0001564590-20-004475.txt : 20200213 0001564590-20-004475.hdr.sgml : 20200213 20200213071218 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001564590-20-004475 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 160 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20191231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20200213 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20200213 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Tesla, Inc. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001318605 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: MOTOR VEHICLES & PASSENGER CAR BODIES [3711] IRS NUMBER: 912197729 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-34756 FILM NUMBER: 20606921 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3500 DEER CREEK RD CITY: PALO ALTO STATE: CA ZIP: 94304 BUSINESS PHONE: 650-681-5000 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 3500 DEER CREEK RD CITY: PALO ALTO STATE: CA ZIP: 94304 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: TESLA MOTORS INC DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20050222 10-K 1 tsla-10k_20191231.htm 10-K tsla-10k_20191231.htm
false 2019 FY 0001318605 --12-31 Large Accelerated Filer P3Y P10Y 2025-08-31 2025-08-31 2021-03-31 2022-03-31 2024-05-31 2020-12-31 2025-08-31 2025-08-31 true true true true 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 2024-12-31 2028-12-31 us-gaap:ConstructionMember 1 country:US country:US country:US us-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember us-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember us-gaap:QualifiedPlanMember P30Y P1Y 2020-09-30 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 P25Y P10Y 2021-09-30 1 P25Y P9Y P9Y P10Y 0.027 0.036 0.020 0.040 0.037 0.053 0.048 0.031 0.042 0.045 0.048 0.058 0.079 0.077 0.040 0.058 0.075 0.036 0.059 0.074 2020-06 2020-03 2020-02 2024-09 2020-09 2033-07 2048-09 2020-03 2023-07 2031-01 2023-05 2048-02 2024-12 2035-01 2049-09 2022-06 0.018 0.040 0.023 0.053 0.060 0.048 0.039 0.036 0.051 0.076 0.077 0.079 0.058 0.061 0.075 0.042 0.059 0.079 2019-01 2024-09 2019-12 2033-07 2019-01 2048-09 2019-12 2031-01 2048-02 2022-06 2035-01 2021-01 2049-09 2021-07 us-gaap:AccruedLiabilitiesCurrent us-gaap:OtherLiabilitiesNoncurrent tsla:LongTermDebtAndFinanceLeasesCurrent tsla:LongTermDebtAndFinanceLeasesNoncurrent P6Y10M20D P6Y18D P3Y4M20D P4Y6M P4Y8M12D P5Y1M6D P6M P6M P6M 0001318605 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 xbrli:shares 0001318605 2020-02-07 iso4217:USD 0001318605 2019-06-30 0001318605 2019-12-31 0001318605 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2018-12-31 iso4217:USD xbrli:shares 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 2016-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201609Member 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201609Member 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:IPOMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201409Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201705Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201705Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201705Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember us-gaap:IPOMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:IPOMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CommonStockMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ParentMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 tsla:Segment 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveRegulatoryCreditsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveRegulatoryCreditsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveRegulatoryCreditsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DeferredLeaseRevenueMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DeferredLeaseRevenueMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DeferredLeaseRevenueMember 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DeferredLeaseRevenueMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DeferredLeaseRevenueMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesToLeasingCompaniesWithGuaranteeMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesToLeasingCompaniesWithGuaranteeMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesToLeasingCompaniesWithGuaranteeMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesToLeasingCompaniesWithGuaranteeMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VehiclesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VehiclesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2020-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerAdvancePaymentsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RebatesAndIncentivesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RebatesAndIncentivesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSalesWithoutResaleValueGuaranteeMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSalesWithoutResaleValueGuaranteeMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSalesWithResaleValueGuaranteeMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSalesWithResaleValueGuaranteeMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveRegulatoryCreditsMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveRegulatoryCreditsMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSalesMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSalesMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ServicesAndOtherMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ServicesAndOtherMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesAndServicesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SalesAndServicesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveLeasingMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveLeasingMember tsla:AutomotiveMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageLeasingMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageLeasingMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 0001318605 us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 0001318605 us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 0001318605 us-gaap:OtherCurrentLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member 2019-01-01 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member srt:RestatementAdjustmentMember 2019-01-01 0001318605 us-gaap:AdvertisingMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdvertisingMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AdvertisingMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 xbrli:pure 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FivePointFiveZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FivePointFiveZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:StockBasedAwardsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:StockBasedAwardsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:StockBasedAwardsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:WarrantMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 tsla:Customer 0001318605 us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MachineryEquipmentVehiclesAndOfficeFurnitureMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MachineryEquipmentVehiclesAndOfficeFurnitureMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ComputerEquipmentAndSoftwareMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ComputerEquipmentAndSoftwareMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:GigafactoryMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:GigafactoryMember srt:MaximumMember 2014-10-17 2014-10-17 0001318605 tsla:GigafactoryMember 2014-10-17 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member tsla:BuildToSuitLeaseArrangementMember 2019-01-01 0001318605 tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 0001318605 tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-05-16 0001318605 us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerRelationsMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:TradeNamesMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:CustomerRelationsMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:TradeNamesMember tsla:MaxwellTechnologiesIncorporationMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OtherAcquisitionsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OtherAcquisitionsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember tsla:OtherAcquisitionsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:PurchasedTechnologyMember srt:MinimumMember tsla:OtherAcquisitionsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:PurchasedTechnologyMember tsla:OtherAcquisitionsMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:TradeNamesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FavorableContractsAndLeasesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:TradeNamesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FavorableContractsAndLeasesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:GigafactoryNevadaWaterRightsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:IndefiniteInProcessResearchAndDevelopmentMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:IndefiniteInProcessResearchAndDevelopmentMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:IndefiniteInProcessResearchAndDevelopmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNoteDueInTwentyTwentyOneMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyTwoMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentConvertibleSeniorNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNoteDueInTwentyTwentyOneMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyTwoMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentConvertibleSeniorNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MachineryEquipmentVehiclesAndOfficeFurnitureMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:MachineryEquipmentVehiclesAndOfficeFurnitureMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ToolsDiesAndMoldsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ToolsDiesAndMoldsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:LandAndBuildingMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:LandAndBuildingMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ComputerEquipmentAndSoftwareMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ComputerEquipmentAndSoftwareMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:BuildToSuitArrangementsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EquipmentMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EquipmentMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ManufacturingFacilityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ManufacturingFacilityMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:VehicleSolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:VehicleSolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:VehicleSolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CanadaCreditFacilityMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RecourseDebtMember tsla:VehicleSolarBondsAndOtherLoansMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarTermLoansMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarRenewableEnergyCreditAndOtherLoansMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-04-01 2014-04-30 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-04-01 2014-04-30 0001318605 tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFiveAndOnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesAndBondHedgeAndWarrantTransactionsMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFiveAndOnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesAndBondHedgeAndWarrantTransactionsMember 2014-03-31 utr:D 0001318605 tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFiveAndOnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesAndBondHedgeAndWarrantTransactionsMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFiveAndOnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesAndBondHedgeAndWarrantTransactionsMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 tsla:NinetyEightPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFiveAndOnePointTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesAndBondHedgeAndWarrantTransactionsMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-03-01 2014-03-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember 2014-04-30 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:ZeroPointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyNineteenMember 2019-01-01 2019-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointTwoFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyOneMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2017-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2017-03-01 2017-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MinimumMember 2017-03-01 2017-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MaximumMember 2017-03-01 2017-03-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember tsla:NinetyEightPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember 2017-03-01 2017-03-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2017-03-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2017-03-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoPointThreeSevenFivePercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-05-01 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-05-01 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember tsla:OneHundredThirtyPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-05-01 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember tsla:NinetyEightPercentApplicableConversionPriceMember 2019-05-01 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember srt:MinimumMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember srt:MaximumMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-05-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:TwoPointZeroZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2017-08-31 0001318605 us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMember tsla:FivePointThreeZeroPercentSeniorNotesDueTwentyTwentyFiveMember 2017-08-01 2017-08-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember tsla:SyndicateOfBanksMember 2015-06-01 2015-06-30 0001318605 us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember us-gaap:FederalFundsPurchasedMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember tsla:SyndicateOfBanksMember 2015-06-01 2015-06-30 0001318605 us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember tsla:UndrawnAmountsInterestRateMember tsla:CreditAgreementMember tsla:SyndicateOfBanksMember 2015-06-01 2015-06-30 0001318605 tsla:CreditAgreementMember us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember 2019-03-31 0001318605 tsla:CreditAgreementMember us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember 2019-03-01 2019-03-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-09-30 0001318605 tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-10-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-09-01 2014-09-30 0001318605 tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2014-10-01 2014-10-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OnePointSixTwoFivePercentConvertibleSeniorNotesDueTwoThousandNineteenMember tsla:SolarCityMember us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember 2019-11-01 2019-11-30 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2015-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2015-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:SolarCityMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:SolarCityMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember tsla:FivePointFiveZeroPercentSeniorConvertibleNoteDueTwentyTwentyTwoMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-11-30 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-11-01 2019-11-30 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarAssetBackedNotesMember 2019-12-31 iso4217:CNY 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingFacilityMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-09-30 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingFacilityMember srt:MaximumMember tsla:PeoplesBankOfChinaOneYearRateMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-09-01 2019-09-30 0001318605 tsla:SecuredTermLoanFacilityMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingLoanFacilityMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SecuredTermLoanFacilityMember tsla:PeoplesBankOfChinaOneYearRateMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SecuredTermLoanFacilityMember tsla:USDollarDenominatedLoansMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SecuredTermLoanFacilityMember us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember tsla:USDollarDenominatedLoansMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingLoanFacilityMember tsla:PeoplesBankOfChinaOneYearRateMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingLoanFacilityMember tsla:USDollarDenominatedLoansMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnsecuredRevolvingLoanFacilityMember us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember tsla:USDollarDenominatedLoansMember tsla:ChinaLoanAgreementsMember 2019-12-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:CashEquityDebtMember 2016-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember tsla:InterestRateClassAMember 2016-01-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarLoanBackedNotesMember tsla:InterestRateClassAMember 2017-01-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2018-08-16 2018-08-16 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-08-01 2019-08-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:WarehouseAgreementMember 2019-11-01 2019-11-30 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityTermLoansMember tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember 2019-10-01 2019-12-31 tsla:Subsidiary 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:NonrecourseDebtMember tsla:SolarCityMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNetMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndTenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember tsla:TwoThousandAndNineteenEquityIncentivePlanMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2018-03-01 2018-03-31 tsla:Tranches 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2018-03-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:FirstTrancheMilestoneMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2018-03-31 tsla:milestone 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember tsla:OperatingMilestonesProbableOfBeingAchievedMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:OperatingMilestonesProbableOfBeingAchievedMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:OperationalMilestonesNotConsideredProbableAchievementMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndEighteenPerformanceAwardMember 2018-03-21 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndFourteenEmployeePerformanceBasedStockOptionGrantsMember 2014-12-01 2014-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 tsla:Vehicle 0001318605 us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheThreeMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheFourMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:PerformanceConditionNotConsideredProbableAchievementMember tsla:TwoThousandAndFourteenEmployeePerformanceBasedStockOptionGrantsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndFourteenEmployeePerformanceBasedStockOptionGrantsMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndFourteenEmployeePerformanceBasedStockOptionGrantsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:TwoThousandAndFourteenEmployeePerformanceBasedStockOptionGrantsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndTwelvePerformanceAwardMember 2012-08-01 2012-08-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndTwelvePerformanceAwardMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:FourthTrancheMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ThirdTrancheMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndTwelvePerformanceAwardMember tsla:PerformanceConditionNotConsideredProbableAchievementMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndTwelvePerformanceAwardMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:TwoThousandAndTwelvePerformanceAwardMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RestructuringAndOtherMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:RestructuringAndOtherMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ForeignJurisdictionsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:InternalRevenueServiceIRSMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:InternalRevenueServiceIRSMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 stpr:CA srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 stpr:CA srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnitedStatesAndForeignJurisdictionsMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:UnitedStatesAndForeignJurisdictionsMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ResearchFoundationMember tsla:BuildToSuitLeaseArrangementMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ResearchFoundationMember tsla:BuildToSuitLeaseArrangementMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:ResearchFoundationMember tsla:BuildToSuitLeaseArrangementMember 2019-12-31 iso4217:USD utr:Y 0001318605 country:CN 2019-12-31 tsla:Plaintiff 0001318605 tsla:LawsuitInCourtOfChanceryOfStateOfDelawareByPurportedStockholdersOfTeslaChallengingSolarCityAcquisitionMember 2016-09-01 2016-10-05 0001318605 2018-10-16 tsla:Director 0001318605 srt:MinimumMember 2018-10-16 2018-10-16 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember tsla:OperatingLeaseVehiclesMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryAggregatedDisclosureMember tsla:SolarEnergySystemsMember 2018-12-31 tsla:Arrangement 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsUnderLeasePassThroughArrangementsMember srt:MinimumMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsUnderLeasePassThroughArrangementsMember srt:MaximumMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsUnderLeasePassThroughArrangementsMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarEnergySystemsUnderLeasePassThroughArrangementsMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:SolarCityMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember 2017-03-01 2017-03-31 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2017-04-30 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember tsla:ZeroCouponConvertibleSeniorNotesDueInTwoThousandTwentyMember tsla:RecourseDebtMember 2017-04-26 2017-04-26 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember 2018-11-01 2018-11-30 0001318605 srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember 2019-05-01 2019-05-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 country:US 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 country:US 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 country:US 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 country:CN 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 country:CN 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 country:CN 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 country:NL 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 country:NL 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 country:NL 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 country:NO 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 country:NO 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 country:NO 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OtherCountriesMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OtherCountriesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:OtherCountriesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0001318605 country:US 2019-12-31 0001318605 country:US 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:InternationalMember 2019-12-31 0001318605 tsla:InternationalMember 2018-12-31 0001318605 tsla:IndefiniteInProcessResearchAndDevelopmentMember tsla:EnergyGenerationAndStorageSegmentMember 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 2019-01-01 2019-03-31 0001318605 2019-04-01 2019-06-30 0001318605 2019-07-01 2019-09-30 0001318605 2019-10-01 2019-12-31 0001318605 2018-01-01 2018-03-31 0001318605 2018-04-01 2018-06-30 0001318605 2018-07-01 2018-09-30 0001318605 2018-10-01 2018-12-31

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                      

Commission File Number: 001-34756

 

Tesla, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

91-2197729

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

3500 Deer Creek Road

Palo Alto, California

 

94304

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

(650) 681-5000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock

TSLA

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of June 30, 2019, the last day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $31.54 billion (based on the closing price for shares of the registrant’s Common Stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2019). Shares of Common Stock held by each executive officer, director, and holder of 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of February 7, 2020, there were 181,341,586 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

 

 

 

 


 

TESLA, INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

  

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

15

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

34

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

35

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

35

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

35

 

 

 

PART II.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

36

Item 6.

 

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

38

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

39

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

60

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

61

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

127

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

127

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

128

 

 

 

PART III.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

129

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

129

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

129

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

129

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

129

 

 

 

 

PART IV.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

129

Item 16.

 

Summary

 

155

 

 

 

Signatures

 

156

 

 

 

i


 

Forward-Looking Statements

The discussions in this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, profitability, expected cost reductions, capital adequacy, expectations regarding demand and acceptance for our technologies, growth opportunities and trends in the market in which we operate, prospects and plans and objectives of management. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements that we make. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

 

 

 


 

PART I

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

 

Overview

We design, develop, manufacture, sell and lease high-performance fully electric vehicles and energy generation and storage systems, and offer services related to our products. We are the world’s first vertically integrated sustainable energy company, offering end-to-end clean energy products, including generation, storage and consumption. We generally sell our products directly to customers, including through our website and retail locations. We also continue to grow our customer-facing infrastructure through a global network of vehicle service centers, Mobile Service technicians, body shops, Supercharger stations and Destination Chargers to accelerate the widespread adoption of our products. We emphasize performance, attractive styling and the safety of our users and workforce in the design and manufacture of our products, and are continuing to develop full self-driving technology for improved safety. We also strive to lower the cost of ownership for our customers through continuous efforts to reduce manufacturing costs and by offering financial services tailored to our vehicles. Our sustainable energy products, engineering expertise, intense focus to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy and achieve the benefits of autonomous driving, and business model differentiate us from other companies. 

We currently offer or are planning to introduce electric vehicles to address a wide range of consumer and commercial vehicle markets, including Model 3, Model Y, Model S, Model X, Cybertruck, Tesla Semi and a new Tesla Roadster. In order to meet customers’ range, functionality and performance expectations, we have employed our considerable design and vehicle engineering capabilities to overcome the design, styling and performance issues that have historically limited broad adoption of electric vehicles. Combined with technical advancements in our powertrain system, Autopilot and Full Self-Driving (“FSD”) hardware, and neural net, our electric vehicles boast advantages such as leading range and recharging flexibility; superior acceleration, handling and safety characteristics; a unique suite of user convenience and infotainment features; the ability to have additional features enabled through over-the-air updates; and savings in charging, maintenance and other costs of ownership.

In furtherance of our mission to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy, we have also developed an expertise in solar energy systems. We sell and lease retrofit solar energy systems for residential and commercial customers, and alternatively provide certain customers with access to our solar energy systems through power purchase or subscription-based arrangements. We also offer the Solar Roof, which features attractive and durable glass roof tiles integrated with solar energy generation. Our approach to the solar business emphasizes simplicity, standardization and accessibility to make it easy and cost-effective for customers to adopt clean energy, while reducing our customer acquisition costs.

Finally, we have leveraged our technological expertise in batteries, energy management, power electronics, and integrated systems from our vehicle powertrain systems to develop and manufacture energy storage products, including Powerwall, Powerpack and Megapack. These scalable systems may be used in homes, commercial facilities and on the utility grid, and are capable of numerous applications including backup or off-grid power, peak demand reduction, demand response, reducing intermittency of renewable energy generation, facilitation of the use of renewable energy generation over fossil fuel generation, and other grid services and wholesale electric market services. Drawing on our solar business expertise, we can also offer integrated systems combining energy generation and storage. Like our vehicles, our energy storage products can be remotely updated over-the-air with software or firmware improvements.

Segment Information

We operate as two reportable segments: (i) automotive and (ii) energy generation and storage.

The automotive segment includes the design, development, manufacturing, sales, and leasing of electric vehicles as well as sales of automotive regulatory credits. Additionally, the automotive segment is also comprised of services and other, which includes non-warranty after-sales vehicle services, sales of used vehicles, retail merchandise, sales by our acquired subsidiaries to third party customers, and vehicle insurance revenue. The energy generation and storage segment includes the design, manufacture, installation, sales, and leasing of solar energy generation and energy storage products, services related to such products, and sales of solar energy system incentives.

