10-K 1 a10-k20160630doc.htm FORM 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
______________________________________________
FORM 10-K
x
ANNUAL REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016
¨
TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 000-51201
______________________________________________
BofI HOLDING, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
33-0867444
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
4350 La Jolla Village Drive, Suite 140, San Diego, CA
 
92122
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (858) 350-6200
 
Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $.01 par value
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
6.25% Subordinated Notes Due 2026
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market


Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:
None
______________________________________________ 
Indicated by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. 
Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicated by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site every Interactive Data file required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes  x  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filed, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated file  x
Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based upon the closing sales price of the common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market of $21.05 on December 31, 2015 was $1,271,624,164.
The number of shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding as of August 17, 2016 was 63,270,115.
______________________________________________ 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the period ended June 30, 2016 are incorporated by reference into Part III.






BOFI HOLDING, INC.
INDEX

 
 
 
 
 
 




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain various forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include projections, statements of the plans, goals and objectives of management for future operations, statements of future economic performance, assumptions underlying these statements, and other statements that are not statements of historical facts. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “potential,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “should,” “may,” “will” and variations of these words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements also include the assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing statements.
Forward-looking statements are subject to significant business, economic and competitive risks, uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are difficult to predict and beyond the control of BofI or the Bank, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. These and other risks, uncertainties and contingencies are described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including under “Item 1A. Risk Factors”, and the Company’s other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) from time to time, including but are not limited to the following:
Changes in interest rates;
General economic and market conditions, including the risk of a significant economic downturn;
The soundness of other financial institutions;
Changes in laws, regulation or regulatory oversight;
Policies and regulations enacted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau;
Changes in real estate values;
Possible defaults on our mortgage loans;
Mortgage buying activity of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac;
The adequacy of our allowance for loan and lease losses;
Changes in our relationship with H&R Block, Inc. and the financial benefits of that relationship;
The outcome or impact of current or future litigation involving the Company;
Our ability to access the equity capital markets;
Access to adequate funding;
Our ability to manage our growth and deploy assets profitably;
Competition for customers from other banks and financial services companies;
Our ability to maintain and enhance our brand;
A natural disaster, especially in California;
Our ability to retain the services of key personnel and attract, hire and retain other skilled managers;
Possible exposure to environmental liability;
Our dependence on third-party service providers for core banking technology;
Privacy concerns relating to our technology that could damage our reputation or deter customers from using our products and services;
Risk of systems failure and security breaches, including “hacking” and “identity theft”; and
Our reliance on continued and unimpeded access to the internet.
The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report are made on the basis of the views and assumptions of management regarding future events and business performance as of the date this Annual Report is filed with the SEC. We do not undertake any obligation to update these statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date this report is filed.
References in this report to the “Company,” “us,” “we,” “our,” “BofI Holding,” or “BofI” are all to BofI Holding, Inc. on a consolidated basis. References in this report to “Bank of Internet,” the “Bank,” or “our bank” are to BofI Federal Bank, our consolidated subsidiary.

i


PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
BofI Holding, Inc., is the holding company for BofI Federal Bank, a diversified financial services company with over $7.6 billion in assets that provides consumer and business banking products through its branchless, low-cost distribution channels and affinity partners. The Bank has deposit and loan customers nationwide including consumer and business checking, savings and time deposit accounts and financing for single family and multifamily residential properties, small-to-medium size businesses in target sectors, and selected specialty finance receivables. The Bank generates fee income from consumer and business products including fees from loans originated for sale and transaction fees earned from processing payment activity. BofI Holding, Inc.’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market and is a component of the Russell 2000® Index, the S&P SmallCap 600® Index and the KBW Nasdaq Financial Technology Index.
At June 30, 2016, we had total assets of $7,601.4 million, loans of $6,409.1 million, mortgage-backed and other investment securities of $472.2 million, total deposits of $6,044.1 million and borrowings of $820.1 million. Because we do not incur the significantly higher fixed operating costs inherent in a branch-based distribution system, we are able to rapidly grow our deposits and assets by providing a better value to our customers and by expanding our low-cost distribution channels.
We distribute our deposit products through a wide range of retail distribution channels, and our deposits consist of demand, savings and time deposits accounts. We distribute our loan products through our retail, correspondent and wholesale channels, and the loans we retain are primarily first mortgages secured by single family real property and by multifamily real property as well as commercial & industrial loans to businesses. Our mortgage-backed securities consist primarily of mortgage pass-through securities issued by government-sponsored entities and non-agency collateralized mortgage obligations and pass-through mortgage-backed securities issued by private sponsors. We believe our flexibility to adjust our asset generation channels has been a competitive advantage allowing us to avoid markets and products where credit fundamentals are poor or risks and rewards are not sufficient to support our required return on equity.
Our retail distribution channels for our deposit and lending products include:
Multiple national online banking brands with tailored products targeted to specific consumer segments;
Affinity groups where we gain access to the affinity group’s members, and our exclusive relationships with financial advisory firms;
A business banking division focused on providing deposit products and loans to specific nationwide industry verticals (e.g., Homeowners Associations) and small and medium size businesses;
A commission-based lending sales force that operates from home offices focusing primarily on the origination of single family and multifamily mortgage loans;
A commission-based lending sales force that operates from the corporate office focusing on commercial and industrial loans to businesses;
A commission-based leasing sales force that operates from our Utah office focusing on commercial and industrial leases to businesses; and
Inside sales teams that originate loans and deposits from self-generated internet leads, third-party purchase leads, and from our retention and cross-sell of our existing customer base.
Our business strategy is to grow our loan and lease originations and our deposits to achieve increased economies of scale and reduce the cost of products and services to our customers by leveraging our distribution channels and technology. We have designed our branchless banking platform and our workflow processes to handle traditional banking functions with elimination of duplicate and unnecessary paperwork and human intervention. Our charter allows us to operate in all 50 states, and our online presence allows us increased flexibility to target a large number of loan and deposit customers based on demographics, geography and price. Our low-cost distribution channels provide opportunities to increase our core deposits and increase our loan originations by attracting new customers and developing new and innovative products and services.
Our current business plan includes the following principal objectives:
Maintain an annualized return on average common stockholders’ equity of 15.0% or better;
Annually increase average interest-earning assets by 15% or more; and
Maintain annualized efficiency ratio to a level 35% or lower.

1


ASSET ORIGINATION AND FEE INCOME BUSINESSES
     We have built diverse loan origination and fee income businesses that generate attractive financial returns through our branchless distribution channels. We believe the diversity of our businesses and our branchless distribution channels provide us with increased flexibility to manage through changing market and operating environments.
Single Family Mortgage Secured Lending
We generate earning assets and fee income from our mortgage lending activities, which consist of originating and servicing mortgages secured primarily by first liens on single family residential properties for consumers and for lender-finance businesses. We divide our single family mortgage originations between loans we retain and loans we sell. Our mortgage banking business generates fee income and gains from sales of those consumer single family mortgage loans we sell. Our loan portfolio generates interest income and fees from loans we retain. We also provide home equity loans for consumers secured by second liens on single family mortgages. Our lender-finance loans are secured by our first lien on single family mortgages and include warehouse lines for third-party mortgage companies.
We originate fixed and adjustable rate prime residential mortgage loans using a paperless loan origination system and centralized underwriting and closing process. We warehouse our mortgage banking loans and sell to investors prime conforming and jumbo residential mortgage loans. Our mortgage servicing business includes collecting loan payments, applying principal and interest payments to the loan balance, managing escrow funds for the payment of mortgage-related expenses, such as taxes and insurance, responding to customer inquiries, counseling delinquent mortgagors and supervising foreclosures.
We originate single family mortgage loans for consumers through multiple channels on a retail, wholesale and correspondent basis.
Retail. We originate single family mortgage loans directly through i) our multiple national online banking brand websites, where our customers can view interest rates and loan terms, enter their loan applications and lock in interest rates directly over the internet, ii) our relationships with large affinity groups and iii) our call center which uses self-generated internet leads, third-party purchased leads, and cross-selling to existing customer base.
Wholesale. We have developed relationships with independent mortgage companies, cooperatives and individual loan brokers and we manage these relationships and our wholesale loan pipeline through our originations systems and websites. Through our secure website, our approved brokers can compare programs, terms and pricing on a real time basis and communicate with our staff.
Correspondent. We acquire closed loans from third-party mortgage companies that originate single family loans in accordance with our portfolio specifications or the specifications of our investors. We may purchase pools of seasoned, single-family loans originated by others during economic cycles when those loans have more attractive risk-adjusted returns than those we may originate.
We originate lender-finance loans to businesses secured by first liens on single family mortgage loans from cross selling, retail direct and through third-parties. Our warehouse customers are primarily generated through cross selling to our network of third-party mortgage companies approved to wholesale our consumer mortgage loans. Other lender-finance customers are generated by our commissions-based sales force dedicated to commercial & industrial lending who contact businesses directly or through individual loan brokers.
Multifamily Mortgage Secured Lending
We originate adjustable rate multifamily residential mortgage loans and project-based multifamily real estate secured loans with interest rates that adjust based on U.S. Treasury security yields and LIBOR. Many of our loans have initial fixed rate periods (three, five or seven years) before starting a regular adjustment period (annually, semi-annually or monthly) as well as prepayment protection clauses, interest rate floors, ceilings and rate change caps.
We divide our multifamily residential mortgage originations between the loans we retain and the loans we sell. Our mortgage banking business generates gains from those multifamily mortgage loans we sell. Our loan portfolio generates interest income and fees from the loans we retain.
We originate multifamily mortgage loans using a commission-based commercial lending sales force that operates from home offices across the United States or from our headquarters location. Customers are targeted through origination techniques such as direct mail marketing, personal sales efforts, email marketing, online marketing and print advertising. Loan applications are submitted electronically to centralized employee teams who underwrite, process and close loans. The sales force team members operate regionally both as retail originators for apartment owners and wholesale representatives to other mortgage brokers.

2


Commercial Real Estate Secured and Commercial Lending
Our commercial real estate secured lending consists of mortgages secured by first liens on commercial real estate. Historically, we have limited our exposure to commercial real estate and have primarily purchased seasoned mortgages on small commercial properties when they were offered as a part of a residential mortgage loan pool. In fiscal 2015, we began to originate adjustable rate small balance commercial real estate loans with interest rates that adjust based on U.S. Treasury security yields and LIBOR. Many of our loans have initial fixed rate periods (three, five or seven years) before starting a regular adjustment period (annually, semi-annually or monthly) as well as prepayment protection clauses, interest rate floors, ceilings and rate change caps.
Our commercial and industrial lending (“C&I”) is based upon business cash flow and asset-backed financing. We began our C&I lending in 2010 with a focus on fixed and floating rate financing of businesses engaged in the origination of niche mortgage products secured by residential or commercial real estate. Our senior commercial lending group has expanded our corporate finance lending to include other select business types, including leverage lending for selected industries, project-based real estate secured lending and other asset-backed financing.
      Our C&I division also provides leases that are used to purchase equipment essential to the operations of our borrower or lessee and are secured by the specific equipment financed. The primary source of repayment is the operating income of the borrower or lessee. The loan and lease terms are two to ten years and amortize primarily to a full repayment or, in some cases, to a residual balance or investment that is expected to be collected through a sale of the equipment to the lessee or a third party.
Specialty Finance Factoring
     Our specialty finance division engages in the wholesale and retail purchase of state lottery prize and structured settlement annuity payments. These payments are high credit quality deferred payment receivables having a state lottery commission or primarily highly rated insurance company payor. Purchases of state lottery prize or structured settlement annuity payments are governed by specific state statutes requiring judicial approval of each transaction. No transaction is funded before an order approving such transaction has been entered by a court of competent jurisdiction. Our commission-based sales force originates contracts for the retail purchase of such payments from leads generated by our dedicated research department through the use of proprietary research techniques. The Specialty Finance Division also utilizes direct mail and online marketing to generate leads. Since 2013, pools of structured settlement receivables have been originated for sale depending upon management’s assessment of interest rate risk, liquidity, and offers containing favorable terms.
Prepaid Cards and Refund Transfer
Our prepaid cards division provides card issuing and bank identification number (“BIN”) sponsorship services to companies who have developed payroll, general purpose reloadable, incentive and gift card programs serving consumers. BIN Sponsorship includes issuing debit and prepaid cards from BINs licensed to the Bank by the various payment networks, managing risk for all programs, overseeing compliance with network and government regulations, and functioning as liaison between program managers and the payment networks. These programs generate recurring fee income and low cost deposits.
We are also responsible for the primary oversight and control of a refund transfer program under an agreement with Emerald Financial Services, LLC (“EFS”), a wholly owned subsidiary of H&R Block, Inc. (“H&R Block”). Under this program, the Bank opens a temporary bank account for each H&R Block customer who is receiving an income tax refund and elects to defer payment of his or her tax preparations fees. After the Internal Revenue Service and any state income tax authorities transfer the refund into the customer’s account, the net funds are transferred to the customer and the temporary deposit account is closed. We earn a fixed fee paid by H&R Block for each of the H&R Block customers electing a refund transfer.
Auto and RV and Other Consumer Lending
Our consumer lending consists of prime loans to purchase new and used automobiles and recreational vehicles (“RV”) , and deposit-related overdraft lines of credit. In 2015 and 2016 we added extra systems and personnel to increase our auto lending portfolio. In 2008, we elected to significantly decrease RV loans. We hold all of the auto and RV loans that we originated and perform the loan servicing functions for these loans.
Additionally, under agreements with EFS and H&R Block, our Bank uses our underwriting guidelines and credit policies to offer and fund unsecured lines of credit to consumers primarily through the H&R Block tax preparation offices and earns interest income and fee income, which is included in gain on sale - other in our consolidated statements of income. Our Bank retains 10% of these lines of credit and sells the remainder to H&R Block.
Our Bank also provides overdraft lines of credit for our qualifying deposit customers with checking accounts.

