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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
xQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to _________
Commission File Number: 001-34756
Tesla, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware91-2197729
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1 Tesla Road
Austin, Texas
78725
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(512) 516-8177
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock
TSLA
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
xAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of April 18, 2024, there were 3,189,196,167 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.



TESLA, INC.
FORM 10-Q FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
INDEX
  Page
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
 
1

Table of Contents
Forward-Looking Statements
The discussions in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contain forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning supply chain constraints, our strategy, competition, future operations and production capacity, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, profitability, expected cost reductions, capital adequacy, expectations regarding demand and acceptance for our technologies, growth opportunities and trends in the markets in which we operate, prospects and plans and objectives of management. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 and that are otherwise described or updated from time to time in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The discussion of such risks is not an indication that any such risks have occurred at the time of this filing. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.


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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Tesla, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except per share data)
(unaudited)
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$11,805 $16,398 
Short-term investments15,058 12,696 
Accounts receivable, net3,887 3,508 
Inventory16,033 13,626 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets3,752 3,388 
Total current assets50,535 49,616 
Operating lease vehicles, net5,736 5,989 
Solar energy systems, net5,162 5,229 
Property, plant and equipment, net31,436 29,725 
Operating lease right-of-use assets4,367 4,180 
Digital assets, net184 184 
Intangible assets, net171 178 
Goodwill250 253 
Deferred tax assets6,769 6,733 
Other non-current assets4,616 4,531 
Total assets$109,226 $106,618 
Liabilities
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$14,725 $14,431 
Accrued liabilities and other9,243 9,080 
Deferred revenue3,024 2,864 
Current portion of debt and finance leases2,461 2,373 
Total current liabilities29,453 28,748 
Debt and finance leases, net of current portion2,899 2,857 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion3,214 3,251 
Other long-term liabilities8,480 8,153 
Total liabilities44,046 43,009 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries73 242 
Equity
Stockholders’ equity
Preferred stock; $0.001 par value; 100 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
  
Common stock; $0.001 par value; 6,000 shares authorized; 3,189 and 3,185 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
3 3 
Additional paid-in capital35,763 34,892 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(399)(143)
Retained earnings29,011 27,882 
Total stockholders’ equity64,378 62,634 
Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries729 733 
Total liabilities and equity$109,226 $106,618 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Tesla, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in millions, except per share data)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Revenues
Automotive sales$16,460 $18,878 
Automotive regulatory credits442 521 
Automotive leasing476 564 
Total automotive revenues17,378 19,963 
Energy generation and storage1,635 1,529 
Services and other2,288 1,837 
Total revenues21,301 23,329 
Cost of revenues
Automotive sales13,897 15,422 
Automotive leasing269 333 
Total automotive cost of revenues14,166 15,755 
Energy generation and storage1,232 1,361 
Services and other2,207 1,702 
Total cost of revenues17,605 18,818 
Gross profit3,696 4,511 
Operating expenses
Research and development1,151 771 
Selling, general and administrative1,374 1,076 
Total operating expenses2,525 1,847 
Income from operations1,171 2,664 
Interest income350 213 
Interest expense(76)(29)
Other income (expense), net108 (48)
Income before income taxes1,553 2,800 
Provision for income taxes409 261 
Net income1,144 2,539 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries15 26 
Net income attributable to common stockholders$1,129 $2,513 
 
Net income per share of common stock attributable to common stockholders
Basic$0.37 $0.80 
Diluted$0.34 $0.73 
Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share of common stock
Basic3,1863,166
Diluted3,4843,468
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Tesla, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(in millions)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Net income$1,144 $2,539 
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
Foreign currency translation adjustment(252)130 
Unrealized net (loss) gain on investments, net of tax(4)6 
Comprehensive income888 2,675 
Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries15 26 
Comprehensive income attributable to common stockholders$873 $2,649 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Tesla, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests and Equity
(in millions)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Redeemable
Noncontrolling
Interests
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interests in
Subsidiaries
Total
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2023$242 3,185$3 $34,892 $(143)$27,882 $62,634 $733 $63,367 
Issuance of common stock for equity incentive awards— 4— 251 — — 251 — 251 
Stock-based compensation— — 578 — — 578 — 578 
Distributions to noncontrolling interests(6)— — — — — (16)(16)
Buy-outs of noncontrolling interests(166)— 42 — — 42 — 42 
Net income3 — — — 1,129 1,129 12 1,141 
Other comprehensive loss— — — (256)— (256)— (256)
Balance as of March 31, 2024$73 3,189$3 $35,763 $(399)$29,011 $64,378 $729 $65,107 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Redeemable
Noncontrolling
Interests
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interests in
Subsidiaries
Total
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2022$409 3,164$3 $32,177 $(361)$12,885 $44,704 $785 $45,489 
Issuance of common stock for equity incentive awards— 5— 231 — — 231 — 231 
Stock-based compensation— — 465 — — 465 — 465 
Distributions to noncontrolling interests(5)— — — — — (22)(22)
Buy-outs of noncontrolling interests— — 5 — — 5 (12)(7)
Net income3 — — — 2,513 2,513 23 2,536 
Other comprehensive income— — — 136 — 136 — 136 
Balance as of March 31, 2023$407 3,169$3 $32,878 $(225)$15,398 $48,054 $774 $48,828 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Tesla, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net income$1,144 $2,539 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, amortization and impairment1,246 1,046 
Stock-based compensation524 418 
Inventory and purchase commitments write-downs68 50 
Foreign currency transaction net unrealized gain(63)(25)
Deferred income taxes(11)(55)
Non-cash interest and other operating activities(5)15 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(422)(32)
Inventory(2,697)(1,540)
Operating lease vehicles(12)(675)
Prepaid expenses and other assets(972)(737)
Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities1,247 1,403 
Deferred revenue195 106 
Net cash provided by operating activities242 2,513 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Purchases of property and equipment excluding finance leases, net of sales(2,773)(2,072)
Purchases of solar energy systems, net of sales(4)(1)
Purchases of investments(6,622)(2,015)
Proceeds from maturities of investments4,315 1,604 
Net cash used in investing activities(5,084)(2,484)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Proceeds from issuances of debt776  
Repayments of debt(591)(302)
Proceeds from exercises of stock options and other stock issuances251 231 
Principal payments on finance leases(106)(106)
Debt issuance costs(3)(13)
Distributions paid to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries(30)(36)
Payments for buy-outs of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries(101)(7)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities196 (233)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(79)50 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(4,725)(154)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period17,189 16,924 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$12,464 $16,770 
Supplemental Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activities
Acquisitions of property and equipment included in liabilities$1,431 $1,193 
Leased assets obtained in exchange for finance lease liabilities$20 $ 
Leased assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities$406 $362 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Tesla, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)
Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Unaudited Interim Financial Statements
The consolidated financial statements of Tesla, Inc. (“Tesla”, the “Company”, “we”, “us” or “our”), including the consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024, the consolidated statements of operations, the consolidated statements of comprehensive income, the consolidated statements of redeemable noncontrolling interests and equity, and the consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, as well as other information disclosed in the accompanying notes, are unaudited. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date. The interim consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with the annual consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
The interim consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the results of operations for the periods presented. The consolidated results of operations for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or for any other future years or interim periods.
