10-Q 1 a10q2013.htm FORM 10-Q 10Q Q2 2013

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

x     QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2013

or

o     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from ____ to ____

Commission File Number: 001-35925

TABLEAU SOFTWARE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

    
Delaware
 
47-0945740
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
837 North 34th Street, Suite 200
Seattle, Washington 98103
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

(206) 633-3400
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
                    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. o Yes x No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). x Yes o No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
 
 
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
x
(Do not check if smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company
o


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes x No

As of August 5, 2013, there were approximately 9,430,000 shares of the registrant's Class A common stock and 49,744,007 shares of the registrant's Class B common stock outstanding.

 
 



TABLEAU SOFTWARE, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
For the Quarter ended June 30, 2013
Table of Contents

 
PART 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Page
Item 1.
Financial Statements (unaudited)
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012
 
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4.
Controls and Procedures
 
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Legal Proceedings
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 6.
Exhibits
 
Signatures
 
Exhibit Index

    


 
 




PART 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Tableau Software, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
 
June 30, 2013
 
December 31, 2012
 
(in thousands, except share amounts)
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
221,411

 
$
39,302

Accounts receivable, net
33,423

 
30,752

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
4,302

 
2,789

Income taxes receivable
3,829

 
1,072

Deferred income taxes
2,250

 
2,246

Total current assets
265,215

 
76,161

Property and equipment, net
14,619

 
10,346

Deferred income taxes
110

 
66

Deposits and other noncurrent assets
678

 
419

Total assets
$
280,622

 
$
86,992

Liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders' equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
3,524

 
$
2,176

Accrued and other current liabilities
7,007

 
4,471

Accrued compensation and employee related benefits
12,986

 
13,170

Income taxes payable
317

 
129

Deferred revenue
42,431

 
31,984

Total current liabilities
66,265

 
51,930

Deferred income taxes
1,353

 
1,353

Deferred revenue
2,914

 
2,423

Other long-term liabilities
2,107

 
1,312

Total liabilities
72,639

 
57,018

Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)


 


Convertible preferred stock
 
 
 
Series B convertible preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, no shares authorized as of June 30, 2013 and 7,000,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2012; issued and outstanding, no shares as of June 30, 2013 and 6,585,153 shares as of December 31, 2012 (aggregate liquidation preference of $15,080)

 
15,007

Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, no shares authorized as of June 30, 2013 and 10,831,164 shares authorized as of December 31, 2012; issued and outstanding, no shares as of June 30, 2013 and 10,831,164 shares as of December 31, 2012 (aggregate liquidation preference of $5,091)

 
5,024

Total convertible preferred stock

 
20,031

Stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 10,000,000 shares authorized as of June 30, 2013 and no shares authorized as of December 31, 2012; issued and outstanding, no shares as of June 30, 2013 or December 31, 2012

 

 Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share – authorized, 75,000,000 shares as of June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012; issued and outstanding, 49,696,146 and 34,317,137 shares as of June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012, respectively
5

 
4

Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share – authorized, 750,000,000 shares as of June 30, 2013 and 75,000,000 shares as of December 31, 2012; 9,430,000 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2013, no shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2012.
1

 

Additional paid-in capital
216,382

 
11,698

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(37
)
 
(1
)
Accumulated deficit
(8,368
)
 
(1,758
)
Total stockholders’ equity
207,983

 
9,943

Total liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity
$
280,622

 
$
86,992



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


Tableau Software, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
$
33,518

 
$
20,239

 
$
59,944

 
$
37,695

Maintenance and services
16,366

 
8,877

 
29,958

 
16,106

Total revenues
49,884

 
29,116

 
89,902

 
53,801

Cost of revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
110

 
93

 
286

 
149

Maintenance and services
4,236

 
2,406

 
7,610

 
4,021

Total cost of revenues (1)
4,346

 
2,499

 
7,896

 
4,170

Gross profit
45,538

 
26,617

 
82,006

 
49,631

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing (1)
27,565

 
12,983

 
51,237

 
23,560

Research and development (1)
14,135

 
7,493

 
27,076

 
14,218

General and administrative (1)
6,118

 
3,340

 
11,719

 
6,255

Total operating expenses
47,818

 
23,816

 
90,032

 
44,033

Operating income (loss)
(2,280
)
 
2,801

 
(8,026
)
 
5,598

Other income (expense), net
(119
)
 
(16
)
 
(173
)
 
(27
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(2,399
)
 
2,785

 
(8,199
)
 
5,571

Income tax expense (benefit)
176

 
1,726

 
(1,589
)
 
3,455

Net income (loss)
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(0.16
)
 
$
0.03

Diluted
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(0.16
)
 
$
0.03

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
46,893

 
33,834

 
40,867

 
33,592

Diluted
46,893

 
39,789

 
40,867

 
39,450

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

(1) Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Cost of revenues
$
105

 
$
23

 
$
178

 
$
38

Sales and marketing
1,245

 
318

 
2,064

 
583

Research and development
1,277

 
488

 
2,312

 
914

General and administrative
677

 
276

 
1,249

 
521

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
3,304

 
$
1,105

 
$
5,803

 
$
2,056


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4


Tableau Software, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)
 
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

Other comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation
 
(26
)
 

 
(36
)
 

Total comprehensive income (loss)
 
$
(2,601
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,646
)
 
$
2,116

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


5



Tableau Software, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
 (in thousands)
Operating activities
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

Adjustment to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities
 
 
 
 
Depreciation expense
 
2,738

 
1,622

Provision for doubtful accounts
 
29

 
50

Stock-based compensation expense
 
5,803

 
2,056

Excess tax benefit from stock-based compensation
 
(308
)
 
1

Deferred income taxes
 
256

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
 
(2,835
)
 
(4,956
)
Prepaid expenses, deposits and other assets
 
(1,799
)
 
(782
)
Income taxes receivable
 
(2,761
)
 

Deferred revenue
 
10,991

 
5,427

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
 
3,949

 
624

Income taxes payable
 
199

 
1,815

Net cash provided by operating activities
 
9,652

 
7,973

Investing activities
 
 
 
 
Purchase of property and equipment
 
(6,344
)
 
(3,236
)
Net cash used in investing activities
 
(6,344
)
 
(3,236
)
Financing activities
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from public offering, net of underwriters' discount and deferred offering costs
 
176,974

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options
 
1,572

 
204

Excess tax benefit from stock-based compensation
 
308

 
(1
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
 
178,854

 
203

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
 
(53
)
 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
 
182,109

 
4,940

Cash and cash equivalents
 
 
 
 
Beginning of period
 
39,302

 
30,223

End of period
 
$
221,411

 
$
35,163




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


6



Tableau Software, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
Note 1. Description of Business

Tableau Software, Inc. (the “Company” "we", "us" or "our"), a Delaware corporation, and its wholly-owned subsidiaries are headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Our software products put the power of data into the hands of everyday people, allowing a broad population of business users to engage with their data, ask questions, solve problems and create value. Based on innovative core technologies originally developed at Stanford University, our products dramatically reduce the complexity, inflexibility and expense associated with traditional business intelligence applications. We currently make four key products, Tableau Desktop, a self-service, powerful analytics product for anyone with data, Tableau Server, a business intelligence platform for organizations, Tableau Online, a cloud-based hosted version of Tableau Server and Tableau Public, a free cloud-based platform for analyzing and sharing public data.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation

The condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012 was derived from audited consolidated financial statements. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP") for unaudited condensed consolidated financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes should be read in conjunction with the Company's audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2012 included in the Company’s prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933 with the SEC on May 20, 2013. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments consisting of normal recurring adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the Company's financial position and results of its operations, as of and for the periods presented. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2013, or for any other period.

 
Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates include depreciable lives for property and equipment, stock-based compensation, income taxes, accrued liabilities and collectability of accounts receivable. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Initial Public Offering
On May 22, 2013, we completed our initial public offering ("IPO") whereby 9,430,000 shares of Class A common stock were sold to the public at a price of $31.00 per share. We sold 6,230,000 shares of Class A common stock and the selling stockholders sold 3,200,000 shares of Class A common stock. We received aggregate proceeds of $177.0 million from the IPO, net of underwriters’ discounts and commissions and offering expenses. Upon the closing of the IPO, all shares of our outstanding convertible preferred stock automatically converted into shares of Class B common stock.

7



Segments

We follow the authoritative literature that established annual and interim reporting standards for enterprise’s operating segments and related disclosures about its products and services, geographic regions and major customers.

We operate our business as one operating segment. Our chief operating decision makers (“CODM”) are our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, who review financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions, assessing financial performance and allocating resources.

Revenue Recognition

We generate revenues primarily in the form of software license fees and related maintenance and services fees. License fees include perpetual, term and subscription license fees. Maintenance and services fees primarily consist of fees for maintenance services (including support and unspecified upgrades and enhancements when and if they are available), training and professional services that are not essential to functionality of the software.

We recognize revenues when all of the following conditions are met:

there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement;
the software or services have been delivered to the customer;
the amount of fees to be paid by the customer is fixed or determinable; and
the collection of the related fees is probable.

We use click-through license agreements, signed agreements and purchase orders as evidence of an arrangement. We deliver all of our software electronically. Electronic delivery occurs when we provide the customer with access to the software via a secure portal. We assess whether the fee is fixed or determinable at the outset of the arrangement. Our typical terms of payment are due 30 days from delivery. We assess collectability based on a number of factors such as collection history and creditworthiness of the customer. If we determine that collectability is not probable, revenue is deferred until collectability becomes probable, generally upon receipt of cash.

Substantially all of our software licenses are sold in multiple-element arrangements that include maintenance and may include professional services and training.

Vendor specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of the fair value is not available for software licenses as they are never sold without maintenance. VSOE of the fair value generally exists for all undelivered elements and any services that are not essential to the functionality of the delivered software. We account for delivered software licenses under the residual method.

Maintenance agreements consist of fees for providing software updates on a when and if available basis and technical support for software products (“post-contract support” or “PCS”) for an initial term, generally one year. We have established VSOE of the fair value for maintenance on perpetual licenses based on stated substantive renewal rates or the price when sold on a standalone basis. Stated renewal rates are considered to be substantive if they are at least 15% of the actual price charged for the software license. VSOE of the fair value for standalone sales is considered to have been established when a substantial majority of individual sales transactions within the previous 12 month period fall within a reasonably narrow range, which we have defined to be plus or minus 15% of the median sales price of actual standalone sales transactions.

License arrangements may include professional services and training. In determining whether professional services and training revenues should be accounted for separately from license revenues, we evaluate whether such services are considered essential to the functionality of the software using factors such as the nature of the software products; whether they are ready for use by the customer upon receipt; the nature of the services, which typically do not involve significant customization to or development of the underlying software code; the availability of services from other vendors; whether the timing of payments for license revenues is coincident with performance of services; and whether milestones or acceptance criteria exist that affect the realizability of the software license

8



fee. Revenues related to training are recognized as training services are delivered. Payments received in advance of services performed are deferred and recognized when the related services are performed.