1


 

Our Products and Services

Automotive

Model 3

Model 3 is a four-door mid-size sedan that we designed for manufacturability with a base price for mass-market appeal, which we began delivering in July 2017. We currently manufacture Model 3 at the Fremont Factory as well as at Gigafactory Shanghai, where we are ramping production with an installed annual production capacity for 150,000 Model 3 vehicles. We currently offer Model 3 in rear-wheel drive and dual motor all-wheel drive variants, including a Performance version of the latter.

Model Y

Model Y is a compact sport utility vehicle (“SUV”) built on the Model 3 platform with the capability for seating for up to seven adults, which we began producing in January 2020 and expect to commence delivering in the first quarter of 2020. We currently manufacture Model Y at the Fremont Factory, and are further ramping production there and making preparations for production next at Gigafactory Shanghai. We currently offer Model Y in dual motor all-wheel drive Long Range and Performance versions.

Model S and Model X

Model S is a four-door full-size sedan that we began delivering in June 2012. Model S introduced Tesla vehicle mainstays such as a large touchscreen driver interface, Autopilot hardware, over-the-air software updates, and fast charging through our Supercharger network.

Model X is a mid-size SUV with seating for up to seven adults, which we began delivering in September 2015. Model X introduced features including unique falcon wing doors for easy access to passenger seating and an all-glass panoramic windshield.

Model S and Model X feature the highest performance characteristics and longest ranges that we offer in a sedan and SUV, respectively. These vehicles are equipped with a standard dual motor all-wheel drive powertrain, and are also available in Performance versions with enhanced acceleration and/or top speed and styling. We manufacture Model S and Model X at the Fremont Factory.

Future Consumer and Commercial Electric Vehicles

In addition, we have unveiled a number of planned electric vehicles to address a broader cross-section of the vehicle market, including specialized consumer electric vehicles in Cybertruck and the new Tesla Roadster and a commercial electric vehicle in Tesla Semi.

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Products

We began deliveries of the current generations of our Powerwall and Powerpack products in late 2016 and 2017, respectively, and of our Megapack product in late 2019. Powerwall is a 13.5 kilowatt hour (“kWh”) rechargeable lithium-ion battery with integrated inverter, designed to store energy at a home or small commercial facility. Powerpack and Megapack are fully integrated energy storage solutions for commercial, industrial, utility and energy generation customers, comprised of up to 232kWh (AC) battery packs and up to 700 kilovolt-ampere (at 480V) inverters for Powerpack and up to 3 megawatt hour (“MWh”) (AC) battery packs and up to 1.54 megavolt-ampere inverters for Megapack, multiple units of which may be grouped together to form larger installations, capable of reaching gigawatt hours (“GWh”) or greater. Powerpack and Megapack can also be combined with renewable energy generation sources to create microgrids that provide communities with clean, resilient and affordable power.

We also develop and advance our software capabilities for the control and optimal dispatch of energy storage systems across a wide range of markets and applications, which can be sent to our systems through over-the-air updates.

2


 

Solar Energy Offerings

The major components of our retrofit solar energy systems include solar panels that convert sunlight into electrical current, inverters that convert the electrical output from the panels to a usable current compatible with the electric grid, racking that attaches the solar panels to the roof or ground, electrical hardware that connects the solar energy system to the electric grid, and our monitoring device. We purchase the majority of these components, and we do so from multiple sources to ensure competitive pricing and adequate supply. We also design and manufacture certain components for our solar energy products. In addition to selling retrofit solar energy systems to customers and certain channel partners, we also make them available through lease and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) arrangements, currently with 20-year terms and typically with renewal options, and a subscription-based sale of solar power, which is currently available in California.

In 2019, we commenced direct customer and channel partner sales of the third generation of our Solar Roof, which features aesthetically pleasing and durable glass roofing tiles designed to complement the architecture of homes and commercial buildings while turning sunlight into electricity. We are ramping the volume production of this version of the Solar Roof at Gigafactory New York, and are increasing our installation capabilities by training our personnel and third party partners.

Technology

Automotive

Our core vehicle technology competencies include battery and powertrain engineering and manufacturing, as well as our ability to design vehicles that utilize the unique advantages of an electric powertrain. Our core intellectual property includes our electric powertrain and our work on developing self-driving technologies. Our powertrain consists of our battery pack, power electronics, motor, gearbox, and control software. We offer several powertrain variants for our vehicles that incorporate years of research and development. In addition, we have designed our vehicles to incorporate the latest advances in consumer technologies, such as mobile computing, sensing, displays, and connectivity.

Battery and Powertrain

We optimize the design of the lithium-ion cells we use and of our battery packs to achieve high energy density at decreasing costs while also maintaining safety, reliability and long life in the rigors of an automotive environment. Our proprietary technology includes systems for high density energy storage, cooling, safety, charge balancing, structural durability, and electronics management. We have also pioneered advanced manufacturing techniques to manufacture large volumes of battery packs with high quality at low cost. Moreover, we maintain extensive testing and R&D capabilities for battery cells, packs and systems, and have built an expansive body of knowledge on lithium-ion cell vendors, chemistry types and performance characteristics. We believe that the flexibility that we have built into our designs, combined with our research and real-world performance data, will enable us to continue to evaluate new battery cells and optimize battery pack system performance and cost for our current and future vehicles.

The power electronics in our electric powertrain govern the flow of electrical current throughout our vehicles as needed, convert direct current from the battery pack into alternating current to drive our vehicles’ motors (and vice versa from an external electricity source to charge the battery pack), and provide regenerative braking functionality. The primary technological advantages to our proprietary power electronics designs include the ability to drive large amounts of electrical current in a small physical package with high efficiency and low cost, and to recharge on a wide variety of electricity sources at home, at the office or on the road, including at our Superchargers.

We offer dual motor powertrain vehicles, which use two electric motors to maximize traction and performance in an all-wheel drive configuration. Tesla’s dual motor powertrain digitally and independently controls torque to the front and rear wheels. The near-instantaneous response of the motors, combined with low centers of gravity, provides drivers with controlled performance and increased traction control. We are also developing vehicle powertrain technology featuring three electric motors for further increased performance.

3


 

Vehicle Control and Infotainment Software

The performance and safety systems of our vehicles and their battery packs require sophisticated control software. There are numerous processors in our vehicles to control these functions, and we write custom firmware for many of these processors. Software algorithms control traction, vehicle stability, the acceleration and regenerative braking of the vehicle, climate control and thermal management, and are also used extensively to monitor the charge state of the battery pack and to manage all of its safety systems. Drivers use the information and control systems in our vehicles to optimize performance, customize vehicle behavior, manage charging modes and times and control all infotainment functions. We develop almost all of this software, including most of the user interfaces, internally.

Self-Driving Development

We have expertise in developing technologies, systems and software to achieve self-driving vehicles. We are equipping all new Tesla vehicles with hardware needed for full self-driving in the future, including a new powerful and proprietary on-board computer that we introduced in 2019. This hardware suite enables field data from the on-board camera, radar, ultrasonics, and GPS to continually train and improve our neural network for real-world performance.

Currently, we offer in our vehicles certain advanced driver assist systems under our Autopilot and FSD options, including auto-steering, traffic aware cruise control, automated lane changing, automated parking, driver warning systems, and a Smart Summon feature that enables vehicles to be remotely summoned over short distances in parking lots and driveways. These systems relieve our drivers of the most tedious and potentially dangerous aspects of road travel, and the field data feedback loops from the on-board hardware, as well as over-the-air firmware updates, allow us to improve them over time. Although at present the driver is ultimately responsible for controlling the vehicle, our systems provide safety and convenience functionality that allows our customers to rely on them much like the system that airplane pilots use when conditions permit.

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Products

We are leveraging many of the component-level technologies from our vehicles to advance our energy storage products, including high density energy storage, cooling, safety, charge balancing, structural durability, and electronics management. By taking a modular approach to the design of battery systems, we are able to maximize manufacturing capacity to produce our Powerwall, Powerpack and Megapack products. Additionally, we are making significant strides in the area of bi-directional, grid-tied power electronics that enable us to interconnect our battery systems seamlessly with global electricity grids while providing fast-acting systems for power injection and absorption.

Solar Energy Systems

We are continually innovating and developing new technologies to facilitate the growth of our solar energy business. For example, we have developed proprietary software to reduce solar energy system design and installation timelines and costs, and the Solar Roof is designed to work seamlessly with Powerwall.

Design and Engineering

Automotive

We have created significant in-house capabilities in the design and test engineering of electric vehicles and their components and systems. We design, engineer and test bodies, chassis, exteriors, interiors, heating and cooling and low voltage electrical systems in-house, and to a lesser extent, in conjunction with our suppliers. Our team has core competencies in computer aided design and crash test simulations, which reduces the product development time of new models. We continue to grow our capabilities, including for on-site crash testing, durability testing and component validation.

4


 

Additionally, our team has expertise in selecting and working with various materials. For example, given the impact of mass on range, which is very important for passenger vehicles, Model S and Model X are built with lightweight aluminum bodies and chassis which incorporate a variety of materials and production methods that help optimize vehicle weight, and Model 3 and Model Y are built with a mix of materials to be lightweight and safe while also increasing cost-effectiveness for these mass-market vehicles. On the other hand, to accommodate the durability required of work vehicles, we plan to use a thick cold-rolled stainless steel alloy and ultra-strong glass for Cybertruck while employing our expertise in battery engineering to maintain excellent range.

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Products

We have an in-house engineering team that both designs our energy storage products themselves, and works with our residential, commercial and utility customers to design bespoke systems incorporating our products. Our team’s expertise in electrical, mechanical, civil and software engineering enables us to create integrated energy storage solutions that meet the various and particular needs of our customers.

Solar Energy Systems

We also have an in-house team that designs a customized solar energy system or Solar Roof for each of our customers, including an integrated energy storage system when requested by the customer. We have developed software that simplifies and expedites the design process and optimizes the design to maximize the energy production of each system. This team completes a structural analysis of each building and produces a full set of structural design and electrical blueprints that contain the specifications for all system components. Additionally, this team specifies complementary mounting and grounding hardware where required.

Sales and Marketing

Historically, we have been able to generate significant media coverage of our company and our products, and we believe we will continue to do so. Such media coverage and word of mouth are the current primary drivers of our sales leads and have helped us achieve sales without traditional advertising and at relatively low marketing costs.

Automotive

Direct Sales

We market and sell our vehicles directly to customers using means that we believe will maximize our reach, improve the overall customer experience and maximize capital efficiency. Currently, our sales channels include our website and an international network of company-owned stores. In some states, we have also opened galleries to educate and inform customers about our products, but such locations do not actually transact in the sale of vehicles. We believe this infrastructure enables us to better control costs of inventory, manage warranty service and pricing, educate consumers about electric vehicles and charging, maintain and strengthen the Tesla brand, and obtain rapid customer feedback.

We reevaluate our sales strategy both globally and at a location-by-location level from time to time to optimize our current sales channels. Sales of vehicles in the automobile industry also tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose us to volatility from time to time.

Used Vehicle Sales

Our used vehicle business supports new vehicle sales by integrating the sale of a new Tesla vehicle with a customer’s trade-in needs for their existing Tesla and non-Tesla vehicles. The Tesla and non-Tesla vehicles we acquire through trade-ins are subsequently remarketed, either directly by us or through third-parties. We also receive used Tesla vehicles to resell through lease returns and other sources.

5


 

Public Charging

We continue to build out our global Supercharger network for our customers’ convenience, including to enable long-distance travel and urban ownership, which is a part of our strategy to remove a barrier to the broader adoption of electric vehicles caused by the perception of limited range. Each Tesla Supercharger is an industrial grade, high-speed charger designed to recharge a Tesla vehicle significantly more quickly than other charging options, and we continue to evolve our technology to allow for even faster charging times at lower cost to us. Where possible, we are co-locating Superchargers with our solar and energy storage systems to further reduce costs and promote renewable power. Supercharger stations typically are strategically placed along well-traveled routes and in dense city centers to allow Tesla vehicle owners the ability to enjoy quick, reliable and ubiquitous charging with convenient, minimal stops. Use of the Supercharger network is either free under certain sales programs or requires a competitive fee.

We also work with a wide variety of hospitality, retail, and public destinations, as well as businesses with commuting employees, to offer additional charging options for our customers. These Destination Charging and workplace locations deploy Tesla Wall Connectors to provide charging to Tesla vehicle owners who patronize or are employed at their businesses. We also work with single-family homeowners and multi-family residential entities to deploy home charging solutions in our communities.

Energy Generation and Storage

We market and sell our solar and energy storage products to individuals, commercial and industrial customers and utilities through a variety of channels.

In the U.S., we offer residential solar and energy storage products directly through our website, stores and galleries, as well as through our network of channel partners. Outside of the U.S., we use our international sales organization and a network of channel partners to market and sell these products for the residential market. We also sell Powerwall directly to utilities. In the case of products sold to such utilities or channel partners, such partners typically sell and install the product in customer homes.

We sell Powerpack and Megapack systems to commercial and utility customers through our international sales organization, which consists of experienced energy industry professionals in all of our target markets, as well as through our channel partner network. In certain jurisdictions, we also sell installed solar energy systems (with or without energy storage) to commercial customers through cash, lease and PPA transactions.

Service and Warranty

Automotive

Service

We provide service for our electric vehicles at our company-owned service locations and through an expanding fleet of Tesla Mobile Service technicians who provide services that do not require a vehicle lift remotely at customers’ homes or other locations. Performing vehicle service ourselves provides us with the capability to identify problems, find solutions, and incorporate improvements faster, and optimize logistics and inventory for service parts better, than traditional automobile manufacturers. Our vehicles are also designed with the capability to wirelessly upload data to us via an on-board system with cellular connectivity, allowing us to diagnose and remedy many problems before ever looking at the vehicle.

Vehicle Limited Warranty and Extended Service Plans

We provide a manufacturer’s warranty on all new and used Tesla vehicles. Each new vehicle has a four year or 50,000 mile New Vehicle Limited Warranty, subject to separate limited warranties for the supplemental restraint system, battery and drive unit, and body rust perforation. For the battery and drive unit on our current new Model S and Model X vehicles, we offer an eight year, 150,000 mile limited warranty, with minimum 70% retention of battery capacity over the warranty period. For the battery and drive unit on our current new Model 3 and Model Y vehicles, we offer an eight year or 100,000 mile limited warranty for our Standard or Standard Range Plus battery and an eight year or 120,000 mile limited warranty for our Long Range or Performance battery, with minimum 70% retention of battery capacity over the warranty period.

6


 

In addition to the New Vehicle Limited Warranty, we currently offer for Model S and Model X Extended Service plans for new vehicles in specified regions. The Extended Service plans cover the repair or replacement of vehicle parts for up to an additional four years or up to an additional 50,000 miles after the expiration of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Systems

We generally provide a 10-year “no defect” and “energy retention” warranty with every current Powerwall and a 15-year “no defect” and “energy retention” warranty with every current Powerpack or Megapack system. Pursuant to these energy retention warranties, we guarantee that the energy capacity of the applicable product will be at least a specified percentage (within a range up to 80%) of its nameplate capacity during specified time periods, depending on the product, battery pack size and/or region of installation, and subject to specified use restrictions or kWh throughputs caps. In addition, we offer certain extended warranties, which customers are able to purchase from us at the time they purchase an energy storage system, including a 20 year extended protection plan for Powerwall and a selection of 10 or 20 year performance guarantees for Powerpack and Megapack. In circumstances where we install a Powerwall or Powerpack system, we also provide certain warranties on our installation workmanship. All of the warranties for our energy storage systems are subject to customary limitations and exclusions.

Solar Energy Systems

For retrofit solar energy systems, we provide a workmanship warranty for up to 20 years from installation and a separate warranty against roof leaks. We also pass-through the inverter and module manufacturer warranties (typically 10 years and 25 years respectively). When we lease a retrofit solar energy system, we compensate the customer if their system produces less energy than guaranteed over a specified period. For the Solar Roof, we provide a warranty against defects for 25 years, a 25 year weatherization warranty and a power output warranty. For all systems (retrofit and Solar Roof) we also provide service and repair (either under warranty or for a fee) during the entire term of the customer relationship.

Financial Services

Automotive

Purchase Financing and Leases

We offer leasing and/or loan financing arrangements for our vehicles in certain jurisdictions in North America, Europe and Asia through various financial institutions. In certain international markets, we offer resale value guarantees to customers who purchase and finance their vehicles through one of our specified commercial banking partners, under which those customers have the option of selling their vehicles back to us at preset future dates, generally at the end of the terms of the applicable loans or financing programs, for pre-determined resale values. In certain markets, we also offer vehicle buyback guarantees to financial institutions, which may obligate us to repurchase the vehicles for pre-determined prices.

We also currently offer leasing directly through our local subsidiaries for Model S, Model X and Model 3 in the U.S. and for Model S and Model X in Canada.

Insurance

In August 2019, we launched an insurance product designed for our customers, which offers rates that are often better than other alternatives. This product is currently available in California, and we plan to expand both the markets in which we offer insurance products and our ability to offer such products, as part of our ongoing effort to decrease the total cost of ownership for our customers.

7


 

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Systems

We currently offer a loan product to residential customers who purchase Powerwall together with a new solar energy system, and lease and PPA options to commercial customers who purchase a Powerpack system together with a new solar energy system. We intend to introduce financial services offerings for customers who purchase standalone energy storage products in the future.

Solar Energy Systems

We are an industry leader in offering innovative financing alternatives that allow our customers to take direct advantage of available tax credits and incentives to reduce the cost of owning a solar energy system through a solar loan, or to make the switch to solar energy with little to no upfront costs under a lease or PPA. Our solar loan offers third-party financing directly to a qualified customer to enable the customer to purchase and own a solar energy system. We are not a party to the loan agreement between the customer and the third-party lender, and the third-party lender has no recourse against us with respect to the loan. Our solar lease offers customers a fixed monthly fee, at rates that typically translate into lower monthly utility bills, and an electricity production guarantee. Our solar PPA charges customers a fee per kWh based on the amount of electricity produced by our solar energy systems. We monetize the customer payments we receive from our leases and PPAs through funds we have formed with investors. We also intend to introduce financial services offerings for our Solar Roof customers in the future.

Manufacturing

We manufacture our products and related components primarily at the Fremont Factory and at nearby facilities in the Bay Area, California; Gigafactory Nevada near Reno, Nevada; Gigafactory New York in Buffalo, New York; and Gigafactory Shanghai in China. We have also selected a site near Berlin, Germany to build a factory for the European market, which we refer to as Gigafactory Berlin.