Reclassifications
Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation in the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue by source
The following table disaggregates our revenue by major source (in millions):
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Automotive sales$16,460 $18,878 
Automotive regulatory credits442 521 
Energy generation and storage sales1,522 1,413 
Services and other2,288 1,837 
Total revenues from sales and services20,712 22,649 
Automotive leasing476 564 
Energy generation and storage leasing113 116 
Total revenues$21,301 $23,329 
Automotive Segment
Automotive Sales
Deferred revenue related to the access to our Full Self Driving (Supervised) (“FSD”) Capability features and their ongoing maintenance, internet connectivity, free Supercharging programs and over-the-air software updates primarily on automotive sales amounted to $3.50 billion and $3.54 billion as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
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Deferred revenue is equivalent to the total transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, as of the balance sheet date. Revenue recognized from the deferred revenue balances as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $281 million and $134 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Of the total deferred revenue balance as of March 31, 2024, we expect to recognize $848 million of revenue in the next 12 months. The remaining balance will be recognized at the time of transfer of control of the product or over the performance period.
We have financing receivables on our consolidated balance sheets related to loans we provide for financing our automotive deliveries. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have current net financing receivables of $241 million and $242 million, respectively, in Accounts receivable, net, and $971 million and $1.04 billion, respectively, in Other non-current assets for the long-term portion.
Automotive Leasing Revenue
Direct Sales-Type Leasing Program
Lease receivables relating to sales-type leases are presented on the consolidated balance sheets as follows (in millions):
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Gross lease receivables$702 $780 
Unearned interest income(66)(78)
Allowance for expected credit losses(6)(6)
Net investment in sales-type leases$630 $696 
Reported as:
Prepaid expenses and other current assets$184 $189 
Other non-current assets446 507 
Net investment in sales-type leases$630 $696 
Energy Generation and Storage Segment
Energy Generation and Storage Sales
We record as deferred revenue any non-refundable amounts that are collected from customers related to prepayments, which is recognized as revenue ratably over the respective customer contract term. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, deferred revenue related to such customer payments amounted to $1.78 billion and $1.60 billion, respectively, mainly due to contractual payment terms. Revenue recognized from the deferred revenue balances as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $417 million and $230 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, total transaction price allocated to performance obligations that were unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied for contracts with an original expected length of more than one year was $3.86 billion. Of this amount, we expect to recognize $1.00 billion in the next 12 months and the rest over the remaining performance obligation period.
We have financing receivables on our consolidated balance sheets related to loans we provide for financing our energy products. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have current net financing receivables of $32 million and $31 million, respectively, in Accounts receivable, net, and $608 million and $578 million, respectively, in Other non-current assets for the long-term portion.
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Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and in many foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets that are not more likely than not to be realized. We monitor the realizability of our deferred tax assets taking into account all relevant factors at each reporting period. In completing our assessment of realizability of our deferred tax assets, we consider our history of income (loss) measured at pre-tax income (loss) adjusted for permanent book-tax differences on a jurisdictional basis, volatility in actual earnings, excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation in recent prior years, and impacts of the timing of reversal of existing temporary differences. We also rely on our assessment of the Company’s projected future results of business operations, including uncertainty in future operating results relative to historical results, volatility in the market price of our common stock and its performance over time, variable macroeconomic conditions impacting our ability to forecast future taxable income, and changes in business that may affect the existence and magnitude of future taxable income. Our valuation allowance assessment is based on our best estimate of future results considering all available information.
Our provision for or benefit from income taxes for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items, if any, that are taken into account in the relevant period. Each quarter, we update our estimate of the annual effective tax rate, and if our estimated tax rate changes, we make a cumulative adjustment.
Net Income per Share of Common Stock Attributable to Common Stockholders
The following table presents the reconciliation of net income attributable to common stockholders to net income used in computing basic and diluted net income per share of common stock (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Net income attributable to common stockholders$1,129 $2,513 
Less: Buy-out of noncontrolling interest(42)(5)
Net income used in computing basic and diluted net income per share of common stock$1,171 $2,518 
The following table presents the reconciliation of basic to diluted weighted average shares used in computing net income per share of common stock attributable to common stockholders (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share of common stock, basic3,1863,166
Add:
Stock-based awards286289
Convertible senior notes12
Warrants1111
Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share of common stock, diluted3,4843,468
The following table presents the potentially dilutive shares that were excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share of common stock attributable to common stockholders, because their effect was anti-dilutive (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Stock-based awards2325
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Restricted Cash
Our total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, as presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows, was as follows (in millions):
 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Cash and cash equivalents$11,805 $16,398 $16,048 $16,253 
Restricted cash included in prepaid expenses and other current assets363 543 486 294 
Restricted cash included in other non-current assets296 248 236 377 
Total as presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows$12,464 $17,189 $16,770 $16,924 
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Depending on the day of the week on which the end of a fiscal quarter falls, our accounts receivable balance may fluctuate as we are waiting for certain customer payments to clear through our banking institutions and receipts of payments from our financing partners, which can take up to approximately two weeks based on the contractual payment terms with such partners. Our accounts receivable balances associated with our sales of regulatory credits are dependent on contractual payment terms. Additionally, government rebates can take up to a year or more to be collected depending on the customary processing timelines of the specific jurisdictions issuing them. These various factors may have a significant impact on our accounts receivable balance from period to period. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, government rebates receivable was $572 million and $378 million, respectively, in Accounts receivable, net for the current portion and $45 million and $207 million, respectively, in Other non-current assets for the long-term portion in our consolidated balance sheets.
