in U.S. dollars converted from our
non-U.S.
revenues and expenses based on monthly average exchange rates, changes in the exchange rate between the Korean won and the U.S. dollar could materially impact our reported results of operations and distort period to period comparisons. In particular, because of the difference in the amount of our consolidated revenues and expenses that are in U.S. dollars relative to Korean won, depreciation in the U.S. dollar relative to the Korean won could result in a material increase in reported costs relative to revenues, and therefore could cause our profit margins and operating income to appear to decline materially, particularly relative to prior periods. The converse is true if the U.S. dollar were to appreciate relative to the Korean won. Moreover, our foreign currency gain or loss would be affected by changes in the exchange rate between the Korean won and the U.S. dollar as a substantial portion of
non-cash
translation gain or loss is associated with the intercompany long-term loans to our Korean subsidiary, which is denominated in U.S. dollars. As of December 31, 2023, the outstanding intercompany loan balance including accrued interest between our Korean subsidiary and our Dutch subsidiary was $285.1 million. As a result of such foreign currency fluctuations, it could be more difficult to detect underlying trends in our business and results of operations. In addition, to the extent that fluctuations in currency exchange rates cause our results of operations to differ from our expectations or the expectations of our investors, the trading price of our stock could be adversely affected.
From time to time, we may engage in exchange rate hedging activities in an effort to mitigate the impact of exchange rate fluctuations. Our Korean subsidiary enters into foreign currency zero cost collar contracts in order to mitigate a portion of the impact of U.S. dollar-Korean won exchange rate fluctuations on our operating results. Obligations under these foreign currency zero cost collar contracts must be cash collateralized if our exposure exceeds certain specified thresholds. These zero cost collar contracts may be terminated by a counterparty in a number of circumstances, including if our total cash and cash equivalents is less than $30.0 million at the end of a fiscal quarter unless a waiver is obtained from the counterparty. We cannot assure that any hedging technique we implement will be effective. If our hedging activities are not effective, changes in currency exchange rates may have a more significant impact on our results of operations. See “Note 9. Derivative Financial Instruments” to our consolidated financial statements under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional information regarding our foreign exchange hedging activities.
Foreign Currency Gain or Loss.
Foreign currency translation gains or losses on transactions by us or our subsidiaries in a currency other than our or our subsidiaries’ functional currency are included in foreign currency gain (loss), net in our statements of operations. A substantial portion of this net foreign currency gain or loss relates to
non-cash
translation gain or loss related to the principal balance of intercompany balances at our Korean subsidiary that are denominated in U.S. dollars. This gain or loss results from fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Korean won and U.S. dollar.
Income Taxes.
We record our income taxes in each of the tax jurisdictions in which we operate. This process involves using an asset and liability approach whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for differences in the financial reporting bases and tax basis of our assets and liabilities. We exercise significant
 
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management judgment in determining our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities. We assess whether it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets existing at the
period-end
will be realized in future periods. In such assessment, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent results of operations. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize the deferred income tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would adjust the valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
We are subject to income-or
non-income-based
tax examinations by tax authorities of the U.S., Korea and multiple other foreign jurisdictions for all open tax years. Significant estimates and judgments are required in determining our worldwide provision for income-or
non-income
based taxes. Some of these estimates are based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations. The ultimate amount of tax liability may be uncertain as a result.
Capital
Expenditures.
We primarily invest in manufacturing equipment, software design tools and other tangible assets mainly for fabrication facility maintenance, capacity expansion and technology improvement. Capacity expansions and technology improvements typically occur in anticipation of increases in demand. We typically pay for capital expenditures in partial installments with portions due on order, delivery and final acceptance. Our capital expenditures mainly include our payments for the purchase of property, plant and equipment.
Inventories.
We monitor our inventory levels in light of product development changes and market expectations. We may be required to take additional charges for quantities in excess of demand, cost in excess of market value and product age. Our analysis may take into consideration historical usage, expected demand, anticipated sales price, new product development schedules, the effect new products might have on the sales of existing products, product age, customer design activity, customer concentration and other factors. These forecasts require us to estimate our ability to predict demand for current and future products and compare those estimates with our current inventory levels and inventory purchase commitments. Our forecasts for our inventory may differ from actual inventory use.
 
