20-F 1 a2224384z20-f.htm 20-F

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INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 27, 2015


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



Form 20-F

(Mark One)    

o

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

or

þ

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

or

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

or

o

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 000-51138

GRAVITY CO., LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A
(Translation of registrant's name into English)
  The Republic of Korea
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)



15F, 396 World Cup buk-ro, Mapo-gu,
Seoul 121-795, Korea
(Address of principal executive offices)



Heung Gon Kim
Chief Financial Officer
15F, 396 World Cup buk-ro, Mapo-gu,
Seoul 121-795, Korea
Telephone: 82-2-2132-7000
Fax: 82-2-2132-7070
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)



Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common stock, par value Won 500 per share*   The NASDAQ Capital Market
American depositary shares, each representing one-fourth of one share of common stock    

    *  Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of American depositary shares on the NASDAQ Capital Market pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

          Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: Shares, par value Won 500: 6,948,900

          Indicated by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No þ

          If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No þ

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ    No o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ    No o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer þ

          Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

          U.S. GAAP þ International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board o    Other o

          If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 o Item 18 o

          If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No þ

   


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

    6  

ITEM 1.

 

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

    6  

ITEM 2.

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

    6  

ITEM 3.

 

KEY INFORMATION

    6  

ITEM 3.A.

 

Selected Financial Data

    6  

ITEM 3.B.

 

Capitalization and Indebtedness

    8  

ITEM 3.C.

 

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

    8  

ITEM 3.D.

 

Risk Factors

    8  

ITEM 4.

 

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

    26  

ITEM 4.A.

 

History and Development of the Company

    26  

ITEM 4.B.

 

Business Overview

    28  

ITEM 4.C.

 

Organizational Structure

    61  

ITEM 4.D.

 

Property, Plants and Equipment

    61  

ITEM 4A.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

    62  

ITEM 5.

 

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

    62  

ITEM 5.A.

 

Operating Results

    62  

ITEM 5.B.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

    78  

ITEM 5.C.

 

Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc. 

    80  

ITEM 5.D.

 

Trend Information

    80  

ITEM 5.E.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

    81  

ITEM 5.F.

 

Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

    81  

ITEM 5.G.

 

Safe Harbor

    82  

ITEM 6.

 

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

    82  

ITEM 6.A.

 

Directors and Senior Management

    82  

ITEM 6.B.

 

Compensation

    85  

ITEM 6.C.

 

Board Practices

    85  

ITEM 6.D.

 

Employees

    87  

ITEM 6.E.

 

Share Ownership

    89  

ITEM 7.

 

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

    90  

ITEM 7.A.

 

Major Shareholders

    90  

ITEM 7.B.

 

Related Party Transactions

    90  

ITEM 7.C.

 

Interests of Experts and Counsel

    94  

ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

    94  

ITEM 8.A.

 

Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

    94  

ITEM 8.B.

 

Significant Changes

    95  

ITEM 9.

 

THE OFFER AND LISTING

    96  

ITEM 9.A.

 

Offer and Listing Details

    96  

ITEM 9.B.

 

Plan of Distribution

    96  

ITEM 9.C.

 

Markets

    97  

ITEM 9.D.

 

Selling Shareholders

    97  

ITEM 9.E.

 

Dilution

    97  

ITEM 9.F.

 

Expenses of the Issue

    97  

ITEM 10.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    97  

ITEM 10.A.

 

Share Capital

    97  

ITEM 10.B.

 

Memorandum and Articles of Incorporation

    97  

ITEM 10.C.

 

Material Contracts

    103  

ITEM 10.D.

 

Exchange Controls

    104  

ITEM 10.E.

 

Taxation

    106  

ITEM 10.F.

 

Dividends and Paying Agents

    117  

ITEM 10.G.

 

Statement by Experts

    117  

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Table of Contents

ITEM 10.H.

 

Documents on Display

    117  

ITEM 10.I.

 

Subsidiary Information

    117  

ITEM 11.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

    117  

ITEM 12.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

    118  

ITEM 12.A.

 

Debt Securities

    118  

ITEM 12.B.

 

Warrants and Rights

    118  

ITEM 12.C.

 

Other Securities

    118  

ITEM 12.D.

 

American Depositary Shares

    118  

PART II

    120  

ITEM 13.

 

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

    120  

ITEM 14.

 

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

    120  

ITEM 15.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

    120  

ITEM 16.

 

RESERVED

    121  

ITEM 16.A.

 

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

    121  

ITEM 16.B.

 

CODE OF ETHICS

    121  

ITEM 16.C.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

    121  

ITEM 16.D.

 

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

    121  

ITEM 16.E.

 

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

    121  

ITEM 16.F.

 

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

    122  

ITEM 16.G.

 

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    122  

ITEM 16.H.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

    122  

PART III

    122  

ITEM 17.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    122  

ITEM 18.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    122  

ITEM 19.

 

EXHIBITS

    122  

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

        Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F, or annual report, to:

    "ADRs" are to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;

    "ADSs" are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one-fourth of a share of our common stock;

    "China" or the "PRC" are to the People's Republic of China (excluding, for the purposes of this annual report on Form 20-F, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, unless specifically indicated otherwise);

    "Chinese Yuan" are to the currency of China;

    "EUR" or "Euro" are to the currency of the Eurozone consisting of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain;

    "Gravity," "the Company," "we," "us," "our," or "our company" are to Gravity Co., Ltd. and, except as otherwise indicated or required by context, our subsidiaries;

    "Hong Kong" are to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC;

    "Japanese Yen" or "JPY" are to the currency of Japan;

    "Korea" are to the Republic of Korea;

    "Macau" are to the Macau Special Administrative Region of the PRC;

    "NT dollar" or "NT$" are to the currency of Taiwan;

    "Taiwan" or the "ROC" are to Taiwan, the Republic of China;

    "Thai Baht" are to the currency of the Kingdom of Thailand;

    "US$," "U.S. dollar," or "Dollar" are to the currency of the United States of America; and

    "Won," "Korean Won," or "W"are to the currency of Korea.

        For your convenience, and unless otherwise stated, this annual report contains translations of certain Won amounts into U.S. dollars at the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in Korean Won as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes in effect on December 31, 2014, which was Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00. No assurance is given that any Won or Dollar amounts could have been or could be converted into Dollars or Won, as the case may be, at such rate, or any other rate, or at all.

        Discrepancies in tables between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This annual report for the year ended December 31, 2014 contains "forward-looking statements," as defined in Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about us and our industry, and are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "anticipate," "believe," "considering," "depends," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "planning," "planned," "predict," "project," "continue" and variations of these words, similar expressions, or that certain events, actions or results "will," "may," "might," "should," "would" or "could" occur, be taken or be achieved.

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Table of Contents

        Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:

    future prices of and demand for our products;

    future earnings and cash flow;

    estimated development and commercial launch schedule of our games in development;

    our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers;

    the expected growth of the Korean and worldwide online gaming industry;

    the effect that economic, political or social conditions in Korea have on the revenue generated from our online or mobile game products and our results of operations;

    the effect that any global financial crisis or global economic recession will or may have on our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations; and

    our future business development and prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

        We caution you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement, each of which involves risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that the assumptions on which our forward-looking statements are based are reasonable, any of those assumptions could prove to be inaccurate, and as a result, the forward-looking statements based on those assumptions could be incorrect. All forward-looking statements are based on our management's current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections of future events and are subject to a number of factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. Risks and uncertainties associated with our business include, but are not limited to, risks related to changes in the regulatory environment; technology changes; potential litigation and governmental actions; changes in the competitive environment; changes in customer preference and popular culture and trends, including the online or mobile gaming culture; political changes; global economic events including, but not limited to, a significant downturn in the global economic and financial markets and a tightening of the global credit markets; changes in business and economic conditions; fluctuations in foreign exchange rates; fluctuations in the prices of our products; decreasing consumer confidence and slowing of economic growth generally; and other risks and uncertainties that are more fully described under the heading "Risk Factors" in this annual report, and elsewhere in this annual report. In light of these and other uncertainties, you should not conclude that we will necessarily achieve any plans and objectives or projected financial results referred to in any of the forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

5


Table of Contents


PART I

ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

        Not applicable.

ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION

ITEM 3.A.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        You should read the selected financial data below in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2013 and 2014 and for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014, and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected financial data as of December 31, 2013 and 2014 and for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013 and 2014 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this annual report. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.

 
  As of and for the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except share and
per share data, operating data and percentages)

 

Statements of operations

                                     

Revenues:

                                     

Online games—subscription revenue

  W 9,908   W 11,556   W 10,150   W 8,206   W 7,962   US$ 7,299  

Online games—royalties and license fees

    32,132     35,552     32,325     21,726     13,093     12,002  

Mobile games and applications

    7,224     6,609     8,262     14,504     15,055     13,801  

Character merchandising, animation and other revenue

    3,098     3,760     7,044     3,249     3,779     3,464  
                           

Total revenues

    52,362     57,477     57,781     47,685     39,889     36,566  

Cost of revenues

    20,873     24,243     34,906     35,399     34,188     31,340  
                           

Gross profit

    31,489     33,234     22,875     12,286     5,701     5,226  

Operating expenses:

                                     

Selling, general and administrative

    20,422     22,759     20,310     17,063     12,682     11,626  

Research and development

    4,652     4,136     7,018     6,131     4,847     4,443  

Impairment loss on intangible assets

    475     3,697     14,569     5,822     1     1  

Gain on disposal of equity method investments

            (528 )            

Gain on loss of control in a subsidiary

        (548 )                

Settlement cost of litigation

        29                  
                           

Operating income (loss)

    5,940     3,161     (18,494 )   (16,730 )   (11,829 )   (10,844 )

Other income, net

    2,322     1,876     871     2,105     977     895  
                           

Income (loss) before income tax expenses (benefit) and equity loss on investments

    8,262     5,037     (17,623 )   (14,625 )   (10,852 )   (9,949 )

Income tax expenses (benefit)

    4,207     (7,962 )   2,584     5,108     10,147     9,302  
                           

Income (loss) before equity loss on investments

    4,055     12,999     (20,207 )   (19,733 )   (20,999 )   (19,251 )

Equity loss on investments, net

    (345 )   (242 )   (333 )   (18 )        

Net income (loss)

    3,710     12,757     (20,540 )   (19,751 )   (20,999 )   (19,251 )
                           

Net income (loss) attributable to:

                                     

Non-controlling interest

    (20 )   (2,171 )   (8,316 )   (1,163 )   (92 )   (84 )
                           

Parent company

  W 3,730   W 14,928   W (12,224 ) W (18,588 ) W (20,907 ) US$ (19,167 )
                           
                           

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  As of and for the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except share and
per share data, operating data and percentages)

 

Earnings (loss) per share:

                                     

Basic and diluted per share

  W 537   W 2,148   W (1,759 ) W (2,675 ) W (3,009 ) US$ (2.76 )

Basic and diluted per ADS(2)

    134     537     (440 )   (669 )   (752 )   (0.69 )

Weighted average number of shares outstanding (basic and diluted)

    6,948,900     6,948,900     6,948,900     6,948,900     6,948,900     6,948,900  

Other comprehensive income (loss)

                                     

Foreign currency translation adjustment

    290     (510 )   (41 )   (1,327 )   (153 )   (141 )

Comprehensive income (loss)

    4,000     12,247     (20,581 )   (21,078 )   (21,152 )   (19,392 )
                           

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to:

                                     

Non-controlling interest

    (20 )   (2,171 )   (8,316 )   (1,163 )   (92 )   (84 )
                           

Parent company

  W 4,020   W 14,418   W (12,265 ) W (19,915 ) W (21,060 ) $ (19,308 )
                           
                           

Balance sheet data:

                                     

Cash and cash equivalents

  W 44,122   W 42,430   W 36,455   W 31,222   W 28,382   US$ 26,017  

Total current assets

    76,343     71,833     67,929     58,651     50,692     46,468  

Property and equipment, net

    2,672     2,731     3,524     2,315     1,213     1,112  

Total assets

    125,490     132,878     110,555     87,765     63,096     57,839  

Total current liabilities

    14,065     12,062     10,375     11,400     9,651     8,847  

Total liabilities

    27,078     22,219     20,477     18,765     15,248     13,978  

Total parent company shareholders' equity

    87,416     101,834     89,569     69,335     48,275     44,253  

Non-controlling interest

    10,996     8,825     509     (335 )   (427 )   (392 )

Total equity

    98,412     110,659     90,078     69,000     47,848     43,861  

Selected operating data and financial ratios (unaudited):

                                     

Gross profit margin(3)

    60.1 %   57.8 %   39.6 %   25.8 %   14.3 %   14.3 %

Operating profit (loss) margin(4)

    11.3 %   5.5 %   (32.0 )%   (35.1 )%   (29.7 )%   (29.7 )%

Net profit (loss) margin(5)

    7.1 %   26.0 %   (21.2 )%   (39.0 )%   (52.4 )%   (52.4 )%

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

(2)
Each ADS represents one-fourth of a share of common stock.

(3)
Gross profit margin for each period is calculated by dividing gross profit by total net revenues for each period.

(4)
Operating profit (loss) margin for each period is calculated by dividing operating income (loss) by total net revenues for each period.

(5)
Net profit margin (loss) for each period is calculated by dividing net income (loss) attributable to parent company by total net revenues for each period.

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Exchange Rate Information

        The following table sets forth information concerning the noon buying rate as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes for the years 2010 through 2014 and for each month during the previous six months through April 17, 2015 expressed in Won per U.S. dollar.

Period
  At End of Period   Average Rate(1)   High   Low  

2010

    1,130.6     1,158.7     1,253.2     1,104.0  

2011

    1,158.5     1,105.2     1,197.5     1,049.2  

2012

    1,063.2     1,119.6     1,185.0     1,063.2  

2013

    1,055.3     1,094.6     1,161.3     1,050.1  

2014

    1,090.9     1,054.0     1,117.7     1,008.9  

October

    1,073.1     1,060.3     1,074.4     1,043.9  

November

    1,112.1     1,097.9     1,114.7     1,077.0  

December

    1,090.9     1,102.6     1,117.7     1,080.8  

2015

                         

January

    1,104.3     1,088.1     1,109.1     1,075.3  

February

    1,100.7     1,101.5     1,112.8     1,086.8  

March

    1,107.7     1,112.9     1,135.7     1,095.7  

April (through April 17, 2015)

    1,082.0     1,091.2     1,100.4     1,082.0  

Note:

(1)
The average rates for the annual periods were calculated based on the average noon buying rate on the last business day of each month during the period. The average rates for the monthly periods (or portion thereof) were calculated based on the average noon buying rate of each business day of the month (or portion thereof).

ITEM 3.B.    CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 3.C.    REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 3.D.    RISK FACTORS

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS

     We currently depend on one online game product, Ragnarok Online, for a significant portion of our revenues.

        A significant portion of our revenues has been and is currently derived from a single online game product, Ragnarok Online, which was commercially introduced in August 2002 and is currently commercially offered in 71 countries and markets. We derived Won 15,985 million (US$14,653 thousand) in revenues from Ragnarok Online in 2014 and Won 21,531 million in revenues from Ragnarok Online in 2013, representing approximately 40.1% and 45.2% of our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

        Ragnarok Online has been in the market for thirteen years and has reached maturity in most of our principal markets. The life cycle of an online game generally lasts from four to seven years and reaches its peak popularity within the first two years of its introduction after which usage gradually stabilizes and begins to decrease over time. The number of users of Ragnarok Online worldwide reached its peak in the first quarter of 2005 and has continued to decline since such time. Our failure to maintain, improve, update or enhance Ragnarok Online in a timely manner or successfully introduce it in attractive new markets is likely to lead to a continual decline in Ragnarok Online's user base and subscription revenues and royalties. This will likely lead to a decline in our overall revenues, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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     If we are unable to consistently and timely develop, acquire, license, launch, market or operate commercially successful online and mobile games in addition to Ragnarok Online, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        In order to grow our revenues and net income, we must develop, acquire, license, launch, market or operate commercially successful online and mobile games in addition to Ragnarok Online in order to retain our existing users and attract new users. In addition to Ragnarok Online, we currently offer four other online games: Ragnarok Online II, Requiem, R.O.S.E.Online and Dragonica, which is also known as Dragon Saga in the United States, Canada and South America except for Brazil. We also offer mobile games which are played using mobile phones, including smartphones such as Google Android compatible phones and the Apple iPhone as well as feature phones, and other mobile devices, such as tablet computers. In January 2015, we entered into a development agreement with Shanghai The Dream Network Technology Co., Ltd. to develop and distribute mobile games in China based on the contents of Ragnarok Online.

        None of our other online games to date has proven to be as commercially successful as Ragnarok Online, and none of our mobile games to date has been a great commercial success. Since the beginning of 2014, we stopped offering three online games, Steal Fighter in February 2014, H.A.V.E. Online in March 2014 and Ragnarok Prequel in November 2014, as the games did not gain popularity. In particular, the lack of popularity or market acceptance of Ragnarok Online II in major markets could result in financial losses, including termination or amendments of license agreements, which could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. License agreements with Level Up! Inc. for the service of Ragnarok Online II in the Philippines and Brazil were terminated in April 2014. Also, a license agreement with Asiasoft Online Pte, Ltd. for Ragnarok Online II service in Singapore and Malaysia was terminated in September 2014. Although service of Ragnarok Online II in such jurisdictions is being continued by Gravity Interactive Inc., such termination of agreements with local licensees could adversely affect our revenues from, and service of, Ragnarok Online II.

        A game's commercial success largely depends on appealing to the tastes and preferences of a critical mass of users as well as the willingness of such users to purchase the game and/or in-game items, and to continue as paying subscribers, all of which are difficult to predict prior to a game's development and introduction. Developing games requires substantial development costs, including the costs of employing skilled developers and acquiring or developing game engines which enable the creation of games with the latest technological features. For us to succeed, we must acquire, license or develop promising games at acceptable costs and ensure technical support for the successful operation of such games. The online and mobile gaming industries are highly competitive and we may not able to acquire, license or develop promising games at acceptable costs. In order to successfully distribute and operate a game, we also need a sizable game management and support staff, continued investment in technology and a substantial marketing budget. We cannot assure you that the games we develop or publish will be attractive to users or otherwise be commercially successful, launched as scheduled or able to successfully compete with games operated by our competitors. If we are not able to consistently develop, acquire, license, launch, market or operate commercially successful games, we may not be able to generate enough revenues to offset our initial development, acquisition, licensing or marketing costs, and our business, financial condition and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected.

     We depend on our overseas licensees for a substantial portion of our revenues and rely on them to distribute, market and operate our games, and comply with applicable laws and government regulations.

        In markets other than Korea, the United States, Canada and certain other countries in which we or our subsidiaries directly publish our games, we license our games to overseas operators or distributors for license fees and royalty payments based on a percentage of revenues generated from our games in such markets. Overseas license fees and royalty payments represented 32.7% of our total revenues in 2014 and 43.7% of our total revenues in 2013. In particular, we are heavily dependent on one licensee for a significant portion of our revenues. In 2014, 28.1% of our total revenues was derived from GungHo Online

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Entertainment, Inc., or GungHo, our licensee in Japan, which is also our majority shareholder. Deterioration in our relationships with material licensees or material adverse changes in the terms of our licenses with such licensees will likely have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, as we are heavily dependent on certain licensees, deterioration or any adverse developments in the operations, including changes in senior management, of our overseas licensees may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Further, our overseas licensees generally have the exclusive right to distribute our games in their respective markets for a term of two or three years and may also operate or publish other online and mobile games developed or offered by our competitors, while we may not be able to easily terminate the license agreements as the agreements do not specify particular financial or performance criteria that need to be met by our licensees. If our overseas licensees devote greater time and resources to marketing their proprietary games or those of our competitors, we may not be able to terminate our license agreements or enter into a new license agreement with a different licensee and our revenues and net profit would be adversely impacted. Also, a failure to satisfy our obligation to provide technical and other consulting services to the licensees under the license agreements may negatively affect user satisfaction and loyalty and hinder our licensees' efforts to increase market share, which may lead the licensees to focus their attention on our competitors' games or request modifications to or terminate our licensing agreements and/or not renew expired license agreements.

        Our overseas licensees are responsible for remitting royalty payments to us based on a percentage of sales from our games after deducting certain expenses. Some licensees may be allowed to deduct certain expenses before calculating royalty payments depending on the terms of the applicable contracts. Failure by our licensees to maintain a stable and efficient billing, recording, distribution and payment collection network in their respective markets may result in inaccurate recording of sales or insufficient collection of payments from such markets and may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Although we have audit rights, pursuant to our license agreements, to ensure that proper payment amounts are being recorded and remitted, such activities can be disruptive and time consuming and as a result we do not exercise such rights on a regular basis. Although we have taken a number of steps to improve our internal controls and compliance procedures to prevent inaccurate reporting and illicit diversion of payments, we cannot ensure that such incidents will not occur again. Any future occurrence of such incidents may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        In addition, disruptions in the political environments in which our licensees operate, including without limitation a deterioration in the relationship between Japan and China and political instability in Thailand, may have a negative impact on the business of our licensees and in turn materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        Furthermore, our overseas licensees are responsible for complying with local laws, including obtaining and maintaining the requisite government licenses and permits. Failure by our overseas licensees to do so may result in, among others, a suspension of service of our games in such market which may result in user complaints and a decrease in the use of our games which would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     We operate in a highly competitive industry and compete against many large companies.

        Increased competition in the online and mobile game industries in our markets from existing and potential competitors could make it difficult for us to retain existing users and attract new users, and could reduce the number of hours users spend playing our current or future games or cause us and our licensees to reduce the fees charged to play our current or future games. In some of the countries in which our games are distributed, such as Korea, Japan and Taiwan, growth of the market for online games has continued to slow while competition remains strong. If we are unable to compete effectively in our principal markets, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and

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adversely affected. Many companies worldwide are dedicated to developing and/or operating online and mobile games and compete across various markets and regions. We expect more companies to enter the online and mobile game industries and a wider range of online and mobile games to be introduced in our current and future markets.

        Our competitors in the online and mobile game industries vary in size from small companies to very large companies with dominant market shares. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, marketing and game development resources than we have. As a result, we may not be able to devote adequate resources to develop, acquire or license new games, undertake extensive marketing campaigns, adopt aggressive pricing policies or adequately compensate our game developers or third-party game developers to the same degree as many of our competitors do.

        As the online and mobile game industries are characterized by rapid technological changes, especially in the technical capabilities of devices for mobile games, and changing interests and preferences of users, continuous investment is required to develop and publish new games. Also, as the online and mobile game industries in many of our markets are rapidly evolving, our current or future competitors may more effectively adapt to the changing competitive landscape and market conditions and compete more successfully than us. In particular, online and mobile game products are becoming more similar to each other, thus becoming commoditized and undifferentiated. In this environment, larger companies with relative economies of scale have a clear advantage over smaller companies like us, as they are able to develop games in a more cost efficient manner, diversify their risks with a broader category of games and genres and increase their chances of offering widely popular games. In addition, any of our competitors may offer products and services that have significant performance, price, creativity or other advantages over those offered by us. These products and services may weaken the market strength of our brand name and achieve greater market acceptance than ours. In addition, any of our current or future competitors may be acquired by, receive investments from or enter into strategic relationships with larger, better established and better financed companies and therefore may be able to obtain significantly greater financial, marketing and game licensing and development resources than we can. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—COMPETITION."

     Our investments in joint ventures or partnerships, or acquisitions of other companies, related to development or service of online and mobile games may not be successful.

        Since 2004, we have made investments in joint ventures and entered into partnership arrangements with third parties to invest in online games. In many cases, as we do not have significant investment or other control over such entities, the success of such joint ventures and partnership arrangements is heavily dependent on third parties and their investment decisions.

        In December 2005, we entered into a limited liability partnership agreement to invest an aggregate amount of JPY1,000 million in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1, a limited liability partnership which purpose was to invest in online games. In 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2009, we made contributions of JPY100 million, JPY150 million, JPY642 million and JPY18 million, respectively, to the partnership. We accounted for our partnership interest under equity method of accounting and recorded our partnership interest as an equity loss equal to Won 1,026 million, Won 5,119 million, Won 1,424 million, Won 358 million, Won 38 million, Won 51 million and Won 18 million in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. On December 31, 2010, the term of the partnership expired and the liquidation of the partnership was completed in June 2013.

        In October 2010, we acquired an aggregate of 50.83% of the total shares of Barunson Interactive Corporation, subsequently named Gravity Games Corporation, or Gravity Games, an online game developer in Korea, and increased our ownership in Gravity Games to 85.5% in August 2013. For details of impairment loss from Gravity Games, see ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS—We could suffer losses due to asset impairment charges." Gravity EU SASU, our former wholly-owned subsidiary in France, was converted into a joint venture company in which we have a 25%

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equity interest, Gravity EU SAS, with Media-Participations Paris SA as the joint venture partner, in July 2011. In November 2014, we sold our 25% equity interest in Gravity EU SAS to Dargaud SA.

        If our partners or the joint ventures and partnerships in which we and our partners have invested or companies acquired by us are unable to manage their investments, develop promising online and/or mobile games or market or operate commercially successful online and/or mobile games, such joint ventures and partnerships or companies will be unable to attain their investment, development or other business objectives, which may materially and adversely affect the value of our investments and commitments and which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     If we fail to hire and retain skilled and experienced game developers or other key personnel to design and develop new online and mobile games and additional game features, we may be unable to achieve our business objectives.

        In order to meet our business objectives and maintain our competitiveness, we need to attract and retain qualified employees, including skilled and experienced online and mobile game developers. We compete to attract and retain key personnel with other companies in the online and mobile game industries as well as in the broader entertainment, media and Internet industries, many of which offer superior compensation arrangements and career opportunities. In addition, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the changing demands of our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and retain qualified game developers or other key personnel and successfully train and integrate them to achieve our business objectives, which could materially harm our business prospects.