Financing Receivables
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the vast majority of our financing receivables were at current status with an immaterial balance being past due. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the majority of our financing receivables, excluding MyPower notes receivable, were originated in 2023 and 2022.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the total outstanding balance of MyPower customer notes receivable, net of allowance for expected credit losses, was $263 million and $266 million, respectively, of which $5 million was due in the next 12 months. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the allowance for expected credit losses was $36 million.
Concentration of Risk
Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, investments, restricted cash, accounts receivable and other finance receivables. Our cash and investments balances are primarily on deposit at high credit quality financial institutions or invested in U.S. government securities, commercial paper, corporate debt securities and money market funds. These deposits are typically in excess of insured limits. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, no entity represented 10% or more of our total receivables balance.
Supply Risk
We are dependent on our suppliers, including single source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of our products in a timely manner at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to us, or our inability to efficiently manage these components from these suppliers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
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Warranties
Accrued warranty activity consisted of the following (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Accrued warranty—beginning of period$5,152 $3,505 
Warranty costs incurred(328)(280)
Net changes in liability for pre-existing warranties, including expirations and foreign exchange impact(18)208 
Provision for warranty547 532 
Accrued warranty—end of period$5,353 $3,965 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2023-07, Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (Topic 280). This ASU updates reportable segment disclosure requirements by requiring disclosures of significant reportable segment expenses that are regularly provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) and included within each reported measure of a segment's profit or loss. This ASU also requires disclosure of the title and position of the individual identified as the CODM and an explanation of how the CODM uses the reported measures of a segment’s profit or loss in assessing segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Adoption of the ASU should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. Early adoption is also permitted. This ASU will likely result in us including the additional required disclosures when adopted. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU and expect to adopt them for the year ending December 31, 2024.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-08, Accounting for and Disclosure of Crypto Assets (Subtopic 350-60). This ASU requires certain crypto assets to be measured at fair value separately on the balance sheet and in the income statement each reporting period. This ASU also enhances the other intangible asset disclosure requirements by requiring the name, cost basis, fair value, and number of units for each significant crypto asset holding. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Adoption of the ASU requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of the beginning of the annual reporting period in which an entity adopts the amendments. Early adoption is also permitted, including adoption in an interim period. However, if the ASU is early adopted in an interim period, an entity must adopt the ASU as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period. This ASU will result in gains and losses recorded in the consolidated financial statements of operations and additional disclosures when adopted. We are currently evaluating the adoption of this ASU and it could materially affect the carrying value of our crypto assets held and the gains and losses relating thereto, depending on the fair value at adoption.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (Topic 740). The ASU requires disaggregated information about a reporting entity’s effective tax rate reconciliation as well as additional information on income taxes paid. The ASU is effective on a prospective basis for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is also permitted for annual financial statements that have not yet been issued or made available for issuance. This ASU will likely result in the required additional disclosures being included in our consolidated financial statements, once adopted.
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Note 2 – Fair Value of Financial Instruments
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements (“ASC 820”) states that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability. The three-tiered fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes which inputs should be used in measuring fair value, is comprised of: (Level I) observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; (Level II) inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly and (Level III) unobservable inputs for which there is little or no market data. The fair value hierarchy requires the use of observable market data when available in determining fair value. Our assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis were as follows (in millions):
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
 Fair ValueLevel ILevel IILevel IIIFair ValueLevel ILevel IILevel III
Money market funds$368 $368 $ $ $109 $109 $ $ 
U.S. government securities4,122  4,122  5,136  5,136  
Corporate debt securities420  420  480  480  
Certificates of deposit and time deposits8,155  8,155  6,996  6,996  
Commercial paper2,411  2,411  470  470  
Total$15,476 $368 $15,108 $ $13,191 $109 $13,082 $ 
All of our money market funds were classified within Level I of the fair value hierarchy because they were valued using quoted prices in active markets. Our U.S. government securities, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, time deposits and corporate debt securities are classified within Level II of the fair value hierarchy and the market approach was used to determine fair value of these investments.
Our cash, cash equivalents and investments classified by security type as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following (in millions):
 March 31, 2024
 Adjusted CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized Losses Fair ValueCash and Cash EquivalentsShort-Term Investments
Cash$11,387 $ $ $11,387 $11,387 $ 
Money market funds368   368 368  
U.S. government securities4,124  (2)4,122  4,122 
Corporate debt securities423 1 (4)420  420 
Certificates of deposit and time deposits8,155   8,155  8,155 
Commercial paper2,414  (3)2,411 50 2,361 
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments$26,871 $1 $(9)$26,863 $11,805 $15,058 
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 December 31, 2023
 Adjusted CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized Losses Fair ValueCash and Cash EquivalentsShort-Term Investments
Cash$15,903 $ $ $15,903 $15,903 $ 
Money market funds109   109 109  
U.S. government securities5,136 1 (1)5,136 277 4,859 
Corporate debt securities485 1 (6)480  480 
Certificates of deposit and time deposits6,995 1  6,996  6,996 
Commercial paper470   470 109 361 
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments$29,098 $3 $(7)$29,094 $16,398 $12,696 
We record gross realized gains, losses and credit losses as a component of Other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we did not recognize any material gross realized gains, losses or credit losses. The ending allowance balances for credit losses were immaterial as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. We have determined that the gross unrealized losses on our investments as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 were temporary in nature.
The following table summarizes the fair value of our investments by stated contractual maturities as of March 31, 2024 (in millions):
Due in 1 year or less$14,805 
Due in 1 year through 5 years231 
Due in 5 years through 10 years22 
Total$15,058 
Disclosure of Fair Values
Our financial instruments that are not re-measured at fair value include accounts receivable, financing receivables, other receivables, digital assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, customer deposits and debt. The carrying values of these financial instruments materially approximate their fair values, other than our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due in 2024 (“2024 Notes”) and digital assets.
We estimate the fair value of the 2024 Notes using commonly accepted valuation methodologies and market-based risk measurements that are indirectly observable, such as credit risk (Level II). In addition, we estimate the fair values of our digital assets based on quoted prices in active markets (Level I). The following table presents the estimated fair values and the carrying values (in millions):
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
 Carrying ValueFair ValueCarrying ValueFair Value
2024 Notes$21 $180 $37 $443 
Digital assets, net$184 $821 $184 $487 
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Note 3 – Inventory
Our inventory consisted of the following (in millions):
 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Raw materials$5,584 $5,390 
Work in process2,507 2,016 
Finished goods (1)6,747 5,049 
Service parts1,195 1,171 
Total$16,033 $13,626 
(1)Finished goods inventory includes products-in-transit to fulfill customer orders, new vehicles available for sale, used vehicles and energy products available for sale.
