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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________________  to  __________________
Commission file number 001-39123
SILVERGATE CAPITAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Maryland
 
33-0227337
 
 
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
4250 Executive Square, Suite 300, La Jolla, CA 92037
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(858362-6300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
SI
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
At June 30, 2019 there was not a public market for the registrant’s common stock. The aggregate value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of December 31, 2019 was $224.9 million.
As of March 3, 2020, the registrant had 18,371,160 shares of Class A voting common stock and 296,836 shares of Class B non-voting common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K will be found in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and such information is incorporated herein by this reference.



SILVERGATE CAPITAL CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2

Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements represent plans, estimates, objectives, goals, guidelines, expectations, intentions, projections and statements of our beliefs concerning future events, business plans, objectives, expected operating results and the assumptions upon which those statements are based. Forward-looking statements include, without limitation, any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate or imply future results, performance or achievements, and are typically identified with words such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan” or words or phases of similar meaning. We caution that the forward-looking statements are based largely on our expectations and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on factors, which are in many instances, beyond our control. Actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those contemplated, expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
The following factors, among others, could cause our financial performance to differ materially from that expressed in such forward-looking statements:
the success of the digital currency industry, the development and acceptance of which is subject to a high degree of uncertainty, as well as the continued evolution of the regulation of this industry and uncertainty of adoption of digital currencies;
the success of the digital currency initiative and our ability to implement aspects of our growth strategy;
the concentration of our depositor relationships in the digital currency industry generally and among digital currency exchanges in particular;
our ability to grow or sustain our low-cost funding strategy related to the digital currency initiative;
system failure or cybersecurity breaches of our network security;
our ability to keep pace with rapid technological changes in the industry or implement new technology effectively;
our reliance on third-party service providers for core systems support, informational website hosting, internet services, online account opening and other processing services;
economic conditions (including interest rate environment, government economic and monetary policies, the strength of global financial markets and inflation and deflation) that impact the financial services industry and/or our business;
increased competition in the financial services industry, particularly from regional and national institutions;
credit risks, including risks related to the significance of commercial real estate loans in our portfolio, our ability to manage our credit risk effectively and the potential deterioration of the business and economic conditions in our primary market areas;
results of examinations of us by our regulators, including the possibility that our regulators may, among other things, require us to increase our allowance for loan losses or to write-down assets;
changes in the value of collateral securing our loans;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and the risks we face with respect to claims and litigation initiated against us;
interest rate risk associated with our business, including sensitivity of our interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities to interest rates, and the impact to our earnings from changes in interest rates;
our dependence on our management team and changes in management composition;
the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our ability to remediate any future material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.
the sufficiency of our capital, including sources of capital and the extent to which we may be required to raise additional capital to meet our goals;
potential exposure to fraud, negligence, computer theft and cyber-crime and other disruptions in our computer systems relating to our development and use of new technology platforms;
the adequacy of our risk management framework;
our involvement from time to time in legal proceedings, examinations and remedial actions by regulators;
changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations or policies relating to financial institution, accounting, tax, trade, monetary and fiscal matters;

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the financial soundness of other financial institutions;
natural disasters and adverse weather, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic calamities, and other matters beyond our control; and
other factors that are discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
If one or more of the factors affecting our forward-looking information and statements proves incorrect, then our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking information and statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports and registration statements filed by us with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Therefore, we caution you not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking information and statements. We will not update the forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or changes in the factors affecting the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking information and statements should not be viewed as predictions, and should not be the primary basis upon which investors evaluate us. Any investor in our common stock should consider all risks and uncertainties disclosed in our filings with the SEC, all of which are accessible on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.


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PART I
Item 1. Business
All references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Silvergate” or the “Company” mean Silvergate Capital Corporation and our consolidated subsidiaries, including Silvergate Bank, our primary operating subsidiary. All references to the ‘‘Bank’’ refer to Silvergate Bank. All references to the “Corporation” refer to Silvergate Capital Corporation. References to “common stock” or “Class A Common Stock” refer to our Class A voting common stock. References to “Class B Common Stock” refer to our Class B non-voting common stock. 
Overview
Silvergate Capital Corporation is the holding company for our wholly-owned subsidiary, Silvergate Bank, which we believe is the leading provider of innovative financial infrastructure solutions and services to participants in the nascent and expanding digital currency industry. We leverage our technology platform and our management team's expertise to develop solutions for many of the largest U.S. digital currency exchanges and investors around the globe. Our solutions are built on our deep-rooted commitment and proprietary approach to regulatory compliance.
Instrumental to our leadership position and growth strategy is the Silvergate Exchange Network (the “SEN”), our proprietary, virtually instantaneous payment network for participants in the digital currency industry which serves as a platform for the development of additional products and services. The SEN has a powerful network effect that makes it more valuable as participants and utilization increase. The SEN has enabled us to focus on significantly growing our noninterest bearing deposit product for digital currency industry participants, which has provided the majority of our funding over the last two years. This unique source of funding is a distinctive advantage over most traditional financial institutions and allows us to generate revenue from a conservative portfolio of investments in cash, short term securities and certain types of loans that we believe generate attractive risk-adjusted returns. In addition, use of the SEN has resulted in an increase in noninterest income that we believe will become a valuable source of additional revenue as we develop and deploy fee-based solutions in connection with our digital currency initiative. We are also evaluating additional products or product enhancements specifically targeted at providing further financial infrastructure solutions to our customers and strengthening SEN network effects.
The Company’s assets consist primarily of its investment in the Bank and its primary activities are conducted through the Bank. The Company is a registered bank holding company (“BHC”) that is subject to supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Bank is subject to supervision by the California Department of Business Oversight, Division of Financial Institutions (the “DBO”) and, as a Federal Reserve member bank since 2012, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (“FRB”). The Bank’s deposits are insured up to legal limits by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”).
The Bank provides financial services that include commercial banking, commercial and residential real estate lending, mortgage warehouse lending and commercial business lending. Our client base is diverse and consists of business and individual clients in California and other states and includes digital currency-related customers in the United States and internationally. In 2009, we began introducing an expanded array of relationship-oriented business products and services, which in the past six years has been augmented by our digital currency initiative. While our commercial real estate lending activities are concentrated in California, we have a broader, nationwide focus on deposit and cash management services for digital currency-related businesses, as well as mortgage warehouse and correspondent residential lending. Our goal is to establish profitable long-term banking relationships.
The Company completed its Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) of 3.3 million shares of its Class A common stock at a public offering price of $12.00 per share on November 7, 2019. The common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “SI.” The IPO generated aggregate net proceeds to the Company of $6.5 million after deducting underwriting discounts and offering expenses. Of the offered shares, 824,605 shares were offered by Silvergate and 2,508,728 shares were offered by selling shareholders. On November 15, 2019, the underwriters purchased an additional 499,999 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock from the Company’s selling shareholders in connection with the exercise in full of their option to purchase additional shares. The Company did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholders. The Company intends to use the net proceeds to support continued growth, including organic growth and for general corporate purposes, which could include repayment of long-term debt, future acquisitions and other growth initiatives.
Digital Currency Initiative
We began exploring the digital currency industry in 2013. Digital currencies are recognized as an asset class with the prospect to act as a store of value, a currency with the ability to facilitate financial transactions, and a worldwide medium of exchange, performing each function in ways that differ meaningfully from traditional fiat currencies.
In response to the rapid growth in the industry and challenges faced by investors, we began developing technology solutions, including the SEN. While innovations, such as the SEN, have enabled increasing numbers of institutional investors to

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begin investing in digital currencies, many of the world’s largest investors remain unable to invest in the asset class due to the continuing limitations of existing infrastructure. We believe that additional industry innovation will address these infrastructure challenges, enabling increased and accelerated growth in the industry. Services such as digital currency borrowing facilities do not currently exist in a meaningful way, creating significant opportunities for us to facilitate growth in the industry and to extend our leadership position into other elements of digital currency infrastructure.
We leverage the SEN and our management team’s expertise in the digital currency industry to develop, implement and maintain critical financial infrastructure solutions and services for many of the largest U.S. digital currency exchanges and global investors, as well as other digital currency infrastructure providers that utilize the Company as a foundational layer for their products. The SEN is a central element of the operations of our digital currency related customers, which enables us to grow with our existing customers and to attract new customers who can benefit from our innovative solutions and services.
Digital Currency Customers
The following list sets forth summary information regarding the types of market participants who are our primary customers:
Digital Currency Exchanges: Exchanges through which digital currencies are bought and sold; includes over-the-counter (“OTC”) trading desks.
Institutional Investors: Hedge funds, venture capital funds, private equity funds, family offices and traditional asset managers, which are investing in digital currencies as an asset class.
Other Customers: Companies developing new protocols, platforms and applications; mining operations; and providers of other services.
Our customers include some of the largest U.S. exchanges and global investors in the digital currency industry. These market participants generally hold either or both of two distinct types of funds: (i) those funds that market participants use for digital currency investment activities, which we refer to as investor funds, and (ii) those funds that market participants use for business operations, which we refer to as operating funds.
The following table presents a breakdown of our digital currency customer base and the deposits held by such customers at the dates noted below:
 
 
December 31,
2019
 
December 31,
2018
 
 
Number of Customers
 
Total Deposits(1)
 
Number of Customers
 
Total Deposits(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
Digital currency exchanges
 
60

 
$
527

 
37

 
$
618

Institutional investors
 
509

 
432

 
363

 
577

Other customers
 
235

 
286

 
142

 
274

Total
 
804

 
$
1,246

 
542

 
$
1,470

________________________
(1)
Total deposits may not foot due to rounding.
Silvergate Exchange Network
We designed the SEN as a network of digital currency exchanges and digital currency investors that enables the efficient movement of U.S. dollars between SEN participants 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. In this respect, the SEN is a first-of-its-kind digital currency infrastructure solution.
The core function of the SEN is to allow participants to make transfers of U.S. dollars from their SEN account at the Bank to the Bank account of another SEN participant with which a counterparty relationship has been established, and to view funds transfers received from their SEN counterparties. Counterparty relationships between parties effecting digital currency transactions are established on the SEN to facilitate U.S. dollar transfers associated with those transactions.
SEN transfers occur on a virtually instantaneous basis as compared to electronic funds transfers being sent outside of the Bank, such as wire transfers and ACH transactions, which can take from several hours to several days to complete. Our proprietary, cloud-based application programming interface (“API”) combined with our online banking tools, allows customers to efficiently control their fiat currency, transact through the SEN and automate their interactions with our technology platform.

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The following table presents the number of transactions and the U.S. dollar volume of transactions that occurred on the SEN for the periods presented:
 
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
% Increase
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
 
# SEN Transactions
 
46,063

 
7,869

 
485.4
%
$ Volume of SEN Transfers
 
$
32,733

 
$
8,270

 
295.8
%
Compliance
Our digital currency industry solutions and services are currently offered through the Bank. Our solutions and services are built on our deep-rooted commitment and proprietary approach to regulatory compliance. Over the past six years we have further developed our proprietary compliance capabilities-which include ongoing monitoring of customer activities and evaluating a market participant’s ability to actively monitor the flow of funds of their own customers. We believe these capabilities are a distinct competitive advantage for us, and provide a meaningful barrier to entry against our potential competitors, as there is not currently a well-established and easily navigable regulatory roadmap for competitors to serve digital currency industry customers. For this reason, our long-term investment in developing and enhancing our highly specialized compliance capabilities will remain a strategic priority for us.
Our Business Model
Our digital currency initiative has contributed significantly to an increase in our noninterest bearing deposits, which has driven the Bank’s funding costs to among the lowest in the U.S. banking industry. This has allowed us to generate attractive returns on lower risk assets through increased investments in interest earning deposits in other banks and securities, as well as funding limited loan growth. Our low risk asset strategy supports a net interest margin of 3.47% for the year ended December 31, 2019. The primary components of our business model are described more fully below:
Prudently Leveraging Lower-Cost Core Deposit Base—Our lower-cost core deposit base is a key element of our financial success. We have increased our noninterest bearing deposits as a percentage of total deposits from 21.7% as of December 31, 2016 to 74.0% as of December 31, 2019, an increase that is largely attributable to our digital currency initiative. This funding base allows us to manage our interest earning assets conservatively and we have transitioned from primarily deploying our funding into loans to deploying funds into assets such as interest earning deposits in other banks and securities that generate attractive risk-adjusted returns. For example, loans held-for-investment, net have decreased as a percentage of our total assets from 68.2% at December 31, 2016 to 31.2% at December 31, 2019 while the aggregate amount of interest earning deposits in other banks and securities available-for-sale have increased from 12.2% of total assets to 48.4% over the same time period.
We deploy our deposits into assets that generate attractive risk-adjusted returns. Our interest earning deposits in other banks and our securities portfolio have grown substantially as our noninterest bearing deposits attributable to our digital currency initiative have expanded.
We segment our deposits based on their potential volatility, which drives our choices regarding the assets we fund with such deposits. Deposits attributable to digital currency exchange customer funds and investor funds are assigned the highest potential volatility. These deposits amounted to $809.2 million as of December 31, 2019, and we invest these funds primarily in interest earning deposits in other banks and adjustable rate securities available-for-sale.
As of December 31, 2019, our interest earning deposits in other banks totaled $132.0 million. Our average yield on these deposits was 2.24% for the year ended December 31, 2019.
As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio of securities available-for-sale totaled $897.8 million, an increase of 151.3% from December 31, 2018. This portfolio is primarily composed of adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations and pools of government sponsored student loans. We view our available-for-sale securities as a conservatively managed portfolio which offers a source of additional interest income and provides liquidity management flexibility.
We have more flexibility in deciding how to deploy our deposits attributable to digital currency customer operating funds, which totaled $436.6 million as of December 31, 2019.
Conservative Lending and Niche Asset Growth—We also selectively deploy our funding into specialty lending businesses, including commercial and residential real estate lending, mortgage warehouse lending, correspondent lending, and commercial business lending. We have developed underwriting expertise across these asset classes and believe that these loans offer attractive risk-adjusted returns.

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We use a portion of our deposits attributable to digital currency exchange and investor funds as the funding source for our mortgage warehouse lending activities. We are comfortable with this strategy because of the short-term nature of our mortgage warehouse assets and because we can access funding at the Federal Home Loan Bank should we experience heightened volatility in the deposit balances related to these digital currency exchange and investor funds.
We use a portion of our deposits attributable to operating funds to make loans across our other lending businesses. A significant portion of our portfolio consists of loans on residential real estate and both owner-occupied and non-owner-occupied commercial real estate. The properties securing these loans are located primarily throughout our markets and, with respect to commercial real estate loans, are generally diverse in terms of type.
Noninterest Income—For the year ended December 31, 2019, we had noninterest income of $15.8 million compared to $7.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Our noninterest income for the 2019 period included a pre-tax gain on sale of $5.5 million for the Bank’s San Marcos branch and business loan portfolio, which was completed in March 2019. Our noninterest income excluding the gain on sale for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $10.2 million. Our ratio of noninterest income to average assets excluding the gain was 0.49%. Our noninterest income is primarily driven by service fees related to our digital currency customers, mortgage warehouse fee income and other fees.
The following chart sets forth our digital currency customer related fee income for the periods noted below:
Fee Income from Digital Currency Customers
(Dollars in thousands)
chart-ad16604714c99590197a04.jpg
Deposits
Our deposits serve as the primary funding source for lending, investing and other general banking purposes. We provide a full range of deposit products and services, including a variety of checking and savings accounts, certificates of deposit, money market accounts, remote deposit capture, online banking, mobile banking, e-Statements, bank-by-mail and direct deposit services.
Our digital currency initiative has enabled the Bank to rapidly grow deposits from digital currency customers. Because of our focus on the digital currency industry in recent years and the unique value-add solutions and services we provide, we have achieved substantial improvements in our deposit base, specifically an increase in our noninterest bearing deposits, which has driven the Bank’s funding costs to among the lowest in the U.S. banking industry.
Additionally, for businesses in Southern California, we also offer business accounts and cash management services, including business checking and savings accounts and treasury management services, which we selectively seek to cross-sell at loan origination.
Lending Activities
Overview. We maintain a diversified loan portfolio in terms of the types of loan products and customer characteristics, with a focus on shorter term and higher yielding products. The interest rates on our loans generally have initial fixed rate terms for 5-7 years and adjust annually thereafter. Our lending services cover commercial real estate loans, multi-family real estate loans, construction loans, commercial and industrial loans, consumer loans and mortgage warehouse loans. Lending activities originate from the efforts of our loan officers, with an emphasis on lending to small- to medium-sized businesses and commercial companies primarily located in our market areas. Although all lending involves a degree of risk, we believe that commercial and industrial loans, commercial real estate loans and multi-family loans present greater risks than other types of loans in our portfolio. We mitigate these risks through conservative underwriting and continuous monitoring of credit quality indicators.