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
The following table sets forth consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
 
    
Year Ended
December 31, 2023
   
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
       
    
Amount
   
% of
Total
revenues
   
Amount
   
% of
Total
revenues
   
Change
Amount
 
    
(Dollars in millions)
 
Revenues
          
Net sales—standard products business
   $ 195.7       85.1   $ 301.9       89.4   $ (106.2
Net sales—transitional Fab 3 foundry services
     34.4       14.9       35.8       10.6       (1.4
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total revenues
     230.1       100.0       337.7       100.0       (107.6
Cost of sales
          
Cost of sales—standard products business
     143.8       62.5       202.3       59.9       (58.6
Cost of sales—transitional Fab 3 foundry services
     34.6       15.1       34.0       10.1       0.6  
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Total cost of sales
     178.4       77.6       236.4       70.0       (58.0
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Gross profit
     51.6       22.4       101.3       30.0       (49.6
Selling, general and administrative expenses
     48.5       21.1       50.9       15.1       (2.4
Research and development expenses
     51.6       22.4       52.3       15.5       (0.8
Early termination and other charges, net
     9.3       4.0       3.3       1.0       6.0  
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Operating loss
     (57.6     (25.1     (5.2     (1.6     (52.4
Interest income
     10.4       4.5       6.0       1.8       4.5  
Interest expense
     (0.8     (0.4     (1.2     (0.3     0.3  
Foreign currency gain (loss), net
     0.5       0.2       (3.0     (0.9     3.5  
Others, net
     0.0       0.0       0.6       0.2       (0.5
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
     10.1       4.4       2.4       0.7       7.7  
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Loss before income tax expense (benefit)
     (47.6     (20.7     (2.9     (0.9     (44.7
Income tax expense (benefit)
     (10.9     (4.8     5.2       1.5       (16.1
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Net loss
   $ (36.6     (15.9 )%    $ (8.0     (2.4 )%    $ (28.6
  
 
 
     
 
 
     
 
 
 
Results by business line
 
    
Year Ended
December 31, 2023
   
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
       
    
Amount
    
% of
Total
revenues
   
Amount
    
% of
Total
revenues
   
Change
Amount
 
  
(Dollars in millions)
 
Revenues
            
Net sales—standard products business
            
Display Solutions
     32.1        14.0       71.4        21.2       (39.3
Power Solutions
     163.6        71.1       230.5        68.3       (66.9
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total standard products business
     195.7        85.1       301.9        89.4       (106.2
Net sales—transitional Fab 3 foundry services
     34.4        14.9       35.8        10.6       (1.4
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total revenues
   $ 230.1        100.0   $ 337.7        100.0   $ (107.6
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
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Year Ended
December 31, 2023
   
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
       
    
Amount
   
% of
Net Sales
   
Amount
    
% of
Net Sales
   
Change
Amount
 
    
(Dollars in millions)
 
Gross Profit
           
Gross profit—standard products business
     51.9       26.5       99.5        33.0       (47.6
Gross profit—transitional Fab 3 foundry services
     (0.3     (0.8     1.7        4.8       (2.0
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total gross profit
   $ 51.6       22.4   $ 101.3        30.0   $ (49.6
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Revenues
Total revenues were $230.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, a $107.6 million, or 31.9%, decrease compared to $337.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in revenue related to our standard products business as described below.
The standard products business.
Net sales from our standard products business were $195.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, a $106.2 million, or 35.2%, decrease compared to $301.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Net sales from our Display Solutions business line decreased from $71.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $32.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in net sales from our Display Solutions business line was primarily attributable to a decrease in revenue from our mobile OLED display driver ICs stemmed from slower than expected new design-wins and lower customer demand for legacy products as a result of weak global macroeconomic conditions. Weak demand for our OLED TV display driver ICs and
auto-LCD
display driver ICs also had an unfavorable impact on net sales.
Net sales from our Power Solutions business line decreased from $230.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $163.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in net sales from our Power Solutions business line was attributable to lower demand for power products such as MOSFETs, including
high-end
MOSFETs, primarily for TVs, smartphones and
e-bikes,
mainly due to an industry-wide slowdown. Weak demand for IGBTs for solar inverters in the industrial segment also had an unfavorable impact on net sales.
The transitional Fab 3 foundry services.
Net sales from the transitional Fab 3 foundry services were $34.4 million and $35.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Gross Profit
Total gross profit was $51.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $101.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, representing a $49.6 million, or 49.0%, decrease. Gross profit as a percentage of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to 22.4% compared to 30.0% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of net sales was primarily due to the decrease in gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of net sales from our standard products business as further described below.
The standard products business.
 Gross profit from our standard products business was $51.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, representing a $47.6 million, or 47.8%, decrease from $99.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in gross profit was primarily attributable to a significant decrease in net sales from our standard products business as explained above. Gross profit as a percentage of net sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to 26.5% compared to 33.0% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The year-over-year decrease in gross profit as a percentage of net sales was primarily attributable to an unfavorable product mix as well as higher manufacturing input costs, such as electricity and wages, and a significant drop in the utilization rate of our internal fabrication facility in Gumi.
 