We write-down inventory for any excess or obsolete inventory or when we believe that the net realizable value of inventory is less than the carrying value. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we recorded write-downs of $39 million in Cost of revenues in the consolidated statements of operations.
Note 4 – Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Our property, plant and equipment, net, consisted of the following (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Machinery, equipment, vehicles and office furniture$16,942 $16,309 
Tooling3,480 3,129 
Leasehold improvements3,291 3,136 
Land and buildings9,852 9,498 
AI infrastructure2,255 1,510 
Computer equipment, hardware and software2,534 2,409 
Construction in progress5,934 5,791 
 44,288 41,782 
Less: Accumulated depreciation(12,852)(12,057)
Total$31,436 $29,725 
Construction in progress is primarily comprised of ongoing construction and expansion of our facilities, equipment and tooling related to the manufacturing of our products as well as construction related to our AI infrastructure.
Depreciation expense during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $929 million and $722 million, respectively.
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Note 5 – Accrued Liabilities and Other
Our accrued liabilities and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Accrued purchases (1)$2,635 $2,721 
Accrued warranty reserve, current portion1,605 1,546 
Payroll and related costs1,464 1,325 
Taxes payable (2)1,186 1,204 
Customer deposits888 876 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion704 672 
Sales return reserve, current portion195 219 
Other current liabilities566 517 
Total$9,243 $9,080 
(1)Accrued purchases primarily reflects receipts of goods and services for which we had not yet been invoiced. As we are invoiced for these goods and services, this balance will reduce and accounts payable will increase.
(2)Taxes payable includes value added tax, income tax, sales tax, property tax and use tax payables.
Note 6 – Other Long-Term Liabilities
Our other long-term liabilities consisted of the following (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Operating lease liabilities$3,847 $3,671 
Accrued warranty reserve3,748 3,606 
Other non-current liabilities885 876 
Total other long-term liabilities$8,480 $8,153 
Note 7 – Debt
The following is a summary of our debt and finance leases as of March 31, 2024 (in millions):
 Net Carrying ValueUnpaid
Principal
Balance
Unused
Committed
Amount (1)
Contractual
Interest Rates
Contractual
Maturity Date
 CurrentLong-Term
Recourse debt:   
2024 Notes$21 $ $21 $ 2.00 %May 2024
RCF Credit Agreement   5,000 Not applicableJanuary 2028
Solar Bonds1 6 7  
4.70-5.75%
March 2025-January 2031
Other26  26  5.20 %December 2026
Total recourse debt48 6 54 5,000 
Non-recourse debt:
Automotive Asset-backed Notes2,054 2,405 4,475  
0.60-6.57%
December 2024-May 2031
Solar Asset-backed Notes4 7 12  4.80 %December 2026
Cash Equity Debt29 321 359  
5.25-5.81%
July 2033-January 2035
Total non-recourse debt2,087 2,733 4,846  
Total debt2,135 2,739 $4,900 $5,000 
Finance leases326 160 
Total debt and finance leases$2,461 $2,899 
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The following is a summary of our debt and finance leases as of December 31, 2023 (in millions):
Net Carrying ValueUnpaid
Principal
Balance
Unused
Committed
Amount (1)
Contractual
Interest Rates
Contractual
Maturity Date
CurrentLong-Term
Recourse debt:   
2024 Notes$37 $ $37 $ 2.00 %May 2024
RCF Credit Agreement   5,000 Not applicableJanuary 2028
Solar Bonds 7 7  
4.70-5.75%
March 2025-January 2031
Other   28 Not applicableDecember 2026
Total recourse debt37 7 44 5,028 
Non-recourse debt:
Automotive Asset-backed Notes1,906 2,337 4,259  
0.60-6.57%
July 2024-May 2031
Solar Asset-backed Notes4 8 13  4.80 %December 2026
Cash Equity Debt28 330 367  
5.25-5.81%
July 2033-January 2035
Total non-recourse debt1,938 2,675 4,639  
Total debt1,975 2,682 $4,683 $5,028 
Finance leases398 175 
Total debt and finance leases$2,373 $2,857 
(1)There are no restrictions on draw-down or use for general corporate purposes with respect to any available committed funds under our RCF Credit Agreement, except certain specified conditions prior to draw-down. Refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in our reporting on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 for the terms of the facility.
Recourse debt refers to debt that is recourse to our general assets. Non-recourse debt refers to debt that is recourse to only assets of our subsidiaries. The differences between the unpaid principal balances and the net carrying values are due to debt discounts or deferred issuance costs. As of March 31, 2024, we were in material compliance with all financial debt covenants.
2024 Notes
As of March 31, 2024, holders of the 2024 Notes have the option to convert and the 2024 Notes are set to mature in May 2024.
Automotive Asset-backed Notes
In the first quarter of 2024, we transferred beneficial interests related to certain leased vehicles into a special purpose entity and issued $750 million in aggregate principal amount of Automotive Asset-backed Notes, with terms similar to our other previously issued Automotive Asset-backed Notes. The proceeds from the issuance, net of debt issuance costs, were $747 million.
Note 8 – Equity Incentive Plans
Other Performance-Based Grants
From time to time, the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors grants certain employees performance-based restricted stock units and stock options.
As of March 31, 2024, we had unrecognized stock-based compensation expense of $613 million under these grants to purchase or receive an aggregate 5.0 million shares of our common stock. For awards probable of achievement, we estimate the unrecognized stock-based compensation expense of $104 million will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 4.8 years.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, stock-based compensation expense related to these grants, net of forfeitures, were immaterial.
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Summary Stock-Based Compensation Information
The following table summarizes our stock-based compensation expense by line item in the consolidated statements of operations (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Cost of revenues$202 $192 
Research and development212 134 
Selling, general and administrative110 92 
Total$524 $418 
Note 9 – Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate was 26% percent for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to 9% for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase in our effective tax rate is primarily due to the impact of releasing the valuation allowance on our U.S. deferred tax assets in the fourth quarter of 2023 and changes in the mix of our jurisdictional earnings.
Our effective tax rates for the first three months of 2024 and 2023 differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the mix of our jurisdictional earnings subject to different tax rates, impact of valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets, as well as benefits from our U.S. tax credits and the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) manufacturing credits.
We are subject to tax examinations in the U.S. federal, state, and foreign jurisdictions. Given the uncertainty in timing and outcome of our tax examinations, an estimate of the range of the reasonably possible change in gross unrecognized tax benefits within twelve months cannot be made at this time.
Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Lease Arrangements in Buffalo, New York and Shanghai, China
For a description of our operating lease arrangements in Buffalo, New York, and Shanghai, China, refer to Note 15, Commitments and Contingencies, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. As of March 31, 2024, we expect to meet the requirements under these arrangements, as may be modified from time to time, based on our current and anticipated level of operations.
Legal Proceedings
Litigation Relating to 2018 CEO Performance Award
On June 4, 2018, a purported Tesla stockholder filed a putative class and derivative action in the Delaware Court of Chancery against Elon Musk and the members of Tesla’s board of directors as then constituted, alleging corporate waste, unjust enrichment and that such board members breached their fiduciary duties by approving the stock-based compensation plan awarded to Elon Musk in 2018 (the “2018 CEO Performance Award”). Trial was held November 14-18, 2022. Post-trial briefing and argument are now complete. On January 30, 2024, the Court issued an opinion ordering recission of Mr. Musk’s 2018 compensation plan. Plaintiff’s counsel have filed a brief seeking a fee award of 29,402,900 Tesla shares, plus expenses of $1,120,115.50. Tesla’s opposition to the fee request is due on June 7, 2024, and a hearing is scheduled for July 8, 2024. On April 17, 2024, Tesla filed a preliminary proxy statement which included a number of proposals, including a proposal to ratify the 2018 CEO Performance Award.
Litigation Related to Directors’ Compensation
On June 17, 2020, a purported Tesla stockholder filed a derivative action in the Delaware Court of Chancery, purportedly on behalf of Tesla, against certain of Tesla’s current and former directors regarding compensation awards granted to Tesla’s directors, other than Elon Musk, between 2017 and 2020. The suit asserts claims for breach of fiduciary duty and unjust enrichment and seeks declaratory and injunctive relief, unspecified damages and other relief. Defendants filed their answer on September 17, 2020.
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On July 14, 2023, the parties filed a Stipulation and Agreement of Compromise and Settlement, which does not involve an admission of any wrongdoing by any party. If the settlement is approved by the Court, this action will be fully settled and dismissed with prejudice. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, Tesla provided notice of the proposed settlement to stockholders of record as of July 14, 2023. The Court held a hearing regarding the settlement on October 13, 2023, after which it took the settlement and plaintiff counsels’ fee request under advisement. The settlement is not expected to have an adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
Litigation Relating to Potential Going Private Transaction
Between August 10, 2018 and September 6, 2018, nine purported stockholder class actions were filed against Tesla and Elon Musk in connection with Mr. Musk’s August 7, 2018 Twitter post that he was considering taking Tesla private. On January 16, 2019, Plaintiffs filed their consolidated complaint in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and added as defendants the members of Tesla’s board of directors. The consolidated complaint asserts claims for violations of the federal securities laws and seeks unspecified damages and other relief. The parties stipulated to certification of a class of stockholders, which the court granted on November 25, 2020. Trial started on January 17, 2023, and on February 3, 2023, a jury rendered a verdict in favor of the defendants on all counts. After trial, plaintiffs filed a motion for judgment as a matter of law and a motion for new trial, which the Court denied and judgement was entered in favor of defendants on July 11, 2023. On July 14, 2023, plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal.
Between October 17, 2018 and March 8, 2021, seven derivative lawsuits were filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery, purportedly on behalf of Tesla, against Mr. Musk and the members of Tesla’s board of directors, as constituted at relevant times, in relation to statements made and actions connected to a potential going private transaction, with certain of the lawsuits challenging additional Twitter posts by Mr. Musk, among other things. Five of those actions were consolidated, and all seven actions have been stayed pending resolution of the appeal in the above-referenced consolidated purported stockholder class action. In addition to these cases, two derivative lawsuits were filed on October 25, 2018 and February 11, 2019 in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, purportedly on behalf of Tesla, against Mr. Musk and the members of the Tesla board of directors as then constituted. Those cases have also been consolidated and stayed pending resolution of the appeal in the above-referenced consolidated purported stockholder class action.
On October 21, 2022, a lawsuit was filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery by a purported shareholder of Tesla alleging, among other things, that board members breached their fiduciary duties in connection with their oversight of the Company’s 2018 settlement with the SEC, as amended. Among other things, the plaintiff seeks reforms to the Company’s corporate governance and internal procedures, unspecified damages, and attorneys’ fees. The parties reached an agreement to stay the case until June 3, 2024.
On November 15, 2021, JPMorgan Chase Bank (“JP Morgan”) filed a lawsuit against Tesla in the Southern District of New York alleging breach of a stock warrant agreement that was entered into as part of a convertible notes offering in 2014. In 2018, JP Morgan informed Tesla that it had adjusted the strike price based upon Mr. Musk’s August 7, 2018 Twitter post that he was considering taking Tesla private. Tesla disputed JP Morgan’s adjustment as a violation of the parties’ agreement. In 2021, Tesla delivered shares to JP Morgan per the agreement, which they duly accepted. JP Morgan now alleges that it is owed approximately $162 million as the value of additional shares that it claims should have been delivered as a result of the adjustment to the strike price in 2018. On January 24, 2022, Tesla filed multiple counterclaims as part of its answer to the underlying lawsuit, asserting among other points that JP Morgan should have terminated the stock warrant agreement in 2018 rather than make an adjustment to the strike price that it should have known would lead to a commercially unreasonable result. Tesla believes that the adjustments made by JP Morgan were neither proper nor commercially reasonable, as required under the stock warrant agreements. JP Morgan filed a motion for judgment on the pleadings, which Tesla opposed, and that motion is currently pending before the Court.
Litigation and Investigations Relating to Alleged Discrimination and Harassment
On October 4, 2021, in a case captioned Diaz v. Tesla, a jury in the Northern District of California returned a verdict against Tesla on claims by a former contingent worker that he was subjected to race discrimination while assigned to work at Tesla’s Fremont Factory from 2015-2016. A retrial was held starting on March 27, 2023, after which a jury returned a verdict of $3,175,000. As a result, the damages awarded against Tesla were reduced from an initial $136.9 million (October 4, 2021) down to $15 million (April 13, 2022), and then further down to $3.175 million (April 3, 2023). On November 2, 2023, the plaintiff filed a notice of appeal, and on November 16, 2023, Tesla filed a notice of cross appeal. In March 2024, the parties reached a confidential settlement resolving all claims in this matter.