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The following table presents the composition of our total loan portfolio, by segment, as of December 31, 2019:

LOAN PORTFOLIO COMPOSITION
 
 
Amount
 
Percentage
of
Total Gross
Loans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Dollars in thousands)
Real estate:
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
 
$
193,367

 
28.9
%
Multi-family
 
81,233

 
12.2
%
Commercial
 
331,052

 
49.6
%
Construction
 
7,213

 
1.1
%
Subtotal real estate
 
612,865

 
91.8
%
Commercial and industrial
 
14,440

 
2.1
%
Consumer and other
 
122

 
0.0
%
Reverse mortgage
 
1,415

 
0.2
%
Mortgage warehouse
 
39,247

 
5.9
%
Total gross loans held-for-investment
 
$
668,089

 
100.0
%
Total loans held-for-sale(1)
 
$
375,922

 
 
________________________
(1)
Loans held-for-sale includes $365.8 million of mortgage warehouse loans.
One-to-Four Family Real Estate Loans. Our one-to-four family real estate loans primarily consist of non-qualified (“Non-QM”) single-family residential (“SFR”) mortgage loans and purchases of loan pools.
Prior to the January 2014 effective date for the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) mandated SFR Ability to Repay (“ATR”), and QM Rule, the Bank devoted considerable time to determining how to best satisfy the ATR components of this rule. The Bank believed that following the rule’s effective date most banks would likely avoid Non-QM loans, which do not enjoy the presumptive compliance with ATR requirements that QM loans do. Given the rigorous ATR compliance processes the Bank built, we identified this loan category as a significant market opportunity and were among the first to offer an adjustable rate Non-QM SFR loan product to be purchased from originating mortgage lenders. The limited competition in this space resulted in the Bank being able to acquire Non-QM SFR Loans with yields above QM loans and with generally lower loan-to-value ratios and other risk metrics. Our Non-QM SFR loans may either be held-for-investment or held-for-sale. At December 31, 2019, gross Non-QM SFR loans were approximately $170.2 million.
Multi-Family Real Estate Loans. We offer multi-family real estate loans for the purchase or refinancing of apartment properties located primarily in our Southern California market area. We may periodically purchase these loans. These loans are primarily made based on the identified cash flows of the borrower and on the underlying real property collateral. Loans are generally extended for 10 years or less and amortize generally over 30 years or less, with interest rates being initially fixed for 5-7 years and adjusting annually thereafter, and we routinely charge an origination fee for our services.
Commercial Real Estate Loans. We originate and periodically purchase commercial real estate loans. These loans may be adversely affected by conditions in the real estate markets or in the general economy. Commercial real estate loans are generally extended for 10 years or less and amortize generally over 30 years or less. The interest rates on our commercial real estate loans generally have initial fixed rate terms for 5-7 years and adjust annually thereafter, and we routinely charge an origination fee for our services. We require a review of the principal owners’ personal financial statements and global debt service obligations and may require personal guarantees from borrowers. The properties securing the portfolio are located primarily throughout our markets and are generally diverse in terms of type. This diversity helps reduce the exposure to adverse economic events that affect any single industry.
Construction Loans. Our construction loans are offered very selectively within our Southern California operating area to builders of commercial or multi-family residential properties and single-family homes (generally in small subdivisions). Our construction loans typically have terms of 12 to 18 months. According to our underwriting standards, the ratio of loan principal to collateral value, as established by an independent appraisal, cannot exceed 75% for investor-owned and 80% for owner-occupied properties. We closely monitor our borrowers’ progress in construction buildout and strictly enforce our original underwriting guidelines for construction milestones and completion timelines.
Commercial and Industrial Loans. Our commercial and industrial loans consist of loans and lines of credit to small and medium-sized businesses in a wide variety of industries, including distributors, manufacturers, software developers, business

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services companies and independent finance companies. Commercial and industrial loans are generally collateralized by accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, loan and lease receivables and other commercial assets, and may be supported by credit enhancements such as personal guarantees. Risk may arise from differences between expected and actual cash flows and/or liquidity levels of the borrowers, as well as the type of collateral securing these loans and the reliability of the conversion thereof to cash. Since the March 2019 sale of our business loan portfolio, commercial and industrial loans consist primarily of asset based loans.
Mortgage Warehouse Loans. Our mortgage warehouse lending division provides short-term interim funding for single-family residential mortgage loans originated by mortgage bankers or other lenders pending the sale of such loans in the secondary market. Our risk is mitigated by comprehensive policies, procedures, and controls governing this activity, partial loan funding by the originating lender, guarantees or additional monies pledged to the Company as security, and the short holding period of funded loans on the Company’s balance sheet. In addition, loss rates of this portfolio have historically been minimal, and these loans are all subject to written purchase commitments from takeout investors or are hedged. Our mortgage warehouse loans may either be held-for-investment or held-for-sale depending on the underlying contract. Since the opening of the mortgage warehouse division in April 2009 through December 31, 2019, we purchased $31.2 billion in loans and incurred only $61,000 of net losses in 2017. We sold approximately $151.3 million and $165.1 million of loans to participants during the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. At December 31, 2019, gross warehouse loans were approximately $405.0 million.
Credit Policies and Procedures
General. We adhere to what we believe are disciplined underwriting practices, pursuant to conservative standards and guidelines. We remain cognizant of the need to serve the credit needs of customers in our primary market areas by offering flexible loan solutions in a responsive and timely manner. We maintain asset quality through an emphasis on market knowledge, long-term customer relationships, consistent and thorough underwriting for all loans, continuous surveillance and monitoring of loan portfolio and a conservative credit culture. We also seek to maintain a diversified loan portfolio. These components, together with active portfolio management, are the foundation of our credit culture, which we believe is critical to maintaining and enhancing the long-term value of our organization to our customers, employees, shareholders and communities.
Credit Concentrations. We actively monitor and manage the composition of our loan portfolio, including credit concentrations. Our credit policies establish concentration limits by loan product types and geographic locations to enhance portfolio diversification. The Bank’s concentration management program couples quantitative data with a thorough qualitative approach to provide an in-depth understanding of its loan portfolio concentrations. The Bank’s routine commercial real estate portfolio analysis includes concentration trends by portfolio product type, overall commercial real estate growth trends, pool correlations, risk rating trends, policy and/or underwriting exceptions, nonperforming asset trends, market and submarket analysis and changing economic conditions. The portfolio concentration limits set forth in Bank’s Lending and Collection Policy are reviewed and approved by the Bank’s board of directors at least annually. Concentration levels are monitored by management and reported to the Bank’s Directors’ Loan Committee (“DLC”) monthly and board of directors quarterly.
Loan Approval Process. As of December 31, 2019, the Bank had a legal lending limit of approximately $57.7 million for loans secured by cash, readily marketable collateral, or real estate collateral qualifying under the California Financial Code (the “Financial Code”), and $34.6 million for loans without such collateral or any collateral. The Bank’s lending activities are governed by written underwriting policies and procedures that have been approved by the DLC. The policies provide delegated lending authority to subcommittees of the DLC and senior management of the Bank. The lending authority hierarchy varies depending on loan amount, exceptions and total borrower exposure. We believe that our credit approval process provides for thorough underwriting and efficient decision making.
Loan Reviews and Problem Loan Management. Our credit administration staff conducts meetings at least four times a year to review asset quality and loan delinquencies. The Bank’s Lending and Collection Policy requires that we perform annual reviews of every loan of $500,000 or more not rated special mention or adversely classified. Individual loan reviews encompass a loan’s payment status and history, current and projected paying capacity of the borrower and/or guarantor(s), current condition and estimated value of any collateral, sufficiency of credit and collateral documentation, and compliance with Bank and regulatory lending standards. Loan reviewers assign an overall loan risk rating from one of the Bank’s loan rating categories and prepare a written report summarizing the review.
Once a loan is identified as a problem loan or a loan requiring a workout, the Bank makes an evaluation and develops a plan for handling the loan. In developing such a plan, management reviews all relevant information from the loan file and any loan review reports. We have conversations with the borrower and update current and projected financial information (including borrower global cash flows when possible) and collateral valuation estimates. Following analysis of all available relevant information, management adopts an action plan from the following alternatives: (a) continuation of loan collection efforts on

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their existing terms, (b) a restructure of the loan’s terms, (c) a sale of the loan, (d) a charge off or partial charge off, (e) foreclosure on pledged collateral, or (f) acceptance of a deed in lieu of foreclosure.
Investments
We manage our securities portfolio and cash to maintain adequate liquidity and to ensure the safety and preservation of invested principal, with a secondary focus on yield and returns. Specific objectives of our investment policy and portfolio are as follows:
Ensure the Safety of Principal—Bank investments are generally limited to investment-grade instruments that fully comply with all applicable regulatory guidelines and limitations. Allowable non-investment-grade instruments must be approved by the board of directors.
Income Generation—The Bank’s investment portfolio is managed to maximize income on invested funds in a manner that is consistent with the Bank’s overall financial goals and risk considerations.
Provide Liquidity—The Bank’s investment portfolio is managed to remain sufficiently liquid to meet anticipated funding demands either through declines in deposits and/or increases in loan demand.
Mitigate Interest Rate Risk—Portfolio strategies are used to assist the Bank in managing its overall interest rate sensitivity position in accordance with goals and objectives approved by the ALCO.
Since we are required to maintain high levels of liquidity for our customers who operate in the digital currency industry, our investment portfolio is comprised primarily of mortgage-backed securities backed by government-sponsored entities or highly rated credit or government-sponsored asset backed securities.
Our investment policy is reviewed and approved annually by our board of directors. Overall investment objectives are established by our board through our investment policy and monitored through our ALCO. Day-to-day activities pertaining to the securities portfolio are conducted under the supervision of the ALCO’s Securities Investment Subcommittee consisting of our Chairman, CEO, President, CFO, Chief Credit Officer, Finance Manager and Portfolio Manager. We actively monitor our investments on an ongoing basis to identify any material changes in our mix of securities. We also review our securities for potential impairment (other than temporary impairments) at least quarterly.
Competition
The banking and financial services industry is highly competitive, and we compete with a wide range of financial institutions within our markets, including local, regional and national commercial banks and credit unions. We also compete with brokerage firms, consumer finance companies, mutual funds, securities firms, insurance companies, fintech companies and other financial intermediaries for certain of our products and services. Some of our competitors are not currently subject to the regulatory restrictions and the level of regulatory supervision applicable to us.
We face direct competition from a handful of banks that are actively seeking relationships with our current and prospective digital currency customers. In addition, we compete with other infrastructure service providers primarily related to the digital currency industry. As adoption of digital currency grows, we expect additional banks, other financial institutions and other infrastructure service providers to enter into the digital currency industry and compete with us for our current and prospective digital currency customers. Additionally, some of our current digital currency customers are also licensed financial institutions that may attempt to compete with us in the future. The pace of innovation within the digital currency industry is rapid and may result in competitors or new competing business models that we are not aware of today.
Interest rates on loans and deposits, as well as prices on fee-based services, are typically significant competitive factors within the banking and financial services industry. Many of our competitors are much larger financial institutions that have greater financial resources than we do and compete aggressively for market share. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies and banking center locations.
Other important standard competitive factors in our industry and markets include office locations and hours, quality of customer service, community reputation, continuity of personnel and services, capacity and willingness to extend credit, and ability to offer sophisticated banking products and services. While we seek to remain competitive with respect to fees charged, interest rates and pricing, we believe that our broad and sophisticated commercial banking product suite, our high quality customer service culture, our positive reputation and long-standing community relationships will enable us to compete successfully within our markets and enhance our ability to attract and retain customers.

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Employees
At December 31, 2019, we employed 215 persons, of which 208 were employed on a full-time basis. None of our employees are represented by any collective bargaining unit or are a party to a collective bargaining agreement. Management of the Company considers its employee relations to be excellent.
Supervision and Regulation
General
We are extensively regulated under both federal and state law. These laws restrict permissible activities and investments and require compliance with various consumer protection provisions applicable to lending, deposit, brokerage, and fiduciary activities. They also impose capital adequacy requirements and conditions on a BHC’s ability to pay dividends to its shareholders, to repurchase stock or to receive dividends from its subsidiary banks. As a BHC, the Corporation is subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve. We are required to file with the Federal Reserve quarterly and annual reports and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHC Act”). The Federal Reserve conducts examinations of the Corporation and its subsidiaries. The Corporation is also a BHC within the meaning of the California Financial Code. As such, the Corporation and its subsidiaries are subject to examination by, and may be required to file reports with, the DBO. As a California state-chartered commercial bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve, the Bank is subject to supervision, periodic examination and regulation by the DBO and the Federal Reserve. The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC through the Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”). Based on of this deposit insurance function, the FDIC also has certain supervisory authority and powers over the Bank as well as all other FDIC insured institutions. As a California-chartered commercial bank, the Bank is also subject to certain provisions of California law. The Corporation’s and the Bank’s regulators generally have broad discretion to impose restrictions and limitations on our operations. Bank regulation is intended to protect depositors and consumers and not shareholders. This supervisory framework could materially impact the conduct and profitability of our activities.
To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the text of applicable statutory and regulatory provisions. Proposals to change the laws and regulations governing the banking industry are frequently raised at both the state and federal levels. The likelihood and timing of any changes in these laws and regulations, and the impact such changes may have on us, are difficult to ascertain. In addition to laws and regulations, bank regulatory agencies may issue policy statements, interpretive letters and similar written guidance applicable to the Corporation or the Bank. A change in applicable laws, regulations or regulatory guidance, or in the manner such laws, regulations or regulatory guidance are interpreted by regulatory agencies or courts, may have a material effect on our business, operations, and earnings.
Regulation of Silvergate Capital Corporation
We are registered as a BHC under the BHC Act and are subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve. The BHC Act and Home Owners’ Loan Act require us to secure the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before we own or control, directly or indirectly, more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all the assets of any bank, thrift, bank holding company or thrift holding company, or merge or consolidate with another bank or thrift holding company. Further, under the BHC Act, our activities and those of any nonbank subsidiary are limited to: (i) those activities that the Federal Reserve determines to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto, and (ii) investments in companies not engaged in activities closely related to banking, subject to quantitative limitations on the value of such investments. Prior approval of the Federal Reserve may be required before engaging in certain activities. In making such determinations, the Federal Reserve is required to weigh the expected benefits to the public, such as greater convenience, increased competition, and gains in efficiency, against the possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, and unsound banking practices.
Subject to various exceptions, the BHC Act and the Change in Bank Control Act (the “CBCA”), together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a BHC, such as the Corporation. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if an individual or company acquires 25% or more of any class of voting securities of the BHC. With respect to the CBCA, a rebuttable presumption of control arises if a person or company acquires 10% or more, but less than 25%, of any class of voting securities and either: (i) the BHC has registered securities under Section 12 of the Securities Act; or (ii) no other person owns a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction. The Federal Reserve may require an investor to enter into passivity and, if other companies are making similar investments, anti-association commitments.
The BHC Act was substantially amended by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the “GLBA”), which, among other things, permits a “financial holding company” to engage in a broader range of nonbanking activities, and to engage on less restrictive terms in certain activities than were previously permitted. These expanded activities include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and sales, and merchant banking activities. To become a financial holding company, a BHC

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must certify that it and all depository institutions that it controls are both “well capitalized” and “well managed” (as defined by federal law), and that all subsidiary depository institutions have at least a “satisfactory” Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) rating. To date we have not elected to become a financial holding company.
There are several restrictions imposed on us by law and regulatory policy that are designed to minimize potential loss to depositors and to the DIF in the event that a subsidiary depository institution should become insolvent. For example, federal law requires a BHC to serve as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary depository institutions and to commit resources to support such institutions in circumstances where it might not do so in the absence of the rule. The Federal Reserve also has the authority under the BHC Act to require a BHC to terminate any activity or to relinquish control of a nonbank subsidiary upon the Federal Reserve’s determination that such activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness and stability of any bank subsidiary of the BHC.
Any capital loan by a BHC to a subsidiary depository institution is subordinate in right of payment to deposits and certain other indebtedness of the institution. In addition, in the event of the BHC’s bankruptcy, any commitment made by the BHC to a federal banking regulatory agency to maintain the capital of its subsidiary depository institution(s) will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
The FDIC provides that, in the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution (including the claims of the FDIC as a subrogee of insured depositors) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution, such as the Bank, fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including the institution’s holding company, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
Regulation of Silvergate Bank
The operations and investments of our Bank are subject to the supervision, examination, and reporting requirements of the DBO and the Federal Reserve and to federal banking statutes and regulations related to, among other things, the level of reserves that our Bank must maintain against deposits, restrictions on the types, amount, and terms and conditions of loans it may originate, and limits on the types of other activities in which our Bank may engage and the investments that it may make. Because our Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC to the maximum extent provided by law, it is also subject to certain FDIC regulations, and the FDIC has backup examination authority and some enforcement powers over our Bank. If, based on an examination of our Bank, the regulators should determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of the Bank’s operations are unsatisfactory or that the Bank or our management is violating or has violated any law or regulation, various remedies are available to the regulators. Such remedies include the power to enjoin unsafe or unsound practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in capital, to restrict growth, to assess civil monetary penalties, to remove officers and directors and ultimately to request the FDIC to terminate the Bank’s deposit insurance. As a California-chartered commercial bank, the Bank is also subject to certain provisions of California law.
Regulatory Relief Act
On May 24, 2018, President Trump signed into law the “Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act” (the “Regulatory Relief Act”), which amends parts of the Dodd-Frank Act and other laws that involve regulation of the financial industry. While the Regulatory Relief Act keeps in place fundamental aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act’s regulatory framework, it does make regulatory changes that are favorable to depository institutions with assets under $10 billion, such as the Bank and to BHCs with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, such as the Company. The Regulatory Relief Act also makes changes to consumer mortgage and credit reporting regulations and to the authorities of the agencies that regulate the financial industry. Certain provisions of the Regulatory Relief Act favorable to the Company and the Bank require the federal banking agencies to either promulgate regulations or amend existing regulations, and it will likely take some time for these agencies to implement the necessary regulations.
Provisions That Are Favorable to Community Banks. There are several provisions in the Regulatory Relief Act that will have a favorable impact on community banks such as the Bank. These are briefly referenced below.
Increase in Small Bank Holding Company Policy Threshold. The Regulatory Relief Act directs the Federal Reserve to increase the asset threshold for qualifying for the Federal Reserve’s “Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement” (the “Policy”), from $1 billion to $3 billion. The Federal Reserve’s revisions to the Policy took effect on August 30, 2018. Small BHCs or SLHCs are excluded from the Policy if they are engaged in significant nonbanking activities, engaged in significant off-balance sheet activities, or have a material amount of debt or equity registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The Federal Reserve also retains the authority to exclude any BHC or SLHC from the Policy if such action is warranted for supervisory purposes. The Policy allows covered BHCs to operate with higher levels of debt than would