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Net Sales—Standard Products Business by Geographic Region
We report net sales—standard products business by geographic region based on the location to which the products are billed. The following table sets forth our net sales—standard products business by geographic region and the percentage of total net sales—standard products business represented by each geographic region for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
 
    
Year Ended
December 31, 2023
   
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
       
    
Amount
    
% of
Net Sales –
standard
products
business
   
Amount
    
% of
Net Sales –
standard
products
business
   
Change
Amount
 
    
(Dollars in millions)
 
Korea
   $ 66.8        34.1   $ 105.3        34.9   $ (38.5
Asia Pacific (other than Korea)
     119.2        60.9       179.6        59.5       (60.3
United States
     2.8        1.4       10.4        3.4       (7.5
Europe
     6.8        3.5       6.7        2.2       0.1  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
   $ 195.7        100.0   $ 301.9        100.0   $ (131.2
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net sales—standard products business in Korea decreased from $105.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $66.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, or by $38.5 million, or 36.5%. This decrease was primarily due to lower demand for power products such as MOSFETs, including
high-end
MOSFETs, primarily for TVs and smartphone applications. Continued impact of a lack of new design-wins for our mobile OLED display driver ICs and weak demand for our OLED TV display driver ICs also had an unfavorable impact on net sales.
Net sales—standard products business in the Asia Pacific decreased from $179.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $119.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, or by $60.3 million, or 33.6%. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in revenue from our mobile OLED display driver ICs stemmed from slower than expected new design-wins and lower customer demand for legacy products as a result of weak global macroeconomic conditions. The decreased demand for our power products such as MOSFETs, mainly for
e-bikes,
and IGBTs, primarily for solar inverters in the industrial segment also had an unfavorable impact on net sales.
Operating Expenses
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses were $48.5 million, or 21.1% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $50.9 million, or 15.1% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $2.4 million, or 4.7%, was primarily attributable to a decrease in employee compensation, including certain incentives and benefit related accruals, a decrease in certain sales and marketing expenses, and a decrease in running royalties recognized based on the revenue of certain mobile OLED display driver ICs.
Research and Development Expenses.
Research and development expenses were $51.6 million, or 22.4% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $52.3 million, or 15.5%, of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease of $0.8 million, or 1.5%, was primarily attributable to a net decrease in employee compensation, including certain incentives, which was offset in part by an increase in development activities for our
28-nanometer
OLED display driver ICs.
Early Termination and Other Charges, Net.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded $8.4 million of termination-related charges in connection with the 2023 Voluntary Resignation Program that we offered and paid to certain employees during the first half of 2023 and $0.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we recorded $2.8 million of
one-time
employee incentives
 
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and $1.0 million of professional service fees and expenses incurred in connection with certain strategic evaluations, which was offset in part by a $0.5 million gain on sale of certain legacy equipment of the closed
back-end
line in our fabrication facility in Gumi.
Operating Loss
As a result of the foregoing, operating loss of $57.6 million was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to operating loss of $5.2 million the year ended December 31, 2022. As discussed above, the increase in operating loss of $52.4 million resulted primarily from a $49.6 million decrease in gross profit and a $6.0 million increase in early termination and other charges, net, which were offset in part by a $2.4 million decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses and a $0.8 million decrease in research and development expenses.
Other Income (Expense)
Interest Income.
Interest income was $10.4 million and $6.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The increase of $4.5 million, or 74.5%, was primarily attributable to an increase in interest income on cash and cash equivalents held by our Korean subsidiary, which benefited from increased market interest rates.
Interest Expense.
Interest expense was $0.8 million and $1.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
Foreign Currency Gain (Loss), Net.
 Net foreign currency gain for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $0.5 million compared to net foreign currency loss of $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
A substantial portion of our net foreign currency gain or loss is
non-cash
translation gain or loss associated with the intercompany long-term loans to our Korean subsidiary, which is denominated in U.S. dollars, and is affected by changes in the exchange rate between the Korean won and the U.S. dollar. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the outstanding intercompany loan balance including accrued interest between our Korean subsidiary and our Dutch subsidiary was $285.1 million and $311.0 million, respectively. Foreign currency translation gain or loss from intercompany balances were included in determining our consolidated net income since the intercompany balances were not considered long-term investments in nature because management intended to settle these intercompany balances at their respective maturity dates.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and many foreign jurisdictions and our effective tax rate is affected by changes in the mix of earnings between countries with differing tax rates.
We recorded $10.9 million income tax benefit for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was primarily attributable to income tax benefit of $13.0 million from our Korean subsidiary, due mainly to its net operating losses, and this benefit was partially offset by income tax expense of $3.0 million from our Dutch subsidiary. The Dutch subsidiary’s income tax expense was mainly attributable to the foreign currency gains and withholding tax related to the loans granted to our Korean subsidiary by our Dutch subsidiary.
We recorded a $5.2 million income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2022, which was composed of primarily income tax expense from our Korean subsidiary due mainly to its realized foreign currency gains, which resulted in taxable income for the year, and this expense was partially offset by income tax benefit from our Dutch subsidiary. The Dutch subsidiary’s tax benefit was mainly attributable to the reversal of withholding tax with respect to the waiver of the accrued interest on the loans granted to our Korean subsidiary by our Dutch subsidiary.
 