     Undetected programming errors or flaws in our games could harm our reputation or decrease market acceptance of our games, which would materially and adversely affect our business prospects, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

        Our current and future games may contain programming errors or flaws which may become apparent only after their release. In addition, our online and mobile games are developed using programs and engines developed by and licensed from third party vendors, which may include programming errors or flaws over which we have little or no control. If our users have negative experiences with our games related to or caused by undetected programming errors or flaws, they may be less inclined to use our games or recommend our games to other potential users.

        While we have not experienced any material disruptions to our business from such errors or flaws in our games or in the programs and engines that we use to develop our games, these risks are inherent to our industry and, if realized, could severely harm our reputation, cause our users to cease playing our games, divert our resources or delay market acceptance of our games, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     Unexpected network interruptions, security breaches or computer virus attacks could harm our business and reputation.

        Failure to maintain satisfactory performance, reliability, security and availability of our network infrastructure, whether maintained by us or by our licensees, may cause significant harm to our reputation and negatively impact our ability to attract and maintain users. Major risks relating to our network infrastructure include:

    any breakdowns or system failures, including from fire, flood, earthquake, typhoon or other natural disasters, power loss or telecommunications failure, resulting in a sustained shutdown of all or a material portion of our servers;

    any disruption or failure in the national or international backbone telecommunications network, which would prevent users in certain countries in which our games are distributed from logging onto or playing our games for which the game servers are located in such countries; and

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    any security breach caused by hacking, loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software, hardware or other computer equipment, and the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses.

        "Hacking" involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment. Hackers, if successful, could misappropriate proprietary information or cause disruptions in our service. We may have to spend significant capital and human resources to fix any damage to our system. In addition, we cannot ensure that any measures we take against hacking will be effective. A well-publicized computer security breach could significantly damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business.

        We have been subject to denial of service attacks that have caused portions of our network to be inaccessible for limited periods of time but did not cause material losses or damages. Although we take a number of measures to ensure that our systems are secure and unaffected by security breaches, including ensuring that our servers are hosted at physically secure sites, real-time monitoring against possible intrusion and saving all logs, preventing any unauthorized access to servers, and using firewalls, server virtualization technology, which allows one physical server to be divided into multiple virtual servers, each of which functions individually as a complete and independent server, and encryption technology, we cannot ensure that the measures we have implemented will be effective against all hacking efforts.

        In addition, computer viruses may cause delays or other service interruptions on our systems and expose us to a material risk of loss or litigation and possible liability. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect our Web sites against the threat of such computer viruses and to address and resolve any problems resulting from such viruses. Moreover, if a computer virus affecting our system is highly publicized, our reputation could be materially damaged and our visitor traffic may decrease.

        Any of the foregoing factors could reduce our users' satisfaction, harm our business and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     Failure to protect personal information could adversely affect our business, reputation and results of operations.

        We collect, process, store and transmit personal information of game users worldwide for our global game service. Our business may be subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing data privacy and security, including with respect to the collection, processing, storage, use, transmission and protection of personal information and other consumer data on the Internet and mobile platforms, the scope of which are continually changing and subject to differing interpretations, and which may be inconsistent among countries or otherwise in conflict with other laws or regulations. Although we strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and certain industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent reasonably attainable, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other laws or regulations or our practices. Also, while we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect user information, the failure to prevent or mitigate the loss of personal information data or other game user data, including as a result of breaches of our vendors' technologies and systems, could expose us or our game users to a risk of loss or misuse of such information. Any such failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, our privacy-related obligations to players or other third parties, or our privacy-related legal obligations, including without limitation any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other player data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others and could cause our players to lose trust in us, which may have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—LAWS AND REGULATIONS" for a detailed discussion regarding Korean, U.S. and Japanese laws that may materially impact our operations.

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     Electronic embezzlement could negatively impact the popularity of our online and mobile games and adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

        Despite security measures, some of our employees or licensees' employees with high-level security access to our network, or other employees or persons who hack into or otherwise gain unauthorized access to certain sectors of our network, may succeed in breaching internal security systems and engage in electronic embezzlement by creating or diverting game money used in our online and mobile games and publicly or privately selling the game money for their financial benefit. Although we have internal security procedures in place designed to prevent electronic embezzlement and have not had any incident of electronic embezzlement since early 2006, we cannot assure you that we or our overseas licensees will be successful in preventing all electronic embezzlement. We have taken a number of procedures to prevent electronic embezzlement, including installing security programs designed to prevent counterfeiting and modification of program files, but cannot assure you such procedures will be sufficient to prevent new methods to engage in electronic embezzlement. Incidents of electronic embezzlement may negatively impact the reputation of our games, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     Cheating by users of online and mobile games could negatively impact the popularity of our online and mobile games and adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

        We have experienced numerous incidents where users were able to modify the published rules of our online and mobile games. Although these users did not gain unauthorized access to our systems, they were able to modify the rules of our online and mobile games during game play in a manner that allowed them to cheat and disadvantage other online game users, for example by utilizing auto-run programs that enabled the games to be continuously and automatically played without user participation, which allowed the users to accumulate in-game points quickly, causing many other players to stop using the game and shortening the game's life cycle. For mobile games, some users bought game money or in-game items through cloned mobile phones and sold such illegally obtained property to other users, which resulted in a shortfall between total sales and our actual revenues. Such unauthorized manipulation of our games may negatively impact users' perception of our games and damage our reputation as well as our results of operations. Although we have taken a number of measures to deter our users from cheating when playing our games, including spot checks and monitoring of game play by game masters and system operators to check for suspicious activity, and encrypting packets, we cannot assure you that we or our licensees will be successful in timely taking the corrective measures necessary to prevent users from modifying the terms of our games.

     Unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights by third parties and the expenses incurred in protecting our intellectual property rights may adversely affect our business.

        Our intellectual property rights such as copyrights, service marks, trademarks and trade secrets are critical to our business. Unauthorized use of the intellectual property rights used in our business, whether owned by us or licensed to us, may materially and adversely affect our business and reputation. We rely on trademark and copyright law, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements with our employees, customers, business partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite certain precautions taken by us, it may be possible for third parties to obtain and use our intellectual property without authorization.

        Since the commercialization of Ragnarok Online in August 2002, we have discovered that the server-end software of Ragnarok Online has been unlawfully released on a consistent basis in most of the countries and markets in which Ragnarok Online has been offered. This enables unauthorized parties to set up local server networks to operate Ragnarok Online, which may result in the diversion of a significant number of paying users. We designate certain employees to be responsible for detecting such illegal servers. In Korea, we report offenders to the relevant enforcement authority for possible prosecution relating to crimes on the Internet. In markets outside of Korea, we cooperate with and rely on our licensees to seek enforcement actions against operators of illegal servers. For example, in Japan, we

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submitted a preliminary written accusation to the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department in October 2009 and filed criminal charges against an illegal server operator of Ragnarok Online in April 2011 in cooperation with GungHo, our licensee in Japan. The case file was transferred to the Nagano District Public Prosecutor's Office in December 2014 and is currently under investigation. In December 2007 and June 2008, Gravity Interactive, Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary in the United States which manages Ragnarok Online game operations in the United States, petitioned the Federal Bureau of Investigation for remission or mitigation of forfeiture of the property of two illegal server operators of Ragnarok Online, which property was deemed proceeds of copyright infringement violations by the illegal server operators, and US$154,674.73 was returned to Gravity Interactive, Inc. in April 2011. We may incur considerable costs in the future in order to remedy software piracy of our server software and to enforce our rights against the operators of unauthorized server networks.

        The validity, enforceability, enforcement mechanisms and scope of protection of intellectual property in Internet-related industries are uncertain and evolving. In particular, the laws and enforcement regimes of Korea, Japan, Thailand and certain other countries in which our games are distributed are uncertain or may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws and enforcement procedures of the United States. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources, disruption of our business, and have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

     We may be subject to claims with respect to the infringement of intellectual property rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our financial and management resources.

        We cannot be certain that our online and mobile games do not or will not infringe upon patents, copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We have in the past been and may in the future become subject to legal proceedings and claims from time to time relating to the intellectual property of others. If we are found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be enjoined from using such intellectual property rights, be required to pay penalties and fines and pay for the unauthorized use of such intellectual property and may need to incur additional license fees or be forced to develop alternative technology or obtain other licenses. We may incur substantial expenses in defending against these third party infringement claims, regardless of their merit. In addition, certain of our employees were recruited from other online and mobile game developers, including current and potential competitors. To the extent these employees have been and are involved in the development of our games that are similar to the games they helped develop at their former employers, we may become subject to claims that we or such employees have improperly used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information. Although we are not aware of any pending or threatened claims of this type, if any such claims were to arise in the future, litigation or other dispute resolution procedures might be necessary to retain our ability to offer our current and future games, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our financial and management resources.

        Successful infringement or licensing claims against us may result in substantial monetary damages, which may materially disrupt our business operations and have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

     We may not be able to successfully implement our growth and profit improvement strategies.

        We are pursuing a number of growth and profit improvement strategies, including the following:

    distributing games developed in-house;

    publishing games acquired from or developed by third parties through licensing arrangements;

    offering our games in countries where we currently have little or no presence;

    optimizing our marketing and research and development expenditures;

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    cross-selling our popular online games through other lines of businesses, such as mobile games, console games, animation and character merchandising; and

    pursuing joint ventures with game development and service companies.

        We cannot assure you that we will be successful in implementing any of these strategies. Certain of our strategies relate to new services or products for which there are no established markets, or in which we lack experience and expertise. If we are unable to successfully implement our growth and profit improvement strategies, our revenues, profitability and competitiveness may be materially and adversely affected.

     We have limited business insurance coverage, and business interruption could have a material adverse effect on our business.

        While we carry insurance coverage against certain risks, such as fire, flood and earthquake, in respect of our principal assets, including offices and equipment, as well as directors' and officers' liability insurance, we do not separately maintain casualty and liability insurance against litigation, risks or disruptions related to our business. The occurrence of any natural disaster, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, break-ins, sabotage, computer viruses, intentional acts of Internet vandalism, human error or other similar events may damage our facilities or network servers and disrupt the operation of our business. As we do not carry sufficient natural disaster or business interruption insurance to compensate us for all types or amounts of loss that could arise, any damage or disruption from such events might result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of our resources, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—INSURANCE."

     As we introduce new games, we face the risk that a significant number of users of our existing games may migrate to our new games.

        We expect that as we introduce new games, a certain number of our existing users may migrate from our existing games to the new games, which may lead to a decrease in the player base of our existing games and in turn make those existing games less playable to other game players, resulting in decreased revenues from our existing games. Players of our existing games may also spend less money to purchase in-game items in our new games than they would have spent if they had continued playing our existing games. In addition, our game players may migrate from our existing games with a higher profit margin to new games with a lower profit margin. If any of the forgoing occurs, our revenues and profitability are likely to be materially and adversely affected.

     We may be required to take significant actions that are contrary to our business objectives in order to avoid being deemed an investment company as defined under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

        Section 3(b)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, or the '40 Act, provides that a company is not an investment company and, therefore, not required to register under the '40 Act as an investment company, if the company is primarily engaged, directly or through a wholly-owned subsidiary or subsidiaries, in a business or businesses other than that of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities (a "Non-Investment Business"). There are several bases on which a company can rely in determining that it is a Non-Investment Business.

        Under one set of criteria, the factors to be considered in determining that a company is a Non-Investment Business are: (i) the history of the company; (ii) the manner in which the company represents itself to the investing public; (iii) the activities of its officers and directors; (iv) the nature of its current assets; and (v) the sources of its current income. Based on those factors, we believe that we are engaged primarily and directly in the business of providing online game services, and consequently, that we are a Non-Investment Business, and not an investment company as that term is defined under the '40 Act.

        However, the determination as to whether a company satisfies the foregoing criteria is fact sensitive and subjective. Accordingly, it is possible that our determination could be challenged by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), particularly if at any time we own "investment securities" (as

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defined in the '40 Act) having a value in excess of 40% of our total assets (exclusive of cash items and U.S. government securities). We do not currently own investment securities in excess of this threshold. Nonetheless, if this were to become the case, we could be required to take actions to reduce our ownership of investment securities to comply with this standard, such as shifting a portion of our short-term investment portfolio into low-yielding bank deposits. If necessary, such actions would likely reduce the amount of interest or other income that we could otherwise generate from our investments. In addition, we might need to acquire additional income or loss generating assets that we might not otherwise have acquired or forego opportunities to acquire minority interests in companies that could be important to our business strategy.

        Alternatively, we could consider other actions, including applying to the SEC for an exemptive order pursuant to Section 3(b)(2) of the '40 Act, declaring that we are a company that is primarily engaged in a business or businesses other than that of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding, or trading in securities, without regard to the composition of our assets at any particular time. However, there can be no assurance that we would receive an exemptive order and the process to obtain such an exemptive order could be long and expensive.

        The '40 Act contains numerous, complex requirements with respect to the organization and operations of investment companies, including restrictions on their capital structure, operations, and transactions with affiliates, as well as restrictions on the composition of the board of directors and other matters which would be incompatible with our business. Also, if we were to be deemed an investment company in the future, we would effectively be precluded from making public offerings of securities in the United States. In addition to disciplinary actions, such as SEC enforcement actions seeking monetary damages, we could also be subject to administrative or legal proceedings and any contracts to which we are a party that violate the '40 Act or the rules thereunder might be rendered unenforceable or subject to rescission.

     Our status as a passive foreign investment company ("PFIC") in 2014 and potentially other years could result in adverse U.S. tax consequences for you.

        In light of the nature of our business activities and our holding of a significant amount of cash, short-term investments, and other passive assets, we believe that we were a PFIC during our 2008 through 2014 taxable years, and there is a significant risk that we will continue to be a PFIC during our 2015 taxable year. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold our ADSs or common shares, you could be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. You are urged to consult your tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding our ADSs or common shares if we are considered a PFIC in any taxable year. See ITEM 10.E. "TAXATION—MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS—PFICs."

     If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or do so on a timely basis and our ability to prevent or detect fraud may be reduced and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

        We are subject to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which requires us to, among other things, maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, and requires our management to provide a certification on the effectiveness of our internal controls on an annual basis.

        Although we have determined that our internal controls over financial reporting were effective for the year ended December 31, 2014, we may in the future determine that we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. Our registered public accounting firm is not required to and has not audited our internal controls over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner or prevent errors or fraud. Any of these possible outcomes could result in an adverse reaction in the financial marketplace due to loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements and could result in investigations or sanctions by the SEC, NASDAQ, or

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other regulatory authorities or in stockholder litigation. Any of these factors could ultimately harm our business and could adversely impact the market price of our ADSs. See ITEM 15. "CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES."

     Rapid technological developments and changes in market environment may limit our ability to recover game development or licensing costs and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations due to impairment loss.

        The online and mobile game industries are subject to rapid technological developments and changes in market environment, which could render our online and mobile games under development and commercialized games obsolete or unattractive to users. Any resulting failure to recover capitalized development or licensing costs and the recognition of impairment loss for such costs may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in 2013, we recognized impairment losses on intangible assets for capitalized research and development costs of Won 382 million for Requiem Returns W, Won 381 million for Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita platform, Won 344 million for Steal Fighter, Won 244 million for Game Station, which is a mobile game service platform, Won 237 million for Maestia and Won 154 million for Ragnarok Online Guild Masters.

     We could suffer losses due to asset impairment charges.

        We held a total of Won 43 million in acquired intangible assets and Won 1,210 million in goodwill at December 31, 2014. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. We test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets at least annually for impairment, and more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of these assets below their carrying amount. Such an event would include unfavorable variances from established business plans, significant changes in forecasted results or volatility inherent to external markets and industries, which are periodically reviewed by our management. If such an adverse event occurs and has the effect of changing one of the critical assumptions or estimates related to the fair value of our intangible assets or goodwill, an impairment charge could result. For example, during 2012, we decided to discontinue the development of East Road due to the low likelihood that the game would be commercially successful and we recognized an impairment loss of Won 8,503 million on intangible assets of East Road in 2012 since its carrying amount before such recognition of the impairment loss exceeded its fair value. We also recognized an impairment loss of Won 64 million on intangible assets of Jeweled Planet in 2012 since its carrying amount before recognition of impairment losses exceeded its fair value. We recorded impairment losses on goodwill of Won 3,614 million and Won 2,653 million in Gravity Games in 2012 and 2013, respectively, primarily due to the overall decline in the fair value of Gravity Games, and recognized impairment losses of Won 2,161 million and Won 1,424 million on intangible assets of Dragonica in 2012 and 2013, respectively, since the carrying amount of the game before recognition of impairment losses exceeded its fair value.

        There can be no assurance that future reviews of our goodwill and other intangible assets will not result in impairment charges. Although it does not affect cash flow, an impairment charge does have the effect of decreasing our earnings, assets and shareholders' equity.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR COMPANY STRUCTURE

     GungHo, the publisher of our games in Japan, our largest market in terms of revenues, is our majority shareholder, which gives them control of our board of directors.

        Since April 1, 2008, GungHo has been our largest shareholder and beneficially owns, as of the date hereof, 59.3% of our common shares. As a result, GungHo is able to exert significant control over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions, including acquisitions, divestitures, strategic relationships and other matters, and may also exert significant control over decisions related to the status of our ADSs being eligible for quotation and trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market. In addition, as GungHo is also an online and mobile game developer, there may be conflicts of interest. For instance, GungHo may lead our management with strategies and efforts which benefit

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itself, its affiliates and their respective shareholders to the detriment of our other shareholders. GungHo may also compete directly or indirectly against us for users and customers or increased market share for its games. Furthermore, four of our registered Executive Directors, Mr. Hyun Chul Park, Mr. Yoshinori Kitamura, Mr. Kazuki Morishita and Mr. Kazuya Sakai currently serve as General Manager, Director and Executive General Manager, President and Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Financial Officer and Director, respectively, of GungHo, and there may be conflicts of interest in the decisions made by our Board of Directors and senior management. See ITEM 7.B. "RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS—Relationship with GungHo Online Entertainment, Inc."

     We are a "controlled company" within the meaning of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules and may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

        As GungHo controls 59.3% of our outstanding voting power as of the date hereof, we are a "controlled company" within the meaning of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules and may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. As a "controlled company," we are not required to have a majority of our board of directors be independent, nor are we required to have a compensation committee or independent director oversight of director nominations which meet the requirements set forth in the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. We are relying on these exemptions as a controlled company. Accordingly, our shareholders do not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. For our corporate governance policies, see ITEM 6.C. "BOARD PRACTICES—CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRACTICES."

RISKS RELATING TO OUR REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

     Our online and mobile operations and businesses are subject to laws, rules and regulations in the countries in which our games are distributed, such as Korea, the United States and Japan, the changes to which are difficult to predict, and uncertainties in interpretation and enforcement of the laws, rules and regulations in such countries may limit the protections available to us.

        The regulatory and legal regimes in many of the countries in which our games are distributed have yet to establish a sophisticated set of laws, rules or regulations designed to regulate the online and mobile game industries. However, in many of our principal markets, such as Korea, the United States and Japan, legislators and regulators have implemented or indicated their intention to implement laws, rules and regulations with respect to issues such as user privacy, defamation, pricing, advertising, taxation, promotions, financial market regulation, consumer protection, content regulation, quality of products and services, and intellectual property ownership and infringement that may directly or indirectly impact our activities. The impact of such laws, rules and regulations on our business and results of operations is difficult to predict as many such laws, rules and regulations are constantly changing. However, as we might unintentionally violate such laws, rules and regulations or such laws, rules or regulations may be modified and new laws, rules and regulations may be enacted in the future, any such developments, or developments stemming from enactment or modification of other laws, rules or regulations, could increase the costs of regulatory compliance, force changes in business practices or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, if the cost of regulatory compliance increases for our licensees as a result of regulatory changes, our licensees may seek to reduce royalties and license fees payable to us, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—LAWS AND REGULATIONS" for a detailed discussion regarding Korean, U.S. and Japanese laws that may materially impact our operations.

     Our online and mobile games may be subject to governmental restrictions or ratings systems, which could delay or prohibit the release of new games or reduce the existing and potential scope of our user base.

        Legislation is periodically introduced in many of the countries in which our games are distributed to establish a system for protecting consumers from the influence of graphic violence and sexually explicit materials contained in various types of games. For example, Korean law requires online game companies

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to obtain ratings classifications and implement procedures to restrict access of online games to certain age groups. Similar mandatory ratings systems and other regulations affecting the content and distribution of our games have been adopted or are under review in Taiwan, China, the United States and other markets for our online games. In the future, we may be required to modify our game content or features or alter our marketing strategies to comply with new governmental regulations or ratings assigned to our current or future games, which could delay or prohibit the release of new games or upgrades and reduce the existing and potential scope of our user base. Moreover, uncertainties regarding governmental restrictions or ratings systems applicable to our business could give rise to market confusion, thereby materially and adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     Restrictions and controls on currency exchange in Korea and in certain countries in which our games are distributed may limit our ability to effectively utilize revenues generated in Won to fund our business activities outside Korea or expenditures denominated in foreign currencies, and may limit our ability to receive and remit revenues effectively.

        The existing and any future restrictions on currency exchange in Korea, including Korean foreign exchange control regulations, may restrict our ability to convert Won into foreign currencies under certain emergency circumstances, such as natural calamities, wars, conflicts of arms or grave and sudden changes in domestic or foreign economic circumstances, difficulties in Korea's international balance of payments and international finance and obstacles in carrying out currency policies, exchange rate policies and other Korean macroeconomic policies. Such restrictions may limit our ability to effectively utilize revenues generated in Won to fund our business activities outside Korea or expenditures denominated in foreign currencies.

        In addition, the governments in certain markets in which our games are distributed, including without limitation Taiwan, China and Thailand, impose controls on the convertibility of local currency into foreign currencies and, in some cases, the remittance of currency outside their countries. Under current foreign exchange control regulations of certain markets, shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our overseas licensees to pay license fees and royalties, most of which are paid in U.S. dollars, to us. Restrictions on our ability to receive license fees, royalties and other payments from our licensees would adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

     Adverse changes in the withholding tax rates in the countries from which we receive license fees and royalties could adversely affect our net income.

        We may be subject to income tax withholding in countries where we derive revenues. Such withholding is made by our overseas licensees at the current withholding rates in such countries. To the extent Korea has a tax treaty with any such country, the withholding rate prescribed by such tax treaty will apply. Under the Corporation Tax Law of Korea, we are entitled to and recognize a capped foreign tax credit computed based on the amount of income taxes withheld overseas when filing our corporate income tax return in Korea. Accordingly, the amount of taxes withheld overseas may be offset against taxes payable in Korea.

        Recently, there have been a series of amendments to tax treaties that Korea has entered into with various countries. The reduced tax rate applicable to license fees and royalties has reduced (i) from 10% to 5% under the amended tax treaty between Korea and Switzerland as to those payable from January 1, 2013, and (ii) from 10% to 5% in general (15% to 10% in case of consideration paid for provision of commercial or technological know-how) under the amended tax treaty between Korea and Luxembourg as to those payable from September 4, 2013. Further, the tax treaty between Korea and Peru went into effect as of March 3, 2014, and the license fees and royalties payable after January 1, 2015 will be taxed at the reduced rate of 15% (10% in case of consideration paid for technical supports). Around January 2014, Korea and India agreed on and initialed a proposed amendment of the tax treaty under which the reduced tax rate applicable to license fees and royalties shall be reduced from 15% to 10%. Around September 2013, Korea and Hong Kong agreed on and initialed a new tax treaty which includes a provision promulgating that the license fees and royalties shall be subject to tax at the reduced rate of 10%. These series of promulgations are all intended to eventually further limit the source country's taxation right with

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respect to the license fees and royalties. Any adverse changes in tax treaties between Korea and the countries from which we receive license fees and royalties, such as in the rate of withholding tax in the countries in which our games are distributed or in Korean tax law enabling us to recognize tax credits for taxes withheld overseas, could adversely affect our net income.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR MARKET ENVIRONMENT

     Our businesses may be adversely affected by developments affecting the economies of the countries in which our games are distributed.

        Our future performance will depend in large part on the economic growth of our principal markets. Our top geographic markets in terms of revenues were Korea, Japan, the United States and Canada, Taiwan and Hong Kong/Macau, and Thailand, representing 48.8%, 21.3%, 12.6%, 5.8% and 3.2%, respectively, of our total revenues in 2014. Accordingly, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations are subject to the economic, political, legal and regulatory conditions and developments in these countries and markets. Adverse economic developments in such markets may have an adverse effect on the number of our users and our revenues and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

     Fluctuations in exchange rates could result in foreign currency exchange losses.

        In most of the countries in which our games are distributed, the revenues generated by our overseas subsidiaries or licensees are denominated in local currencies, which include, among others, the U.S. dollar, the Japanese Yen, the Euro, the NT dollar, the Thai Baht and the Chinese Yuan. In 2014, approximately 51.2% of our revenues were denominated in foreign currencies, primarily in the U.S. dollar and the Japanese Yen. As the revenues denominated in local currencies, other than U.S. dollar, Japanese Yen and Euro, are converted into U.S. dollars for remittance of monthly royalty payments to us, any depreciation of the local currencies against the U.S. dollar will result in reduced license fees and monthly royalty payments in U.S. dollar terms and may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

        While we receive monthly royalty revenues from our overseas licensees in foreign currencies, substantially all of our costs are denominated in Won. Our financial statements are also prepared and presented in Won. We receive monthly royalty payments from our overseas licensees based on a percentage of revenues confirmed and recorded at the end of each month applying the foreign exchange rate applicable on such date. Appreciation of the Won against the Japanese Yen or other foreign currencies will result in foreign currency losses that may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. See ITEM 5.A. "OPERATING RESULTS—OVERVIEW—Foreign currency effects."

        As of December 31, 2014, we have not entered into any outstanding foreign currency forward exchange contract. We may enter into hedging transactions in the future to mitigate our exposure to foreign currency exchange risks, but we may not be able to do so in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all.

     Increased tensions with North Korea could adversely affect us and the price of our ADSs.