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On February 9, 2022, shortly after the first Diaz jury verdict, the California Civil Rights Department (“CRD,” formerly “DFEH”) filed a civil complaint against Tesla in Alameda County, California Superior Court, alleging systemic race discrimination, hostile work environment and pay equity claims, among others. CRD’s amended complaint seeks monetary damages and injunctive relief. On September 22, 2022, Tesla filed a cross complaint against CRD, alleging that it violated the Administrative Procedures Act by failing to follow statutory pre-requisites prior to filing suit and that cross complaint was subject to a sustained demurrer, which Tesla later amended and refiled. The case is currently in discovery. Trial is scheduled for October 14, 2024.
Additionally, on June 1, 2022 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”) issued a cause finding against Tesla that closely parallels the CRD’s allegations. On September 28, 2023, the EEOC filed a civil complaint against Tesla in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California asserting claims for race harassment and retaliation and seeking, among other things, monetary and injunctive relief. On December 18, 2023, Tesla filed a motion to stay the case. Separately, on December 26, 2023, Tesla filed a motion to dismiss the case. Both motions were subsequently denied.
On June 16, 2022, two Tesla stockholders filed separate derivative actions in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, purportedly on behalf of Tesla, against certain of Tesla’s current and former directors. Both suits assert claims for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, and violation of the federal securities laws in connection with alleged race and gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Among other things, plaintiffs seek declaratory and injunctive relief, unspecified damages payable to Tesla, and attorneys’ fees. On July 22, 2022, the Court consolidated the two cases and on September 6, 2022, plaintiffs filed a consolidated complaint. On November 7, 2022, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss the case and on September 15, 2023, the Court dismissed the action but granted plaintiffs leave to file an amended complaint. On November 2, 2023, plaintiff filed an amended complaint purportedly on behalf of Tesla, against Elon Musk. On December 19, 2023, the defendants moved to dismiss the amended complaint, which the Court granted on April 12, 2024, with leave for the Plaintiffs to amend.
Other Litigation Related to Our Products and Services
We are also subject to various lawsuits that seek monetary and other injunctive relief. These lawsuits include proposed class actions and other consumer claims that allege, among other things, purported defects and misrepresentations related to our products and services. For example, on September 14, 2022, a proposed class action was filed against Tesla, Inc. and related entities in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging various claims about the Company’s driver assistance technology systems under state and federal law. This case was later consolidated with several other proposed class actions, and a Consolidated Amended Complaint was filed on October 28, 2022, which seeks damages and other relief on behalf of all persons who purchased or leased from Tesla between January 1, 2016 to the present. On October 5, 2022, a proposed class action complaint was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York asserting similar state and federal law claims against the same defendants. On September 30, 2023, the Court dismissed this action with leave to amend the complaint. On November 20, 2023, the plaintiff moved to amend the complaint, which Tesla opposed. On March 22, 2023, the plaintiffs in the Northern District of California consolidated action filed a motion for a preliminary injunction to order Tesla to (1) cease using the term “Full Self-Driving Capability” (FSD Capability), (2) cease the sale and activation of FSD Capability and deactivate FSD Capability on Tesla vehicles, and (3) provide certain notices to consumers about proposed court-findings about the accuracy of the use of the terms Autopilot and FSD Capability. Tesla opposed the motion. On September 30, 2023, the Court denied the request for a preliminary injunction, compelled four of five plaintiffs to arbitration, and dismissed the claims of the fifth plaintiff with leave to amend the complaint. On October 31, 2023, the remaining plaintiff in the Northern District of California action filed an amended complaint, which Tesla has moved to dismiss. On October 2, 2023, a similar proposed class action was filed in San Diego County Superior Court in California. Tesla subsequently removed the San Diego County case to federal court and on January 8, 2024, the federal court granted Tesla’s motion to transfer the case to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California.
On February 27, 2023, a proposed class action was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against Tesla, Inc., Elon Musk and certain current and former Company executives. The complaint alleges that the defendants made material misrepresentations and omissions about the Company’s Autopilot and FSD Capability technologies and seeks money damages and other relief on behalf of persons who purchased Tesla stock between February 19, 2019 and February 17, 2023. An amended complaint was filed on September 5, 2023, naming only Tesla, Inc. and Elon Musk as defendants. On November 6, 2023, Tesla moved to dismiss the amended complaint.
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On March 14, 2023, a proposed class action was filed against Tesla, Inc. in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. Several similar complaints have also been filed in the same court and these cases have now all been consolidated. These complaints allege that Tesla violates federal antitrust and warranty laws through its repair, service, and maintenance practices and seeks, among other relief, damages for persons who paid Tesla for repairs services or Tesla compatible replacement parts from March 2019 to March 2023. On July 17, 2023, these plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint. On September 27, 2023, the court granted Tesla’s motion to compel arbitration as to three of the plaintiffs, and on November 17, 2023, the court granted Tesla’s motion to dismiss without prejudice. The plaintiffs filed a Consolidated Second Amended Complaint on December 12, 2023, which Tesla has moved to dismiss. Plaintiffs also appealed the court’s arbitration order, which was denied.
The Company intends to vigorously defend itself in these matters; however, we cannot predict the outcome or impact. We are unable to reasonably estimate the possible loss or range of loss, if any, associated with these claims, unless noted.
Certain Investigations and Other Matters
We regularly receive requests for information, including subpoenas, from regulators and governmental authorities such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Department of Justice (“DOJ”), and various local, state, federal, and international agencies. The ongoing requests for information include topics such as operations, technology (e.g., vehicle functionality, Autopilot and FSD Capability), compliance, finance, data privacy, and other matters related to Tesla’s business, its personnel, and related parties. We routinely cooperate with such formal and informal requests for information, investigations, and other inquiries. To our knowledge no government agency in any ongoing investigation has concluded that any wrongdoing occurred. We cannot predict the outcome or impact of any ongoing matters. Should the government decide to pursue an enforcement action, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation, prospects, cash flows, financial position or brand.
We are also subject to various other legal proceedings, risks and claims that arise from the normal course of business activities. For example, during the second quarter of 2023, a foreign news outlet reported that it obtained certain misappropriated data including, purportedly non-public Tesla business and personal information. Tesla has made notifications to potentially affected individuals (current and former employees) and regulatory authorities and we are working with certain law enforcement and other authorities. On August 5, 2023, a putative class action was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, purportedly on behalf of all U.S. individuals impacted by the data incident, followed by several additional lawsuits, that each assert claims under various state laws and seeks monetary damages and other relief. If an unfavorable ruling or development were to occur in these or other possible legal proceedings, risks and claims, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, prospects, cash flows, financial position or brand.