Manufacturing Facilities in the Bay Area, California

We manufacture our vehicles, and certain parts and components that are critical to our intellectual property and quality standards, at our manufacturing facilities in the Bay Area in California, including the Fremont Factory, and other local manufacturing facilities. Our Bay Area facilities contain several manufacturing operations, including stamping, machining, casting, plastics, body assembly, paint operations, seat assembly, final vehicle assembly and end-of-line testing for our vehicles, as well as production of battery packs and drive units for Model S and Model X. Some major vehicle component systems are purchased from suppliers; however, we have a high level of vertical integration in our manufacturing processes at our Bay Area facilities.

Gigafactory Nevada

Gigafactory Nevada is a facility where we work together with our suppliers to integrate battery material, cell, module and battery pack production in one location. We use the battery packs manufactured at Gigafactory Nevada for Model 3, Model Y and our energy storage products. We also manufacture Model 3 and Model Y drive units at Gigafactory Nevada. Finally, the assembly of Megapack systems takes place at Gigafactory Nevada, allowing us to ship deployment-ready systems directly to customers.

We have designed Gigafactory Nevada to allow us access to high volumes of lithium-ion battery cells while achieving a significant reduction in the cost of our battery packs, and we have an agreement with Panasonic to partner with us on Gigafactory Nevada with investments in production equipment that it is using to manufacture and supply us with battery cells. Given its importance to the production of our vehicle and energy storage products, in particular Model 3, Model Y and Megapack, we continue to invest in Gigafactory Nevada to achieve additional production output there.

8


 

Gigafactory New York

We have primarily used our manufacturing facility in Buffalo, New York, which we refer to as Gigafactory New York, for the development and production of our Solar Roof and other solar products and components, energy storage components, and Supercharger components, and for other lessor-approved functions. In particular, our manufacturing operations at Gigafactory New York are increasing significantly as we ramp the production of the third generation of our Solar Roof there.

Gigafactory Shanghai

In December 2019, we commenced production of Model 3 vehicles at Gigafactory Shanghai, which we have established in order to increase the affordability of our vehicles for customers in local markets by reducing transportation and manufacturing costs and eliminating certain tariffs on vehicles imported into China from the U.S. At Gigafactory Shanghai, we have installed annual production capacity for 150,000 Model 3 vehicles that we believe we will eventually be able to push to actual rates of production in excess of such number, subject to local production of battery packs, which we began ramping there later than other processes. We have also commenced construction of the next phase of Gigafactory Shanghai to add Model Y manufacturing capacity at least equivalent to that for Model 3. Much of the investment in Gigafactory Shanghai has been and is expected to continue to be provided through local debt financing, including a RMB 9.0 billion (or the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars) fixed asset term facility and a RMB 2.25 billion (or the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars) working capital revolving facility that our subsidiary entered into in December 2019. We are supplementing such financing with limited direct capital expenditures by us, at a lower cost per unit of production capacity than that of Model 3 production at the Fremont Factory.

Other Manufacturing

Generally, we continue to expand production capacity at our existing facilities. We also intend to further increase cost-competitiveness in our significant markets by strategically adding local manufacturing, including at our planned Gigafactory Berlin.

Supply Chain

Our products use thousands of purchased parts that are sourced from hundreds of suppliers across the world. We have developed close relationships with vendors of key parts such as battery cells, electronics and complex vehicle assemblies. Certain components purchased from these suppliers are shared or are similar across many product lines, allowing us to take advantage of pricing efficiencies from economies of scale.   

As is the case for most automotive companies, most of our procured components and systems are sourced from single suppliers. Certain key components we use have multiple available sources, and we work to qualify multiple suppliers for each such component where it is sensible to do so, in order to minimize production risks owing to disruptions in their supply. We also mitigate risk by maintaining safety stock for key parts and assemblies and die banks for components with lengthy procurement lead times.  

Our products use various raw materials including aluminum, steel, cobalt, lithium, nickel and copper. Pricing for these materials is governed by market conditions and may fluctuate due to various factors outside of our control, such as supply and demand and market speculation. We currently believe that we have adequate access to raw materials supplies in order to meet the needs of our operations.

Governmental Programs, Incentives and Regulations

Globally, both the operation of our business by us and the ownership of our products by our customers are impacted by a number of government programs, incentives and other arrangements. Our business and products are also subject to a number of governmental regulations that vary among jurisdictions.

9


 

Programs and Incentives

California Alternative Energy and Advanced Transportation Financing Authority Tax Incentives

We have entered into multiple agreements over the past few years with the California Alternative Energy and Advanced Transportation Financing Authority (“CAEATFA”) that provide multi-year sales tax exclusions on purchases of manufacturing equipment that will be used for specific purposes, including the expansion and ongoing development of Model S, Model X, Model 3, Model Y and future electric vehicles and the expansion of electric vehicle powertrain production in California.

Gigafactory Nevada—Nevada Tax Incentives

In connection with the construction of Gigafactory Nevada, we have entered into agreements with the State of Nevada and Storey County in Nevada that provide abatements for sales, use, real property, personal property and employer excise taxes, discounts to the base tariff energy rates and transferable tax credits. These incentives are available for the applicable periods beginning on October 17, 2014 and ending on either June 30, 2024 or June 30, 2034 (depending on the incentive). Under these agreements, we were eligible for a maximum of $195.0 million of transferable tax credits, subject to capital investments by us and our partners for Gigafactory Nevada of at least $3.50 billion, which we exceeded during 2017, and specified hiring targets for Gigafactory Nevada, which we exceeded during 2018. As a result, as of December 31, 2018, we had earned the maximum amount of credits.

Gigafactory New York—New York State Investment and Lease

We have a lease through the Research Foundation for the State University of New York (the “SUNY Foundation”) for Gigafactory New York, which was constructed on behalf of the SUNY Foundation. Under the lease and a related research and development agreement, there continues to be, on behalf of the SUNY Foundation, installation of certain utilities and other improvements and acquisition of certain manufacturing equipment designated by us to be used at Gigafactory New York. The terms of such agreement require us to comply with a number of covenants, including required hiring and cumulative investment targets, which we have met to date as of the applicable measurement dates.

Gigafactory Shanghai—Lease and Land Use Rights

We have a lease arrangement with the local government of Shanghai for land use rights at Gigafactory Shanghai. Under the terms of the arrangement, we are required to meet a cumulative capital expenditure target and an annual tax revenue target starting at the end of 2023, which we believe will be attainable even if our actual vehicle production at Gigafactory Shanghai were far lower than the volumes we are forecasting.

Tesla Regulatory Credits

In connection with the production, delivery, placement into service and ongoing operation of our zero emission vehicles, charging infrastructure and solar systems in global markets, we have earned and will continue to earn various tradable regulatory credits. We have sold these credits, and will continue to sell future credits, to automotive companies and other regulated entities who can use the credits to comply with emission standards and other regulatory requirements. For example, under California’s Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation and those of states that have adopted California’s standard, vehicle manufacturers are required to earn or purchase credits, referred to as ZEV credits, for compliance with their annual regulatory requirements. These laws provide that automakers may bank or sell to other regulated parties their excess credits if they earn more credits than the minimum quantity required by those laws. Tesla also earns other types of saleable regulatory credits in the United States and abroad, including greenhouse gas, fuel economy, renewable energy, and clean fuels credits. Likewise, several U.S. states have adopted procurement requirements for renewable energy production. These requirements enable companies deploying solar energy to earn tradable credits known as Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (“SRECs”).

10


 

Energy Storage Systems—Incentives

The regulatory regime for energy storage projects is still under development. Nevertheless, there are various policies, incentives and financial mechanisms at the federal, state and local levels that support the adoption of energy storage. For example, energy storage systems that are charged using solar energy are eligible for the 26% tax credit in 2020 with a ramp down in 2021 and beyond under Section 48(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the IRC, as described below. In addition, California and a number of other states have adopted procurement targets for energy storage, and behind the meter energy storage systems qualify for funding under the California Self Generation Incentive Program.

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) has also taken steps to enable the participation of energy storage in wholesale energy markets. For example, in late 2016, FERC issued a final rule, Order No. 821, to further break down barriers preventing energy storage from fully participating in wholesale energy markets. Order 821 is currently under review before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit.

Solar Energy Systems—Government and Utility Programs and Incentives

U.S. federal, state and local governments have established various policies, incentives and financial mechanisms to reduce the cost of solar energy and to accelerate the adoption of solar energy. These incentives include tax credits, cash grants, tax abatements and rebates.

The federal government currently provides an uncapped investment tax credit (“ITC”) under two sections of the IRC: Section 48 and Section 25D. Section 48(a)(3) of the IRC allows a taxpayer to claim a credit of 26% of qualified expenditures for a commercial solar energy system that commences construction by December 31, 2020. The credit then declines to 22% in 2021 and a permanent 10% thereafter. We claim the Section 48 commercial credit when available for both our residential and commercial projects, based on ownership of the solar energy system. The federal government also provides accelerated depreciation for eligible commercial solar energy systems. Section 25D of the IRC allows a homeowner-taxpayer to claim a credit of 26% of qualified expenditures for a residential solar energy system owned by the homeowner that is placed in service by December 31, 2020. The credit then declines to 22% in 2021 and is scheduled to expire thereafter. Customers who purchase their solar energy systems for cash or through our solar loan offering are eligible to claim the Section 25D investment tax credit.

In addition to the federal ITC, many U.S. states offer personal and corporate tax credits and incentives for solar energy systems.

Regulations

Vehicle Safety and Testing

Our vehicles are subject to, and comply with or are otherwise exempt from, numerous regulatory requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), including all applicable United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (“FMVSS”). Our vehicles fully comply with all applicable FMVSSs without the need for any exemptions, and we expect future Tesla vehicles to either fully comply or comply with limited exemptions related to new technologies. Additionally, there are regulatory changes being considered for several FMVSS, and while we anticipate compliance, there is no assurance until final regulation changes are enacted.

As a manufacturer, we must self-certify that our vehicles meet all applicable FMVSS, as well as the NHTSA bumper standard, or otherwise are exempt, before the vehicles can be imported or sold in the U.S. Numerous FMVSS apply to our vehicles, such as crash-worthiness requirements, crash avoidance requirements, and electric vehicle requirements. We are also required to comply with other federal laws administered by NHTSA, including the CAFE standards, Theft Prevention Act requirements, consumer information labeling requirements, Early Warning Reporting requirements regarding warranty claims, field reports, death and injury reports and foreign recalls, and owner’s manual requirements.

The Automobile Information and Disclosure Act requires manufacturers of motor vehicles to disclose certain information regarding the manufacturer’s suggested retail price, optional equipment and pricing. In addition, this law allows inclusion of city and highway fuel economy ratings, as determined by EPA, as well as crash test ratings as determined by NHTSA if such tests are conducted.

11


 

Our vehicles sold outside of the U.S. are subject to similar foreign safety, environmental and other regulations. Many of those regulations are different from those applicable in the U.S. and may require redesign and/or retesting. The European Union has established new rules regarding additional compliance oversight that are scheduled to commence in 2020, and there is also regulatory uncertainty related to the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union.  These changes could impact the rollout of new vehicle features in Europe.

Self-Driving

There are no federal U.S. regulations pertaining to the safety of self-driving vehicles; however, NHTSA has established recommended guidelines. Certain U.S. states have legal restrictions on self-driving vehicles, and many other states are considering them. This patchwork increases the legal complexity for our vehicles. In Europe, certain vehicle safety regulations apply to self-driving braking and steering systems, and certain treaties also restrict the legality of certain higher levels of self-driving vehicles. Self-driving laws and regulations are expected to continue to evolve in numerous jurisdictions in the U.S. and foreign countries, and may create restrictions on self-driving features that we develop.

Automobile Manufacturer and Dealer Regulation

State laws regulate the manufacture, distribution, sale and service of automobiles, and generally require motor vehicle manufacturers and dealers to be licensed in order to sell vehicles directly to consumers in the state. As we open additional Tesla stores and service centers, we secure dealer licenses (or their equivalent) and engage in sales activities to sell our vehicles directly to consumers. Certain states do not permit automobile manufacturers to be licensed as dealers or to act in the capacity of a dealer, or otherwise restrict a manufacturer’s ability to deliver or service vehicles. To sell vehicles to residents of states where we are not licensed as a dealer, we generally conduct the transfer of title out of the state. In such states, we have opened “galleries” that serve an educational purpose and where the title transfer may not occur.

As we expand our retail footprint in the U.S., some automobile dealer trade associations have both challenged the legality of our operations in court and used administrative and legislative processes to attempt to prohibit or limit our ability to operate existing stores or expand to new locations. We expect that the dealer associations will continue to mount challenges to our business model. In addition, we expect the dealer associations to actively lobby state licensing agencies and legislators to interpret existing laws or enact new laws in ways not favorable to Tesla’s ownership and operation of its own retail and service locations, and we intend to actively fight any such efforts to limit our ability to sell and service our own vehicles.

Battery Safety and Testing

Our battery pack conforms to mandatory regulations that govern transport of “dangerous goods,” defined to include lithium-ion batteries, which may present a risk in transportation. The regulations vary by mode of shipping transportation, such as by ocean vessel, rail, truck, or air. We have completed the applicable transportation tests for our battery packs, demonstrating our compliance with applicable regulations.

We use lithium-ion cells in our high voltage battery packs in our vehicles and energy storage products. The use, storage, and disposal of our battery packs is regulated under federal law. We have agreements with third party battery recycling companies to recycle our battery packs and we are also developing our own recycling technology. 

Solar Energy—General

We are not a “regulated utility” in the U.S., although we are subject to certain state and federal regulations applicable to solar and battery storage providers. To operate our systems, we obtain interconnection agreements from the utilities. In most cases, interconnection agreements are standard form agreements that have been pre-approved by the public utility commission or other regulatory body. 

Sales of electricity and non-sale equipment leases by third parties, such as our leases, PPAs and subscription agreements, face regulatory challenges in some states and jurisdictions.

12


 

Solar Energy—Net Metering

Most states in the U.S. have a regulatory policy known as net energy metering, or net metering, available to solar customers. Net metering typically allows solar customers to interconnect their on-site solar energy systems to the utility grid and offset their utility electricity purchases by receiving a bill credit for excess energy generated by their solar energy system that is exported to the grid. In certain jurisdictions, regulators or utilities have reduced or eliminated the benefit available under net metering, or have proposed to do so.

Solar Energy—Mandated Renewable Capacity

Many states also have adopted procurement requirements for renewable energy production, such as an enforceable renewable portfolio standard, or RPS, or other policies that require covered entities to procure a specified percentage of total electricity delivered to customers in the state from eligible renewable energy sources, such as solar energy systems. In SREC state markets, the RPS requires electricity suppliers to secure a portion of their electricity from solar generators. The SREC program provides a means for the generation of SRECs, which can then be sold separately from the energy produced to covered entities who surrender the SRECs to the state to prove compliance with the state’s renewable energy mandate.

Competition

Automotive

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive and we expect it will become even more competitive in the future as we introduce additional vehicles in a broader cross-section of the passenger and commercial vehicle market and expand our vehicles’ capabilities.

We believe that our vehicles compete in the market both based on their traditional segment classification as well as based on their propulsion technology. For example, Model S and Model X compete primarily with premium sedans and premium SUVs and Model 3 and Model Y compete with small to medium-sized sedans and compact SUVs, which are extremely competitive markets. Competing products typically include internal combustion vehicles from more established automobile manufacturers; however, many established and new automobile manufacturers have entered or have announced plans to enter the alternative fuel vehicle market. Overall, we believe these announcements and vehicle introductions promote the development of the alternative fuel vehicle market by highlighting the attractiveness of alternative fuel vehicles, particularly those fueled by electricity, relative to the internal combustion vehicle. Many major automobile manufacturers have electric vehicles available today in major markets including the U.S., China and Europe, and other current and prospective automobile manufacturers are also developing electric vehicles. In addition, several manufacturers offer hybrid vehicles, including plug-in versions. 

Our vehicles also compete in the market based on the compelling user experience that they offer. We believe that a key factor in our success will be our Autopilot and FSD technologies that currently enable the driver-assistance features in our vehicles, and in which we are making significant strides through our proprietary and powerful FSD computer and remotely updateable artificial intelligence software. Ultimately, while we are subject to regulatory constraints over which we have no control, our goal is a fully autonomously-driven future that improves safety and provides our customers with convenience and additional income through participation in an autonomous Tesla ride-hailing network. This network, which will also include our own fleet of vehicles, will also allow us to access a new customer base even as modes of transportation evolve. Finally, our vehicles offer unparalleled in-vehicle entertainment features, currently including Internet search, music services, passenger karaoke, and parked video streaming and gaming.

13


 

Energy Generation and Storage

Energy Storage Systems

The market for energy storage products is also highly competitive. Established companies, such as AES Energy Storage, Siemens, LG Chem and Samsung, as well as various emerging companies, have introduced products that are similar to our product portfolio. There are several companies providing individual components of energy storage systems (such as cells, battery modules, and power electronics) as well as others providing integrated systems. We compete with these companies based on price, energy density and efficiency. We believe that the specifications of our products, our strong brand, and the modular, scalable nature of our Powerpack and Megapack products give us a competitive advantage when marketing our products.

Solar Energy Systems

The primary competitors to our solar energy business are the traditional local utility companies that supply energy to our potential customers. We compete with these traditional utility companies primarily based on price, predictability of price and the ease by which customers can switch to electricity generated by our solar energy systems. We also compete with solar energy companies that provide products and services similar to ours. Many solar energy companies only install solar energy systems, while others only provide financing for these installations. In the residential solar energy system installation market, our primary competitors include Vivint Solar Inc., Sunrun Inc., Trinity Solar, SunPower Corporation, and many smaller local solar companies.

The electricity produced by solar installations still represents a small fraction of total U.S. electricity generation. With tens of millions of single-family homes and businesses in our primary service territories, and many more in other locations, we have a large opportunity to expand and grow this business as we make our retrofit installations more accessible and ramp our innovative Solar Roof. We also believe that residential solar energy generation is gaining favorable regulatory momentum, as exemplified in part by the state of California recently requiring that new homes be built with solar generation starting in 2020.

Intellectual Property

We place a strong emphasis on our innovative approach and proprietary designs which bring intrinsic value and uniqueness to our product portfolio.  As part of our business, we seek to protect the underlying intellectual property rights of these innovations and designs such as with respect to patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and other measures, including through employee and third party nondisclosure agreements and other contractual arrangements. For example, we place a high priority on obtaining patents to provide the broadest and strongest possible protection to enable our freedom to operate our innovations and designs within our products and technologies in the electric vehicle market as well as to protect and defend our product portfolio. We have also adopted a patent policy in which we irrevocably pledged that we will not initiate a lawsuit against any party for infringing our patents through activity relating to electric vehicles or related equipment for so long as such party is acting in good faith. We made this pledge in order to encourage the advancement of a common, rapidly-evolving platform for electric vehicles, thereby benefiting ourselves, other companies making electric vehicles, and the world.  