        Relations between Korea and North Korea have been tense throughout Korea's modern history. The level of tension between the two Koreas has fluctuated and may increase abruptly as a result of current and future events. In recent years, there have been heightened security concerns stemming from North Korea's nuclear weapons and long-range missile programs and increased uncertainty regarding North Korea's actions, including an alleged cyber-attack on Sony Pictures Entertainment in November 2014, and possible responses from the international community. There can be no assurance that the level of tension on the Korean peninsula will not escalate in the future, particularly in light of continuing questions surrounding the long-term outcome of the transition of power from Kim Jong-il to Kim Jong-un. Any further increase in tension, which may occur, for example, if North Korea experiences a leadership or economic crisis, or if military hostilities occur, could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations and could lead to a decline in the market value of our ADSs.

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RISKS RELATING TO OUR AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

     The liquidity and price of our ADSs, and our ability to raise capital, may be negatively impacted following a change in our ADS to common share ratio and if our ADSs are delisted from NASDAQ.

        Our ADSs are currently listed for trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market. There are a number of continuing requirements that must be met in order for our ADSs to remain listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market, and the failure to meet these listing standards could result in the delisting of our ADSs from NASDAQ. On May 28, 2014, we received notification from the Listing Qualifications Department of the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the "NASDAQ Stock Market") that we had failed to comply with the minimum bid price requirement for continued listing set forth in the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules, as the bid price of our ADSs had closed for 30 consecutive business days below US$1.00 per ADS. We were automatically granted a grace period of 180 calendar days to regain compliance. On November 25, 2014, the Listing Qualifications Department of the NASDAQ Stock Market approved our request to transfer our listing from the NASDAQ Global Market to the NASDAQ Capital Market and our ADSs began trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market on November 26, 2014. We were also given a second grace period of 180 calendar days, or until May 26, 2015, to regain compliance with the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules.

        In order to regain compliance, the bid price of our ADS must close at $1.00 per ADS or more for a minimum of ten consecutive business days and the NASDAQ Stock Market must provide us written confirmation of such compliance. We have not yet been able to regain compliance. However, on April 22, 2015, we announced, as approved by our Board of Directors on the same day, that we will change our ADS to common share ratio from four ADSs to one common share (4:1) to one ADS to two common shares (1:2), effective as of May 11, 2015, which will have the effect of a 1-for-8 reverse split of our ADSs. As a result of this ratio change, the trading price of our ADSs is expected to increase proportionally and we expect to be able to regain compliance with the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. However, we cannot give any assurance that the trading price of the new ADSs will be equal to or greater than the trading price of the current ADSs multiplied by the change in the ratio or that we will regain compliance with the NASADAQ Stock Market Rules. See ITEM 4.A. "HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY."

        The pending ratio change will significantly reduce the total number of ADSs outstanding and also potentially reduce the number of public holders, which may reduce the liquidity of our ADSs and consequently also further reduce the price of our ADSs. In addition, if our ADSs cease to be listed for trading on NASDAQ for any reason, the liquidity of our ADSs may be materially reduced and result in a corresponding material reduction in the price of our ADSs. Furthermore, any such delisting could harm our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may result in the potential loss of confidence by investors, suppliers, business partners, licensees, customers and employees. Such consequences may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

     The public shareholders of our ADSs may have more difficulty protecting their interests than they would as shareholders of a U.S. corporation.

        Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation and by the laws and regulations governing Korean corporations. The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders and members of our Board of Directors under Korean law may be different from those that apply to shareholders and directors of a U.S. corporation. For example, minority shareholder rights afforded under Korean law often require the minority shareholder to meet minimum shareholding requirements in order to exercise certain rights. Under applicable Korean law, of the total issued and outstanding shares, a shareholder must own at least (i) one percent to bring a shareholders' derivative lawsuit (or to demand that a director cease certain activity or conduct if there are concerns that a director may cause irrevocable damage to the company by acting in violation of applicable laws and regulations or the articles of incorporation), (ii) three percent to demand convocation of an extraordinary meeting of shareholders, demand removal of directors or inspect the books and related documents of a company, or to propose the agenda for a general meeting of

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shareholders, (iii) ten percent to apply to the court for dissolution if there is gross improper management or a deadlock in corporate affairs likely to result in a significant and irreparable harm to the company or to apply to the court for a reorganization in the case of an insolvency, and (iv) twenty percent to block a small-scale share exchange or a small merger that may be approved only by a board resolution. In addition, while the facts and circumstances of each case will differ, the duty of care required of a director under Korean law may not be the same as the fiduciary duty of a director of a U.S. corporation. Although the "business judgment rule" concept exists in Korea, there is insufficient case law or precedent to provide guidance to the management and shareholders as to how it should be applied or interpreted. Holders of our ADSs may have more difficulty protecting their interests against actions of our management, members of our Board of Directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. corporation.

     Any dividends paid on our common shares will be in Won and fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Won and the U.S. dollar may affect the amount received by you.

        If and when we declare cash dividends, the dividends will be paid to the depositary for the ADSs in Won and then converted by the depositary into U.S. dollars pursuant to the deposit agreement that governs the rights and obligations of the holders of ADSs. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Won and the U.S. dollar will affect, among other things, the U.S. dollar amounts you will receive from the depositary as dividends. Holders of ADSs may not receive dividends if the depositary does not believe it is reasonable or practicable to do so. In addition, the depositary may collect certain fees and expenses, at the sole discretion of the depositary, by billing the holders of ADSs for such charges or by deducting such charges from one or more cash dividends or other cash distributions from us to be distributed to the holders of ADSs.

     Your ability to deposit or withdraw common shares underlying the ADSs into and from the depositary facility may be limited, which may adversely affect the value of your investment.

        Under the terms of our deposit agreement, holders of our common shares may deposit such shares with the depositary's custodian in Korea and obtain ADSs, and holders of our ADSs may surrender the ADSs to the depositary and receive our common shares. However, to the extent that a deposit of common shares exceeds the difference between:

    the aggregate number of common shares we have consented to be deposited for the issuance of ADSs (including deposits in connection with offerings of ADSs and stock dividends or other distributions relating to ADSs); and

    the number of common shares on deposit with the custodian for the benefit of the depositary at the time of such proposed deposit,

such common shares will not be accepted for deposit unless (i) our consent with respect to such deposit has been obtained or (ii) such consent is no longer required under Korean laws and regulations or under the terms of the deposit agreement.

        Under the terms of the deposit agreement, no consent is required if the common shares are obtained through a dividend, free distribution, rights offering or reclassification of such shares. Under the terms of the deposit agreement, we have consented to any deposit to the extent that, after the deposit, the aggregate number of deposited common shares does not exceed 3,552,229 common shares or any greater number of common shares we determine from time to time (e.g., as a result of a subsequent offering, stock dividend or rights offer), unless the deposit is prohibited by applicable laws or violates our articles of incorporation; provided, however, that in the case of any subsequent offer by us or our affiliates, the limit on the number of common shares on deposit shall not apply to such offer and the number of common shares issued, delivered or sold pursuant to the offer (including common shares in the form of ADSs) shall be eligible for deposit under the deposit agreement, except to the extent such deposit is prohibited by applicable laws or violates our articles of incorporation or, in the case of any subsequent offer by us or our affiliates, we determine with the depositary to limit the number of common shares so offered that would be eligible for

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deposit under the deposit agreement in order to maintain liquidity of the shares in Korea as may be requested by the relevant Korean authorities. We might not consent to the deposit of any additional common shares. As a result, if a holder surrenders ADSs and withdraws common shares, the holder may not be able to subsequently deposit the common shares to obtain ADSs.

     You may not be able to exercise preemptive rights or participate in rights offerings and as a result, you may experience dilution in your ownership percentage in us.

        The Korean Commercial Code and our articles of incorporation require us to offer shareholders the right to subscribe for new common shares in proportion to their existing ownership percentages whenever new common shares are issued, except under certain circumstances as provided in our articles of incorporation. See ITEM 10.B. "MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION—Preemptive rights and issuance of additional shares."

        Such exceptions include offering of new shares, pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors:

    through a general public offering, of no more than 50% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares;

    to the members of the employee stock ownership association;

    upon exercise of a stock option in accordance with our articles of incorporation;

    in the form of depositary receipts of no more than 50% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares;

    to induce foreign direct investment necessary for business in accordance with the Foreign Investment Promotion Act of Korea, of no more than 50% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares;

    to the extent not exceeding 50% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares, to domestic or overseas financial institutions, corporations or individuals for the purpose of raising funds on an emergency basis;

    to certain companies under joint venture arrangements; or

    by a public offering or underwritten by underwriters for the purpose of listing such shares on any stock exchange, to the extent not exceeding 50% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares.

        Accordingly, if we issue new shares to non-shareholders based on such exceptions, existing holders of ADSs will be diluted. If none of the above exemptions is available under Korean law, we may be required to grant subscription rights when issuing additional common shares. However, under U.S. law, we would not be able to make those rights available in the United States unless we register the securities to which the rights relate or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. Under the deposit agreement governing the ADSs, if we offer rights to subscribe for additional common shares, the depositary under the deposit agreement, after consultation with us, may make such rights available to you or dispose of such rights on behalf of you and make the net proceeds available to you or, if the depositary is unable to take such actions, it may allow the rights to lapse with no consideration to be received by you. The depositary is generally not required to make available any rights under any circumstances. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement under the Securities Act to enable you to exercise preemptive rights in respect of the common shares underlying the ADSs, and we cannot assure you that any registration statement would be filed or that an exemption from the registration requirement under the Securities Act would be available. Accordingly, you may not be entitled to exercise preemptive rights and may thereby suffer dilution of your interests in the Company.

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     You will not be treated as our shareholder and you will not have shareholder rights such as the voting rights applicable to a holder of common shares.

        As an ADS holder, we are not obligated to and we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and therefore, you will not have the rights of a shareholder. Korean law and our articles of incorporation govern the rights applicable to our shareholders. The depositary will be treated as the shareholder of the common shares underlying your ADSs. As a holder of ADSs, you will have ADS holder rights, which is governed by the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and you, as an ADS holder. Upon receipt of the necessary voting materials, you may instruct the depositary to vote the number of shares your ADSs represent. The depositary will notify you of shareholders' meetings and arrange to deliver our voting materials to you only when we deliver them to the depositary with sufficient time under the terms of the deposit agreement. If there is a delay or loss of the voting materials, we cannot ensure that you will receive voting materials or otherwise learn of an upcoming shareholders' meeting to ensure that you may instruct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions.

     You would not be able to exercise dissent and appraisal rights unless you have withdrawn the underlying common shares from the depositary facility and become a holder of our common stock.

        In some limited circumstances, including the transfer of the whole or any significant part of our business, our acquisition of all or a part of the business of any other company having a material effect on our business, or our merger or consolidation with another company, except a small-scale merger (as prescribed under Korean law) that leaves us as the surviving company, dissenting shareholders have the right to require us to purchase their shares under Korean law. However, if you hold our ADSs, you will not be able to exercise such dissent and appraisal rights unless you have withdrawn the underlying common shares from the depositary facility and become our direct shareholder prior to the record date for the shareholders' meeting at which the relevant transaction is to be approved.

     We may amend the deposit agreement and the ADRs without your consent for any reason and, if you disagree, your option will be limited to selling the ADSs or withdrawing the underlying securities.

        We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement and the ADRs without your consent for any reason. If an amendment adds or increases fees or charges, except for taxes and other governmental charges or expenses of the depositary, for registration fees, facsimile costs, delivery charges or similar items, or prejudices a substantial right of ADS holders, it will not become effective for outstanding ADRs until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, you are considered, by continuing to hold your ADSs, to agree to the amendment and to be bound by the ADRs and the deposit agreement as amended. If you do not agree with an amendment to the deposit agreement or the ADRs, your option is limited to selling the ADSs or withdrawing the underlying securities. No assurance can be given that the sale of ADSs would be made at a price satisfactory to you in such circumstances. In addition, the common shares underlying the ADSs are not listed on any stock exchange in Korea. Your ability to sell the underlying common shares following withdrawal and the liquidity of the common shares may be limited.

     You may be subject to Korean withholding tax.

        Under Korean tax law, if you are a U.S. investor, you may be subject to Korean withholding taxes on capital gains and dividends in respect of the ADSs unless an exemption or a reduction under the income tax treaty between the United States and Korea is available. Under the Korea-United States tax treaty, capital gains realized by holders that are residents of the United States eligible for treaty benefits will not be subject to Korean taxation upon the disposition of the ADSs. However, under the Korea-United States tax treaty, the following holders are not eligible for such tax treaty benefits: (i) in case the holder is a United States corporation, if by reason of any special measures, the tax imposed on such holder by the United States with respect to such capital gains is substantially less than the tax generally imposed by the United States on corporate profits, and 25% or more of the holder's capital is held of record or is

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otherwise determined, after consultation between competent authorities of the United States and Korea, to be owned directly or indirectly by one or more persons who are not individual residents of the United States; and (ii) in case the holder is an individual, if such holder maintains a fixed base in Korea for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year and the holder's ADSs or common shares giving rise to capital gains are effectively connected with such fixed base or such holder is present in Korea for a period or periods of 183 days or more during the taxable year.

     You may have difficulty bringing an original action or enforcing any judgment obtained outside Korea against us and our directors and officers who are not U.S. persons.

        We are organized under the laws of Korea, and all of our directors and officers reside outside the United States. While we have a wholly-owned subsidiary in the United States, most of our assets and the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons or to enforce against them or us court judgments obtained in the United States that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or of the securities laws of any state of the United States. There is doubt as to the enforceability in Korea, either in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of United States courts, of civil liabilities predicated on the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state of the United States.

     The transfer, sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

        GungHo beneficially owns 59.3% of our common shares. If GungHo decides to sell or transfer substantial amounts of our common shares into the form of ADSs in the public market or if there is a perception of its intent to sell, the market price of our ADSs could be materially and adversely affected and could materially impair our future ability to raise capital through offerings of our ADSs.

ITEM 4.    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

ITEM 4.A.    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

        We were incorporated as a company with limited liability under Korean law on April 4, 2000 under the legal name of Gravity Co., Ltd. Following our initial public offering of 8,000,000 ADSs, each representing one-fourth of one share of our common stock, par value Won 500 per share, on February 8, 2005, our ADSs were listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market's NASDAQ Global Market, formerly the NASDAQ National Market, under the symbol "GRVY." We list below some of the developments relating to our organizational structure.

    In March 2003, we established Gravity Interactive, LLC, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United States. The name of Gravity Interactive, LLC was changed on January 1, 2006 to Gravity Interactive, Inc., or Gravity Interactive.

    In January 2004, we acquired 50% of the voting shares of Gravity Entertainment Corporation, or Gravity Entertainment, formerly RO Production Co., Ltd., our subsidiary in Japan. In October 2004, we obtained from GungHo, which was then the other 50% shareholder of RO Production Co., Ltd., their ownership interest in RO Production Co., Ltd., which made Gravity Entertainment our wholly-owned subsidiary. RO Production Co., Ltd. changed its corporate name to Gravity Entertainment on February 5, 2005.

    In April and May of 2005, we acquired an aggregate of 88.15% equity interest in TriggerSoft Corporation, or TriggerSoft, which developed R.O.S.E. Online. TriggerSoft went into liquidation proceedings in Korea in May 2007 and the liquidation was completed in October 2007.

    In November and December of 2005, we acquired an aggregate of 96.11% of the total shares of NeoCyon, Inc., or NeoCyon, which provides mobile multimedia services in Korea.

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    In August 2006, we founded Gravity EU SASU, a wholly-owned subsidiary based in France, which was converted into a joint venture company in which we have a 25% equity interest, Gravity EU SAS, with Media-Participations Paris SA as the joint venture partner, in July 2011. In November 2014, we sold our 25% equity interest in Gravity EU SAS to Dargaud SA, which resulted in Gravity EU SAS ceasing to be our affiliated company.

    In September 2006, we acquired 100% of the voting shares of Gravity CIS, Inc., formerly Mados, Inc., from Cybermedia International, Inc., a former subsidiary of NeoCyon. On November 21, 2007, the name of Gravity CIS, Inc. was changed to Gravity CIS Co., Ltd., or Gravity CIS. In October 2007, we founded Gravity RUS Co., Ltd., or Gravity RUS, a Russia-based subsidiary, and acquired 99.99% of its voting shares. We transferred 100% of the voting shares of Gravity CIS to Gravity RUS in December 2007 to make Gravity CIS a wholly-owned subsidiary of Gravity RUS. In August 2012, we surrendered our equity interest in Gravity RUS in accordance with Russian law, which resulted in Gravity RUS and Gravity CIS ceasing to be our subsidiaries.

    In May 2007, we established Gravity Middle East & Africa FZ-LLC, or Gravity Middle East & Africa, a wholly-owned subsidiary in Dubai. Gravity Middle East & Africa FZ LLC went into liquidation proceedings in the United Arab Emirates in September 2008.

    In October 2007, we formed L5 Games Inc., or L5 Games, a game development studio in the United States which was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Gravity Interactive. L5 Games went into liquidation proceedings in the United States in August 2008 and the liquidation was completed in May 2010.

    On April 1, 2008, GungHo acquired shares of our common stock, after which it became our largest shareholder, beneficially owning approximately 52.4% of our common shares. GungHo subsequently purchased our ADSs and beneficially owns approximately 59.3% of our common shares as of March 31, 2015.

    In June 2010, we acquired from Terabit Telecom Ltd., a Russia-based online game company, a 25% equity interest in Ingamba, a joint venture company established in April 2010 for online game service in Russia, and Terabit Telecom sold its 75% of equity interest in Ingamba to Stylonos Technologies Ltd., a Russia-based online game company, in December 2010. In May 2012, we sold our 25% equity interest in Ingamba to Stylonos Technologies Ltd., which resulted in Ingamba ceasing to be our affiliated company.

    In October 2010, we acquired an aggregate of 50.83% of the total shares of Barunson Interactive Corporation, or Barunson Interactive, an online game developer in Korea. Barunson Interactive changed its corporate name to Gravity Games on March 28, 2011. In August 2013, we increased our ownership in Gravity Games to 85.5%.

        On May 28, 2014, we received notification from the Listing Qualifications Department of the NASDAQ Stock Market that we had failed to comply with the minimum bid price requirement for continued listing set forth in the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules, as the bid price of our ADSs had closed for 30 consecutive business days below US$1.00 per ADS. We were automatically granted a grace period of 180 calendar days to regain compliance. On November 25, 2014, the Listing Qualifications Department of the NASDAQ Stock Market approved our request to transfer our listing from the NASDAQ Global Market to the NASDAQ Capital Market and our ADSs began trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market on November 26, 2014. We were also given a second grace period of 180 calendar days, or until May 26, 2015, to regain compliance with the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. In order to regain compliance, the bid price of our ADS must close at $1.00 per ADS or more for a minimum of ten consecutive business days and the NASDAQ Stock Market must provide us written confirmation of such compliance. We have not yet been able to regain compliance.

        On April 22, 2015, we announced, as approved by our Board of Directors on the same day, that we will change our ADS to common share ratio from four ADSs to one common share (4:1) to one ADS to

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two common shares (1:2), effective as of May 11, 2015, which will have the effect of a 1-for-8 reverse split of our ADSs. The record holders of our current ADSs at the close of business on May 8, 2015 will be required to surrender their certificates to the Bank of New York Mellon, as depositary, on a mandatory basis in order to exchange eight current ADSs for one new ADS. Fractional ADSs will be sold by the depositary and paid in cash to the holders. There will be no change to our common shares in connection with the ratio change. As a result of this ratio change, the trading price of our ADSs is expected to increase proportionally and we expect to be able to regain compliance with the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. However, we cannot give any assurance that the trading price of the new ADSs will be equal to or greater than the trading price of the current ADSs multiplied by the change in the ratio or that we will regain compliance with the NASADAQ Stock Market Rules.

        Our registered office is located at 15F, 396 World Cup buk-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-795, Korea. Our telephone number is (822) 2132-7000. Our main Web site is at http://www.gravity.co.kr.

ITEM 4.B.    BUSINESS OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW

        We are a leading developer and publisher of online games in Japan and Thailand based on the number of peak concurrent users as compiled from various statistical data available from public sources in such countries. We are based in Korea, and we currently offer five online games worldwide. Our principal product, Ragnarok Online, is commercially offered in Korea and 70 other countries and markets. Ragnarok Online II is currently commercially offered globally except for Japan, Vietnam and China. Requiem is commercially offered globally. R.O.S.E. Online is commercially offered in the United States, Canada, Mexico and 40 other countries. Dragonica is commercially offered globally. We also offer a number of mobile games, console games and a game for Internet protocol television, or IPTV, and license the merchandizing rights of character-related products based on our online games. We intend to diversify our game offering by developing online and mobile games in-house as well as publishing additional games developed by third parties.

        In Korea, we directly manage all aspects of operations of our online games, such as marketing, operation, billing and customer service. Gravity Interactive, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United States, is responsible for all aspects of Ragnarok Online game operations in the United States, Canada, Australia and 25 other countries, for all aspects of Ragnarok Online II game operations globally except for Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Vietnam and China, for all aspects of Requiem game operations globally, for all aspects of R.O.S.E. Online game operations in the United States, Canada, Mexico and 40 European countries, and for all aspects of Dragonica globally. In the countries where we and Gravity Interactive manage game operations, our online game revenues are recorded as subscription revenues.

        Except as managed by us and our affiliates as described above, our overseas licensees are responsible for all aspects of online game operations in their respective markets in close cooperation with us. Our license agreements have an initial term of two or three years and are subject to renewal once the initial term expires. We rely on the initial and renewal license fees and the ongoing royalties from our overseas licensees for a significant portion of our revenues. The ongoing royalties are based on a percentage of revenues generated by our overseas licensees from the subscriptions to our games or the micro-transaction system in their respective markets.

        Except Korea, the United States and Canada, our overseas licensees handle our mobile game operations in close cooperation with us. NeoCyon and Gravity Interactive directly manage all aspects of operations of our mobile games in Korea, and the United States and Canada, respectively. Revenues from our mobile games, regardless of the operator, are recorded as mobile games revenues.

        The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated statements of operations showing revenues from our online games (by type of revenue and geographic market), mobile games and

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applications, and character merchandising and other revenue as a percentage of total net revenues for the periods indicated.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except percentages)
 

Online game revenue(2):

                                           

Subscription revenue:

                                           

Korea(3)

  W 5,438     9.4 % W 2,447     5.1 % W 3,320     8.3 % US$ 3,043  

United States/Canada(4)

    4,712     8.2     5,759     12.1     3,748     9.4     3,436  

Others(4)

                    894     2.3     820  
                               

Subtotal

    10,150     17.6     8,206     17.2     7,962     20.0     7,299  
                               

Royalties and license fees:

                                           

Japan

    23,795     41.2     12,103     25.4     7,797     19.5     7,147  

Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau(5)

    2,235     3.9     2,002     4.2     953     2.4     874  

Others

    6,295     10.8     7,621     16.0     4,343     10.8     3,981  
                               

Subtotal

    32,325     55.9     21,726     45.6     13,093     32.7     12,002  
                               

Mobile games and applications revenue

    8,262     14.3     14,504     30.4     15,055     37.7     13,801  

Character merchandising and other revenue

    7,044     12.2     3,249     6.8     3,779     9.6     3,464  
                               

Total net revenue

  W 57,781     100.0 % W 47,685     100.0 % W 39,889     100.0 % US$ 36,566  
                               
                               

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

(2)
Online game revenues include revenues from Ragnarok Online, R.O.S.E. Online, Requiem, Emil Chronicle Online, Dragonica, Pororo Game, Canaan, H.A.V.E. Online, Eternal Destiny, Ragnarok Online Guild Masters, Kun Woong Online, Finding Neverland Online, Ragnarok Online II, Maestia, Steal Fighter, Ragnarok Prequel and our social network games, and from online game channeling service through GnJoy, our online game portal site. Finding Neverland Online, Ragnarok Online II, Maestia, Steal Fighter and Ragnarok Prequel were commercially launched in January 2012, March 2012, July 2012, February 2013 and October 2013, respectively. Our online game channeling service was launched in August 2011 and ceased in June 2013. We discontinued offering Canaan, Kun Woong Online, Ragnarok Online Guild Masters, Emil Chronicle Online, Finding Neverland Online, Maestia, Steal Fighter, H.A.V.E. Online and Ragnarok Prequel in June 2012, August 2012, May 2013, July 2013, July 2013, September 2013, February 2014, March 2014 and November 2014, respectively.

(3)
Requiem game service in Korea was transferred to Gravity Interactive on March 7, 2012. Upon this change, the revenues from Requiem generated in Korea through March 6, 2012 are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—Korea and those generated on or after March 7, 2012 are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada. Ragnarok Online II game service in Korea was transferred to Gravity Interactive on December 24, 2013 through an amendment to the license agreement with Gravity Interactive dated June 2013 to include Korea as a service country, as the game service in Korea was suspended on December 23, 2013. Upon this change, the revenues from Ragnarok Online II generated in Korea through December 23, 2013 are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—Korea and those generated on or after December 24, 2013 are shown as Online game revenue-Subscription revenue-United States/Canada.