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Note 11 – Variable Interest Entity Arrangements
The aggregate carrying values of the variable interest entities’ assets and liabilities, after elimination of any intercompany transactions and balances, in the consolidated balance sheets were as follows (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets  
Current assets  
Cash and cash equivalents$51 $66 
Accounts receivable, net17 13 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets345 361 
Total current assets413 440 
Solar energy systems, net2,587 3,278 
Other non-current assets334 369 
Total assets$3,334 $4,087 
Liabilities  
Current liabilities  
Accrued liabilities and other$29 $67 
Deferred revenue5 6 
Current portion of debt and finance leases1,905 1,564 
Total current liabilities1,939 1,637 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion86 99 
Debt and finance leases, net of current portion1,997 2,041 
Total liabilities$4,022 $3,777 
Note 12 – Segment Reporting and Information about Geographic Areas
We have two operating and reportable segments: (i) automotive and (ii) energy generation and storage. The following table presents revenues and gross profit by reportable segment (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Automotive segment  
Revenues$19,666 $21,800 
Gross profit$3,293 $4,343 
Energy generation and storage segment  
Revenues$1,635 $1,529 
Gross profit$403 $168 
The following table presents revenues by geographic area based on the sales location of our products (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
United States$9,762 $11,247 
China4,592 4,891 
Other international6,947 7,191 
Total$21,301 $23,329 
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The following table presents long-lived assets by geographic area (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
United States$28,274 $26,629 
Germany4,228 4,258 
China2,755 2,820 
Other international1,341 1,247 
Total$36,598 $34,954 
The following table presents inventory by reportable segment (in millions):
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Automotive$13,587 $11,139 
Energy generation and storage2,446 2,487 
Total$16,033 $13,626 
Note 13 – Restructuring and Other
In April 2024, we initiated certain restructuring actions in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency. As a result, we expect to recognize in excess of $350 million of costs primarily related to employee termination expenses in the second quarter of 2024.
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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
Our mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy. We design, develop, manufacture, lease and sell high-performance fully electric vehicles, solar energy generation systems and energy storage products. We also offer maintenance, installation, operation, charging, insurance, financial and other services related to our products. Additionally, we are increasingly focused on products and services based on AI, robotics and automation.
In 2024, we produced approximately 433,000 consumer vehicles and delivered approximately 387,000 consumer vehicles through the first quarter. We are focused on profitable growth, including by leveraging existing factories and production lines to introduce new and more affordable products, increasing vehicle production, utilized capacity and delivery capabilities, reducing costs, improving and developing our vehicles and battery technologies, vertically integrating and localizing our supply chain, further improving and deploying our FSD capabilities, including through our planned robotaxi product, and expanding our global infrastructure, including our service and charging infrastructure.
In 2024, we deployed 4.05 GWh of energy storage products through the first quarter. We are focused on ramping the production and increasing the market penetration of our energy storage products.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recognized total revenues of $21.30 billion, representing a decrease of $2.03 billion, compared to the prior year. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, our net income attributable to common stockholders was $1.13 billion, representing an unfavorable change of $1.38 billion, compared to the same period in the prior year. We continue to ramp production and build and optimize our manufacturing capacity, expand our operations while focusing on further cost reductions and operational efficiencies to enable increased deliveries and deployments of our products, and invest in research and development to accelerate our AI, software, and fleet-based profits for further revenue growth.
We ended the first quarter of 2024 with $26.86 billion in cash and cash equivalents and investments, representing a decrease of $2.23 billion from the end of 2023. Our cash flows provided by operating activities during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were $242 million and $2.51 billion, respectively, representing a decrease of $2.27 billion. Capital expenditures amounted to $2.77 billion during the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $2.07 billion during the same period ended March 31, 2023, representing an increase of $701 million. Overall growth has allowed our business to generally fund itself, and we will continue investing in a number of capital-intensive projects and research and development in upcoming periods.
Management Opportunities, Challenges and Uncertainties and 2024 Outlook
Automotive—Production
The following is a summary of the status of production of each of our announced vehicle models in production and under development, as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q:
Production LocationVehicle Model(s)Production Status
Fremont FactoryModel S / Model XActive
 Model 3 / Model YActive
Gigafactory ShanghaiModel 3 / Model YActive
Gigafactory Berlin-BrandenburgModel YActive
Gigafactory TexasModel YActive
 CybertruckActive
Gigafactory NevadaTesla SemiPilot production
Various Next Generation PlatformIn development
TBD RoadsterIn development
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We are focused on growing our manufacturing capacity, which includes capacity for manufacturing new vehicle models such as our Cybertruck and future vehicles utilizing aspects of our next generation platform, and ramping the production at our Gigafactories to their installed production capacities as well as increasing production rate and efficiency at our current factories. The next phase of production growth will depend on the continued ramp at our factories and be initiated by advances in autonomy and the introduction of new products, including those built on our next generation vehicle platform, as well as our ability to add to our available sources of battery cell supply by manufacturing our own cells that we are developing to have high-volume output, lower capital and production costs and longer range. Our goals are to improve vehicle performance, decrease production costs and increase affordability and customer awareness.
These plans are subject to uncertainties inherent in establishing and ramping manufacturing operations, which may be exacerbated by new product and manufacturing technologies we introduce, the number of concurrent international projects, any industry-wide component constraints, labor shortages and any future impact from events outside of our control. For example, during the first quarter of 2024, we experienced a sequential decline in production volumes partially caused by the early phase of the production ramp of the updated Model 3 at our Fremont factory, and factory shutdowns at Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg resulting from shipping diversions caused by the Red Sea conflict and an arson attack. Moreover, we have set ambitious technological targets with our plans for battery cells as well as for iterative manufacturing and design improvements for our vehicles with each new factory.
Automotive—Demand, Sales, Deliveries and Infrastructure
Our cost reduction efforts, cost innovation strategies, and additional localized procurement and manufacturing are key to our vehicles’ affordability and have allowed us to competitively price our vehicles. We will also continue to generate demand by improving our vehicles’ performance and functionality, including through product offerings and features based on artificial intelligence such as Autopilot, FSD (Supervised), and other software, and delivering new vehicles, such as our Cybertruck. In addition, we have been increasing awareness, and expanding our vehicle financing programs, including attractive leasing terms for our customers. Moreover, we expect to continue to benefit from ongoing electrification of the automotive sector and increasing environmental regulations and initiatives.