To date, professional services have not been considered essential to the functionality of the software. The VSOE of fair value of our professional services and training is based on the price for these same services when they are sold separately. Revenues related to professional services are billed on a time and materials basis and, accordingly, are recognized as the services are performed. When software is licensed for a specified term or on a subscription basis, fees for support and maintenance are generally bundled with the license fee over the entire term of the contract. In these cases, we do not have VSOE of the fair value for support and maintenance. Revenues related to term license fees are recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the date the customer has access to the software license key and continuing through the end of the contract term.

We do not offer refunds and therefore have not recorded any sales return allowance for any of the periods presented. Upon a periodic review of outstanding accounts receivable, amounts that are deemed to be uncollectible are written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts. We account for taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis and exclude them from revenues.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. We extend credit to customers based upon an evaluation of the customer’s financial condition and generally collateral is not required. As of June 30, 2013, no individual customer accounted for 10% or more of total accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2012 one customer accounted for 10% or more of total accounts receivable. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 and the six months ended June 30, 2012, no individual customer represented 10% or more of our total revenues. For the three months ended June 30, 2012, one customer accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for stock-based compensation by calculating the fair value of each employee options at the date of grant by applying the Black-Scholes option pricing model. This model utilizes the estimated value of our underlying Class A common stock and Class B common stock (together, "common stock") at the measurement date, the expected or contractual term of the option, the expected volatility of our common stock,risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yield of our common stock. Measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest. We recognize compensation expense for only the portion of options expected to vest. Therefore, management applied an estimated forfeiture rate that was derived from historical employee termination behavior. If the actual number of forfeitures differs from the estimates, adjustments to stock-based compensation expense may be required in future periods. Stock-based compensation expense related to non-employees was immaterial for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012.

Fair Value Measurements

We categorize assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets based upon the level of judgment associated with inputs used to measure their fair value. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:

Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2—Inputs are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or quoted prices
for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-derived valuations in
which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets.

Level 3—Inputs are unobservable inputs based on our own assumptions and valuation
techniques used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value. The inputs require significant
management judgment or estimation.


9



Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the valuation of fair value assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy levels.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

We have reviewed recent accounting pronouncements and concluded that they are either not applicable to our business or that no material effect is expected on the consolidated financial statements as a result of the future adoption.

As an “emerging growth company”, the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act allows us to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies.    
Note 3. Stockholders' Equity
Common Stock
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended and restated, authorizes us to issue 75,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share and 750,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share. Each holder of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share and each holder of Class B stock is entitled to ten votes per share. At its discretion, the board of directors may declare dividends on shares of common stock, subject to the rights of our preferred shareholders, if any. Upon liquidation or dissolution, holders of common stock will receive distributions only after preferred stock preferences have been satisfied.
In May 2013, upon the closing of our IPO, 6,585,153 shares of Class B convertible preferred stock and 10,831,164 shares of Class A convertible preferred stock converted into 17,416,317 shares of our Class B common stock. We issued 6,230,000 shares of Class A common stock in the IPO. In addition, 3,200,000 shares of Class B common stock (including 2,000,000 shares of Class B common stock issued upon the conversion of our preferred stock) held by our existing stockholders were converted into Class A common stock and sold in the IPO.
Note 4. Stock-Based Compensation
A summary of the option activity under our stock option plan during the six months ended June 30, 2013 is presented below:    
 
 
 
 
Options Outstanding
 
 
Shares Available for Grant
 
Shares
 
Weighted Average Exercise Price Per Share
 
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Balances at December 31, 2012
 
6,907,924

 
15,398,221

 
$
4.92

 
 
Options granted
 
(1,255,350
)
 
1,255,350

 
21.02

 
 
Options exercised
 

 
(1,109,574
)
 
1.42

 
 
Options canceled
 
4,545

 
(4,545
)
 
8.55

 
 
Options forfeited
 
180,347

 
(180,347
)
 
6.52

 
 
Balances at June 30, 2013
 
5,837,466

 
15,359,105

 
$
6.45

 
$
752,181

Vested and expected to vest at June 30, 2013
 
 
 
14,330,694

 
$
6.17

 
$
705,735

Exercisable at June 30, 2013
 
 
 
7,315,665

 
$
2.58

 
$
386,594

As of June 30, 2013, total unrecognized compensation cost, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, related to unvested stock options was approximately $34.7 million and the weighted-average remaining vesting period was 3.2 years.

10



Common Stock Warrant
A fully-vested warrant to purchase 54,167 shares of our Class B common stock at an exercise price of $0.60 per share was exercised on May 16, 2013.
Note 5. Accrued and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued and other current liabilities consisted of:

    
 
 
June 30, 2013
 
December 31, 2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Accrued liabilities
 
$
5,811

 
$
4,471

Other current liabilities
 
1,196

 

Total accrued and other current liabilities
 
$
7,007

 
$
4,471


Note 6. Commitments and Contingencies
As of June 30, 2013, our principal obligations consisted of obligations outstanding under operating leases. We lease our facilities under operating leases that expire at various dates through 2020. The following table represents our operating lease obligations as of June 30, 2013 (in thousands):
Year Ending
 
 
Remainder of 2013
 
$
2,188

2014
 
5,334

2015
 
4,050

2016
 
2,799

2017
 
2,570

Thereafter
 
2,651

Total minimum lease payments
 
$
19,592

We are subject to certain routine legal proceedings, as well as demands and claims that arise in the normal course of our business. We make a provision for a liability relating to legal matters when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, estimated settlements, legal rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. In our opinion, resolution of any pending claims (either individually or in the aggregate) is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
We are not aware of any pending legal proceedings that, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, or financial conditions. We may in the future be party to litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including claims that we allegedly infringe upon third party intellectual property rights. Such claims, even if not meritorious, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and management resources.

11



Note 7. Segments and Information about Revenues by Geographic Area
The following table presents our revenues by geographic region of end users who purchased products or services for the periods presented below:
    
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
United States and Canada
$
40,446

 
$
24,765

 
$
73,018

 
$
45,252

International
9,438

 
4,351

 
16,884

 
8,549

Total revenues
$
49,884

 
$
29,116

 
$
89,902

 
$
53,801


Substantially all of our long-lived assets are located in the United States as of June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012.
Note 8. Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Immediately prior to the closing of the our IPO, all outstanding shares of Series A preferred stock and Series B preferred stock were converted to Class B common stock. We issued 6,230,000 shares of Class A common stock in the IPO. In addition, 3,200,000 shares of Class B common stock (including 2,000,000 shares of Class B common stock issued upon the conversion of our preferred stock) held by our existing stockholders were converted into Class A common stock and sold in the IPO. As a result, Class A and Class B common stock are the only outstanding classes of capital stock of the Company. The rights of the holders of Class A and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share and each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes per share. Shares of Class B common stock may be converted into Class A common stock at any time at the option of the stockholder, and are automatically converted upon sale or transfer to Class A common stock, subject to certain limited exceptions.
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders is presented in conformity with the two-class method required for participating securities for periods in which we have net income. Holders of Series A preferred stock and Series B preferred stock were entitled to receive non-cumulative dividends at the per annum rate of $0.0282 and $0.1374 per share, payable prior and in preference to any dividends on any other shares of our stock. Holders of Series A preferred stock and Series B preferred stock did not have a contractual obligation to share in our losses. We consider our convertible preferred stock to be participating securities and, in accordance with the two-class method, earnings allocated to preferred stock and the related number of outstanding shares of preferred stock have been excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net income per common share. The computation of diluted net income per share does not assume conversion or exercise of potentially dilutive securities that would have an anti-dilutive effect on earnings. We utilize the if-converted method to compute diluted net income (loss) per common share when the if-converted method is more dilutive than the two-class method.
Under the two-class method, net income attributable to common stockholders is determined by allocating undistributed earnings, calculated as net income less current period Series A and Series B convertible preferred stock non-cumulative dividends, between common stock and Series A and Series B convertible preferred stock. In computing diluted net income attributable to common stockholders, undistributed earnings are re-allocated to reflect the potential impact of dilutive securities. Basic net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding, including potential dilutive common shares assuming the dilutive effect of outstanding stock options using the treasury stock method.    

    

12



The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
    
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Basic net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

Less: Undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities

 
303

 

 
605

Less: Allocation of net income to participating preferred shares - basic

 
257

 

 
516

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders - basic
$
(2,575
)
 
$
499

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
995

Weighted average shares outstanding used to compute basic net income (loss) per share
46,893

 
33,834

 
40,867

 
33,592

Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders - basic
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(0.16
)
 
$
0.03

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

Less: Undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities

 
303

 

 
605

Less: Allocation of net income to participating preferred shares - diluted

 
230

 

 
463

Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders - diluted
$
(2,575
)
 
$
526

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
1,048

Weighted average shares used to compute basic net income (loss) per share
46,893

 
33,834

 
40,867

 
33,592

Effect of potentially dilutive shares:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stock options

 
5,924

 

 
5,827

Warrants

 
31

 

 
31

Weighted average shares used to compute diluted net income (loss) per share
46,893

 
39,789

 
40,867

 
39,450

Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders - diluted
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(0.16
)
 
$
0.03


For the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 outstanding stock options were antidilutive because of our net loss, as such, their effect has not been included in the calculation of basic or diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders.
    

13



The following shares subject to outstanding options and convertible preferred shares were excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods presented as their effect would have been antidilutive:
    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Shares subject to outstanding common stock options
 
$
15,359

 
$

 
$
15,359

 
$

Convertible preferred shares
 

 
17,416

 

 
17,416

Total potentially dilutive shares
 
$
15,359

 
$
17,416

 
$
15,359

 
$
17,416



9. Fair Value Measurements

The following table presents the fair value of our financial assets using the fair value hierarchy:
    
 
 
June 30, 2013
Description
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
 
(in thousands)
Money market funds
 
$
208,641

 
$

 
$

 
$
208,641

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2012
Description
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
 
(in thousands)
Money market funds
 
$
12,015

 
$

 
$

 
$
12,015

    
We have no financial assets or liabilities measured using Level 2 or Level 3 inputs.