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, Tesla, Inc. had 48,016 full-time employees. To date, we have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Available Information

We file or furnish periodic reports and amendments thereto, including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In addition, the SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically. Our website is located at www.tesla.com, and our reports, amendments thereto, proxy statements and other information are also made available, free of charge, on our investor relations website at ir.tesla.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such information with the SEC. The information posted on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

14


 

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described below together with the other information set forth in this report, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and future results. The risks described below are not the only risks facing our company. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, delays or other complications in the design, manufacture, launch, and production ramp of our vehicles, energy products, and product features, or may not realize our manufacturing cost targets, which could harm our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We have previously experienced launch and production ramp delays or other complications in connection with new vehicle models such as Model S, Model X and Model 3, and new vehicle features such as the all-wheel drive dual motor drivetrain on Model S and the second version of our Autopilot hardware. For example, we encountered unanticipated supply chain constraints that led to initial delays in producing Model X and an isolated supplier limitation in the manufacture of Model 3. Similarly, during our initial Model 3 production ramp, we had challenges ramping fully automated processes, such as portions of the battery module assembly line, material flow system and the general assembly line, which we addressed by reducing the levels of automation and introducing semi-automated or manual processes. In addition, we have used a number of new manufacturing technologies, techniques and processes for our vehicles, such as aluminum spot welding systems and high-speed blow forming of certain difficult to stamp vehicle parts, and we may introduce new processes in the future. We have also introduced unique design features in our vehicles with different manufacturing challenges, such as large display screens, dual motor drivetrain, hardware for our Autopilot and FSD features and falcon-wing doors. There is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully and timely introduce and scale any such new processes or features.

In particular, our future business depends in large part on the high-volume production of Model 3 and Model Y, which we believe are our vehicles with the largest markets. We have limited experience to date in manufacturing Model 3 at high volumes and continuously increasing its production rates, particularly across multiple vehicle manufacturing facilities, which we commenced in the fourth quarter of 2019 with Gigafactory Shanghai coming online. In order to be successful, we will need to implement, maintain and/or ramp efficient and cost-effective manufacturing capabilities, processes and supply chains and achieve the design tolerances, high quality and maximum output rates we have planned, including at Gigafactory Shanghai, and for Model Y, which we commenced manufacturing at the Fremont Factory in the first quarter of 2020. Bottlenecks such as those we have experienced in the past with new product ramps and other unexpected challenges may also arise as we ramp production, and it will be important that we address them promptly while continuing to reduce our manufacturing costs. If we are not successful in doing so, or if we experience issues with our ongoing manufacturing process improvements and cost-down efforts, we could face delays in establishing and/or sustaining our Model 3 and Model Y ramps or be unable to meet our related cost and profitability targets.

Moreover, we will need to hire, train and compensate skilled employees to operate high-volume production facilities to support our vehicle ramp at the Fremont Factory and Gigafactory Shanghai, as well as at Gigafactory Nevada to support the manufacture of battery packs and drive units for certain of our vehicles. Finally, because our vehicle models, in particular Model 3 and Model Y, may share certain parts, suppliers or production facilities with each other, the volume or efficiency of production with respect to one model may impact also the production of other models or lead to bottlenecks that impact the production of all models.  

We may also experience similar future delays or other complications in launching and/or ramping production of new vehicles, such as Tesla Semi, Cybertruck and the new Tesla Roadster, our energy storage products and the Solar Roof, as well as future features and services such as new Autopilot or FSD features and the autonomous Tesla ride-hailing network. Likewise, we may encounter delays with the design, construction and regulatory or other approvals necessary to build and bring online future manufacturing facilities, including our planned Gigafactory Berlin in Germany.

15


 

Any significant delay or other complication in the production ramp of our current products or the development, manufacture, launch and production ramp of our future products, features and services, including complications associated with expanding our production capacity and supply chain or obtaining or maintaining related regulatory approvals, or inability to manage such ramps cost-effectively, could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We may be unable to meet our growing product sales, delivery and installation plans and vehicle servicing and charging network needs, or accurately project and manage this growth internationally, any of which could harm our business and prospects.

Concurrent with developing, launching and ramping our products, our success will depend on our ability to continue to significantly increase their sales, deliveries, installations and servicing worldwide, while allocating our available resources among multiple products simultaneously. As we expand globally, we will also need to ensure we are in compliance with any regulatory requirements applicable to the sale, installation and service of our products, the sale of electricity generated through our solar energy systems and operation of Superchargers in various jurisdictions, which could take considerable time and expense. These plans require significant cash investments and management resources and there is no guarantee that they will ultimately generate additional sales or installations of our products.

We continuously evaluate, and as appropriate evolve, our retail operations and product offerings in order to maximize our reach and optimize our costs, vehicle line-up and model differentiation, and purchasing experience. However, there is no guarantee that each step in our evolving strategy will be perceived as intended by prospective customers accustomed to more traditional sales models. In particular, we are targeting with Model 3 and Model Y a global mass demographic with a broad range of potential customers, in which we have limited experience projecting demand and pricing our products. Until we ramp local production at Gigafactory Shanghai and in the future at Gigafactory Berlin, we will have to contend with predominantly single-factory vehicle production at the Fremont Factory for numerous international variants. If our specific demand expectations for these variants prove inaccurate, we may not be able to timely generate sales matched to the specific vehicles that we produce in the same timeframe or that are commensurate with our operations in a given region, which may negatively impact our deliveries and operating results in a particular period. Likewise, as we develop and grow our energy storage product and solar business worldwide, our success will depend on our ability to correctly forecast demand for our products in different markets.

Moreover, because we do not have independent dealer networks, we are responsible for delivering all of our vehicles to our customers and meeting their vehicle servicing needs. While we have substantially implemented and improved many aspects of our delivery and service operations, we still have relatively limited experience with, and may face difficulties in, such deliveries and servicing at high volumes, particularly in international markets as we expand. For example, significant transit time may be required to transport vehicles in volume into international markets, and we also saw challenges in initially ramping our logistical channels in China and Europe as we delivered Model 3 there for the first time in the first quarter of 2019. To accommodate growing volumes, we have deployed a number of delivery models, such as deliveries to customers’ homes and workplaces, some of which have not been previously tested at scale and in different geographies and may not ultimately be successful. Likewise, because of our unique expertise with our vehicles, we recommend that our vehicles be serviced by our service centers, Mobile Service technicians or certain authorized professionals that we have specifically trained and equipped. If we experience delays in adding such servicing capacity or experience unforeseen issues with the reliability of our vehicles, particular higher-volume and newer additions to our fleet such as Model 3 and Model Y, it could overburden our servicing capabilities and parts inventory. Finally, the increasing number of Tesla vehicles also requires us to continue to rapidly increase the number of our Supercharger stations and connectors throughout the world.

We are also expanding our installation capabilities for the Solar Roof as we continue its manufacturing ramp by training both our own personnel and third party installers. If we are not successful in growing this overall installation capability to keep pace with our increasing production, or if we experience unforeseen delays in the production ramp or inaccurately forecast demand for the Solar Roof, our operating results may be negatively impacted.

16


 

There is no assurance that we will be able to ramp our business to meet our sales, delivery, servicing, charging and installation targets globally, that our projections on which such targets are based will prove accurate, or that the pace of growth or coverage of our customer infrastructure network will meet customer expectations. Moreover, we may not be successful in undertaking this global expansion if we are unable to avoid cost overruns and other unexpected operating costs, adapt our products and conduct our operations to meet local requirements and regulations, implement required local infrastructure, systems and processes, and find and hire a significant number of additional sales, service, electrical installation, construction and administrative personnel. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, it could result in negative publicity and damage to our brand and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Our future growth and success is dependent upon consumers’ willingness to adopt electric vehicles and specifically our vehicles. We operate in the automotive industry, which is generally susceptible to cyclicality and volatility.

Our growth is highly dependent upon the worldwide adoption by consumers of alternative fuel vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. Although we have successfully grown demand for our vehicles thus far, there is no guarantee of such future demand, or that our vehicles will not compete with one another in the market. Moreover, the target demographics for our vehicles, in particular the mass market demographic for Model 3 and Model Y, are highly competitive. If the market for electric vehicles in general and Tesla vehicles in particular does not develop as we expect, develops more slowly than we expect, or if demand for our vehicles decreases in our markets, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.

We have only relatively recently achieved high-volume production of vehicles, and are still at an earlier stage and have limited resources relative to our competitors. Moreover, the market for alternative fuel vehicles is rapidly evolving. As a result, the market for our vehicles could be affected by numerous factors, such as:

 

perceptions about electric vehicle features, quality, safety, performance and cost;

 

perceptions about the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge;

 

competition, including from other types of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and high fuel-economy internal combustion engine vehicles;

 

volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline;

 

government regulations and economic incentives;

 

access to charging facilities; and

 

concerns about our future viability.

In addition, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose us to increased volatility, especially as we expand and adjust our operations and retail strategies. Specifically, it is uncertain as to how such macroeconomic factors will impact us as a company that has been experiencing growth and increasing market share in an industry that has globally been experiencing a recent decline in sales.

17


 

We are dependent on our suppliers, the majority of which are single-source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of our products according to our schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to us, or our inability to efficiently manage these components, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

Our products contain thousands of purchased parts that we source globally from hundreds of direct suppliers.  We attempt to mitigate our supply chain risk by entering into long-term agreements where it is practical and beneficial to do so, including agreements we entered into with Panasonic to be our manufacturing partner and supplier; qualifying and obtaining components from multiple sources where sensible, such as the PV panels for our retrofit solar installations that we purchase from a variety of suppliers; and maintaining safety stock for key parts and assemblies and die banks for components with lengthy procurement lead times. However, our limited, and in most cases single-source, supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages for our production, such as those which we experienced in 2012 and 2016 in connection with our slower-than-planned Model S and Model X ramps. Furthermore, unexpected changes in business conditions, materials pricing, labor issues, wars, governmental changes, tariffs, natural disasters such as the March 2011 earthquakes in Japan, health epidemics, and other factors beyond our and our suppliers’ control could also affect these suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. The loss of any supplier, particularly a single- or limited-source supplier, or the disruption in the supply of components from our suppliers, could lead to product design changes, production delays of key revenue-generating products, idle manufacturing facilities, and potential loss of access to important technology and parts for producing, servicing and supporting our products, any of which could result in negative publicity, damage to our brand and a material and adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We may also be impacted by changes in our supply chain or production needs. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, cost increases from certain of our suppliers in order to meet our quality targets and development timelines as well as due to our design changes. Likewise, any significant increases in our production, such as for Model 3 and our expectations for Model Y, has required and/or may in the future require us to procure additional components in a short amount of time. Our suppliers may not ultimately be able to sustainably and timely meet our cost, quality and volume needs, requiring us to replace them with other sources. While we believe that we will be able to secure additional or alternate sources of supply for most of our components in a relatively short time frame, there is no assurance that we will be able to do so or develop our own replacements for certain highly customized components. Additionally, we continuously negotiate with existing suppliers to obtain cost reductions and avoid unfavorable changes to terms, seek new and less expensive suppliers for certain parts, and attempt to redesign certain parts to make them less expensive to produce. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to control and reduce supplier costs, our operating results will suffer.

Outside of the U.S., we have limited manufacturing experience and we may experience issues or delays increasing the level of localized procurement at our Gigafactory Shanghai and in the future at our Gigafactory Berlin. Furthermore, as the scale of our vehicle production increases, we will need to accurately forecast, purchase, warehouse and transport components to our manufacturing facilities and servicing locations internationally and at much higher volumes. If we are unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to our actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in our supply chain, we may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation and write-off costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

Any problems or delays in expanding Gigafactory Nevada or ramping and maintaining operations there could negatively affect the production and profitability of our products, such as Model 3, Model Y and our energy storage products. In addition, the battery cells produced there store large amounts of energy.

To lower the cost of cell production and produce cells in high volume, we have vertically integrated the production of lithium-ion cells at Gigafactory Nevada, where we also manufacture battery packs and drive units for certain vehicles and energy storage products and assemble our Megapack product. Production of lithium-ion cells at Gigafactory Nevada began in 2017, and we have no other direct experience in the production of lithium-ion cells. Given the size and complexity of this undertaking, it is possible that future events could result in issues or delays in further ramping our products and expanding production output at Gigafactory Nevada.

18


 

In order to achieve our volume and gross margin targets for our vehicles and energy storage products, we must continue to sustain and ramp significant cell production at Gigafactory Nevada, which, among other things, requires Panasonic to successfully operate and further ramp its cell production lines at significant volumes. Although Panasonic has a long track record of producing high-quality cells at significant volume at its factories in Japan, it has relatively limited experience with cell production at Gigafactory Nevada. In addition, we produce several components for Model 3 and Model Y, such as battery modules incorporating the lithium-ion cells produced by Panasonic and drive units (including to support Gigafactory Shanghai production), at Gigafactory Nevada. Some of the manufacturing lines for such components took longer than anticipated to ramp to their full capacity. While we have largely overcome this bottleneck after deploying multiple semi-automated lines and improving our original lines, additional bottlenecks may arise as we continue to increase the production rate and introduce new lines. If we are unable to maintain Gigafactory Nevada production, ramp output additionally over time as needed, and do so cost-effectively, or if we or Panasonic are unable to hire and retain a substantial number of highly skilled personnel, our ability to supply battery packs or other components for Model 3, Model Y and our other products could be negatively impacted, which could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

In addition, the high volumes of lithium-ion cells and battery modules and packs manufactured at Gigafactory Nevada are stored and recycled at our various facilities. Any mishandling of battery cells may cause disruption to the operation of such facilities. While we have implemented safety procedures related to the handling of the cells, there can be no assurance that a safety issue or fire related to the cells would not disrupt our operations. Such disruptions or issues could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Any issues or delays in meeting our projected timelines, costs and production at or funding the ramp of Gigafactory Shanghai, or any difficulties in generating and maintaining local demand for vehicles manufactured there, could adversely impact our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

As part of our continuing work to increase production of our vehicles on a sustained basis, and in order to make them affordable in international markets by accessing local supply chains and workforces, we have established Gigafactory Shanghai in China. Currently, we have installed annual production capacity for 150,000 Model 3 vehicles there that we believe we will eventually be able to push to actual rates of production in excess of such number, and we have commenced construction of the next phase of Gigafactory Shanghai to add Model Y manufacturing capacity at least equivalent to that for Model 3. The ramp and further expansion of Gigafactory Shanghai are subject to a number of uncertainties inherent in all new manufacturing operations, including ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements, maintenance of operational licenses and approvals for additional expansion, potential supply chain constraints, hiring, training and retention of qualified employees, and the pace of bringing production equipment and processes online with the capability to manufacture high-quality units at scale. We have limited experience to date with operating manufacturing facilities abroad, and only recently began to sell Model 3 in China. If we experience any issues or delays in meeting our projected timelines, costs, capital efficiency and production capacity for Gigafactory Shanghai, or in maintaining and complying with the terms of local debt financing that we intend will largely fund it, or in generating and maintaining demand locally for the vehicles we manufacture at Gigafactory Shanghai, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be adversely impacted.

In particular, local manufacturing is critical to our expansion and sales in China, which is the largest market for electric vehicles in the world. Our vehicle sales in China have been negatively impacted in the past by certain tariffs on automobiles manufactured in the U.S., such as our vehicles, and our costs for producing our vehicles in the U.S. have also been affected by import duties on certain components sourced from China. If we are not able to successfully and timely ramp Gigafactory Shanghai, we may continue to be exposed to the impact of such unfavorable tariffs, duties or costs to our detriment compared to locally-based competitors.

19


 

We face risks associated with our international operations, including unfavorable and uncertain regulatory, political, economic, tax and labor conditions, and with establishing ourselves in new markets, all of which could harm our business.

We have a global footprint with domestic and international operations and subsidiaries. Accordingly, we are subject to a variety of legal, political and regulatory requirements and social, environmental and economic conditions over which we have little control. For example, we may be impacted by trade policies, environmental conditions, political uncertainty and economic cycles involving geographic regions where we have significant operations, which are inherently unpredictable. We are subject to a number of risks associated in particular with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to sell our products and require significant management attention. These risks include conforming our products to various international regulatory and safety requirements as well as charging and other electric infrastructures, organizing local operating entities, difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations, challenges in attracting customers, foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements, our ability to enforce our contractual rights, trade restrictions, customs regulations, tariffs and price or exchange controls, and preferences of foreign nations for domestically manufactured products.

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells, could harm our business.

We may experience increases in the cost of or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of materials. Any such increase, supply interruption or shortage could materially and negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We use various materials in our business including aluminum, steel, lithium, nickel, copper and cobalt, as well as lithium-ion cells from suppliers. The prices for these materials fluctuate, and their available supply may be unstable, depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials, including as a result of increased production of electric vehicles and energy storage products by our competitors, and could adversely affect our business and operating results. For instance, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to lithium-ion cells. These risks include:

 

an increase in the cost, or decrease in the available supply, of materials used in the cells;

 

disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by battery cell manufacturers or any issues that may arise with respect to cells manufactured at our own facilities; and

 

fluctuations in the value of any foreign currencies in which battery cell and related raw material purchases are or may be denominated, such as the Japanese yen, against the U.S. dollar. 

Our business is dependent on the continued supply of battery cells for the battery packs used in our vehicles and energy storage products. While we believe several sources of the battery cells are available for such battery packs, and expect to eventually rely substantially on battery cells manufactured at our own facilities, we have to date fully qualified only a very limited number of suppliers for the cells used in such battery packs and have very limited flexibility in changing cell suppliers. Any disruption in the supply of battery cells from such suppliers could disrupt production of our vehicles and of the battery packs we produce for energy products until such time as a different supplier is fully qualified. Furthermore, fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions may cause us to experience significant increases in freight charges and material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our materials or prices charged to us, such as those charged by battery cell suppliers, would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs through increased vehicle prices. Any attempts to increase product prices in response to increased material costs could result in cancellations of orders and reservations and therefore materially and adversely affect our brand, image, business, prospects and operating results.

20


 

If our vehicles or other products that we sell or install fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our products and services could be harmed.