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normally be permitted, subject to certain restrictions on dividends and the expectation that the BHC will reduce its reliance on debt over time. Also, BHCs that are subject to the Policy are exempt from the Federal Reserve’s consolidated risk-based and leverage capital rules implementing Basel III and are instead subject to the capital requirements that had been in place before the U.S. implementation of the Basel III standards, which are generally less onerous. BHCs subject to the Policy also have less extensive regulatory reporting requirements than larger organizations filing reports on a semi-annual rather than quarterly basis. Management believes the Corporation meets the conditions of the Federal Reserve’s Policy and is therefore excluded from consolidated capital requirements at December 31, 2019; however the Bank remains subject to regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal banking agencies.
Increase in Asset Threshold for Qualifying for an 18-Month Examination Cycle. The Regulatory Relief Act increases the asset threshold for institutions qualifying for an 18-month on-site examination cycle from $1 billion to $3 billion in total consolidated assets.
Short Form Call Reports. The Regulatory Relief Act requires the federal banking agencies to promulgate regulations allowing an insured depository institution with less than $5 billion in total consolidated assets (and that satisfies such other criteria as determined to be appropriate by the agencies) to submit a short-form call report for its first and third quarters.
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
We are subject to federal laws, such as Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act (the “FRA”), that limit the size, number and terms of the transactions that depository institutions may engage in with their affiliates. Under these provisions, covered transactions by a bank with nonbank affiliates (such as loans to or investments in an affiliate by the bank) must be on arms-length terms and generally be limited to 10% of the bank’s capital and surplus for all covered transactions with any one affiliate, and 20% of capital and surplus for all covered transactions with all affiliates. Any extensions of credit to affiliates, with limited exceptions, must be secured by eligible collateral in specified amounts. Banks are also prohibited from purchasing any “low quality” assets from an affiliate. The Dodd-Frank Act generally enhanced the restrictions on transactions with affiliates under Section 23A and 23B of the FRA, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” to include derivatives transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements and securities lending or borrowing transactions and an increase in the period of time during which collateral requirements regarding covered credit transactions must be satisfied. The Federal Reserve has promulgated Regulation W, which codifies prior interpretations under Sections 23A and 23B of the FRA and provides interpretive guidance with respect to affiliate transactions. Affiliates of a bank include, among other entities, a bank’s BHC parent and companies that are under common control with the bank. We are considered to be an affiliate of the Bank.
We are also subject to restrictions on extensions of credit to our executive officers, directors, shareholders who own more than 10% of our Class A and Class B Common Stock, and their related interests. These extensions of credit must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties, and must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Loans to such persons and certain affiliated entities of any of the foregoing, may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such person and affiliated entities, may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such person and affiliated entities, the institution’s loans-to-one-borrower limit as discussed under “Loans to One Borrower.” Federal regulations also prohibit loans above amounts prescribed by the appropriate federal banking agency to directors, executive officers, and shareholders who own more than 10% of an institution, and their respective affiliates, unless such loans are approved in advance by a majority of the board of directors of the institution. Any “interested” director may not participate in the voting. The proscribed loan amount, which includes all other outstanding loans to such person, as to which such prior board of director approval is required, is the greater of $25,000 or 5% of capital and surplus up to $500,000. Furthermore, we are prohibited from engaging in asset purchases or sales transactions with our officers, directors, or principal shareowners unless the transaction is on market terms and, if the transaction represents greater than 10% of the capital and surplus of the bank, a majority of the bank’s disinterested directors has approved the transaction.
Indemnification payments to any director, officer or employee of either a bank or a BHC are subject to certain constraints imposed by the FDIC.
Incentive Compensation
Federal banking agencies have issued guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that appropriately balance risk and rewards in a manner that does not encourage imprudent risk taking, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. In accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the federal banking agencies prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risk

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taking by covered financial institutions (generally institutions that have over $1 billion in assets) and are deemed to be excessive, or that may lead to material losses.
The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as the Company, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the organization’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk-management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.
The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators’ policies on executive compensation may continue to evolve in the future. It presently cannot be determined whether compliance with such policies will adversely affect the Company’s ability to hire, retain and motivate its key employees.
Loans to One Borrower
Under California law, our ability to make aggregate secured and unsecured loans-to-one-borrower is limited to 25% and 15%, respectively, of unimpaired capital and surplus. At December 31, 2019, the Bank’s limit on aggregate secured loans-to-one-borrower was approximately $57.7 million for loans secured by cash, readily marketable collateral, or real estate collateral qualifying under the California Financial Code, and $34.6 million for loans without such collateral or any collateral.
Deposit Insurance
Our deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the DIF of the FDIC. The DIF is the successor to the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which were merged in 2006. Deposit insurance is mandatory. We are required to pay assessments to the FDIC on a quarterly basis. The assessment amount is the product of multiplying the assessment base by the assessment amount.
The assessment base against which the assessment rate is applied to determine the total assessment due for a given period is the depository institution’s average total consolidated assets during the assessment period less average tangible equity during that assessment period. Tangible equity is defined in the assessment rule as Tier 1 Capital and is calculated monthly, unless the insured depository institution has less than $1 billion in assets, in which case the insured depository institution calculates Tier 1 Capital on an end-of-quarter basis. Parents or holding companies of other insured depository institutions are required to report separately from their subsidiary depository institutions.
The FDIC’s methodology for setting assessments for individual banks has changed over time, although the broad policy is that lower-risk institutions should pay lower assessments than higher-risk institutions. The FDIC now uses a methodology, known as the “financial ratios method,” that began to apply on July 1, 2016, in order to meet requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act. The statute established a minimum designated reserve ratio (the “DFR”), for the DIF of 1.35% of the estimated insured deposits and required the FDIC to adopt a restoration plan should the reserve ratio fall below 1.35%. The financial ratios took effect when the DRR exceeded 1.15%. The FDIC declared that the DIF reserve ratio exceeded 1.15% by the end of the second quarter of 2016. Accordingly, beginning July 1, 2016, the FDIC began to use the financial ratios method. This methodology assigns a specific assessment rate to each institution based on the institution’s leverage capital, supervisory ratings, and information from the institution’s call report. Under this methodology, the assessment rate schedules used to determine assessments due from insured depository institutions become progressively lower when the reserve ratio in the DIF exceeds 2% and 2.5%.
The Dodd-Frank Act also raised the limit for federal deposit insurance to $250,000 for most deposit accounts and increased the cash limit of Securities Investor Protection Corporation protection from $100,000 to $250,000.
The FDIC has authority to increase insurance assessments. A significant increase in insurance assessments would likely have an adverse effect on our operating expenses and results of operations. We cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future. Furthermore, deposit insurance may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that an insured depository institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, or condition imposed by the FDIC.
Dividends
It is the Federal Reserve’s policy that BHCs, such as the Company, should generally pay dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs and financial condition. It is also the Federal Reserve’s policy that BHCs should not maintain dividend levels that undermine their ability to be a source of strength to its banking subsidiaries. Additionally, in consideration of the

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current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has indicated that BHCs should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. It is our policy to retain earnings, if any, to provide funds for use in our business. We have never declared or paid dividends on our Class A and Class B Common Stock.
The Bank’s ability to pay dividends to the Company is subject to restrictions set forth in the Financial Code. The Financial Code provides that a bank may not make a cash distribution to its shareholders exceeding the lesser of a bank’s (1) retained earnings; or (2) net income for its last three fiscal years, less the amount of any distributions made by the bank or by any majority-owned subsidiary of the bank to the shareholders of the bank during such period. However, a bank may, with the approval of the DBO, make a distribution to its shareholders in an amount not exceeding the greatest of (a) its retained earnings; (b) its net income for its last fiscal year; or (c) its net income for its current fiscal year. If bank regulators determine that the shareholders’ equity of a bank is inadequate or that the making of a distribution by the bank would be unsafe or unsound, the regulators may order the bank to refrain from making a proposed distribution. The payment of dividends could, depending on the financial condition of a bank, be deemed to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. Under the foregoing provision of the Financial Code, the amount available for distribution from the Bank to the Company was approximately $59.4 million at December 31, 2019.
Approval of the Federal Reserve is required for payment of any dividend by a state chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve, such as the Bank, if the total of all dividends declared by the bank in any calendar year would exceed the total of its retained net income for that year combined with its retained net income for the preceding two years. In addition, a state member bank may not pay a dividend in an amount greater than its undivided profits without regulatory and shareholder approval. The Bank is also prohibited under federal law from paying any dividend that would cause it to become undercapitalized.
Capital Adequacy Guidelines
In December 2010, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision released its final framework for strengthening international capital and liquidity regulation, or Basel III. Basel III requires banks to maintain a higher level of capital than previously required, with a greater emphasis on common equity. The Dodd-Frank Act imposed generally applicable capital requirements with respect to BHCs and their bank subsidiaries and mandated that the federal banking regulatory agencies adopt rules and regulations to implement the Basel III requirements.
In July 2013, the federal banking agencies adopted a final rule, or the Basel III Final Rule, implementing these standards. Under the Basel III Final Rule, trust preferred securities are excluded from Tier 1 capital unless such securities were issued prior to May 19, 2010 by a BHC with less than $15 billion in assets, subject to certain limits. The trust preferred securities issued by our unconsolidated subsidiary capital trusts qualify as Tier 1 capital. The Dodd-Frank Act additionally provides for countercyclical capital requirements so that the required amount of capital increases in times of economic expansion and decreases in times of economic contraction, consistent with safety and soundness. Under the Basel III Final Rule, which implements this concept, banks must maintain a capital conservation buffer consisting of additional common equity Tier 1 capital equal to 2.5% of risk-weighted assets above each of the required minimum capital levels in order to avoid limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying certain discretionary bonuses. This new capital conservation buffer requirement began to be phased in beginning in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and increased by this amount each year until it became fully implemented at 2.5% in January 2019.
For purposes of calculating risk-weighted assets, the Basel III Final Rule is designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks, to account for off-balance sheet exposures, and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Under this rule, assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets, which reflect on- and off-balance sheet items.
For this purpose, certain off-balance sheet items are assigned certain credit conversion factors to convert them to asset-equivalent amounts to which an appropriate risk-weighting will apply. Those computations result in the total risk-weighted assets. Most loans are assigned to the 100% risk category, except for performing first mortgage loans fully secured by residential property, which carry a 50% risk weighting. Most investment securities (including, primarily, general obligation claims of states or other political subdivisions of the United States) are assigned to the 20% category. Exceptions include municipal or state revenue bonds, which have a 50% risk weighting, and direct obligations of the United States Treasury or obligations backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government, which have a 0% risk weighting. In converting off-balance sheet items, direct credit substitutes, including general guarantees and standby letters of credit backing financial obligations, are assigned a 100% credit conversion factor. Transaction-related contingencies such as bid bonds, standby letters of credit backing non-financial obligations, and undrawn commitments (including commercial credit lines with an initial maturity of more than one year) are assigned a 50% credit conversion factor. Short-term commercial letters of credit are

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assigned a 20% credit conversion factor, and certain short-term unconditionally cancelable commitments are assigned a 0% credit conversion factor.
Minimum capital standards under the Basel III Final Rule for banks of our size took effect on January 1, 2015 with a phase-in period that generally extended through January 1, 2019 for certain of the changes. As discussed under “-Prompt Corrective Action,” depository institutions and depository holding companies with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, such as the Company and the Bank, will be deemed to satisfy both the leverage and risk-based capital requirements, provided they satisfy a new “Community Bank Leverage Ratio” required to be promulgated by the Federal Banking agencies.
Under the Basel III Final Rule, the minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets (including certain off-balance sheet activities, such as standby letters of credit) is 8%. While there was previously no required ratio of “Common Equity Tier 1 Capital” (“CET1”) (which generally consists of common stock, retained earnings, certain qualifying capital instruments issued by consolidated subsidiaries, and Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, subject to certain adjustments and deductions for items such as goodwill, other intangible assets, reciprocal holdings of other banking organizations’ capital instruments, investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries and any other deductions as determined by the appropriate regulator) to risk-weighted assets, a required minimum ratio of 4.5% became effective on January 1, 2015 as well. The required ratio of “Tier 1 Capital” (consisting generally of CET1 and qualifying preferred stock) to risk-weighted assets is 6%. The remainder of total capital, or Tier 2 Capital, may consist of (a) the allowance for loan losses of up to 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, (b) preferred stock not qualifying as Tier 1 Capital, (c) hybrid capital instruments, (d) perpetual debt, (e) mandatory convertible securities, and (f) certain subordinated debt and intermediate-term preferred stock up to 50% of Tier 1 Capital. Total Capital is the sum of Tier 1 Capital and Tier 2 Capital.
As of January 1, 2019, the Bank is required to maintain a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0%, a minimum CET1 to risk-weighted assets ratio of 7%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 8.5% and a minimum total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 10.5%.
The Basel III Final Rule also includes minimum leverage ratio requirements for banking organizations, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 Capital to adjusted average consolidated assets. Prior to the effective date of the Basel III Final Rule, banks and BHCs meeting certain specified criteria, including having the highest regulatory rating and not experiencing significant growth or expansion, were permitted to maintain a minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to adjusted average quarterly assets equal to 3%. Other banks and BHCs generally were required to maintain a minimum leverage ratio between 4% and 5%. Under the Basel III Final Rule, as of January 1, 2015, the required minimum leverage ratio for all banks is 4%.
As an additional means of identifying problems in the financial management of depository institutions, the federal banking regulatory agencies have established certain non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions for which they are the primary federal regulator. The standards relate generally to operations and management, asset quality, interest rate exposure, and executive compensation. The agencies are authorized to take action against institutions that fail to meet such standards.
The requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act are still in the process of being implemented over time and most will be subject to regulations implemented over the course of several years. In addition, the Regulatory Relief Act modifies several provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act, but are subject to implementing regulations. Given the uncertainty associated with the how the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and the Regulatory Relief Act will be implemented by the various regulatory agencies and through regulations, the full extent of the impact such requirements will have on our operations is unclear. On September 27, 2017, the federal banking agencies proposed a rule intended to reduce the regulatory compliance burden, particularly on community banking organizations, by simplifying several requirements in the Basel III-based capital rules. Specifically, the proposed rule simplifies the capital treatment for certain acquisition, development, and construction loans, mortgage servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets, investments in the capital instruments of unconsolidated financial institutions, and minority interest. In 2017, the federal banking agencies adopted an extension of the transition period for application of the Basel III-based capital rules to certain investments, effectively freezing the capital treatment of affected investments until the changes proposed in the September 2017 proposal are finalized and effective. In addition, the Regulatory Relief Bill addressed the capital treatment of certain acquisition, development and construction loans. See “—Commercial Real Estate Construction Guidelines.”
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms, which standards are commonly referred to as Basel IV. Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including the recalibration of the risk weights and the introduction of new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provides a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Bank. The impact of Basel IV on us will depend on how it is implemented by the federal bank regulators.