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Net Loss
As a result of the foregoing, net loss of $36.6 million was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to net loss of $8.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. As discussed above, the $28.6 million increase in net loss was primarily attributable to a $52.4 million increase in operating loss, which was offset in part by a $16.1 million increase in income tax benefit, $4.5 million increase in interest income and a $3.5 million improvement in net foreign currency loss.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our principal capital requirements are to fund sales and marketing, invest in research and development and capital equipment, and to fund working capital needs. We calculate working capital as current assets less current liabilities.
Our principal sources of liquidity are our cash, cash equivalents, our cash flows from operations and our financing activities. Our ability to manage cash and cash equivalents may be limited, as our primary cash flows are dictated by the terms of our sales and supply agreements, contractual obligations, debt instruments and legal and regulatory requirements. From time to time, we may sell accounts receivable to third parties under factoring agreements or engage in accounts receivable discounting to facilitate the collection of cash. In addition, from time to time, we may make payments to our vendors on extended terms with their consent. As of December 31, 2023, we did not have any accounts payable on extended terms or payment deferment with our vendors.
As of June 29, 2018, our Korean subsidiary entered into an arrangement whereby it (i) acquired a water treatment facility from SK hynix for $4.2 million to support our fabrication facility in Gumi, Korea, and (ii) subsequently sold the water treatment facility for $4.2 million to a third party management company that we engaged to run the facility for a
10-year
term beginning July 1, 2018. As of December 31, 2023, the outstanding obligation of this arrangement is approximately $20.4 million for remaining service term through 2028.
As of December 31, 2023, cash and cash equivalents held by our Korean subsidiary were $150.2 million, which represents 95% of our total cash and cash equivalents on a consolidated basis. We currently believe that we will have sufficient cash reserves from cash on hand and expected cash from operations to fund our operations as well as capital expenditures for the next twelve months and the foreseeable future.
Year ended December 31, 2023 compared to year ended December 31, 2022
As of December 31, 2023, our cash and cash equivalents balance was $158.1 million, a $67.4 million decrease compared to $225.5 million as of December 31, 2022.
Cash outflow used in operating activities totaled $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $5.2 million of cash inflow provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022. The net operating cash outflow for the year ended December 31, 2023 reflects our net loss of $36.6 million, as adjusted favorably by $23.9 million, which mainly consisted of depreciation and amortization, provision for severance benefits, provision for inventory reserves, net foreign currency loss and stock-based compensation, and net favorable impact of $9.8 million from changes of operating assets and liabilities.
Our working capital balance as of December 31, 2023 was $198.5 million compared to $290.6 million as of December 31, 2022. The decrease in working capital balance was mainly attributable to a $67.4 million decrease in cash and cash equivalents resulted primarily from our continued execution of stock repurchase programs and the 2023 Voluntary Resignation Program that we offered and paid to certain employees during the first half of 2023.
Cash outflow used in investing activities totaled $7.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to a $24.9 million of cash outflow used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022. The $17.3 million decrease in cash outflow was attributable to a $16.4 million decrease in purchase of property, plant and equipment and a $2.0 million net decrease in hedge collateral, which was offset in part by a $0.7 million net increase in guarantee deposits.
 