3


Portfolio Management
Our investment analysis capabilities are a core competency of our organization. We decide whether to hold originated assets for investment or to sell them in the capital markets based on our assessment of the yield and risk characteristics of these assets as compared to other available opportunities to deploy our capital. Because risk-adjusted returns available on acquisitions may exceed returns available through retaining assets from our origination channels, we have elected to purchase loans and securities (see discussion below) from time to time. Some of our loans and security acquisitions were purchased at discounts to par value, which enhance our effective yield through accretion into income in subsequent periods.
Loan Portfolio Composition. The following table sets forth the composition of our loan and lease portfolio in amounts and percentages by type of loan at the end of each fiscal year-end for the last five years:
 
At June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
(Dollars in thousands)
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
Single family real estate secured:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage
$
3,678,520

 
57.5
%
 
$
2,980,795

 
59.6
%
 
$
1,918,626

 
53.4
%
 
$
1,070,668

 
46.5
%
 
$
808,710

 
46.5
%
Home equity
2,470

 
%
 
3,604

 
0.1
%
 
12,690

 
0.4
%
 
22,537

 
1.0
%
 
29,167

 
1.7
%
Warehouse and other
537,714

 
8.4
%
 
385,413

 
7.7
%
 
370,717

 
10.3
%
 
204,878

 
8.9
%
 
61,106

 
3.5
%
Multifamily real estate secured
1,373,216

 
21.5
%
 
1,185,531

 
23.7
%
 
978,511

 
27.2
%
 
768,023

 
33.4
%
 
687,661

 
39.5
%
Commercial real estate secured
121,746

 
1.9
%
 
61,403

 
1.2
%
 
24,061

 
0.7
%
 
29,000

 
1.3
%
 
35,174

 
2.0
%
Auto and RV secured
73,676

 
1.2
%
 
13,140

 
0.3
%
 
14,740

 
0.4
%
 
18,530

 
0.8
%
 
24,324

 
1.4
%
Factoring
98,275

 
1.5
%
 
122,200

 
2.4
%
 
118,945

 
3.3
%
 
108,144

 
4.7
%
 
48,549

 
2.8
%
Commercial & Industrial
514,300

 
8.0
%
 
248,584

 
5.0
%
 
152,619

 
4.2
%
 
78,721

 
3.4
%
 
45,723

 
2.6
%
Other
2,542

 
%
 
601

 
%
 
1,971

 
0.1
%
 
419

 
%
 
85

 
%
Total loans and leases held for investment
6,402,459

 
100.0
%
 
5,001,271

 
100.0
%
 
3,592,880

 
100.0
%
 
2,300,920

 
100.0
%
 
1,740,499

 
100.0
%
Allowance for loan and lease losses
(35,826
)
 
 
 
(28,327
)
 
 
 
(18,373
)
 
 
 
(14,182
)
 
 
 
(9,636
)
 
 
Unamortized premiums/discounts, net of deferred loan fees
(11,954
)
 
 
 
(44,326
)
 
 
 
(41,666
)
 
 
 
(29,820
)
 
 
 
(10,300
)
 
 
Net loans and leases held for investment
$
6,354,679

 
 
 
$
4,928,618

 
 
 
$
3,532,841

 
 
 
$
2,256,918

 
 
 
$
1,720,563

 
 
The following table sets forth the amount of loans maturing in our total loans held for investment based on the contractual terms to maturity:
 
Term to Contractual Maturity
(Dollars in thousands)
Less Than Three Months
 
Over Three Months Through One Year
 
Over One Year Through Five Years
 
Over Five Years
 
Total
June 30, 2016
$
219,714

 
$
177,628

 
$
761,811

 
$
5,243,306

 
$
6,402,459


4


The following table sets forth the amount of our loans at June 30, 2016 that are due after June 30, 2017 and indicates whether they have fixed, floating or adjustable interest rates:
(Dollars in thousands)
Fixed
 
Floating or
Adjustable
 
Total
Single family real estate secured:
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage
$
65,276

 
$
3,625,609

 
$
3,690,885

Home equity
1,585

 
878

 
2,463

Warehouse and other
229,507

 
47,635

 
277,142

Multifamily real estate secured
64,306

 
1,256,614

 
1,320,920

Commercial real estate secured
1,479

 
120,267

 
121,746

Auto and RV secured
73,671

 

 
73,671

Factoring
97,234

 

 
97,234

Commercial & Industrial
204,824

 
216,212

 
421,036

Other
20

 

 
20

Total
$
737,902

 
$
5,267,215

 
$
6,005,117



5


Our mortgage loans are secured by properties primarily located in the western United States. The following table shows the largest states and regions ranked by location of these properties:
 
At June 30, 2016
 
Percentage of Loan Principal Secured by Real Estate Located in State or Region
 
 
 
Single family
 
 
 
 
State or Region
Total Real Estate Mortgage Loans
 
Mortgage
 
Home Equity
 
Multifamily
real estate secured
 
Commercial
real estate secured
California—south1
49.83
%
 
48.09
%
 
21.12
%
 
54.97
%
 
48.50
%
California—north2
18.14
%
 
17.86
%
 
18.30
%
 
18.21
%
 
26.06
%
New York
7.34
%
 
9.24
%
 
11.56
%
 
2.40
%
 
2.22
%
Florida
5.80
%
 
7.15
%
 
3.30
%
 
2.40
%
 
1.05
%
Arizona
3.54
%
 
4.69
%
 
6.00
%
 
0.58
%
 
0.05
%
Washington
1.87
%
 
1.29
%
 
7.15
%
 
3.43
%
 
2.70
%
Illinois
1.85
%
 
0.40
%
 
1.85
%
 
5.29
%
 
9.24
%
Hawaii
1.45
%
 
1.96
%
 
0.29
%
 
0.14
%
 
%
Texas
1.40
%
 
0.70
%
 
%
 
3.29
%
 
2.84
%
Colorado
1.32
%
 
1.04
%
 
0.47
%
 
2.14
%
 
1.19
%
All other states
7.46
%
 
7.58
%
 
29.96
%
 
7.15
%
 
6.15
%
 
100.00
%
 
100.00
%
 
100.00
%
 
100.00
%
 
100.00
%
1 Consists of mortgage loans secured by real property in California with ZIP Code ranges from 90000 to 92999.
2 Consists of mortgage loans secured by real property in California with ZIP Code ranges from 93000 to 96999.
The ratio of the loan amount to the value of the property securing the loan is called the loan-to-value ratio (“LTV”). The following table shows the LTVs of our loan portfolio on weighted-average and median bases at June 30, 2016. The LTVs were calculated by dividing (a) the loan principal balance less principal repayments by (b) the appraisal value of the property securing the loan.
 
 
 
Single family
 
 
 
 
Total Real Estate Mortgage Loans
 
Mortgage
 
Home Equity1
Multifamily real estate secured
 
Commercial real estate secured
Weighted Average LTV
57.24
%
 
58.27
%
 
46.44
%
54.84
%
 
51.91
%
Median LTV
58.33
%
 
59.37
%
 
60.83
%
53.57
%
 
49.24
%
1 Amounts represent combined LTV calculated by adding the current balances of both the first and second liens of the borrower and dividing that sum by an independent estimated value of the property at the time of origination.
We believe our effective weighted-average LTV of 59.08% for loans originated during the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016, has resulted and will continue to result in relatively low average loan defaults and favorable write-off experience.
Loan Underwriting Process and Criteria. We individually underwrite the loans that we originate and all loans that we purchase. Our loan underwriting policies and procedures are written and adopted by our board of directors and our credit committee. Credit extensions generated by the Bank conform to the intent and technical requirements of our lending policies and the applicable lending regulations of our federal regulators.
In the underwriting process we consider all relevant factors including the borrower’s credit score, credit history, documented income, existing and new debt obligations, the value of the collateral, and other internal and external factors. For all multifamily and commercial loans, we rely primarily on the cash flow from the underlying property as the expected source of repayment, but we also endeavor to obtain personal guarantees from all material owners or partners of the borrower. In evaluating a multifamily or commercial credit, we consider all relevant factors including the outside financial assets of the material owners or partners, payment history at the Bank or other financial institutions, and the management / ownership experience with similar properties or businesses. In evaluating the borrower’s qualifications, we consider primarily the borrower’s other financial resources, experience in owning or managing similar properties and payment history with us or other financial institutions. In evaluating the underlying property, we consider primarily the recurring net operating income of the property before debt service and depreciation, the ratio of net operating income to debt service and the ratio of the loan amount to the appraised value.

6


Lending Limits. As a savings association, we are generally subject to the same lending limit rules applicable to national banks. With limited exceptions, the maximum amount that we may lend to any borrower, including related entities of the borrower, at any one time may not exceed 15% of our unimpaired capital and surplus, plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus for loans fully secured by readily marketable collateral. See “Regulation of BofI Federal Bank” for further information. At June 30, 2016, the Bank’s loans-to-one-borrower limit was $105.1 million, based upon the 15% of unimpaired capital and surplus measurement. At June 30, 2016, our largest loan and single lending relationship was $53.2 million.
Loan Quality and Credit Risk. Historically, our level of non-performing mortgage loans as a percentage of our loan portfolio has been relatively low compared to the overall residential lending market. The economy and the mortgage and consumer credit markets have stabilized. Additionally, we have recently increased our efforts to make loans to businesses through lending programs that are not as seasoned as our mortgage lending. Therefore, we anticipate that our rate of non-performing loans may increase in the future, and we have provided an allowance for estimated loan losses.
Non-performing assets are defined as non-performing loans and real estate acquired by foreclosure or deed-in-lieu thereof. Generally, non-performing loans are defined as nonaccrual loans and loans 90 days or more overdue. Troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”) are defined as loans that we have agreed to modify by accepting below market terms either by granting interest rate concessions or by deferring principal or interest payments due to financial difficulty of the customer. Our policy with respect to non-performing assets is to place such assets on nonaccrual status when, in the judgment of management, the probability of collection of interest is deemed to be insufficient to warrant further accrual. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, previously accrued but unpaid interest will be deducted from interest income. Our general policy is to not accrue interest on loans past due 90 days or more, unless the individual borrower circumstances dictate otherwise.
See Management’s Discussion and Analysis — “Asset Quality and Allowance for Loan Loss” for a history of non-performing assets and allowance for loan loss.
Investment Securities Portfolio. We classify each investment security according to our intent to hold the security to maturity, trade the security at fair value or make the security available-for-sale. We invest available funds in government and high-grade non-agency securities. Our investment policy, as established by our Board of Directors, is designed to maintain liquidity and generate a favorable return on investment without incurring undue interest rate risk, credit risk or portfolio asset concentration risk. Under our investment policy, we are currently authorized to invest in agency mortgage-backed obligations issued or fully guaranteed by the United States government, non-agency mortgage-backed obligations, specific federal agency obligations, municipal obligations, specific time deposits, negotiable certificates of deposit issued by commercial banks and other insured financial institutions, investment grade corporate debt securities and other specified investments. We also buy and sell securities to facilitate liquidity and to help manage our interest rate risk.
The following table sets forth the dollar amount of our securities portfolio by intent at the end of each of the last five fiscal years:
 
Available-for-Sale
 
Held-to-maturity
 
Trading
 
 
(Dollars in thousands)
Fair Value
 
Carrying Amount
 
Fair Value
 
Total
Fiscal year end
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
June 30, 2016
$
265,447

 
$
199,174

 
$
7,584

 
$
472,205

June 30, 2015
163,361

 
225,555

 
7,832

 
396,748

June 30, 2014
214,778

 
247,729

 
8,066

 
470,573

June 30, 2013
185,607

 
275,691

 
7,111

 
468,409

June 30, 2012
164,159

 
313,032

 
5,838

 
483,029



7


The following table sets forth the expected maturity distribution of our mortgage-backed securities and the contractual maturity distribution of our other debt securities and the weighted-average yield for each range of maturities:
 