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Commercial Real Estate Concentration Guidelines
In December 2006, the federal banking regulators issued guidance entitled “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices” to address increased concentrations in commercial real estate loans. In addition, in December 2015, the federal bank agencies issued additional guidance entitled “Statement on Prudent Risk Management for Commercial Real Estate Lending.” Together, these guidelines describe the criteria the agencies will use as indicators to identify institutions potentially exposed to CRE concentration risk. An institution that has (i) experienced rapid growth in CRE lending, (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of CRE, (iii) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land representing 100% or more of the institution’s capital, or (iv) total non-owner-occupied CRE (including construction) loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s capital, and the outstanding balance of the institutions CRE portfolio has increased by 50% or more in the prior 36 months, may be identified for further supervisory analysis of the level and nature of its CRE concentration risk.
At December 31, 2019, the Bank’s ratio of construction loans to total capital was 3.1%, its ratio of total non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans to total capital ratio was 142.5% and, therefore, was under the 100% and 300% regulatory guideline thresholds set forth in clauses (iii) and (iv) above. As a result, we are not deemed to have a concentration in commercial real estate lending under applicable regulatory guidelines.
Currently, loans categorized as “high-volatility commercial real estate” loans (“HVCRE loans”), are required to be assigned a 150% risk weighting, and require additional capital support. HVCRE loans are defined to include any credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition, development or construction of real property, unless it finances: 1-4 family residential properties; certain community development investments; agricultural land used or usable for, and whose value is based on, agricultural use; or commercial real estate projects in which: (i) the loan to value is less than the applicable maximum supervisory loan to value ratio established by the bank regulatory agencies; (ii) the borrower has contributed cash or unencumbered readily marketable assets, or has paid development expenses out of pocket, equal to at least 15% of the appraised “as completed” value; (iii) the borrower contributes its 15% before the bank advances any funds; and (iv) the capital contributed by the borrower, and any funds internally generated by the project, is contractually required to remain in the project until the facility is converted to permanent financing, sold or paid in full.
The Regulatory Relief Act prohibits federal banking agencies from assigning heightened risk weights to HVCRE exposures, unless the exposures are classified as HVCRE acquisition, development, and construction loans. The Federal banking agencies issued a proposal in September 2017 to simplify the treatment of HVCRE and to create a new category of commercial real estate loans-“high-volatility acquisition, development or construction,”(“HVADC exposures”)-with a lower risk weight of 130%. A significant difference between the Regulatory Relief Act and the agencies’ HVADC proposal arises from the Regulatory Relief Act’s preservation of the exemption for projects where the borrower has contributed at least 15% of the real property’s appraised “as completed” value.
Prompt Corrective Action
In addition to the required minimum capital levels described above, federal law establishes a system of “prompt corrective actions” that federal banking agencies are required to take, and certain actions that they have discretion to take, based upon the capital category into which a federally regulated depository institution falls. Regulations set forth detailed procedures and criteria for implementing prompt corrective action in the case of any institution which is not adequately capitalized. Under the prompt corrective action rules, an institution is deemed “well capitalized” if its leverage ratio, Common Equity Tier 1 ratio, Tier 1 Capital ratio, and Total Capital ratio meet or exceed 5%, 6.5%, 8%, and 10%, respectively. An institution is deemed to be “adequately capitalized” or better if its leverage, Common Equity Tier 1, Tier 1, and Total Capital ratios meet or exceed the minimum federal regulatory capital requirements set forth in the Basel III Final Rule. An institution is “undercapitalized” if it fails to meet the minimum capital requirements. An institution is “significantly undercapitalized” if any one of its leverage, Common Equity Tier 1, Tier 1, and Total Capital ratios falls below 3%, 3%, 4%, and 6%, respectively, and “critically undercapitalized” if the institution has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is equal to or less than 2%.
The Regulatory Relief Act requires the federal banking agencies to promulgate a rule establishing a new “Community Bank Leverage Ratio” of 8% to 10% for depository institutions and depository institution holding companies, including banks and BHCs, with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, such as the Company and the Bank. If such a depository institution or holding company maintains tangible equity in excess of this leverage ratio, it would be deemed in compliance with all other capital and leverage requirements: (1) the leverage and risk-based capital requirements promulgated by the federal banking agencies; (2) in the case of a depository institution, the capital ratio requirements to be considered “well capitalized” under the federal banking agencies’ “prompt corrective action” regime; and (3) any other capital or leverage requirements to which the depository institution or holding company is subject, in each case, unless the appropriate federal banking agency determines otherwise based on the particular institution’s risk profile.
The prompt corrective action rules require an undercapitalized institution to file a written capital restoration plan, along with a performance guaranty by its holding company or a third party. In addition, an undercapitalized institution becomes

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subject to certain automatic restrictions, including a prohibition on payment of dividends and a limitation on asset growth and expansion in certain cases, a limitation on the payment of bonuses or raises to senior executive officers, and a prohibition on the payment of certain “management fees” to any “controlling person.” Institutions that are classified as undercapitalized are also subject to certain additional supervisory actions, including increased reporting burdens and regulatory monitoring; limitations on the institution’s ability to make acquisitions, open new branch offices, or engage in new lines of business; obligations to raise additional capital; restrictions on transactions with affiliates; and restrictions on interest rates paid by the institution on deposits. In certain cases, banking regulatory agencies may require replacement of senior executive officers or directors, or sale of the institution to a willing purchaser. If an institution is deemed to be “critically undercapitalized” and continues in that category for 90 days, the statute requires, with certain narrowly limited exceptions, that the institution be placed in receivership.
An insured depository institution’s capital level may have consequences outside the prompt corrective action regime. For example, only well-capitalized institutions may accept brokered deposits without restrictions on rates, while adequately capitalized institutions must seek a waiver from the FDIC to accept such deposits and are subject to rate restrictions. Well-capitalized institutions may be eligible for expedited treatment of certain applications, an advantage not available to other institutions.
As noted above, Basel III integrates the new capital requirements into the prompt corrective action category definitions. As a result of the Federal Reserve’s revisions to the Policy raising the total consolidated asset limit in the Policy from $1 billion to $3 billion, the Corporation is currently exempt from the consolidated capital requirements.
Capital Category
Total Risk-
Based
Capital Ratio
 
Tier 1 Risk-
Based
Capital Ratio
 
Common Equity
Tier 1 (CET1)
Capital Ratio
 
Leverage
Ratio
 
Tangible
Equity
to Assets
 
Supplemental
Leverage
Ratio
Well Capitalized
10% or greater
 
8% or greater
 
6.5% or greater
 
5% or greater
 
n/a
 
n/a
Adequately Capitalized
8% or greater
 
6% or greater
 
4.5% or greater
 
4% or greater
 
n/a
 
3% or greater
Undercapitalized
Less than 8%
 
Less than 6%
 
Less than 4.5%
 
Less than 4%
 
n/a
 
Less than 3%
Significantly Undercapitalized
Less than 6%
 
Less than 4%
 
Less than 3%
 
Less than 3%
 
n/a
 
n/a
Critically Undercapitalized
n/a
 
n/a
 
n/a
 
n/a
 
Less than 2%
 
n/a
As of December 31, 2019, the Bank was “well capitalized” according to the guidelines as generally discussed above.
Safety and Soundness Standards
The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines designed to assist the federal banking agencies in identifying and addressing potential safety and soundness concerns before capital becomes impaired. The guidelines set forth operational and managerial standards relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) asset growth; (v) earnings; and (vi) compensation, fees and benefits.
In addition, the federal banking agencies have also adopted safety and soundness guidelines with respect to asset quality and for evaluating and monitoring earnings to ensure that earnings are sufficient for the maintenance of adequate capital and reserves. These guidelines provide six standards for establishing and maintaining a system to identify problem assets and prevent those assets from deteriorating. Under these standards, an insured depository institution should: (i) conduct periodic asset quality reviews to identify problem assets; (ii) estimate the inherent losses in problem assets and establish reserves that are sufficient to absorb estimated losses; (iii) compare problem asset totals to capital; (iv) take appropriate corrective action to resolve problem assets; (v) consider the size and potential risks of material asset concentrations; and (vi) provide periodic asset quality reports with adequate information for management and the board of directors to assess the level of asset risk.
Community Reinvestment Act
The CRA requires the federal banking regulatory agencies to assess all financial institutions that they regulate to determine whether these institutions are meeting the credit needs of the communities they serve, including their assessment area(s) (as established for these purposes in accordance with applicable regulations based principally on the location of branch offices). In addition to substantial penalties and corrective measures that may be required for a violation of certain fair lending laws, the federal banking agencies may take compliance with such laws and CRA into account when regulating and supervising other activities. Under the CRA, institutions are assigned a rating of “outstanding,” “satisfactory,” “needs to improve,” or “unsatisfactory.” An institution’s record in meeting the requirements of the CRA is based on a performance-based evaluation system, and is made publicly available and is taken into consideration in evaluating any applications it files with federal regulators to engage in certain activities, including approval of a branch or other deposit facility, mergers and acquisitions, office relocations, or expansions into nonbanking activities. Our Bank received a “satisfactory” rating in its most recent CRA evaluation.

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Anti-Terrorism, Money Laundering Legislation and OFAC
The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the “USA Patriot Act”). These statutes and related rules and regulations impose requirements and limitations on specified financial transactions and accounts and other relationships intended to guard against money laundering and terrorism financing. The principal requirements for an insured depository institution include (i) establishment of an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components, (ii) establishment of a “know your customer” program involving due diligence to confirm the identities of persons seeking to open accounts and to deny accounts to those persons unable to demonstrate their identities, (iii) the filing of currency transaction reports for deposits and withdrawals of large amounts of cash and suspicious activities reports for activity that might signify money laundering, tax evasion, or other criminal activities, (iv) additional precautions for accounts sought and managed for non-U.S. persons and (v) verification and certification of money laundering risk with respect to private banking and foreign correspondent banking relationships. For many of these tasks a bank must keep records to be made available to its primary federal regulator. Anti-money laundering rules and policies are developed by a bureau within FinCEN, but compliance by individual institutions is overseen by its primary federal regulator.
The Bank has established appropriate anti-money laundering and customer identification programs. The Bank also maintains records of cash purchases of negotiable instruments, files reports of certain cash transactions exceeding $10,000 (daily aggregate amount), and reports suspicious activity that might signify money laundering, tax evasion, or other criminal activities pursuant to the Bank Secrecy Act. The Bank otherwise has implemented policies and procedures to comply with the foregoing requirements.
The Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and persons, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. OFAC publishes lists of persons that are the target of sanctions, including the List of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Financial institutions are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of and transactions with sanctioned persons and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked and rejected transactions after their occurrence. If the Company or the Bank finds a name or other information on any transaction, account or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list or that otherwise indicates that the transaction involves a target of sanctions, the Company or the Bank generally must freeze or block such account or transaction, file a suspicious activity report, and notify the appropriate authorities. Banking regulators examine banks for compliance with the economic sanctions regulations administered by OFAC.
The Bank has implemented policies and procedures to comply with the foregoing requirements.
Data Privacy and Cybersecurity
The GLBA and the implementing regulations issued by federal regulatory agencies require financial institutions (including banks, insurance agencies, and broker/dealers) to adopt policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about their customers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, financial institutions are required to explain to customers their policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information and, unless otherwise required or permitted by law, financial institutions are prohibited from disclosing such information except as provided in their policies and procedures. Specifically, the GLBA established certain information security guidelines that require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to develop, implement, and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, to protect against anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, and to protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer.
Recent cyber-attacks against banks and other financial institutions that resulted in unauthorized access to confidential customer information have prompted the federal banking regulators to issue extensive guidance on cybersecurity. Among other things, financial institutions are expected to design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and ensure that their risk management processes address the risks posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to authenticate customers accessing internet-based services. A financial institution also should have a robust business continuity program to recover from a cyberattack and procedures for monitoring the security of third-party service providers that may have access to nonpublic data at the institution.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
The Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), which is an independent bureau with broad authority to regulate the consumer finance industry, including regulated financial institutions, nonbanks and others involved in extending credit to consumers. The CFPB has authority through rulemaking, orders, policy statements, guidance, and enforcement actions to administer and enforce federal consumer financial laws, to oversee several entities and market

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segments not previously under the supervision of a federal regulator, and to impose its own regulations and pursue enforcement actions when it determines that a practice is unfair, deceptive, or abusive. The federal consumer financial laws and all the functions and responsibilities associated with them, many of which were previously enforced by other federal regulatory agencies, were transferred to the CFPB on July 21, 2011. While the CFPB has the power to interpret, administer, and enforce federal consumer financial laws, the Dodd-Frank Act provides that the federal banking regulatory agencies continue to have examination and enforcement powers over the financial institutions that they supervise relating to the matters within the jurisdiction of the CFPB if such institutions have less than $10 billion in assets. The Dodd-Frank Act also gives state attorneys general the ability to enforce federal consumer protection laws.
Mortgage Loan Origination
The Dodd-Frank Act authorizes the CFPB to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages, including a determination of the borrower’s ability to repay. Under the Dodd-Frank Act and the implementing final rule adopted by the CFPB, or the ATR/QM Rule, a financial institution may not make a residential mortgage loan to a consumer unless it first makes a “reasonable and good faith determination” that the consumer has a “reasonable ability” to repay the loan. In addition, the ATR/QM Rule limits prepayment penalties and permits borrowers to raise certain defenses to foreclosure if they receive any loan other than a “qualified mortgage,” as defined by the CFPB. For this purpose, the ATR/QM Rule defines a “qualified mortgage” to include a loan with a borrower debt-to-income ratio of less than or equal to 43% or, alternatively, a loan eligible for purchase by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac while they operate under federal conservatorship or receivership, and loans eligible for insurance or guarantee by the Federal Housing Administration, Veterans Administration, or United States Department of Agriculture. Additionally, a qualified mortgage may not: (i) contain excess upfront points and fees; (ii) have a term greater than 30 years; or (iii) include interest only or negative amortization payments. The ATR/QM Rule specifies the types of income and assets that may be considered in the ability-to-repay determination, the permissible sources for verification, and the required methods of calculating the loan’s monthly payments. The ATR/QM Rule became effective in January 2014.
The Regulatory Relief Act provides that for certain insured depository institutions and insured credit unions with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, mortgage loans that are originated and retained in portfolio will automatically be deemed to satisfy the “ability to repay” requirement. To qualify for this, the insured depository institutions and credit unions must meet conditions relating to prepayment penalties, points and fees, negative amortization, interest-only features and documentation.
The Regulatory Relief Act directs Federal banking agencies to issue regulations exempting certain insured depository institutions and insured credit unions with assets of $10 billion or less from the requirement to establish escrow accounts for certain residential mortgage loans.
Insured depository institutions and insured credit unions that originated fewer than 500 closed-end mortgage loans or 500 open-end lines of credit in each of the two preceding years are exempt from a subset of disclosure requirements (recently imposed by the CFPB) under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (“HMDA”), provided they have received certain minimum CRA ratings in their most recent examinations.
The Regulatory Relief Act also directs the Comptroller of the Currency to conduct a study assessing the effect of the exemption described above on the amount of HMDA data available at the national and local level.
In addition, Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act amended the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) to require sponsors of asset-backed securities (“ABS”) to retain at least 5% of the credit risk of the assets underlying the securities and generally prohibits sponsors from transferring or hedging that credit risk. In October 2014, the federal banking regulatory agencies adopted a final rule to implement this requirement (the “Risk Retention Rule”). Among other things, the Risk Retention Rule requires a securitizer to retain not less than 5% of the credit risk of any asset that the securitizer, through the issuance of an ABS, transfers, sells, or conveys to a third party; and prohibits a securitizer from directly or indirectly hedging or otherwise transferring the credit risk that the securitizer is required to retain. In certain situations, the final rule allows securitizers to allocate a portion of the risk retention requirement to the originator(s) of the securitized assets, if an originator contributes at least 20% of the assets in the securitization. The Risk Retention Rule also provides an exemption to the risk retention requirements for an ABS collateralized exclusively by Qualified Residential Mortgages (“QRMs”), and ties the definition of a QRM to the definition of a “qualified mortgage” established by the CFPB for purposes of evaluating a consumer’s ability to repay a mortgage loan. The federal banking agencies have agreed to review the definition of QRMs in 2019, following the CFPB’s own review of its “qualified mortgage” regulation. For purposes of residential mortgage securitizations, the Risk Retention Rule took effect on December 24, 2015. For all other securitizations, the rule took effect on December 24, 2016.