However, we operate in a cyclical industry that is sensitive to political and regulatory uncertainty, including with respect to trade and the environment, all of which can be compounded by inflationary pressures, rising energy prices, interest rate fluctuations and the liquidity of enterprise customers. For example, inflationary pressures have increased across the markets in which we operate. In an effort to curb this trend, central banks in developed countries raised interest rates rapidly and substantially, impacting the affordability of vehicle lease and finance arrangements. Further, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry also tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose us to increased volatility as we expand and adjust our operations. Moreover, as additional competitors enter the marketplace and help bring the world closer to sustainable transportation, we will have to adjust and continue to execute well to maintain our momentum. Additionally, our suppliers’ liquidity and allocation plans may be affected by current challenges in the North American automotive industry, which could reduce our access to components or result in unfavorable changes to cost. These macroeconomic and industry trends have had, and will likely continue to have, an impact on the pricing of, and order rate for our vehicles, and in turn our operating margin. Changes in government and economic incentives in relation to electric vehicles may also impact our sales. We will continue to adjust accordingly to such developments, and we believe our ongoing cost reduction, including improved production innovation and efficiency at our newest factories and lower logistics costs, and focus on operating leverage will continue to benefit us in relation to our competitors, while our new products will help enable future growth.
As our production increases, we must work constantly to similarly increase vehicle delivery capability so that it does not become a bottleneck on our total deliveries. We are also committed to reducing the percentage of vehicles delivered in the third month of each quarter, which will help to reduce the cost per vehicle. As we expand our manufacturing operations globally, we will also have to continue to increase and staff our delivery, servicing and charging infrastructure accordingly, maintain our vehicle reliability and optimize our Supercharger locations to ensure cost effectiveness and customer satisfaction. In particular, as other automotive manufacturers have announced their adoption of the North American Charging Standard (“NACS”) and agreements with us to utilize our Superchargers, we must correspondingly expand our network in order to ensure adequate availability to meet customer demands. We also remain focused on continued enhancements of the capability and efficiency of our servicing operations.
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Energy Generation and Storage Demand, Production and Deployment
The long-term success of this business is dependent upon incremental volume growth. We continue to increase the production of our energy storage products to meet high levels of demand, including the construction of a new Megafactory in Shanghai and the ongoing ramp at our Megafactory in Lathrop, California. For Megapack, energy storage deployments can vary meaningfully quarter to quarter depending on the timing of specific project milestones. As these product lines grow, we will have to maintain adequate battery cell supply for our energy storage products.
Cash Flow and Capital Expenditure Trends
Our capital expenditures are typically difficult to project beyond the short-term given the number and breadth of our core projects at any given time, and may further be impacted by uncertainties in future global market conditions. We are simultaneously developing and ramping new products, building or ramping manufacturing facilities on three continents, piloting the development and manufacture of new battery cell technologies, expanding our Supercharger network and investing in autonomy and other artificial intelligence enabled training and products, and the pace of our capital spend may vary depending on overall priority among projects, the pace at which we meet milestones, production adjustments to and among our various products, increased capital efficiencies and the addition of new projects. Owing and subject to the foregoing as well as the pipeline of announced projects under development, all other continuing infrastructure growth and varying levels of inflation, we currently expect our capital expenditures to exceed $10.00 billion in 2024 and be between $8.00 to $10.00 billion in each of the following two fiscal years.
Our business has generally been consistently generating cash flow from operations in excess of our level of capital spend, and with better working capital management resulting in shorter days sales outstanding than days payable outstanding, our sales growth is also generally facilitating positive cash generation. We have and will continue to utilize such cash flows, among other things, to do more vertical integration, expand our product roadmap, invest in autonomy and provide financing options to our customers. At the same time, we are likely to see heightened levels of capital expenditures during certain periods depending on the specific pace of our capital-intensive projects and other potential variables such as rising material prices and increases in supply chain and labor expenses resulting from changes in global trade conditions and labor availability. Overall, we expect our ability to be self-funding to continue as long as macroeconomic factors support current trends in our sales.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
For a description of our critical accounting policies and estimates, refer to Part II, Item 7, Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates since our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Results of Operations
Revenues
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
(Dollars in millions)20242023$%
Automotive sales$16,460 $18,878 $(2,418)(13)%
Automotive regulatory credits442 521 (79)(15)%
Automotive leasing476 564 (88)(16)%
Total automotive revenues17,378 19,963 (2,585)(13)%
Services and other2,288 1,837 451 25 %
Total automotive & services and other segment revenue19,666 21,800 (2,134)(10)%
Energy generation and storage segment revenue1,635 1,529 106 %
Total revenues$21,301 $23,329 $(2,028)(9)%
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Automotive & Services and Other Segment
Automotive sales revenue decreased $2.42 billion, or 13%, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to lower average selling price on our vehicles driven by overall price reductions year over year. Additionally, there was a decrease of approximately 27,000 combined Model 3 and Model Y cash deliveries partially due to the early phase of the production ramp of the updated Model 3 at our Fremont factory and factory shutdowns resulting from shipping diversions caused by the Red Sea conflict and an arson attack at Gigafactory Berlin-Brandenburg. The decreases were partially offset by an increase of approximately 7,000 deliveries of other models as we ramped our production of Cybertruck.
Automotive regulatory credits revenue decreased $79 million, or 15%, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Automotive leasing revenue decreased $88 million, or 16%, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in direct sales-type leasing revenue driven by lower deliveries year over year.
Services and other revenue increased $451 million, or 25%, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase was primarily due to increases in non-warranty maintenance services and collision revenue, insurance services revenue, paid Supercharging revenue and part sales revenue. Additionally, there was higher used vehicle revenue driven by increases in volume partially offset by a decrease in average selling price of used vehicles.
Energy Generation and Storage Segment
Energy generation and storage revenue increased $106 million, or 7%, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase was primarily due to an increase in average selling price of Megapack partially offset by a decrease in solar deployments.
Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
(Dollars in millions)20242023$%
Cost of revenues
Automotive sales$13,897 $15,422 $(1,525)(10)%
Automotive leasing269 333 (64)(19)%
Total automotive cost of revenues14,166 15,755 (1,589)(10)%
Services and other2,207 1,702 505 30 %
Total automotive & services and other segment cost of revenues16,373 17,457 (1,084)(6)%
Energy generation and storage segment1,232 1,361 (129)(9)%
Total cost of revenues$17,605 $18,818 $(1,213)(6)%
Gross profit total automotive$3,212 $4,208 
Gross margin total automotive18.5 %21.1 %