At June 30, 2016
 
Total Amount
 
Due Within One Year
 
Due After One but within Five Years
 
Due After Five but within Ten Years
 
Due After Ten Years
(Dollars in thousands)
Amount
 
Yield1
 
Amount
 
Yield1
 
Amount
 
Yield1
 
Amount
 
Yield1
 
Amount
 
Yield1
Available-for-sale
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage-backed securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Agency2
$
33,256

 
2.11
%
 
$
3,206

 
2.42
%
 
$
10,115

 
2.36
%
 
$
8,233

 
2.22
%
 
$
11,702

 
1.74
%
Non-Agency3
9,043

 
3.46
%
 
2,917

 
3.75
%
 
4,677

 
3.09
%
 
1,136

 
3.74
%
 
313

 
5.32
%
Total Mortgage-Backed Securities
$
42,299

 
2.40
%
 
$
6,123

 
3.06
%
 
$
14,792

 
2.59
%
 
$
9,369

 
2.41
%
 
$
12,015

 
1.83
%
Other Debt Securities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Municipal
34,543

 
1.62
%
 
22,406

 
0.57
%
 
3,888

 
3.23
%
 
4,346

 
3.99
%
 
3,903

 
3.38
%
Non-agency
186,316

 
4.86
%
 
78,866

 
4.84
%
 
107,339

 
4.86
%
 
111

 
3.75
%
 

 
%
Total Other Debt Securities
$
220,859

 
4.35
%
 
$
101,272

 
3.90
%
 
$
111,227

 
4.81
%
 
$
4,457

 
3.98
%
 
$
3,903

 
3.38
%
Available-for-sale—Amortized Cost
$
263,158

 
4.04
%
 
$
107,395

 
3.85
%
 
$
126,019

 
4.55
%
 
$
13,826

 
2.91
%
 
$
15,918

 
2.21
%
Available-for-sale—Fair Value
$
265,447

 
4.04
%
 
$
107,910

 
3.85
%
 
$
127,326

 
4.55
%
 
$
14,041

 
2.91
%
 
$
16,170

 
2.21
%
Held-to-maturity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage-backed securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Agency2
$
35,067

 
3.32
%
 
$
1,168

 
3.18
%
 
$
4,532

 
3.18
%
 
$
5,201

 
3.18
%
 
$
24,166

 
3.39
%
Non-Agency3
128,211

 
4.32
%
 
15,953

 
4.13
%
 
46,229

 
3.76
%
 
36,350

 
4.25
%
 
29,679

 
5.39
%
Total Mortgage-Backed Securities
$
163,278

 
4.11
%
 
$
17,121

 
4.06
%
 
$
50,761

 
3.71
%
 
$
41,551

 
4.12
%
 
$
53,845

 
4.49
%
Other Debt Securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Municipal
35,896

 
5.82
%
 
1,060

 
5.56
%
 
4,922

 
5.57
%
 
7,725

 
5.60
%
 
22,189

 
5.97
%
Total Other Debt Securities
$
35,896

 
5.82
%
 
$
1,060

 
5.56
%
 
$
4,922

 
5.57
%
 
$
7,725

 
5.60
%
 
$
22,189

 
5.97
%
Held-to-Maturity—Carrying Value
$
199,174

 
4.42
%
 
$
18,181

 
4.15
%
 
$
55,683

 
3.87
%
 
$
49,276

 
4.35
%
 
$
76,034

 
4.92
%
Held-to-Maturity—Fair Value
$
202,677

 
4.42
%
 
$
18,225

 
4.15
%
 
$
56,278

 
3.87
%
 
$
49,842

 
4.35
%
 
$
78,332

 
4.92
%
Trading
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Agency—Fair Value4 
$
7,584

 
3.33
%
 
$

 
%
 
$

 
%
 
$

 
%
 
$
7,584

 
3.33
%
Total securities
$
472,205

 
4.18
%
 
$
126,091

 
3.89
%
 
$
183,009

 
4.34
%
 
$
63,317

 
4.03
%
 
$
99,788

 
4.36
%
1 Weighted-average yield is based on amortized cost of the securities. Residential mortgage-backed security yields and maturities include impact of expected prepayments and other timing factors such as interest rate forward curve. Yields presented in this table are adjusted for OTTI, which is non-accretable.
2 U.S. government-backed or government-sponsored enterprises including Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae.
3 Private sponsors of securities collateralized primarily by pools of 1-4 family residential first mortgages. Primarily super senior securities and secured by prime, Alt-A or pay-option ARM mortgages.
4 Collateralized debt obligations secured by pools of bank trust preferred securities.
Our securities portfolio of $472.2 million at June 30, 2016 is composed of approximately 14.6% U.S. agency residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBS”) and other debt securities issued by the government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (each, a “GSE” and, together, the “GSEs”), primarily Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; 0.6% Prime private-issue super senior, first-lien RMBS; 3.1% Alt-A, private-issue super senior, first-lien RMBS; 24.6% Pay-Option ARM, private-issue super senior first-lien RMBS; 15.0% Municipal securities and 42.1% other residential mortgage-backed, asset-backed and bank pooled trust preferred securities. We had no commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) or sub-prime RMBS at June 30, 2016.

8


We manage the credit risk of our non-agency RMBS by purchasing those securities which we believe have the most favorable blend of historic credit performance and remaining credit enhancements including subordination, over collateralization, excess spread and purchase discounts. Substantially all of our non-agency RMBS are super senior tranches protected against realized loss by subordinated tranches. The amount of structural subordination available to protect each of our securities (expressed as a percentage of the current face value) is known as credit enhancement. At June 30, 2016, the weighted-average credit enhancement in our entire non-agency RMBS portfolio was 20.0%. The credit enhancement percentage and the ratings agency grade (e.g. “AA”) do not consider additional credit protection available to the Bank, if needed, from its purchase discount. All of the Bank’s non-agency RMBS purchases were at a discount to par and we do not solely rely upon nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSRO”) ratings when determining classification. This change in Bank policy was brought about by changes in regulatory stance regarding classification of securities as mandated by Congress under section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Act, which required any reference to, or reliance on, NRSROs to be removed when determining the creditworthiness of securities. We have experienced personnel monitor the performance and measure the security for impairment in accordance with regulatory guidance. As of June 30, 2016, 10.4% of our non-agency RMBS securities have been downgraded from investment grade at acquisition to below investment grade. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis—“Critical Accounting Policies—Securities.”
DEPOSIT GENERATION
We offer a full line of deposit products we source through our branchless distribution channels using an operating platform and marketing strategies that emphasize low operating costs and are flexible and scalable for our business. Our full featured products, customer service and our affinity relationships result in customer accounts with strong retention characteristics. We continuously collect customer feedback and improve our processes to satisfy customer needs.
At June 30, 2016, we had $6,044.1 million in deposits of which $4,990.3 million, or 82.6% were demand and savings accounts and $1,053.8 million, or 17.4% were time deposits. We generate deposit customer relationships through our retail distribution channels including websites, sales teams, online advertising, print and digital advertising, financial advisory firms, affinity partnerships and lending businesses which generate escrow deposits and other operating funds. Our retail distribution channels include:
Multiple national online banking brands with tailored products targeted to specific consumer segments. For example, our Bank of Internet brand, America’s Oldest and Most Trusted Internet Bank is designed for customers who are looking for full-featured demand accounts and very competitive fees and interest rates. Bank X brand targets primarily tech-savvy, Generation X and Generation Y customers that are seeking a low-fee cost structure and a high-yield savings account;
A concierge banking offer through Virtus Bank serves the needs of high net worth individuals with premium products and dedicated service;
Financial advisory firms who introduce their clients to our deposit products through BofI Advisor;
Relationship with affinity groups where we gain access to the affinity group’s members;
A business banking division, which focuses on providing deposit products nationwide to industry verticals (e.g., Homeowners Associations and Non-Profit) as well as cash management products to a variety of businesses through a dedicated sales team;
A call center that opens accounts through self-generated internet leads, third-party purchased leads, affinity relationships, and our retention and cross-sell efforts to our existing customer base; and
A prepaid card division, which provides card issuing and BIN sponsorship services to companies and generate low cost deposits.
Our online consumer banking platform is full-featured requiring only single sign-in with quick and secure access to activity, statements and other features including:
Purchase Rewards. Customers can earn cash back by using their VISA® Debit Card at select merchants.
Mobile Banking. Customers can access with Touch ID on eligible device, review account balances, transfer funds, deposit checks and pay bills from the convenience of their mobile phone.
Mobile Deposit. Customers can instantly deposit checks from their smart phones using our Mobile App.
FinanceWorks. Customers can easily manage their finances and create budgets using this secure financial management solution.
Online Bill Payment Service. Customers can automatically pay their bills online from their account.
Popmoney. Customers can securely send money via email or text messaging through this service.

9


My Deposit. Customers can scan checks with this remote deposit solution from their home computers. Scanned images will be electronically transmitted for deposit directly to their account.
Text Message Banking. Customers can view their account balances, transaction history, and transfer funds between their accounts via these text message commands from their mobile phones.
Unlimited ATM reimbursements. With certain checking accounts, Customers are reimbursed for any fees incurred using an ATM (excludes international ATM transactions). This gives them access to any ATM in the nation, for free.
Secure Email. Customers can send and receive secure emails from our customer service department without concern for the security of their information.
InterBank Transfer. Customers can transfer money to their accounts at other financial institutions from their online banking platform.
VISA® Debit Cards or ATM Cards. Customers may choose to receive either a free VISA® Debit or an ATM card upon account opening. Customers can access their accounts worldwide at ATMs and any other locations that accept VISA® Debit cards.
Overdraft Protection. Eligible Customers can enroll in one of our overdraft protection programs.
Apple Pay™ mobile experience is easy and seamless. Apple Pay allows the same ease to pay as a debit card with an eligible Apple device.
Cash Deposit through Reload @ the Register. Customers can visit any Walmart, ACE Cash Express, CVS Pharmacy, Dollar General, Kmart, Rite Aid, 7-Eleven and Walgreens, and ask to load cash into their account at the register. A fee is applied.
Our consumer and business deposit balances consisted of 49.2% and 50.8% of total deposits at June 30, 2016, respectively. Our business deposit accounts feature a full suite of treasury and cash management products for our business customers including online and mobile banking, remote deposit capture, analyzed business checking and money market accounts. We service our business customers by providing them with a dedicated relationship manager and an experienced business banking operations team.
Our deposit operations are conducted through a centralized, scalable operating platform which supports all of our distribution channels. The integrated nature of our systems and our ability to efficiently scale our operations create competitive advantages that support our value proposition to customers. Additionally, the features described above such as online account opening and online bill-pay promote self-service and further reduce our operating expenses.
We believe our deposit franchise will continue to provide lower all-in funding costs (interest expense plus operating costs) with greater scalability than branch-intensive banking models because the traditional branch model with high fixed operating costs will experience continued declines in consumer traffic due to the decline in paper check deposits and due to growing consumer preferences to bank online.
The number of deposit accounts at the end of each of the last five fiscal years is set forth below:
 
At June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Non-Interest bearing, prepaid and other
1,816,266

 
553,245

 
182,011

 
3,124

 
959

Checking and savings accounts
292,012

 
31,461

 
24,098

 
19,245

 
18,013

Time deposits
4,807

 
5,515

 
7,571

 
11,103

 
12,341

Total number of deposit accounts
2,113,085

 
590,221

 
213,680

 
33,472

 
31,313

The net increase of 1,263,021of non-interest bearing, prepaid and other accounts and 260,551 interest-bearing checking and savings accounts for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016 was primarily the result of our acquisition of accounts from H&R Block Bank and the new H&R Block-branded products offered by BofI Federal Bank.