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(4)
Subscription revenues in the United States and Canada, as shown on this table, also include subscription and other types of game revenues generated in other countries and markets managed by Gravity Interactive. For Ragnarok Online, the countries serviced by Gravity Interactive include the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and India, and further include Singapore and Malaysia since October 24, 2013. Upon this change, the revenues from Ragnarok Online generated in Singapore and Malaysia through October 23, 2013 are shown as Online game revenue—Royalties and license fees—Others and those generated on or after October 24, 2013 are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada. Ragnarok Online II is serviced by Gravity Interactive worldwide except Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Japan, China, the Philippines prior to April 1, 2014, Brazil prior to April 1, 2014, Singapore prior to November 4, 2014 and Malaysia prior to November 4, 2014. Subscriptions revenues from Ragnarok Online II generated from the countries and markets managed by Gravity Interactive are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada. The revenues from Ragnarok Online II generated from the Philippines, Brazil, Singapore and Malaysia on and after the relevant date when Gravity Interactive began to service such countries are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada and those revenues from such countries before such relevant date are shown as Online game revenue—Royalties and license fees—Others. However, the revenues from Ragnarok Online II generated from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—Others, even though Gravity Interactive manages Ragnarok Online II service in such markets. For R.O.S.E. Online, the countries managed by Gravity Interactive include the United States, Canada, Mexico and 40 other countries. For Dragonica, the countries serviced by Gravity Interactive include the United States and Canada, and further includes South America except for Brazil since October 28, 2013. Requiem is serviced worldwide by Gravity Interactive except for Russia, Armenia and 13 other countries serviced by Ingamba, a sub-licensee of Gravity Interactive, and the revenues from Requiem generated from the countries directly serviced by Gravity Interactive are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada and those generated from the countries serviced by Ingamba are shown as Online game revenue—Royalties and license fees—Others. See also note (3) and (5) to this table for changes to Requiem game service in Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.

(5)
As our license agreement for Requiem in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau with Game Flier International Corporation was terminated on August 31, 2012, these markets are included as markets serviced by Gravity Interactive since September 1, 2012. Upon this change, the revenues from Requiem generated in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau through August 31, 2012 are shown as Online game revenue—Royalties and license fees—Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau and those generated on or after September 1, 2012 are shown as Online game revenue—Subscription revenue—United States/Canada.

OUR PRODUCTS

        We currently categorize our products into three categories: online games; mobile games and applications; and other games and game-related products and services, including character-based merchandise and animation. Revenues from our principal product, Ragnarok Online, accounted for 40.1% of our total revenues in 2014, compared with 45.2% of our total revenues in 2013.

Online games

        Online game is a genre of computer games in which a large number of players interact with one another within a virtual game world.

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        The following table summarizes the online games that we currently offer.

Title
 
Genre
 
Game Source
  Date of Commercial
Launch(1)
Ragnarok Online   Action adventure MMORPG(2)   Developed in-house   August 2002

Ragnarok Online II

 

Action adventure MMORPG

 

Developed in-house

 

March 2012

Requiem

 

Action adventure MMORPG

 

Developed in-house

 

October 2007

Dragonica (Dragon Saga)(3)

 

Action adventure MMORPG

 

Originally licensed from third party developer; currently owned by us(4)

 

February 2009(5)

R.O.S.E. Online

 

Action adventure MMORPG

 

Originally licensed from third party developer; currently owned by us(6)

 

January 2005

Notes:

(1)
The actual date of commercial launch of games in each jurisdiction is dependent on a variety of factors, including technical viability and durability, availability of in-house development capability, market conditions, beta testing results and availability of licensing partners, among others.

(2)
MMORPG is an abbreviation for Massively Multiplayer Online Role-playing Game.

(3)
Dragonica is commercially offered in the United States, Canada and South America except for Brazil under the name Dragon Saga.

(4)
We acquired an aggregate of 50.83% equity interest in Gravity Games, formerly known as Barunson Interactive, which developed Dragonica, on October 21, 2010, and subsequently increased our ownership in Gravity Games to 85.5% in August 2013.

(5)
Dragonica was initially launched in China in February 2009 followed by certain other countries and markets under license agreements between Gravity Games and local publishers before our acquisition of Gravity Games.

(6)
We acquired an aggregate of 88.15% equity interest in TriggerSoft, which developed R.O.S.E. Online, in April and May 2005. TriggerSoft was liquidated in October 2007.

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     Ragnarok Online

        Ragnarok Online is commercially offered in Korea and 70 other countries and markets since its commercial launch in August 2002. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—OUR MARKETS—Overseas markets." Ragnarok Online represented 40.1% of our total revenues or Won 15,985 million (US$14,653 thousand) in 2014, compared with 45.2% of our total revenues or Won 21,531 million in 2013.

        The following are revenues generated by Ragnarok Online for the periods indicated:

 
   
  Year Ended December 31,  
Revenue Type
 
Country
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
   
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$)
 
Online games—subscription revenue   Korea   W 2,648   W 2,368   W 3,278   US$ 3,005  
    United States/Canada(2)     2,969     1,925     1,892     1,734  
    Others                  
                       
   

Subtotal

    5,617     4,293     5,170     4,739  
                       
Online games—royalties and license fees   Japan     21,514     11,480     7,757     7,111  
    Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau     1,717     1,713     952     873  
    China(3)         1,586     456     418  
    Thailand     867     811     419     384  
    Brazil     793     633     603     553  
    Philippines     789     375     204     187  
    Europe     433     352     266     244  
    Indonesia     179     195     103     94  
    Russia/CIS countries     92     68     55     50  
    Singapore/Malaysia(4)     100     25          
    Middle East/Africa     207              
                       
   

Subtotal

    26,691     17,238     10,815     9,914  
                       
   

Total

  W 32,308   W 21,531   W 15,985   US$ 14,653  
                       
                       

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

(2)
Includes subscription and other types of game revenues generated in Australia, New Zealand and India, and further includes Singapore and Malaysia since October 24, 2013, managed by Gravity Interactive. Such revenues from other countries constitute a minor portion of the revenues recorded as subscription revenues from the United States and Canada.

(3)
Ragnarok Online game service in China by Shengqu Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., our former licensee, ceased on December 30, 2011 and we relaunched the game in China with Beijing Kunlun Online Network Tech Co., Ltd., our current licensee, on February 28, 2013.

(4)
Our license agreement with Game Flier (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. for Ragnarok Online game service in Singapore and Malaysia expired on October 9, 2013 and we subsequently amended our license agreement for Ragnarok Online games service with Gravity Interactive on October 24, 2013 to include such countries as service countries of Gravity Interactive. Upon these changes, the revenues generated in Singapore and Malaysia through October 9, 2013 are shown as Online games—royalties and license fees—Singapore/Malaysia and those generated from October 24, 2013 are shown as Online games—subscription revenue—United States/Canada.

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        The table below provides, for the periods indicated, the peak concurrent users and average concurrent users of Ragnarok Online since the first quarter of 2012, in each of our principal markets for Ragnarok Online.

 
   
  1Q 12   2Q 12   3Q 12   4Q 12   1Q 13   2Q 13   3Q 13   4Q 13   1Q 14   2Q 14   3Q 14   4Q 14   1Q 15  

Japan

  PCU(1)     38,984     44,492     40,215     34,854     32,270     26,956     24,033     21,158     19,547     18,934     19,096     17,884     16,821  

  ACU(2)     15,654     18,283     15,166     14,296     11,725     9,940     8,703     7,051     7,310     7,593     7,364     6,826     6,619  

Korea

  PCU     7,628     4,445     3,267     13,712     14,776     3,898     3,874     4,158     5,503     3,979     12,464     5,928     5,924  

  ACU     2,814     1,520     1,670     1,903     2,384     2,024     2,243     2,152     2,754     2,155     2,338     3,159     3,256  

USA/Canada

  PCU     5,180     4,948     5,895     5,384     4,618     4,530     4,291     5,882     5,895     5,219     4,963     5,491     5,443  

  ACU     4,026     3,536     4,103     3,491     3,560     3,543     2,870     3,740     4,243     3,895     3,651     3,607     4,019  

Notes:

(1)
PCU, or peak concurrent users, represents the highest number of users of Ragnarok Online during the specified time period as recorded on the servers for the various countries.

(2)
ACU, or average concurrent users, represents the average number of concurrent users of Ragnarok Online during the specified time period as recorded on the servers for the various countries.

        We believe that the number of users as measured by PCU or ACU (i) is reflective of our active user base and (ii) is correlated to revenues as revenues from an online game depend on the number of users as well as time spent playing the game. We believe such correlation has been reflected in the decrease of our revenues generated from Ragnarok Online in recent years, although there are also other factors which contribute to an increase or a decrease of revenues from a game. PCU and ACU are non-financial variables and the data presented has not been audited or reviewed. Other companies may determine PCU or ACU differently than we do.

        We obtained an exclusive license from Mr. Myoung-Jin Lee to use the storyline and characters from his cartoon titled "Ragnarok" for the development of games including for animation and character merchandising. We paid Mr. Lee an initial license fee of Won 40 million and are required to pay royalties based on a percentage of adjusted revenues (net of value-added taxes and certain other expenses) or net income generated from the use of the Ragnarok brand through January 2033.

        Ragnarok Online is an action adventure-based MMORPG that combines cartoon-like characters, community-oriented themes and combat features in a virtual world within which thousands of players can interact with one another. By combining the highly interactive and community-oriented themes and features, such as marriages and organization of guilds, we believe we are able to create user loyalty from our users who favor games that provide social interaction in a virtual setting.

        Other key features of Ragnarok Online include the following:

    players may assume an ongoing role, or alter-ego, of a particular game character, each with different strengths and weaknesses. In Ragnarok Online, the user starts as a "novice" and undergoes training in a specialized mapped game zone to become familiar with the game features. Once that stage is completed, the user can choose from six basic characters, each with a distinct combination of different traits;

    as each game character advances in challenge levels up to level 175, the character can enter into a greater range of mapped game zones and develop into a more sophisticated game character in terms of game attributes and special powers;

    Ragnarok Online characters may visually express the users' mood and emotions by using emotive icons that appear within a bubble above the characters' heads. We believe that this feature significantly expands the interface for user interaction and elevates the level of social reality of the game;

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    game features may be traded or sold within the game, and game characters may simulate real-life experiences such as marriage, group fights and joining a guild. In addition, players may communicate with each other through in-game chatting or instant messaging;

    special events are held from time to time to stimulate community formations. For example, we periodically host "fortress raids" whereby players are encouraged to organize themselves into a team to compete against other teams to capture a fortress within a set time; and

    the game has no preordained ending and is designed to continuously evolve in terms of plots, mapped game zones and character attributes through enhancements from time to time.

        We believe that the PC configurations required to run Ragnarok Online are lower than or similar to many other competing online games, which we believe has facilitated our successful entry into and expansion of Ragnarok Online in many of the developed and developing countries in which Ragnarok Online is distributed. The recommended minimum PC configuration for Ragnarok Online is Pentium III 1.6 GHz, 256 MB RAM and 32 MB graphics card.

     Ragnarok Online II

        Ragnarok Online II, an action adventure-based three-dimensional MMORPG, is a sequel to Ragnarok Online with enhanced character and community features. Ragnarok Online II includes pastel-type graphics, advanced character customization and detailed monsters and non-player characters. Ragnarok Online II also adopts Mr. Myoung-Jin Lee's original drawings from his comic book Ragnarok and music from Kanno Yoko, a well-respected composer in the animation industry.

        We commercially launched Ragnarok Online II in Korea in March 2012, Singapore and Malaysia in January 2013, the United States, Canada and 28 European countries in May 2013, Indonesia in August 2013,Thailand in October 2013 and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau in June 2014. Ragnarok Online II game service in Korea was transferred to Gravity Interactive on December 24, 2013 as the game service in Korea was suspended on December 23, 2013. Our license and distribution agreement with Gravity Interactive to distribute Ragnarok Online II in the United States, Canada and 28 European countries was amended in February 2014 to distribute Ragnarok Online II globally except for Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Brazil and China. The license and distribution agreement with Gravity Interactive was amended to have Gravity Interactive distribute Ragnarok Online II globally except for Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and China in April 2014, which was additionally amended to have Gravity Interactive distribute Ragnarok Online II globally except for Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and China in November 2014. As a result, Ragnarok Online II is currently commercially offered globally except for Japan, Vietnam and China.

        We have license and distribution agreements for Ragnarok Online II with four third-party licensees in five countries, including Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Vietnam and China. The total value of the license and distribution agreements for Ragnarok Online II with respect to Japan, Vietnam and China in which jurisdictions the game has not been commercially launched, is US$21,300 thousand as of the date hereof. Our license and distribution agreements for Ragnarok Online II with licensees in the Philippines and Brazil were terminated in April 2014. Also, in September 2014, we terminated the license and distribution agreement with our licensee for service of Ragnarok Online II in Singapore and Malaysia.

        Ragnarok Online II represented 6.8% of our total revenues or Won 2,724 million (US$2,497 thousand) in 2014 and 8.8% of our total revenues, or Won 4,211 million, in 2013. See ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS—If we are unable to consistently and timely develop, acquire, license, launch, market or operate commercially successful online and mobile games in addition to Ragnarok Online, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected."

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     Requiem

        Unlike Ragnarok Online and Ragnarok Online II, which do not emphasize violent themes, we designed Requiem to showcase user-to-user combat. Requiem provides players with a variety of combat systems, which allow them to accumulate experience and reward points to be used when they buy special items designed for combats.

        Requiem is currently commercially offered globally by Gravity Interactive. Requiem was commercially offered in Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan by Ingamba under our license agreement with Ingamba until November 2013, when our license agreement with Ingamba was terminated, and these countries are included as countries and markets serviced by Gravity Interactive. Gravity Interactive entered into a sublicense agreement with Ingamba in December 2013 to distribute Requiem in these countries. We also launched a Web-browser based version of Requiem on WarpPortal, Gravity Interactive's game portal site, and Facebook in April 2012 and September 2012, respectively, and ceased offering such services in November 2014. The amount of revenues from Requiem represented 1.0% of our total revenues or Won 379 million (US$347 thousand) in 2014 and 1.3% of our total revenues or Won 633 million in 2013.

     Dragonica (Dragon Saga)

        Dragonica is a three-dimensional side-scrolling MMORPG, which is commercially offered in the United States, Canada and South America except for Brazil under the name Dragon Saga. Dragonica was developed by Gravity Games, our 85.5%-owned subsidiary. Dragonica is currently commercially offered globally. The amount of revenues from Dragonica represented 1.5% of our total revenues or Won 597 million (US$547 thousand) in 2014 and 2.4% of our total revenues or Won 1,154 million in 2013.

     R.O.S.E. Online

        R.O.S.E. Online is a three-dimensional MMORPG, which is commercially offered in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Serbia, Vatican City State, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey since its commercial launch in January 2005. The amount of revenues from R.O.S.E. Online represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

     Ragnarok Prequel

        Ragnarok Prequel is a Web browser-based MMORPG, which is played on a Web browser and which does not require any client-side software to be installed. In May 2013, we entered into an agreement with Shanghai The Dream Network Technology Co., Ltd., a Chinese game developer, which was granted the right to develop a Web-browser based game based on Ragnarok Online and distribute the Web-browser based game in China under the agreement. Ragnarok Prequel was commercially launched in China in October 2013 and commercial service ceased in November 2014 due to a lack of popularity. Ragnarok Prequel represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

     H.A.V.E. Online (Toy Wars)

        H.A.V.E. Online is a casual third person shooter game developed by SK i-media Co., Ltd., currently NQ Games Co., Ltd., an online game developer based in Korea. In April 2010, we entered into a publishing agreement with SK i-media Co., Ltd. to publish H.A.V.E. Online in Korea and Japan, which was amended in March 2014 to exclude Japan from the service territories. We entered into a license and distribution agreement with GungHo in August 2010 to distribute H.A.V.E. Online in Japan, which expired in March 2014. We commercially launched H.A.V.E. Online in Japan under the name Toy Wars in March 2011 and ceased offering commercial service in March 2014. The amount of revenues from

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H.A.V.E. Online represented less than 1.0% of our total revenues in 2014 and 1.0% of our total revenues or Won 489 million in 2013.

     Steal Fighter

        Steal Fighter is an action real-time strategy role playing game. We entered into license and distribution agreements with L-Time Games Co., Ltd., the developer of Steal Fighter, to publish the game in Korea in April 2012, and in Taiwan and China, including Hong Kong and Macau, in November 2012, both of which were terminated in January 2014. We entered into a license and distribution agreement with Game Flier International Corporation to distribute Steal Fighter in Taiwan in December 2012, which was terminated in November 2013. We commercially launched Steal Fighter in Korea in February 2013 and ceased offering the game in February 2014. The amount of revenues from Steal Fighter represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

     Requiem Returns W

        Requiem Returns W is a three-dimensional Web browser-based MMORPG. In August 2012, we entered into an intellectual property license agreement with Weaver Interactive Inc., a Korean game developer, under which we granted Weaver Interactive Inc. the right to develop a Web browser-based game based on Requiem. In October 2012, we entered into a license agreement with Weaver Interactive Inc. that granted us the right to publish and distribute Requiem Returns W worldwide, which was amended to exclude Korea from the service territories in January 2013. Both of our agreements with Weaver Interactive Inc., the intellectual property license agreement and license agreement, were terminated in April 2014. The amount of revenues from Requiem Returns W represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

Mobile games and applications

        As compared to online games, mobile games, which are played using mobile phones, including smartphones such as Google Android compatible phones and the Apple iPhone as well as feature phones, and other mobile devices, such as tablet computers, have shorter game playtimes and less complex user-game interactions. We believe that mobile games, due to such characteristics, provide less-experienced users with a means to become familiar with both game playing and the game culture without making a substantial commitment in time and resources. As a result, we believe that mobile games allow us to target a broader audience of users.

        We develop mobile games, most of which are based on our intellectual property, which include Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie, Ragnarok Online Mobile Story and Ragnarok Violet, and also publish mobile games licensed from third parties.

        In contrast to online games, the life cycle of a mobile game is relatively short and generally lasts from 6 to 24 months while reaching its peak popularity within the first 3 months of its introduction, though it varies by genre. As a result, we generate a significant portion of our mobile games revenue from the games that have been released within the recent 12 months.

        The following table sets forth each of the mobile games that we have released since January 2014.

Title
  Genre   Game Source   Date of Commercial Launch

Road to Dragons

  Roleplaying   Licensed from third party developer   January 2014

Perfect9

  Sports   Licensed from third party developer   March 2014

Three Kingdoms Conqueror Online

  Strategy   Licensed from third party developer   April 2014

Winners Poker

  Casino   Developed in-house   August 2014

Era of Heroes

  Puzzle/RPG   Developed in-house   February 2015

Trials of Blood

  RPG   Developed in-house   March 2015

Resque Quest

  Puzzle   Licensed from third party developer   April 2015

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        For our smartphone games offered where we directly provide mobile games services to users, we share users' payments for micro-transactions with digital storefront owners and mobile telecommunications operators. For our smartphone games in the other markets where the mobile games services are offered by our licensees, we receive license fees and royalty revenues from our licensees.

        In addition to mobile games offered to users, we also develop mobile applications provided to third-party enterprises. The following are revenues generated from our mobile games and applications business for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
Country
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except percentages)
 

Korea

  W 3,984   W 10,049   W 11,705     77.7 % US$ 10,730  

United States

    307     1,917     1,190     7.9     1,091  

Japan

    3,962     1,202     521     3.5     478  

Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau

    9     1,104     468     3.1     429  

Others

        232     1,171     7.8     1,073  
                       

Total

  W 8,262   W 14,504   W 15,055     100.0 % US$ 13,801  
                       
                       

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

Other games and game-related products and services

     Other games

        In addition to developing and publishing online games and mobile games, which is our primary business, we also provide games for game consoles and handheld game consoles, such as Nintendo DS, Xbox 360 and the PlayStation series. Console games are distributed in the form of a disc or cartridge (game card), or downloaded directly to a console through the Internet.

        The following table sets forth the console games we have released.

Title
  Genre   Platform   Release Date
Ragnarok DS   Role playing   Nintendo DS   December 2008(1)

Ragnarok: The Princess of Light and Darkness

 

Tactical role playing

 

PlayStation Portable

 

October 2011

Ragnarok Odyssey

 

Role playing

 

PlayStation Vita

 

February 2012(2)

Double Dragon II

 

Action

 

Xbox 360

 

April 2013

Ragnarok Odyssey Ace

 

Role playing

 

PlayStation Vita

 

August 2013(3)

Ragnarok Odyssey Ace

 

Role playing

 

PlayStation 3

 

April 2014(4)

Notes:

(1)
Ragnarok DS was initially released in Japan in December 2008 followed by Korea in June 2009 and the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Panama and Venezuela in February 2010.

(2)
Ragnarok Odyssey was initially released in Japan in February 2012 followed by Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand in August 2012, the United States, Canada, Mexico and Brazil in October 2012 and Europe in February 2013.

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(3)
Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita platform was initially released in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand in August 2013 followed by the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Europe in April 2014.

(4)
Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation 3 platform was initially released in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Europe in April 2014 followed by Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand in July 2014.

        We are also expanding our business by providing games for IPTV. In September 2008, we entered into a licensing agreement with Iconix Entertainment Co., Ltd., or Iconix Entertainment, to develop and publish Pororo Game, an IPTV game based on Iconix Entertainment's 3D TV animation series "Pororo: The Little Penguin." We commercially launched Pororo Game in September 2009 and renewed our licensing agreement with Iconix Entertainment in September 2011, September 2012, September 2013 and September 2014.

        The amount of revenues from console and IPTV games represented 2.4% of our total revenues or Won 941 million (US$863 thousand) in 2014 and 3.7% of our total revenues or Won 1,744 million in 2013.

     Game character merchandising

        In order to optimize the commercial opportunities presented by our games and their characters, we and our licensees have been marketing dolls, stationery, food and other character-based merchandise, as well as game manuals, monthly magazines and other publications, based on our games. We currently have arrangements with GungHo to license Ragnarok Online's game characters in Japan and with AsiaSoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd. to license Ragnarok Online II game characters in Thailand.

        The amount of revenues from game character merchandising represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

     Animation

        Gravity Entertainment, our Japanese subsidiary, entered into an agreement with G&G Entertainment Inc. and three other Japanese media and entertainment companies for the production and distribution of a 26 half-hour episode animation series based on the storyline and characters of Ragnarok Online in October 2004. The series was produced by Gravity Entertainment and broadcast on television in nine countries from 2004 through 2007. The animation series of Ragnarok Online has been sold in DVD and VOD (video on demand) formats in North America since March 2006, and it has also been distributed in Europe. Our revenues from our animation business represented less than 1% of our total revenues in each of 2014 and 2013.

     Other services

        NeoCyon provides Web site development and operation services to third parties in addition to its core mobile games business. In addition, we generate revenues from sales of goods related to mobile phones, such as ornamental accessories manufactured or procured by third parties, based on consignment sale agreements with such third parties. The amount of revenues from other services represented 8.9% of our total revenues or Won 3,560 million (US$3,263 thousand) in 2014, compared with 4.3% of our total revenues or Won 2,064 million in 2013.

OUR MARKETS

        Korea, Japan, the United States and Canada, Taiwan and Hong Kong/Macau, and Thailand were our biggest geographic markets in 2014 in terms of revenue. Each of these markets is serviced either by us or a distribution company. We directly manage online game operations in Korea. We and NeoCyon both directly manage mobile game operations in Korea. Gravity Interactive, our wholly-owned subsidiary, manages game operations in the United States and Canada. For Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, Gravity Interactive directly provides services for Ragnarok Online II, Requiem and Dragonica whereas Game Flier International Corporation is our licensee for Ragnarok Online. GungHo Online Entertainment, Inc. is our

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licensee for Ragnarok Online and Ragnarok Mobile Story in Japan. AsiaSoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd. is our licensee for Ragnarok Online, Ragnarok Online II and Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie in Thailand.

        The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated statement of operations showing revenues by geographic area for the periods indicated and the percentage represented by such revenues for year ended December 31, 2014.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
Country
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except percentages)
 

Korea

  W 14,762   W 15,491   W 19,469     48.8 % US$ 17,847  

Japan

    30,387     14,409     8,511     21.3     7,802  

United States/Canada(2)

    5,023     7,725     5,038     12.6     4,618  

Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau

    2,244     3,106     2,315     5.8     2,122  

Thailand

    974     1,015     1,283     3.2     1,176  

Others

    4,391     5,939     3,273     8.3     3,001  
                       

Total

  W 57,781   W 47,685   W 39,889     100.0 % US$ 36,566  
                       
                       

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

(2)
Revenues in the United States and Canada, as shown on this table, also include subscription and other types of game revenues generated in other countries managed by Gravity Interactive. Such revenues from other countries constitute a minor portion of the revenues recorded as subscription revenues from the United States and Canada.

Korea

        In Korea, we commercially launched and began to charge users for Ragnarok Online in August 2002, followed by other games. Our online game users in Korea consist of individual PC account users and Internet café subscribers. Individual PC account users are individuals who log on to our game servers from places other than Internet cafés, such as from home or work, whereas Internet café subscribers are commercial businesses operating Internet café outlets equipped with multiple PCs that provide broadband Internet access to their customers who typically prefer to play online games together with their peers with more powerful PC hardware and faster broadband Internet access than they have at home. Most Internet cafés charge their customers PC usage and Internet access fees of Won 991 on average per hour and subscribe to various online games. Over 5,500 and 9,600 Internet cafés offered our games in Korea according to our internal data as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. In order to offer our games, an Internet café typically purchases minimum game hours from us. Subscription fees from Internet cafés accounted for 7.6% and 8.2% of our subscription revenues in Korea in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Overseas markets

        Ragnarok Online is commercially offered in the following 70 overseas countries and markets: Japan, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, France, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, Spain, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Lebanon, Mauritania, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.

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        Ragnarok Online is distributed through local game operators and distributors, except for the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Lebanon, Mauritania, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in which Gravity Interactive directly publishes Ragnarok Online.

        The following table lists the overseas countries and markets in which Ragnarok Online is commercially offered through our licensees, the names of the licensees, the dates of the license agreements, and the commercial launch dates and expiry dates of the license agreements.

Country
 
Licensee
 
Date of
License
Agreement
 
Date of
Commercial
Launch
 
Date of
Expiry
Japan   GungHo Online Entertainment, Inc.   July 2002   December 2002   September 2015

Taiwan/Hong Kong/Macau

 

Game Flier International Corporation(1)

 

May 2002

 

October 2002

 

October 2015

Thailand

 

AsiaSoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd.

 

June 2002

 

March 2003

 

March 2015(2)

Indonesia

 

PT. Lyto Datarindo Fortuna

 

April 2004

 

November 2003

 

August 2015

Brazil

 

Level Up! Interactive S.A.