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The Volcker Rule
In December, 2013, five federal financial regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve, adopted final rules implementing the so-called “Volcker Rule” embodied in Section 13 of the BHC Act, which was added by the Dodd-Frank Act. In general, the Volcker Rule prohibits banking entities from (1) engaging in short-term proprietary trading for their own accounts, and (2) having certain ownership interests in, and relationships with, hedge funds or private equity funds, or covered funds. The Volcker Rule is intended to provide greater clarity with respect to both the extent of those primary prohibitions and the related exemptions and exclusions.
The Regulatory Relief Act creates an exemption from prohibitions on propriety trading, and relationships with certain investment funds for banking entities with (i) less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, and (ii) trading assets and trading liabilities less than 5% of its total consolidated assets. Currently, all banks are subject to these prohibitions pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act. Any insured depository institution that is controlled by a company that itself exceeds these $10 billion and 5% thresholds would not qualify the exemption. In addition, the Regulatory Relief Act eases certain Volcker Rule restrictions on all bank entities, regardless of size, for simply sharing a name with hedge funds and private equity funds they organize. While the Company would be exempt from the prohibition on proprietary trading pursuant to the Regulatory Relief Act, currently, the Company does not have any ownership interest in, or relationships with, hedge funds or private equity funds, or covered funds, or engage in any activities that would have previously subjected it to the Volcker Rule.
Other Provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act
The Dodd-Frank Act implements far-reaching changes across the financial regulatory landscape. In addition to the reforms previously mentioned, the Dodd-Frank Act also:
requires BHCs and banks to be both well capitalized and well managed in order to acquire banks located outside their home state and requires any BHC electing to be treated as a financial holding company to be both well managed and well capitalized;
eliminates all remaining restrictions on interstate banking by authorizing national and state banks to establish de novo branches in any state that would permit a bank chartered in that state to open a branch at that location; and
repeals Regulation Q, the federal prohibition on the payment of interest on demand deposits, thereby permitting depository institutions to pay interest on business transaction and other accounts.
Although a significant number of the rules and regulations mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act have been finalized, many of the requirements called for have yet to be implemented and will likely be subject to implementing regulations over the course of several years. Given the uncertainty associated with the manner in which the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented by the various agencies, the full extent of the impact such requirements will have on financial institutions’ operations is unclear.
Federal Home Loan Bank Membership
The Bank is a member of the FHLB. Each member of the FHLB is required to maintain a minimum investment in the Class B stock of the FHLB. The Board of Directors of the FHLB can increase the minimum investment requirements in the event it has concluded that additional capital is required to allow it to meet its own regulatory capital requirements. Any increase in the minimum investment requirements outside of specified ranges requires the approval of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Because the extent of any obligation to increase the level of investment in the FHLB depends entirely upon the occurrence of a future event, we presently are unable to determine the extent of future required potential payments to the FHLB. Additionally, if a member financial institution fails, the right of the FHLB to seek repayment of funds loaned to that institution will take priority (a super lien) over the rights of all other creditors.
Other Laws and Regulations
Our operations are subject to several additional laws, some of which are specific to banking and others of which are applicable to commercial operations generally. For example, with respect to our lending practices, we are subject to the following laws and regulations, among several others:
Truth-In-Lending Act, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;
HMDA, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the community it serves;
Equal Credit Opportunity Act, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or other prohibited factors in extending credit;

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Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1978, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies, certain identity theft protections, and certain credit and other disclosures;
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, governing how consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies;
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, requiring certain disclosures concerning loan closing costs and escrows, and governing transfers of loan servicing and the amounts of escrows for loans secured by one-to-four family residential properties;
Rules and regulations established by the National Flood Insurance Program;
Rules and regulations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing these federal laws.
Our deposit operations are subject to federal laws applicable to depository accounts, including:
Right to Financial Privacy Act, which imposes a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records;
Truth-In-Savings Act, requiring certain disclosures for consumer deposit accounts;
Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E of the Federal Reserve, which govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services; and
Rules and regulations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing these federal laws.
We are also subject to a variety of laws and regulations that are not limited to banking organizations. For example, in lending to commercial and consumer borrowers, and in owning and operating our own property, we are subject to regulations and potential liabilities under state and federal environmental laws. In addition, we must comply with privacy and data security laws and regulations at both the federal and state level.
We are heavily regulated by regulatory agencies at the federal and state levels. Like most of our competitors, we have faced and expect to continue to face increased regulation and regulatory and political scrutiny, which creates significant uncertainty for us, as well as for the financial services industry in general.
Enforcement Powers
The federal regulatory agencies have substantial penalties available to use against depository institutions and certain “institution-affiliated parties.” Institution-affiliated parties primarily include management, employees, and agents of a financial institution, as well as independent contractors and consultants, such as attorneys, accountants, and others who participate in the conduct of the financial institution’s affairs. An institution can be subject to an enforcement action due to the failure to timely file required reports, the filing of false or misleading information, or the submission of inaccurate reports, or engaging in other unsafe or unsound banking practices. Civil penalties may be as high as $1,924,589 per day for violations.
The Financial Institution Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act provided regulators with greater flexibility to commence enforcement actions against institutions and institution-affiliated parties and to terminate an institution’s deposit insurance. It also expanded the power of banking regulatory agencies to issue regulatory orders. Such orders may, among other things, require affirmative action to correct any harm resulting from a violation or practice, including restitution, reimbursement, indemnification, or guarantees against loss. A financial institution may also be ordered to restrict its growth, dispose of certain assets, rescind agreements or contracts, or take other actions as determined by the ordering agency to be appropriate. The Dodd-Frank Act increases regulatory oversight, supervision and examination of banks, BHCs, and their respective subsidiaries by the appropriate regulatory agency.
Future Legislation and Regulation
Regulators have increased their focus on the regulation of the financial services industry in recent years, leading in many cases to greater uncertainty and compliance costs for regulated entities. Proposals that could substantially intensify the regulation of the financial services industry have been and may be expected to continue to be introduced in the United States Congress, in state legislatures, and by applicable regulatory authorities. These proposals may change banking statutes and regulations and our operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, these proposals could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. We cannot predict whether any of these proposals will be enacted and, if enacted, the effect that these proposals, or any implementing regulations, would have on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

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Available Information
The Company maintains an internet site at www.silvergatebank.com on which it makes available, free of charge, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to the foregoing as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, stockholders may access these reports and documents on the SEC’s web site at www.sec.gov. The information on, or accessible through, our website or any other website cited in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is not part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be relied upon in determining whether to make an investment decision.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock involves significant risks. You should consider carefully the risk factors included below together with all of the information included in or incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as the same may be updated from time to time by our future filings with the SEC under the Exchange Act, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the matters included in the following information about risk factors were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, you may lose all or a substantial part of your investment. To the extent that any of the information contained in this document constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below should be reviewed as cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. See “Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements.”
Risks Related to the Digital Currency Industry
The characteristics of digital currency have been, and may in the future continue to be, exploited to facilitate illegal activity such as fraud, money laundering, tax evasion and ransomware scams; if any of our customers do so or are alleged to have done so, it could adversely affect us.
Digital currencies and the digital currency industry are relatively new and, in many cases, lightly regulated or largely unregulated. Some types of digital currency have characteristics, such as the speed with which digital currency transactions can be conducted, the ability to conduct transactions without the involvement of regulated intermediaries, the ability to engage in transactions across multiple jurisdictions, the irreversible nature of certain digital currency transactions and encryption technology that anonymizes these transactions, that make digital currency particularly susceptible to use in illegal activity such as fraud, money laundering, tax evasion and ransomware scams. Two prominent examples of marketplaces that accepted digital currency payments for illegal activities include Silk Road, an online marketplace on the dark web that, among other things, facilitated the sale of illegal drugs and forged legal documents using digital currencies and AlphaBay, another darknet market that utilized digital currencies to hide the locations of its servers and identities of its users. Both of these marketplaces were investigated and closed by U.S. law enforcement authorities. U.S. regulators, including the SEC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”), and Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”), as well as non-U.S. regulators, have taken legal action against persons alleged to be engaged in Ponzi schemes and other fraudulent schemes involving digital currencies. In addition, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has noted the increasing use of digital currency in various ransomware scams.
While we believe that our risk management and compliance framework, which includes thorough reviews we conduct as part of our due diligence process (either in connection with onboarding new customers or monitoring existing customers), is reasonably designed to detect any such illicit activities conducted by our potential or existing customers (or, in the case of digital currency exchanges, their customers), we cannot ensure that we will be able to detect any such illegal activity in all instances. Because the speed, irreversibility and anonymity of certain digital currency transactions make them more difficult to track, fraudulent transactions may be more likely to occur. We or our banking counterparties may be specifically targeted by individuals seeking to conduct fraudulent transfers, and it may be difficult or impossible for us to detect and avoid such transactions in certain circumstances. If one of our customers (or in the case of digital currency exchanges, their customers) were to engage in or be accused of engaging in illegal activities using digital currency, we could be subject to various fines and sanctions, including limitations on our activities, which could also cause reputational damage and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For more information regarding the regulatory agencies and regulations to which we are subject, see “—Risks Related to Regulation”. Lastly, we may experience a reduction in our deposits if such an incident were to impact one of our customers, even if there was no wrongdoing on our part.

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Risks Related to Our Digital Currency Initiative
The majority of the Bank’s deposits are from businesses involved in the digital currency industry. As a result, we rely heavily on the success of the digital currency industry, the development and acceptance of which is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate.
We have grown rapidly because of our initiative to provide traditional banking and other services to customers in the digital currency industry. We have created a unique, technology-led infrastructure platform, including the SEN and cash management solutions, to facilitate cash transactions for the Bank’s digital currency deposit customers. This platform has driven growth of a customer base that includes some of the largest and fastest growing companies within the digital currency industry, consisting primarily of digital currency exchanges, institutional investors and other industry participants. See “Item 1. Business—Digital Currency Customers.” As of December 31, 2019, the Bank’s 10 largest depositors accounted for $523.6 million in deposits, or approximately 28.9% of the Bank’s total deposits, nine of whom are customers in the digital currency industry.
The businesses in which these customers engage involve digital currencies such as bitcoin, other technologies underlying digital currencies such as blockchain, and services associated with digital currencies and blockchain. The digital currency industry includes a diverse set of businesses that use digital currencies for different purposes and provide services to others who use digital currencies. This is a new and rapidly evolving industry, and the viability and future growth of the industry and adoption of digital currencies and the underlying technology is subject to a high degree of uncertainty, including based upon the adoption of the technology, regulation of the industry, and price volatility, among other factors. Because the sector is relatively new, your investment may be exposed to additional risks which are not yet known or quantifiable.
Bitcoin, the first widely used digital currency, and many other digital currencies were designed to function as a form of money. However, digital currencies have only recently become selectively accepted as a means of payment for goods and services and then only by some retail and commercial businesses. Use of digital currency by consumers as a form of payment is limited. Some digital currencies were built for uses other than as a substitute for fiat money. For example, the Ethereum network is intended to permit the development and use of smart contracts, which are programs that execute on a blockchain. The digital asset known as Ether was designed to facilitate transactions involving smart contracts on the Ethereum network. Many of these digital currencies are listed on digital currency exchanges and are traded and purchased as investments by a variety of market participants.
Other factors affecting the further development of the digital currency industry and our business include, but are not limited to:
the adoption and use of digital currencies, including adoption and use as a substitute for fiat currency or for other uses, which may be adversely impacted by continued price volatility;
government and quasi-government regulation of digital currencies, their use, and intermediaries and other businesses involved in digital currencies, noting in particular that the SEC has taken action against several cryptocurrency operators and has raised questions whether certain digital currency exchanges must be registered with the SEC to continue operating;
the use of digital currencies, or the perception of such use, to facilitate illegal activity such as fraud, money laundering, tax evasion and ransomware scams by our customers;
restrictions on or regulation of access to and operation of the digital currency exchanges or other platforms that facilitate trading in digital currencies;
heightened risks to digital currency businesses, such as digital currency exchanges, of hacking, malware attacks, and other cyber-security risks, which can lead to significant losses;
developments in digital currency trading markets, including decreasing price volatility of digital currencies, resulting in narrowing spreads for digital currency trading and diminishing arbitrage opportunities across digital currency exchanges, or increased price volatility, which could negatively impact our customers and therefore our deposits, either of which in turn may reduce the benefits of the SEN and negatively impact our business;
changes in consumer demographics and public taste and preferences;
the maintenance and development of the software protocol of the digital currency networks;
the availability and popularity of other forms or methods of buying and selling goods and services, including new means of using fiat currencies;
the use of the networks supporting digital currencies for developing smart contracts and distributed applications;
general economic conditions and the regulatory environment relating to digital currencies; and

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increased regulatory oversight of digital currencies and the costs associated with such regulatory oversight.
If any of these factors, or other factors, slows development of the digital currency industry, it could adversely affect our digital currency initiative and therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation. For example, a decline in the digital currency industry that leads to a decline in deposit balances by our digital currency customers would negatively affect our sources of funding. In such circumstances, we may be forced to rely more heavily on other, potentially more expensive and less stable funding sources. Consequently, a decline in the growth of the digital currency industry could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to implement aspects of our growth strategy, which may impact our position as the leading provider of innovative financial infrastructure solutions and services to participants in the digital currency industry and adversely affect our ability to maintain our recent growth and earnings trends.
We have grown rapidly, primarily through organic growth related to our digital currency initiative. We may not be able to execute on aspects of our growth strategy, which may impair our ability to sustain this rate of growth or prevent us from growing at all. More specifically, we may not be able to generate sufficient amounts of new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances or obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth, which may therefore preclude us from developing products and services relating to stablecoin transaction flows and collateral, custodian services, international expansion of our customer base and other potential fintech opportunities. The process of developing new or improved solutions or services for digital currency industry participants is expensive, complex and involves uncertainties.
The success of new or improved solutions and services depends on several factors, including costs, timely completion, regulatory approvals, the introduction, reliability and stability of our solutions and services, differentiation of new or improved solutions and market acceptance. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in developing and marketing our digital currency initiative in a timely manner or at all, or that our new or improved solutions and services will adequately address market demands. Market acceptance and adoption of solutions and services within our digital currency initiative will depend on, among other things, the solutions and services demonstrating a real advantage over existing products and services, the success of our sales and marketing teams in creating awareness of our solutions and services, competitive pricing of such solutions and services, customer recognition of the value of our technology and the general willingness of potential customers to try new technologies. In particular, if we are unable to achieve sufficient market adoption of the SEN, our growth strategy may be adversely affected.
Various factors, such as general economic conditions, conditions in the digital currency industry and competition with other financial institutions and infrastructure service providers, may impede or preclude the growth of our operations. Our business and the growth of our operations are dependent on, among other things, the continued success and growth of the SEN. If conditions in digital currency markets change such that certain trading strategies currently employed by our institutional investor customers become less profitable, the benefits of the SEN and the API may be diminished, resulting in a decrease in our deposit balances and adversely impacting our growth strategy. In addition, if a competitor or another third party were to launch an alternative to the SEN (such as the Federal Reserve’s recently announced plan to develop a virtually real time payment system for banks, which is expected to be available as early as 2023), we could lose noninterest bearing deposits and our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth strategy could be adversely impacted. Further, we may be unable to attract and retain experienced employees, which could adversely affect our growth.
The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to manage our growth effectively, which depends on many factors, including our ability to adapt our regulatory, compliance, credit, operational, technology and governance infrastructure to accommodate expanded operations, particularly as these relate to the digital currency industry. If we are successful in continuing our growth, we cannot assure you that further growth would offer the same levels of potential profitability, or that we would be successful in controlling costs and maintaining asset quality in the face of that growth. Accordingly, an inability to maintain growth, or an inability to effectively manage growth, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The further development and acceptance of digital currencies and blockchain technology are subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate, as discussed above. The slowing or stopping of the development or acceptance of digital currency networks and blockchain technology may adversely affect our ability to continue to grow and capitalize on our digital currency strategy.
The Bank has several large depositor relationships that are concentrated in the digital currency industry generally and among digital currency exchanges in particular, the loss of any of which could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources.
As of December 31, 2019, the Bank’s 10 largest depositors accounted for $523.6 million in deposits, or approximately 28.9% of the Bank’s total deposits, nine of whom are customers operating in the digital currency industry. Deposits from digital currency exchanges represent approximately 29.1% of the Bank’s overall deposits and are held by approximately 60 exchanges. Digital currency exchanges have discretion over which financial institution holds deposits on behalf of its customers. As a result, the Bank is exposed to high customer concentration with our exchange customers. A decision by the customers of an

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exchange to exit the exchange or a decision by an exchange to withdraw deposits or move deposits to our competitors could result in substantial changes in our deposit base. Exchanges present additional risks because they have been frequent targets and victims of fraud and cyber attacks and the failure or exit of one or more exchanges as customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, withdrawals of deposits by any one of our largest depositors could force us to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding for our business and withdrawal demands, adversely affecting our net interest margin and results of operations. The Bank may also be forced, because of deposit withdrawals, to rely more heavily on other, potentially more expensive and less stable funding sources. Consequently, the occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our digital currency initiative has contributed significantly to an increase in our noninterest bearing deposits, which has driven the Bank’s funding costs to levels that may not be sustainable.
Our digital currency initiative has contributed significantly to an increase in our noninterest bearing deposits, and has allowed us to generate attractive returns on lower risk assets through increased investments in interest earning deposits in other banks and securities, as well as funding limited loan growth. We have increased our noninterest bearing deposits as a percentage of total deposits from 12.4% as of December 31, 2013 to 74.0% as of December 31, 2019, an increase that is largely attributable to our digital currency initiative. Our future growth may be adversely impacted if we are unable to retain and grow this strong, low-cost deposit base. There may be competitive pressures to pay higher interest rates on deposits to our digital currency customers, which could increase funding costs and compress net interest margins. Further, even if we are able to grow and maintain our noninterest bearing deposit base, our deposit balances may decrease if our digital currency customers are offered more attractive returns from our competitors. If our digital currency customers move funds out of deposits, we could lose a low cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs, reducing our net interest income and net interest margin, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The prices of digital currencies are extremely volatile. Fluctuations in the price of various digital currencies may cause uncertainty in the market and could negatively impact trading volumes of digital currencies and therefore the extent to which participants in the digital currency industry demand our services and solutions, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The value of digital currencies is based in part on market adoption and future expectations, which may or may not be realized. As a result, the prices of digital currencies are highly speculative. The prices of digital currencies have been subject to dramatic fluctuations to date. Several factors may affect price, including, but not limited to:
Global digital currency supply, including various alternative currencies which exist, and global digital currency demand, which can be influenced by the growth or decline of retail merchants’ and commercial businesses’ acceptance of digital currencies as payment for goods and services, the security of online digital currency exchanges and digital wallets that hold digital currencies, the perception that the use and holding of digital currencies is safe and secure and regulatory restrictions on their use;
Changes in the software, software requirements or hardware requirements underlying a blockchain network. For example, a fork occurs when there is a change to a digital currency’s underlying protocol, which creates new rules for the system. Forks in the future are likely to occur and there is no assurance that such a fork would not result in a sustained decline in the market price of digital currencies;
Changes in the rights, obligations, incentives, or rewards for the various participants in a blockchain network;
The maintenance and development of the software protocol of digital currencies;
Digital currency exchanges deposit and withdrawal policies and practices, liquidity on such exchanges and interruptions in service from or failures of such exchanges;
Regulatory measures, if any, that affect the use and value of crypto-assets;
Competition for and among various digital currencies that exist and market preferences and expectations with respect to adoption of individual currencies;
Actual or perceived manipulation of the markets for digital currencies;
Actual or perceived threats that digital currencies and related activities such as mining have adverse effects on the environment or are tied to illegal activities; and
Expectations with respect to the rate of inflation in the economy, monetary policies of governments, trade restrictions and currency devaluations and revaluations.