10


Deposit Composition. The following table sets forth the dollar amount of deposits by type and weighted average interest rates at the end of each of the last five fiscal years:
 
At June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
(Dollars in thousands)
Amount
 
Rate1
 
Amount
 
Rate1
 
Amount
 
Rate1
 
Amount
 
Rate1
 
Amount
 
Rate1
Non-interest-bearing
$
588,774

 

 
$
309,339

 

 
$
186,786

 

 
$
81,524

 

 
$
12,439

 

Interest-bearing:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Demand
1,916,525

 
0.63
%
 
1,224,308

 
0.48
%
 
1,129,535

 
0.63
%
 
311,539

 
0.50
%
 
94,888

 
0.52
%
Savings
2,484,994

 
0.69
%
 
2,126,792

 
0.67
%
 
935,973

 
0.73
%
 
641,534

 
0.67
%
 
583,955

 
0.72
%
Total demand and savings
4,401,519

 
0.66
%
 
3,351,100

 
0.60
%
 
2,065,508

 
0.67
%
 
953,073

 
0.61
%
 
678,843

 
0.69
%
Time deposits:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Under $100
51,849

 
1.23
%
 
70,369

 
1.26
%
 
107,294

 
1.23
%
 
183,754

 
1.36
%
 
224,140

 
1.85
%
$100 or more
1,001,909

 
1.99
%
 
721,109

 
2.06
%
 
681,948

 
1.67
%
 
873,648

 
1.52
%
 
699,666

 
1.75
%
Total time deposits
1,053,758

 
1.96
%
 
791,478

 
1.99
%
 
789,242

 
1.61
%
 
1,057,402

 
1.50
%
 
923,806

 
1.78
%
Total interest-bearing
5,455,277

 
0.91
%
 
4,142,578

 
0.87
%
 
2,854,750

 
0.93
%
 
2,010,475

 
1.08
%
 
1,602,649

 
1.32
%
Total deposits
$
6,044,051

 
0.82
%
 
$
4,451,917

 
0.81
%
 
$
3,041,536

 
0.88
%
 
$
2,091,999

 
1.04
%
 
$
1,615,088

 
1.31
%
1 Based on weighted-average stated interest rates at the end of the period.
The following tables set forth the average balance, the interest expense and the average rate paid on each type of deposit at the end of each of the last five fiscal years:
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
(Dollars in thousands)
Average Balance
 
Interest Expense
 
Avg. Rate Paid
 
Average Balance
 
Interest Expense
 
Avg. Rate Paid
 
Average Balance
 
Interest Expense
 
Avg. Rate Paid
Demand
$
1,460,266

 
$
8,750

 
0.60
%
 
$
1,549,207

 
$
10,165

 
0.66
%
 
$
869,673

 
$
5,736

 
0.66
%
Savings
2,189,157

 
15,861

 
0.72
%
 
1,313,088

 
10,544

 
0.80
%
 
653,211

 
4,987

 
0.76
%
Time deposits
852,590

 
18,056

 
2.12
%
 
790,661

 
14,024

 
1.77
%
 
876,621

 
14,094

 
1.61
%
Total interest-bearing deposits
$
4,502,013

 
$
42,667

 
0.95
%
 
$
3,652,956

 
$
34,733

 
0.95
%
 
$
2,399,505

 
$
24,817

 
1.03
%
Total deposits
$
5,241,777

 
$
42,667

 
0.81
%
 
$
3,908,277

 
$
34,733

 
0.89
%
 
$
2,523,364

 
$
24,817

 
0.98
%
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
 
2013
 
2012
(Dollars in thousands)
Average
Balance
 
Interest
Expense
 
Avg. Rate
Paid
 
Average
Balance
 
Interest
Expense
 
Avg. Rate
Paid
Demand
$
286,549

 
$
1,999

 
0.70
%
 
$
74,044

 
$
593

 
0.81
%
Savings
540,248

 
4,400

 
0.81
%
 
430,791

 
3,795

 
0.88
%
Time deposits
1,065,669

 
16,469

 
1.55
%
 
1,003,728

 
20,501

 
2.04
%
Total interest-bearing deposits
$
1,892,466

 
$
22,868

 
1.21
%
 
$
1,508,563

 
$
24,889

 
1.65
%
Total deposits
$
1,937,765

 
$
22,868

 
1.18
%
 
$
1,522,359

 
$
24,889

 
1.63
%
The following table shows the maturity dates of our certificates of deposit at the end of each of the last five fiscal years:
 
At June 30,
(Dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Within 12 months
$
497,825

 
$
373,999

 
$
363,879

 
$
585,309

 
$
482,615

13 to 24 months
41,668

 
73,118

 
137,647

 
149,720

 
128,149

25 to 36 months
5,463

 
36,991

 
61,491

 
55,664

 
97,238

37 to 48 months
71,518

 
4,605

 
31,867

 
52,025

 
47,388

49 months and thereafter
437,284

 
302,765

 
194,358

 
214,684

 
168,416

Total
$
1,053,758

 
$
791,478

 
$
789,242

 
$
1,057,402

 
$
923,806



11


The following table shows maturities of our time deposits having principal amounts of $100,000 or more at the end of each of the last five fiscal years:
 
Term to Maturity
 
 
(Dollars in thousands)
Within Three Months
 
Over Three Months to Six Months
 
Over Six Months to One Year
 
Over One Year
 
Total
Fiscal year end
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
June 30, 2016
$
100,048

 
$
133,603

 
$
228,532

 
$
539,726

 
$
1,001,909

June 30, 2015
37,842

 
189,604

 
106,826

 
386,837

 
721,109

June 30, 2014
74,741

 
107,997

 
115,127

 
384,083

 
681,948

June 30, 2013
201,463

 
166,042

 
94,195

 
411,948

 
873,648

June 30, 2012
144,621

 
93,502

 
90,947

 
370,596

 
699,666

Borrowings. In addition to deposits, we have historically funded our asset growth through advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco (“FHLB”). Our bank can borrow up to 40% of its total assets from the FHLB, and borrowings are collateralized by mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities pledged to the FHLB. At June 30, 2016, the Company had $727.0 million advances outstanding with another $1.3 billion available immediately and an additional $13.0 million available with additional collateral for advances from the FHLB for terms up to ten years.
The Bank has federal funds lines of credit with two major banks totaling $35.0 million. At June 30, 2016, the Bank had no outstanding balance on either line.
The Bank can also borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (“FRB”), and borrowings are collateralized by consumer loans and mortgage-backed securities pledged to the FRB. Based on loans and securities pledged at June 30, 2016, we had a total borrowing capacity of approximately $42.2 million, none of which was outstanding. The Bank has additional unencumbered collateral that could be pledged to the FRB Discount Window to increase borrowing liquidity.
The Company has sold securities under various agreements to repurchase for total proceeds of $35.0 million. The repurchase agreements have fixed interest rates between 3.75% and 4.75% and scheduled maturities between April 2017 and December 2017. Pursuant to these agreements, under certain conditions, the Company may be required to repay the $35.0 million and repurchase its securities before the scheduled maturity if the issuer requests repayment on scheduled quarterly call dates. As of June 30, 2016, the weighted-average remaining contractual maturity period was 1.11 years and the weighted average remaining period before such repurchase agreements could be called was 0.14 years.
On December 16, 2004, we completed a transaction in which we formed a trust and issued $5.2 million of trust-preferred securities. The net proceeds from the offering were used to purchase approximately $5.2 million of junior subordinated debentures of our company with a stated maturity date of February 23, 2035. The debentures are the sole assets of the trust. The trust preferred securities are mandatorily redeemable upon maturity, or upon earlier redemption as provided in the indenture. We have the right to redeem the debentures in whole (but not in part) on or after specific dates, at a redemption price specified in the indenture plus any accrued but unpaid interest through the redemption date. Interest accrues at the rate of three-month LIBOR plus 2.4%, for a rate of 3.05% as of June 30, 2016, and is paid quarterly.

12


The table below sets forth the amount of our borrowings, the maximum amount of borrowings in each category during any month-end during each reported period, the approximate average amounts outstanding during each reported period and the approximate weighted average interest rate thereon at or for the last five fiscal years:
 
At or For The Fiscal Years Ended June 30,
(Dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Advances from the FHLB:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average balance outstanding
$
855,029

 
$
700,805

 
$
576,307

 
$
436,383

 
$
333,866

Maximum amount outstanding at any month-end during the period
1,129,000

 
1,075,000

 
910,000

 
590,417

 
422,000

Balance outstanding at end of period
727,000

 
753,000

 
910,000

 
590,417

 
422,000

Average interest rate at end of period
1.53
%
 
1.36
%
 
0.97
%
 
0.92
%
 
1.42
%
Average interest rate during period
1.31
%
 
1.27
%
 
1.21
%
 
1.36
%
 
1.78
%
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average balance outstanding
$
35,000

 
$
36,562

 
$
85,726

 
$
114,247

 
$
125,820

Maximum amount outstanding at any month-end during the period
35,000

 
45,000

 
110,000

 
120,000

 
130,000

Balance outstanding at end of period
35,000

 
35,000

 
45,000

 
110,000

 
120,000

Average interest rate at end of period
4.38
%
 
4.38
%
 
4.46
%
 
4.40
%
 
4.34
%
Average interest rate during period
4.44
%
 
4.47
%
 
4.48
%
 
4.44
%
 
4.41
%
Subordinated notes and debentures and other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average balance outstanding
$
22,025

 
$
5,155

 
$
5,155

 
$
5,155

 
$
5,155

Maximum amount outstanding at any month-end during the period
58,185

 
5,155

 
5,155

 
5,155

 
5,155

Balance outstanding at end of period
58,066

 
5,155

 
5,155

 
5,155

 
5,155

Average interest rate at end of period
6.27
%
 
2.68
%
 
2.63
%
 
2.67
%
 
2.87
%
Average interest rate during period
5.90
%
 
2.77
%
 
2.77
%
 
2.93
%
 
2.89
%
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS
 
From time to time we undertake acquisitions or similar transactions consistent with the Bank’s operating and growth strategies. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, there were transactions that are discussed further in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations under the heading “Mergers and Acquisitions.”
TECHNOLOGY
Our technology is built on a collection of enterprise and client platforms that have been purchased, developed in-house or integrated with software systems to provide products and services to our customers. The implementation of our technology has been conducted using industry best-practices and using standardized approaches in system design, software development, testing and delivery. At the core of our infrastructure, we have designed and implemented secure and scalable hardware solutions to ensure we meet the needs of our business. Our customer experiences were designed to address the needs of an internet-only bank and its customers. Our websites and technology platforms drive our customer-focused and self-service engagement model, reducing the need for human interaction while increasing our overall operating efficiencies. Our focus on internal technology platforms enable continuous automation and secure and scalable processing environments for increased transaction capacity. We intend to continue to improve and adapt technology platforms to meet business objectives and implement new systems with the goal of efficiently enabling our business.
SECURITY
BofI Federal Bank recognizes that information is a critical asset.  How information is managed, controlled and protected has a significant impact on the delivery of services.  Information assets, including those held in trust, must be protected from unauthorized use, disclosure, theft, loss, destruction and alteration.
BofI Federal Bank employs an information security program to achieve its security objectives. The program is designed to identify, measure, manage and control the risks to system and data availability, integrity, and confidentiality, and to ensure accountability for system actions.

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND PROPRIETARY RIGHTS
We register our various Internet URL addresses with service companies, and work actively with bank regulators to identify potential naming conflicts with competing financial institutions. Policing unauthorized use of proprietary information is difficult and litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights. We own certain Internet domain names. Domain names in the United States and in foreign countries are regulated, and the laws and regulations governing the Internet are continually evolving. Additionally, the relationship between regulations governing domain names and laws protecting intellectual property rights is not entirely clear. As a result, in the future, we may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring domain names that infringe or otherwise decrease the value of our trademark and other intellectual property rights.
EMPLOYEES
At June 30, 2016, we had 647 full-time equivalent employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or is subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.
COMPETITION
The market for banking and financial services is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to continue to intensify in the future. The Bank attracts deposits through its branchless acquisition channels. Competition for those deposits comes from a wide variety of other banks, savings institutions, and credit unions. The Bank competes for these deposits by offering superior service and a variety of deposit accounts at competitive rates.
In real estate lending, we compete against traditional real estate lenders, including large and small savings banks, commercial banks, mortgage bankers and mortgage brokers. Many of our current and potential competitors have greater brand recognition, longer operating histories, larger customer bases and significantly greater financial, marketing and other resources and are capable of providing strong price and customer service competition. In order to compete profitably, we may need to reduce the rates we offer on loans and investments and increase the rates we offer on deposits, which may adversely affect our overall financial condition and earnings. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors.
REGULATION
GENERAL
BofI Holding, Inc. (the “Company”) is regulated as a savings and loan holding company by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Company is required to file reports with, and otherwise comply with the rules and regulations of, the Federal Reserve. The Bank, as a federal savings bank, is subject to regulation, examination and supervision by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) as its primary regulator, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) as its deposit insurer. The Bank must file reports with the OCC and the FDIC concerning its activities and financial condition. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), enacted on July 21, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision (“OTS”) was abolished as of July 21, 2011 (the “Transfer Date”), and its rights and duties transferred to the Federal Reserve as to savings and loan holding companies, and to the OCC as to savings banks. Therefore, as of the Transfer Date the Company became subject to regulation by the Federal Reserve rather than the OTS, and the Bank became subject to regulation by the OCC rather than the OTS. The Dodd-Frank Act also created a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) as an independent bureau of the Federal Reserve, to begin operations on the Transfer Date. The CFPB has broad authority to issue regulations implementing numerous consumer laws, to which we are subject.
The regulation of savings and loan holding companies and savings associations is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and not for the benefit of our stockholders. The following information describes aspects of the material laws and regulations applicable to the Company and the Bank. The information below does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to all applicable laws and regulations. In addition, new and amended legislation, rules and regulations governing the Company and the Bank are introduced from time to time by the U.S. government and its various agencies. Any such legislation, regulatory changes or amendments could adversely affect the Company or the Bank, and no assurance can be given as to whether, or in what form, any such changes may occur.