 

August 2004

 

February 2005

 

March 2016

Russia and CIS countries(3)

 

Ingamba LLC

 

June 2010

 

March 2007

 

June 2015

Europe(4)

 

Gravity EU SAS

 

June 2011

 

April 2004(5)

 

June 2021

China

 

Beijing Kunlun Online Network Tech Co., Ltd.

 

March 2012

 

February 2013

 

February 2016

Notes:

(1)
Game Flier International Corporation is a subsidiary of Soft-World International Corporation.

(2)
We are currently in discussion with Asiasoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd. for a renewal of the license agreement for Ragnarok Online in Thailand. While such renewal is pending, Asiasoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd. is continuing to offer Ragnarok Online in Thailand under the terms of the previous agreement.

(3)
Represents game operations in Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. A single operator services such 15 countries under one license agreement.

(4)
Represents game operations in France, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, Spain, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Turkey.

(5)
Ragnarok Online was initially launched in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and Turkey with a different licensee in April 2004.

        Ragnarok Online II is currently commercially offered globally excluding Japan, Vietnam, and China. Requiem and Dragonica are currently commercially offered worldwide. R.O.S.E. Online is currently commercially offered in the United States, Canada, Mexico and 40 other countries. While most of our mobile games are commercially offered in Korea, we also provide those developed in-house in overseas countries, including the United States, Japan and Taiwan, among others. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—OUR PRODUCTS."

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        Our licensees pay us:

    an initial license fee for initial set-up costs, technical support and advisory services that we provide until commercial launch; and

    ongoing royalty payments based on a percentage of revenues generated from subscription fees and/or micro-transactions of the game they service in the respective overseas markets.

        In addition, if the license agreement is renewed, we typically negotiate a renewal license fee. The license agreements may be terminated in the event of bankruptcy or a material breach by either party, including, in our case, in the event the licensee fails to pay royalty fees in a timely manner.

PRICING STRUCTURE AND PAYMENT SYSTEM

        Our overseas licensees generally develop, after consultation with us, a retail pricing structure for the users of the game they service in their respective markets. Pricing structures are determined primarily based on the cost of publishing and operating the game, the playing and payment patterns of the users, the pricing of competing games in a given market and the purchasing power parity of consumers in that market. Since the launch of Ragnarok Online in August 2002, we have tracked and accumulated user data generated from our user base, which provide us with an extensive database to analyze user patterns and establish pricing for other markets. The pricing for Ragnarok Online has remained generally stable in each of our markets since the respective dates of Ragnarok Online's commercial launch in those markets.

        In December 2006, we started to apply a micro-transaction system (or sale of virtual in-game items model) as an additional business model by providing virtual item shops in the games where players can purchase a wide array of items to customize, personalize and enhance their characters and game playing experiences. The micro-transaction model has been introduced in all the countries and markets where Ragnarok Online is serviced. In addition, since January 2007, we have opened free-to-play servers, which only apply the micro-transaction model, in all the countries and markets where Ragnarok Online is serviced except Japan and China to encourage the players to download and play Ragnarok Online without paying subscription fees or buying playing time and to purchase in-game items pursuant to our micro-transaction model. We offer Ragnarok Online services with the micro-transaction model only in all the countries and markets where Ragnarok Online is serviced, except the countries and markets where the subscription-based fee model is also applied such as Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand and China. The amount of revenue generated from micro-transactions as a percentage of revenue varies by country and market. For example, in 2014, the approximate percentage of revenue derived from micro-transactions accounted for 22.5% of total royalty revenues for Japan, and 79.9% of total royalty revenues for Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.

        Since September 2007, we have been offering premium services as an additional revenue model, where players are offered certain additional features such as the faster accumulation of experience points or higher rates of item drops for additional fees during a specified period of time, in all the countries and markets where Ragnarok Online is serviced except Japan and China. The pricing for Ragnarok Online in Korea and in Japan, the United States and Canada, our principal overseas markets, are set forth below.

Korea

        Individual PC account users in Korea can choose from a number of alternative payment options, including charges made through mobile or fixed telephone service provider payment systems, prepaid cards, gift certificates, online credit card payments and bank transfers, to buy G Cash which can be used for any games we offer and convert G Cash to RO Points, the currency of the money used in Ragnarok Online which enable them to buy game items or subscribe to Premium Services. Internet café subscribers make payments through credit card or bank transfers. We pay a commission in the range of 1.4% to 15% to third parties to process payments. These third parties bear the delinquency risk associated with payments from users.

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     Subscription-based fee model

        The subscription-based fee model is currently applied only to Internet cafés and not individual PC users in Korea. The following table sets forth our published pricing plans for Internet cafés in Korea for Ragnarok Online access as of December 31, 2014.

Hours(1)
  Flat Fee per PC  

300 hours

  W 69,300  

600 hours

    138,600  

1,000 hours

    231,000  

2,000 hours

    462,000  

Note:

(1)
Actual hours may vary depending on additional bonus hours we offer in proportion to hours purchased by the subscriber.

     Micro-transaction model

        We have applied a micro-transaction model in Korea since April 2007. The price range of each of the game items is between Won 250 and Won 29,800. There are certain game items which users can buy only at Internet cafés.

     Premium Service model

        Premium Service model was initially applied to free-to-play servers in July 2008 and became available on all the servers in November 2010 when we ceased to apply the subscription-based fee model for individual PC users in Korea. We offer only one rate for the Premium Service model of Ragnarok Online in Korea and charge 5,500 RO Points for 30 days of use. Premium Service users may further choose to use additional services as options, such as faster accumulation of experience points, higher rates of item drops, lower death penalty or a combination of such additional services for additional fees.

Japan

        GungHo, our licensee in Japan, determines the pricing plan for Ragnarok Online in Japan. A majority of users in Japan typically pay to gain access to or purchase game items of Ragnarok Online with prepaid cards, such as WebMoney, among others, which can be purchased at convenience stores or retail game outlets, or online. In addition, credit cards are also a popular payment method. Mobile payment, which can be used for the payment of subscription-based fees and for payments of micro transactions, is increasingly popular in Japan.

     Subscription-based fee model

        Our licensee in Japan offers only one rate for Ragnarok Online and charges JPY1,500 per 30 days of unlimited use.

     Micro-transaction model

        We have applied a micro-transaction model in Japan since December 2006. Game users buy GungHo Shop Points which enable them to buy game items or directly buy game items from the mobile item shop.

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The price range of the game items is between JPY50 and JPY1,500. The following table sets forth our licensee's published basic pricing for GungHo Shop Points in Japan as of December 31, 2014.

Points
  Retail Price(1)  

10,000 points

  JPY 1,000  

21,000 points

    2,000  

32,500 points

    3,000  

55,000 points

    5,000  

112,000 points

    10,000  

Note:

(1)
For convenience only, on December 31, 2014, the noon buying rate of Japanese Yen to U.S. dollars as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes was JPY119.85 to US$1.00.

The United States and Canada

        Gravity Interactive, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United States, determines the pricing plan for Ragnarok Online in the United States and Canada. Users pay through credit cards, wire and/or bank transfers, or mobile payment or online payment systems such as PayPal. Gravity Interactive ceased to apply the subscription-based fee model in April 2011.

     Micro-transaction model

        We have applied a micro-transaction model in the United States and Canada since June 2007. Game users buy points which enable them to buy game items in the price range between US$0.05 and US$20. The following table sets forth our licensee's published basic pricing for points of Ragnarok Online in the United States and Canada as of December 31, 2014.

Points
  Retail Price  

1,100 points

  US$ 10.00  

1,650 points

    15.00  

2,875 points

    25.00  

4,600 points

    40.00  

6,000 points

    50.00  

9,000 points

    75.00  

12,000 points

    100.00  

     VIP Service fee model

        Although Ragnarok Online is offered based on the micro-transaction model in the United States and Canada, the VIP Service fee model, a premium service model, was introduced in April 2011 to provide users with enhanced game play as an option. The following table sets forth Gravity Interactive's published basic pricing for VIP Service for Ragnarok Online in the United States and Canada as of December 31, 2014.

Days and Points
  Retail Price  

30 days

  US$ 7.00  

30 days and 1,500 points(1)

    15.00  

90 days

    19.00  

180 days

    33.50  

Note:

(1)
Once a user purchases this package, the user cannot purchase it again before the period of the purchased package ends.

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GAME DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLISHING

        We expect the online and mobile game industries to be characterized by increasing demand for sophisticated or original games with the most up-to-date technologies and/or innovative game designs. In response, we intend to expand our game offerings by continuing to develop in-house additional high quality games with the latest technologies and/or innovative game designs and by publishing such new games developed by us or licensed or acquired from leading third party developers.

        To prepare for the commercial launch of a new online game, unlike most mobile games, we conduct closed beta testing for the game to fix technical problems, which is followed by a period of open beta testing in which we allow registered users to play the game free of charge. During these testing periods, users provide us with feedback and our technical team seeks to address any technical problems and programming flaws that may compromise a stable and consistent game playing environment. We conduct several rounds of closed beta testing, which usually takes a few weeks for each round but may take significantly more time if material problems are detected. Open beta testing of online games usually takes one to three months before commercial launch. We generally commence our other marketing activities for online games during the open beta testing stage. For overseas markets, we also localize the language and content of our games to tailor the game to local cultural preferences.

In-house game development

        Our game development department is divided into two categories of development teams: one is dedicated to online games and the other is dedicated to mobile games. As of December 31, 2014, we employed a total of 116 game developers. We have developed Ragnarok Online, Ragnarok Online II, Requiem, Pucca Racing and some social network games and mobile games, such as Trials of Blood and Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie, in-house. In order to remain competitive, we are focusing our in-house game development efforts on enhancing the game experience and on developing new games incorporating the latest technologies (including software improving the communication and interaction between players).

Publishing

        We also seek opportunities to publish games developed by third parties if we determine such games have potential to become a commercial success. Our publishing and licensing processes include the following:

    Preliminary screening.  Our preliminary screening process for a game usually includes preliminary review and testing of the game and discussions with the game developer on technological and operational aspects;

    In-depth examination, analysis and commercial negotiation.  Once a game passes preliminary screening, we thoroughly review and test the game, conduct a cost analysis, develop operational and financial projections and formulate a preliminary game operating plan. We then begin commercial negotiations with the developer;

    Game rating and regulatory registration and approval.  Once a license agreement to publish and distribute a game is signed, we submit an application to the Game Rating and Administration Committee to obtain a game rating, except for mobile games, which are not required to be rated by the Game Rating and Administration Committee and may be rated by us as distributor. This process generally takes approximately 15 days. We also typically register our intellectual property rights in Korea under our license agreements, such as copyright and trademark, with the relevant Korean government agency. Our overseas subsidiaries or licensees follow similar procedures in their respective markets where the games we license are commercially offered; and

    Testing and marketing.  Once the required registration and approvals are obtained, we conduct closed beta testing and open beta testing of the new game and assist the licensor with the development of the game, in the case of online games.

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        Our game business team takes the lead in conducting preliminary screenings to select games for potential distribution and the commercial negotiations process. The games initially screened by our game business team are additionally evaluated or tested by other teams, such as the marketing team and quality management team, for a second opinion. Once a license agreement is finalized, we generally create a specific team for the selected game within the marketing department to work with and guide the licensor through the beta testing and/or marketing process for a successful launch of the game.

MARKETING

        We employ a variety of traditional and online marketing programs and promotional activities, including in-game events, in-game marketing and offline events. Due to the close-knit nature of the game community, we believe that word-of-mouth is an important medium for the promotion of our games.

        In Korea, three independent promotional agents currently promote our online games to Internet cafés pursuant to agency agreements. Under these agreements, each promotional agent is granted non-exclusive promotion rights within a specified geographical area. The agent is generally paid a monthly base commission between 10% and 30% of revenues received from Internet cafés in the allocated area. The commission percentage varies according to the amount of revenues.

        We conduct a variety of marketing programs and online and offline events to target potential subscribers accessing the Internet from home. Our main marketing efforts include advertising on Web site portals and game magazines, conducting online promotional events, participating in trade shows and entering into promotional alliances with Internet service providers. We spent Won 1,614 million (US$1,480 thousand) on advertising and promotions in 2014, compared with Won 2,852 million in 2013.

        We frequently organize in-game events, such as "fortress raids" for our users, which we believe encourages the development of virtual communities among our users and increases user interest in our games. We also host from time to time in-game tournaments in which users can compete against each other either as a team or individually. In addition, we use in-game events to introduce users to new features of our games. We organized 44 in-game events for Ragnarok Online users in 2014, compared with 42 such in-game events in 2013.

        In most of our overseas markets, marketing activities are principally conducted by our licensees and typically consist of advertising on Web site game portals and online game magazines and through television commercials, as well as hosting online and offline promotional events. The licensees are responsible for the costs associated with such advertising and promotional activities. For example, GungHo hosted the GungHo Festival in May 2014, which included the Ragnarok Online Japan Championship, game conference and costume-play stage and other programs for users. The Ragnarok Online Japan Championship was attended by approximately 1,400 visitors. GungHo also sells a DVD and a memorial package of Ragnarok Online software to commemorate the Ragnarok Online Japan Championship every year. Level Up! Inc., our former licensee in the Philippines, hosted Level Up! ProTour competition in June 2014, where players competed to win the Ragnarok Online Philippines Championship. Level Up! Inc. also hosted marketing events for all the games published by them, such as Level Up! Guild Congress in November 2014, where guild members gathered and socialized with fellow gamers. PT. Lyto Datarindo Fortuna, our licensee in Indonesia, hosted an annual event called the Lyto Festival in September 2014, which included the Ragnarok Indonesia Championship Final Match and the Ragnarok II battle tournament, and which was attended by approximately 10,000 visitors. AsiaSoft Corporation Public Co., Ltd., our licensee in Thailand, hosted the PlayPark FanFest in November 2014, formerly the AsiaSoft All Star Battle, which has been held annually since 2009. The PlayPark FanFest, attended by approximately 35,000 visitors, included the Ragnarok Online Thailand Championship, and visitors were invited to experience Ragnarok Online II.

        In addition, from time to time our overseas licensees also market our games through sponsoring promotional events jointly with other local game publishers or participating in expositions or other events for online games in order to reach a broader local audience. For example, Gravity Interactive participated

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in Anime California, a convention for animation, music and manga and attended by approximately 3,000 visitors. At Anime California, Gravity Interactive set up its own booth, where visitors were encouraged to sign up for our games and were provided information on Ragnarok Online and Ragnarok Online II. Level Up! Interactive S.A., our licensee in Brazil, participated in Anime Friends, which included the Ragnarok Online Championship in July 2014. Anime Friends is one of the biggest anime events in Latin America, and was attended by approximately 70,000 visitors during the two week event. Gravity EU SAS, our licensee in France, participated in several conventions for animation, game, manga and costume play, such as AnimagiC and Connichi in Germany in August 2014 and in September 2014, respectively, where Gravity EU SAS set up booths to present Ragnarok Online and Ragnarok Online II to the public and held various events for visitors. Game Flier International Corporation, our licensee in Taiwan, hosted a press conference to introduce Ragnarok Online II in June 2014 which was attended by more than 40 members of the local press and broadcasting media.

        Our licensees are selected in part on the basis of their marketing capabilities, including the size and scope of their distribution networks. In regions where we have a limited network or presence such as Central Asia, we believe that conducting marketing through our licensees is more effective and cost-efficient than direct marketing by us in light of the established brand recognition and marketing networks of our licensees and their comparative advantage in identifying and taking advantage of the cultural and other local preferences of overseas users. However, in more strategic markets where we anticipate considerable growth such as the United States, we also believe that it is important to enhance our own direct publishing network for online game services.

GAME SUPPORT AND CUSTOMER SERVICE

        We are committed to providing superior customer service to our users directly and through our licensees. As of December 31, 2014, 3 employees were game masters, or persons who are in charge of testing, updating and providing server maintenance for online games, as well as dealing with customer complaints, 16 employees were members of our domestic customer service team and 30 employees were members of our overseas customer support team.

        In Korea, we provide customer service for our online games through bulletin boards of the Web sites of our online games, call centers, email and facsimile and at our walk-in customer service center. Our bulletin boards of the Web sites of our online games allow our customers to post questions to, and receive responses from, other users and our support staff. In our overseas markets, our licensees administer customer service through varying combinations of bulletin boards of the Web sites of our online games, call centers, email and facsimile, with assistance from time to time from our overseas customer support staff.

        In addition to providing customer service to our users, our customer service staff also collect user comments with respect to our games and generate daily and weekly reports for our management and operations that summarize important issues raised by users as well as how such issues have been addressed.

NETWORK AND TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE

        We have designed and assembled our game server network and information management system in Korea to allow centralized game management on a global basis. Our system network is designed to speedily accommodate a growing user base and demand for faster game performance. Our game server architecture runs multiple servers on a parallel basis to readily accommodate increased user traffic through deployment of connection to servers, which permits us to route users in the same country to servers with less user traffic. Each of these servers is linked to our information systems network to ensure rapid implementation of game upgrades and to facilitate game monitoring and supervision.

        We maintain our server hardware in a single climate-controlled facility at KT Mokdong Internet Computing Center at 233-5 Mokdongdong-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, Korea and our other system hardware in our offices in Seoul. As of December 31, 2014, our server network for our game operations in Korea consisted of a total of 380 servers, including 164 physical servers and 216 servers run on 90 physical servers through the server virtualization technology we have adopted since July 2011, which allows one physical

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server to be divided into multiple virtual servers, each of which functions individually as a complete and independent server.

        In overseas markets, our overseas subsidiaries or licensees own or lease the servers necessary to establish the server network for online games and we assist them with the initial assembly and installation of operating game servers and optimization of their systems network for game operations in their respective markets. While the overseas system architectures are modeled on our system architecture in Korea, they are also tailored to meet the specific needs of each market. When we install and initialize a game in an overseas market, we generally dispatch network engineers and database technicians from Korea to assist with the assembly and operation of the system network and game servers. Following installation, we typically send two to five of our technicians and customer support staff to that market, for a few weeks in some cases and much longer periods in other cases, to assist with on-site game operation and technical support. Our overseas subsidiaries and licensees are responsible for providing database and other game information backup.

        Our game management software can program the game content to include localized features such as virtual map zones specific to each market. These features can be updated at the host country level in order to encourage development of a communal spirit among the users from the same country.

COMPETITION

        We compete primarily with other online and mobile game developers and distributors in each of our markets. In addition, we compete against providers of games on various platforms, such as console games, handheld games and arcade games. We compete primarily on the basis of the quality of the game experience offered by us to our users, which depends on a number of factors, including our ability to do the following:

    hire and retain creative personnel to develop games that appeal to our users;

    offer online and mobile game service that is stable and is not prone to server shutdowns, connection problems or other technical difficulties;

    provide timely and responsive customer service; and

    establish payment systems that are secure and efficient.

Competition in the online game industry

        Currently, the leading providers of online games, based on the number of peak concurrent users, are Riot Games, Inc., Activision Blizzard, Inc., Nexon Co., Ltd., Neowiz Games Corporation, and Wargaming Public Company Limited, according to data available from various public sources. League of Legends of Riot Games, Inc., Dungeon Fighter Online of Nexon Co., Ltd., and World of Warcraft of Activision Blizzard, Inc. are some of the most popular online games. Neowiz Games Corporation's Crossfire and Wargaming Public Company Limited's War & Tank have gained popularity, and each has maintained a large number of players and a loyal user base.

        As many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, marketing and game development resources than we have, we face intense competition in the online game industry. We expect competition will continue to be strong as the number of online game developers increases in the future and the online game industry begins to consolidate into a small number of leading companies due to the high cost of game development, marketing and distribution networks, which is likely to drive unsuccessful online game providers to go out of business or be acquired by other successful game providers.

Competition in the mobile game industry

        Compared with the online or console game genres, the mobile game market has a relatively low barrier to entry because development of a mobile game requires relatively less time and personnel due to the limitations of the devices on which mobile games are played such as screen size and processing power.

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Moreover, development tools for mobile games are easier to obtain and use, and open marketplaces, such as the Google Play Store and Apple's App Store, enable developers to easily distribute mobile games to a large global audience. Therefore, we expect the number of mobile game developers to continually increase in the future and competition to become more intense.

        We compete with companies that specialize in developing mobile games such as Supercell Oy and King Digital Entertainment PLC. Our current or potential future competitors for mobile games also include package game companies that have successfully expanded their business into mobile game development such as Electronic Arts Inc. In addition, we believe more companies that previously were or currently are dedicated to developing online or console games will allocate more resources toward developing mobile games because the number of mobile game users is rapidly increasing as the penetration of mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablet computers, continues to deepen.

Competition from other game platforms

        We also compete against PC and console-based game developers that produce popular package games, such as Activision Blizzard, Inc. and Electronic Arts Inc., and game console manufacturers such as Microsoft Corp., Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. and Nintendo Co., Ltd., all of which also have their own console game development studios. In November 2013, Microsoft Corp. released Xbox One featuring Kinect motion control camera and voice commands and Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. started distributing its PlayStation 4 game consoles featuring a controller with a capacitive touchpad for additional control options. Nintendo Co., Ltd.'s Wii U was released in November 2012 which supports high-definition graphics with a tablet-like controller. In addition, handheld game consoles, such as Nintendo Co., Ltd.'s Nintendo 3DS and Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.'s PlayStation Vita, are also popular among game users. All the current game consoles enable users to play games with other users online by connecting their console to a network over the Internet. Likewise, a number of PC-based game developers have also introduced online features to their PC-packaged games, such as team plays or users-to-users combat.

        Competition in the game market is expected to remain intense as established game companies with significant financial resources seek to enter the industry. See ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS—We operate in a highly competitive industry and compete against many large companies."

INSURANCE

        We maintain medical and accident insurance for our employees to the extent required under Korean law, and we also maintain fire and general commercial insurance with respect to our facilities. We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance coverage for our operations in Korea. We maintain a directors' and officers' liability insurance policy covering certain potential liabilities of our directors and officers. See ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS—We have limited business insurance coverage and any business interruption could have a material adverse effect on our business."

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

        Our intellectual property is an essential element of our business. We rely on intellectual property such as copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as non-competition, confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, suppliers, licensees, business partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. Our employees are generally required to sign agreements acknowledging that all inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments and other processes generated by them on our behalf are our property, and assigning to us any ownership rights that they may claim in those works. With respect to copyrights and computer program rights created by our employees within their employment scope and which are made public bearing our name, we are not required to pay any additional compensation to our employees.

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        In developing Ragnarok Online, we obtained an exclusive license from Mr. Myoung-Jin Lee to use the storyline and characters from his cartoon titled Ragnarok for the production of games, animation and character merchandising. See ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—OUR PRODUCTS—Online games—Ragnarok Online."

        We are the registered owner of 14 registered software copyrights to ten games: Ragnarok Online, Ragnarok Online II, R.O.S.E. Online, Requiem, Ragnarok Violet, Ragnarok Angel Poring, Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie, Arcturus, Pucca Racing and W Baseball, each of which has been registered with the Korea Copyright Commission. We no longer commercially offer Arcturus, a PC-based, stand-alone game, nor Pucca Racing, and have decided to cease commercialization of W Baseball. As of December 31, 2014, we owned over 48 registered domain names, including our official Web site and domain names registered in connection with each of the games we offer. We had 792 registered discrete trademarks at patent and trademark offices in 52 countries as of December 31, 2014. We had three design patents, two analogous design patents, which are variations of two of the design patents, registered with the Korea Intellectual Property Office, registered copyrights covering 11 game characters, five online game business model patents and one patent pending with the Korea Intellectual Property Office, in each case as of December 31, 2014.

SEASONALITY

        Usage of our online games has typically increased slightly around the New Year's holiday and other holidays, in particular during winter and summer school holidays.

LAWS AND REGULATIONS

        We are subject to many laws and regulations in the different countries in which we operate. See ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT." A general overview of the material laws and regulations that apply to our business is provided below for the countries from which we derive a significant portion of our revenues.

Korea

        The Korean game industry and online and mobile game companies operating in Korea are subject to the following laws and regulations:

     The Act on Promotion of the Game Industry

        In January 2007, the National Assembly amended the Act on Promotion of the Game Industry, or the Promotion Act, which became effective on April 20, 2007. Under the amended Article 21 of the Promotion Act, online games are classified into four categories: "suitable for users of all ages," "suitable for users 12 years of age or older," "suitable for users 15 years of age or older" and "suitable for users 18 years of age or older." The 15 years of age or older category was added between the 12 years of age and 18 years of age categories to increase ratings flexibility. Ragnarok Online has been classified as "suitable for users 12 years of age or older."

        The amendment to the Promotion Act includes for the first time the definition of the term "speculative game." A speculative game refers to a game that permits betting and offers monetary loss or profit that is determined by chance. Elements that may cause a game to be considered a speculative game include the existence of game money used as a means for betting or purchasing game items (items used within the game for progression in the game) that become the subject of exchange with real money. The Supreme Court Decision No. 2009Do12117 rendered on February 25, 2010 provided that a 'speculative game' under the amended Promotion Act, should be carried out in accordance with the contents and method prescribed under Article 2,(1-2) of the Promotion Act, and further, that the term refers to a gaming device or tool which directly provides money, prize or other financial profit or incurs loss on the game user via a payment tool installed on the gaming device or tool depending on the results of the game. Although the new rules and Supreme Court decision are intended to provide more clarity for the determination of whether a game is deemed speculative or not, because our games involve transactions

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with game items, we have had to take measures to ensure that we are in compliance with the new rules. Such measures include providing games after receipt of the Rating Review from the Game Rating and Administration Committee, or receipt of the Self Rating Review from online open market or other electronic commerce intermediaries in accordance with the Article 21 (1) 4 of the Promotion Act in case of games provided by means of a mobile devices or a wireless internet connecting device.