14



ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this report and in our prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, on May 20, 2013.
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this report that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A below. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
Overview
Our mission is to help people see and understand data. Our software products put the power of data into the hands of everyday people, allowing a broad population of business users to engage with their data, ask questions, solve problems and create value. Based on innovative core technologies originally developed at Stanford University, our products dramatically reduce the complexity, inflexibility and expense associated with traditional business intelligence applications. We currently offer four products, Tableau Desktop, a self-service analytics product for anyone with data, Tableau Server, a business intelligence platform for organizations, Tableau Online, a cloud-based hosted version of Tableau Server and Tableau Public, a free cloud-based platform for analyzing and sharing public data.
We have sought to rapidly improve the capabilities of our products over time and intend to continue to invest in product innovation and leadership. We were founded in January 2003 and we introduced Tableau Desktop in December 2003, our first version of Tableau Server in March 2007, our first version of Tableau Public in February 2010 and our first version of Tableau Online in July 2013. Building on our foundational technology innovations, we have released eight major versions of our software, each expanding and improving our products' capabilities. Our most recent release, Tableau 8.0, includes several new features including Web and mobile authoring, free form dashboards, forecasting, integration with enterprise applications such as salesforce.com and Google Analytics and application programming interfaces, or APIs.
Our products are used by people of diverse skill levels across all kinds of organizations, including Fortune 500 corporations, small and medium-sized businesses, government agencies, universities, research institutions and non-profits. As of June 30, 2013, we had over 13,500 customer accounts located in over 100 different countries. We define a customer account as a purchaser of our products. Customer accounts are typically organizations. In some cases, organizations will have multiple groups purchasing our software, which we count as discrete customer accounts.
Our distribution strategy is based on a “land and expand” business model and is designed to capitalize on the ease of use, low up-front cost and collaborative capabilities of our software. To facilitate rapid adoption of our products, we provide fully-functional free trial versions of our products on our website and have created a simple pricing model. After an initial trial or purchase, which is often made to target a specific business need at a grassroots level within an organization, the use of our products often spreads across departments, divisions and geographies, via word-of-mouth, discovery of new use cases and our sales efforts.

15



We generate revenues primarily in the form of license fees and related maintenance and services fees. License revenues reflect the revenues recognized from sales of licenses to new customer accounts and additional licenses to existing customer accounts. License fees include perpetual, term and subscription license fees. Maintenance and services revenues reflect the revenues recognized from fees paid for maintenance services (including support and unspecified upgrades and enhancements when and if they are available) and, to a lesser extent, for training and professional services that help our customers maximize the benefits from using our products. A substantial majority of our maintenance and services revenues to date has been attributable to revenues from maintenance agreements. When purchasing a license, a customer also typically purchases one year of maintenance service and has the opportunity to purchase maintenance service annually thereafter. We expect maintenance and services revenues to become a larger percentage of our total revenues as our customer base grows.
Our direct sales approach includes inside sales teams and field sales teams. We also sell our products through indirect sales channels including technology vendors, resellers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and independent software vendors, or ISVs. We view these partners as an extension of our team, playing an integral role in our growth. We plan to continue to invest in our partner programs to help us enter and grow in new markets while complementing our direct sales efforts.
With approximately 19% of our total revenues from customers located outside the United States and Canada in both the three and six months ended June 30, 2013, we believe there is significant opportunity to expand our international business. Our products currently support eight languages and we are aggressively expanding our direct sales force and indirect sales channels outside the United States.
Our quarterly results reflect seasonality in the sale of our products and services. Historically, we believe a pattern of increased license sales, in the fourth fiscal quarter as a result of industry buying patterns, has positively impacted total revenues in that period, which has resulted in low or negative sequential revenue growth in the first quarter as compared to the prior quarter.
We have been growing rapidly in recent periods. Our total revenues for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 were $49.9 million and $89.9 million, respectively, compared to $29.1 million and $53.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012, respectively. We increased the total number of customer accounts that had purchased our products to over 13,500 as of June 30, 2013. During these periods, we significantly increased the size of our workforce, particularly in our sales and marketing and research and development organizations, expanded internationally and invested in our operational infrastructure to support our growth. As a result of our significant investments in growth, our net income did not grow in a manner commensurate with our total revenues. Our net income (loss) for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 was $(2.6) million and $(6.6) million, respectively, as compared to $1.1 million and $2.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012, respectively.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that our performance and future success are dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to continue to expand and further penetrate our customer base, innovate and enhance our products, and invest in our infrastructure. While each of these areas presents significant opportunities for us, they also pose significant risks and challenges that we must successfully address. See the section titled “Risk Factors.”
Invest in Expansion and Further Penetration of Our Customer Base
Our performance depends on our ability to continue to attract new customers and to increase adoption of our products within our existing customers, both domestically and internationally. Our ability to increase adoption amongst existing customers is particularly important in light of our land and expand business model. We believe the existing market for business analytics software is under served. We believe that we have an addressable market that is substantially larger than the market for traditional business analytics software. As a result, we believe we have the opportunity to substantially expand our customer base and to increase adoption of our products within and across our existing customers.
In order to expand and further penetrate our customer base, we have made and plan to continue to make significant investments in expanding our direct sales teams and indirect sales channels, and increasing our brand awareness. We plan to continue to significantly increase the size of our sales and marketing team domestically

16



and internationally, particularly in the near term. We also intend to expand our online and offline marketing efforts to increase our brand awareness.
Invest in Innovation and Advancement of Our Products
Our performance is also significantly dependent on the investments we make in our research and development efforts, and in our ability to continue to innovate, improve functionality, adapt to new technologies or changes to existing technologies, and allow our customers to analyze data from a large and expanding range of data stores. For example, we have recently been focusing on a cloud offering and in July 2013 we released Tableau Online, a cloud-based version of Tableau Server. We intend to continue to invest in product innovation and leadership, including hiring top technical talent, focusing on core technology innovation and maintaining an agile organization that supports rapid release cycles.
Invest in Infrastructure
We have made and expect to continue to make substantial investments in our infrastructure in connection with enhancing and expanding our operations domestically and internationally. We expect to open new sales offices internationally and domestically. Our international expansion efforts have resulted and will result in increased costs and are subject to a variety of risks, including those associated with communication and integration problems resulting from geographic dispersion and language and cultural differences, and compliance with laws of multiple countries. Moreover, the investments we have made and will make in our international organization may not result in our expected benefits. In addition, if Tableau Online is commercially successful, we expect to make additional investments in related infrastructure such as server farms, data centers, network bandwidth and technical operations personnel; however, we currently expect to rely on our current cash on hand and cash generated from our operations to fund these investments. These costs could adversely affect our operating results. We also expect to make additional investments in our infrastructure as we continue to transition to operation as a public company.
Mix and Timing of Sales
Our land and expand business model results in a wide variety of sales transaction sizes, ranging from a single Tableau Desktop order of $1,000-$2,000 to Tableau Desktop and Tableau Server orders of over $1.0 million. The time it takes to close a transaction, defined as the time between when a sales opportunity is entered in our customer relationship management system until when a related license agreement is signed with the customer, generally varies with the size of the transaction.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We believe that the use of non-GAAP operating income (loss), non-GAAP net income (loss) and free cash flow is helpful to our investors. These measures, which we refer to as our non-GAAP financial measures, are not prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. We calculate non-GAAP operating income (loss) as operating income (loss) excluding stock-based compensation expense. We calculate non-GAAP net income (loss) as net income (loss) excluding stock-based compensation expense and related tax impacts. Because of varying available valuation methodologies, subjective assumptions and the variety of equity instruments that can impact a company's non-cash expenses, we believe that providing non-GAAP financial measures that exclude stock-based compensation expense allows for more meaningful comparisons between our operating results from period to period. We calculate free cash flow as net cash provided by operating activities less net cash used in investing activities for purchases of property and equipment. We consider free cash flow to be a liquidity measure that provides useful information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated by our business that can be used for strategic opportunities, including investing in our business, making strategic acquisitions and strengthening our balance sheet. All of our non-GAAP financial measures are important tools for financial and operational decision making and for evaluating our own operating results over different periods of time.
Our non-GAAP financial measures may not provide information that is directly comparable to that provided by other companies in our industry, as other companies in our industry may calculate non-GAAP financial results differently, particularly related to non-recurring, unusual items. In addition, there are limitations in using non-GAAP financial measures because the non-GAAP financial measures are not prepared in accordance with GAAP, may be different from non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies and exclude expenses that may have a material impact on our reported financial results. Further, stock-based compensation expense

17



has been and will continue to be for the foreseeable future a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of the compensation provided to our employees. The presentation of non-GAAP financial information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the directly comparable financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. We urge our investors to review the reconciliation of our non-GAAP financial measures to the comparable GAAP financial measures included below, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.

The following table summarizes our non-GAAP financial measures:

 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Non-GAAP operating income (loss)
 
$
1,024

 
$
3,906

 
$
(2,223
)
 
$
7,654

Non-GAAP net income (loss)
 
316

 
2,025

 
(1,492
)
 
3,910

Free cash flow *
 
 
 
 
 
3,308

 
4,737

* Cash flow presented on a six month basis only        
The following table reflects the reconciliation of operating income (loss) to non-GAAP operating income (loss):
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Operating income (loss)
 
$
(2,280
)
 
$
2,801

 
$
(8,026
)
 
$
5,598

Excluding: Stock-based compensation expense
 
3,304

 
1,105

 
5,803

 
2,056

Non-GAAP operating income (loss)
 
$
1,024

 
$
3,906

 
$
(2,223
)
 
$
7,654

The following table reflects the reconciliation of net income (loss) to non-GAAP net income (loss):
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)
 
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

Excluding: Stock-based compensation expense, net of tax
 
2,891

 
966

 
5,118

 
1,794

Non-GAAP net income (loss)
 
$
316

 
$
2,025

 
$
(1,492
)
 
$
3,910


The following table reflects the reconciliation of net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow:
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
9,652

 
$
7,973

Less: Purchases of property and equipment
 
6,344

 
3,236

Free cash flow
 
$
3,308

 
$
4,737


18



Components of Operating Results
Revenues
License revenues.   License revenues consist of the revenues recognized from sales of licenses to new customers and additional licenses to existing customers. In addition, a small number of customers have purchased term or subscription licenses, under which we recognize the license fee ratably, on a straight-line basis, over the term of the license. In July 2013, we introduced Tableau Online, a subscription, cloud-based version of Tableau Server. To date, we have not derived a significant amount of revenues from term or subscription licenses.
Maintenance and services revenues.   Maintenance and services revenues consist of revenues from maintenance agreements and, to a lesser extent, professional services and training. A substantial majority of our maintenance and services revenues to date has been attributable to revenues from maintenance agreements. When purchasing a perpetual license, a customer also typically purchases one year of maintenance, and has the opportunity to purchase maintenance annually thereafter. We currently charge approximately 25% of the price of the perpetual license for each year of maintenance service, although this price may vary with regard to large enterprise sales. We measure the aggregate perpetual license maintenance renewal rate for our customers in a 12-month period of time, based on a dollar renewal rate for contracts expiring during that time period. Our maintenance renewal rate is measured three months after the 12-month period ends to account for late renewals. Our aggregate maintenance renewal rate for the 12-month period ended March 31, 2013 was over 90%.
When a term or subscription license is purchased, maintenance service is typically bundled with the license for the license period. Customers with maintenance agreements are entitled to receive support and unspecified upgrades and enhancements if and when they become available during the maintenance term. We recognize the revenues associated with maintenance agreements ratably, on a straight-line basis, over the associated maintenance term. In arrangements involving a term license, we recognize both the license and maintenance revenues ratably, on a straight-line basis, over the contract term. Term license revenues are included in License revenues on our consolidated statement of operations. We also have a professional services organization focused on both training and assisting our customers to fully leverage the use of our products. We recognize the revenues associated with these professional services on a time and materials basis as we deliver the services or provide the training.
We expect maintenance and services revenues to become a larger percentage of our total revenues as our customer base grows.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of license revenues.   Cost of license revenues primarily consists of referral fees paid to third parties. For our Tableau Online cloud-based service, cost of revenue is calculated through an allocation of shared costs, which is immaterial as of June 30, 2013.
Cost of maintenance and services revenues.    Cost of maintenance and services revenues includes salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense associated with our technical support and services organization, as well as allocated overhead. Allocated overhead includes overhead costs for depreciation of equipment, facilities (consisting of leasehold improvements and rent) and technical operations (including costs for compensation of our personnel and costs associated with our infrastructure). We recognize expenses related to our technical support and services organization as they are incurred. We expect the cost of maintenance and services revenues to increase as a percentage of maintenance and services revenues due to increased investment in our technical support and services organization to support our expanding customer base.
We expect that the cost of revenues will increase as a percentage of total revenues as we expand our technical support capabilities worldwide and seek to expand our product and service offerings.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit is total revenues less total cost of revenues. Gross margin is gross profit expressed as a percentage of total revenues. We expect that our gross margin may fluctuate from period to period as a result of