14


REGULATION OF BOFI HOLDING, INC.
General. BofI Holding, Inc. (the “Company”) is a unitary savings and loan holding company within the meaning of the Home Owner’s Loan Act (“HOLA”). Accordingly, the Company is registered with the Federal Reserve and is subject to the Federal Reserve’s regulations, examinations, supervision and reporting requirements. In addition, the Federal Reserve has enforcement authority over the Company and its subsidiaries. Among other things, this authority permits the Federal Reserve to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to the subsidiary savings institution.
As noted above, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve assumed responsibility for the primary supervision and regulation of all savings and loan holding companies, including the Company, on July 21, 2011. Rules published by the Federal Reserve in 2011 provide for the transfer from the OTS to the Federal Reserve of the regulations necessary for the Federal Reserve to administer the statutes governing savings and loan holding companies, and implemented Regulation LL, which includes comprehensive new regulations governing the activities and operations of savings and loan holding companies and acquisitions of savings associations. The Federal Reserve’s regulations supersede OTS regulations for purposes of Federal Reserve supervision and regulation of savings and loan holding companies.
 
Capital. Savings and loan holding companies, such as the Company, were historically not subject to specific regulatory capital requirements. However, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, savings and loan holding companies are now subject to the same capital and activity requirements as those applicable to bank holding companies. Moreover, the Dodd-Frank Act required that the Federal Reserve promulgate consolidated capital requirements for depository institution holding companies that are not less stringent, both quantitatively and in terms of components of capital, than those applicable to institutions themselves.
In July 2013, the Company’s primary federal regulator, the Federal Reserve, and the Bank’s primary federal regulator, the OCC, published final rules (the “New Capital Rules”) establishing a new comprehensive capital framework for U.S. banking organizations. The rules implement the Basel Committee’s December 2010 capital framework known as “Basel III” for strengthening international capital standards as well as certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. The New Capital Rules substantially revise the capital requirements applicable to depository institutions and their holding companies, including the Company and the Bank, and are discussed in more detail below under “Regulation of BofI Federal Bank – Regulatory Capital Requirements and Prompt Corrective Action”.
 
Source of Strength. The Dodd-Frank Act extends the Federal Reserve “source of strength” doctrine to savings and loan holding companies. Such policy requires holding companies to act as a source of financial strength to their subsidiary depository institutions by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of an institution’s financial distress. The regulatory agencies have yet to issue joint regulations implementing this policy.
 
Change in Control. The federal banking laws require that appropriate regulatory approvals must be obtained before an individual or company may take actions to “control” a bank or savings association. The definition of control found in the HOLA is similar to that found in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (“BHCA”) for bank holding companies. Both statutes apply a similar three-prong test for determining when a company controls a bank or savings association. Specifically, a company has control over either a bank or savings association if the company:
directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls, or has the power to vote 25% or more of the voting securities of a company;
controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors (or any individual who performs similar functions in respect of any company, including a trustee under a trust) of the board; or
directly or indirectly exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of the bank.
Regulation LL includes a specific definition of “control” similar to the statutory definition, with certain additional provisions. Additionally, Regulation LL modifies the regulations previously used by the OTS for purposes of determining when a company or natural person acquires control of a savings association or savings and loan holding company under the HOLA or the Change in Bank Control Act (“CBCA”). In light of the similarity between the statutes governing bank holding companies and savings and loan holding companies, the Federal Reserve has indicated that it intends to use its established rules and processes with respect to control determinations under HOLA and the CBCA to ensure consistency between equivalent statutes administered by the same agency. Overall, the indication of control used by the Federal Reserve under the BHCA to determine whether a company has a controlling influence over the management or policies of a banking organization (which for Federal Reserve purposes, will now include savings associations and savings and loan holding companies) are similar to the control factors found in the former OTS regulations. However, the OTS rules weighed these factors somewhat differently and used a different review process designed to be more mechanical.

15


Furthermore, the Federal Reserve may not approve any acquisition that would result in a multiple savings and loan holding company controlling savings institutions in more than one state, subject to two exceptions; (i) the approval of interstate supervisory acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies and (ii) the acquisition of a savings institution in another state if the laws of the state of the target savings institution specifically permit such acquisition. The states vary in the extent to which they permit interstate savings and loan holding company acquisitions.

REGULATION OF BOFI FEDERAL BANK

General. As a federally-chartered savings and loan association whose deposit accounts are insured by FDIC, BofI Federal Bank is subject to extensive regulation by the FDIC and, as of the Transfer Date, the OCC. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the examination, regulation and supervision of savings associations, such as BofI Federal Bank, were transferred from the OTS to the OCC, the federal regulator of national banks under the National Bank Act. The following discussion summarizes some of the principal areas of regulation applicable to the Bank and its operations.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts. The FDIC administers a deposit insurance fund (the “DIF”) that insures depositors in certain types of accounts up to a prescribed amount for the loss of any such depositor’s respective deposits due to the failure of an FDIC member depository institution. As the administrator of the DIF, the FDIC assesses its member depository institutions and determines the appropriate DIF premiums to be paid by each such institution. The FDIC is authorized to examine its member institutions and to require that they file periodic reports of their condition and operations. The FDIC may also prohibit any member institution from engaging in any activity the FDIC determines by regulation or order to pose a serious risk to the DIF. The FDIC also has the authority to initiate enforcement actions against savings associations, after giving the primary federal regulator, now the OCC, the opportunity to take such action. The FDIC may terminate an institution’s access to the DIF if it determines that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices or is in an unsafe or unsound condition. We do not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of our access to the DIF.
BofI Federal Bank is a member depository institution of the FDIC and its deposits are insured by the DIF up to the applicable limits, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U. S. Government. Effective with the passing of the Dodd-Frank Act, the basic deposit insurance limit was permanently raised to $250,000, instead of the $100,000 limit previously in effect.
Beginning in late 2008, the economic environment caused higher levels of bank failures, which dramatically increased FDIC resolution costs and led to a significant reduction in the DIF. As a result, the FDIC has significantly increased the initial base assessment rates paid by member institutions for access to the DIF. The base assessment rate was increased by seven basis points (seven cents for every $100 of deposits) for the first quarter of 2009. Effective April 1, 2009, initial base assessment rates were changed to range from 12 basis points to 45 basis points across all risk categories with possible adjustments to these rates based on certain debt-related components. These increases in the base assessment rate have increased our deposit insurance costs and negatively impacted our earnings. In addition, in May 2009, the FDIC imposed a special assessment on all member institutions due to recent bank and savings association failures. The emergency assessment amounted to five basis points on each institution’s assets minus Tier 1 capital as of June 30, 2009, subject to a maximum equal to 10 basis points times the institution’s assessment base. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
Regulatory Capital Requirements and Prompt Corrective Action. The prompt corrective action regulation of the OCC requires mandatory actions and authorizes other discretionary actions to be taken by the OCC against a savings association that falls within undercapitalized capital categories specified in OCC regulations.
The New Capital Rules narrow the definition of regulatory capital and establish higher minimum risk-based capital ratios that, when fully phased in, will require banking organizations to maintain a minimum “common equity Tier 1” (or “CET1”) ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.0% (increased from 4.0%), a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0%, and a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0% (calculated as Tier 1 capital to average consolidated assets). The effective date of these requirements for the Company and the Bank was January 1, 2015.
A capital conservation buffer of 2.5% above each of these levels (to be phased in over three years which began in 2016, beginning at 0.625% and increasing by that amount on each subsequent January 1, until it reaches 2.5% on January 1, 2019) will be required for banking institutions to avoid restrictions on their ability to make capital distributions, including the payment of dividends.
The New Capital Rules provide for a number of new deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that deferred tax assets dependent upon future taxable income and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. Implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to CET1 began on January 1, 2015 and will be phased in over three years for the Bank.

16


The implementation of certain regulations and standards relating to regulatory capital could disproportionately affect our regulatory capital position relative to that of our competitors, including those that may not be subject to the same regulatory requirements as the Bank. Various aspects of Basel III will be subject to multi-year transition periods ending December 31, 2018 and Basel III generally continues to be subject to further evaluation and interpretation by the U.S. banking regulators. As of June 30, 2016, the Company and the Bank remain well-capitalized under the currently enacted capital adequacy requirements of Basel III, and would remain well-capitalized when including implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to CET1 on a fully phased-in basis.
In general, the prompt corrective action regulation prohibits an FDIC member institution from declaring any dividends, making any other capital distribution, or paying a management fee to a controlling person if, following the distribution or payment, the institution would be within any of the three undercapitalized categories. In addition, adequately capitalized institutions may accept brokered deposits only with a waiver from the FDIC, but are subject to restrictions on the interest rates that can be paid on such deposits. Undercapitalized institutions may not accept, renew or roll-over brokered deposits.
If the OCC determines that an institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition, or if the institution is deemed to be engaging in an unsafe and unsound practice, the OCC may, if the institution is well-capitalized, reclassify it as adequately capitalized. If the institution is adequately capitalized, but not well-capitalized, the OCC may require it to comply with restrictions applicable to undercapitalized institutions. If the institution is undercapitalized, the OCC may require it to comply with restrictions applicable to significantly undercapitalized institutions. Finally, pursuant to an interagency agreement, the FDIC can examine any institution that has a substandard regulatory examination score or is considered undercapitalized without the express permission of the institution’s primary regulator.
Capital regulations applicable to savings associations such as the Bank also require savings associations of meeting the additional capital standard of tangible capital equal to at least 1.5% of total adjusted assets.
The Bank’s capital requirements are viewed as minimum standards and most financial institutions are expected to maintain capital levels well above the minimum. In addition, OCC regulations provide that minimum capital levels greater than those provided in the regulations may be established by the OCC for individual savings associations upon a determination that the savings association’s capital is or may become inadequate in view of its circumstances. BofI Federal Bank is not subject to any such individual minimum regulatory capital requirement and the Bank’s regulatory capital exceeded all minimum regulatory capital requirements as of June 30, 2016. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Standards for Safety and Soundness. The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, guidelines for all insured depository institutions relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate risk exposure; (v) asset growth; (vi) asset quality; (vii) earnings; and (viii) compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth safety and soundness standards that the federal banking regulatory agencies use to identify and address problems at FDIC member institutions before capital becomes impaired. If the OCC determines that the Bank fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the OCC may require us to submit to it an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. OCC regulations establish deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans in response to any such determination. We are not aware of any conditions relating to these safety and soundness standards that would require us to submit a plan of compliance to the OCC.
Loans-to-One-Borrower Limitations. Savings associations generally are subject to the lending limits applicable to national banks. With limited exceptions, the maximum amount that a savings association or a national bank may lend to any borrower, including related entities of the borrower, at one time may not exceed 15% of the unimpaired capital and surplus of the institution, plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus for loans fully secured by readily marketable collateral. Savings associations are additionally authorized to make loans to one borrower by order of its regulator, in an amount not to exceed the lesser of $30.0 million or 30% of unimpaired capital and surplus for the purpose of developing residential housing, if the following specified conditions are met:
The savings association is in compliance with its fully phased-in capital requirements;
The loans comply with applicable loan-to-value requirements; and
The aggregate amount of loans made under this authority does not exceed 150% of unimpaired capital and surplus.