If our vehicles or our energy products contain defects in design and manufacture that cause them not to perform as expected or that require repair, or certain features of our vehicles such as new Autopilot or FSD features take longer than expected to become enabled, are legally restricted or become subject to onerous regulation, our ability to develop, market and sell our products and services could be harmed. For example, the operation of our vehicles is highly dependent on software, which is inherently complex and may contain latent defects and errors or be subject to external attacks. Issues experienced by vehicle customers have included those related to the software for the 17 inch display screen, as well as the panoramic roof and the 12-volt battery in the Model S and the seats and doors in the Model X. Although we attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our products as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of our customers. While we have performed extensive internal testing on the products we manufacture, we currently have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate detailed long-term quality, reliability, durability and performance characteristics of our battery packs, powertrains, vehicles and energy storage products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our products prior to their sale to or installation for customers.

Any product defects, delays or legal restrictions on product features, or other failure of our products to perform as expected, could harm our reputation and result in delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, breach of warranty claims, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

Although we design our vehicles to be the safest vehicles on the road, product liability claims, even those without merit, could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automobile industry in particular experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform or are claimed to not have performed as expected. As is true for other automakers, our vehicles have been involved and we expect in the future will be involved in crashes resulting in death or personal injury, and such crashes where Autopilot or FSD features are engaged are the subject of significant public attention. We have experienced and we expect to continue to face claims arising from or related to misuse or claimed failures of new technologies that we are pioneering, including Autopilot and FSD features in our vehicles. In addition, the battery packs that we produce make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. While we have designed the battery pack to passively contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, there can be no assurance that a field or testing failure of our vehicles or other battery packs that we produce will not occur, in particular due to a high-speed crash, which could subject us to lawsuits, product recalls or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive.

Moreover, as our solar energy systems and energy storage products generate and store electricity, they have the potential to cause injury to people or property. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given the relatively limited number of vehicles and energy storage products delivered to date and limited field experience of our products. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our products and business and could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. In most jurisdictions, we generally self-insure against the risk of product liability claims for vehicle exposure, meaning that any product liability claims will likely have to be paid from company funds, not by insurance.

21


 

The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in these industries. We currently face competition from new and established domestic and international competitors and expect to face competition from others in the future, including competition from companies with new technology.

The worldwide automotive market, particularly for alternative fuel vehicles, is highly competitive today and we expect it will become even more so in the future. There is no assurance that our vehicles will be successful in the respective markets in which they compete. A significant and growing number of established and new automobile manufacturers, as well as other companies, have entered or are reported to have plans to enter the alternative fuel vehicle market, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles, as well as the market for self-driving technology and applications. In some cases, such competitors have announced an intention to produce electric vehicles exclusively at some point in the future. Most of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, vehicle sales resources and networks than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products.  In particular, some competitors have also announced plans to compete with us in important and large markets for electric vehicles, such as China and in Europe. Increased competition could result in lower vehicle unit sales, price reductions, revenue shortfalls, loss of customers and loss of market share, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In addition, Model 3 and Model Y face competition from existing and future automobile manufacturers in the extremely competitive entry-level premium sedan and compact SUV market, including BMW, Ford, Lexus, Mercedes and Volkswagen Group.

The solar and energy storage industries are highly competitive. We face competition from other manufacturers, developers and installers of solar and energy storage systems, as well as from large utilities. Decreases in the retail prices of electricity from utilities or other renewable energy sources could make our products less attractive to customers and lead to an increased rate of customer defaults under our existing long-term leases and PPAs. Moreover, prices for solar product components and prices per kWh for lithium-ion battery cells have declined and may continue to decline, which may adversely impact our ability to cost-effectively manufacture such components ourselves.

If we are unable to establish and maintain confidence in our long-term business prospects among consumers, analysts and within our industries, or are subject to negative publicity, then our financial condition, operating results, business prospects and access to capital may suffer materially.

Consumers may be less likely to purchase our products if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our service and support and other operations will continue in the long term. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed. Accordingly, in order to build and maintain our business, we must maintain confidence among customers, suppliers, analysts, ratings agencies and other parties in our long-term financial viability and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly complicated by certain factors including those that are largely outside of our control, such as our limited operating history, customer unfamiliarity with our products, any delays in scaling manufacturing, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and uncertainty regarding the future of electric vehicles or our other products and services, and our quarterly production and sales performance compared with market expectations.

In particular, Tesla’s products, business, results of operations, statements and actions are well-publicized by a range of third parties. Such attention includes frequent criticism, which is often exaggerated or unfounded, such as speculation regarding the sufficiency or stability of our management team. Any such negative perceptions, whether caused by us or not, could harm our business and make it more difficult to raise additional funds if needed.

22


 

If we fail to effectively grow and manage the residual, financing and credit risks related to our vehicle financing programs, our business may suffer.

We offer financing arrangements for our vehicles in North America, Europe and Asia primarily through various financial institutions. We also currently offer leasing directly through our local subsidiaries for Model S, Model X and Model 3 in the U.S. and for Model S and Model X in Canada. Under a lease held directly by us, we typically receive only a very small portion of the total vehicle purchase price at the time of lease, followed by a stream of payments over the term of the lease. The profitability of any vehicles returned to us at the end of their leases depends on our ability to accurately project our vehicles’ residual values at the outset of the leases, and such values may fluctuate prior to the end of their terms depending on various factors such as supply and demand of our used vehicles, economic cycles and the pricing of new vehicles. For example, we made certain adjustments to our vehicle prices during 2019 to reflect anticipated changes to our cost structure from periodically optimizing our retail strategy, and as a limited accommodation to customers in consideration of a reduction in the electric vehicle federal tax credit. Such pricing changes may impact the residual values of our vehicles. The leasing program also relies on our ability to secure adequate financing and/or business partners to fund and grow this program, and screen for and manage customer credit risk. We expect the availability of leasing and other financing options will be important for our vehicle customers. If we are unable to adequately fund our leasing program with internal funds, or partners or other external financing sources, and compelling alternative financing programs are not available for our customers, we may be unable to grow our deliveries. Furthermore, if our leasing business grows substantially, our business may suffer if we cannot effectively manage the greater levels of residual and credit risks resulting from growth. Finally, if we do not successfully monitor and comply with applicable national, state and/or local financial regulations and consumer protection laws governing lease transactions, we may become subject to enforcement actions or penalties, either of which may harm our business.

Moreover, we have provided resale value guarantees to customers and partners for certain financing programs, under which such counterparties may sell their vehicles back to us at certain points in time at pre-determined amounts. However, actual resale values, as with residual values for leased vehicles, are subject to similar fluctuations over the term of the financing arrangements, such as from the vehicle pricing changes discussed above. If the actual resale values of any vehicles resold or returned to us pursuant to these programs are materially lower than the pre-determined amounts we have offered, our operating results, profitability and/or liquidity could be negatively impacted.

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of, or unfavorable determinations with respect to, government and economic incentives in the U.S. and abroad supporting the development and adoption of electric vehicles, energy storage products or solar energy could have some impact on demand for our products and services.

We and our customers currently benefit from certain government and economic incentives supporting the development and adoption of electric vehicles. In the U.S. and abroad, such incentives include tax credits or rebates that encourage the purchase of electric vehicles. Specific policies in place around the world include exempting the purchase of electric vehicles from import taxes, value added taxes, or carbon dioxide and weight-based purchase taxes. Such programs could be reduced, eliminated or exhausted. For example, under current regulations, a $7,500 federal tax credit that was available in the U.S. for the purchase of our vehicles was reduced in phases during 2019 and ended on December 31, 2019. We believe that this sequential phase-out likely pulled forward some vehicle demand into the periods preceding each reduction. Moreover, in July 2018, a previously available incentive for purchases of Model 3 in Ontario, Canada was cancelled and Tesla buyers in Germany lost access to electric vehicle incentives for a short period of time beginning late 2017. In April 2017 and January 2016, respectively, previously available incentives in Hong Kong and Denmark that favored the purchase of electric vehicles expired, negatively impacting sales. Effective March 2016, California implemented regulations phasing out a $2,500 cash rebate on qualified electric vehicles for high-income consumers. Such developments could have some negative impact on demand for our vehicles, and we and our customers may have to adjust to them.

23


 

In addition, certain governmental rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives that are currently available with respect to our solar and energy storage product businesses allow us to lower our costs and encourage customers to buy our products and investors to invest in our solar financing funds. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date when the allocated funding is exhausted, reduced or terminated as renewable energy adoption rates increase, sometimes without warning. For example, the U.S. federal government currently offers an investment tax credit (ITC) for the installation of solar power facilities and energy storage systems that are charged from a co-sited solar power facility; however, the ITC is currently scheduled to decline in phases, from 26% for qualifying solar systems for which construction began by December 31, 2020, to 10% for commercial and utility systems and to 0% for customer-owned residential systems for which construction begins after December 31, 2021. Likewise, in jurisdictions where net energy metering is currently available, our customers receive bill credits from utilities for energy that their solar energy systems generate and export to the grid in excess of the electric load they use. Several jurisdictions have reduced, altered or eliminated the benefit available under net energy metering, or have proposed to do so. Such reductions in or termination of governmental incentives could adversely impact our results by making our products less competitive for potential customers, increasing our cost of capital and adversely impacting our ability to attract investment partners and to form new financing funds for our solar and energy storage assets.

Moreover, we and our fund investors claim the ITC and certain state incentives in amounts based on the fair market value of our solar and energy storage systems. Although we obtain independent appraisals to support the claimed fair market values, the relevant governmental authorities have audited such values and in certain cases have determined that they should be lower, and they may do so again in the future. Such determinations may result in adverse tax consequences and/or our obligation to make indemnification or other payments to our funds or fund investors.

Any failure by us to comply with the terms of our agreement with the Research Foundation for the State University of New York relating to our Gigafactory New York, could result in negative consequences for our business.

We are party to an operating lease and a research and development agreement through the SUNY Foundation. These agreements provide for the construction and use of our Gigafactory in Buffalo, New York, which we have primarily used for the development and production of our Solar Roof and other solar products and components, energy storage components, and Supercharger components, and for other lessor-approved functions. Under this agreement, we are obligated to, among other things, directly employ specified minimum numbers of personnel in the State of New York and spend or incur $5.0 billion in combined capital, operational expenses, costs of goods sold and other costs in the State of New York during the 10-year period beginning April 30, 2018. While we expect significant operations at Gigafactory New York and the surrounding Buffalo area to continue, including with our ramp and manufacture of the Solar Roof, if we fail in any year over the course of the term of the agreement to meet these obligations, we would be obligated to pay a “program payment” of $41.2 million to the SUNY Foundation for such year. Any inability on our part to comply with the requirements of this agreement may result in the payment of significant amounts to the SUNY Foundation, the termination of our lease at Gigafactory New York, and/or the need to adjust certain of our operations, in particular our production ramp of the Solar Roof or Supercharger components. Any of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

If we are unable to attract and/or retain key employees and hire qualified personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.

The loss of the services of any of our key employees could disrupt our operations, delay the development and introduction of our vehicles and services, and negatively impact our business, prospects and operating results. In particular, we are highly dependent on the services of Elon Musk, our Chief Executive Officer.

None of our key employees is bound by an employment agreement for any specific term and we may not be able to successfully attract and retain senior leadership necessary to grow our business. Our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain executive officers and other key technology, sales, marketing, engineering, manufacturing and support personnel, especially to support our high-volume manufacture of vehicles, expansion plans and technological innovation, and any failure or delay in doing so could adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

24


 

Key talent may leave Tesla due to various factors, such as a very competitive labor market for talented individuals with automotive or technology experience, or any negative publicity related to us. In California, Nevada and other regions where we have operations, including outside of the U.S., there is increasing competition for individuals with skillsets needed for our business, including specialized knowledge of electric vehicles, software engineering, manufacturing engineering, and other skills such as electrical and building construction expertise. This competition affects our ability to retain and hire key employees. Moreover, we have in the past conducted reductions in force in order to optimize our organizational structure and reduce costs, and certain senior personnel have also departed for various reasons. Our continued success depends upon our continued ability to hire new employees in a timely manner, especially to support our expansion plans, and to retain current employees or replace departed senior employees with qualified and experienced individuals, which is typically a time-consuming process. Additionally, we compete with both mature and prosperous companies that have far greater financial resources than we do and start-ups and emerging companies that promise short-term growth opportunities. Difficulties in retaining or recruiting employees could have an adverse effect on our performance and results.

Finally, our compensation philosophy for all of our personnel reflects our startup origins, with an emphasis on equity-based awards and benefits in order to closely align their incentives with the long-term interests of our stockholders. We have to periodically seek and obtain approval from our stockholders for future increases to the number of awards that may be granted and shares that may be purchased under our equity incentive and employee stock purchase plans. If we are unable to obtain the requisite stockholder approvals to obtain future increases to the number of awards that may be granted and shares that may be purchased under such plans, and compensate our personnel in accordance with our compensation philosophy, our ability to retain and hire qualified personnel would be negatively impacted.

We are highly dependent on the services of Elon Musk, our Chief Executive Officer.

We are highly dependent on the services of Elon Musk, our Chief Executive Officer and largest stockholder. Although Mr. Musk spends significant time with Tesla and is highly active in our management, he does not devote his full time and attention to Tesla. Mr. Musk also currently serves as Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technical Officer of Space Exploration Technologies Corp., a developer and manufacturer of space launch vehicles, and is involved in other emerging technology ventures.

We are continuously expanding and improving our information technology systems and use security measures designed to protect our systems against breaches and cyber-attacks. If these efforts are not successful, our business and operations could be disrupted or our intellectual property could be compromised, as a result of which our operating results and reputation could be harmed.

We are continuously expanding and improving our information technology systems, including implementing new internally developed systems and deploying such systems globally, to assist us in the management of our business. In particular, our volume production of multiple vehicles necessitates continued development, maintenance and improvement of our information technology systems in the U.S. and abroad, including at Gigafactory Shanghai, such as systems for product data management, procurement, inventory management, production planning and execution, sales, service and logistics, dealer management, financial, tax and regulatory compliance systems. We also maintain information technology measures designed to protect us against intellectual property theft, data breaches and other cyber-attacks. The implementation, maintenance, segregation and improvement of these systems require significant management time, support and cost. Moreover, there are inherent risks associated with developing, improving and expanding our core systems as well as implementing new systems and updating current systems, including the disruption of our data management, procurement, manufacturing execution, finance, supply chain and sales and service processes. These risks may affect our ability to manage our data and inventory, procure parts or supplies or manufacture, sell, deliver and service vehicles, adequately protect our intellectual property or achieve and maintain compliance with, or realize available benefits under, tax laws and other applicable regulations.

25


 

We cannot be sure that these systems or their required functionality will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If we do not successfully implement, maintain or expand these systems as planned, our operations may be disrupted, our ability to accurately and/or timely report our financial results could be impaired, and deficiencies may arise in our internal control over financial reporting, which may impact our ability to certify our financial results. Moreover, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated and our reputation may be adversely affected. If these systems or their functionality do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions.

Any unauthorized control or manipulation of our products’ systems could result in loss of confidence in us and our products and harm our business.

Our products contain complex information technology systems. For example, our vehicles and energy storage products are designed with built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates from us to improve or update their functionality. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our products and their systems. However, hackers have reportedly attempted, and may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use such networks, products and systems to gain control of, or to change, our products’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by our products. We encourage reporting of potential vulnerabilities in the security of our products via our security vulnerability reporting policy, and we aim to remedy any reported and verified vulnerability. Accordingly, we have received reports of potential vulnerabilities in the past and have attempted to remedy them. However, there can be no assurance that vulnerabilities will not be exploited in the future before they can be identified, or that our remediation efforts are or will be successful.

Any unauthorized access to or control of our products or their systems or any loss of data could result in legal claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our products, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our products, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We have been the subject of such reports in the past.

We are subject to substantial laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs, legal prohibitions or unfavorable changes upon our operations or products, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations, including as they evolve, could negatively impact our ability to operate our manufacturing facilities and substantially harm our business and operating results.

As a manufacturing company, including with respect to our current facilities such as the Fremont Factory, Gigafactory Nevada, Gigafactory New York and Gigafactory Shanghai and our future facility at Gigafactory Berlin, we are or will be subject to complex environmental, manufacturing, health and safety laws and regulations at numerous jurisdictional levels in the U.S., China, Germany and other locations abroad, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, recycling, disposal and human exposure to hazardous materials and with respect to constructing, expanding and maintaining our facilities. The costs of compliance, including remediating contamination if any is found on our properties and any changes to our operations mandated by new or amended laws, may be significant. We may also face unexpected delays in obtaining permits and approvals required by such laws in connection with our manufacturing facilities, which would hinder our operation of these facilities. Such costs and delays may adversely impact our business prospects and operating results. Furthermore, any violations of these laws may result in substantial fines and penalties, remediation costs, third party damages, or a suspension or cessation of our operations.

26


 

In addition, motor vehicles are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws. We incur significant costs in complying with these regulations and may be required to incur additional costs to comply with any changes to such regulations, and any failures to comply could result in significant expenses, delays or fines. We are subject to laws and regulations applicable to the supply, manufacture, import, sale and service of automobiles internationally. For example, in countries outside of the U.S., we are required to meet standards relating to vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions, among other things, that are often materially different from requirements in the U.S., thus resulting in additional investment into the vehicles and systems to ensure regulatory compliance in those countries. This process may include official review and certification of our vehicles by foreign regulatory agencies prior to market entry, as well as compliance with foreign reporting and recall management systems requirements.

In particular, we offer in our vehicles Autopilot and FSD features that today assist drivers with certain tedious and potentially dangerous aspects of road travel, but which currently require drivers to remain engaged. We are continuing to develop our FSD technology with the goal of achieving full self-driving capability in the future. There is a variety of international, federal and state regulations that may apply to self-driving vehicles, which include many existing vehicle standards that were not originally intended to apply to vehicles that may not have a driver. Such regulations continue to rapidly change, which increases the likelihood of a patchwork of complex or conflicting regulations, or may delay products or restrict self-driving features and availability, any of which could adversely affect our business.

Finally, as a manufacturer and installer of solar generation and energy storage systems and a supplier of electricity generated and stored by the solar energy and energy storage systems we install for customers, we are impacted by federal, state and local regulations and policies concerning electricity pricing, the interconnection of electricity generation and storage equipment with the electric grid, and the sale of electricity generated by third-party owned systems. For example, existing or proposed regulations and policies would permit utilities to limit the amount of electricity generated by our customers with their solar energy systems, charge fees and penalties to our customers relating to the purchase of energy other than from the grid, adjust electricity rate designs such that the price of our solar products may not be competitive with that of electricity from the grid, restrict us and our customers from transacting under our PPAs or qualifying for government incentives and benefits that apply to solar power, and limit or eliminate net energy metering. If such regulations and policies are adopted, or if other regulations and policies that adversely impact the interconnection or use of our solar and energy storage systems are introduced, they could deter potential customers from purchasing our solar and energy storage products, threaten the economics of our existing contracts and cause us to cease solar and energy storage system sales and operations in the relevant jurisdictions, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to comply with a variety of U.S. and international privacy and consumer protection laws to which we are subject could harm the Company.