        A game provider has to report any modification in the content of a game to the Game Rating and Administration Committee, which may require the game to be reclassified depending on the scope of the modification. If the Game Rating and Administration Committee determines that the game is speculative, it can refuse to classify such game, in which case the game will be prohibited. According to Article 1(2) of the Enforcement Decree of the Promotion Act newly established on May 16, 2007, any games in which money or items of value are collected from a multiple number of persons and profits or losses are allocated based on winnings or losses determined by chance fall under speculative games. According to Article 16(2) of the Enforcement Decree of the Promotion Act newly established at the same time, so long as certain guidelines are followed, a provision of a gift equivalent to a customer price of Won 5,000 or less, with respect to games that are classified as "suitable for users of all ages," is not deemed to be an act that encourages gambling.

        Under the Promotion Act, as partially amended on December 21, 2007, the Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism may order information and communication service providers to refuse, stop, or restrict the offering of games if such games are unrated, contents are different from those submitted for rating, were denied rating as speculative games, or were manufactured or distributed by a person not registered for operation of manufacturing or distributing games for profit-making. The Game Rating and Administration Committee undertakes examination of the information and communications service providers and provides recommendation of correction to the providers as necessary.

        The Game Rating and Administration Committee published the Yearbook for Classification of Game Ratings on a yearly basis from 2008 to 2014 in order to provide information on industry trends. The Yearbooks include data on ratings and classifications of various games released in Korea and the immediately preceding year's results of the examination of the information and communications service providers. The Game Rating and Administration Committee published the Yearbook to improve fairness and transparency in inspecting games and to provide industry participants with guidelines on ratings inspection as well as basic information on the development of the game industry.

        At the time of establishment, the Promotion Act prescribed a provision on national subsidy support for the smooth grading deliberation and follow-up administration work conducted by the Game Rating and Administration Committee, and set forth the period of provision as temporary through its addenda. Afterwards, through an amendment of the Addenda, the provision period was extended, and on May 22, 2013, the period of national subsidy provision was deleted through the deletion of the relevant addenda. Recently in the global online and mobile game industries, there has been growth in the open markets in which small content developers and individual content producers directly supply their programs to consumers. However, under the then-current law, games could be distributed only after being rated by the Game Rating and Administration Committee, and this impeded the development of the open market in Korea. In addition, some games, especially those that permit betting, caused social problems as speculative operating methods such as illegal automatic playing programs which allow players to cheat and acquire game money or game items were being developed. However, the then-existing laws did not provide sufficient grounds to regulate such situations.

        In response, on April 5, 2011, the Act on Promotion of the Game Industry was amended. The amendment provides that all games that cannot receive prior rating by the Game Rating and Administration Committee due to special circumstances in their production and distribution channels should be subject to the distributors' own rating. The Act also provides grounds for sanctioning speculative operating methods and the undermining of fair gaming through illegal programs, among others. The amendment went into effect on July 6, 2011. In addition, consistent with a decision by the Constitutional

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Court on dual punishment, the amendment also includes a revised provision which stipulates that if an employer fulfills her duty of care as a manager and supervisor of her employees, she can be exempt from punishment.

        The main content of the Act on Promotion of the Game Industry as amended on April 5, 2011 and the amendment to the Enforcement Decree of the same Act are as follows:

        (1)   Games which are inappropriate for prior rating by the Game Rating and Administration Committee due to special circumstances in their production and distribution channels, excepting games unsuitable for minors, may be rated by distributors or others involved in the distribution channel at their discretion according to the standards predetermined upon consultation with the Game Rating and Administration Committee. According to Article 11-4 of the Amendment to the Enforcement Decree of the Act on Promotion of the Game Industry, games should fulfill all the following requirements in order to be considered being "inappropriate for prior rating by the Game Rating and Administration Committee": (i) they must be provided through basic communications services by persons who are authorized to engage in the basic communications business under the Telecommunications Business Act; (ii) they must be provided through electronic commerce intermediaries such as online open markets; and (iii) they must be provided using wireless telecommunications terminals which use mobile telecommunications terminals or the same kind of operating programs as those run on mobile telecommunications terminals;

        (2)   Game-related companies are prohibited from encouraging speculation by using operating methods, devices or machines closely related to the realization of game contents, and any person violating this provision is subject to corrective recommendation or corrective order imposed by the Minister of Culture, Sports, and Tourism; and

        (3)   In order to realize the principle of responsibility in the dual punishment provision, if an employer fulfills her duty of care as a manager and supervisor with respect to her employees, the employer may be exempt from punishment (proviso in Article 47 of the Promotion Act).

        The Promotion Act was further amended on July 21, 2011 and went into effect on January 22, 2012. The amendment was intended to create a sound gaming culture by clearly defining the responsibilities of the game industry and the government and to encourage public awareness of prevention of excessive gaming. Under the amended Promotion Act, a game-related enterprise is required to obtain parental consent when a minor joins a game site as a member and to take measures to prevent excessive use of games by imposing a time limit on minors' game usage time. The Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism may request game-related enterprises to submit or report data relating to such preventive measures and, after an examination thereof, order the relevant game-related enterprises to correct the preventive measures if they are deemed to be insufficient.

        The Enforcement Decree of the Promotion Act amended and enforced on January 6, 2015 lifted the burden of internet computer game facility providers through the deletion of a provision which imposed an obligation on internet computer facility providers to install program, etc. which block access of users to games which were classified as speculative game or did not receive any rating.

     The Telecommunications Business Act

        Under the Telecommunications Business Act, a person who intends to run a value-added telecommunications business must report to the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, or the MSIP, which has the authority to accept and monitor such reports. We are classified as a value-added telecommunications service provider such that we are required to prepare and submit statistical reports regarding, among others, the current status of facilities, subscription records and current status of users to the MSIP upon its request. The MSIP is responsible for compiling information and formulating telecommunications policies under this Telecommunications Business Act. In addition, we are required to report any transfer, takeover, suspension or closing of our business activities to the MSIP, which may cancel our registration or order us to suspend our business for a period of up to one year if we fail to comply with its rules and regulations.

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     The Act on Consumer Protection for Transactions through Electronic Commerce

        Under this Act, we are required to take necessary measures to maintain the security of consumer information related to our electronic settlement services. We are also required to notify consumers when electronic payments are made and to indemnify consumers for damages resulting from misappropriation of consumer information by third parties. We believe that we have instituted appropriate safety measures to protect consumers against data misappropriation. To date, we have not experienced material disputes or claims in this area.

        Prior to the amendment on May 28, 2013, this Act prescribed that only the transactions in which the one-time payment amount is above Won 50,000 were eligible for protective measures for payment security which is imposed on telecommunications sales operators, in case of advance payment in the telecommunications sales, a duty to provide escrow service for payment or subscribe to consumer injury compensation insurance upon the election by a consumer of either option. However, under the amended Act which deleted Article 24(3)(i) concerning the application of such protective measures for payment security, the consumer rights protection was enhanced because even transactions whose amount is small, Won 50,000 or less, can benefit from protective measures for payment security. Such amendment went into effect on November 29, 2013.

     The Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, or Information Protection Act

        Under the Information Protection Act, we are permitted to gather personal information relating to our subscribers within the scope of their consent. We are, however, generally prohibited from using personal information or providing it to third parties beyond the purposes disclosed in our subscriber agreements. Disclosure of personal information without consent from a subscriber is permitted only if it is necessary for the settlement of information and communication service charges or is expressly permitted by this or any other statute.

        We are required to indemnify users for damages occurring as a result of our violation of the foregoing restrictions, unless we can prove the absence of willful misconduct or negligence on our part. We believe that we have instituted appropriate measures and are in compliance with all material restrictions regarding internal mishandling of personal information.

        Penalty surcharges are imposed on any telecommunications enterprises violating the regulation on the protection of personal information to recover any unfair profits gained by such enterprises, and some conducts, such as collection of personal information of users without their consent, are the subject of criminal punishment. Any telecommunications enterprises violating its obligation to protect personal information by collecting, using, disclosing such information without consent, and not complying with protective measures, may be imposed with surcharges not exceeding 1% of the sales relevant to the conduct of violation in consideration of the details, degree, period, the number of times, and the scale of gained profits.

        Following the continued occurrence of personal information leakage incidents on information and communication networks in the financial sector, the Information Protection Act was amended on May 28, 2014 (enforced on November 29, 2014) to strengthen personal information protection measures and supplement remedial methods for users by strengthening punishment on information and communication network providers and introducing a statutory damage compensation system. According to the amended Information Promotion Act, a user may claim for statutory damage compensation up to Won 3 million in case of loss, theft or leakage of his/her personal information under management by the information and communication network provider.

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     The Personal Information Protection Act

        The Personal Information Protection Act was enacted on March 29, 2011 and went into effect on September 30, 2011. The scope of the Personal Information Protection Act covers anyone dealing with personal information in the private and public sectors.

        If a person's personal information is collected or used, or provided to a third person, such person's consent should be obtained, and if personal information is no longer necessary upon achievement of the purpose of the collection and use of personal information, such information should be immediately destroyed.

        Any transaction requiring identifiers granted by law for identification purposes, such as the resident registration number, is generally prohibited, and exceptions are recognized on a restrictive basis only if consent is obtained or if required by law. In addition, any person dealing with personal information as determined pursuant to the Presidential Decree, for instance, such as signing up for a Web site, should provide methods other than using the resident registration number.

        In the event of a personal information leak, the processor of personal information should promptly notify the affected person after discovering such incident. If the volume of the leak of personal information exceeds a certain number, the processor of personal information should report the incident to the authorities and take necessary measures to minimize damages.

        In addition, the same legislation grants to each individual the right to request perusal, the right to request correction or deletion, and the right to request suspension of process with respect to one's personal information, and also provides the methods to exercise such rights.

        To promote prompt and fair settlement of disputes concerning personal information, the same legislation also provides that a Personal Information Dispute Settlement Board, or PIDSB, should be established and the PIDSB's decision, if accepted by the disputing parties, should have the same legal effect as settlement by trial. In consideration of the fact that most identity theft cases are large in scale and small in the amount of monetary damages, the legislation adopts a collective dispute settlement system. A class action system for personal information has been adopted, but in order to prevent frivolous class action suits, litigants are required to go through the collective dispute settlement system prior to bringing a class action and cases are limited to those seeking suspension or injunctive relief.

        Prior to the amendment dated August 6, 2013, the Personal Information Protection Act permitted the process of personally identifiable information (resident registration number, passport number, driver's license number and foreigner registration number) under limited circumstances such as when required by law or when consent is obtained, and mandated the implementation of security measures to prevent possible loss, theft, leak, alteration or compromise of personally identifiable information. However, it was not successful in deterring massive leaks and misappropriations of resident registration numbers and large companies responsible for such leakage escaped civil and/or criminal liabilities on numerous occasions, which increased public distrust and raised concerns about further damages resulting from such leaks and misappropriations.

        Against the backdrop of the foregoing, the Personal Information Protection Act was amended partially as of August 6, 2013 with respect to personally identifiable information, which went into effect on August 7, 2014. The key amendments are: (i) in principle, no person dealing with personal information is permitted to process resident registration numbers (newly added Article 24-2); (ii) in the event of loss, theft, leak, alteration or compromise of resident registration numbers, an administrative fine not exceeding Won 500 million may be imposed (newly added Article 34-2); and (iii) it is made clear that if there is substantial ground to suspect a violation of applicable laws and regulations with respect to personal information protection, the Minister of Safety and Public Administration may advise a relevant personal information processor to take disciplinary action against liable person(s) which include the representative director and responsible executive officers (Article 65(2)). Such amendments purport to prevent any possible leak of resident registration numbers and induce companies to discharge to the fullest extent their responsibilities for the protection of personal information such as resident registration numbers.

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        Following the continued occurrence of personal information leakage incidents on information and communication networks in the financial business sector, the Personal Information Protection Act was amended on March 24, 2014 (to be enforced on January 1, 2016) to obligate personal information processors who store resident registration numbers to encrypt resident registration numbers as part of an effort to minimize damages from leakage of personal information.

     The Korean Civil Code and the Act on the Establishment and Management of the Korea Communications Commission

        Pursuant to the Korean Civil Code, contracts entered into with minors, who were persons under 20 years of age, without parental consent under the Korean Civil Code prior to its amendment, may be invalidated. The definition of minors is changed to persons under 19 years of age in the amendment to the Korean Civil Code on March 7, 2011, which became effective on July 1, 2013. Under the Act on the Establishment and Management of the Korea Communications Commission, the KCC was established to oversee services relating to broadcasting and communications and also to deliberate and resolve matters concerning the protection of users' information and communications. As a result, telecommunications service contracts and online game user agreements are required to specifically set forth procedures for rescinding service contracts, which may be entered into by persons under 19 years of age without parental consent.

        In November 2003, the KCC issued an order addressed to 15 major online game companies in Korea, including us, to regulate certain business practices relating to the settlement of service charges involving persons under 20 years of age. The KCC raised concerns about the ability of persons under 20 years of age to subscribe to online game services without parental consent by settling charges payable to online game companies through settlement systems operated by fixed-line or broadband service providers. The order required online game companies to implement more specific and effective procedures to ensure, where relevant, that parental consent has been specifically obtained.

        Although only a small number of our current subscribers were using the settlement options mentioned in the KCC order, we have enhanced our age verification and parental consent procedures for players using the relevant settlement options.

     Copyright Act

        The Copyright Act, which was amended on April 22, 2009, was established by combining the "Copyright Act" on the protection of general works and the "Computer Programs Protection Act" on the protection of computer program works in order to maintain the consistency of copyright protection policies and seek an efficient administration thereof. In addition, the Korea Copyright Commission was established by combining the existing Copyright Commission and the Korea Software Copyright Committee, thereby improving the protection of copyrights and the efficiency of its operation. The amended Copyright Act also includes essential elements of the Computer Programs Protection Act which was abolished on July 23, 2009 and, in connection with computer program works, restrictions on software copyrights, reverse analysis of computer programs, and the establishment of the exclusive right to issue computer programs as a special case apart from other kinds of works.

        The Copyright Act was amended on June 30, 2011. The amendment extends the period of copyright protection from 50 years to 70 years after the death of copyright holders in order to implement the agreements in the Korea-EU Free Trade Agreement.

        The Copyright Act was further amended on December 2, 2011 and went into effect on March 15, 2012, when the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement took effect, in order to promote the protection of rights of copyright holders and fair use of copyrighted materials by amending the relevant provisions necessary for implementing the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement, such as recognition of temporary storage as copying, introduction of a system of fair use of copyrighted materials, prohibition of acts of infringement on the rights of copyright holders including the distribution of forged labels, and the introduction of statutory damages in accordance with the agreements in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement and to

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improve and supplement other issues discovered during the operation of the current system. In connection with the amendment to the Copyright Act, the Enforcement Decree and the Enforcement Rules of the Copyright Act were also amended on December 2, 2011 in accordance with the content of the Act.

        The key contents of the amendment to the Copyright Act on December 2, 2011 regarding online game development and services are as follows:

        (1)   In order to protect the rights of copyright holders in a digital environment, the amendment specifies that temporary storage falls under the scope of "copying" but allows temporary storage to be extent it is deemed necessary for smooth and efficient information processing; and

        (2)   An online service provider will be deemed not liable for copyright infringement: (i) if the online service provider has adopted and reasonably implemented a policy of terminating the account of a person who infringed copyrights or (ii) if the online service provider has accepted and not interfered with a right holder's use of standard technical measures for identifying and protecting copyrighted materials.

     The Juvenile Protection Act

        The Juvenile Protection Act, as amended on February 29, 2008, prescribes the establishment of the Juvenile Protection Commission under the authority of the Minister of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, formerly known as the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, or the MIHWAF, which has the authority to designate the types of media harmful to juveniles. Under the Juvenile Protection Act, any person who intends to sell, lend or distribute media materials harmful to minors or provides them for viewing or utilization is required to confirm the age of the intended user, and shall not sell, rent or distribute such materials, or provide them for viewing or utilization, to minors. A person in violation may be punished by imprisonment for a maximum of three years or by a fine not exceeding Won 20 million.

        On March 4, 2009, the MIHWAF issued a public notice announcing that "Web sites for trading items" are considered "harmful mass media" to minors based on the findings of Juvenile Protection Commission that such Web sites for trading online game items are likely to encourage gambling and speculation and negatively influence juveniles. In the public notice, the MIHWAF prohibited any person under the age of 19 from visiting Web sites for trading online game items, effective from March 19, 2009.

        A Web site for trading items is a Web site which offers the services of a brokerage or agency for the trading of tangible or intangible things gained from online games as prescribed in the Promotion Act. A Web site for trading items needs to specify on its Web site that access is not allowed for minors, and any person visiting such Web site is required to go through the adult certification process. Any Web site operator found to be operating such Web site in breach of the requirements under the public notice is subject to a maximum of 3 years of imprisonment or a maximum fine of Won 20 million. On June 3, 2009, Item Bay Co., Ltd., one of the leading Web sites in Korea for trading online game items, initiated an administrative proceeding against the MIHWAF seeking cancellation of the MIHWAF's public notice. Item Bay Co., Ltd. argued that "game items are purchased by users at their own discretion depending on their necessity, and remote from speculative activity. Therefore, Web sites for trading online game items do not fall under media harmful to minors." Nevertheless, the court ruled against Item Bay, rendering that "Trading items on Item Bay falls under speculative activity as it is hard for game users to resist the temptation of cash trades through which they may easily gain items, which will cause users to be attracted to the cash convertibility of items rather than the game itself," and the ruling was confirmed by the Supreme Court in 2010.

        While we offer virtual in-game items for sale to our users on the game Web sites that we operate in Korea, we do not broker the trade of such game items or any other tangible or intangible acquisitions obtained by using online games among our users, and currently do not fall under the category of "Web site for trading items." In Korea, however, minors account for a significant percentage of online game users. As they are now prohibited from trading items on Web sites, including virtual in-game items, such prohibition may materially and adversely affect the online game industry in general, which may well have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

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        The Juvenile Protection Act was partially amended on May 19, 2011 and went into effect on November 20, 2011. Under the amendment, online game providers may not provide online games to minors under the age of 16 late at night (specifically, from midnight until 6:00 a.m.) and any provider violating the provision is subject to imprisonment for no more than 2 years and a penalty not exceeding Won 10 million. As an exception, for internet games using apparatus that would not likely cause serious internet game addiction and are specified under the Presidential Decree, including smartphones, tablet PCs and consoles (except for console games that are not provided for free), the late-night restriction became effective as of May 20, 2013.

        However, the amendment provides that the Minister of Gender Equality and Family, or the MOGEF, in consultation with the Minister of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, should revisit the guidelines every two years to evaluate the appropriateness of the scope of games subject to the late-night restriction and to take measures for improvement, and, with respect to minors suffering from online game addiction, the MOGEF may also provide services for prevention, consultation, treatment and rehabilitation.

        In this regard, the MOGEF made an administrative announcement on "the proposed public notice on the scope of games subject to the late-night restriction for internet games." According to the public notice, the applicable games are internet games provided for profit in real time via information and communication networks that fall under the games defined in the Promotion Act. Examples based on (i) the type of apparatus include games played on PCs (including laptops) and (ii) the type of games includes online PC games, internet games and PC package games. In addition, the public notice states that the games to which the above restriction is not applicable are (i) games using apparatus that would not likely cause serious internet addiction, as mentioned above, (ii) games that do not collect or use personal information and are not provided for profit, (iii) test versions of the games that are not classified pursuant to Article 21(1)(iii) of the Promotion Act and (iv) games for game contests, exhibitions, education or public advertisements that are not classified pursuant to Articles 21(1)(i) to 21(1)(ii). The effective date of the public notice is from May 20, 2013 to May 19, 2015. Therefore, the late-night restriction still remains not applicable to internet games using apparatus that would not likely cause serious internet addiction, such as smartphones, tablet PCs and consoles (except for console games that are not provided for free).

        The Juvenile Protection Act was further amended on September 15, 2011 and went into effect on September 16, 2012. The key contents of the amendment are as follows:

        (1)   The amendment expands the category of businesses which minors are prohibited from entering, or are prohibited from hiring minors, to include those business which provide "combined distributed games" and business places which provide Internet game facilities;

        (2)   The amendment requires protective measures equivalent to packaging;

        (3)   The amendment requires a person who intends to sell, rent, distribute or provide any media harmful to minors to check the ages and IDs of his or her counterparties;

        (4)   The amendment prescribes that if a person distributes any media harmful to minors through the information and communications network, the Minister of Gender Equality and Family may publicly post the identity of such person and the content of the violation; and

        (5)   The amendment requires parental consent when a minor under age 16 joins an Internet game as a member and requires the information on the minor's use of games to be reported to the guardians.

        This Juvenile Protection Act was yet further amended in part on January 17, 2012, which became effective on April 17, 2012. The key contents of the amendment are as follows:

        (1)   The amendment specifies the basis of establishing the Harmful Media Materials Review Subcommittee to assist the Commission on Youth Protection with the review and determination of media materials harmful to minors; and

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        (2)   The amendment reduces the review period for reconsideration of media materials harmful to minors from the current 60 days to 30 days considering that the review period for re-classifying movies and games is 15 days.

        The subsequent amendment of the Juvenile Protection Act dated March 22, 2013, (i) added a new provision, in response to increasing business operation of various new forms such as business providing facilities for both video products and games, to further expand the category of business which minors are prohibited from entering, or are prohibited from hiring minors, by including the business providing combined media materials, based on the general consensus that such business is harmful to minors (Article 2(5)); and (ii) in order to enhance the protection of juveniles from harmful media products, clarified the scope of persons under a duty to affix a mark indicating harmfulness to juveniles, which previously had been delegated to the promulgation by the Presidential Decree, by specifying them within the Juvenile Protection Act as persons who manufacture, import, duplicate or provide games (Article 13).

Japan

        Japan does not currently have any national government regulations targeted specifically at the online game or mobile game industry. Some regulations that are relevant to or that may affect the online game and mobile game industries are described below.

     Protection of personal information

        Businesses in Japan are subject to certain statutory requirements with respect to personal information acquired during the ordinary course of business. Pursuant to these statutory requirements, businesses must set up appropriate procedures to protect personal information from use for any purpose other than the intended purpose.

     Regulations on sound upbringing of minors

        In Japan, Internet and game software content is generally regulated at the local, rather than the national, level. Many local governments have ordinances regarding the sound upbringing of minors, which empower competent authorities to designate game software as detrimental to the sound upbringing of minors and prohibit the sale or distribution to minors of such designated game software. In addition, the Computer Entertainment Rating Organization, or CERO, a nonprofit organization, offers rating services for home-use games, including online and mobile games. Game developers may request a rating for their game software from CERO, which will then review such software and assign one of the following five ratings: "suitable for users of all ages," "suitable for users 12 years old or older," "suitable for users 15 years old or older," "suitable for users 17 years old or older," and "suitable only for users 18 years old or older." Ratings are based on, among other factors, the degree of sex, violence and anti-social expression in the game software content. Once a rating is assigned, the relevant game software must prominently display such rating.

United States

     Game Ratings and Attempts to Regulate Access to Children

        Most video game software publishers comply with the standardized rating system established by the Entertainment Software Rating Board, or the ESRB, a non-profit, self-regulatory body established in 1994 by the Entertainment Software Association, or the ESA. The ESRB rates video games submitted by video game publishers; the ratings include both a symbol for age appropriateness (e.g., "E" for Everyone or "M" for Mature) and a content descriptor (e.g., "Blood and Gore" or "Intense Violence"). The ESRB specifically excludes any online interactions from the rating, as the ESRB is unable to review content, such as chat, text, audio and video generated by other users in an online environment.

        The ESRB has rated our games as follows: Requiem is rated "Mature," Ragnarok Online is rated "Teen," and R.O.S.E. Online and Dragon Saga are rated "Everyone 10+."

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        By submitting a game to the ESRB and using an ESRB rating, a video game publisher must agree to adhere to advertising and packaging guidelines for the rated game, such as using appropriate advertising content and not targeting any advertisement for a game rated "Teen," "Mature" or "Adults only" to consumers for whom the product is not rated as appropriate. The Advertising Review Board has been granted the oversight and enforcement authority for compliance with the advertising guidelines. The ESRB ratings must be displayed on both the front and back of game packaging in compliance with the ESRB requirements. The ESRB may enforce sanctions against game producers for failing to label their product properly, including fines up to $1 million, and/or product recall. Games that are digitally available via download may be taken down for incomplete content disclosures. Although submitting a game to the ESRB is voluntary, many retailers will not sell games without an ESRB rating.

        The United States Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, has also taken action with respect to improper ratings pursuant to its broad authority to prohibit fraudulent, deceptive, or unfair business practices. For example, in response to allegations that two videogame publishers failed to disclose hidden nudity and sexually-themed content to the ESRB during the ratings process, the FTC issued a consent order compelling the videogame publishers not to, expressly or implicitly, misrepresent the ratings or content descriptors of their video games and to maintain a system that ensures that all of the content in their video games is considered and reviewed in preparing submissions to the ESRB. The FTC has posted an online form on its Web site for the public to file complaints regarding video game ratings that do not accurately reflect of the content of the game, and has posted a primer for parents describing the ESRB ratings, parental controls, and other video game resources. The FTC issues periodic marketing reports to Congress and in 2009, the FTC reported that 20% of underage "undercover shoppers" were able to purchase "M" rated video games. An Undercover survey in 2010-11, however, showed a statistically significant improvement with only 13% of underage shoppers being able to purchase "M" rated games. That statistic remained at 13% in the 2012 undercover survey, which noted that it is more difficult for an underage consumer to buy an M-rated video game at retail than to see a violent film in the movie theater.

        A number of bills have been introduced in Congress to specifically regulate the sale of video games with violent content to minors, but currently no such federal laws are in force. Several States, as well as several cities, have enacted or are considering laws that would regulate game industry content and marketing, including the rental or sale of games with violent content by or to minors.