17


Qualified Thrift Lender Test. Savings associations must meet a qualified thrift lender, or “QTL,” test. This test may be met either by maintaining a specified level of portfolio assets in qualified thrift investments as specified by the HOLA, or by meeting the definition of a “domestic building and loan association” under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code”. Qualified thrift investments are primarily residential mortgage loans and related investments, including mortgage related securities. Portfolio assets generally mean total assets less specified liquid assets, goodwill and other intangible assets and the value of property used in the conduct of the Bank’s business. The required percentage of qualified thrift investments under the HOLA is 65% of “portfolio assets” (defined as total assets less: (i) specified liquid assets up to 20% of total assets; (ii) intangibles, including goodwill; and (iii) the value of property used to conduct business). An association must be in compliance with the QTL test or the definition of domestic building and loan association on a monthly basis in nine out of every 12 months. Savings associations that fail to meet the QTL test will generally be prohibited from engaging in any activity not permitted for both a national bank and a savings association. At June 30, 2016, the Bank was in compliance with its QTL requirement and met the definition of a domestic building and loan association.
Liquidity Standard. Savings associations are required to maintain sufficient liquidity to ensure safe and sound operations. As of June 30, 2016, BofI Federal Bank was in compliance with the applicable liquidity standard.
Volcker Rule.  Effective April 15, 2014, the federal banking agencies have adopted regulations with a conformance period for certain features lasting until July 21, 2017, to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act known as the Volcker Rule. Under the regulations, FDIC-insured depository institutions, their holding companies, subsidiaries and affiliates (collectively, “banking entities”), are generally prohibited, subject to certain exemptions, from proprietary trading of securities and other financial instruments and from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in a “covered fund.”  The term “covered fund” can include, in addition to many private equity and hedge funds and other entities, certain collateralized mortgage obligations, collateralized debt obligations and collateralized loan obligations, and other items, but does not include wholly owned subsidiaries, certain joint ventures, or loan securitizations generally if the underlying assets are solely loans.
Trading in certain government obligations is not prohibited by the Volcker Rule, including obligations of or guaranteed by the United States or an agency or government-sponsored entity of the United States, obligations of a State of the United States or a political subdivision thereof, and municipal securities. Proprietary trading generally does not include transactions under repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, securities lending transactions and purchases and sales for the purpose of liquidity management if the liquidity management plan meets specified criteria; nor does it generally include transactions undertaken in a fiduciary capacity.  In addition, activities eligible for exemption include, among others, certain brokerage, underwriting and marketing activities, and risk-mitigating hedging activities with respect to specific risks and subject to specified conditions.
Transactions with Related Parties. The authority of the Bank to engage in transactions with “affiliates” (i.e., any company that controls or is under common control with it, including the Company and any non-depository institution subsidiaries) is limited by federal law. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with any individual affiliate is limited to 10% of the capital and surplus of the savings institution. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with all affiliates is limited to 20% of a savings institution’s capital and surplus. Certain transactions with affiliates are required to be secured by collateral in an amount and of a type described in federal law. The purchase of low quality assets from affiliates is generally prohibited. Transactions with affiliates must be on terms and under circumstances that are at least as favorable to the institution as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliated companies. In addition, savings institutions are prohibited from lending to any affiliate that is engaged in activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies, and no savings institution may purchase the securities of any affiliate other than a subsidiary.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act generally prohibits loans by public companies to their executive officers and directors. However, there is a specific exception for loans by financial institutions, such as the Bank, to its executive officers and directors that are made in compliance with federal banking laws. Under such laws, our authority to extend credit to executive officers, directors, and 10% or more shareholders (“insiders”), as well as entities such person’s control is limited. The law limits both the individual and aggregate amount of loans the Bank may make to insiders based, in part, on its capital position and requires certain board approval procedures to be followed. Such loans are required to be made on terms substantially the same as those offered to unaffiliated individuals and cannot involve more than the normal risk of repayment. There is an exception for loans made pursuant to a benefit or compensation program that is widely available to all employees of the institution and does not give preference to insiders over other employees.
Capital Distribution Limitations. Regulations applicable to the Bank impose limitations upon all capital distributions by savings associations, like cash dividends, payments to repurchase or otherwise acquire its shares, payments to stockholders of another institution in a cash-out merger and other distributions charged against capital. Under these regulations, a savings association may, in circumstances described in those regulations:
Be required to file an application and await approval from the OCC before it makes a capital distribution;
Be required to file a notice 30 days before the capital distribution; or
Be permitted to make the capital distribution without notice or application to the OCC.

18


Community Reinvestment Act and the Fair Lending Laws. Savings associations have a responsibility under the Community Reinvestment Act and related regulations of the OCC to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit lenders from discriminating in their lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. An institution’s failure to comply with the provisions of the Community Reinvestment Act could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities and the denial of applications. In addition, an institution’s failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in the OCC, other federal regulatory agencies or the Department of Justice, taking enforcement actions against the institution. To the best of our knowledge, BofI Federal Bank is in full compliance with each of the Community Reinvestment Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act and we do not anticipate the Bank becoming the subject of any enforcement actions.
Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) System. The Bank is a member of the FHLB system. Among other benefits, each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. Each FHLB is financed primarily from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. Each FHLB makes available loans or advances to its members in compliance with the policies and procedures established by the board of directors of the individual FHLB. As an FHLB member, the Bank is required to own capital stock in a Federal Home Loan Bank in specified amounts based on either its aggregate outstanding principal amount of its residential mortgage loans, home purchase contracts and similar obligations at the beginning of each calendar year or its outstanding advances from the FHLB.
Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve requires all depository institutions to maintain non-interest bearing reserves at specified levels against their transaction accounts (primarily checking, negotiable order of withdrawal (“NOW”), and Super NOW checking accounts) and non-personal time deposits. At June 30, 2016, the Bank was in compliance with these requirements.
Activities of Subsidiaries. A savings association seeking to establish a new subsidiary, acquire control of an existing company or conduct a new activity through a subsidiary must provide 30 days prior notice to the FDIC and the OCC and conduct any activities of the subsidiary in compliance with regulations and orders of the OCC. The OCC has the power to require a savings association to divest any subsidiary or terminate any activity conducted by a subsidiary that the OCC determines to pose a serious threat to the financial safety, soundness or stability of the savings association or to be otherwise inconsistent with sound banking practices.
Consumer Laws and Regulations. The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB in order to regulate any person who offers or provides personal, family or household financial products or services. The CFPB is an independent “watchdog” within the Federal Reserve System to enforce and create “Federal consumer financial laws.” Banks as well as nonbanks are subject to any rule, regulation or guideline created by the CFPB. Congress established the CFPB to create one agency in charge of protecting consumers by overseeing the application and implementation of “Federal consumer financial laws,” which includes (i) rules, orders and guidelines of the CFPB, (ii) all consumer financial protection functions, powers and duties transferred from other federal agencies, such as the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and (iii) a long list of consumer financial protection laws enumerated in the Dodd-Frank Act, such as the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Consumer Leasing Act of 1976, the Alternative Mortgage Transaction Parity Act of 1982, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Truth in Lending Act and the Truth in Savings Act, among many others. The CFPB has broad examination and enforcement authority, including the power to issue subpoenas and cease and desist orders, commence civil actions, hold investigations and hearings and seek civil penalties, as well as the authority to regulate disclosures, mandate registration of any covered person and to regulate what it considers unfair, deceptive, abusive practices.
Depository institutions with $10 billion or less in assets, such as the Bank, will continue to be examined for compliance with the consumer protection laws and regulations by their primary bank regulators (the OCC for the Bank), rather than the CFPB. Such laws and regulations and the other consumer protection laws and regulations to which the Bank has been subject have historically mandated certain disclosure requirements and regulated the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits from, making loans to, or engaging in other types of transactions with, such customers. The effect of the CFPB on the development and promulgation of consumer protection rules and guidelines and the enforcement of federal “consumer financial laws” on the Bank, if any, cannot be determined with certainty at this time.
Depository institutions with more than $10 billion in assets and their affiliates are subject to direct supervision by the CFPB, including any applicable examination, enforcement and reporting requirements the CFPB may establish. As of June 30, 2016, we had $7.6 billion in total assets. If the Bank continues to grow and has assets in excess of $10 billion in the future, the Bank and its operations will become subject to the direct supervision and oversight of the CFPB.
In addition, if our total assets equal or exceed $10 billion, we will become subject to certain enhanced prudential standards established by FRB regulations promulgated under the Dodd-Frank Act for larger institutions, including additional risk management policies and practices and annual stress tests using various scenarios established by the FRB, designed to determine whether our capital planning, assessment of capital adequacy and risk management practices adequately protect the Company in the event of an economic downturn.

19


Privacy Standards. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) modernized the financial services industry by establishing a comprehensive framework to permit affiliations among commercial banks, insurance companies, securities firms and other financial service providers. The Bank is subject to OCC regulations implementing the privacy protection provisions of the GLBA. These regulations require the Bank to disclose its privacy policy, including informing consumers of its information sharing practices and informing consumers of their rights to opt out of certain practices.
Anti-Money Laundering and Customer Identification. The U.S. government enacted the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”) on October 26, 2001 in response to the terrorist events of September 11, 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act gives the federal government broad powers to address terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers, increased information sharing, and broadened anti-money laundering requirements. In February 2010, Congress re-enacted certain expiring provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION
BofI Holding, Inc. files reports, proxy and information statements and other information electronically with the SEC. You may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information may be obtained on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website site address is http://www.sec.gov. Our web site address is http://www.bofiholding.com, and we make our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments thereto available on our website free of charge.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Relating to Our Industry
Changes in interest rates could adversely affect our performance.
Our results of operations depend to a great extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest rates earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and leases and investment securities, and the interest rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowings. We are exposed to interest rate risk because our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities do not react uniformly or concurrently to changes in interest rates, as the two have different time periods for adjustment and can be tied to different measures of rates.  Interest rates are sensitive to factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, including the FRB. The monetary policies of the FRB, implemented through open market operations and regulation of the discount rate and reserve requirements, affect prevailing interest rates. Loan and lease originations and repayment rates tend to increase with declining interest rates and decrease with rising interest rates. On the deposit side, increasing interest rates generally lead to interest rate increases on our deposit accounts. Previously the monetary policy of the FRB has been to reduce market interest rates to historical lows, but recently prevailing interest rates have begun to increase and the financial markets are anticipating a further increase in interest rates by the FRB. We manage the sensitivity of our assets and liabilities; however a large and relatively rapid increase in market interest rates would likely have an adverse impact on our net interest income and a decrease in our refinancing business and related fee income, and could cause an increase in delinquencies and non-performing loans and leases in our adjustable-rate loans. In addition, changes in interest rates can affect the value of our loans and leases, investments and other interest-rate sensitive assets and our ability to realize gains on the sale or resolution of these assets.

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A significant economic downturn could result in increases in our level of non-performing loans and leases and/or reduce demand for our products and services, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our business and results of operations are affected by the financial markets and general economic conditions, including factors such as the level and volatility of interest rates, inflation, home prices, unemployment and under-employment levels, bankruptcies, household income and consumer spending. While the national economy and most regions have improved since the financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent economic recession, we continue to operate in a challenging and uncertain economic environment. The risks associated with our business become more acute in periods of a slowing economy or slow growth. A return or continuation of recessionary conditions or negative events in the housing markets, including significant and continuing home price declines and increased delinquencies and foreclosures, would adversely affect our mortgage and construction loans and result in increased asset write-downs. In addition, poor economic conditions, including continued high unemployment in the United States, have contributed to increased volatility in the financial and capital markets and diminished expectations for the U.S. economy. While we are continuing to take steps to decrease and limit our exposure to problem loans, we nonetheless retain direct exposure to the residential and commercial real estate markets. Declines in real estate values, an economic downturn or continued high unemployment levels may result in higher than expected loan and lease delinquencies and a decline in demand for our products and services. These negative events may cause us to incur losses and may adversely affect our capital, financial condition and results of operations.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions.  Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships.  We have exposure to many different counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial industry, including brokers and dealers, other commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other financial institutions.  As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, could lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by us or by other institutions and organizations.  Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client.  In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be liquidated or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the financial instrument exposure due to us.  There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Changes in laws, regulation or oversight may increase our costs and adversely affect our business and operations.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to oversight, regulation and examination by federal and/or state governmental authorities under various laws, regulations and policies, which impose requirements or restrictions on our operations, capitalization, payment of dividends, mergers and acquisitions, investments, loans and interest rates charged and interest rates paid on deposits. We must also comply with federal anti-money laundering, tax withholding and reporting, and consumer protection statutes and regulations. A considerable amount of management time and resources is devoted to oversight of, and development and implementation of controls and procedures relating to, compliance with these laws, regulations and policies.
The laws, regulation and supervisory policies are subject to regular modification and change. New or amended laws, rules and regulations could impact our operations, increase our capital requirements or substantially restrict our growth and adversely affect our ability to operate profitably by making compliance much more difficult or expensive, restricting our ability to originate or sell loans, or further restricting the amount of interest or other charges or fees earned on loans or other products. In addition, further regulation could increase the assessment rate we are required to pay to the FDIC, adversely affecting our earnings. Furthermore, recent changes to Regulation Z promulgated by the CFPB may make it more difficult for us to underwrite consumer mortgages and compete with large national mortgage service providers. It is very difficult to predict future changes in regulation or the competitive impact that any such changes would have on our business. The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted in 2010, instituted major changes to the banking and financial institutions regulatory regimes. Other changes to statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways including subjecting us to additional costs, limiting the types of financial services and products we may offer, and increasing the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties, and/or reputational damage, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the value of our common stock.