Our privacy policy is posted on our website, and any failure by us or our vendor or other business partners to comply with it or with federal, state or international privacy, data protection or security laws or regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personally identifiable information could result in regulatory or litigation-related actions against us, legal liability, fines, damages, ongoing audit requirements and other significant costs. Substantial expenses and operational changes may be required in connection with maintaining compliance with such laws, and in particular certain emerging privacy laws are still subject to a high degree of uncertainty as to their interpretation and application. For example, in May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation began to fully apply to the processing of personal information collected from individuals located in the European Union, and has created new compliance obligations and has significantly increased fines for noncompliance. Similarly, beginning in January 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act imposes certain legal obligations on our use and processing of personal information related to California residents. Although we take steps to protect the security and integrity of our customers’ personal information, we may be required to expend significant resources to comply with data breach requirements if third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our customers or we otherwise experience a data loss with respect to customers’ personal information. A major breach of our network security and systems could have negative consequences for our business and future prospects, including possible fines, penalties and damages, reduced customer demand for our vehicles and harm to our reputation and brand.

27


 

Our business may be adversely affected by any disruptions caused by union activities.

It is not uncommon for employees of certain trades at companies such as us to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. Moreover, regulations in some jurisdictions outside of the U.S. mandate employee participation in industrial collective bargaining agreements and work councils with certain consultation rights with respect to the relevant companies’ operations. Although we work diligently to provide the best possible work environment for our employees, they may still decide to join or seek recognition to form a labor union, or we may be required to become a union signatory. From time to time, labor unions have engaged in campaigns to organize certain of our operations, as part of which such unions have filed unfair labor practice charges against us with the National Labor Relations Board, and they may do so in the future. In September 2019, an administrative law judge issued a recommended decision for Tesla on certain issues and against us on certain others. The National Labor Relations Board has not yet adopted the recommendation and we have appealed certain aspects of the recommended decision. Any unfavorable ultimate outcome for Tesla may have a negative impact on the perception of Tesla’s treatment of our employees. Furthermore, we are directly or indirectly dependent upon companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results. If a work stoppage occurs, it could delay the manufacture and sale of our products and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results or financial condition.

We may choose to or be compelled to undertake product recalls or take other similar actions, which could adversely affect our brand image and financial performance.

Any product recall with respect to our products may result in adverse publicity, damage our brand and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. For example, certain vehicle recalls that we initiated have resulted from various causes, including a component that could prevent the parking brake from releasing once engaged, a concern with the firmware in the restraints control module in certain right-hand-drive vehicles, industry-wide issues with airbags from a particular supplier, Model X seat components that could cause unintended seat movement during a collision, and concerns of corrosion in Model S and Model X power steering assist motor bolts. Furthermore, testing of our products by government regulators or industry groups may require us to initiate product recalls or may result in negative public perceptions about the safety of our products. In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our products or our electric vehicle powertrain components that we have provided to other vehicle OEMs, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable laws and regulations, such as federal motor vehicle safety standards. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary or caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by us or our suppliers, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Our current and future warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.

We provide a manufacturer’s warranty on all new and used Tesla vehicles and production powertrain components and systems we sell.  In addition, we also provide a warranty on the installation and components of the energy generation and storage systems we sell, and we pass through to our customers the inverter and panel manufacturers’ warranties. Finally, we offer a performance guarantee with our leased solar energy systems that compensates a customer on an annual basis if their system does not meet the electricity production guarantees set forth in their PPA or lease.  Under these performance guarantees, we bear the risk of electricity production shortfalls resulting from an inverter or panel failure.  These risks are exacerbated in the event the panel or inverter manufacturers cease operations or fail to honor their warranties.

If our warranty reserves are inadequate to cover future warranty claims on our products, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. Warranty reserves include our management’s best estimate of the projected costs to repair or to replace items under warranty. These estimates are based on actual claims incurred to date and an estimate of the nature, frequency and costs of future claims. Such estimates are inherently uncertain and changes to our historical or projected experience, especially with respect to products such as Model 3, Model Y and the Solar Roof that we have recently introduced and/or that we expect to produce at significantly greater volumes than our past products, may cause material changes to our warranty reserves in the future.

28


 

Our insurance coverage strategy may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks.

We may be subject, in the ordinary course of business, to losses resulting from products liability, accidents, acts of God and other claims against us, for which we may have no insurance coverage. As a general matter, we do not maintain as much insurance coverage as many other companies do, and in some cases, we do not maintain any at all. Additionally, the policies that we do have may include significant deductibles or self-insured retentions, and we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover all future losses or claims against us. A loss that is uninsured or which exceeds policy limits may require us to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our operating costs and other factors.

We expect our period-to-period financial results to vary based on our operating costs, which we anticipate will fluctuate as the pace at which we continue to design, develop and manufacture new products and increase production capacity by expanding our current manufacturing facilities and adding future facilities, may not be consistent or linear between periods. Additionally, our revenues from period to period may fluctuate as we introduce existing products to new markets for the first time and as we develop and introduce new products.  As a result of these factors, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our financial results, especially in the short term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our financial results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts, ratings agencies or investors, who may be focused only on quarterly financial results. If any of this occurs, the trading price of our stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.

Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash, and there is no guarantee that we will have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial indebtedness.

As of December 31, 2019, we and our subsidiaries had outstanding $12.49 billion in aggregate principal amount of indebtedness (see Note 12, Debt, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K). Our substantial consolidated indebtedness may increase our vulnerability to any generally adverse economic and industry conditions. We and our subsidiaries may, subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt or recapitalize our debt.

Pursuant to their terms, holders of our 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2021, 2.375% Convertible Senior Notes due 2022 and 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2024 (together, the “Tesla Convertible Notes”) may convert their respective Tesla Convertible Notes at their option prior to the scheduled maturities of the respective Tesla Convertible Notes under certain circumstances. Upon conversion of the applicable Tesla Convertible Notes, we will be obligated to deliver cash and/or shares in respect of the principal amounts thereof and the conversion value in excess of such principal amounts on such Tesla Convertible Notes. Moreover, our subsidiary’s Zero-Coupon Convertible Senior Notes due 2020 (the “Subsidiary Convertible Notes”) are convertible into shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $300.00 per share. Finally, holders of the Tesla Convertible Notes and the Subsidiary Convertible Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the fundamental change purchase date.

29


 

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal and interest on our indebtedness when due or to make payments upon conversion or repurchase demands with respect to our convertible notes, or to refinance our indebtedness as we may need or desire, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to satisfy our obligations under our existing indebtedness, and any future indebtedness we may incur, and to make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance existing or future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. In addition, our ability to make payments may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms or at all, which could result in a default on our existing or future indebtedness and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our debt agreements contain covenant restrictions that may limit our ability to operate our business.

The terms of certain of our credit facilities, including the Credit Agreement, contain, and any of our other future debt agreements may contain, covenant restrictions that limit our ability to operate our business, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things, incur additional debt or issue guarantees, create liens, repurchase stock or make other restricted payments, and make certain voluntary prepayments of specified debt. In addition, under certain circumstances we are required to comply with a fixed charge coverage ratio. As a result of these covenants, our ability to respond to changes in business and economic conditions and engage in beneficial transactions, including to obtain additional financing as needed, may be restricted. Furthermore, our failure to comply with our debt covenants could result in a default under our debt agreements, which could permit the holders to accelerate our obligation to repay the debt. If any of our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to repay it.

We may need or want to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available to us when we need them. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need or want them, our operations and prospects could be negatively affected.

The design, manufacture, sale, installation and/or servicing of automobiles, energy storage products and solar products is a capital-intensive business, and the specific timing of cash inflows and outflows may fluctuate substantially from period to period. Until we are consistently generating positive free cash flows, we may need or want to raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-related or debt securities or through obtaining credit from financial institutions to fund, together with our principal sources of liquidity, the costs of developing and manufacturing our current or future vehicles, energy storage products and/or solar products, to pay any significant unplanned or accelerated expenses or for new significant strategic investments, or to refinance our significant consolidated indebtedness, even if not required to do so by the terms of such indebtedness. We need sufficient capital to fund ongoing operations, research and development projects for new products, establishment and/or increases of Model 3 and Model Y production capacity at the Fremont Factory and at Gigafactory Shanghai, the continued expansion of Gigafactory Nevada, the construction of Gigafactory Berlin, the manufacturing ramp of the Solar Roof at Gigafactory New York, and the continued expansion of our retail and service locations, body shops, Mobile Service fleet and Supercharger network. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

30


 

We could be subject to liability, penalties and other restrictive sanctions and adverse consequences arising out of certain governmental investigations and proceedings.

We are cooperating with certain government investigations as discussed in Note 16, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. To our knowledge, no government agency in any such ongoing investigation has concluded that any wrongdoing occurred. However, we cannot predict the outcome or impact of any such ongoing matters, and there exists the possibility that we could be subject to liability, penalties and other restrictive sanctions and adverse consequences if the SEC, the DOJ, or any other government agency were to pursue legal action in the future. Moreover, we expect to incur costs in responding to related requests for information and subpoenas, and if instituted, in defending against any governmental proceedings.

For example, on October 16, 2018, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York entered a final judgment approving the terms of a settlement filed with the Court on September 29, 2018, in connection with the actions taken by the SEC relating to Mr. Musk’s statement on August 7, 2018 that he was considering taking Tesla private. Pursuant to the settlement, we, among other things, paid a civil penalty of $20 million, appointed an independent director as the Chair of the Board, appointed two additional independent directors to our board of directors, and made further enhancements to our disclosure controls and other corporate governance-related matters. On April 26, 2019, this settlement was amended to clarify certain of the previously-agreed disclosure procedures, which was subsequently approved by the Court. All other terms of the prior settlement were reaffirmed without modification. Although we intend to continue to comply with the terms and requirements of the settlement, if there is a lack of compliance or an alleged lack of compliance, additional enforcement actions or other legal proceedings may be instituted against us.

If we update or discontinue the use of our manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, we may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in our depreciation could negatively affect our financial results.

We have invested and expect to continue to invest significantly in what we believe is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment for our various product lines, and we depreciate the cost of such equipment over their expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and we may decide to update our manufacturing process with cutting-edge equipment more quickly than expected. Moreover, we are continually implementing learnings as our engineering and manufacturing expertise and efficiency increase, which may result in our ability to manufacture our products using less of our currently installed equipment. Alternatively, as we ramp and mature the production of our products to higher levels, our learnings may cause us to discontinue the use of already installed equipment in favor of different or additional equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and our results of operations could be negatively impacted.

We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could negatively affect our financial results.

We transact business globally in multiple currencies and have foreign currency risks related to our revenue, costs of revenue and operating expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro, Japanese yen, Canadian dollar, Chinese yuan and Norwegian krone. To the extent we have significant revenues denominated in such foreign currencies, any strengthening of the U.S. dollar would tend to reduce our revenues as measured in U.S. dollars, as we have historically experienced. In addition, a portion of our costs and expenses have been, and we anticipate will continue to be, denominated in foreign currencies, including the Japanese yen. If we do not have fully offsetting revenues in these currencies and if the value of the U.S. dollar depreciates significantly against these currencies, our costs as measured in U.S. dollars as a percent of our revenues will correspondingly increase and our margins will suffer. Moreover, while we undertake limited hedging activities intended to offset the impact of currency translation exposure, it is impossible to predict or eliminate such impact. As a result, our operating results could be adversely affected.

31


 

We may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell vehicles directly which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our electric vehicles.

We sell our vehicles directly to consumers using means that we believe will maximize our reach, currently including through our website and our own stores. While we intend to continue to leverage our most effective sales strategies, we may not be able to sell our vehicles through our own stores in each state in the U.S., as some states have laws that may be interpreted to impose limitations on this direct-to-consumer sales model. In some states, we have also opened galleries to educate and inform customers about our products, but such locations do not actually transact in the sale of vehicles. The application of these state laws to our operations continues to be difficult to predict. Laws in some states have limited our ability to obtain dealer licenses from state motor vehicle regulators and may continue to do so.

In addition, decisions by regulators permitting us to sell vehicles may be challenged by dealer associations and others as to whether such decisions comply with applicable state motor vehicle industry laws. We have prevailed in many of these lawsuits and such results have reinforced our continuing belief that state laws were not designed to prevent our distribution model. In some states, there have also been regulatory and legislative efforts by dealer associations to propose laws that, if enacted, would prevent us from obtaining dealer licenses in their states given our current sales model. A few states have passed legislation that clarifies our ability to operate, but at the same time limits the number of dealer licenses we can obtain or stores that we can operate.

Internationally, there may be laws in jurisdictions we have not yet entered or laws we are unaware of in jurisdictions we have entered that may restrict our sales or other business practices. Even for those jurisdictions we have analyzed, the laws in this area can be complex, difficult to interpret and may change over time. Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles interfering with our ability to sell vehicles directly to consumers could have a negative and material impact our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We may need to defend ourselves against intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and could cause us to incur substantial costs.

Others, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, copyrights, trademarks or other proprietary rights that could prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our products and services, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, the holders of such intellectual property rights may assert their rights and urge us to take licenses, and/or may bring suits alleging infringement or misappropriation of such rights. While we endeavor to obtain and protect the intellectual property rights that we expect will allow us to retain or advance our strategic initiatives, there can be no assurance that we will be able to adequately identify and protect the portions of intellectual property that are strategic to our business, or mitigate the risk of potential suits or other legal demands by our competitors. Accordingly, we may consider the entering into licensing agreements with respect to such rights, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur, and such licenses and associated litigation could significantly increase our operating expenses. In addition, if we are determined to have or believe there is a high likelihood that we have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to cease making, selling or incorporating certain components or intellectual property into the goods and services we offer, to pay substantial damages and/or license royalties, to redesign our products and services, and/or to establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services. In the event that we were required to take one or more such actions, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.

32


 

Our facilities or operations could be adversely affected by events outside of our control, such as natural disasters, wars or health epidemics.

We may be impacted by natural disasters, wars, health epidemics or other events outside of our control. For example, our corporate headquarters, the Fremont Factory and Gigafactory Nevada are located in seismically active regions in Northern California and Nevada, and our Gigafactory Shanghai is located in a flood-prone area. If major disasters such as earthquakes, floods or other events occur, or our information system or communications network breaks down or operates improperly, our headquarters and production facilities may be seriously damaged, or we may have to stop or delay production and shipment of our products. In addition, beginning in late 2019, the media has reported a public health epidemic originating in China, prompting precautionary government-imposed closures of certain travel and business. Gigafactory Shanghai was closed for a brief time as a result, before it reopened in February 2020 and rejoined our U.S. factories, which had continued to operate.  It is unknown whether and how global supply chains, particularly for automotive parts, may be affected if such an epidemic persists for an extended period of time. We may incur expenses or delays relating to such events outside of our control, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Common Stock

The trading price of our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile.

The trading price of our common stock has been highly volatile and could continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Our common stock has experienced an intra-day trading high of $968.99 per share and a low of $176.99 per share over the last 52 weeks. The stock market in general, and the market for technology companies in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In particular, a large proportion of our common stock has been and may continue to be traded by short sellers which may put pressure on the supply and demand for our common stock, further influencing volatility in its market price. Public perception and other factors outside of our control may additionally impact the stock price of companies like us that garner a disproportionate degree of public attention, regardless of actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. Moreover, stockholder litigation like this has been filed against us in the past. While we defend such actions vigorously, any judgment against us or any future stockholder litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

We may fail to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business, which could cause our stock price to decline.

We may provide from time to time guidance regarding our expected financial and business performance, which may include projections regarding sales and production, as well as anticipated future revenues, gross margins, profitability and cash flows. Correctly identifying key factors affecting business conditions and predicting future events is inherently an uncertain process, and our guidance may not ultimately be accurate and has in the past been inaccurate in certain respects, such as the timing of new product manufacturing ramps. Our guidance is based on certain assumptions such as those relating to anticipated production and sales volumes (which generally are not linear throughout a given period), average sales prices, supplier and commodity costs, and planned cost reductions. If our guidance is not accurate or varies from actual results due to our inability to meet our assumptions or the impact on our financial performance that could occur as a result of various risks and uncertainties, the market value of our common stock could decline significantly.

33


 

Transactions relating to our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders, or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the Tesla Convertible Notes or the Subsidiary Convertible Notes would dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent we deliver shares upon conversion of any of such notes. Our Subsidiary Convertible Notes have been historically, and the other Tesla Convertible Notes may become in the future, convertible at the option of their holders prior to their scheduled terms under certain circumstances. If holders elect to convert their convertible notes, we could be required to deliver to them a significant number of shares of our common stock. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the convertible notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of such notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of such notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.

Moreover, in connection with each issuance of the Tesla Convertible Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions, which are expected to reduce the potential dilution and/or offset potential cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount upon conversion of the applicable Tesla Convertible Notes. We also entered into warrant transactions with the hedge counterparties, which could separately have a dilutive effect on our common stock to the extent that the market price per share of our common stock exceeds the applicable strike price of the warrants on the applicable expiration dates. In addition, the hedge counterparties or their affiliates may enter into various transactions with respect to their hedge positions, which could also cause or prevent an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock or the convertible notes.

Elon Musk has pledged shares of our common stock to secure certain bank borrowings. If Mr. Musk were forced to sell these shares in order to satisfy his loan obligations, such sales could cause our stock price to decline.

Certain banking institutions have made extensions of credit to Elon Musk, our Chief Executive Officer, a portion of which was used to purchase shares of common stock in certain of our public offerings and private placements at the same prices offered to third party participants in such offerings and placements. We are not a party to these loans, which are partially secured by pledges of a portion of the Tesla common stock currently owned by Mr. Musk. If the price of our common stock were to decline substantially, Mr. Musk may be forced by one or more of the banking institutions to sell shares of Tesla common stock to satisfy his loan obligations if he could not do so through other means. Any such sales could cause the price of our common stock to decline further.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our governing documents, applicable laws and our convertible notes could impair a takeover attempt.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws afford certain rights and powers to our board of directors that could contribute to the delay or prevention of an acquisition that it deems undesirable. We are also subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and other provisions of Delaware law that limit the ability of stockholders in certain situations to effect certain business combinations. In addition, the terms of our convertible notes require us to repurchase such notes in the event of a fundamental change, including a takeover of our company. Any of the foregoing provisions and terms that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

 

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

34


 

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

We are headquartered in Palo Alto, California. Our principal facilities include a large number of properties in North America, Europe and Asia utilized for manufacturing and assembly, warehousing, engineering, retail and service locations, Supercharger sites, and administrative and sales offices. Our facilities are used to support both of our reporting segments, and are suitable and adequate for the conduct of our business. We primarily lease such facilities with the exception of some manufacturing facilities. The following table sets forth the location of our primary owned and leased manufacturing facilities.