        For example, the State of Maryland has enacted a law that regulates the sale of video games with explicit sexual content to minors. The Maryland law has not been challenged in court, remains in force, and is supported by the ESA. Other States have enacted laws that require the posting of signs providing information about ESRB ratings. To date, laws that regulate the sale of video games based on content, when challenged, have been declared unconstitutional. Most prominently, the United States Supreme Court ruled in 2011 that a California law that imposed fines on retailers that sell certain violent video games to minors violated the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The Court held that video games represent a form of protected expression under the First Amendment, and that California's statute, no matter how well intentioned, lacked adequate justification for the regulation of such speech. Yet, lawmakers may persist in attempting to pass regulation restricting the sale of violent video games to minors, particularly in the wake of several well-publicized incidents of mass violence. A bill proposed by Senator Rockefeller in 2013, the Violent Content Research Act, proposed the National Academy of Sciences study the relationship between real-world violence and virtual-world violence in video games in hopes that conclusive statistical and scientific data could support renewed call for legislation. President Obama also called upon the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and scientific agencies to conduct research on the causes and prevention of gun violence, including investigating the relationship between video games, media images, and violence, though Congress has not yet approved funding for the research.

        Federal and state legislators have also attempted to regulate violent content in video games via the tax code. The Federal Tax Reform Act of 2014, which was not passed into law, contained a provision that would have disqualified the developers of violent video games from claiming a research and development tax credit. In 2014, and again in 2015, Pennsylvania, state legislators introduced a bill attempting to

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incentivize video game studios to move to the state by offering a tax credit. The bill specifically excludes the makers of violent video games from eligibility. So far, neither proposal has become law.

        Irrespective of any laws or industry guidelines, U.S. retailers have become more reluctant to sell "M" rated video games to minors. Consumer advocacy groups have also opposed sales of interactive entertainment software containing graphic violence, profanity or sexually explicit material by engaging in public demonstrations and media campaigns.

     Online Collection of Information from Children

        The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 ("COPPA") governs the online collection of personal information from children under 13. Under COPPA, a Web site that knowingly collects information from children under 13 years old, or that in whole or in part is directed to children under 13 years old, must obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting personal information from any child (including first and last name, home address, email address, telephone number, Social Security number, image or likeness, mobile device identifier or other persistent identifier which would permit the physical or online contacting of a specific individual). In 2012, the FTC revised its Rule implementing COPPA to, among other things, expand the definition of personal information to include the passive collection of technological information, such as through cookies or mobile device IDs. Effectively, this means that websites or online services subject to COPPA must obtain verifiable parental consent before engaging in online advertising in many cases. The Web site operator must also post a clear online privacy policy that provides notice of what information is collected from children, how the information is used, and a list of third parties with whom the operator may share or sell the child's information; parents must be given the choice to determine whether the child's information can be shared with third parties, and must also be provided access to the child's information and the opportunity to delete any such information collected. Moreover, the operator must establish and maintain reasonable procedures to protect the confidentiality, security and integrity of any personal information collected from children under 13 years of age. The COPPA also prohibits conditioning a child's participation in a game on the child disclosing more personal information than is reasonably necessary to participate in such activity.

        The COPPA authorizes the FTC and the State Attorneys General to bring actions against Web site operators to enforce the statute, and provides for penalties of up to US$16,000 per violation.

        In 2011, the FTC released the results of a study showing that many mobile application providers do not clearly disclose the ways in which they collect and share children's information. The FTC suggests that the providers of mobile applications in the "kids app ecosystem" do more to disclose key information to parents about the types of information they collect from children, and the ways in which that information is shared with third parties.

     Protection of Personal Information

        Most States have some form of specific legislation regarding the protection of personal information collected, processed, maintained or used in electronic form, as well as specific notification procedures in the event that such information is accessed by unauthorized individuals. Under these laws, among other things, businesses are required to implement and maintain reasonable security measures designed to protect the computerized personal information of its customers or users from unauthorized access, disclosure or use. These measures may require the encryption of sensitive data, such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, bank security access codes, etc. In the event that a business suffers a security breach, these laws generally require the business to provide notice of such breach to each individual user affected by the breach, and in some circumstances, to the State Attorney General, the FTC, or other state or federal agencies. In addition, if such personal information is accessed by unauthorized individuals as a result of the business' failure to use reasonable measures to protect the information, the business may be liable to those customers for any misuse of such personal information and may be liable for statutory fines or penalties, as well as civil and even potential criminal prosecution by government authorities. In 2014, California and Florida expanded the definition of "personal information" to include a

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user name or email address in connection with a password or security question that would permit access to an online account. Theft, loss or unauthorized access to these data elements would trigger mandatory breach notification obligations in these jurisdictions.

     Privacy Policy Requirements

        The FTC and many States require an operator of a Web site or online service that collects personal information from users to develop, maintain and post on its Web site a privacy policy that informs its customers and users of the categories of personal information that are collected by the operator, how that personal information is used and shared with third parties and how users may change or update such information and opt out of its collection and use. While most States have generally not imposed statutory fines or penalties on an operator for failing to comply with its privacy policy, an operator may be directly liable to its customer or users if it fails to comply with its posted privacy policy if such noncompliance harms the users. The FTC, however, has initiated numerous investigations and imposed significant civil penalties in several cases involving alleged failures by companies to comply with the representations made in their online privacy policies and/or adequately disclose the companies' actual practices in such policies. In 2011, for instance, Google entered into a settlement agreement with the FTC in which Google agreed to be subject to twenty years of privacy audits and to revise its privacy practices in response to FTC charges that Google used deceptive tactics and violated its own privacy policy when it launched its social network, Google Buzz, in 2010. The Google settlement comes amidst increasing pressure from the FTC on online service providers to conspicuously and accurately disclose their user data collection and disclosure practices. This is especially true in the mobile context, where new technologies have presented novel consumer privacy questions. Specifically, the collection and use of mobile geolocation and device identifier data have come under increased FTC scrutiny in the past year. Similarly, the California Attorney General has explicitly stated that mobile device applications must comply with the state privacy disclosure regulations and has initiated enforcement against mobile apps which failed to post a privacy policy.

        In February 2013, the FTC released a Staff Report on mobile privacy disclosures which recommends that mobile app developers post a privacy policy accessible through the app or the app store, provide just-in-time disclosures and obtain affirmative express consent when collecting sensitive information such as children's data. The FTC Report also encourages mobile app developers to consider participating in self-regulatory programs, trade associations and industry organizations which may provide guidance on short-form privacy disclosures. The FTC has increased its scrutiny of mobile platforms and mobile apps and brought several consent decrees against app developers in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 relating to misleading privacy disclosures, the over-collection of data from a user's mobile device, and the collection of information from children under 13 in violation of COPPA.

        In 2013, the California Attorney General issued guidance for mobile app developers which recommends, among other things, that app developers use enhanced measures or special notices, to alert users to unexpected data use cases.

     Misleading Advertisements

        In 2014, the FTC took action against a video game company for making false and misleading statements in advertisements relating to "cross platform gaming," saving functions, and availability of certain features.

     Liability Arising from User Speech and Conduct

        Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996, or the CDA, provides limited protection to interactive computer services, such as an online game service, from liability for publishing information posted or provided by others, such as the users of an online game service. The CDA can, for example, help protect an online game service provider from liability as a publisher that could otherwise arise from a user making defamatory statements on the service about another user. Section 230 has also been used to protect intermediaries against claims of negligent misrepresentation, interference with business expectancy, breach of contract, intentional nuisance, violations of federal civil rights, and emotional distress. The protections of the CDA, however, do not immunize interactive computer services from criminal liability under United States Federal law (e.g., obscenity or child pornography), for infringement of intellectual property law, or any state laws that are not inconsistent with the CDA.

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        Some commentators consider Section 230 of the CDA controversial and have called for it to be amended by Congress because a number of courts have interpreted it as granting broad tort immunity. One case rejected immunity by holding that claims involving a person's personal information is a violation of such persons' publicity rights, which the court held were intellectual property rights outside of the scope of immunity. Another court held that an interactive computer service was not immune from federal Fair Housing Act violations because the interactive computer service provided tools such as pull down menus that assisted the users in creating the content that violated the Fair Housing Act. State law proposals have sought to limit the protections offered by the CDA by introducing legislation to carve out protection in cases of violations of state criminal law or child prostitution. Thus far, no such law has been enacted or upheld.

        Congress or the courts could continue to narrow the application of Section 230 of the CDA, in which case online game service operators, such as the Company, could face increased potential liability for certain speech or conduct by the users on their online game service.

ITEM 4.C.    ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

        The following is our organizational structure as of March 31, 2015:

GRAPHIC


Note:

(1)
Gravity Middle East & Africa FZ-LLC went into liquidation proceedings in the United Arab Emirates in September 2008.

ITEM 4.D.    PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT

        As of December 31, 2014, our property and equipment mainly consisted of (i) game engines, (ii) network servers, (iii) PCs and (iv) software purchased externally. As of December 31, 2014, the net book value of our property and equipment was Won 1,213 million (US$1,112 thousand). Because our main business is to develop and distribute online and mobile game services, we do not own any factories.

Korea

        Our principal executive and administrative offices are located at 15F, 396 World Cup buk-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-795, Korea. We currently occupy 74,904 square feet of office space, which we lease from Korea Software Industry Promotion Agency, pursuant to a lease that will expire on December 31, 2016 and which is renewable for three additional years. The annual lease payment amounts to Won 1,503 million (US$1,378 thousand). The offices of NeoCyon, our 96.11% owned subsidiary, are located at 14F, 396 World Cup buk-ro, Mapo- gu, Seoul 121-795, Korea. NeoCyon currently occupies 9,980 square feet of office space, subleased from us. The annual lease payment amounts to Won 200 million (US$183 thousand). We believe that the existing facilities of Gravity and NeoCyon are

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adequate for our current requirements and that additional space can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms to meet our future requirements.

United States

        The offices of Gravity Interactive, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United States, are located at 7001 Village Drive, Suite 150, Buena Park, California 90621. Gravity Interactive currently occupies 5,838 square feet of office space, leased from a third party. The annual lease payment amounts to US$123 thousand. We believe that the existing facilities of Gravity Interactive are adequate for their current requirements and that additional space can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms to meet their future requirements.

ITEM 4A.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 5.    OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

        You should read the following discussion together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes which appear elsewhere in this annual report. The following discussion is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historic performance may not be indicative of our future results of operations and capital requirements and resources.

ITEM 5.A.    OPERATING RESULTS

OVERVIEW

        We are a leading developer and distributor of online games in Japan and Thailand based on the number of peak concurrent users. Our headquarters is in Korea, and we are incorporated under the laws of Korea. Our revenues have been and continue to be driven primarily by our first game, Ragnarok Online, which was commercially launched in August 2002. Our future growth and profitability will be determined by our ability to enhance the features on our existing games and introduce new games with characters, features and functions that gain market acceptance and following.

        In 2014, our revenues decreased by 16.3% to Won 39,889 million (US$36,566 thousand) from Won 47,685 million in 2013. In 2013, our revenues decreased by 17.5% to Won 47,685 million from Won 57,781 million in 2012. We recorded a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 20,907 million (US$19,167 thousand) in 2014 as compared to a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 18,588 million in 2013 and a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 12,224 million in 2012. Our gross profit margin decreased to 14.3% in 2014 from 25.8% in 2013 and 39.6% in 2012. Our operating margin was negative 29.7% in 2014 due to an operating loss of Won 11,829 million (US$10,844 thousand) in 2014 as compared to a negative operating margin of 35.1% in 2013 and versus a negative operating margin of 32.0% in 2012. The decrease in revenues in 2014 was primarily due to: (i) decreased royalties and license fees from Ragnarok Online in Japan and China; (ii) decreased subscription revenues from Ragnarok Online II in the United States and Canada; and (iii) decreased revenues from a mobile game operations service for a third party. The decrease in revenues in 2014 was partially offset by increased revenues from Ragnarok Online in Korea and increased revenues from mobile games. Our cost of revenues for 2014 decreased as compared to 2013 mainly due to decreased amortization on intangible assets and salaries. Our operating expenses for 2014 decreased as compared to 2013 mostly due to decreased impairment losses on intangible assets and goodwill, salaries, advertising expenses and R&D expenses. Our revenue trend will continue to be materially affected in the future by the popularity of online and mobile games introduced by our competitors.

        Our corporate income tax rate in 2014 was 22%.

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Revenues

        We derive, and expect to continue to generate, most of our revenues from online game subscription revenue generated in the countries and markets where our games are offered by us, royalties and license fees paid by our licensees in our overseas markets, and mobile games and applications revenue. Our revenues can be classified into the following four categories:

    online games—subscription revenue;

    online games—royalties and license fees;

    mobile games and applications; and

    character merchandising, animation and other revenue.

     Online games—subscription revenue

        Subscription revenue consists of revenues from (i) micro-transactions, (ii) subscription fees from Internet cafés and (iii) premium services for individual PC users. Micro-transaction fees for consumable in-game items are deferred when such in-game items are purchased by users and recognized as revenue when the purchased in-game items are used in the games while those for permanent in-game items are recognized ratably as revenues over the estimated life cycle of game users. Such life cycle is calculated based on the weighted average game usage days of each game. Micro-transaction fees for in-game items with limited time period are deferred and recognized as revenue in proportion to the number of days lapsed. All online game subscription fees and premium service fees are prepaid. Prepaid subscription fees from Internet cafés are deferred and recognized as revenue on a monthly basis based on actual hours used. Prepaid premium service fees from individual PC users are deferred and recognized as revenue on a monthly basis in proportion to the number of days lapsed.

     Online games—royalties and license fees

        We license the right to market and distribute our games in various countries for a license fee and receive monthly royalties based on an agreed percentage of the licensees' revenues from our games. For a table setting forth details of each license agreement of our principal product, Ragnarok Online, see ITEM 4.B. "BUSINESS OVERVIEW—OUR MARKETS—Overseas markets."

        The initial license fees are deferred and recognized ratably as revenue over the license period, which generally does not exceed three years. If license agreements are renewed upon expiration of their terms, we generally receive renewal license fees, which are deferred and recognized ratably over the new license period. The guaranteed minimum royalty payments are deferred and recognized as the relevant royalty is earned.

        We also receive royalty revenues from our licensees based on an agreed percentage of each of the licensees' revenues from our games. Royalty revenues are recognized on a monthly basis after the licensee confirms its revenues based on the licensee's sales from our games during the month. Our licensees' sales consist of revenues from subscription fees and micro-transactions. We generally are advised by each of our licensees as to the amount of royalties earned by us from such licensee within 15 to 25 days following the end of each month and we generally receive payments of the royalties within 20 to 30 days following the end of each month.

     Mobile games and applications revenue

        Mobile games and applications revenue consists of (i) revenues from micro-transactions and a proportion of the per-download fees that users pay in cases where we directly provide mobile games services to users, such as in Korea; (ii) license fees and guaranteed minimum royalty payments, and royalty revenues from our licensees to which we license the right to market and distribute our mobile games in overseas countries; (iii) contract prices, which are related to various development services and products provided by us to third parties, such as developing games embedded in mobile phones, mobile applications,

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and sound for mobile phones and appliances; (iv) revenues from mobile games operation service for third parties; and (v) intellectual property royalty revenues from third parties that develop and provide services for mobile games based on our original intellectual property.

        Micro-transaction fees for consumable in-game items are deferred when such in-game items are purchased by users and recognized as revenue when the purchased in-game items are used in the game while those for permanent in-game items are recognized ratably as revenues over the estimated life cycle of game users. Such life cycle is calculated based on the weighted average game usage days of each game. Per-download fees are recognized on a monthly basis as they are earned. License fees are deferred and recognized ratably as revenue over the license period and guaranteed minimum royalty payments are deferred and recognized as the relevant royalty is earned. Royalty revenues are based on an agreed percentage of each of the licensees' revenues based on the licensee's sales from our mobile games and recognized on a monthly basis. Revenues of contract prices for certain mobile applications are recognized by measuring progress-to-completion under the percentage-of-completion method. If we do not have a sufficient basis to measure progress towards completion, revenues are recognized when we receive final acceptance from the customer that the services have been completed. Other contract prices are recognized when the products or services have been delivered or rendered and the customers can begin use in accordance with the contractual terms. Revenues from mobile games operation service are based on an agreed percentage of each of the licensors' revenues based on the licensor's sales from the mobile games we operate on their behalf and recognized on a monthly basis after the licensor confirms its revenues based on the licensor's sales from the relevant mobile games during the month. Intellectual property royalty revenues are recognized on a monthly basis.

        We generally are advised by each of our licensees or licensors as to the amount of royalty revenues, revenues from mobile games operation service and intellectual property royalty revenues earned by us from such licensee or licensor within 15 to 60 days following the end of each month and we generally receive payments of the royalties within 45 to 90 days following the end of each month.

     Character merchandising, animation and other revenue

        Character merchandising, animation and other revenue consist of revenues from sales of console games, game character merchandising, animation and other services, including sales of goods related to mobile phones and Web site development and operation services for third parties.

        Revenues from sales of console games are derived from a specified percentage of the publisher's sales after deductibles, including payments to the platform holder and others, and recognized on a quarterly basis as they are earned by the publisher. Royalty payments from game character merchandising are recognized on a quarterly basis as they are earned by the licensee. Contract prices for our services provided to third parties are recognized when the products or services have been delivered or rendered and the customers can begin their use in accordance with the contractual terms.

        The following table sets forth a breakdown of revenues by type of revenue and the percentage of total revenue for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
Revenue Type
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except percentages)
 

Online games—subscription revenue

  W 10,150     17.6 % W 8,206     17.2 % W 7,962     20.0 % US$ 7,299  

Online games—royalties and license fees

    32,325     55.9     21,726     45.6     13,093     32.8     12,002  

Mobile games and applications

    8,262     14.3     14,504     30.4     15,055     37.7     13,801  

Character merchandising, animation and other revenue

    7,044     12.2     3,249     6.8     3,779     9.5     3,464  
                               

Total

  W 57,781     100.0 % W 47,685     100.0 % W 39,889     100.0 % US$ 36,566  
                               
                               

Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

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Cost of revenues

        Our cost of revenues consists principally of the following:

    operational expenses, server depreciation expenses, server maintenance costs and related personnel costs, outsourcing fees related to developing updates to games currently commercially offered and amortization of development-related costs as described in ITEM 5.A. "OPERATING RESULTS—CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES—Capitalized software development costs";

    royalty payments to the third parties that are developers of some of the games we offer as a service distributor based on license agreements; and

    royalty payments to Mr. Myoung-Jin Lee for the right to use the storyline and characters from his "Ragnarok" cartoon series used in our games and other products based on Ragnarok. We paid Mr. Lee an initial license fee of Won 40 million and are required to pay royalties based on 1.0% or 1.5% of adjusted revenues (net of value-added taxes and certain other expenses) or 2.5%, 5% or 10% of net income generated from the use of the Ragnarok brand, depending on the type of revenues received from the operation or licensing of Ragnarok Online.

        The cost of revenues from the payments to Mr. Myoung-Jin Lee was Won 185 million (US$170 thousand) for 2014 and Won 284 million for 2013. This agreement expires in January 2033.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

        Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of sales commissions paid to independent promotional agents that distribute our online games to our Internet café subscribers in Korea, commissions paid to payment settlement providers, administrative expenses and related personnel expenses of executive and administrative staff, and marketing and promotional expenses and related personnel expenses.

Research and development expenses

        Research and development expenses consist primarily of payroll and other overhead expenses which are all expensed as incurred (i) until technological feasibility of an online game is reached or (ii) until commercial operation of a mobile game commences. Once technological feasibility of an online game is reached, these costs are capitalized and, once commercial operation commences, amortized as cost of revenues. See ITEM 5.A. "OPERATING RESULTS—CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES—Capitalized software development costs."

Foreign currency effects

        In 2014, 51.2% of our revenues were denominated in foreign currencies, primarily in U.S. dollar and Japanese Yen.

        In most of the countries in which our games are distributed, the revenues generated by our overseas subsidiaries and licensees are denominated in local currencies, which include Japanese Yen, Euro, NT dollar, Thai Baht and Chinese Yuan. The revenues from those countries, other than the United States, Japan and European countries, are converted into the U.S. dollar for remittance of monthly royalty payments to us. Depreciation of these local currencies against the U.S. dollar will result in reduced monthly royalty payments in U.S. dollar terms, thereby having a negative impact on our net income.

        Although we receive our monthly royalty revenues from our overseas licensees in foreign currencies, primarily in Japanese Yen and U.S. dollar, and other local currencies, such as NT dollar and Thai Baht in our other principal markets, substantially all of our costs are denominated in Won. We receive monthly royalty payments from our overseas licensees based on an agreed percentage of revenues confirmed and recorded at the end of each month applying the foreign exchange rate applicable on such date. We generally receive these royalty payments 20 to 30 days after the end of each month unless delayed due to

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extraordinary circumstances. Appreciation or depreciation of the Won against these foreign currencies during this period will result in foreign currency losses or gains and affect our net income.

        As of December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, we had no foreign currency forward contract outstanding. See ITEM 11. "QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK—Foreign currency risk."

Income tax expenses

        See ITEM 3.D. "RISK FACTORS—RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS—Adverse changes in the withholding tax rates in the countries from which we receive license fees and royalties could adversely affect our net income." and ITEM 5.A. "OPERATING RESULTS—CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES—Income taxes."

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

        Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, contingent liabilities, and revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis based on historical experience and other assumptions we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The policies discussed below are considered by our management to be critical because they are not only important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations but also because the application and interpretation of these policies require both judgment and estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain and unknown. As a result, actual results may differ materially from our estimates.

Revenue recognition

        We derive, and expect to continue to generate, most of our revenues from online game subscription revenue generated in the countries where our games are offered by us, royalties and license fees paid by our licensees in overseas markets, and mobile games and applications revenue. Our revenues can be classified into the following four categories: (i) online games—subscription revenue; (ii) online games—royalties and license fees; (iii) mobile games and applications revenue; and (iv) character merchandising, animation and other revenue. For details, see ITEM 5.A. "OPERATING RESULTS—OVERVIEW—Revenues."

        We recognize revenue in accordance with U.S. GAAP, as set forth in Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC 605, Revenue Recognition and other related pronouncements.

Allowances for doubtful accounts

        We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts receivable for estimated losses that result from the inability of our customers to make the required payments. We base our allowances on the likelihood of recoverability of accounts receivable based on past experience and current collection trends. We record allowances for doubtful accounts based on historical payment patterns of our customers and increase our allowances as the length of time such receivables become past due increases.

        Subsequent to June 2003, pursuant to agreements with various payment processing service providers, the providers are responsible for remitting to us the full subscription revenues generated in Korea after deducting their fixed service fees and charges of approximately 1.4% to 15%. In addition, we do not assume any collection risk since payment processing service providers now bear the risk of loss and delinquency.

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Capitalized software development costs

        We capitalize certain software development costs relating to online games that will be distributed through subscriptions or licenses. The Company accounts for software development costs in accordance with ASC 985, Costs of Software to be Sold, Leased, or Marketed. Software development costs incurred prior to the establishment of technological feasibility are expensed when incurred and are included in research and development expense. We establish technological feasibility of a product when closed beta testing has been completed and open best testing has started. Once a software product has reached technological feasibility, then all subsequent software development costs for that product are capitalized until the product is commercially launched. Technological feasibility is evaluated on a product by product basis, but typically occurs when the online game has a proven ability to operate on a multiplayer level for a large number of users. Technological feasibility of a product encompasses both technical design documentation and game design documentation.

        We evaluate the recoverability of capitalized software development costs on a product by product basis. The recoverability of capitalized software development costs is evaluated based on the expected performance of the specific products to which the costs relate. Criteria used to evaluate expected product performance include: historical performance of comparable products using comparable technology; orders for the product prior to its release; and estimated performance of a sequel product based on the performance of the product on which the sequel is based. Capitalized costs for those products that are cancelled are expensed in the period of cancellation. In addition, an impairment loss shall be recorded when management's forecast for a particular game indicates that unamortized capitalized costs exceed the net realizable value of that asset. Significant management judgments and estimates are utilized in the assessment of when technological feasibility is established, as well as in the ongoing assessment of the recoverability of capitalized costs. In evaluating the recoverability of capitalized costs, the assessment of expected product performance utilizes forecasted sales amounts and estimates of additional development costs to be incurred. If revised forecasted or actual product sales are changed from the original forecasted amounts utilized in the initial recoverability analysis, the actual impairment charge may be larger than originally estimated in any given period.

        Significant management judgment is required to assess the timing of technological feasibility as well as the ongoing recoverability of capitalized costs.

Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets

        Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination. As of December 31, 2014, the carrying value of goodwill for each reporting unit, NeoCyon and Gravity Games, are Won 1,210 million (US$1,109 thousand) and nil, respectively.

        Goodwill is accounted for under ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, which requires that goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but instead be tested at least annually for impairment, and more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change which would more likely than not reduce the fair value of these assets below their carrying amount. Such an event would include unfavorable variances from established business plans, significant changes in forecasted results or volatility inherent to external markets and industries, which are periodically reviewed by our management. Specifically, qualitative factors are assessed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. In evaluating whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the relevant events and circumstances are assessed. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, it is determined that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then a two-step process of the goodwill impairment test is not performed.

        If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the first step of the two-step goodwill impairment test is performed. The first step of

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the goodwill impairment test is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step of the goodwill impairment test compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized immediately in an amount equal to that excess. The goodwill impairment test is carried out at the reporting unit, which is either an operating division or a subdivision, for which stand-alone financial information is available to the management personnel of such division or subdivision for evaluating operating results.

        We performed our annual impairment test for goodwill at our reporting unit using data as of December 31, 2014. In performing the valuations, we used cash flows, which reflected management's forecasts and discount rates which reflect the risks associated with the current market. Prior to performing the two step impairment test for goodwill, we performed a qualitative assessment for the reporting unit.

        In 2014, we concluded not to recognize impairment loss for goodwill as the fair value of the business reporting unit was determined to be greater than its book value. In performing the annual impairment test for goodwill for Gravity Games as of December 31, 2013, the fair value of the business reporting unit Gravity Games was determined to be lower than its book value. Therefore, during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded impairment losses of Won 2,653 million in reporting unit of Gravity Games due to the overall decline in the fair value of the reporting unit. The fair value of the reporting unit was estimated principally using the expected present value of the future cash flows.