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The digital currency market is volatile, and changes in the prices and/or trading volume of digital currencies may adversely impact our growth strategy and our business. In particular, the impact that changes in prices and/or trading volume of digital currencies have on our deposit balance from customers in the digital currency industry is unpredictable, as any reduction in deposits attributable to such changes may be amplified or mitigated by other developments, such as the onboarding of new customers, loss of existing customers and changes in our customers’ operational and trading strategies. We have experienced deposit fluctuations over the last 18 months, which have been correlated with or contrary to the price and/or trading volume of digital currencies at various times. There can be no assurance that a decrease in the value of digital currencies would not adversely impact the amount of such deposits in the future. In addition, volatility in the values of digital currencies caused by the factors described above or other factors may impact the demand for our services and therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Technology
System failure or cybersecurity breaches of our network security could subject us to increased operating costs as well as litigation and other potential losses.
Our computer systems and network infrastructure, including the SEN and API, could be vulnerable to hardware and cybersecurity issues. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect our computer equipment against damage from fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or a similar catastrophic event. We could also experience a breach by intentional or negligent conduct on the part of employees or other internal sources. Any damage or failure that causes an interruption in our operations could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations are also dependent upon our ability to protect our computer systems and network infrastructure, including the SEN, the API, and our other online banking systems, against damage from physical break-ins, cybersecurity breaches and other disruptive problems caused by the internet or other users. Such computer break-ins and other disruptions would jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through our computer systems and network infrastructure, which may result in significant liability, damage our reputation and inhibit the use of our internet banking services by current and potential customers. We could also become the target of various cyberattacks as a result of our focus on the digital currency industry. We regularly add additional security measures to our computer systems and network infrastructure to mitigate the possibility of cybersecurity breaches, including firewalls and penetration testing. However, it is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk being posed by changing technologies as well as acts of cyber-crime. Increasing sophistication of cyber criminals and terrorists make keeping up with new threats difficult and could result in a system breach. Controls employed by our information technology department and cloud vendors could prove inadequate. A breach of our security that results in unauthorized access to our data could expose us to a disruption or challenges relating to our daily operations, as well as to data loss, litigation, damages, fines and penalties, significant increases in compliance costs and reputational damage, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not have the resources to keep pace with rapid technological changes in the industry or implement new technology effectively.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to serving customers better, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. As a result, to stay current with the industry, our business model may need to evolve as well. Our future success will depend, at least in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our products and service offerings. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology enhancements or products, which could impair our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from such new technology or require us to incur significant costs to remedy any such challenges in a timely manner. From time to time, we may modify aspects of our business model relating to our product mix and service offerings. We cannot offer any assurance that these or any other modifications will be successful.
The technology relied upon by the Company, including the SEN, the API and our other on-line banking systems, may not function properly, which may have a material impact on the Company’s operations and financial conditions. There may be no alternatives available if such technology does not work as anticipated. The importance of the SEN, the API and our other on-line banking systems to the Company’s operations means that any problems in its functionality would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s operations. This technology may malfunction because of internal problems or because of cyberattacks or external security breaches. Any such technological problems would have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business model and growth strategy.
Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Third parties upon which we rely for our technology needs may not be able to develop, on a cost-effective basis, systems that will enable us to keep pace with such developments. As a result, our larger competitors may be able to offer additional or superior products

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compared to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. We may lose customers seeking new technology-driven products and services to the extent we are unable to provide such products and services. The ability to keep pace with technological change is important and the failure to do so could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations could be interrupted if our third-party service providers experience operational or other systems difficulties, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking regulations.
We outsource some of our operational activities and accordingly depend on relationships with many third-party service providers. Specifically, we rely on third parties for certain services, including, but not limited to, core systems support, informational website hosting, internet services, online account opening and other processing services. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party service providers. The failure of these systems, a cybersecurity breach involving any of our third-party service providers or the termination or change in terms of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. Replacing vendors or addressing other issues with our third-party service providers could entail significant delay, expense and disruption of service.
As a result, if these third-party service providers experience difficulties, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, or terminate their services, and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, particularly on a timely basis, our operations could be interrupted. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Even if we can replace third-party service providers, it may be at a higher cost to us, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the Bank’s primary federal regulator, the Federal Reserve, has issued guidance outlining the expectations for third-party service provider oversight and monitoring by financial institutions. The federal banking agencies, including the Federal Reserve, have also issued enforcement actions against financial institutions for failure in oversight of third-party providers and violations of federal banking law by such providers when performing services for financial institutions. Accordingly, our operations could be interrupted if any of our third-party service providers experience difficulties, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking regulations, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our failure to adequately oversee the actions of our third-party service providers could result in regulatory actions against the Bank, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Traditional Banking Business
As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions.
Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to clients in the form of loans, borrowing money from clients in the form of deposits and investing in interest earning deposits in other banks and securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the United States. We solicit deposits throughout the United States and, while our primary lending market is the state of California, we purchase and originate loans throughout the United States. If the U.S. economy weakens, our growth and profitability from our lending, deposit and investment operations could be constrained. Uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process, the medium- and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and future tax rates is a concern for businesses, consumers and investors in the United States. While there has been an improvement in the U.S. economy since the 2008 financial crisis as evidenced by a rebound in the housing market, lower unemployment and higher equity capital markets, economic growth has been uneven and opinions vary on the strength and direction of the economy. Uncertainties also have arisen regarding the potential for a reversal or renegotiation of international trade agreements, the effects of the legislation commonly known as Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), and the impact such actions and other policies the current administration may have on economic and market conditions.
Weak economic conditions are characterized by numerous factors, including deflation, fluctuations in debt and equity capital markets, a lack of liquidity and depressed prices in the secondary market for mortgage loans, increased delinquencies on mortgage, consumer and commercial loans, residential and commercial real estate price declines and lower levels of home sales and commercial activity. The current economic environment is characterized by lower interest rates than historically have been the case, which impacts our ability to generate attractive earnings through our loan and investment portfolios. These factors can individually or in the aggregate be detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable. Adverse economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our commercial banking clients and their operations are concentrated in Southern California and we are more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy.
Unlike many of our larger competitors that maintain significant operations located outside our market area, a substantial portion of our commercial business clients are located and doing business in Southern California. Therefore, our success depends substantially upon the general economic conditions in this area, which we cannot predict with certainty. As a result, our operations and profitability may be more adversely affected by a local economic downturn in Southern California than those of larger, more geographically diverse competitors. A downturn in the local economy generally could make it more difficult for our borrowers to repay their loans and may lead to loan losses that are not offset by operations in other markets. For these reasons, any regional or local economic downturn that affects Southern California, or existing or prospective borrowers in Southern California, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To a significantly lesser extent, our Bank provides financing to clients who live or have companies or properties located outside our core Southern California markets, such as Arizona and Florida. In such cases, we would face similar local market risks in those communities for these clients.
We face strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking services.
We operate in the highly competitive financial services industry and face significant competition for customers from financial institutions located both within and beyond our principal markets. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, nonbank financial services companies and other financial institutions operating both within our market areas and nationally, and in respect of our digital currency initiative we also compete with other entities in the digital currency industry, including a limited number of other banks providing services to the digital currency industry and digital currency exchanges. In addition, as customer preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the internet and for nonbanks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic payment systems. The banking industry is experiencing rapid changes in technology and, as a result, our future success will depend in part on our ability to address our customers’ needs by using technology. Customer loyalty can be influenced by a competitor’s new products, especially offerings that could provide cost savings or a higher return to the customer. Increased lending activity of competing banks following the 2008-2009 economic downturn has also led to increased competitive pressures on loan rates and terms for high quality credits. We may not be able to compete successfully with other financial institutions in our markets, and we may have to pay higher interest rates to attract deposits, accept lower yields to attract loans and pay higher wages for new employees, resulting in lower net interest margins and reduced profitability.
Many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern our activities and may have greater flexibility in competing for business. The financial services industry could become even more competitive because of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. In addition, some of our current commercial banking customers may seek alternative banking sources as they develop needs for credit facilities larger than we may be able to accommodate.
Our inability to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may not be able to measure and limit our credit risk adequately, which could lead to unexpected losses.
The business of lending is inherently risky, including risks that the principal of or interest on any loan will not be repaid in a timely manner or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting the loan will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. These risks may be affected by the financial condition of the borrower, the strength of the borrower’s business sector and local, regional and national market and economic conditions. Many of our loans are made to small- to medium-sized businesses that may be less able to withstand competitive, economic and financial pressures than larger borrowers. Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries, and our credit approval practices may not adequately reduce credit risk. Further, our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to measure and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio effectively could lead to unexpected losses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb potential losses in our loan portfolio.
We maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents management’s judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. As of December 31, 2019, our allowance for loan losses totaled $6.2 million, which represents approximately 0.93% of our total gross loans held-for-investment. The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of general economic conditions, diversification and seasoning of the loan portfolio, historic loss experience, identified credit problems, delinquency levels and adequacy of collateral. The determination of the appropriate level of our allowance for loan losses is inherently highly subjective and requires management to make significant estimates of and

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assumptions regarding current credit risks, all of which may undergo material changes. Inaccurate management assumptions, deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification or deterioration of additional problem loans, acquisition of problem loans and other factors (including third-party review and analysis), both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their periodic examination, review our methodology for calculating, and the adequacy of, our allowance for loan losses and may direct us to make additions to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examination. Further, if actual charge-offs in future periods exceed the amounts allocated to our allowance for loan losses, we may need additional provisions for loan losses to restore the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. Finally, the measure of our allowance for loan losses depends on the adoption and interpretation of accounting standards. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) has recently issued a new credit impairment model, the Current Expected Credit Loss (the “CECL model”), which will become applicable to us on January 1, 2023. The CECL model will require financial institutions to estimate and develop a provision for credit losses over the lifetime of the loan at origination, as opposed to reserving for probable incurred losses up to the balance sheet date. Under the CECL model, our estimate of credit losses over the life of the loan would be reflected in the statement of operations in the period of origination or acquisition of the loan, with changes in expected credit losses due to further credit deterioration or improvement reflected in the periods in which the expectation changes. Accordingly, the CECL model could require financial institutions like the Bank to increase their allowances for loan losses. Moreover, the CECL model may create more volatility in our level of allowance for loan losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to credit risks that may be greater than the risks related to other types of loans.
As of December 31, 2019, approximately $331.1 million, or 49.6%, of our total gross loans held-for-investment were commercial real estate loans (including owner-occupied commercial real estate loans). Further, as of December 31, 2019, our commercial real estate loans (excluding owner-occupied commercial real estate loans) totaled 142.5% of our total risk-based capital. These loans typically involve repayment that depends upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service. The availability of such income for repayment may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose a lender to the risk of liquidating the collateral securing these loans in times when there may be significant fluctuation of commercial real estate values. Additionally, commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio could require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio held-for-investment is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.
As of December 31, 2019, approximately $614.3 million, or 91.9%, of our total gross loans held-for-investment were loans with real estate as a primary or secondary component of collateral. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time. As a result, adverse developments affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in our primary markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, and could result in losses that adversely affect our credit quality, financial condition and results of operations. Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity in our market areas could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Collateral may have to be sold for less than the outstanding balance of the loan, which could result in losses on such loans. Such declines and losses would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, other real estate owned and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.
In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made and, as real estate values may change significantly in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our other real estate owned (“OREO”) and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure proceedings and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of

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these valuations are inaccurate, our combined and consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO, and our allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In the case of defaults on loans secured by real estate, we may be forced to foreclose on the collateral, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of the real property, or consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law that may substantially raise the cost of foreclosure or prevent us from foreclosing at all.
Since we originate loans secured by real estate, we may have to foreclose on the collateral property to protect our investment and may thereafter own and operate such property for some period, in which case we would be exposed to the risks inherent in the ownership of real estate. As of December 31, 2019, we held approximately $128,000 in OREO that is currently marketed for sale. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a default depends on factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, general or local economic conditions, environmental cleanup liabilities, assessments, interest rates, real estate tax rates, operating expenses of the mortgaged properties, our ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties, zoning laws, governmental and regulatory rules, and natural disasters. Our inability to manage the amount of costs or size of the risks associated with the ownership of real estate, or write-downs in the value of other real estate owned, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. Some states in recent years have either considered or adopted foreclosure reform laws that make it substantially more difficult and expensive for lenders to foreclose on properties in default. If new state or federal laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost of foreclosure or raise outright barriers, such laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
We are subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.
Banking and other financial services companies, such as our Company, rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support their day-to-day operations. Technology companies frequently pursue litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of our vendors, or other individuals or companies, may from time to time claim to hold intellectual property sold to us by our vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. If we are found to infringe one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, we may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase our operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Third parties may assert intellectual property claims relating to the holding and transfer of digital assets and their source code. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in long-term viability or the ability of end-users to hold and transfer the currency may adversely affect an investment in digital currencies. Additionally, a meritorious intellectual property claim could prevent investors and other end-users from accessing, holding or transferring their digital currency, which could force the liquidation of holdings of such digital currency (if liquidation is possible). As a result, intellectual property claims against large digital currency participants could adversely affect the business and operations of digital currency exchanges as well as our own.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights, and may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.
Competitors may violate our intellectual property rights. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, litigation may be necessary to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets and/or to determine the validity and scope of our own intellectual property rights or the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation can be expensive and time consuming, which could divert management resources and harm our business and financial results. Potential competitors may have the ability to dedicate greater resources to litigate intellectual property rights than we can. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.

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We may be subject to environmental liabilities relating to the real properties we own and the foreclosure on real estate assets securing loans in our loan portfolio.
In conducting our business, we may foreclose on and take title to real estate or otherwise be deemed to be in control of property that serves as collateral on loans we make. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to those properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties relating to environmental contamination, or we may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property.
The cost of removal or abatement may substantially exceed the value of the affected properties or the loans secured by those properties, we may not have adequate remedies against the prior owners or other responsible parties and we may not be able to resell the affected properties either before or after completion of any such removal or abatement procedures. If material environmental problems are discovered before foreclosure, we generally will not foreclose on the related collateral or will transfer ownership of the loan to a subsidiary. It should be noted, however, that the transfer of the property or loans to a subsidiary may not protect us from environmental liability. Furthermore, despite these actions on our part, the value of the property as collateral will generally be substantially reduced or we may elect not to foreclose on the property and, as a result, we may suffer a loss upon collection of the loan. Any significant environmental liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our concentration of large loans to a limited number of borrowers may increase our credit risk.
As of December 31, 2019, our 10 largest borrowing relationships accounted for approximately 38.6% of our total gross loans held-for-investment. Along with other risks inherent in these loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, this high concentration of borrowers presents a risk to our lending operations. If any one of these borrowers becomes unable to repay its loan obligations because of economic or market conditions, or personal circumstances, such as divorce or death, our nonaccrual loans and our allowance for loan and lease losses could increase significantly, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, financial condition and results of operations.
A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, sales of our investment securities, sales of loans or other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity and our ability to continue our growth strategy.
Our most important source of funds is deposits. As of December 31, 2019, approximately $1.3 billion, or 74.0%, of our total deposits were noninterest bearing demand accounts. These deposits are subject to potentially dramatic fluctuations due to certain factors that may be outside of our control, such as a loss of confidence by customers in us or the banking sector generally, customer perceptions of our financial health and general reputation, any of which could result in significant outflows of deposits within short periods of time increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income. Substantially all of these noninterest bearing demand accounts are deposits from our customers in the digital currency industry.
Additional liquidity is provided by our ability to borrow from the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco (the “FHLB”) and the FRB. We also may borrow funds from third-party lenders, such as other financial institutions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by one or more adverse regulatory actions against us.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses or fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to additional credit and market risk.
By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to counterparty credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what was modeled when we entered into the derivative transaction. The existence of credit and market risk associated with our derivative instruments could adversely affect our revenue and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management’s decision-making, and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is necessary for bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations.
Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual Dodd-Frank Act stress testing and the Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we believe that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.
We are subject to interest rate risk as fluctuations in interest rates may adversely affect our earnings.
Most of our banking assets and liabilities are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings are significantly dependent on our net interest income, the principal component of our earnings, which is the difference between interest earned by us from our interest earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and interest paid by us on our interest bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. We expect that we will periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of our assets and liabilities, meaning that either our interest bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than our interest earning assets, or vice versa. In either case, if market interest rates should move contrary to our position, this gap will negatively impact our earnings. The impact on earnings is more adverse when the slope of the yield curve flattens; that is, when short-term interest rates increase more than long-term interest rates or when long-term interest rates decrease more than short-term interest rates. Many factors impact interest rates, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, international economic weakness and disorder and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets. In addition, the Federal Reserve has stated its intention to end its quantitative easing program and has begun to reduce the size of its balance sheet by selling securities, which might also affect interest rates. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 69.4% of our interest earning assets and approximately 30.8% of our interest bearing liabilities had a variable interest rate.
Interest rate increases often result in larger payment requirements for our borrowers, which increases the potential for default and could result in a decrease in the demand for loans. At the same time, the marketability of the property securing a loan may be adversely affected by any reduced demand resulting from higher interest rates. In a declining interest rate environment, there may be an increase in prepayments on loans as borrowers refinance their loans at lower rates. In addition, in a low interest rate environment, loan customers often pursue long-term fixed rate borrowings, which could adversely affect our earnings and net interest margin if rates later increase. Changes in interest rates also can affect the value of loans, securities and other assets. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on loans may lead to an increase in nonperforming assets and a reduction of income recognized, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Further, when we place a loan on nonaccrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. At the same time, we continue to incur costs to fund the loan, which is reflected as interest expense, without any interest income to offset the associated funding expense. Thus, an increase in the amount of nonperforming assets could have a material adverse impact on net interest income. If short-term interest rates remain at their historically low levels for a prolonged period and assuming longer-term interest rates fall further, we could experience net interest margin compression as our interest earning assets would continue to reprice downward while our interest bearing liability rates could fail to decline in tandem. Such an occurrence would reduce our net interest income and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increased regulatory oversight and uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may adversely affect the results of our operations.
On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates the London Interbank Offering Rate (“LIBOR”), announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. It is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR, whether LIBOR rates will cease to be published or supported before or after 2021 or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Efforts in the United States to identify a set of alternative U.S. dollar reference interest rates include proposals by the Alternative Reference Rates