 

Primary Manufacturing Facilities

 

Location

 

Owned or Leased

Fremont Factory

 

Fremont, California

 

Owned

Gigafactory Nevada

 

Sparks, Nevada

 

Owned

Gigafactory New York

 

Buffalo, New York

 

Leased

Gigafactory Shanghai

 

Shanghai, China

 

*

 

*

We own the building and the land use rights with an initial term of 50 years. The land use rights are treated as operating lease right-of-use assets.

ITEM 3.

For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, please see Note 16, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

In addition, the following matters are being disclosed pursuant to Item 103 of Regulation S-K because they relate to environmental regulations and aggregate civil penalties could potentially exceed $100,000.

The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (the “BAAQMD”) has issued notices of violation to us relating to air permitting for the Fremont Factory, but has not initiated formal proceedings. We dispute certain of these allegations and are working to resolve them with the BAAQMD. Further, we assert that there has been no related adverse community or environmental impact. While we cannot predict the outcome of this matter, including the final amount of any penalties, it is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our business.

We have also received an information request from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) under Section 114(a) of the Clean Air Act of 1963, as amended (the “Clean Air Act”). The EPA is reviewing the compliance of our Fremont Factory operations with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act, and we are working with the EPA in responding to this request. While the outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time, it is not currently expected to have a material adverse impact on our business.

 

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

 

35


 

PART II

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock has traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “TSLA” since it began trading on June 29, 2010. Our initial public offering was priced at $17.00 per share on June 28, 2010.

Holders

As of February 7, 2020, there were 1,685 holders of record of our common stock. A substantially greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or incorporated by reference into any filing of Tesla, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

36


 

The following graph shows a comparison, from January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2019, of the cumulative total return on our common stock, The NASDAQ Composite Index and a group of all public companies sharing the same SIC code as us, which is SIC code 3711, “Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies” (Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies Public Company Group). Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. Data for The NASDAQ Composite Index and the Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies Public Company Group assumes an investment of $100 on January 1, 2015 and reinvestment of dividends. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock nor do we anticipate paying any such cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.

 

 

37


 

ITEM 6.

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and from the historical consolidated financial statements not included herein to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below (in millions, except per share data).

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2019 (3)

 

 

2018 (2)

 

 

2017

 

 

2016 (1)

 

 

2015

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenues

 

$

24,578

 

 

$

21,461

 

 

$

11,759

 

 

$

7,000

 

 

$

4,046

 

Gross profit

 

$

4,069

 

 

$

4,042

 

 

$

2,223

 

 

$

1,599

 

 

$

924

 

Loss from operations

 

$

(69

)

 

$

(388

)

 

$

(1,632

)

 

$

(667

)

 

$

(717

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(862

)

 

$

(976

)

 

$

(1,962

)

 

$

(675

)

 

$

(889

)

Net loss per share of common stock

   attributable to common stockholders, basic

   and diluted

 

$

(4.92

)

 

$

(5.72

)

 

$

(11.83

)

 

$

(4.68

)

 

$

(6.93

)

Weighted average shares used in computing

   net loss per share of common stock, basic

   and diluted

 

 

177

 

 

 

171

 

 

 

166

 

 

 

144

 

 

 

128

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2019 (3)

 

 

2018 (2)

 

 

2017

 

 

2016 (1)

 

 

2015

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working (deficit) capital

 

$

1,436

 

 

$

(1,686

)

 

$

(1,104

)

 

$

433

 

 

$

(29

)

Total assets

 

 

34,309

 

 

 

29,740

 

 

 

28,655

 

 

 

22,664

 

 

 

8,068

 

Total long-term obligations

 

 

15,532

 

 

 

13,434

 

 

 

15,348

 

 

 

10,923

 

 

 

4,126

 

 

(1)

We acquired SolarCity Corporation (“SolarCity”) on November 21, 2016. SolarCity’s financial results have been included in our financial results from the acquisition date as previously reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

(2)

We adopted ASC 606 in 2018. Prior periods have not been revised. See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

(3)

Includes the impact of the adoption of the new lease accounting standard in 2019. Prior periods have not been revised. See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

 

 

 

38


 

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For discussion related to changes in financial condition and the results of operations for fiscal year 2017-related items, refer to Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year 2018, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 19, 2019.

Overview and 2019 Highlights

Our mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy. We design, develop, manufacture, lease and sell high-performance fully electric vehicles, solar energy generation systems and energy storage products. We also offer maintenance, installation, operation and other services related to our products.

Automotive

During 2019, we achieved annual vehicle delivery and production records of 367,656 and 365,232 total vehicles, respectively. We also laid the groundwork for our next phase of growth with the commencement of Model 3 production at Gigafactory Shanghai; preparations at the Fremont Factory for Model Y production, which commenced in the first quarter of 2020; the selection of Berlin, Germany as the site for our next factory for the European market; and the unveiling of Cybertruck. We also continued to enhance our user experience through improved Autopilot and FSD features, including the introduction of a new powerful on-board FSD computer and a new Smart Summon feature, and the expansion of a unique set of in-car entertainment options.

Energy Generation and Storage

We revamped key aspects of our solar operations in 2019 by streamlining traditionally complex ordering, permitting, installation and back-end service processes to enhance the customer experience, especially for retrofit solar installations. Our solar deployments grew approximately 48% and 26%, quarter-over-quarter, in the second half of the year. We also deployed 1.65 GWh of energy storage in 2019, more than the aggregate of all prior years. Finally, we further evolved our product offerings by launching the third generation of the Solar Roof, for which we are expanding both our manufacturing and installation capabilities, and Megapack, our largest utility-scale energy storage product to date.

Management Opportunities, Challenges and Risks and 2020 Outlook

Automotive—Production

A key focus in 2020 will be our efforts towards establishing and expanding capacity for vehicle production at volume across three continents. At the Fremont Factory, we commenced Model Y production earlier than anticipated, and combined with Model 3, we have installed annual production capacity for 400,000 vehicles. We expect to further increase this capacity to 500,000 vehicles through the installation of additional equipment.

At Gigafactory Shanghai, we have installed annual production capacity for 150,000 Model 3 vehicles that we believe we will eventually be able to push to actual rates of production in excess of such number, subject to local production of battery packs, which we began ramping there later than other processes. We have commenced construction of the next phase of Gigafactory Shanghai to add Model Y manufacturing capacity at least equivalent to that for Model 3. To finance our construction and expansion, in December 2019 our local subsidiary entered into a RMB 9.0 billion (or the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars) fixed asset term facility and a RMB 2.25 billion (or the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars) working capital revolving facility, part of which was used to repay a RMB 3.5 billion bridge loan entered into in March 2019. We are supplementing such financing with limited direct capital expenditures.

39


 

Finally, we have selected Germany as the site of our next factory for manufacturing vehicles for the European market, due to its strong manufacturing and engineering presence. However, the construction of and ramp at Gigafactory Berlin, as well as at Gigafactory Shanghai, are subject to a number of uncertainties inherent in all new manufacturing operations, including ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements, maintenance of operational licenses and approvals for additional expansion, potential supply chain constraints, hiring, training and retention of qualified employees, and the pace of bringing production equipment and processes online with the capability to manufacture high-quality units at scale. Ultimately, achieving increased total vehicle production cost-effectively across all of our manufacturing operations will require that we timely address any bottlenecks that may arise as we ramp, establish and maintain sustained supplier capacity, and successfully utilize manufacturing processes at the maximum output rates that we have planned for them.

Automotive—Demand and Sales

As the automotive industry continues to validate and grow the market for electric vehicles, we are generating demand and new customers even without traditional marketing and with relatively low marketing costs, and in 2019 our orders shifted to originating mostly from new customers without prior reservations. Production at Gigafactory Shanghai allows us to offer Model 3 in China at competitive local pricing and more quickly, which should drive further demand and opportunity in the world’s largest market for mid-sized premium sedans, and we expect a similar impact in China for Model Y when we commence production there of this offering in the popular compact SUV segment.

Moreover, the significant interest generated by our unveiling of Cybertruck demonstrated our brand visibility, innovation and viability across an increasing range of vehicle segments. Meanwhile, we are making our existing vehicles incrementally more compelling, including through a planned software update for FSD-enabled vehicles to react to traffic lights and stop signs and navigate city intersections, and additional functionality of both in-vehicle software and the Tesla mobile app.

 

On the other hand, we may be impacted by trade and environmental policies, political uncertainty and economic cycles involving geographic regions where we have significant operations, which are inherently unpredictable. Sales of vehicles in the automotive industry also tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose us to increased volatility. Specifically, it is uncertain as to how such macroeconomic factors will impact us as a company that has been experiencing growth and increasing market share in an industry that has globally been experiencing a recent decline in sales. Finally, we make certain adjustments to our prices from time to time in the ordinary course of business, including as we introduce new vehicles and variants and optimize the pricing among them. Such pricing changes may impact our vehicles’ resale values, and in turn our operating results. For example, if price reductions result in an increase to our estimates of the volume of vehicles that may potentially be returned to us under pre-existing resale value guarantees provided to customers and partners for certain financing programs, our gross profits may be reduced.

Automotive—Deliveries and Customer Infrastructure

 

We continue to optimize our manufacturing and global delivery patterns to address higher volumes of our predominantly single-factory production at the Fremont Factory. We expect to alleviate any related issues through local production at Gigafactory Shanghai and eventually at Gigafactory Berlin.

We also continue to expand and invest in our servicing and charging locations and capabilities to keep pace with our customer vehicle fleet and ensure a convenient and efficient customer experience. However, if our customer vehicles, particularly in the rapidly growing Model 3 fleet, experience unexpected reliability issues, it could outpace and overburden our servicing capabilities and parts inventory.

Energy Generation and Storage Demand, Production and Deployment

 

We expect to continue to grow our retrofit solar system deployments as we execute our new strategy, including through compelling financing options such as a subscription-based offering, which is currently available in California.

40


 

We are focused on training our personnel and third party partners to ramp installations of our Solar Roof, and are also hiring rapidly for its ongoing manufacturing ramp at Gigafactory New York. We expect such ramp will support our significant operations and our compliance with minimum hiring and cumulative investment targets under our agreement with the SUNY Foundation related to the construction and use of Gigafactory New York. However, if our expectations as to the costs and timelines of our investment and operations at Buffalo or our production ramp of the Solar Roof prove incorrect, we may incur additional expenses or substantial payments to the SUNY Foundation.

Finally, with the introduction of our 3 MWh Megapack, we now offer an even greater variety of scalable energy storage products with a wide range of markets and applications, and expect this product to drive additional interest from global project developers and utilities.    

Trends in Cash Flow, Capital Expenditures and Operating Expenses

Our capital expenditures are difficult to project beyond the short term, given the number and breadth of our core projects at any given time. For example, the curve of any new product ramp, such as for Model Y and the Solar Roof, is inherently subject to uncertainty of timing, and if we are able to meet various milestones along such ramp more quickly than expected, our capital expenditures may be accelerated. We also continuously evaluate, and as appropriate adjust, our capital expenditures based on, among other things: our manufacturing plans for our various products, which we may rebalance from time to time based on the mix of demand among them and other contingent factors; the pace and prioritization of current projects under development; and the addition of any new projects. Moreover, we are generally increasing the capital efficiency of our projects with experience, and we may find that our actual capital expenditures on new projects are different than previously expected.

Subject to the above, considering the expected pace of the manufacturing ramps for our products, construction and expansion of our factories, and pipeline of announced projects under development, and consistent with our current strategy of using partners to manufacture battery cells, as well as considering all other infrastructure growth, we currently expect our average annual capital expenditures in 2020 and the two succeeding fiscal years to be $2.5 billion to $3.5 billion.

We expect operating expenses as a percentage of revenue to continue to decrease in the future as we focus on increasing operational efficiency and process automation, as well as from increases in expected overall revenues from our expanding sales. In particular, our efforts to scale down and optimize our cost structure relative to the size of our business have already manifested in total operating expenses decreasing from $4.4 billion to $4.1 billion from fiscal year 2018 to fiscal year 2019, including restructuring and other charges. Meanwhile, our total revenues increased from $21.5 billion to $24.6 billion in the same period.

In March 2018, our stockholders approved the 2018 CEO Performance Award, with vesting contingent on achieving market capitalization and operational milestones. We will incur significant non-cash stock-based compensation expense for each tranche under this award after the related operational milestone initially becomes probable of being met, and if later than the grant date, we will also have to record a cumulative catch-up expense at such time. Such catch-up expense may be material depending on the length of time elapsed from the grant date. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2019, as the result of an additional operational milestone becoming probable of achievement, we recorded a cumulative catch-up expense of $72 million for service provided from the grant date. Moreover, as the expense for a tranche is recorded over the longer of (i) the expected achievement period of the relevant operational milestone and (ii) only if the related market capitalization milestone has not been achieved, its expected achievement period, the achievement of a market capitalization milestone earlier than expected may accelerate the rate at which such expense is recognized. Upon vesting of a tranche, all remaining associated expense will be recognized immediately. See Note 14, Equity Incentive Plans—2018 CEO Performance Award, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details regarding the stock-based compensation relating to the 2018 CEO Performance Award.

 

 

41


 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”). The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, costs and expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience, as appropriate, and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Changes in the accounting estimates are reasonably likely to occur from period to period. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by our management. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will be affected. We believe that the following critical accounting policies involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity than our other accounting policies. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to understanding and evaluating the consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Revenue Recognition

Adoption of new revenue standard

On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, (“new revenue standard”) using the modified retrospective method. The new revenue standard had a material impact in our consolidated financial statements. For further discussion, refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Automotive Segment

Automotive Sales Revenue

Automotive Sales without Resale Value Guarantee

Automotive sales revenue includes revenues related to deliveries of new vehicles and pay-per-use charges, and specific other features and services that meet the definition of a performance obligation under the new revenue standard, including access to our Supercharger network, internet connectivity, Autopilot, FSD features and over-the-air software updates. We recognize revenue on automotive sales upon delivery to the customer, which is when the control of a vehicle transfers. Payments are typically received at the point control transfers or in accordance with payment terms customary to the business. Other features and services such as access to our Supercharger network, internet connectivity and over-the-air software updates are provisioned upon control transfer of a vehicle and recognized over time on a straight-line basis as we have a stand-ready obligation to deliver such services to the customer. We recognize revenue related to these other features and services over the performance period, which is generally the expected ownership life of the vehicle or the eight-year life of the vehicle. Revenue related to Autopilot and FSD features is recognized when functionality is delivered to the customer. For our obligations related to automotive sales, we estimate standalone selling price by considering costs used to develop and deliver the service, third-party pricing of similar options and other information that may be available.

At the time of revenue recognition, we reduce the transaction price and record a sales return reserve against revenue for estimated variable consideration related to future product returns based on historical experience. In addition, any fees that are paid or payable by us to a customer’s lender when we arrange the financing are recognized as an offset against automotive sales revenue.

Costs to obtain a contract mainly relate to commissions paid to our sales personnel for the sale of vehicles. Commissions are not paid on other obligations such as access to our Supercharger network, internet connectivity, Autopilot, FSD features and over-the-air software updates. As our contract costs related to automotive sales are typically fulfilled within one year, the costs to obtain a contract are expensed as incurred. Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as automotive revenue, and we have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control over vehicles, parts, or accessories have transferred to the customer as an expense in cost of revenues. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from a customer from the transaction price of automotive contracts.

42


 

Automotive Sales with Resale Value Guarantee or a Buyback Option

We offer resale value guarantees or similar buy-back terms to certain international customers who purchase vehicles and who finance their vehicles through one of our specified commercial banking partners. We also offer resale value guarantees in connection with automotive sales to certain leasing partners. Under these programs, we receive full payment for the vehicle sales price at the time of delivery and our counterparty has the option of selling their vehicle back to us during the guarantee period, which currently is generally at the end of the term of the applicable loan or financing program, for a pre-determined resale value.

With the exception of two programs which are discussed within the Automotive Leasing section, we recognize revenue when control transfers upon delivery to customers in accordance with the new revenue standard as a sale with a right of return as we do not believe the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise the resale value guarantee provided to them. The process to determine whether there is a significant economic incentive includes a comparison of a vehicle’s estimated market value at the time the option is exercisable with the guaranteed resale value to determine the customer’s economic incentive to exercise. The performance obligations and the pattern of recognizing automotive sales with resale value guarantees are consistent with automotive sales without resale value guarantees with the exception of our estimate for sales return reserve. Sales return reserves for automotive sales with resale value guarantees are estimated based on historical experience plus consideration for expected future market values. On a quarterly basis, we assess the estimated market values of vehicles under our buyback options program to determine whether there have been changes to the likelihood of future product returns. As we accumulate more data related to the buyback values of our vehicles or as market conditions change, there may be material changes to their estimated values. The two programs that are still being recorded as operating leases are discussed in further detail below in Vehicle Sales to Leasing Partners with a Resale Value Guarantee and a Buyback Option and Vehicle Sales to Customers with a Resale Value Guarantee where Exercise is Probable.

Prior to the adoption of the new revenue standard, all transactions with resale value guarantees were recorded as operating leases. The amount of sale proceeds equal to the resale value guarantee was deferred until the guarantee expired or was exercised. For certain transactions that were considered interest bearing collateralized borrowings as required under ASC 840, Leases prior to January 1, 2019, we also accrued interest expense based on our borrowing rate. The remaining sale proceeds were deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the stated guarantee period to automotive leasing revenue. The guarantee period expired at the earlier of the end of the guarantee period or the pay-off of the initial loan. We capitalized the cost of these vehicles on the consolidated balance sheet as operating lease vehicles, net, and depreciated their value, less estimated residual value, to cost of automotive leasing revenue over the same period.

In cases where our counterparty retained ownership of the vehicle at the end of the guarantee period, the resale value guarantee liability and any remaining deferred revenue balances related to the vehicle were settled to automotive leasing revenue, and the net book value of the leased vehicle was expensed to cost of automotive leasing revenue. If our counterparty returned the vehicle to us during the guarantee period, we purchased the vehicle from our counterparty in an amount equal to the resale value guarantee and settled any remaining deferred balances to automotive leasing revenue, and we reclassified the net book value of the vehicle on the consolidated balance sheet to used vehicle inventory.