        Product technology, presented as an acquired intangible asset in balance sheets, represents product technology related to Dragonica which was recognized as a result of a business combination with Gravity Games in 2010 and illustrated images purchased from a third party in 2014. As of December 31, 2014, the carrying value of such product technology is nil and Won 43 million, respectively.

        Product technology is accounted for under ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, which requires that intangible assets subject to amortization shall be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset or asset group may not be recoverable in accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment. An impairment loss shall be recognized if the carrying amount of an intangible asset is not recoverable and its carrying amount exceeds its fair value. The carrying value is considered unrecoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows anticipated from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying value of an asset exceeds its fair value.

        As a significant decrease in revenue of Dragonica was noted in 2013, which was a trigger event for long-lived assets impairment analysis as of December 31, 2013, we performed an impairment test on Dragonica. As the carrying amount of Dragonica exceeded its fair value, we recognized an impairment loss of Won 1,424 million for Dragonica in 2013.

        The assessment of impairments under ASC 350 and ASC 360 requires significant judgment and requires estimates to assess fair values. We believe that the estimates of future cash flows and fair value used in the impairment tests of goodwill and product technology are reasonable. However, in the future, changes in estimates resulting in lower than currently anticipated cash flows and fair value due to unforeseen changes in business assumptions could negatively affect the valuations, which may result in us recognizing impairment charges for goodwill and other intangible assets in the future.

Income taxes

        We account for income taxes under the provisions of ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under ASC 740, income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method.

        Management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and the extent to which deferred tax assets can be realized. A valuation allowance is

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provided for deferred tax assets to the extent that it is more likely than not that such deferred tax assets will not be realized. Realization of future tax benefits related to the deferred tax assets is dependent on many factors, including our ability to generate taxable income within the period during which the temporary differences reverse, the outlook for the economic environment in which the business operates and the overall future industry outlook.

        We have significant deferred income tax assets, including tax credits, that may be used to offset taxable income in future periods. Our ability to utilize deferred income tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate future taxable income sufficient to utilize these tax credits before their expiration. Changes in estimates of our ability to realize our deferred tax assets are generally recognized in earnings as a component of our income tax (benefit) expense. At each reporting date, we review our deferred tax assets for recoverability considering historical profitability, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of reversals of existing temporary differences and expiration of tax credits. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income, the deferred tax assets are reduced to the extent that it is more likely than not that the related tax expense will be recorded. A decrease in deferred tax assets would result in an increase in our effective tax rate and may materially adversely impact our operating results. Conversely, if conditions improve and we determine that deferred tax assets should be increased because of changes in estimates in future taxable income or other conditions that affect our expected recovery of deferred tax assets, this would result in an increase in reported earnings in such period.

        Based on the assessments that we conducted during 2012 and 2013, which took into account our projected future taxable income, we concluded that it was more likely than not that portions of the deferred tax assets of Gravity and all of the deferred tax assets of NeoCyon as of December 31, 2012 and 2013, which mainly consist of tax credits in Korea, would be realized.

        However, in 2014, we concluded that it was more likely than not that deferred tax assets of Gravity and NeoCyon could not be realized, based on the cumulative taxable loss over the previous three years. As a result, we recognized full allowances from deferred tax assets.

Recent accounting pronouncements

        In March 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-05, Foreign Currency Matters, to clarify the accounting for the release of a cumulative translation adjustment into net income when a parent either sells a part or all of its investment in a foreign entity or no longer holds a controlling financial interest in a subsidiary or group of assets that is a nonprofit activity or a business within a foreign entity. The new standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning on or after December 15, 2013. The adoptions of ASU 2013-05 did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

        In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-11, Income Taxes, which requires the presentation of certain unrecognized tax benefits as reductions to deferred tax assets rather than as liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward exists. The new standard requires adoption on a prospective basis in the first quarter of 2015; however, early adoption is permitted. The Company does not anticipate that this adoption will have a significant impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

        In May 2014, the FASB and International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") issued their converged standard on revenue recognition. The objective of the revenue standard ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) is to provide a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers to improve comparability within industries, across industries, and across capital markets. The revenue standard contains principles that an entity will apply to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. For public companies, the revenue standard is effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after

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December 15, 2016 and early adoption is not permitted. In April 2015, the FASB tentatively decided to defer one year the effective date of new revenue standard for public entities reporting under U.S. GAAP. If the changes in the proposed ASU are finalized to extend by a year, the standard will be effective for annual reporting periods (including interim reporting periods within those periods) beginning after December 15, 2017. The standard provides for either full retrospective adoption or a modified retrospective adoption by which it is applied only to the most current period presented. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of the standard on its consolidated financial statements.

        In August, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern, which provides guidance on determining when and how reporting entities must disclose going-concern uncertainties in their financial statements. The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity's ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issuance of the entity's financial statements (or within one year after the date on which the financial statements are available to be issued, when applicable). Further, an entity must provide certain disclosures if there is "substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern." The ASU is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The ASU shall be applied at the effective date, and the Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of the standard on its consolidated financial statements.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS: 2014 COMPARED TO 2013

        The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2013   2014   2014(1)   % Change  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$, except percentages)
 

Revenues(2):

                         

Online games—subscription revenue

  W 8,206   W 7,962   US$ 7,299     (3.0 )%

Online games—royalties and license fees

    21,726     13,093     12,002     (39.7 )

Mobile games and applications

    14,504     15,055     13,801     3.8  

Character merchandising, animation and other revenue

    3,249     3,779     3,464     16.3  
                   

Total net revenue

    47,685     39,889     36,566     (16.3 )

Cost of revenue

    35,399     34,188     31,340     (3.4 )
                   

Gross profit

    12,286     5,701     5,226     (53.6 )

Gross profit margin(3)

    25.8 %   14.3 %   14.3 %      

Operating expenses:

                         

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    17,063     12,682     11,626     (25.7 )

Research and development

    6,131     4,847     4,443     (20.9 )

Impairment loss on intangible assets

    5,822     1     1     (99.9 )
                   

Total operating expenses

    29,016     17,530     16,070     (39.6 )

Operating loss

    (16,730 )   (11,829 )   (10,844 )   (29.3 )

Operating profit margin(4)

    (35.1 )%   (29.7 )%   (29.7 )%      

Other income (expenses):

                         

Interest income

    1,334     1,137     1,042     (14.8 )

Interest expense

    (41 )   (11 )   (10 )   (73.2 )

Foreign currency loss, net

    (413 )   (152 )   (139 )   (63.2 )

Others, net

    1,225     3     2     (99.8 )
                   

Total net other income

    2,105     977     895     (53.6 )

Loss before income tax expenses and equity loss on investments

    (14,625 )   (10,852 )   (9,949 )   (25.8 )

Income tax expenses

    5,108     10,147     9,302     98.6  

Loss before equity loss on investments

    (19,733 )   (20,999 )   (19,251 )   6.4  

Equity loss on investments, net(5)

    (18 )           N/M  
                   

Net loss

    (19,751 )   (20,999 )   (19,251 )   6.3  

Net loss attributable to:

                         

Non-controlling interest(6)

    (1,163 )   (92 )   (84 )   (92.1 )
                   

Parent company

  W (18,588 ) W (20,907 ) US$ (19,167 )   12.5  
                   
                   

Other comprehensive loss

                         

Foreign currency translation adjustment

    (1,327 )   (153 )   (141 )   (88.5 )

Comprehensive loss

    (21,078 )   (21,152 )   (19,392 )   0.4  
                   

Comprehensive loss attributable to:

                         

Non-controlling interest(6)

    (1,163 )   (92 )   (84 )   (92.1 )

Parent company

  W (19,915 ) W (21,060 ) US$ (19,308 )   5.7 %
                   
                   

N/M = not meaningful


Notes:

(1)
For convenience only, the Won amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars at the rate of Won 1,090.89 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2014 as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes.

(2)
The accompanying 2013 consolidated statement of operations includes certain out-of-period adjustments primarily related to the understatement of revenues for in-game items of Won 981 million that were not properly deferred in fiscal year 2012. Management believes the impact of these items, both individually and in the aggregate, to the year ended December 31, 2013 and to prior years presented are not material.

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(3)
Gross profit margin for each period is calculated by dividing gross profit by total net revenue for each period.

(4)
Operating profit margin for each period is calculated by dividing operating loss by total net revenue for each period.

(5)
Represents the loss from our 16.39% equity investment in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 in 2013. This investment was accounted for using the equity method of accounting.

(6)
Represents the non-controlling interest in NeoCyon, a 96.11%- held subsidiary acquired in December 2005, and Gravity Games, a subsidiary acquired in October 2010, in which our initial ownership was 50.83% and which increased to 85.5% in August 2013.

Revenues

        Our total revenues decreased by 16.3% to Won 39,889 million (US$36,566 thousand) in 2014 from Won 47,685 million in 2013, primarily due to:

    a 39.7% decrease in royalties and license fees to Won 13,093 million (US$12,002 thousand) in 2014 from Won 21,726 million in 2013, which was due mainly to decreased revenues from Ragnarok Online in Japan and China resulting from increasing competition and decreasing Ragnarok Online game users due to the relative maturity of such game, and the strengthening of the Korean Won by approximately 12.5% against the Japanese Yen from 2013 to 2014; and

    a 3% decrease in subscription revenue to Won 7,962 million (US$7,299 thousand) in 2014 from Won 8,206 million in 2013, resulting primarily from decreased revenues from Ragnarok Online II in the United States and Canada resulting from increasing competition and weak demand for the game, though such decrease was partially offset by an increase in revenues from Ragnarok Online in Korea and revenues from Ragnarok Online II in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau where the game was commercially released in June 2014.

        Such decreases were offset by:

    a 16.3% increase in character merchandising, animation and other revenue to Won 3,779 million (US$3,464 thousand) in 2014 from Won 3,249 million in 2013, which was due mainly attributable to the increased revenues from NeoCyon's web site development and operation service for third parties; and

    a 3.8% increase in mobile games and applications revenue to Won 15,055 million (US$13,801 thousand) in 2014 from Won 14,504 million in 2013, mostly driven by increased revenues from Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie which was launched in May 2012, Road to Dragon which was launched in Korea in January 2014 and Battle Ship which was launched in Korea in November 2013.

Cost of revenues

        Our cost of revenues decreased by 3.4% to Won 34,188 million (US$31,340 thousand) in 2014 from Won 35,399 million in 2013, primarily due to:

    a 33.0% decrease in amortization expenses for intangible assets to Won 3,989 million (US$3,657 thousand) in 2014 from Won 5,951 million in 2013 which was mostly related to decreased amortization for Dragonica and Ragnarok Odyssey. Dragonica was amortized and fully impaired in December 2013 and Ragnarok Odyssey was fully amortized in January 2014; and

    a 9.7% decrease in salaries to Won 11,378 million (US$10,430 thousand) in 2014 from Won 12,600 million in 2013 primarily resulting from a decrease in the number of employees.

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        Such decreases were offset by:

    a 64.0% increase in outsourcing fees to Won 3,435 million (US$3,149 thousand) in 2014 from Won 2,095 million in 2013, which is mostly related to NeoCyon's web site development and operation service for third parties; and

    a 13.7% increase in commissions paid to Won 9,436 million (US$8,650 thousand) in 2014 from Won 8,298 million in 2013 mainly due to an increase in payments to digital storefronts where our mobile games are offered and royalty payments related to the commercial launch of some of our games.

Gross profit and gross profit margin

        As a result of the foregoing, our gross profit decreased by 53.6% to Won 5,701 million (US$5,226 thousand) in 2014 from Won 12,286 million in 2013. Our gross profit margin decreased to 14.3% in 2014 from 25.8% in 2013.

Operating expenses

        Selling, general and administrative expenses.    Our selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by 25.7% to Won 12,682 million (US$11,626 thousand) in 2014 from Won 17,063 million in 2013, primarily due to:

    a 31.3% decrease in salaries to Won 4,735 million (US$4,340 thousand) in 2014 from Won 6,896 million in 2013 mostly attributable to a decrease in salaries as a result of a decrease in the number of employees; and

    a 43.4% decrease in advertising expenses to Won 1,614 million (US$1,480 thousand) in 2014 from Won 2,852 million in 2013 mostly attributable to a decrease in marketing expenses for mobile games.

        Research and development expenses.    Our research and development expenses decreased by 20.9% to Won 4,847 million (US$4,443 thousand) in 2014 from Won 6,131 million in 2013 mainly due to development expenses for Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita platform in 2013, which were not incurred in 2014.

        Impairment loss on intangible assets.    Impairment loss on intangible assets decreased by 99.9% to Won 1 million (US$1 thousand) in 2014 from Won 5,822 million in 2013. The impairment losses on intangible assets in 2013 mostly consisted of impairment losses for goodwill of Gravity Games, intangible assets of Dragonica, and capitalized research and development cost of Requiem Returns W, Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita Platform, Steal Fighter, Game Station, which is a mobile game service platform, Maestia and Ragnarok Online Guild Masters, none of which were incurred in 2014.

Operating loss and operating profit margin

        As a result of the cumulative effects of the reasons stated above, we recorded an operating loss of Won 11,829 million (US$10,844 thousand) in 2014, compared to an operating loss of Won 16,730 million in 2013, and our operating profit margin was negative 29.7% in 2014.

Net other income

        Our net other income decreased 53.6% to Won 977 million (US$895 thousand) in 2014 from Won 2,105 million in 2013 primarily due to other income related to the liquidation of Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 in 2013, as there was no similar liquidation in 2014.

Income tax expenses

        We recorded an income tax expense of Won 10,147 million (US$9,302 thousand) in 2014, compared to an income tax expense of Won 5,108 million in 2013, mostly due to recognizing a full valuation on

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allowances from deferred tax assets of Gravity and NeoCyon in 2014. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we considered whether it was more likely than not some portion or all of the deferred tax assets would not be realized. In 2014, we recorded a full valuation allowance on deferred tax assets of Gravity and NeoCyon, as we determined that it was more likely than not that none of the deferred tax assets were realizable in the near future.

Equity loss on investments

        In 2013, equity loss on investments represents the loss incurred from a 16.39% partnership interest in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1. We recorded Won 18 million as equity loss of the partnership of Online Game Revolution Fund No.1 in 2013. On December 31, 2010, the term of the partnership of Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 expired and its liquidation was completed in June 2013, which resulted in Online Game Revolution Fund No.1 ceasing to be our equity method investee.

Non-controlling interest

        Non-controlling interest represents the net loss from NeoCyon, our 96.11%-held subsidiary and Gravity Games, our 85.5%-held subsidiary, attributable to third-party minority interest holders. We acquired 96.11% of the voting equity of NeoCyon in 2005. We acquired 50.83% of the voting equity of Gravity Games in 2010 and increased our ownership in Gravity Games to 85.5% in August 2013.

Net loss attributable to parent company

        As a result of the foregoing, we recorded a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 20,907 million (US$19,167 thousand) in 2014 compared to a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 18,588 million in 2013.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS: 2013 COMPARED TO 2012

        The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2012   2013   % Change  
 
  (In millions of Won, except percentages)
 

Revenues(1):

                   

Online games—subscription revenue

  W 10,150   W 8,206     (19.2 )%

Online games—royalties and license fees

    32,325     21,726     (32.8 )

Mobile games and applications

    8,262     14,504     75.6  

Character merchandising, animation and other revenue

    7,044     3,249     (53.9 )
               

Total net revenue

    57,781     47,685     (17.5 )

Cost of revenue

    34,906     35,399     1.4  
               

Gross profit

    22,875     12,286     (46.3 )

Gross profit margin(2)

    39.6 %   25.8 %      

Operating expenses:

                   

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    20,310     17,063     (16.0 )

Research and development

    7,018     6,131     (12.6 )

Impairment loss on intangible assets

    14,569     5,822     (60.0 )

Gain on disposal of equity method investments

    (528 )       N/M  
               

Total operating expenses

    41,369     29,016     (29.9 )

Operating loss

    (18,494 )   (16,730 )   (9.5 )

Operating profit margin(3)

    (32.0 )%   (35.1 )%      

Other income (expenses):

                   

Interest income

    1,763     1,334     (24.3 )

Interest expense

    (55 )   (41 )   (25.5 )

Foreign currency loss, net

    (902 )   (413 )   (54.2 )

Others, net

    65     1,225     1,784.6  
               

Total net other income

    871     2,105     141.7  

Loss before income tax expenses and equity loss on investments

    (17,623 )   (14,625 )   (17.0 )

Income tax expenses

    2,584     5,108     97.7  
               

Loss before equity loss on investments

    (20,207 )   (19,733 )   (2.3 )

Equity loss on investments, net(4)

    (333 )   (18 )   (94.6 )
               

Net loss

    (20,540 )   (19,751 )   (3.8 )

Net loss attributable to:

                   

Non-controlling interest(5)

    (8,316 )   (1,163 )   (86.0 )
               

Parent company

  W (12,224 ) W (18,588 )   52.1  
               
               

Other comprehensive loss

                   

Foreign currency translation adjustment

    (41 )   (1,327 )   3,136.6  

Comprehensive loss

    (20,581 )   (21,078 )   2.4  
               

Comprehensive loss attributable to:

                   

Non-controlling interest(5)

    (8,316 )   (1,163 )   (86.0 )
               

Parent company

  W (12,265 ) W (19,915 )   62.4 %
               
               

N/M = not meaningful


Notes:

(1)
The accompanying 2013 consolidated statement of operations includes certain out-of-period adjustments primarily related to the understatement of revenues for in-game items of Won 981 million that were not properly deferred in fiscal year 2012. Management believes the impact of these items, both individually and in the aggregate, to the year ended December 31, 2013 and to prior years presented are not material.

(2)
Gross profit margin for each period is calculated by dividing gross profit by total net revenue for each period.

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(3)
Operating profit margin for each period is calculated by dividing operating loss by total net revenue for each period.

(4)
Represents the losses from our 25% equity interest in Gravity EU SAS, our 25% equity investment in Ingamba and our 16.39% equity investment in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 in 2012. Represents the loss from our 16.39% equity investment in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 in 2013. These investments were accounted for using the equity method of accounting.

(5)
Represents the non-controlling interest in NeoCyon, a 96.11%- held subsidiary acquired in December 2005, and Gravity Games, a subsidiary acquired in October 2010, in which our initial ownership was 50.83% and which increased to 85.5% in August 2013.

Revenues

        Our total revenues decreased by 17.5% to Won 47,685 million in 2013 from Won 57,781 million in 2012, primarily due to:

    a 32.8% decrease in royalties and license fees to Won 21,726 million in 2013 from Won 32,325 million in 2012, which was due mainly to decreased revenues from Ragnarok Online in Japan resulting from increasing competition and as a result of the relative maturity of such game, and the strengthening of the Korean Won by approximately 19.7% against the Japanese Yen from 2012 to 2013, though such decrease was partially offset by revenues from Ragnarok Online in China where the game was relaunched in February 2013 and revenues from Ragnarok Online II in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand where the game was commercially released during 2013;

    a 53.9% decrease in character merchandising, animation and other revenue to Won 3,249 million in 2013 from Won 7,044 million in 2012, which resulted primarily from decrease in revenues from Ragnarok Odyssey and revenues from sales of goods related to mobile phones in 2012, which did not occur in 2013; and

    a 19.2% decrease in subscription revenue to Won 8,206 million in 2013 from Won 10,150 million in 2012, resulting primarily from decreased revenues from Finding Neverland Online, which we ceased offering in Korea in July 2013 though such decrease was partially offset by revenues from Ragnarok Online II in the United States, Canada and 53 other countries and markets resulting from the game's commercial launch in such countries and markets commencing in May 2013.

        Such decreases were offset by:

    a 75.6% increase in mobile games and applications revenue to Won 14,504 million in 2013 from Won 8,262 million in 2012, which was mainly driven by revenues from NeoCyon's mobile games operation service for a third party and revenues from Ragnarok Online—Uprising: Valkyrie.

Cost of revenues

        Our cost of revenues increased by 1.4% to Won 35,399 million in 2013 from Won 34,906 million in 2012, primarily due to:

    a 42.4% increase in commissions paid to Won 8,298 million in 2013 from Won 5,829 million in 2012 mostly related to our services provided to third parties and for digital storefronts where our mobile games are offered; and

    a 5.5% increase in salaries to Won 12,600 million in 2013 from Won 11,939 million in 2012 primarily resulting from increases in salaries resulting from the commercial launch of some of our mobile games and increased number of mobile game developers of NeoCyon.

        Such increases in cost of revenues were substantially offset by a 42.1% decrease in outsourcing fees to Won 2,095 million in 2013 from Won 3,620 million in 2012, which is mostly related to the development of

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Ragnarok Online, Ragnarok Online II and mobile games, and cost of goods sold associated with sales of goods related to mobile phones in 2012, which did not occur in 2013.

Gross profit and gross profit margin

        As a result of the foregoing, our gross profit decreased by 46.3% to Won 12,286 million in 2013 from Won 22,875 million in 2012. Our gross profit margin decreased to 25.8% in 2013 from 39.6% in 2012.

Operating expenses

        Selling, general and administrative expenses.    Our selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by 16.0% to Won 17,063 million in 2013 from Won 20,310 million in 2012, primarily due to:

    a 37.8% decrease in advertising expenses to Won 2,852 million in 2013 from Won 4,585 million in 2012 primarily due to marketing expenses for open beta testing and commercial launch of Finding Neverland Online and Ragnarok Online II in 2012, which did not occur in 2013, and for decreased marketing expenses for Ragnarok Online; and

    a 7.7% decrease in salaries to Won 6,896 million in 2013 from Won 7,470 million in 2012 mostly attributable to a decrease in salaries for the headquarters mostly as a result of a decrease in the number of employees.

        Research and development expenses.    Our research and development expenses decreased by 12.6% to Won 6,131 million in 2013 from Won 7,018 million in 2012 mainly due to decreases in development expenses for East Road resulting from the discontinuation of its development in 2013. The decrease was partially offset by development expenses for Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita platform and increased development expenses for mobile games in 2013.

        Impairment loss on intangible assets.    We had Won 5,822 million in impairment losses on intangible assets in 2013, which mostly consisted of impairment losses for goodwill of Gravity Games, intangible assets of Dragonica, and capitalized research and development cost of Requiem Returns W, Ragnarok Odyssey Ace for the PlayStation Vita Platform, Steal Fighter, Game Station, which is a mobile game service platform, Maestia and Ragnarok Online Guild Masters.

Operating loss and operating profit margin

        As a result of the cumulative effects of the reasons stated above, we recorded an operating loss of Won 16,730 million in 2013, compared to an operating loss of Won 18,494 million in 2012, and our operating profit margin was negative 35.1% in 2013.

Net other income

        Our net other income increased 141.7% to Won 2,105 million in 2013 from Won 871 million in 2012 primarily due to other income related to the liquidation of Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 in 2013, which is mostly attributable to realization of related accumulated other comprehensive income balance.

Income tax expenses

        We recorded an income tax expense of Won 5,108 million in 2013, compared to an income tax expense of Won 2,584 million in 2012, mostly due to the partial release of deferred tax assets of Gravity. In 2013, we recognized Won 2,642 million or 13% of the deferred tax assets from tax credit carry forwards, Won 1,488 million of net deferred tax assets from the other temporary differences, and Won 1,980 million of net deferred tax assets from net operating loss carry forwards. In 2012, we recognized Won 7,214 million or 34% of the deferred tax assets from tax credit carry forwards and Won 2,362 million of net deferred tax assets from the other temporary differences.

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Equity loss on investments

        In 2012, equity loss on investments represents the losses from the equity loss of Gravity EU SAS and Ingamba, and the loss incurred from a 16.39% partnership interest in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1. The investments in Gravity EU SAS and Ingamba, in each of which our ownership is or was 25%, are accounted for as equity method investments. The Company could not significantly influence the operation and financial policies of Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 under the partnership agreement; however, we accounted for the investment under the equity method of accounting in accordance with ASC 323, Investment—Equity Method and Joint Ventures, which requires the use of equity method unless the investors' interest "is so minor that the limited partner may have virtually no influence over partnership operating and financial policies." We recorded Won 257 million, Won 25 million and Won 51 million as equity loss of Gravity EU SAS, Ingamba and the partnership of Online Game Revolution Fund No.1 in 2012, respectively. In May 2012, we sold our 25% equity interest in Ingamba to Stylonos Technologies Ltd., which resulted in Ingamba ceasing to be our affiliated company.

        In 2013, equity loss on investments represents the loss incurred from a 16.39% partnership interest in Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1. We recorded Won 18 million as equity loss of the partnership of Online Game Revolution Fund No.1 in 2013. On December 31, 2010, the term of the partnership of Online Game Revolution Fund No. 1 expired and its liquidation was completed in June 2013, which resulted in Online Game Revolution Fund No.1 ceasing to be our equity method investee.

Non-controlling interest

        Non-controlling interest represents the net loss from NeoCyon, our 96.11%-held subsidiary and Gravity Games, our 85.5%-held subsidiary, attributable to third-party minority interest holders. We acquired 96.11% of the voting equity of NeoCyon in 2005. We acquired 50.83% of the voting equity of Gravity Games in 2010 and increased our ownership in Gravity Games to 85.5% in August 2013.

Net loss attributable to parent company

        As a result of the foregoing, we recorded a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 18,588 million in 2013 compared to a net loss attributable to parent company of Won 12,224 million in 2012.

ITEM 5.B.    LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Liquidity

        The following table sets forth the summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2012   2013   2014   2014(1)  
 
  (In millions of Won and thousands of US$)
 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

  W 42,430   W 36,455   W 31,222   US$ 28,621  
                   

Net cash used in operating activities

    (726 )   (3,244 )   (6,147 )   (5,636 )

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

    (5,192 )   (1,234 )   3,483     3,193  

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    125     (619 )   (144 )   (132 )

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

    (182 )   (136 )   (32 )   (29 )
                   

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

    (5,975 )   (5,233 )   (2,840 )   (2,604 )
                   

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

  W 36,455   W 31,222   W 28,382   US$ 26,017