19



changes in product and services mix, direct and indirect sales mix and the introduction of new products by us or our competitors.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses are classified into three categories: sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative. For each category, the largest component is personnel costs, which include salaries, employee benefit costs, bonuses, commissions, as applicable, and stock-based compensation expense.
Sales and marketing.    Sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of personnel-related costs attributable to our sales and marketing personnel, commissions earned by our sales personnel, marketing, travel and facility related costs and allocated overhead. We expect sales and marketing expenses to significantly increase, in absolute dollars, for the remainder of 2013 as compared to 2012 primarily due to our planned growth in our sales and marketing organization, both domestically and internationally. We expect sales and marketing expenses to be our largest category of operating expenses as we continue to expand our business.
Research and development.   Research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel-related costs attributable to our research and development personnel and allocated overhead. We have devoted our product development efforts primarily to develop new products, incorporate additional features, improve functionality and adapt to new technologies or changes to existing technologies. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase, in absolute dollars, for the remainder of 2013 as compared to 2012 as we increase our research and development headcount to further strengthen our software and invest in the development of our products.
General and administrative.  General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel-related costs attributable to our executive, finance, legal, human resources and administrative personnel, legal, accounting and other professional services fees, other corporate expenses and allocated overhead. We have recently incurred additional expenses due to expanding our operations and in connection with our IPO, and will continue to incur additional expenses associated with being a publicly traded company, including higher legal, corporate insurance and accounting expenses, and the additional costs of achieving and maintaining compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other regulations. We also expect that general and administrative expenses will continue to increase, in absolute dollars, for the remainder of 2013 as compared to 2012 as we further expand our operations, particularly internationally.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net consists primarily of gains and losses on foreign currency transactions and interest income on our cash and cash equivalents balances.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
Our income taxes are based on the amount of our taxable income and enacted federal, state and foreign tax rates, as adjusted for allowable credits and deductions. Our provision for income taxes consists of federal, state and foreign taxes.
We generally conduct our international operations through wholly-owned subsidiaries, branches and representative offices and report our taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon our business operations in those jurisdictions. Our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements align with the international expansion of our business activities. The application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities is subject to interpretation. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology or intercompany arrangements, including our transfer pricing, or determine the manner in which we operate our business is not consistent with the manner in which we report our income to the jurisdictions. If such a disagreement were to occur, and our positions were not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, resulting in higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations.

20



Our income tax provision may be significantly affected by changes to our estimates for taxes in jurisdictions in which we operate and other estimates utilized in determining our global effective tax rate. Actual results may also differ from our estimates based on changes in tax laws and economic conditions. Such changes could have a substantial impact on the income tax provision and effective income tax rate.
In addition, we are subject to the continuous examinations of our income tax returns by different tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements also requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, costs and expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by our management. To the extent that there are differences between our estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will be affected.
There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates described in our prospectus, filed with the SEC on May 20, 2013 pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act.

21




Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of our total revenues for those periods. The period-to-period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of financial results to be achieved in future periods.
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
$
33,518

 
$
20,239

 
$
59,944

 
$
37,695

Maintenance and services
16,366

 
8,877

 
29,958

 
16,106

Total revenues
49,884

 
29,116

 
89,902

 
53,801

Cost of revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
110

 
93

 
286

 
149

Maintenance and services
4,236

 
2,406

 
7,610

 
4,021

Total cost of revenues (1)
4,346

 
2,499

 
7,896

 
4,170

Gross profit
45,538

 
26,617

 
82,006

 
49,631

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing (1)
27,565

 
12,983

 
51,237

 
23,560

Research and development (1)
14,135

 
7,493

 
27,076

 
14,218

General and administrative (1)
6,118

 
3,340

 
11,719

 
6,255

Total operating expenses
47,818

 
23,816

 
90,032

 
44,033

Operating income (loss)
(2,280
)
 
2,801

 
(8,026
)
 
5,598

Other income (expense), net
(119
)
 
(16
)
 
(173
)
 
(27
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(2,399
)
 
2,785

 
(8,199
)
 
5,571

Income tax expense (benefit)
176

 
1,726

 
(1,589
)
 
3,455

Net income (loss)
$
(2,575
)
 
$
1,059

 
$
(6,610
)
 
$
2,116

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

(1) Stock based compensation included in the statement of operations above was as follows:
        
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Cost of revenues
$
105

 
$
23

 
$
178

 
$
38

Sales and marketing
1,245

 
318

 
2,064

 
583

Research and development
1,277

 
488

 
2,312

 
914

General and administrative
677

 
276

 
1,249

 
521

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
3,304

 
$
1,105

 
$
5,803

 
$
2,056



22




 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(as a percentage of total revenues)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
67.2
 %
 
69.5
%
 
66.7
 %
 
70.1
 %
Maintenance and services
32.8
 %
 
30.5
%
 
33.3
 %
 
29.9
 %
Total revenues
100
 %
 
100
%
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Cost of revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
0.2
 %
 
0.3
%
 
0.3
 %
 
0.3
 %
Maintenance and services
8.5
 %
 
8.3
%
 
8.5
 %
 
7.5
 %
Total cost of revenues
8.7
 %
 
8.6
%
 
8.8
 %
 
7.8
 %
Gross profit
91.3
 %
 
91.4
%
 
91.2
 %
 
92.2
 %
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
55.3
 %
 
44.6
%
 
57.0
 %
 
43.8
 %
Research and development
28.3
 %
 
25.7
%
 
30.1
 %
 
26.4
 %
General and administrative
12.3
 %
 
11.5
%
 
13.0
 %
 
11.6
 %
Total operating expenses
95.9
 %
 
81.8
%
 
100.1
 %
 
81.8
 %
Operating income (loss)
(4.6
)%
 
9.6
%
 
(8.9
)%
 
10.4
 %
Other income (expense), net
(0.2
)%
 
%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(0.1
)%
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(4.8
)%
 
9.6
%
 
(9.1
)%
 
10.3
 %
Income tax expense (benefit)
0.4
 %
 
6.0
%
 
(1.7
)%
 
6.4
 %
Net income (loss)
(5.2
)%
 
3.6
%
 
(7.4
)%
 
3.9
 %



23



Comparison of Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2013 and 2012

Revenues

    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
Revenues
 
(dollars in thousands)
License
 
$
33,518

 
$
20,239

 
65.6
%
 
$
59,944

 
$
37,695

 
59.0
%
Maintenance and services
 
16,366

 
8,877

 
84.4
%
 
29,958

 
16,106

 
86.0
%
Total revenues
 
$
49,884

 
$
29,116

 
71.3
%
 
$
89,902

 
$
53,801

 
67.1
%
    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
2013
 
2012
Revenues
 
(as a percentage of total revenues)
License
 
67.2
%
 
69.5
%
 
 
66.7
%
 
70.1
%
Maintenance and services
 
32.8
%
 
30.5
%
 
 
33.3
%
 
29.9
%
Total revenues
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%


Total revenues were $49.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2013 compared to $29.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $20.8 million, with 66% and 84% year-over-year growth in license and maintenance and services revenues, respectively. Total revenues growth was attributable to the increased demand for our products and services from new and existing customers. For example, we added over 1,500 customer accounts in the three months ended June 30, 2013. License revenues increased $13.3 million from the three months ended June 30, 2012 to the three months ended June 30, 2013 as we continued to increase sales both domestically and internationally. The increase in license revenues was a direct result of our investment in our products and in our sales and marketing efforts. The substantial majority of our license revenues was attributable to sales of perpetual licenses. The increase in maintenance and services revenues was primarily due to increases in sales of maintenance agreements resulting from the growth of our customer base. Total revenues derived from our customer accounts outside of the United States and Canada increased as a percentage of total revenues, to 19% for the three months ended June 30, 2013 from 15% for the three months ended June 30, 2012.

Total revenues were $89.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013 compared to $53.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $36.1 million, with 59% and 86% year-over-year growth in license and maintenance and services revenues, respectively. Total revenues growth was attributable to the increased demand for our products and services from new and existing customers. For example, we added over 2,500 customer accounts in the six months ended June 30, 2013. License revenues increased $22.2 million from the six months ended June 30, 2012 to the six months ended June 30, 2013 as we continued to increase sales both domestically and internationally. The increase in license revenues was a direct result of our investment in our products and in our sales and marketing efforts. The substantial majority of our license revenues was attributable to sales of perpetual licenses. The increase in maintenance and services revenues was primarily due to increases in sales of maintenance agreements resulting from the growth of our customer base. Total revenues derived from our customer accounts outside of the United States and Canada increased as a percentage of total revenues, to 19% for the six months ended June 30, 2013 from 16% for the six months ended June 30, 2012.


24



Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin
    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
Cost of revenues
 
(dollars in thousands)
License
 
$
110

 
$
93

 
18.3
%
 
$
286

 
$
149

 
91.9
%
Maintenance and services
 
4,236

 
2,406

 
76.1
%
 
7,610

 
4,021

 
89.3
%
Total cost of revenues
 
$
4,346

 
$
2,499

 
73.9
%
 
$
7,896

 
$
4,170

 
89.4
%

    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
2013
 
2012
Gross Margin
 
 
License
 
99.7
%
 
99.5
%
 
 
99.5
%
 
99.6
%
Maintenance and services
 
74.1
%
 
72.9
%
 
 
74.6
%
 
75.0
%
Total gross margin
 
91.3
%
 
91.4
%
 
 
91.2
%
 
92.2
%


Total cost of revenues was $4.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2013 compared to $2.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $1.8 million. This increase was primarily due to the increased cost of providing maintenance and services to our expanding customer base. The $1.8 million increase in cost of maintenance and services revenues from the three months ended June 30, 2012 to the three months ended June 30, 2013 was primarily related to an increase in compensation expense of $1.0 million due to increased headcount, $0.4 million in facilities and allocated overhead costs and $0.2 million in additional travel costs. Total gross margin remained relatively flat.