Automotive Regulatory Credits

In connection with the production and delivery of our zero emission vehicles in global markets, we have earned and will continue to earn various tradable automotive regulatory credits. We have sold these credits, and will continue to sell future credits, to automotive companies and other regulated entities who can use the credits to comply with emission standards and other regulatory requirements. For example, under California’s Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation and those of states that have adopted California’s standard, vehicle manufacturers are required to earn or purchase credits, referred to as ZEV credits, for compliance with their annual regulatory requirements. These laws provide that automakers may bank or sell to other regulated parties their excess credits if they earn more credits than the minimum quantity required by those laws. We also earn other types of saleable regulatory credits in the United States and abroad, including greenhouse gas, fuel economy and clean fuels credits. Payments for regulatory credits are typically received at the point control transfers to the customer, or in accordance with payment terms customary to the business. We recognize revenue on the sale of automotive regulatory credits at the time control of the regulatory credits is transferred to the purchasing party as automotive revenue in the consolidated statement of operations.

43


 

Automotive Leasing Revenue

Automotive leasing revenue includes revenue recognized under lease accounting guidance for our direct leasing programs as well as the two programs with resale value guarantees which continue to qualify for operating lease treatment. Prior to the adoption of the new revenue standard, all programs with resale value guarantees were accounted for as operating leases.

Direct Vehicle Leasing Program

We have outstanding leases under our direct vehicle leasing programs in the U.S., Canada and in certain countries in Europe. As of December 31, 2019, the direct vehicle leasing program is offered for all new Model S, Model X and Model 3 vehicles in the U.S. and new Model S and Model X vehicles in Canada. Qualifying customers are permitted to lease a vehicle directly from Tesla for up to 48 months. At the end of the lease term, customers are required to return the vehicles to us or for Model S and Model X leases, may opt to purchase the vehicles for a pre-determined residual value. We account for these leasing transactions as operating leases. We record leasing revenues to automotive leasing revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term, and we record the depreciation of these vehicles to cost of automotive leasing revenue.

We capitalize shipping costs and initial direct costs such as the incremental cost of referral fees and sales commissions from the origination of automotive lease agreements as an element of operating lease vehicles, net, and subsequently amortize these costs over the term of the related lease agreement. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from a customer from the transaction price of automotive contracts.

Vehicle Sales to Leasing Partners with a Resale Value Guarantee and a Buyback Option

We offer buyback options in connection with automotive sales with resale value guarantees with certain leasing partner sales in the United States. These transactions entail a transfer of leases, which we have originated with an end-customer, to our leasing partner. As control of the vehicles has not been transferred in accordance with the new revenue standard, these transactions were accounted for as interest bearing collateralized borrowings in accordance with ASC 840, Leases, prior to January 1, 2019. Under this program, cash is received for the full price of the vehicle and the collateralized borrowing value is generally recorded within resale value guarantees and the customer upfront down payment is recorded within deferred revenue. We amortize the deferred revenue amount to automotive leasing revenue on a straight-line basis over the option period and accrue interest expense based on our borrowing rate. We capitalize vehicles under this program to operating lease vehicles, net, on the consolidated balance sheets, and we record depreciation from these vehicles to cost of automotive leasing revenue during the period the vehicle is under a lease arrangement. Cash received for these vehicles, net of revenue recognized during the period, is classified as collateralized lease (repayments) borrowings within cash flows from financing activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows. With the adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2019, all new agreements under this program are accounted for as operating leases under ASC 842 and there was no material change in the timing and amount of revenue recognized over the term. Consequently, any cash flows for new agreements are classified as operating cash activities on the consolidated statements of cash flows.

At the end of the lease term, we settle our liability in cash by either purchasing the vehicle from the leasing partner for the buyback option amount or paying a shortfall to the option amount the leasing partner may realize on the sale of the vehicle. Any remaining balances within deferred revenue and resale value guarantee will be settled to automotive leasing revenue. The end customers can extend the lease for a period of up to 6 months. In cases where the leasing partner retains ownership of the vehicle after the end of our option period, we expense the net value of the leased vehicle to cost of automotive leasing revenue.

44


 

Vehicle Sales to Customers with a Resale Value Guarantee where Exercise is Probable

For certain international programs where we have offered resale value guarantees to certain customers who purchased vehicles and where we expect the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise the resale value guarantee provided to them, we continue to recognize these transactions as operating leases. The process to determine whether there is a significant economic incentive includes a comparison of a vehicle’s estimated market value at the time the option is exercisable with the guaranteed resale value to determine the customer’s economic incentive to exercise. We have not sold any vehicles under this program since the first half of 2017 and all current period activity relates to the exercise or cancellation of active transactions. The amount of sale proceeds equal to the resale value guarantee is deferred until the guarantee expires or is exercised. The remaining sale proceeds are deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the stated guarantee period to automotive leasing revenue. The guarantee period expires at the earlier of the end of the guarantee period or the pay-off of the initial loan. We capitalize the cost of these vehicles on the consolidated balance sheet as operating lease vehicles, net, and depreciate their value, less salvage value, to cost of automotive leasing revenue over the same period.

In cases where a customer retains ownership of a vehicle at the end of the guarantee period, the resale value guarantee liability and any remaining deferred revenue balances related to the vehicle are settled to automotive leasing revenue, and the net book value of the leased vehicle is expensed to cost of automotive leasing revenue. If a customer returns the vehicle to us during the guarantee period, we purchase the vehicle from the customer in an amount equal to the resale value guarantee and settle any remaining deferred balances to automotive leasing revenue, and we reclassify the net book value of the vehicle on the consolidated balance sheets to used vehicle inventory.

Energy Generation and Storage Segment

Energy Generation and Storage Sales

Energy generation and storage sales revenue consists of the sale of solar energy systems and energy storage systems to residential, small commercial, and large commercial and utility grade customers, including solar subscription-based arrangements. Upon adoption of ASC 842, energy generation and storage sales revenue includes agreements for solar energy systems and PPAs that commence after January 1, 2019, as these are now accounted for under the new revenue standard. Sales of solar energy systems to residential and small scale commercial customers consist of the engineering, design, and installation of the system. Post-installation, residential and small scale commercial customers receive a proprietary monitoring system that captures and displays historical energy generation data. Residential and small scale commercial customers pay the full purchase price of the solar energy system upfront. Revenue for the design and installation obligation is recognized when control transfers, which is when we install a solar energy system and the system passes inspection by the utility or the authority having jurisdiction. Revenue for the monitoring service is recognized ratably as a stand-ready obligation over the warranty period of the solar energy system. Sales of energy storage systems to residential and small scale commercial customers consist of the installation of the energy storage system and revenue is recognized when control transfers, which is when the product has been delivered or, if we are performing installation, when installed and commissioned. Payment for such storage systems is made upon invoice or in accordance with payment terms customary to the business.

For large commercial and utility grade solar energy system and energy storage system sales which consist of the engineering, design, and installation of the system, customers make milestone payments that are consistent with contract-specific phases of a project. Revenue from such contracts is recognized over time using the percentage of completion method based on cost incurred as a percentage of total estimated contract costs for energy storage system sales and as a percentage of total estimated labor hours for solar energy system sales. Certain large-scale commercial and utility grade solar energy system and energy storage system sales also include operations and maintenance service which are negotiated with the design and installation contracts and are thus considered to be a combined contract with the design and installation service. For certain large commercial and utility grade solar energy systems and energy storage systems where the percentage of completion method does not apply, revenue is recognized when control transfers, which is when the product has been delivered to the customer and commissioned for energy storage systems and when the project has received permission to operate from the utility for solar energy systems. Operations and maintenance service revenue is recognized ratably over the respective contract term for solar energy system sales and upon delivery of the service for energy storage system sales. Customer payments for such services are usually paid annually or quarterly in advance.

45


 

In instances where there are multiple performance obligations in a single contract, we allocate the consideration to the various obligations in the contract based on the relative standalone selling price method. Standalone selling prices are estimated based on estimated costs plus margin or using market data for comparable products. Costs incurred on the sale of residential installations before the solar energy systems are completed are included as work in process within inventory in the consolidated balance sheets. However, any fees that are paid or payable by us to a solar loan lender would be recognized as an offset against revenue. Costs to obtain a contract relate mainly to commissions paid to our sales personnel related to the sale of solar energy systems and energy storage systems. As our contract costs related to solar energy system and energy storage system sales are typically fulfilled within one year, the costs to obtain a contract are expensed as incurred.

As part of our solar energy system and energy storage system contracts, we may provide the customer with performance guarantees that warrant that the underlying system will meet or exceed the minimum energy generation or retention requirements specified in the contract. In certain instances, we may receive a bonus payment if the system performs above a specified level. Conversely, if a solar energy system or energy storage system does not meet the performance guarantee requirements, we may be required to pay liquidated damages. Other forms of variable consideration related to our large commercial and utility grade solar energy system and energy storage system contracts include variable customer payments that will be made based on our energy market participation activities. Such guarantees and variable customer payments represent a form of variable consideration and are estimated at contract inception at their most likely amount and updated at the end of each reporting period as additional performance data becomes available. Such estimates are included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable a significant reversal of revenue will not occur.

We record as deferred revenue any non-refundable amounts that are collected from customers related to fees charged for prepayments and remote monitoring service and operations and maintenance service, which is recognized as revenue ratably over the respective customer contract term. 

Energy Generation and Storage Leasing

For revenue arrangements where we are the lessor under operating lease agreements for energy generation and storage products, we record lease revenue from minimum lease payments, including upfront rebates and incentives earned from such systems, on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease term, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. The difference between the payments received and the revenue recognized is recorded as deferred revenue on the consolidated balance sheet.

For solar energy systems where customers purchase electricity from us under PPAs prior to January 1, 2019, we have determined that these agreements should be accounted for as operating leases pursuant to ASC 840. Revenue is recognized based on the amount of electricity delivered at rates specified under the contracts, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.

We record as deferred revenue any amounts that are collected from customers, including lease prepayments, in excess of revenue recognized and operations and maintenance service, which is recognized as revenue ratably over the respective customer contract term. Deferred revenue also includes the portion of rebates and incentives received from utility companies and various local and state government agencies, which is recognized as revenue over the lease term.

We capitalize initial direct costs from the execution of agreements for solar energy systems and PPAs, which include the referral fees and sales commissions, as an element of solar energy systems, net, and subsequently amortize these costs over the term of the related agreements.

Inventory Valuation

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using standard cost for vehicles and energy storage products, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. In addition, cost for solar energy systems is recorded using actual cost. We record inventory write-downs for excess or obsolete inventories based upon assumptions about current and future demand forecasts. If our inventory on-hand is in excess of our future demand forecast, the excess amounts are written-off.

46


 

We also review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated selling price of our vehicles less the estimated cost to convert the inventory on-hand into a finished product. Once inventory is written-down, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis.

Should our estimates of future selling prices or production costs change, additional and potentially material increases to this reserve may be required. A small change in our estimates may result in a material charge to our reported financial results.

Warranties

We provide a manufacturer’s warranty on all new and used vehicles and production powertrain components and systems we sell. In addition, we also provide a warranty on the installation and components of the energy generation and storage systems we sell for periods typically between 10 to 25 years. We accrue a warranty reserve for the products sold by us, which includes our best estimate of the projected costs to repair or replace items under warranties and recalls when identified. These estimates are based on actual claims incurred to date and an estimate of the nature, frequency and costs of future claims. These estimates are inherently uncertain given our relatively short history of sales, and changes to our historical or projected warranty experience may cause material changes to the warranty reserve in the future. The warranty reserve does not include projected warranty costs associated with our vehicles subject to lease accounting and our solar energy systems under lease contracts or PPAs, as the costs to repair these warranty claims are expensed as incurred. The portion of the warranty reserve expected to be incurred within the next 12 months is included within accrued liabilities and other, while the remaining balance is included within other long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of revenues in the consolidated statements of operations.

Stock-Based Compensation

We use the fair value method of accounting for our stock options and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted to employees and our employee stock purchase plan (the “ESPP”) to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for the stock-based awards. The fair value of stock option awards with only service and/or performance conditions and ESPP is estimated on the grant or offering date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires inputs such as the risk-free interest rate, expected term and expected volatility. These inputs are subjective and generally require significant judgment. The fair value of RSUs is measured on the grant date based on the closing fair market value of our common stock. The resulting cost is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the awards, usually the vesting period, which is generally four years for stock options and RSUs and six months for the ESPP. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis, net of actual forfeitures in the period.

For performance-based awards, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the expected performance achievement period of individual performance milestones when the achievement of each individual performance milestone becomes probable. For performance-based awards with a vesting schedule based entirely on the attainment of both performance and market conditions, stock-based compensation expense associated with each tranche is recognized over the longer of (i) the expected achievement period for the operational milestone for such tranche and (ii) the expected achievement period for the related market capitalization milestone determined on the grant date, beginning at the point in time when the relevant operational milestone is considered probable of being met. If such operational milestone becomes probable any time after the grant date, we will recognize a cumulative catch-up expense from the grant date to that point in time. If the related market capitalization milestone is achieved earlier than its expected achievement period and the achievement of the related operational milestone, then the stock-based compensation expense will be recognized over the expected achievement period for the operational milestone, which may accelerate the rate at which such expense is recognized. If additional operational milestones become probable, stock-based compensation expense will be recorded in the period it becomes probable including cumulative catch-up expense for the service provided since the grant date. The fair value of such awards is estimated on the grant date using Monte Carlo simulations.

47


 

As we accumulate additional employee stock-based awards data over time and as we incorporate market data related to our common stock, we may calculate significantly different volatilities and expected lives, which could materially impact the valuation of our stock-based awards and the stock-based compensation expense that we will recognize in future periods. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded in cost of revenues, research and development expense and selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

Income Taxes

We are subject to federal and state taxes in the U.S. and in many foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. We make these estimates and judgments about our future taxable income that are based on assumptions that are consistent with our future plans. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices may be subject to change due to economic or political conditions including fundamental changes to the tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals. The U.S., many countries in the European Union and a number of other countries are actively considering changes in this regard. As of December 31, 2019, we had recorded a full valuation allowance on our net U.S. deferred tax assets because we expect that it is more likely than not that our U.S. deferred tax assets will not be realized in the foreseeable future. Should the actual amounts differ from our estimates, the amount of our valuation allowance could be materially impacted.

Furthermore, significant judgment is required in evaluating our tax positions. In the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax settlement is uncertain. As a result, we recognize the effect of this uncertainty on our tax attributes based on our estimates of the eventual outcome. These effects are recognized when, despite our belief that our tax return positions are supportable, we believe that it is more likely than not that those positions may not be fully sustained upon review by tax authorities. We are required to file income tax returns in the U.S. and various foreign jurisdictions, which requires us to interpret the applicable tax laws and regulations in effect in such jurisdictions. Such returns are subject to audit by the various federal, state and foreign taxing authorities, who may disagree with respect to our tax positions. We believe that our consideration is adequate for all open audit years based on our assessment of many factors, including past experience and interpretations of tax law. We review and update our estimates in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit, the lapse of a statute of limitations or a change in estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters differs from our expectations, such differences may impact income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made. The eventual impact on our income tax expense depends in part if we still have a valuation allowance recorded against our deferred tax assets in the period that such determination is made.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements reflect our accounts and operations and those of our subsidiaries in which we have a controlling financial interest. In accordance with the provisions of ASC 810, Consolidation, we consolidate any variable interest entity (“VIE”) of which we are the primary beneficiary. We form VIEs with our financing fund investors in the ordinary course of business in order to facilitate the funding and monetization of certain attributes associated with our solar energy systems and leases under our direct vehicle leasing programs. The typical condition for a controlling financial interest ownership is holding a majority of the voting interests of an entity; however, a controlling financial interest may also exist in entities, such as VIEs, through arrangements that do not involve controlling voting interests. ASC 810 requires a variable interest holder to consolidate a VIE if that party has the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. We do not consolidate a VIE in which we have a majority ownership interest when we are not considered the primary beneficiary. We have determined that we are the primary beneficiary of all the VIEs. We evaluate our relationships with all the VIEs on an ongoing basis to ensure that we continue to be the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.

48


 

Noncontrolling Interests and Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests

Noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests represent third-party interests in the net assets under certain funding arrangements, or funds, that we enter into to finance the costs of solar energy systems and vehicles under operating leases. We have determined that the contractual provisions of the funds represent substantive profit sharing arrangements. We have further determined that the appropriate methodology for calculating the noncontrolling interest and redeemable noncontrolling interest balances that reflects the substantive profit sharing arrangements is a balance sheet approach using the hypothetical liquidation at book value (“HLBV”) method. We, therefore, determine the amount of the noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in the net assets of the funds at each balance sheet date using the HLBV method, which is presented on the consolidated balance sheet as noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries and redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. Under the HLBV method, the amounts reported as noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests in the consolidated balance sheet represent the amounts the third-parties would hypothetically receive at each balance sheet date under the liquidation provisions of the funds, assuming the net assets of the funds were liquidated at their recorded amounts determined in accordance with GAAP and with tax laws effective at the balance sheet date and distributed to the third-parties. The third-parties’ interests in the results of operations of the funds are determined as the difference in the noncontrolling interest and redeemable noncontrolling interest balances in the consolidated balance sheets between the start and end of each reporting period, after taking into account any capital transactions between the funds and the third-parties. However, the redeemable noncontrolling interest balance is at least equal to the redemption amount. The redeemable noncontrolling interest balance is presented as temporary equity in the mezzanine section of the consolidated balance sheet since these third-parties have the right to redeem their interests in the funds for cash or other assets.

 

 

Results of Operations

Revenues

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

2019 vs. 2018 Change

 

 

2018 vs. 2017 Change

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

Automotive sales

 

$

19,952

 

 

$

17,632

 

 

$

8,535

 

 

$

2,320

 

 

 

13

%

 

$

9,097

 

 

 

107

%

Automotive leasing

 

 

869

 

 

 

883

 

 

 

1,107

 

 

 

(14

)

 

 

-2

%

 

 

(224

)

 

 

-20

%

Total automotive revenues

 

 

20,821

 

 

 

18,515

 

 

 

9,642

 

 

 

2,306

 

 

 

12

%

 

 

8,873

 

 

 

92

%

Services and other

 

 

2,226

 

 

 

1,391

 

 

 

1,001

 

 

 

835

 

 

 

60

%

 

 

390

 

 

 

39

%

Total automotive & services

   and other segment revenue

 

 

23,047

 

 

 

19,906

 

 

 

10,643

 

 

 

3,141

 

 

 

16

%

 

 

9,263

 

 

 

87

%

Energy generation and

   storage segment revenue

 

 

1,531