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Policies and regulations enacted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau may negatively impact our residential mortgage loan business and compliance risk.
Our consumer business, including our mortgage and deposit businesses, may be adversely affected by the policies enacted or regulations adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) which under the Dodd-Frank Act has broad rulemaking authority over consumer financial products and services. The CFPB is in the process of reshaping consumer financial protection laws through rulemaking and enforcement against unfair, deceptive and abusive acts or practices. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority to administer and carry out the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to financial institutions that offer covered financial products and services to consumers. The CFPB has also been directed to write rules identifying practices or acts that are unfair, deceptive or abusive in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service. The prohibition on “abusive” acts or practices is being clarified each year by CFPB enforcement actions and opinions from courts and administrative proceedings. The CFPB has issued a series of final rules to implement provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act related to mortgage origination and servicing that may increase the cost of originating and servicing residential mortgage loans, which went into effect in January 2014. While it is difficult to quantify the increase in our regulatory compliance burden, the costs associated with regulatory compliance, including the need to hire additional compliance personnel, may continue to increase.
Risks Relating to Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities
Declining real estate values, particularly in California, could reduce the value of our loan and lease portfolio and impair our profitability and financial condition.
The majority of the loans in our portfolio are secured by real estate. At June 30, 2016, approximately 68.0% of our mortgage portfolio was secured by real estate located in California. In recent years, there has been significant volatility in real estate values in California and in some cases the collateral for our real estate loans has become less valuable. If real estate values decrease or more of our borrowers experience financial difficulties, we will experience increased charge-offs, as the proceeds resulting from foreclosure may be significantly lower than the amounts outstanding on such loans. In addition, declining real estate values frequently accompany periods of economic downturn or recession and increasing unemployment, all of which can lead to lower demand for mortgage loans of the types we originate. A decline of real estate values or decline of the credit position of our borrowers in California would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Many of our mortgage loans are unseasoned and defaults on such loans would harm our business.
At June 30, 2016, our multifamily residential loans were $1,373.2 million or 27.0% of our mortgage loans and our commercial real estate loans were $121.7 million, or 2.4% of our mortgage loans. The payment on such loans is typically dependent on the cash flows generated by the projects, which are affected by the supply and demand for multifamily residential units and commercial property within the relative market. If the market for multifamily residential units and commercial property experiences a decline in demand, multifamily and commercial borrowers may suffer losses on their projects and be unable to repay their loans. If residential housing values were to decline and nationwide unemployment were to increase, we are likely to experience increases in the level of our non-performing loans and foreclosed and repossessed vehicles in future periods.
We could recognize other-than-temporary impairment on securities held in our available-for-sale and held-to-maturity portfolios, if economic and market conditions worsen.
Our held-to-maturity securities had gross unrecognized losses of $10.0 million at June 30, 2016. We analyze securities held in our portfolio for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary requires difficult, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting issuers and the performance of the underlying collateral, we may be required to recognize other-than-temporary impairment in future periods reducing future earnings.

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A decrease in the mortgage buying activity of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or a failure by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to satisfy their obligations with respect to their RMBS could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
During the last three fiscal years we have sold over $1,131.2 million of residential mortgage loans to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and, as of June 30, 2016, approximately 14.6% of our securities portfolio consisted of RMBS issued or guaranteed by these GSEs. Since 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been in conservatorship, with its primary regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency, acting as conservator. The United States government is contemplating structural changes to the GSEs, including consolidation and/or a reduction in the ability of GSEs to purchase mortgage loans or guarantee mortgage obligations. We cannot predict if, when or how the conservatorships will end, or what associated changes (if any) may be made to the structure, mandate or overall business practices of either of the GSEs. Accordingly, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the future of the GSEs, including whether they will continue to exist in their current form and whether they will continue to meet their obligations with respect to their RMBS. A substantial reduction in mortgage purchasing activity by the GSEs could result in a material decrease in the availability of residential mortgage loans and the number of qualified borrowers, which in turn may lead to increased volatility in the residential housing market, including a decrease in demand for residential housing and a corresponding drop in the value of real property that secures current residential mortgage loans, as well as a significant increase in interest rates. In a rising or higher interest rate environment, our originations of mortgage loans may decrease, which would result in a decrease in mortgage loan revenues and a corresponding decrease in non-interest income. Any decision to change the structure, mandate or overall business practices of the GSEs and/or the relationship among the GSEs, the government and the private mortgage loan markets, or any failure by the GSEs to satisfy their obligations with respect to their RMBS, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to the Company
If our allowance for loan and lease losses, particularly in growing areas of lending such as commercial and industrial (“C&I”) is not sufficient to cover actual loan and lease losses, our earnings, capital adequacy and overall financial condition may suffer materially.
Our loans are generally secured by single family, multifamily and commercial real estate properties, each initially having a fair market value generally greater than the amount of the loan secured. Although our loans and leases are typically secured, the risk of default, generally due to a borrower’s inability to make scheduled payments on his or her loan, is an inherent risk of the banking business. In determining the amount of the allowance for loan and lease losses, we make various assumptions and judgments about the collectibility of our loan and lease portfolio, including the creditworthiness of our borrowers, the value of the real estate serving as collateral for the repayment of our loans and our loss history. Defaults by borrowers could result in losses that exceed our loan and lease loss reserves. We have originated or purchased many of our loans and leases recently, so we do not have sufficient repayment experience to be certain whether the established allowance for loan and lease losses is adequate. We may have to establish a larger allowance for loan and lease losses in the future if, in our judgment, it becomes necessary. Any increase in our allowance for loan and lease losses will increase our expenses and consequently may adversely affect our profitability, capital adequacy and overall financial condition.
In addition, we continue to increase our emphasis on non-residential lending, particularly in C&I lending, and these types of loans and leases are expected to comprise a larger portion of our originations and loan and lease portfolio in future periods. To the extent that we fail to adequately address the risks associated with C&I lending, we may experience increases in levels of non-performing loans and leases and be forced to take additional loan and lease loss reserves, which would adversely affect our net interest income and capital levels and reduce our profitability. For further information about our C&I lending business, please refer to “Business – Asset Origination and Fee Income Businesses – Commercial Real Estate Secured and Commercial Lending.”

Our results of operations could vary as a result of the methods, estimates, and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies.
The methods, estimates, and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on our results of operations. Such methods, estimates, and judgments, include methodologies to value our securities, evaluate securities for other-than-temporary impairment and estimate our allowance for loan losses. These methods, estimates, and judgments are, by their nature, subject to substantial risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, and factors may arise over time that lead us to change our methods, estimates, and judgments. Changes in those methods, estimates, and judgments could significantly affect our results of operations.

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We may fail to realize any future benefits of our relationship with H&R Block, Inc.
On August 31, 2015, we acquired approximately $419 million in deposits from H&R Block Bank and its parent company, H&R Block, Inc. (“H&R Block”), and entered into a Program Management Agreement (“PMA”) and related agreements under which we agreed to provide H&R Block-branded financial services products and services. The success of our relationship with H&R Block depends upon, among other things, our ability to operate the PMA and H&R Block’s desire and ability to offer financial services products to customers after the closing date. Our objectives with regard to managing our obligations under the PMA are subject to risks that operational and regulatory procedures may change. Under the terms of the PMA there are no minimum transaction levels and the number of transactions that are processed may be more or less than expected due to business changes by H&R Block, regulatory changes or changes due to competition for H&R Block’s products. If we are not able to successfully achieve our objectives or if H&R Block limits, eliminates or fails to realize the expected volumes for one or more of the financial services products described in the PMA, the future benefits of our relationship with H&R Block may not be realized fully or at all.
In addition, the relationship with H&R Block requires substantial resources and effort from our management. The maintenance of integrated processes and other disruptions resulting from the relationship may disrupt our ongoing businesses or cause inconsistencies in our standards, controls, procedures or policies. In addition, difficulties in maintaining the integrated functions could harm our reputation with customers. For further information about the transaction with H&R Block, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – H&R Block Bank Deposit Acquisition.”
As a public company, we face the risk of shareholder lawsuits and other related or unrelated litigation, particularly if we experience declines in the price of our common stock. We have been named as a party to purported class action and derivative lawsuits, and we may be named in additional litigation, all of which could require significant management time and attention and result in significant legal expenses.

As described in detail below in “Item 3 – Legal Proceedings,”     putative class action lawsuits have been filed in the United States District Court, Southern District of California, alleging, among other things, that our Company, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer violated the federal securities laws by failing to disclose the wrongful conduct that is alleged by a former employee in a complaint, and that as a result the Company’s statements regarding its internal controls, and portions of its financial statements, were false and misleading. Derivative lawsuits have also been filed against our management arising from the same events, alleging breach of fiduciary duty, mismanagement, abuse of control and unjust enrichment. Regardless of the merits, the expense of defending such litigation may have a substantial impact if our insurance carriers fail to cover the full cost of the litigation, and the time required to defend the actions could divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our business, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows. An unfavorable outcome in such litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The Company and its management deny any wrongdoing and are vigorously defending the referenced lawsuits.
We may seek additional capital but it may not be available when it is needed and limit our ability to execute our strategic plan. In addition, raising additional equity capital would dilute existing shareholders’ equity interests and may cause our stock price to decline.
We are required by regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations. In addition, we may elect to raise additional capital to support the growth of our business or to finance acquisitions, if any, or we elect to raise additional capital for other reasons. We may seek to do so through the issuance of, among other things, our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock, which could dilute existing shareholders’ interests in the Company.
Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, many of which are outside our control, and on our financial performance. Accordingly, we cannot provide assurance on our ability to raise additional capital if needed or if it can be raised on terms acceptable to us. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed or on terms acceptable to us, it may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, raising equity capital will have a dilutive effect on the equity interests of our existing shareholders and may cause our stock price to decline.