Total cost of revenues was $7.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013 compared to $4.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $3.7 million. This increase was primarily due to the increased cost of providing maintenance and services to our expanding customer base. The $3.6 million increase in cost of maintenance and services revenues from the six months ended June 30, 2012 to the six months ended June 30, 2013 was primarily related to an increase in compensation expense of $2.3 million due to increased headcount, $0.7 million in facilities and allocated overhead costs and $0.4 million in additional travel costs. Total gross margin decreased by approximately one percentage points in the six months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to the six months ended June 30, 2012 primarily due to increased investment in our technical support and services organization for personnel and other costs to support our expanding customer base.



25



Operating Expenses
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
% Change
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
Operating expenses
 
(dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing
 
$
27,565

 
$
12,983

 
112.3
%
 
$
51,237

 
$
23,560

 
117.5
%
Research and development
 
14,135

 
7,493

 
88.6
%
 
27,076

 
14,218

 
90.4
%
General and administrative
 
6,118

 
3,340

 
83.2
%
 
11,719

 
6,255

 
87.4
%
Total operating expenses
 
$
47,818

 
$
23,816

 
100.8
%
 
$
90,032

 
$
44,033

 
104.5
%

 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
2013
 
2012
Operating expenses
 
(as a percentage of total revenues)
Sales and marketing
 
55.3
%
 
44.6
%
 
 
57.0
%
 
43.8
%
Research and development
 
28.3
%
 
25.7
%
 
 
30.1
%
 
26.4
%
General and administrative
 
12.3
%
 
11.5
%
 
 
13.0
%
 
11.6
%
Total operating expenses
 
95.9
%
 
81.8
%
 
 
100.1
%
 
81.8
%


Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses were $27.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $13.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $14.6 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expense of $10.4 million resulting from increased sales headcount as we expanded our sales organization both domestically and internationally, as well as commissions on increased customer orders. The remainder of the increase was primarily attributable to a $2.1 million increase in facilities and allocated overhead costs, $1.0 million in additional marketing costs and $0.9 million in additional travel costs.

Sales and marketing expenses were $51.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $23.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $27.6 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expense of $19.4 million resulting from increased sales headcount as we expanded our sales organization both domestically and internationally, as well as commissions on increased customer orders. The remainder of the increase was primarily attributable to a $3.6 million increase in facilities and allocated overhead cost, $2.1 million in additional marketing costs and $1.9 million in additional travel costs.

Research and Development
    
Research and development expenses were $14.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $7.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $6.6 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expenses of $5.7 million resulting from increased headcount as part of our focus on further developing and enhancing our products and $0.9 million in facilities and allocated overhead costs.

Research and development expenses were $27.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $14.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012 an increase of $12.9 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expenses of $10.8 million resulting from increased headcount as part of our focus on further developing and enhancing our products and $1.7 million in facilities and allocated overhead costs.


26



General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses were $6.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $3.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $2.8 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expenses of $1.2 million resulting from increased headcount to support our overall growth. The remainder of the increase was primarily attributable to $1.2 million in accounting, legal, insurance and recruiting expenses to support growth in our business as well as costs associated with becoming a public company.

General and administrative expenses were $11.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to $6.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012, an increase of $5.4 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in compensation expenses of $2.5 million resulting from increased headcount to support our overall growth. The remainder of the increase was primarily attributable to $2.4 million in accounting, legal, insurance and recruiting expenses to support growth in our business as well as costs associated with becoming a public company.

Other Income (Expense), Net
    
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Other income (expense), net
 
$
(119
)
 
$
(16
)
 
$
(173
)
 
$
(27
)

Other income (expense), net increased due to expenses associated with foreign currency
exchange transactions.

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
    
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
(dollars in thousands)
Income tax expense (benefit)
$
176

 
$
1,726

 
$
(1,589
)
 
$
3,455

Effective tax rate
(7.3
)%
 
62.0
%
 
19.4
%
 
62.0
%
Period specific items
$

 
$

 
$
(1,148
)
 
$


Our effective tax rate was (7.3)% and 62.0% for the three months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The change in effective tax rate is primarily due to the tax benefit received from U.S. research and development credits, which was partially offset by stock-based compensation and change in mix of losses taxed at lower rates in foreign jurisdictions.

For the six months ended June 30, 2013, our effective tax rate was 19.4% inclusive of $1.1 million net of a favorable period-specific item primarily related to the retroactive reinstatement of the U.S. research and development credit. For the six months ended June 30, 2012, our effective tax rate was 62.0%.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash flows generated by operations and to a lesser extent the sale of preferred stock. In May 2013, we closed our initial public offering, or IPO, in which 9,430,000 shares of Class A common stock were sold to the public at an offering price of $31 per share. We sold 6,230,000 shares of Class A common stock and the selling stockholders sold 3,200,000 shares of Class A common stock. We received proceeds of $177.0 million from the IPO, net of underwriters’ discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

27



As of June 30, 2013, we had cash and cash equivalents totaling $221.4 million, net accounts receivable of $33.4 million and $199.0 million of working capital.
The following tables show our cash and cash equivalents and our cash flows from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities for the stated periods:
    
 
 
June 30,
 
December 31,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
221,411

 
$
39,302


    
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
9,652

 
$
7,973

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(6,344
)
 
(3,236
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
 
178,854

 
203

Effect of exchange rate changes
 
(53
)
 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
 
$
182,109

 
$
4,940

Cash and Cash Equivalents
As of June 30, 2013, our cash and cash equivalents were held for working capital purposes, a majority of which was held in cash deposits and money market funds. We intend to increase our capital expenditures to support the growth in our business and operations. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, together with cash generated from operations, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support research and development efforts, the continued expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced software and services offerings, and the continued market acceptance of our products.
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $9.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2013, as a result of net loss of $6.6 million, offset by stock-based compensation expense and other non-cash charges of $8.5 million and a net change of $7.7 million in our operating assets and liabilities. The increase in our operating assets and liabilities was primarily attributable to a $11.0 million increase in deferred revenue and a $3.9 million increase in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities, partially offset by a $2.8 million increase in accounts receivable. The increase in deferred revenue was primarily due to increased sales of maintenance agreement sales. The increase in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities was primarily related to the build out of new office space worldwide. The increase in accounts receivable was primarily due to increased license and maintenance agreement sales.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $8.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012, as a result of net income of $2.1 million, stock-based compensation expense and other non-cash charges of $3.7 million and a net change of $2.1 million in our operating assets and liabilities. The increase in our operating assets and liabilities was primarily attributable to a $5.4 million increase in deferred revenue and a $1.8 million increase in income taxes payable, partially offset by a $5.0 million increase in accounts receivable. The increase in deferred revenue was primarily due to increased maintenance agreement sales. The increase in accounts receivable was primarily due to increased license and maintenance agreement sales.

28



Investing Activities
Cash outflows for investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012 were $6.3 million and $3.2 million, respectively. The cash used for these periods was primarily attributable to capital expenditures to support the growth of our business, including hardware, software, office equipment and leasehold improvements.
Financing Activities
Cash inflows from our financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012 were $178.9 million and $0.2 million, respectively. In the six months ended June 30, 2013, cash provided by financing activities was primarily due to the $177.0 million net proceeds from our IPO. In addition, for the six months ended June 30, 2013 and 2012, cash provided by financing activities was attributable to proceeds from the exercise of stock options were $1.6 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Obligations and Commitments    
As of June 30, 2013, our principal obligations consisted of obligations outstanding under operating leases. We lease our facilities under operating leases that expire at various dates through 2020. The following table represents our operating lease obligations as of June 30, 2013:
Year Ending
 
 
Remainder of 2013
 
$
2,188

2014
 
5,334

2015
 
4,050

2016
 
2,799

2017
 
2,570

Thereafter
 
2,651

Total minimum lease payments
 
$
19,592



ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS

Management believes there have been no material changes to our quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risks during the six months ended June 30, 2013, compared to those discussed in our prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act on May 20, 2013.

ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, as of the end of the period covered by this report or the “Evaluation Date”.
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
Based on management’s evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to, and are effective to, provide assurance at a reasonable level that the information we are required to disclose in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in Securities

29



and Exchange Commission rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the period covered by this report that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of business, we may be involved in various legal proceedings and claims related to alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights, commercial, employment, wage and hour, and other claims.
We have been, and may in the future be, put on notice and/or sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights, including patent infringement. We evaluate these claims and lawsuits with respect to their potential merits, our potential defenses and counter claims, and the expected effect on us.
The outcome of any litigation, regardless of its merits, is inherently uncertain. Any intellectual property claims and other lawsuits, and the disposition of such claims and lawsuits, could be time-consuming and expensive to resolve, divert management attention from executing our business plan, lead to attempts on the part of other parties to seek similar claims and, in the case of intellectual property claims, require us to change our technology, change our business practices and/or pay monetary damages or enter into short- or long-term royalty or licensing agreements.
In general, the resolution of a legal matter could prevent us from offering our service to others, could be material to our financial condition or cash flows, or both, or could otherwise adversely affect our operating results.
We make a provision for a liability relating to legal matters when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. When we make such provisions they are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. In management’s opinion, resolution of these matters is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position. However, depending on the nature and timing of any such dispute, an unfavorable resolution of a matter could materially affect our future results of operations or cash flows, or both, of a particular quarter.

30




ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before investing in our Class A common stock. While we believe that the risks and uncertainties described below are the material risks currently facing us, additional risks that we do not yet know of or that we currently think are immaterial may also arise and materially affect our business. If any of the following risks materialize, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you may lose some or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Due to our rapid growth, we have a limited operating history at our current scale, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
We have been growing rapidly in recent periods, and as a result have a relatively short history operating our business at its current scale. For example, we have significantly increased the number of our employees and have expanded our operations worldwide. Furthermore, we operate in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological innovation, intense competition, changing customer needs and frequent introductions of new products, technologies and services. We have encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in evolving industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in the market, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
Our future success will depend in large part on our ability to, among other things:
maintain and expand our business, including our operations and infrastructure to support our growth, both domestically and internationally;
compete with other companies, custom development efforts and open source initiatives that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the market for our software;
expand our customer base, both domestically and internationally;
renew maintenance agreements with, and sell additional products to, existing customers;
improve the performance and capabilities of our software;
hire, integrate, train and retain skilled talent, including members of our direct sales force and software engineers;
maintain high customer satisfaction and ensure quality and timely releases of our products and product enhancements;
maintain, expand and support our indirect sales channels and strategic partner network;
maintain the quality of our website infrastructure to minimize latency when downloading or utilizing our software;
increase market awareness of our products and enhance our brand; and
maintain compliance with applicable governmental regulations and other legal obligations, including those related to intellectual property, international sales and taxation.

If we fail to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those associated with the challenges listed above as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business will be adversely affected and our results of operations will suffer.
We may not be able to sustain our revenue growth rate or profitability in the future.
While we have achieved profitability on an annual basis over the past three years, we have not consistently achieved profitability on a quarterly basis during that same period. We expect expenses to increase substantially in the near term, particularly as we make significant investments in our sales and marketing organization, expand our operations and infrastructure both domestically and internationally and develop new

31



products and new features for and enhancements of our existing products. In addition, in connection with operating as a public company, we are incurring additional significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. If our revenues do not increase to offset these increases in our operating expenses, we may not be profitable in future periods.
Moreover, our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. As we grow our business, we expect our revenue growth rates to slow in future periods due to a number of reasons, which may include slowing demand for our products, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure, for any reason, to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, the maturation of our business or the decline in the number of organizations into which we have not already expanded.
We have been growing rapidly and expect to continue to invest in our growth for the foreseeable future. If we fail to manage this growth effectively, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
We have experienced rapid growth in a relatively short period of time. Our revenues grew to $89.9 million in the six months ended June 30, 2013 from $53.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2012. During this period, we also established operations in a number of countries outside the United States.
We intend to continue to aggressively grow our business. For example, we plan to continue to hire new employees at a rapid pace, particularly in our sales and engineering groups. If we cannot adequately train these new employees, including our direct sales force, our sales may decrease or our customers may lose confidence in the knowledge and capability of our employees. In addition, we are expanding internationally, establishing operations in additional countries outside the United States, and we intend to make direct and substantial investments to continue our international expansion efforts. We must successfully manage our growth to achieve our objectives. Although our business has experienced significant growth in the past, we cannot provide any assurance that our business will continue to grow at the same rate, or at all.
Our ability to effectively manage any significant growth of our business will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to do the following:
effectively recruit, integrate, train and motivate a large number of new employees, including our direct sales force, while retaining existing employees, maintaining the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture and effectively executing our business plan;
satisfy existing customers and attract new customers;
successfully introduce new products and enhancements;
continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls;
protect and further develop our strategic assets, including our intellectual property rights; and
make sound business decisions in light of the scrutiny associated with operating as a public company.

These activities will require significant capital expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources, and our growth will continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure.
Our future financial performance and our ability to execute on our business plan will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth. There are no guarantees we will be able to do so in an efficient or timely manner, or at all. In particular, any failure to successfully implement systems enhancements and improvements will likely negatively impact our ability to manage our expected growth, ensure uninterrupted operation of key business systems and comply with the rules and regulations that are applicable to public reporting companies. Moreover, if we do not effectively manage the growth of our business and operations, the quality of our software could suffer, which could negatively affect our brand, results of operations and overall business.

32



We face intense competition, and we may not be able to compete effectively, which could reduce demand for our products and adversely affect our business, growth, revenues and market share.
The market for our products is intensely and increasingly competitive and subject to rapidly changing technology and evolving standards. In addition, many companies in our target market are offering, or may soon offer, products and services that may compete with our products.
Our current primary competitors generally fall into three categories:
large software companies, including suppliers of traditional business intelligence products that provide one or more capabilities that are competitive with our products, such as International Business Machines Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Oracle Corporation and SAP AG;
spreadsheet software providers, such as Microsoft Corporation; and
new and emerging business analytics software companies, such as Qlik Technologies Inc. and TIBCO Spotfire (a subsidiary of TIBCO Software Inc.).

In addition, we may compete with open source initiatives and custom development efforts. We expect competition to increase as other established and emerging companies enter the business analytics software market, as customer requirements evolve and as new products and technologies are introduced. We expect this to be particularly true with respect to our cloud-based initiatives as we and our competitors seek to provide business analytics products based on a software-as-a-service, or SaaS platform. This is a relatively new and evolving area of business analytics solutions, and we anticipate competition to increase based on customer demand for these types of products.
Many of our competitors, particularly the large software companies named above, have longer operating histories, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution, professional services or other resources and greater name recognition than we do. In addition, many of our competitors have strong relationships with current and potential customers and extensive knowledge of the business analytics industry. As a result, they may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, for example by offering a software-as-a-service, or SaaS, based product that competes with our on-premise products or Tableau Online, our SaaS product, or devoting greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their products than we do. Moreover, many of these competitors are bundling their analytics products into larger deals or maintenance renewals, often at significant discounts. Increased competition may lead to price cuts, alternative pricing structures or the introduction of products available for free or a nominal price, fewer customer orders, reduced gross margins, longer sales cycles and loss of market share. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, and our business, results of operations and financial condition will be harmed if we fail to meet these competitive pressures.
Our ability to compete successfully in our market depends on a number of factors, both within and outside of our control. Some of these factors include ease and speed of product deployment and use, discovery and visualization capabilities, analytical and statistical capabilities, performance and scalability, the quality and reliability of our customer service and support, total cost of ownership, return on investment and brand recognition. Any failure by us to compete successfully in any one of these or other areas may reduce the demand for our products, as well as adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Moreover, current and future competitors may also make strategic acquisitions or establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with others. By doing so, these competitors may increase their ability to meet the needs of our customers or potential customers. In addition, our current or prospective indirect sales channel partners may establish cooperative relationships with our current or future competitors. These relationships may limit our ability to sell or certify our products through specific distributors, technology providers, database companies and distribution channels and allow our competitors to rapidly gain significant market share. These developments could limit our ability to obtain revenues from existing and new customers and to maintain maintenance and support revenues from our existing and new customers. If we are unable to compete successfully against current and future competitors, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be harmed.

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Our success is highly dependent on our ability to penetrate the existing market for business analytics software as well as the growth and expansion of that market.
Although the overall market for business analytics software is well-established, the market for business analytics software like ours is relatively new, rapidly evolving and unproven. Our future success will depend in large part on our ability to penetrate the existing market for business analytics software, as well as the continued growth and expansion of what we believe to be an emerging market for analytics solutions that are faster, easier to adopt, easier to use and more focused on self-service capabilities. It is difficult to predict customer adoption and renewal rates, customer demand for our products, the size, growth rate and expansion of these markets, the entry of competitive products or the success of existing competitive products. Our ability to penetrate the existing market and any expansion of the emerging market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our products, as well as customers' willingness to adopt a different approach to data analysis. Furthermore, many potential customers have made significant investments in legacy business analytics software systems and may be unwilling to invest in new software. If we are unable to penetrate the existing market for business analytics software, the emerging market for self-service analytics solutions fails to grow or expand, or either of these markets decreases in size, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.
Our future quarterly results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to a wide range of factors, which makes our future results difficult to predict.
Our revenues and results of operations could vary significantly from quarter to quarter as a result of various factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
the expansion of our customer base;
the renewal of maintenance agreements with, and sales of additional products to, existing customers;
the size, timing and terms of our perpetual license sales to both existing and new customers;
the mix of direct sales versus sales through our indirect sales channels;
the timing and growth of our business, in particular through our hiring of new employees and international expansion;
the introduction of products and product enhancements by existing competitors or new entrants into our market, and changes in pricing for products offered by us or our competitors;
customers delaying purchasing decisions in anticipation of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors or otherwise;
changes in customers' budgets;
customer acceptance of and willingness to pay for new versions of our products;
seasonal variations in our sales, which have generally historically been highest in the fourth quarter of a calendar year and lowest in the first quarter;
seasonal variations related to sales and marketing and other activities, such as expenses related to our annual customer conferences;
our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses;
our ability to hire, train and maintain our direct sales force;
the timing of satisfying revenue recognition criteria, particularly with regard to large transactions;
fluctuations in our effective tax rate; and
general economic and political conditions, both domestically and internationally, as well as economic conditions specifically affecting industries in which our customers operate.

Any one of these or other factors discussed elsewhere in this prospectus may result in fluctuations in our revenues and operating results, meaning that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our revenues, results of operations and cash flows may not necessarily be indicative of our future performance.
We may not be able to accurately predict our future revenues or results of operations. For example, a large percentage of the revenues we recognize each quarter has been attributable to sales made in the last month of that same quarter. Our license revenues, which are primarily attributable to perpetual licenses, in particular can be impacted by short-term shifts in customer demand. As a result, our ability to forecast revenues on a quarterly or longer-term basis is limited. In addition, we base our current and future expense levels on our

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operating plans and sales forecasts, and our operating expenses are expected to be relatively fixed in the short term. Accordingly, we may not be able to reduce our costs sufficiently to compensate for an unexpected shortfall in revenues, and even a small shortfall in revenues could disproportionately and adversely affect our financial results for that quarter. The variability and unpredictability of these and other factors could result in our failing to meet or exceed financial expectations for a given period.
If we are unable to attract new customers and expand sales to existing customers, both domestically and internationally, our growth could be slower than we expect and our business may be harmed.
Our future growth depends in part upon increasing our customer base. Our ability to achieve significant growth in revenues in the future will depend, in large part, upon the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, both domestically and internationally, and our ability to attract new customers. This may be particularly challenging where an organization has already invested substantial personnel and financial resources to integrate traditional business intelligence products into its business, as such organization may be reluctant or unwilling to invest in a new product. If we fail to attract new customers and maintain and expand those customer relationships, our revenues will grow more slowly than expected and our business will be harmed.
Our future growth also depends upon expanding sales of our products to and renewing license and maintenance agreements with existing customers and their organizations. In order for us to improve our operating results, it is important that our existing customers make additional significant purchases of our products. If our customers do not purchase additional licenses or capabilities, our revenues may grow more slowly than expected, may not grow at all or may decline. Additionally, increasing incremental sales to our current customer base requires increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts that are targeted at senior management. There can be no assurance that our efforts would result in increased sales to existing customers, or upsells, and additional revenues. If our efforts to upsell to our customers are not successful, our business would suffer. Moreover, while most of our software is licensed and sold under perpetual license agreements, we also enter into term license agreements with some of our customers and have recently begun selling a SaaS-based product, Tableau Online. In addition, all of our maintenance and support agreements are sold on a term basis. In order for us to grow our revenues and increase profitability, it is important that our existing customers renew their maintenance and support agreements and their term licenses, if applicable, when the initial contract term expires. Our customers have no obligation to renew their term licenses or maintenance and support contracts with us after the initial terms have expired. Our customers' renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our software or professional services, our pricing or pricing structure, the pricing or capabilities of products or services offered by our competitors, the effects of economic conditions, or reductions in our customers' spending levels. If our customers do not renew their agreements with us, or renew on terms less favorable to us, our revenues may decline.
We derive substantially all of our revenues from a limited number of software products.
We currently derive and expect to continue to derive substantially all of our revenues from our Tableau Desktop, Tableau Server and Tableau Online software products. As such, the continued growth in market demand of these software products is critical to our continued success. Demand for our software is affected by a number of factors, including continued market acceptance of our products, the timing of development and release of new products by our competitors, price changes by us or by our competitors, technological change, growth or contraction in the traditional and expanding business analytics market, and general economic conditions and trends. If we are unable to continue to meet customer demands or to achieve more widespread market acceptance of our software, our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects will be materially and adversely affected.
Our success depends on increasing the number and value of enterprise sales transactions, which typically involve a longer sales cycle, greater deployment challenges and additional support and services than sales to individual purchasers of our products.
Growth in our revenues and profitability depends in part on our ability to complete more and larger enterprise sales transactions. These larger transactions may involve significant customer negotiation. Enterprise customers may undertake a significant evaluation process, which can last from several months to a year or longer. For example, in recent periods, excluding renewals, our transactions over $100,000 have generally taken

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over three months to close. Any individual transaction may take substantially longer than three months to close. If our sales cycle were to lengthen in this manner, events may occur during this period that affect the size or timing of a purchase or even cause cancellations, which may lead to greater unpredictability in our business and results of operations. We will spend substantial time, effort and money on enterprise sales efforts without any assurance that our efforts will produce any sales.
We may also face unexpected deployment challenges with enterprise customers or more complicated installations of our software platform. It may be difficult to deploy our software platform if the customer has unexpected database, hardware or software technology issues. Additional deployment complexities may occur if a customer hires a third party to deploy or implement our products or if one of our indirect sales channel partners leads the implementation of our products. In addition, enterprise customers may demand more configuration and integration services, which increase our upfront investment in sales and deployment efforts, with no guarantee that these customers will increase the scope of their use. As a result of these factors, we must devote a significant amount of sales support and professional services resources to individual customers, increasing the cost and time required to complete sales. Any difficulties or delays in the initial implementation, configuration or integration of our products could cause customers to reject our software or lead to the delay or non-receipt of future orders which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If our new products and product enhancements do not achieve sufficient market acceptance, our results of operations and competitive position will suffer.
We spend substantial amounts of time and money to research and develop new software and enhanced versions of our existing software to incorporate additional features, improve functionality, function in concert with new technologies or changes to existing technologies and allow our customers to analyze a wide range of data sources. When we develop a new product or an enhanced version of an existing product, we typically incur expenses and expend resources upfront to market, promote and sell the new offering. Therefore, when we develop and introduce new or enhanced products, they must achieve high levels of market acceptance in order to justify the amount of our investment in developing and bringing them to market.
Further, we may make changes to our software that our customers do not find useful. We may also discontinue certain features, begin to charge for certain features that are currently free or increase fees for any of our features or usage of our software. We may also face unexpected problems or challenges in connection with new product or feature introductions.
Our new products or product enhancements, such as Tableau Online and our most recent release, Tableau 8.0, and changes to our existing software could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:
failure to predict market demand accurately in terms of software functionality and capability or to supply software that meets this demand in a timely fashion;
inability to operate effectively with the technologies, systems or applications of our existing or potential customers;
defects, errors or failures;
negative publicity about their performance or effectiveness;
delays in releasing our new software or enhancements to our existing software to the market;
the introduction or anticipated introduction of competing products by our competitors;
an ineffective sales force;
poor business conditions for our end-customers, causing them to delay purchases; and
the reluctance of customers to purchase software incorporating open source software.

In addition, because our products are designed to operate on and with a variety of systems, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our products to keep pace with changes in technology. We may not be successful in either developing these modifications and enhancements or in bringing them to market in a timely fashion.
If our new software or enhancements and changes do not achieve adequate acceptance in the market, our competitive position will be impaired, and our revenues could decline. The adverse effect on our results of

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operations may be particularly acute because of the significant research, development, marketing, sales and other expenses we will have incurred in connection with the new software or enhancements.
We are dependent on the continued services and performance of our senior management and other key personnel, the loss of any of whom could adversely affect our business.
Our future success depends in large part on the continued contributions of our senior management and other key personnel. In particular, the leadership of key management personnel is critical to the successful management of our company, the development of our products, and our strategic direction. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any member of our senior management team or any of our other key employees. Our senior management and key personnel are all employed on an at-will basis, which means that they could terminate their employment with us at any time, for any reason and without notice. The loss of any of our key management personnel could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives and adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to attract, integrate and retain additional qualified personnel, including top technical talent, our business could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends in part on our ability to identify, attract, integrate and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, sales and other personnel, including top technical talent from the industry and top research institutions. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous other companies, including other software and technology companies, many of whom have greater financial and other resources than we do. These companies also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than those we have to offer. In addition, new hires often require significant training and, in many cases, take significant time before they achieve full productivity. We may incur significant costs to attract and retain qualified personnel, including significant expenditures related to salaries and benefits and compensation expenses related to equity awards, and we may lose new employees to our competitors or other companies before we realize the benefit of our investment in recruiting and training them. Moreover, new employees may not be or become as productive as we expect, as we may face challenges in adequately or appropriately integrating them into our workforce and culture. In addition, as we move into new geographies, we will need to attract and recruit skilled personnel in those areas. We have little experience with recruiting in geographies outside of the United States, and may face additional challenges in attracting, integrating and retaining international employees. If we are unable to attract, integrate and retain suitably qualified individuals who are capable of meeting our growing technical, operational and managerial requirements, on a timely basis or at all, our business will be adversely affected.
Volatility or lack of positive performance in our stock price may also affect our ability to attract and retain our key employees. Many of our senior management personnel and other key employees have become, or will soon become, vested in a substantial amount of stock or stock options. Employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares they own or the shares underlying their vested options have significantly appreciated in value relative to the original purchase prices of the shares or the exercise prices of the options, or, conversely, if the exercise prices of the options that they hold are significantly above the market price of our common stock. If we are unable to appropriately incentivize and retain our employees through equity compensation, or if we need to increase our compensation expenses in order to appropriately incentivize and retain our employees, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows would be adversely affected.
Our growth depends on being able to expand our direct sales force successfully.
To date, most of our revenues have been attributable to the efforts of our direct sales force in the United States. In order to increase our revenues and profitability, we must increase the size of our direct sales force, both in the United States and internationally, to generate additional revenues from new and existing customers. We intend to substantially further increase our number of direct sales professionals.
We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of direct sales personnel to support our growth. New hires require significant training and may take significant time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and

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planned hires may not become productive as quickly as we expect, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we do business or plan to do business. In addition, as we continue to grow rapidly, a large percentage of our sales force will be new to our company and our products, which may adversely affect our sales if we cannot train our sales force quickly or effectively. Attrition rates may increase and we may face integration challenges as we continue to seek to aggressively expand our sales force. If we are unable to hire and train sufficient numbers of effective sales personnel, or the sales personnel are not successful in obtaining new customers or increasing sales to our existing customer base, our business will be adversely affected.
If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, passion and focus on execution that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.
We believe that our corporate culture has been a critical component to our success. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team. As we grow and mature as a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.
Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our software could adversely affect our results of operations and growth prospects.
Because our software is complex, undetected errors, failures or bugs may occur, especially when new versions or updates are released. Our software is often installed and used in large-scale computing environments with different operating systems, system management software, and equipment and networking configurations, which may cause errors or failures of our software or other aspects of the computing environment into which it is deployed. In addition, deployment of our software into computing environments may expose undetected errors, compatibility issues, failures or bugs in our software. Despite testing by us, errors, failures or bugs may not be found in our software until it is released to our customers. Moreover, our customers could incorrectly implement or inadvertently misuse our software, which could result in customer dissatisfaction and adversely impact the perceived utility of our products as well as our brand. Any of these real or perceived errors, compatibility issues, failures or bugs in our software could result in negative publicity, reputational harm, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our software, loss of competitive position or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend additional resources in order to help correct the problem. Alleviating any of these problems could require significant expenditures of our capital and other resources and could cause interruptions, delays or cessation of our licensing, which could cause us to lose existing or potential customers and could adversely affect our results of operations and growth prospects.
Interruptions or performance problems associated with our technology and infrastructure may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We have in the past experienced, and may in the future experience, performance issues due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website or third-party hosting disruptions or capacity constraints due to a number of potential causes including technical failures, cyber-attacks, security vulnerabilities, natural disasters or fraud. If our security is compromised, our website is unavailable or our users are unable to download our software within a reasonable amount of time or at all, our business could be negatively affected. Moreover, if our security measures, products or services are subject to cyber-attacks that degrade or deny the ability of users to access our website, products or services, our products and services may be perceived as unsecure and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure. In particular, Tableau Online and Tableau Public may be especially vulnerable to interruptions or performance problems. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our website performance, especially during peak usage times and as our software becomes more complex and our user traffic increases. We expect to continue to make significant investments to maintain and improve website performance and security and to enable rapid and secure releases of new features and applications for our software. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed and continually develop our technology

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and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
In addition, we rely on SaaS technologies from third parties in order to operate critical functions of our business, including financial management services from NetSuite Inc. and customer relationship management services from salesforce.com, inc. If these services become unavailable due to extended outages or interruptions, security vulnerabilities, cyber-attacks or because they are no longer available on commercially reasonably terms or prices, our expenses could increase, our ability to manage these critical functions could be interrupted and our processes for managing sales of our software and supporting our customers could be impaired until equivalent services, if available, are identified, obtained and implemented, all of which could adversely affect our business.
Our products use third-party software and services that may be difficult to replace or cause errors or failures of our products that could lead to a loss of customers or harm to our reputation and our operating results.
We license third-party software and depend on services from various third parties for use in our products. In the future, this software or these services may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of the software or services could result in decreased functionality of our products until equivalent technology is either developed by us or, if available from another provider, is identified, obtained and integrated, which could harm our business. In addition, any errors or defects in or failures of the third-party software or services could result in errors or defects in our products or cause our products to fail, which could harm our business and be costly to correct. Many of these providers attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such errors, defects or failures, and if enforceable, we may have additional liability to our customers or third-party providers that could harm our reputation and increase our operating costs.
We will need to maintain our relationships with third-party software and service providers, and to obtain software and services from such providers that do not contain any errors or defects. Any failure to do so could adversely impact our ability to deliver effective products to our customers and could harm our operating results.
If customers demand products that provide business analytics via a Software-as-a-Service business model, our business could be adversely affected.
In recent years, we believe that companies have begun to expect that key software be provided through a SaaS model, and customers may eventually require that we provide our product via a SaaS deployment. We have recently launched Tableau Online, our cloud-based service that provides our software's core capabilities as a commercial SaaS offering. We anticipate using our current cash or future cash flows to fund further development of this product, and we may encounter difficulties that cause our costs to exceed our current expectations. Moreover, to commercially provide this product at scale, we will need to make additional investments in related infrastructure such as server farms, data centers, network bandwidth and technical operations personnel. All of these investments will negatively affect our operating results. Even if we make these investments, we may be unsuccessful in achieving significant market acceptance of this new product. Moreover, sales of a potential future SaaS offering by our competitors could adversely affect sales of all of our existing products. In addition, increasing sales of our SaaS offering could cannibalize license sales of our on-premise desktop and server software from existing and prospective customers; and this change to a predominant SaaS model could negatively impact our overall sales growth and result in changes in the manner in which we recognize revenue, which could have an adverse impact on our operating results and business operations. In addition, the migration of our customers to a SaaS model would result in changes in the manner in which we recognize revenues for sales to those customers. Changes in revenue recognition would affect our operating results and could have an adverse effect on our business operations and financial results.
Our success depends on our ability to maintain and expand our indirect sales channels.
Historically, we have used indirect sales channel partners, such as original equipment manufacturers, technology partners, systems integrators and resellers, to a limited degree. Indirect sales channel partners are becoming an increasingly important aspect of our business, particularly with regard to enterprise and international sales. Our future growth in revenues and profitability depends in part on our ability to identify, establish and retain

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successful channel partner relationships in the United States and internationally, which will take significant time and resources and involve significant risk.
We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify suitable indirect sales channel partners. To the extent we do identify such partners, we will need to negotiate the terms of a commercial agreement with them under which the partner would distribute our products. We cannot be certain that we will be able to negotiate commercially-attractive terms with any channel partner, if at all. In addition, all channel partners must be trained to distribute our products. In order to develop and expand our distribution channel, we must develop and improve our processes for channel partner introduction and training.
We also cannot be certain that we will be able to maintain successful relationships with any channel partners. These channel partners may not have an exclusive relationship with us, and may offer customers the products of several different companies, including products that compete with ours. With or without an exclusive relationship, we cannot be certain that they will prioritize or provide adequate resources for selling our products. A lack of support by any of our channel partners may harm our ability to develop, market, sell or support our products, as well as harm our brand. There can be no assurance that our channel partners will comply with the terms of our commercial agreements with them or will continue to work with us when our commercial agreements with them expire or are up for renewal. If we are unable to maintain our relationships with these channel partners, or these channel partners fail to live up to their contractual obligations, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.
Our long-term growth depends in part on being able to expand internationally on a profitable basis.
Historically, we have generated a substantial majority of our revenues from customers inside the United States and Canada. For example, approximately 81% of our total revenues in the six months ended June 30, 2013 was derived from sales within the United States and Canada. We have begun to expand internationally and plan to continue to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. Expanding our international operations will subject us to a variety of risks and challenges, including:
increased management, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with having multiple international operations;
management communication and integration problems resulting from geographic dispersion and language and cultural differences;
sales and customer service challenges associated with operating in different countries;
increased reliance on indirect sales channel partners outside the United States;
longer payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable or satisfying revenue recognition criteria, especially in emerging markets;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
general economic or political conditions in each country or region;
economic uncertainty around the world and adverse effects arising from economic interdependencies across countries and regions;
compliance with foreign laws and regulations and the risks and costs of non-compliance with such laws and regulations;
compliance with laws and regulations for foreign operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, import and export control laws, tariffs, trade barriers, economic sanctions and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to sell our software in certain foreign markets, and the risks and costs of non-compliance;
heightened risks of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of financial statements and irregularities in financial statements;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and related effects on our results of operations;
difficulties in repatriating or transferring funds from or converting currencies in certain countries;
the need for localized software and licensing programs;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in certain countries and practical difficulties and costs of enforcing rights abroad; and
compliance with the laws of numerous foreign taxing jurisdictions and overlapping of different tax regimes.

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Any of these risks could adversely affect our international operations, reduce our international revenues or increase our operating costs, adversely affecting our business, results of operations and financial condition and growth prospects.
For example, compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. We may be unable to keep current with changes in government requirements as they change from time to time. Failure to comply with these regulations could have adverse effects on our business. In addition, in many foreign countries it is common for others to engage in business practices that are prohibited by our internal policies and procedures or U.S. laws and regulations applicable to us. We have not historically had formal policies with respect to these laws and regulations, and have only recently begun to implement compliance procedures designed to prevent violations of these laws and regulations. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors, indirect sales channel partners and agents will comply with the formal policies we will implement, or applicable laws and regulations. Violations of laws or key control policies by our employees, contractors, channel partners or agents could result in delays in revenue recognition, financial reporting misstatements, fines, penalties, or the prohibition of the importation or exportation of our software and services and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our business is highly dependent upon our brand recognition and reputation, and the failure to maintain or enhance our brand recognition or reputation would likely adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing the Tableau brand identity and our reputation are critical to our relationships with our customers and channel partners and to our ability to attract new customers and channel partners. We also believe that the importance of our brand recognition and reputation will continue to increase as competition in our market continues to develop. Our success in this area will depend on a wide range of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the following:
the efficacy of our marketing efforts;
our ability to continue to offer high-quality, innovative and error- and bug-free products;
our ability to retain existing customers and obtain new customers;
our ability to maintain high customer satisfaction;
the quality and perceived value of our products;
our ability to successfully differentiate our products from those of our competitors;
actions of our competitors and other third parties;
our ability to provide customer support and professional services;
any misuse or perceived misuse of our products;
positive or negative publicity;
interruptions, delays or attacks on our website; and
litigation- or regulatory-related developments.

Our brand promotion activities may not be successful or yield increased revenues.
Independent industry analysts often provide reviews of our products, as well as those of our competitors, and perception of our products in the marketplace may be significantly influenced by these reviews. If these reviews are negative, or less positive as compared to those of our competitors' products and services, our brand may be adversely affected.
Furthermore, negative publicity, whether or not justified, relating to events or activities attributed to us, our employees, our partners or others associated with any of these parties, may tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brand. Damage to our reputation and loss of brand equity may reduce demand for our products and have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Moreover, any attempts to rebuild our reputation and restore the value of our brand may be costly and time consuming, and such efforts may not ultimately be successful.

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Economic uncertainties or downturns could materially adversely affect our business.
Current or future economic uncertainties or downturns could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Negative conditions in the general economy both in the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from changes in gross domestic product growth, the continued sovereign debt crisis, financial and credit market fluctuations, political deadlock, natural catastrophes, warfare and terrorist attacks on the United States, Europe, the Asia Pacific region or elsewhere, could cause a decrease in business investments, including corporate spending on business analytics software in general and negatively affect the rate of growth of our business.
General worldwide economic conditions have experienced a significant downturn and continue to remain unstable. These conditions make it extremely difficult for our customers and us to forecast and plan future business activities accurately, and they could cause our customers to reevaluate their decisions to purchase our products, which could delay and lengthen our sales cycles or result in cancellations of planned purchases. Furthermore, during challenging economic times our customers may tighten their budgets and face issues in gaining timely access to sufficient credit, which could result in an impairment of their ability to make timely payments to us. In turn, we may be required to increase our allowance for doubtful accounts, which would adversely affect our financial results.
To the extent purchases of our software are perceived by customers and potential customers to be discretionary, our revenues may be disproportionately affected by delays or reductions in general information technology spending. Also, customers may choose to develop in-house software as an alternative to using our products. Moreover, competitors may respond to market conditions by lowering prices and attempting to lure away our customers. In addition, the increased pace of consolidation in certain industries may result in reduced overall spending on our software.
We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown, instability or recovery, generally or within any particular industry. If the economic conditions of the general economy or industries in which we operate do not improve, or worsen from present levels, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.
If currency exchange rates fluctuate substantially in the future, the results of our operations, which are reported in U.S. dollars, could be adversely affected.
As we continue to expand our international operations, we become more exposed to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Although we expect an increasing number of sales contracts to be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar in the future, our sales contracts have historically been denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore substantially all of our revenues have not been subject to foreign currency risk. However, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our software to our customers outside of the United States, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, we incur expenses for employee compensation and other operating expenses at our non-U.S. locations in the local currency. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies could result in the dollar equivalent of such expenses being higher. This could have a negative impact on our reported results of operations. Although we may in the future decide to undertake foreign exchange hedging transactions to cover a portion of our foreign currency exchange exposure, we currently do not hedge our exposure to foreign currency exchange risks.
Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect proprietary methods and technologies that we develop or license under patent and other intellectual property laws of the United States, so that we can prevent others from using our inventions and proprietary information. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, our competitors might gain access to our technology, and our business might be adversely affected. However, defending our intellectual property rights might entail significant expenses. Any of our patent rights, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights may be challenged by others, weakened or invalidated through administrative process or litigation.

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As of June 30, 2013, we had ten issued U.S. patents covering our technology and 11 patent applications pending for examination in the United States. The patents that we own or license from others (including those that have issued or may issue in the future) may not provide us with any competitive advantages or may be challenged by third parties, and our patent applications may never be granted.
Additionally, the process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. Even if issued, there can be no assurance that these patents will adequately protect our intellectual property, as the legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of patent and other intellectual property rights are uncertain.
Any patents that are issued may subsequently be invalidated or otherwise limited, allowing other companies to develop offerings that compete with ours, which could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects and financial condition. In addition, issuance of a patent does not guarantee that we have a right to practice the patented invention. Patent applications in the United States are typically not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all, and publications of discoveries in industry-related literature lag behind actual discoveries. We cannot be certain that third parties do not have blocking patents that could be used to prevent us from marketing or practicing our patented software or technology.
Effective patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available to us in every country in which our software is available. The laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States (in particular, some foreign jurisdictions do not permit patent protection for software), and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Additional uncertainty may result from changes to intellectual property legislation enacted in the United States, including the recent America Invents Act, and other national governments and from interpretations of the intellectual property laws of the United States and other countries by applicable courts and agencies. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.
We rely in part on trade secrets, proprietary know-how and other confidential information to maintain our competitive position. Although we endeavor to enter into non-disclosure agreements with our employees, licensees and others who may have access to this information, we cannot assure you that these agreements or other steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use, disclosure or reverse engineering of our technology. Moreover, third parties may independently develop technologies or products that compete with ours, and we may be unable to prevent this competition.
We might be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. We may initiate claims or litigation against third parties for infringement of our proprietary rights or to establish the validity of our proprietary rights. Litigation also puts our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing. Additionally, we may provoke third parties to assert counterclaims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially viable. Any litigation, whether or not resolved in our favor, could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may be subject to intellectual property rights claims by third parties, which are extremely costly to defend, could require us to pay significant damages and could limit our ability to use certain technologies.
Companies in the software and technology industries, including some of our current and potential competitors, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, many of these companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. The litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant product revenues and against which our patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence. We have received, and may in the future receive, notices that claim we have misappropriated, misused, or infringed other parties' intellectual property rights, and, to the extent we

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gain greater market visibility, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims, which is not uncommon with respect to the business analytics software market.
There may be third-party intellectual property rights, including issued or pending patents that cover significant aspects of our technologies or business methods. Any intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be very time-consuming, could be expensive to settle or litigate and could divert our management's attention and other resources. These claims could also subject us to significant liability for damages, potentially including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed patents or copyrights. These claims could also result in our having to stop using technology found to be in violation of a third party's rights. We might be required to seek a license for the intellectual property, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. Even if a license were available, we could be required to pay significant royalties, which would increase our operating expenses. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our software and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our use of open source software could negatively affect our ability to sell our software and subject us to possible litigation.
We use open source software in our software and expect to continue to use open source software in the future. We may face claims from others claiming ownership of, or seeking to enforce the license terms applicable to such open source software, including by demanding release of the open source software, derivative works or our proprietary source code that was developed using such software. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our software, any of which would have a negative effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, if the license terms for the open source code change, we may be forced to re-engineer our software or incur additional costs. Finally, we cannot assure you that we have not incorporated open source software into our software in a manner that may subject our proprietary software to an open source license that requires disclosure, to customers or the public, of the source code to such proprietary software. Any such disclosure would have a negative effect on our business and the value of our software.
We may be subject to litigation for a variety of claims, which