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Committee of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Uncertainty as to the nature of alternative reference rates and as to potential changes in other reforms to LIBOR may adversely affect LIBOR rates and the value of LIBOR-based loans, and to a lesser extent securities in our portfolio, and may impact the availability and cost of hedging instruments and borrowings, including the rates we pay on our subordinated debentures and trust preferred securities. If LIBOR rates are no longer available or do not remain an acceptable market benchmark, any successor or replacement interest rates may perform differently, which may adversely affect our revenue or our expenses. We may incur significant costs to transition both our borrowing arrangements and the loan agreements with our customers from LIBOR, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Further, we may face exposure to litigation over the nature and performance of any replacement index. The impact of alternatives to LIBOR on the valuations, pricing and operation of our financial instruments is not yet known.
Any future failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could impair the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business, impair investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and our access to the capital markets and cause the price of our common stock to decline and subject us to regulatory penalties.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately and in a timely manner, in which case our business may be harmed, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, we could be subject to regulatory penalties and the price of our common stock may decline.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and for evaluating and reporting on that system of internal control. Our internal control over financial reporting consists of a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). As a public company, we will be required to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other rules that govern public companies. When we are required to certify our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the future, we will be required to furnish annually a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm may be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at such time.
The accuracy of our financial statements and related disclosures could be affected if the judgments, assumptions or estimates used in our critical accounting policies are inaccurate.
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with GAAP requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Our critical accounting policies, which are included in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” describe those significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements that we consider critical because they require judgments, assumptions and estimates that materially affect our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. As a result, if future events or regulatory views concerning such analysis differ significantly from the judgments, assumptions and estimates in our critical accounting policies, those events or assumptions could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, in each case resulting in our need to revise or restate prior period financial statements, cause damage to our reputation and the price of our common stock and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There could be material changes to our financial statements and disclosures if there are changes in accounting standards or regulatory interpretations of existing standards
From time to time the FASB or the SEC may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. Such changes may result in us being subject to new or changing accounting and reporting standards. In addition, the bodies that interpret the accounting standards (such as banking regulators or outside auditors) may change their interpretations or positions on how new or existing standards should be applied. These changes may be beyond our control, can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retrospectively, or apply an existing standard differently and retrospectively, in each case resulting in our needing to revise or restate prior period financial statements, which could materially change our financial statements and related disclosures, cause damage to our reputation and the price of our common stock, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could recognize losses on investment securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate.
We invest a percentage of our total assets (42.2% as of December 31, 2019) in investment securities with the primary objectives of providing a source of liquidity, providing an appropriate return on funds invested, managing interest rate risk and

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meeting pledging requirements. As of December 31, 2019, the fair value of our available-for-sale investment securities portfolio was $897.8 million, which included gross unrealized losses of $7.7 million and gross unrealized gains of $13.4 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly and adversely influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio. For example, fixed-rate securities are generally subject to decreases in market value when interest rates rise. Additional factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency downgrades of the securities, defaults by the issuer or individual borrowers with respect to the underlying securities and instability in the credit markets. Any of the foregoing factors could cause other-than-temporary impairment in future periods and result in realized losses. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires difficult, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting interest rates, the financial condition of issuers of the securities and the performance of the underlying collateral, we may recognize realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, customer, employee or third-party fraud and data processing system failures and errors.
Employee errors and employee or customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence.
We maintain a system of internal controls to mitigate operational risks, including data processing system failures and errors and customer or employee fraud, as well as insurance coverage designed to protect us from material losses associated with these risks, including losses resulting from any associated business interruption. If our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we rely heavily upon information supplied by third parties, including the information contained in credit applications, property appraisals, title information and employment and income documentation, in deciding which loans we will originate, as well as the terms of those loans. If any of the information upon which we rely is misrepresented, either fraudulently or inadvertently, and the misrepresentation is not detected prior to loan funding, the value of the loan may be significantly lower than expected, or we may fund a loan that we would not have funded or on terms that do not comply with our general underwriting standards. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the applicant or another third party, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. A loan subject to a material misrepresentation is typically unsellable or subject to repurchase if it is sold prior to detection of the misrepresentation. The sources of the misrepresentations are often difficult to locate, and it is often difficult to recover any of the resulting monetary losses we may suffer, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and we could be adversely affected by the unexpected loss of their services.
We are led by an experienced core management team with substantial experience in the markets that we serve, and our operating strategy focuses on providing products and services through long-term relationship managers and ensuring that our largest clients have relationships with our senior management team. Accordingly, our success depends in large part on the performance of these key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified senior and middle management. Competition for employees is intense and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. If any of our executive officers, other key personnel or directors leaves us or our Bank, our financial condition and results of operations may suffer because of his or her skills, knowledge of our market, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified personnel to replace him or her.
Negative public opinion regarding the Company or failure to maintain our reputation in the communities we serve could adversely affect our business and prevent us from growing our business.
As a community bank and service provider to the digital currency industry, our Bank’s reputation within the communities we serve is critical to our success. We believe we have built strong personal and professional relationships with our customers and are active members of the communities we serve. As such, we strive to enhance our reputation by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve and delivering superior service to our customers. If our reputation is negatively affected by the actions of our employees or otherwise, including because of a successful cyberattack against us or other unauthorized release or loss of customer information, we may be less successful in attracting new talent and customers or may lose existing customers, and our business, financial condition and

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results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, if the reputation of the digital currency industry as a whole is harmed, including due to events such as cybersecurity breaches, scams perpetrated by bad actors or other unforeseen developments as a result of the evolving regulatory landscape of the digital currency industry, our reputation may be negatively affected due to our connection with the digital currency industry, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our exposure to and interactions with the digital currency industry put us at a higher risk of media attention and scrutiny. Further, negative public opinion can expose us to litigation and regulatory action and delay and impede our efforts to implement our expansion strategy, which could further adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to raise the additional capital needed, in absolute terms or on terms acceptable to us, to fund our growth in the future if we continue to grow at our current pace.
We believe that we have sufficient capital to meet our capital needs for our immediate growth plans. However, we will continue to need capital to support our longer-term growth plans. If capital is not available on favorable terms when we need it, we will have to either issue common stock or other securities on less than desirable terms or reduce our rate of growth until market conditions become more favorable. Either of such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Regulation
There is substantial legal and regulatory uncertainty regarding the regulation of digital currencies and digital currency activities. This uncertainty or adverse regulatory changes may inhibit the growth of the digital currency industry, including our customers, and therefore have a material adverse effect on the digital currency initiative.
The U.S. Congress, U.S. state legislatures, and a number of U.S. federal and state regulators and law enforcement agencies, including FinCEN, U.S. federal banking regulators, SEC, CFTC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), the CFPB, the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), and state banking regulators, state financial services regulators, and states attorney generals, have been examining the operations of digital currency networks, exchanges, and digital currency businesses, with particular focus on the extent to which digital currencies can be used for illegal activities, including but not limited to laundering the proceeds of illegal activities, funding criminal or terrorist enterprises, engaging in fraudulent activities (see “—Risks Related to the Digital Currency Industry”), as well as whether and the extent to which digital currency businesses should be subject to existing or new regulation, including those applicable to banks, securities intermediaries, derivatives intermediaries, or money transmitters.
For example, FinCEN requires firms engaged in the business of administration, exchange, or transmission of a virtual currency to register with FinCEN under its money services business licensing regime. The New York DFS has established a licensing regime for businesses involved in virtual currency business activity in or involving New York, commonly known as BitLicense regime. The SEC and CFTC have each issued formal and informal guidance on the applicability of securities and derivatives regulations to digital currencies and digital currency activities. The SEC has suggested that, depending on the circumstances, an initial coin offering (“ICO”) may constitute securities offerings subject to the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and the Exchange Act, and that some ICOs in the past have been illegal, which could, in turn, result in regulatory actions or other scrutiny against our customers or us. The SEC has also stated that venues that permit trading of tokens that are deemed securities are required to either register as national securities exchanges under Section 6 of the Exchange Act or obtain an exemption. If we or any of our digital currency customers are subject to regulatory actions relating to illegal securities offerings or are required to register as a national securities exchange under the Exchange Act, we may experience a substantial loss of deposits and our business may be materially adversely affected.
Many state and federal agencies have also issued consumer advisories regarding the risks posed to users and investors in digital currencies. U.S. federal and state legislatures, regulators and law enforcement agencies continue to develop views and approaches to a wide variety of digital currencies and activities involved in digital currencies and it is likely that, as the legal and regulatory landscape develops, additional regulatory requirements could apply to digital currency businesses, including our digital currency customers and us. U.S. state and federal, and foreign regulators and legislatures have taken legal actions against digital currency businesses or adopted restrictions in response to adverse publicity arising from hacks, consumer harm, criminal activity, or other activities related to digital currencies. Ongoing and future regulatory actions may alter, perhaps to a materially adverse extent, the nature of the digital currency industry or the ability of our customers to continue to operate. This may significantly impede the viability or growth of our existing funding sources based on deposits from digital currency business as well as our digital currency initiative. In addition, we may become subject to additional regulatory scrutiny as a result of certain aspects of our growth strategy, including our plans to develop credit products for the purchase of digital currency, custodian services and to expand our international customer base.

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Digital currencies and digital currency related activities also currently face an uncertain regulatory landscape in many foreign jurisdictions such as the European Union, China, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, Russia, Israel, Poland, India, Hong Kong, Canada and Singapore. Various foreign jurisdictions may adopt laws regulations or directives that affect digital currencies. Such laws, regulations or directives may conflict with those of the United States and may negatively impact the acceptance of digital currencies by users, merchants and service providers outside the United States and may therefore impede the growth or sustainability of the digital currency industry in these jurisdictions as well as in the United States and elsewhere, or otherwise negatively affect the digital currency industry or our customers, which may adversely affect our digital currency initiative and could therefore result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, governance structure, financial condition or results of operations.
Economic conditions that contributed to the financial crisis in 2008, particularly in the financial markets, resulted in government regulatory agencies and political bodies placing increased focus and scrutiny on the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010 as a response to the financial crisis, significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations thereunder have affected both large and small financial institutions. The Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, imposed new capital requirements on bank holding companies; changed the base for FDIC insurance assessments to a bank’s average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity, rather than upon its deposit base; raised the standard deposit insurance limit to $250,000; and expanded the FDIC’s authority to raise insurance premiums. The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB as an independent entity within the Federal Reserve, which has broad rulemaking authority over consumer financial products and services, including deposit products, residential mortgages, home-equity loans and credit cards, and contains provisions on mortgage-related matters, such as steering incentives, determinations as to a borrower’s ability to repay and prepayment penalties. Compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations has and may continue to result in additional operating and compliance costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
On May 24, 2018, President Trump signed into law the Regulatory Relief Act, which amends parts of the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as other laws that involve regulation of the financial industry. While the Regulatory Relief Act keeps in place fundamental aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act’s regulatory framework, it does make regulatory changes that are favorable to depository institutions with assets under $10 billion, such as the Bank, and to bank holding companies (“BHCs”), with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, such as the Company, and also makes changes to consumer mortgage and credit reporting regulations and to the authorities of the agencies that regulate the financial industry. These and other changes are more fully discussed under “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Regulatory Relief Act.” Certain provisions of the Regulatory Relief Act favorable to the Company and the Bank require the federal banking agencies to either promulgate regulations or amend existing regulations, and it may take some time for these agencies to implement the necessary regulations or amendments.
Federal and state regulatory agencies frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the way existing regulations are applied. Regulatory or legislative changes to laws applicable to the financial industry, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest spreads and could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because of the Dodd-Frank Act and related rulemaking, the Bank and the Company are subject to more stringent capital requirements.
In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking authorities approved the implementation of regulatory capital reforms of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which is referred to as Basel III, and issued rules effecting certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Basel III is applicable to all U.S. banks that are subject to minimum capital requirements as well as to bank and saving and loan holding companies other than those subject to the Federal Reserve’s Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement. The Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement currently applies to certain holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $3.0 billion that do not have a material amount of SEC-registered debt or equity securities outstanding. Management believes the Corporation meets the conditions of the Federal Reserve’s Policy and is therefore excluded from consolidated capital requirements at December 31, 2019; however the Bank remains subject to regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal banking agencies.
Relative to the capital requirements that predated it, Basel III increased most of the required minimum regulatory capital ratios and introduced a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio and the concept of a capital conservation buffer. Basel III also narrowed the definition of capital by establishing additional criteria that capital instruments must meet to be considered

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additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. The Basel III capital rules became effective as applied to the Bank on January 1, 2015 and to the Company on January 1, 2018 prior to the amendment to the Small Bank Holding Company Statement discussed above. See “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Capital Adequacy Guidelines.”
Certain ratios calculated under the Basel III rules are sensitive to changes in total deposits, including the minimum leverage ratio that is discussed further under “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Capital Adequacy Guidelines.” Due to the potential volatility of deposits related to our Digital Currency Initiative, we may be at increased risk of a sudden adverse change in these ratios.
The failure to meet applicable regulatory capital requirements could result in one or more of our regulators placing limitations or conditions on our activities, including our growth initiatives, or restricting the commencement of new activities, and could affect customer and investor confidence, our costs of funds and FDIC insurance costs, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock, our ability to make acquisitions, and our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Federal and state banking agencies periodically conduct examinations of our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with any supervisory actions to which we are or become subject based on such examinations could adversely affect us.
As part of the bank regulatory process, the Federal Reserve and the DBO periodically conduct examinations of our business, including compliance with laws and regulations. If, based on an examination, one of these federal banking agencies were to determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, asset sensitivity, risk management or other aspects of any of our operations have become unsatisfactory, or that the Company, the Bank or their respective management were in violation of any law or regulation, it may take such remedial actions as it deems appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin unsafe or unsound practices, to require affirmative actions to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital levels, to restrict our growth, to assess civil monetary penalties against us, the Bank or their respective officers or directors, to remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate the Bank’s deposit insurance. If we become subject to such regulatory actions, our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation could be adversely affected.
Our regulators may limit current or planned activities related to the digital currency industry.
The digital currency industry is relatively new and is subject to significant risks. The digital currency initiative involves customers and activities with which regulators, including our primary banking regulators the Federal Reserve and DBO, may be less familiar and which they may consider higher risk than those involving more established industries. While we have consulted, and will continue to consult with, our regulators regarding our activities involving digital currency industry customers and the digital currency initiative, in the future a regulator may determine to limit or restrict one or more of these activities. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Financial institutions, such as the Bank, face risks of noncompliance and enforcement actions related to the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations (in particular, as such statutes and regulations relate to the digital currency industry).
The Bank Secrecy Act, USA Patriot Act, FinCEN and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. To administer the Bank Secrecy Act, FinCEN is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and the IRS. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the sanctions programs and rules administered and enforced by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control.
Our compliance with the anti-money laundering laws is in part dependent on our ability to adequately screen and monitor our customers for their compliance with these laws. Customers associated with our digital currency initiative may represent an increased compliance risk given the prevalence of money laundering activities using digital currencies. We have developed enhanced procedures to screen and monitor these customers, which include, but are not limited to, system monitoring rules tailored to digital currency activities, a system of “red flags” specific to various customer types and activities, the development of and investment in proprietary technology tools to supplement our third-party transaction monitoring system, customer risk scoring with risk factors specific to the digital-currency industry, and the use of various blockchain monitoring tools. We believe these enhanced procedures adequately screen and monitor our customers associated with the digital currency initiative for their compliance with anti-money laundering laws; however, given the rapid developments in digital currency markets and technologies, there can be no assurance that these enhanced procedures will be adequate to detect or prevent money laundering activity. If regulators determine that our enhanced procedures are insufficient to address the financial crimes risks posed by

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digital currencies, the digital currency initiative may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
To comply with regulations, guidelines and examination procedures in this area, we have dedicated significant resources to our anti-money laundering program. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we could be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the inability to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plans, including acquisitions and de novo branching.
We are subject to anticorruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and we may be subject to other anti-corruption laws, as well as anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations, to the extent our business expands to non-U.S. jurisdictions. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We continue to pursue deposit sourcing opportunities outside of the United States. We are currently subject to anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA. The FCPA and other applicable anti-corruption laws generally prohibit us, our employees and intermediaries from bribing, being bribed or making other prohibited payments to government officials or other persons to obtain or retain business or gain other business advantages. We may also participate in collaborations and relationships with third parties whose actions could potentially subject us to liability under the FCPA or other jurisdictions’ anti-corruption laws. There is no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by authorities in the United States or other jurisdictions where we conduct business could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to numerous laws and regulations, designed to protect consumers, including the Community Reinvestment Act and fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws or regulations could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.
The CRA directs all insured depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the local communities in which they are located, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Each institution is examined periodically by its primary federal regulator, which assesses the institution’s performance. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The CFPB, the U.S. Department of Justice and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. The CFPB was created under the Dodd-Frank Act to centralize responsibility for consumer financial protection with broad rulemaking authority to administer and carry out the purposes and objectives of federal consumer financial laws with respect to all financial institutions that offer financial products and services to consumers. The CFPB is also authorized to prescribe rules applicable to any covered person or service provider, identifying and prohibiting acts or practices that are “unfair, deceptive, or abusive” in any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product, or service. The ongoing broad rulemaking powers of the CFPB have potential to have a significant impact on the operations of financial institutions offering consumer financial products or services. The CFPB has indicated that it may propose new rules on overdrafts and other consumer financial products or services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations if any such rules limit our ability to provide such financial products or services.
A successful regulatory challenge to an institution’s performance under the CRA, fair lending or consumer lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in FDIC insurance premiums could adversely affect our earnings and results of operations.
The deposits of our Bank are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject it to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments as determined according to the calculation described in “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Deposit Insurance.” To maintain a strong funding position and restore the reserve ratios of the DIF following the financial crisis, the FDIC increased deposit insurance assessment rates and charged special assessments to all FDIC-insured financial institutions. Further increases in assessment rates or special assessments may occur in the future, especially if there are significant additional financial institution failures. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank at a time when our resources are limited, which may require us to borrow funds or raise capital on unfavorable terms.

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The Federal Reserve requires a BHC to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. Under the “source of strength” doctrine that was codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve may require a BHC to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank at times when the BHC may not be inclined to do so and may charge the BHC with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. Accordingly, we could be required to provide financial assistance to the Bank if it experiences financial distress.
A capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital to make the required capital injection. Any loan by a BHC to its subsidiary bank is subordinate in right of repayment to payments to depositors and certain other creditors of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a BHC’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the holding company’s general unsecured creditors, including the holders of any note obligations. Thus, any borrowing by a BHC for making a capital injection to a subsidiary bank often becomes more difficult and expensive relative to other corporate borrowings. Borrowing funds or raising capital on unfavorable terms for such a capital injection may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are exposed to various types of credit risk due to interconnectivity in the financial services industry and could be adversely affected by the insolvency of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated based on trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when our collateral cannot be foreclosed upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due. Any such losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to being affected by general economic conditions, our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. An important function of the Federal Reserve is to influence the U.S. money supply and credit conditions. Among the traditional methods that have been used to achieve this objective are open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate for bank borrowings, expanded access to funds for non-banks and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. More recently, the Federal Reserve has, as a response to the financial crisis, significantly increased the size of its balance sheet by buying securities and has paid interest on excess reserves held by banks at the Federal Reserve. Both the traditional and more recent methods are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, interest rates on loans and securities, and rates paid for deposits.
The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve are influenced by various factors, including inflation, unemployment, and short-term and long-term changes in the international trade balance and in the fiscal policies of the U.S. government. Following a prolonged period in which the federal funds rate was stable or decreasing, the Federal Reserve has begun to increase this benchmark rate. In addition, the Federal Reserve has stated its intention to end its quantitative easing program and has begun to reduce the size of its balance sheet by selling securities. Future monetary policies, including whether the Federal Reserve will continue to increase the federal funds rate and whether or at what pace it will continue to reduce the size of its balance sheet, cannot be predicted, and although we cannot determine the effects of such policies on us now, such policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult for you to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, which may make it difficult for you to resell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired. There are many factors that may affect the market price and trading volume of our common stock, including, without limitation, the risks discussed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section and:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition or asset quality;
changes in general economic or business conditions;

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changes in digital currency industry conditions;
the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve;
publication of research reports about us, our competitors or the financial services industry generally, or changes in, or failure to meet, securities analysts’ estimates of our financial and operating performance, or lack of research reports by industry analysts or ceasing of coverage;
operating and stock price performance of companies that investors deem comparable to us;
additional or anticipated sales of our common stock or other securities by us or our existing shareholders;
additions or departures of key personnel;
perceptions in the marketplace regarding our competitors or us;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving our competitors or us;
other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory or technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services; and
other news, announcements or disclosures (whether by us or others) related to us, our competitors, our core markets or the financial services industry.
The stock market and the market for financial institution stocks has experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases have been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume in our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility may materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
While our growth strategy is focused on the digital currency industry, investors should not expect that the value of our common stock to be correlated with the value of digital currencies. Our common stock is not a proxy for gaining exposure to digital currencies.
While our growth strategy is focused on the digital currency industry and the majority of the Bank’s deposits are from digital currency-related activities, our common stock is not a proxy for gaining exposure to digital currencies. The impact of fluctuations in prices and/or trading volume of digital currencies on our deposit balance from customers in the digital currency industry and, by extension, our profitability, is unpredictable, and the price of our common stock may not be correlated to the prices of digital currencies.
Though not a proxy for gaining exposure to digital currencies, market participants may view our common stock as such, which could in turn attract investors seeking to buy or sell short our common stock in order to gain such exposure, therefore increasing the price volatility of our common stock. There may also be a heightened level of speculation in our common stock as a result of our exposure to the digital currency industry. For more information regarding the volatility of digital currencies, see “—Risks Related to Our Digital Currency Initiative—The prices of digital currencies are extremely volatile. Fluctuations in the price of various digital currencies may cause uncertainty in the market and could negatively impact trading volumes of digital currencies and therefore the extent to which participants in the digital currency industry demand our services and solutions, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”
Our management and board of directors have significant control over our business.
As of December 31, 2019, our directors, our named executive officers and their respective family members and affiliated entities beneficially owned an aggregate of 3,932,999 shares, or approximately 22.1% of our issued and outstanding Class A Common Stock. Consequently, our management and board of directors may be able to significantly affect the outcome of the election of directors and the potential outcome of other matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all our assets and other extraordinary corporate matters. The interests of these insiders could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders, including you.
The holders of our existing debt obligations, as well as debt obligations that may be outstanding in the future, will have priority over our common stock with respect to payment in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up and with respect to the payment of interest.
In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, our common stock would rank below all claims of debt holders against us. As of December 31, 2019, we had outstanding $15.8 million in aggregate principal amount of subordinated debentures issued to statutory trusts that, in turn, issued $15.5 million of trust preferred securities. Payments of the principal and interest on the trust preferred securities are conditionally guaranteed by us. In addition, at December 31, 2019,

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the Company had a term loan from a commercial bank with an outstanding principal balance of $3.7 million. Our debt obligations are senior to our shares of common stock. As a result, we must make payments on our debt obligations before any dividends can be paid on our common stock. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our debt obligations must be satisfied before any distributions can be made to the holders of our common stock. To the extent that we issue additional debt obligations, the additional debt obligations will be of equal rank with, or senior to, our existing debt obligations and senior to our shares of common stock.
We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our common stock, which could depress the price of our common stock.
Our Articles of Incorporation, as amended, (the “Articles”) authorize us to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of one or more series of preferred stock. Our board of directors will have the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our shareholders. Our preferred stock could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discouraging bids for our common stock at a premium over the market price, and materially adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.
We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced regulatory and reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we may take advantage of reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These include, without limitation, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding non-binding shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute payments. The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company such as us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. However, we have irrevocably opted out of this provision, and we will comply with new or revised accounting standards to the same extent that compliance is required for non-emerging growth companies.
We may take advantage of some or all of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time as we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company, which will occur if we have more than $1.07 billion in total annual gross revenue, if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. Investors may find our common stock less attractive because we intend to rely on certain of these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.
We are dependent upon the Bank for cash flow, and the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions is restricted.
Our primary asset is Silvergate Bank. We depend upon the Bank for cash distributions (through dividends on the Bank’s common stock) that we use to pay our operating expenses and satisfy our obligations (including our junior subordinated debentures). Federal and state statutes, regulations and policies restrict the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions to us. Further, the Federal Reserve and the DBO can restrict the Bank’s payment of dividends by supervisory action. If the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to satisfy our obligations or, if applicable, pay dividends on our common stock. See “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Dividends.”
Our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions.
Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive dividends when, as and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. We have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A and Class B Common Stock since inception and we currently have no plans to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any declaration and payment of dividends on our Class A and Class B Common Stock in the future will depend on regulatory restrictions, our earnings and financial condition, our liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic climate, contractual restrictions, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our Class A and Class B Common Stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Furthermore, consistent with our strategic plans, growth initiatives, capital availability, projected liquidity needs and other factors, we have made, and will continue to make, capital management decisions and policies that could adversely affect the amount of dividends, if any, paid to our common shareholders.
The Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy in relation to the organization’s overall asset quality, current and prospective earnings and level, composition and quality of capital. The guidance provides that we inform and consult with the Federal Reserve prior to declaring and paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in an adverse change to our capital structure,

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including interest on the senior promissory note, the subordinated debt obligations, the subordinated debentures underlying our trust preferred securities and our other debt obligations. If regularly scheduled payments on our outstanding junior subordinated debentures, held by our unconsolidated subsidiary trusts, are not made or are deferred, or dividends on any preferred stock we may issue are not paid, we will be prohibited from paying dividends on our Class A and Class B Common Stock.
Provisions in our governing documents and Maryland law may have an anti-takeover effect, and there are substitutional regulatory limitations on changes of control of bank holding companies.
Our corporate organizational documents and provisions of federal and state law to which we are subject contain certain provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, make more difficult or prevent an attempted acquisition that you may favor or an attempted replacement of our board of directors or management.
Our Articles and our Bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change of control or a replacement of our board of directors or management. Our governing documents and Maryland law include provisions that:
empower our board of directors, without shareholder approval, to issue our preferred stock, the terms of which, including voting power, are to be set by our board of directors;
divide our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms;
provide that directors may be removed from office (i) without cause but only upon an 80% vote of shareholders and (ii) for cause but only upon a majority shareholder vote;
eliminate cumulative voting in elections of directors;
permit our board of directors to alter, amend or repeal our Bylaws or to adopt new bylaws;
permit our board of directors to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of our Class A and Class B Common Stock and preferred stock;
require the request of holders of at least 20% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote at a meeting to call a special shareholders’ meeting;
require shareholders that wish to bring business before annual or special meetings of shareholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of shareholders, to provide timely notice of their intent in writing; and
enable our board of directors to increase, between annual meetings, the number of persons serving as directors and to fill the vacancies created by such increase by a majority vote of the directors present at a meeting of directors.
In addition, certain provisions of Maryland law may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change in control. Furthermore, banking laws impose notice, approval, and ongoing regulatory requirements on any shareholder or other party that seeks to acquire direct or indirect “control” of an FDIC-insured depository institution or its holding company. These laws include the BHC Act and the CBCA. These laws could delay or prevent an acquisition.
Our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
Our common stock is not a savings account, deposit account or other obligation of any of the Bank or any of our other subsidiaries and will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. Investment in our common stock is subject to risk, including possible loss.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties
Our headquarters office is currently located at 4250 Executive Square, La Jolla, California 92037. The following table summarizes pertinent details of our leased office properties. 
Location
  
Owned/
Leased
  
Lease
Expiration
  
Type of Office
4250 Executive Square, Suites 101, 300, 400, 420, 450
    La Jolla, CA 92037
  
Leased
  
10/31/2022
  
Headquarters
4250 Executive Square, Suite 100
    La Jolla, CA 92037
  
Leased
  
10/31/2022
  
Branch

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We believe that the leases to which we are subject have terms that are generally consistent with prevailing market terms. None of the leases involve any of our directors, officers or beneficial owners of more than 5% of our voting securities or any affiliates of the foregoing. We believe that our facilities are in good condition and are adequate to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings. We are from time to time subject to claims and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. These claims and litigation may include, among other things, allegations of violation of banking and other applicable regulations, competition law, labor laws and consumer protection laws, as well as claims or litigation relating to intellectual property, securities, breach of contract and tort. We intend to defend ourselves vigorously against any pending or future claims and litigation.
In the current opinion of management, the likelihood is remote that the impact of such proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. However, one or more unfavorable outcomes in any claim or litigation against us could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or their ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management’s attention and may materially adversely affect our reputation, even if resolved in our favor.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Shareholder Information
The Class A Common Stock of the Company has been publicly traded since November 7, 2019 and is currently traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol SI. As of March 3, 2020, there were approximately 282 holders of record of our Class A Common Stock.
Dividends
Holders of our Class A and Class B Common Stock are only entitled to receive dividends when, as and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. We have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A and Class B Common Stock since inception, and we currently have no plans to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. As a Maryland corporation, we are only permitted to pay dividends out of net earnings.
Because we are a bank holding company and do not engage directly in business activities of a material nature, our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders depends, in large part, upon our receipt of dividends from the Bank, which is also subject to numerous limitations on the payment of dividends under California banking laws, regulations and policies. See “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Dividends.”
Our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders in the future will depend on regulatory restrictions, our liquidity and capital requirements, our earnings and financial condition, the general economic climate, contractual restrictions, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our Class A and Class B Common Stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2019, with respect to options and restricted stock units outstanding and shares available for future awards under the Company’s active equity incentive plans.
Plan Category
 
Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans (excluding securities reflected in the first column)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
2010 Equity Compensation Plan
 
632,159

 
$
4.38

 

2018 Equity Compensation Plan
 
368,325

 
14.52

 
1,228,428

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 
1,000,484

 
$
7.54

 
1,228,428

Unregistered Sales and Issuer Repurchases of Common Stock
There were no unregistered sales of the Company’s stock during the fourth quarter of 2019. The Company did not repurchase any of its shares during the fourth quarter of 2019 and does not have any authorized share repurchase programs.


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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this report. Information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 is derived from audited financial statements presented separately herein, while information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 is derived from audited financial statements not included herein. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of any future period. The performance ratios and asset quality and capital ratios are unaudited and derived from our audited financial statements and other financial information as of and for the periods presented. Average balances have been calculated using daily averages. The selected historical consolidated financial and other data presented below contains certain financial measures that are not presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and are not audited. A reconciliation table is set forth below following the selected historical financial and other data.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
  
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
 
$
81,035

 
$
72,752

 
$
48,306

 
$
41,541

 
$
36,728

Interest expense
 
10,078

 
3,129

 
6,355

 
7,729

 
5,947

Net interest income
 
70,957

 
69,623

 
41,951

 
33,812

 
30,781

(Reversal of) provision for loan losses
 
(439
)
 
(1,527
)
 
262

 
1,136

 
1,906

Net interest income after provision
 
71,396

 
71,150

 
41,689

 
32,676

 
28,875

Noninterest income
 
15,754

 
7,563

 
3,448

 
3,308

 
4,797

Noninterest expense
 
52,478

 
48,314

 
30,706

 
24,214

 
21,525

Income before income taxes
 
34,672

 
30,399

 
14,431

 
11,770

 
12,147

Income tax expense(1)
 
9,826

 
8,066

 
6,788

 
4,735

 
4,737

Net income
 
24,846

 
22,333

 
7,643

 
7,035

 
7,410

Dividends on preferred stock
 

 

 

 
13

 
159

Net income available to common shareholders
 
$
24,846

 
$
22,333

 
$
7,643

 
$
7,022

 
$
7,251

Financial Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Return on average assets (ROAA)
 
1.19
%
 
1.11
%
 
0.66
%
 
0.76
%
 
0.82
%
Return on average equity (ROAE)
 
11.54
%
 
13.47
%
 
10.80
%
 
10.45
%
 
10.63
%
Return on average common equity (ROACE)
 
11.54
%
 
13.47
%
 
10.80
%
 
10.55
%
 
11.93
%
Net interest margin(2)
 
3.47
%
 
3.49
%
 
3.68
%
 
3.68
%
 
3.52
%
Noninterest income / average assets
 
0.76
%
 
0.38
%
 
0.30
%
 
0.36
%
 
0.54
%
Noninterest expense / average assets
 
2.52
%
 
2.41
%
 
2.67
%
 
2.60
%
 
2.44
%
Efficiency ratio(3)
 
60.52
%
 
62.59
%
 
67.64
%
 
65.23
%
 
60.50
%
Loan yield(4)
 
5.45
%
 
5.52
%
 
5.20
%
 
4.92
%
 
4.44
%
Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
 
$
1.38

 
$
1.35

 
$
0.83

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.74

Diluted earnings per share
 
$
1.35

 
$
1.31

 
$
0.79

 
$
0.70

 
$
0.72

Common stock shares issued and outstanding at end of period
 
18,668

 
17,818

 
9,224

 
9,224

 
9,728

Basic weighted average shares outstanding
 
17,957

 
16,543

 
9,224

 
9,705

 
9,762

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
 
18,385

 
17,023

 
9,618

 
10,039

 
10,067

Book value per share at end of period
 
$
12.38

 
$
10.73

 
$
8.00

 
$
7.13

 
$
7.24

________________________
(1)
The year ended December 31, 2017 included a $1.2 million increase in income tax expense related to the revaluation of our deferred tax assets resulting from the reduction in the corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Act.
(2)
Net interest margin is a ratio calculated as net interest income divided by average interest earning assets for the same period.
(3)
Efficiency ratio is calculated by dividing noninterest expenses by net interest income plus noninterest income.
(4)
Includes nonaccrual loans and loans 90 days and more past due.


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December 31,
  
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015