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Access to adequate funding cannot be assured.
We have significant sources of liquidity as a result of our federal thrift structure, including consumer deposits, brokered deposits, the FHLB, repurchase lending facilities, and the FRB discount window. We rely primarily upon consumer deposits and FHLB advances. Our ability to attract deposits could be negatively impacted by a public perception of our financial prospects or by increased deposit rates available at troubled institutions suffering from shortfalls in liquidity. The FHLB is subject to regulation and other factors beyond our control. These factors may adversely affect the availability and pricing of advances to members such as the Bank. Selected sources of liquidity may become unavailable to the Bank if it were to no longer be considered “well-capitalized.”
Our inability to manage our growth or deploy assets profitably could harm our business and decrease our overall profitability, which may cause our stock price to decline.
Our assets and deposit base have grown substantially in recent years, and we anticipate that we will continue to grow over time, perhaps significantly. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel, we will be required to manage multiple aspects of the business simultaneously, including among other things: (i) improve existing and implement new transaction processing, operational and financial systems, procedures and controls; (ii) maintain effective credit scoring and underwriting guidelines; (iii) maintain sufficient levels of regulatory capital; and (iv) expand our employee base and train and manage this growing employee base. In addition, acquiring other banks, asset pools or deposits may involve risks such as exposure to potential asset quality issues, disruption to our normal business activities and diversion of management’s time and attention due to integration and conversion efforts. If we are unable to manage growth effectively or execute integration efforts properly, we may not be able to achieve the anticipated benefits of growth and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, we may not be able to sustain past levels of profitability as we grow, and our past levels of profitability should not be considered a guarantee or indicator of future success. If we are not able to maintain our levels of profitability by deploying growth in our deposits in profitable assets or investments, our net interest margin and overall level of profitability will decrease and our stock price may decline.
We face strong competition for customers and may not succeed in implementing our business strategy.
Our business strategy depends on our ability to remain competitive. There is strong competition for customers from existing banks and other types of financial institutions, including those that use the Internet as a medium for banking transactions or as an advertising platform. Our competitors include large, publicly-traded, Internet-based banks, as well as smaller Internet-based banks; “brick and mortar” banks, including those that have implemented websites to facilitate online banking; and traditional banking institutions such as thrifts, finance companies, credit unions and mortgage banks. Some of these competitors have been in business for a long time and have name recognition and an established customer base. Most of our competitors are larger and have greater financial and personnel resources. In order to compete profitably, we may need to reduce the rates we offer on loans and leases and investments and increase the rates we offer on deposits, which actions may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
To remain competitive, we believe we must successfully implement our business strategy. Our success depends on, among other things:
Having a large and increasing number of customers who use our bank for their banking needs;
Our ability to attract, hire and retain key personnel as our business grows;
Our ability to secure additional capital as needed;
The relevance of our products and services to customer needs and demands and the rate at which we and our competitors introduce or modify new products and services;
Our ability to offer products and services with fewer employees than competitors;
The satisfaction of our customers with our customer service;
Ease of use of our websites; and
Our ability to provide a secure and stable technology platform for financial services that provides us with reliable and effective operational, financial and information systems.
If we are unable to implement our business strategy, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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Our business depends on a strong brand, and failing to maintain and enhance our brand would hurt our ability to expand our customer base.
The brand identities that we have developed will significantly contribute to the success of our business. Maintaining and enhancing the “BofI Federal Bank” brands (including our other trade styles and trade names such as apartmentbank.com) is critical to expanding our customer base. We believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase due to the relatively low barriers to entry for our “brick and mortar” competitors in the internet-based banking market. Our brands could be negatively impacted by a number of factors, including data privacy and security issues, service outages, and product malfunctions. If we fail to maintain and enhance our “BofI Federal Bank” brands, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. Maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide high-quality products and services, which we may not do successfully.
A natural disaster, especially in California, could harm our business.
We are based in San Diego, California, and approximately 68.0% of our mortgage loan portfolio was secured by real estate located in California at June 30, 2016. In addition, some of our computer systems that operate our internet websites and their back-up systems are located in San Diego, California. Historically, California has been vulnerable to natural disasters. Therefore, we are susceptible to the risks of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods and mudslides. Natural disasters could harm our operations directly through interference with communications, including the interruption or loss of our websites, which would prevent us from gathering deposits, originating loans and leases and processing and controlling our flow of business, as well as through the destruction of facilities and our operational, financial and management information systems. A natural disaster or recurring power outages may also impair the value of our largest class of assets, our loan and lease portfolio, which is comprised substantially of real estate loans. Uninsured or under-insured disasters may reduce borrowers’ ability to repay mortgage loans. Disasters may also reduce the value of the real estate securing our loans, impairing our ability to recover on defaulted loans through foreclosure and making it more likely that we would suffer losses on defaulted loans. Although we have implemented several back-up systems and protections (and maintain standard business interruption insurance), these measures may not protect us fully from the effects of a natural disaster. The occurrence of natural disasters in California could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends in large part on the continuing efforts of a few individuals. If we are unable to retain these key personnel or attract, hire and retain others to oversee and manage our company, our business could suffer.
Our success depends substantially on the skill and abilities of our senior management team, including our Chief Executive Officer and President, Gregory Garrabrants, our Chief Financial Officer, Andrew J. Micheletti, and other employees that perform multiple functions that might otherwise be performed by separate individuals at larger banks. The loss of the services of any of these individuals or other key employees, whether through termination of employment, disability or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, our ability to grow and manage our growth depends on our ability to continue to identify, attract, hire, train, retain and motivate highly skilled executive, technical, managerial, sales, marketing, customer service and professional personnel. The implementation of our business plan and our future success will depend on such qualified personnel. Competition for such employees is intense, and there is a risk that we will not be able to successfully attract, assimilate or retain sufficiently qualified personnel. If we fail to attract and retain the necessary personnel, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are exposed to risk of environmental liability with respect to properties to which we take title.
In the course of our business, we may foreclose and take title to real estate and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to those properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. If we become subject to significant environmental liabilities, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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Technology Risks in our Online Business
We depend on third-party service providers for our core banking technology, and interruptions in or terminations of their services could materially impair the quality of our services.
We rely substantially upon third-party service providers for our core banking technology and to protect us from bank system failures or disruptions. This reliance may mean that we will not be able to resolve operational problems internally or on a timely basis, which could lead to customer dissatisfaction or long-term disruption of our operations. Our operations also depend upon our ability to replace a third-party service provider if it experiences difficulties that interrupt operations or if an essential third-party service terminates. If these service arrangements are terminated for any reason without an immediately available substitute arrangement, our operations may be severely interrupted or delayed. If such interruption or delay were to continue for a substantial period of time, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Privacy concerns relating to our technology could damage our reputation and deter current and potential customers from using our products and services.
Generally speaking, concerns have been expressed about whether internet-based products and services compromise the privacy of users and others. Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure or security of personal information of our customers or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and results of operations. While we strive to comply with all applicable data protection laws and regulations, as well as our own posted privacy policies, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against us by government entities or others, or could cause us to lose customers, which could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.
In addition, as nearly all of our products and services are internet-based, the amount of data we store for our customers on our servers (including personal information) has been increasing and will continue to increase. Any systems failure or compromise of our security that results in the release of our customers’ data could seriously limit the adoption of our products and services, as well as harm our reputation and brand and, therefore, our business. We may also need to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches. The risk that these types of events could seriously harm our business is likely to increase as we add more customers and expand the number of internet-based products and services we offer.
We have risks of systems failure and security risks, including “hacking” and “identity theft.”
The computer systems and network infrastructure utilized by us and others could be vulnerable to unforeseen problems. This is true of both our internally developed systems and the systems of our third-party service providers. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect computer equipment against damage from fire, power loss, telecommunication failure or similar catastrophic events.
Any damage or failure that causes an interruption in our operations or security breaches such as hacking or identity theft could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
If our security measures are breached, or if our services are subject to attacks that degrade or deny the ability of customers to access our products and services, our products and services may be perceived as not being secure, customers may curtail or stop using our products and services, and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure.
Our products and services involve the storage and transmission of customers’ proprietary information, and security breaches could expose us to a risk of loss of this information, litigation, and potential liability. Our security measures may be breached due to the actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance, or otherwise and, as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our data or our customers’ data. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or our customers’ data. Any such breach or unauthorized access could result in significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, and a loss of confidence in the security of our products and services that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed and, as a result, we could lose customers, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our business depends on continued and unimpeded access to the internet by us and our customers. Internet access providers may be able to block, degrade, or charge for access to our website, which could lead to additional expenses and the loss of customers.
Our products and services depend on the ability of our customers to access the internet and our website. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant market power in the broadband and internet access marketplace, including incumbent telephone companies, cable companies and mobile communications companies. Some of these providers have the ability to take measures that could degrade, disrupt, or increase the cost of customer access to our products and services by restricting or prohibiting the use of their infrastructure to access our website or by charging fees to us or our customers to provide access to our website. Such interference could result in a loss of existing customers and/or increased costs and could impair our ability to attract new customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our principal executive offices, which also serve as our bank’s main office and branch, are located at 4350 La Jolla Village Drive, Suite 140, San Diego, California 92122, and our telephone number is (858) 350-6200. Our San Diego facilities consist of a total of approximately 117,408 square feet under leases that expire June 30, 2020.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We may from time to time become a party to other claims or litigation that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims to enforce liens, claims involving the origination and servicing of loans, and other issues related to the business of the Bank. None of such matters are expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or business.
Litigation. On October 15, 2015, the Company, its Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer were named defendants in a putative class action lawsuit styled Golden v. BofI Holding, Inc., et al, and brought in United States District Court for the Southern District of California (the “Golden Case”). On November 3, 2015, the Company, its Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer were named defendants in a second putative class action lawsuit styled Hazan v. BofI Holding, Inc., et al, and also brought in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California (the “Hazan Case”). On February 1, 2016, the Golden Case and the Hazan Case were consolidated as In re BofI Holding, Inc. Securities Litigation, Case #: 3:15-cv-02324-GPC-KSC (the “Class Action”), and the Houston Municipal Employees Pension System was appointed lead plaintiff. The Class Action complaint was amended by a certain Consolidated Amended Class Complaint filed on April 11, 2016. The Class Action plaintiff seeks monetary damages and other relief on behalf of a putative class that has not been certified by the Court.
The complaints filed in the Golden Case and the Hazan Case both allege that the defendants violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder, by failing to disclose the wrongful conduct that is alleged in a complaint that was filed in a wrongful termination of employment lawsuit (the “Employment Matter”), and that as a result the Company’s statements regarding its internal controls, as well as portions of its financial statements, were false and misleading. The Company and the other named defendants dispute the allegations of wrongdoing advanced by the plaintiffs in the Class Action and in the Employment Matter, as well as those plaintiffs’ statement of the underlying factual circumstances, and are vigorously defending both cases.

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In addition to the Class Action, two separate shareholder derivative actions were filed in December, 2015, purportedly on behalf of the Company. The first derivative action, Calcaterra v. Garrabrants, et al, was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California on December 3, 2015. The second derivative action, Dow v. Micheletti, et al, was filed in the San Diego County Superior Court on December 16, 2015. A third derivative action, DeYoung v. Garrabrants, et al, was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California on January 22, 2016, a fourth derivative action, Yong v. Garrabrants, et al, was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California on January 29, 2016, and a fifth derivative action, Laborers Pension Trust Fund of Northern Nevada v. Allrich et al, was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California on February 2, 2016. Each of these five derivative actions names the Company as a nominal defendant, and certain of its officers and directors as defendants. Each complaint sets forth allegations of breaches of fiduciary duties, gross mismanagement, abuse of control, and unjust enrichment against the defendant officers and directors. The plaintiffs in these derivative actions seek damages in unspecified amounts on the Company’s behalf from the officer and director defendants, certain corporate governance actions, and an award of their costs and attorney’s fees. On June 9, 2016, the United States District Court for the Southern District of California ordered the four above-referenced cases pending before it to be consolidated, appointed lead counsel in the consolidated action, and ordered the parties to meet and confer regarding a schedule for the filing of a consolidated complaint and defendants’ response to the complaint. Pursuant to the June 9, 2016 order, counsel have met and conferred regarding proposals for (a) the time for plaintiffs to file a consolidated complaint or provide notice of plaintiffs’ intent to rely upon the original Complaint in Case No. 3:15-cv-02722-GPC-KSC (the “operative complaint”); (b) the time for defendants to respond to the operative complaint; and (c) a schedule for briefing any motion to dismiss that may be filed by a defendant. A stipulation setting forth the agreed litigation schedule has been submitted to the Court. The fifth derivative action, which is pending before the San Diego County Superior Court, has been stayed by agreement of the parties. The Company and the other defendants dispute the allegations of wrongdoing and are vigorously defending these purported derivative actions.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

29


PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on March 15, 2005 under the symbol “BOFI.” There were 63,270,115 shares of common stock outstanding held by approximately 35,000 shareholders as of August 17, 2016. The following table sets forth, for the calendar quarters indicated, the range of high and low sales prices for the common stock of BofI Holding, Inc. for each quarter during the last two fiscal years. Sales prices represent actual sales of which our management has knowledge. The transfer agent and registrar of our common stock is Computershare.
 
BofI Holding, Inc. Common Stock
Price Per Share
Quarter ended:
High  
 
Low  
June 30, 2014
$21.44
 
$18.10
September 30, 2014
$20.39
 
$17.48
December 31, 2014
$20.08
 
$16.42
March 31, 2015
$24.32
 
$19.05
June 30, 2015
$26.62
 
$22.05
September 30, 2015
$33.36
 
$26.47
December 31, 2015
$35.64
 
$18.01
March 31, 2016
$21.61
 
$13.51
June 30, 2016
$23.12
 
$15.72
DIVIDENDS
The holders of record of our Series A preferred stock, which was issued in 2003 and 2004, are entitled to receive annual dividends at the rate of six percent (6%) of the stated value per share, which stated value is $10,000 per share. Dividends on the Series A preferred stock accrue and are payable quarterly. Dividends on the preferred stock must be paid prior and in preference to any declaration or payment of any distribution on any outstanding shares of junior stock, including our common stock.
Other than dividends to be paid on our preferred stock, we currently intend to retain any earnings to finance the growth and development of our business. Our board of directors has never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future. Our ability to pay dividends, should our board of directors elect to do so, depends largely upon the ability of the Bank to declare and pay dividends to us. Future dividends will depend primarily upon our earnings, financial condition and need for funds, as well as government policies and regulations applicable to us and our bank that limit the amount that may be paid as dividends without prior approval.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Stock Repurchases. On March 17, 2016, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase plan authorizing the repurchase of up to $100 million of the Company’s stock. The new share repurchase authorization replaces the previous share repurchase plan approved on July 5, 2005. The Company may repurchase shares of common stock on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions at times and prices considered appropriate, at the discretion of the Company, and subject to its assessment of alternative uses of capital, stock trading price, general market conditions and regulatory factors. The share repurchase program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares and will continue in effect until terminated by the Board of Directors of the Company. Shares of common stock repurchased under this plan will be held as treasury shares. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016, no shares of BofI common stock were purchased under either program.
Net Settlement of Restricted Stock Awards. In November 2007 and October 2014, the stockholders of the Company approved an amendment to the 2004 Stock Incentive Plan and 2014 Stock Incentive Plan, respectively, which among other changes permitted net settlement of restricted stock awards for purposes of payment of a grantee’s minimum income tax obligation. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016, there were 223,742 restricted stock award shares which were retained by the Company and converted to cash at the average rate of $27.45 per share to fund the grantee’s income tax obligations.

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The following table sets forth our market repurchases of BofI common stock and the BofI common shares retained in connection with net settlement of restricted stock awards during the fourth fiscal quarter ending June 30, 2016.
Period
Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid Per Shares
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate
Dollar value of
Shares that May
Yet be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs
Stock Repurchases (dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quarter Ended June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
April 1, 2016 to June 30, 2016

 
$

 

 
$
100,000

For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2016

 
$

 

 
$
100,000

Stock Retained in Net Settlement
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
April 1, 2016 to April 30, 2016

 
 
 
 
 
 
May 1, 2016 to May 30, 2016

 
 
 
 
 
 
June 1, 2016 to June 30, 2016
177,064

 
 
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2016
177,064

 
 
 
 
 
 
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
The following table provides information regarding the aggregate number of securities to be issued under all of our stock option and equity based compensation plans upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and other rights and their weighted-average exercise prices as of June 30, 2016. There were no securities issued under equity compensation plans not approved by security holders.
Plan Category
(a)
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options and units granted
 
(b)
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options and units granted
 
(c)
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
1,059,726

 
$

 
3,605,373

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total
1,059,726

 
$

 
3,605,373



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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated financial information should be read in conjunction with “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and footnotes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
 
At or for the Fiscal Years Ended June 30,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Selected Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
7,601,354

 
$
5,823,719

 
$
4,402,999

 
$
3,090,771

 
$
2,386,845

Loans and leases, net of allowance for loan and lease losses
6,354,679

 
4,928,618

 
3,532,841

 
2,256,918

 
1,720,563

Loans held for sale, at fair value
20,871

 
25,430

 
20,575

 
36,665

 
38,469

Loans held for sale, at cost
33,530

 
77,891

 
114,796

 
40,326

 
40,712

Allowance for loan and lease losses
35,826

 
28,327

 
18,373

 
14,182

 
9,636

Securities—trading
7,584

 
7,832

 
8,066

 
7,111

 
5,838