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Cash outflow used in financing activities totaled $52.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $12.7 million of cash outflow used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022. The financing cash outflow for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to a payment of $51.4 million for the repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase programs and a payment of $0.4 million for the repurchase of our common stock to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units. The financing cash outflow for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to a payment of $12.1 million for the repurchases of our common stock in 2022 pursuant to our prior stock repurchase program and a payment of $1.8 million for the repurchase of our common stock to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units, which was offset in part by $1.8 million of proceeds received from the issuance of common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options.
We routinely make capital expenditures for fabrication facility maintenance, enhancement of our existing facility and reinforcement of our global research and development capability. For the year ended December 31, 2023, capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment were $7.0 million, a $16.4 million, or 70.3%, decrease from $23.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were related to meeting our customer demand and supporting technology and facility improvement at our fabrication facility.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Preparing financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods and the related disclosures in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical due to the fact that they involve a high degree of judgment and estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. We base these estimates and judgments on historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and other assumptions and information that we believe to be reasonable. Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty. Accordingly, these estimates may change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the business environment in which we operate changes.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, using the first in, first out method (“FIFO”). If net realizable value is less than cost at the balance sheet date, the carrying amount is reduced to the realizable value, and the difference is recognized as a loss on valuation of inventories within cost of sales. Inventory reserves are established when conditions indicate that the net realizable value is less than costs due to physical deterioration, obsolescence, changes in price levels, or other causes based on individual facts and circumstances. We evaluate the sufficiency of inventory reserves and take into consideration historical usage, expected demand, anticipated sales price, new product development schedules, the effect new products might have on the sale of existing products, product age and other factors. Reserves are also established for excess inventory based on our current inventory levels and projected demand and our ability to sell those specific products. Situations that could cause these inventory reserves include a decline in business and economic conditions, decline in consumer confidence caused by changes in market conditions, sudden and significant decline in demand for our products, inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and consumer requirements, or failure to estimate end customer demand properly. A reduction of these inventory reserves may be recorded if previously reserved items are subsequently sold as a result of unexpected changes to certain aforementioned situations.
 
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The gross amount of inventory reserves charged to cost of sales totaled $9.4 million and $13.3 million in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The new cost base related to the sale of inventory that was previously written down totaled $5.5 million and $3.6 million in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
As prescribed in ASC 330, “Inventory,” once a reserve is established for a particular item based on our assessment as described above, it is maintained until the related item is sold or scrapped as a new cost basis has been established that cannot subsequently be marked up. In addition, the cost of inventories is determined based on the normal capacity of each fabrication facility. In case the capacity utilization is lower than a certain level that management believes to be normal, the fixed overhead costs per production unit which exceed those under normal capacity are charged to cost of sales rather than capitalized as inventories.
Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes.
Management’s judgment is required in determining the provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. We record a valuation allowance when it is determined that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Our assessment considers the recognition of deferred tax assets on a jurisdictional basis. Accordingly, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences on a jurisdictional basis. Based on the assessment, we have not recorded a valuation allowance against our Korean entity and recorded a full valuation allowance against our Dutch and Luxembourg entities. To the extent that we determine the deferred tax assets are realizable on a more likely than not basis and an adjustment is needed, an adjustment will be recorded in the fiscal period the determination is made.
We recognize and measure uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return utilizing a
two-step
process. In the first step, recognition, we determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The second step addresses measurement of a tax position that meets the more likely than not criteria. The tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that has a likelihood of greater than 50 percent of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Although we believe our reserves are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will impact the provisions for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the effect of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related net interest and penalties.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 “Business, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report, for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to the market risk that the value of a financial instrument will fluctuate due to changes in market conditions, primarily from changes in foreign currency exchange rates. In the normal course of our business, we are subject to market risks associated with currency movements on our assets and liabilities.
 
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Foreign Currency Exposures
We have exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations on net income from our subsidiaries denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars, as our foreign subsidiaries in Korea, Taiwan, China, Japan and Hong Kong use local currency as their functional currency. From time to time these subsidiaries have cash and financial instruments in local currency. The amounts held in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong and China are not material in regards to foreign currency movements. However, based on the cash and financial instruments balance at December 31, 2023 for our Korean subsidiary, a 10% devaluation of the Korean won against the U.S. dollar would have resulted in a decrease of $1.7 million in our U.S. dollar financial instruments and cash balances.
See “Note 9. Derivative Financial Instruments” to our consolidated financial statements under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations—Impact of Foreign Currency Exchange Rates on Reported Results of Operations” for additional information regarding our foreign exchange hedging activities.
 
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
     6
4
 
     6
7
 
     6
8
 
     6
9
 
    
70
 
    
71
 
     7
2
 
 
6
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the
 
Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Magnachip Semiconductor Corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated
 
financial statements”).
 
We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in
Internal Control-Integrated Framework
(2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022
,
and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023
 
in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in
Internal Control-Integrated Framework
(2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated
 
financial statements and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated
 
financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated
 
financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in
 
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accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets