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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____________________ to _____________________

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report _____________________

Commission file number: 000-50841

51job, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Building 3

No. 1387 Zhang Dong Road

Shanghai 201203

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Rick Yan, Chief Executive Officer

Telephone: +86-21-6160-1888

Facsimile: +86-21-6879-6233

Building 3

No. 1387 Zhang Dong Road

Shanghai 201203

People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

American depositary shares, each representing one
common share, par value US$0.0001 per share

Common shares, par value US$0.0001 per share*

JOBS

NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(NASDAQ Global Select Market)

NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(NASDAQ Global Select Market)

* Not for trading but only in connection with the listing of American depositary shares on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

Table of Contents

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 67,406,657 common shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, as of December 31, 2020.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 Large accelerated filer

 Accelerated filer

 Non-accelerated filer

 Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP

 International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board

 Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

     Item 17  Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

     Yes  No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

     Yes No

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

ii

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

iii

PART I

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

1

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

1

Item 3.

Key Information

1

Item 4.

Information on the Company

31

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

55

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

55

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

76

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

86

Item 8.

Financial Information

88

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

89

Item 10.

Additional Information

89

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

100

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

100

PART II

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

103

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

103

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

103

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

104

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

104

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

104

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

104

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

104

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

105

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

105

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

105

PART III

Item 17.

Financial Statements

106

Item 18.

Financial Statements

106

Item 19.

Exhibits

106

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INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated, references in this annual report to:

“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;
“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one common share;
“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding for the purpose of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“RMB” are to Renminbi, the legal currency of the PRC;
“shares” or “common shares” are to our common shares, with par value US$0.0001 per share;
“U.S. GAAP” are to the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America; and
“US$” are to U.S. dollars, the legal currency of the United States of America.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, “we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” and “51job” refer to 51job, Inc., its predecessor entities and subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations, also include our affiliated entities.

In addition, unless otherwise indicated, references in this annual report to:

“51net” are to 51net.com Inc.;
“AdCo” are to Shanghai Qianjin Advertising Co., Ltd.;
“Qian Cheng” are to Beijing Qian Cheng Si Jin Advertising Co., Ltd.;
“Run An” are to Beijing Run An Information Consultancy Co., Ltd.;
“Tech JV” are to Qianjin Network Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.;
“WFOE” are to Qian Cheng Wu You Network Information Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.; and
“Wuhan AdCo” are to Wuhan Mei Hao Qian Cheng Advertising Co., Ltd.

Any discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding.

We publish our financial statements in Renminbi. This annual report contains translations of certain Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollar amounts at specified rates solely for your convenience. All translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars were made at the noon buying rate in New York for cable transfers of Renminbi as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which was RMB6.5250 to US$1.00 on December 31, 2020, as set forth in the Federal Reserve Board’s H.10 Statistical Release. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this annual report could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report on Form 20-F contains statements of a forward-looking nature. These statements are made within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “is/are likely to,” “expect,” “intend,” “aim,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included in this annual report relate to, among others:

our growth strategies and expansion plans;
our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;
growth and trends of the human resource services industry in China;
market acceptance of our products and services;
competition in our industry;
our ability to control our operating costs and expenses;
our ability to retain key personnel and attract new talent;
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry, corporate structure and business operations;
seasonality of our business;
fluctuations in the value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies;
acquisitions or investments we have made or will make in the future; and
fluctuations in general economic conditions in China and globally.

You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. You should read these statements in conjunction with the risks disclosed in “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors” of this annual report and other risks outlined in our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Those risks are not exhaustive. Moreover, we operate in an emerging and evolving environment. New risks may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of such risks on our business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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PART I

ITEM 1.       IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.       OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.       KEY INFORMATION

A.    Selected Financial Data

The following tables present the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income data and selected consolidated statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page F-1. The selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income data and selected consolidated statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this annual report. You should read the following information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The historical results presented below do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future period.

For the year ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income Data:

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net revenues

2,338,334

 

2,881,215

 

3,781,946

 

4,000,025

 

3,688,951

 

565,356

Cost of services(1)

(663,001)

 

(796,063)

 

(1,081,011)

 

(1,221,935)

 

(1,261,731)

 

(193,369)

Gross profit

1,675,333

 

2,085,152

 

2,700,935

 

2,778,090

 

2,427,220

 

371,987

Operating expenses(1):

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Sales and marketing

(783,492)

 

(917,784)

 

(1,197,178)

 

(1,188,233)

 

(1,182,677)

 

(181,253)

General and administrative

(280,002)

 

(296,608)

 

(353,557)

 

(384,072)

 

(377,438)

 

(57,845)

Total operating expenses

(1,063,494)

 

(1,214,392)

 

(1,550,735)

 

(1,572,305)

 

(1,560,115)

 

(239,098)

Income from operations

611,839

 

870,760

 

1,150,200

 

1,205,785

 

867,105

 

132,889

Income before income tax expense

699,886

 

542,256

 

1,486,875

 

762,092

 

1,259,845

 

193,079

Income tax expense

(134,699)

 

(169,493)

 

(242,434)

 

(235,890)

 

(188,417)

 

(28,876)

Net income

565,187

 

372,763

 

1,244,441

 

526,202

 

1,071,428

 

164,203

Net loss (income) attributable to non-controlling interests

791

 

(874)

 

7,878

 

6,116

 

25,848

 

3,961

Net income attributable to 51job, Inc.

565,978

 

371,889

 

1,252,319

 

532,318

 

1,097,276

 

168,164

Earnings per share:

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

9.74

 

6.19

 

20.42

 

8.18

 

16.35

 

2.51

Diluted

9.68

 

6.08

 

19.82

 

7.98

 

16.12

 

2.47

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

58,132,976

 

60,087,306

 

61,318,292

 

65,049,597

 

67,101,601

 

67,101,601

Diluted

58,474,068

 

61,150,413

 

63,175,483

 

66,683,457

 

68,056,724

 

68,056,724

(1)Share-based compensation was included in the selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income data as follows:

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For the year ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

Cost of services

 

(14,080)

 

(14,029)

 

(16,316)

 

(20,189)

 

(23,648)

 

(3,624)

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Sales and marketing

 

(12,104)

 

(12,060)

 

(14,026)

 

(17,356)

 

(20,329)

 

(3,116)

General and administrative

 

(59,886)

 

(59,879)

 

(74,623)

 

(88,604)

 

(99,829)

 

(15,299)

As of December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

 

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

Assets:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash

 

1,921,074

 

2,292,476

 

1,968,351

 

2,294,904

 

3,292,698

 

504,628

Short-term investments

 

4,159,318

 

4,839,550

 

6,865,886

 

7,645,686

 

7,469,213

 

1,144,707

Total current assets

 

6,719,585

 

7,878,241

 

9,676,990

 

10,942,404

 

11,547,629

 

1,769,751

Total non-current assets

 

1,016,325

 

2,145,491

 

2,561,426

 

3,347,138

 

4,128,051

 

632,652

Total assets

 

7,735,910

 

10,023,732

 

12,238,416

 

14,289,542

 

15,675,680

 

2,402,403

Liabilities:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Convertible senior notes, current

 

1,257,709

 

 

1,725,182

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

2,703,022

 

2,042,654

 

4,209,468

 

2,833,462

 

2,810,417

 

430,715

Convertible senior notes, non-current

 

 

1,667,967

 

 

 

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

57,166

 

121,348

 

210,752

 

265,070

 

277,036

 

42,458

Total liabilities

 

2,760,188

 

3,831,969

 

4,420,220

 

3,098,532

 

3,087,453

 

473,173

Total mezzanine equity

 

 

228,230

 

225,645

 

216,974

 

189,811

 

29,090

Shareholders’ equity:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Common shares

 

49

 

50

 

50

 

53

 

54

 

8

Additional paid-in capital

 

1,299,350

 

1,809,732

 

2,055,036

 

4,901,466

 

5,206,154

 

797,878

Total 51job, Inc. shareholders’ equity

 

4,967,443

 

5,954,380

 

7,569,241

 

10,948,331

 

12,372,747

 

1,896,206

Total equity

 

4,975,722

 

5,963,533

 

7,592,551

 

10,974,036

 

12,398,416

 

1,900,140

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

 

7,735,910

 

10,023,732

 

12,238,416

 

14,289,542

 

15,675,680

 

2,402,403

For the year ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2020

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

US$

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows Data:

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

1,074,207

 

1,441,563

 

1,792,942

 

1,761,773

 

1,405,307

 

215,373

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(489,328)

 

(1,434,256)

 

(2,280,197)

 

(1,678,532)

 

(604,885)

 

(92,703)

Net cash provided by financing activities

160,493

 

424,415

 

145,121

 

281,376

 

161,133

 

24,695

Net increase (decrease) in cash and restricted cash

 

783,052

 

371,262

 

(318,604)

 

386,952

 

933,883

 

143,124

B.   Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.   Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

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D.   Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

Our business is subject to numerous risks that you should carefully consider before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, among others:

Risks Related to Our Business:

A slowdown or adverse development in the Chinese or global economy may have a material and adverse impact on our customers, demand for our services and our business.
Because we face significant competition in all of our businesses, we may lose market share and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
New competitors face low entry barriers to our industries, and successful entry by new competitors may cause us to lose market share and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
If the online platforms we use to deliver our recruitment, training, assessment and other services do not grow in market acceptance, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
The market for other human resource related services, including business process outsourcing, remains in the early development stage in China, and we may be unable to expand such existing services or successfully develop new services in this area.
Our business process outsourcing services may be adversely impacted by changes in PRC regulations and policies. In addition, new and future government regulations may significantly increase the number of labor disputes, which may result in higher operating costs.
We are subject to potential legal liability from both employers and individuals with respect to the recruitment process and our business process outsourcing services.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure:

If the PRC authorities determine that our past ownership structure was inconsistent with the requirements for operating certain of our businesses, we could be subject to sanctions.
We rely on agreements with Qian Cheng, Run An and their respective shareholders to receive all of the beneficial interest of these entities. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership.
The shareholders of our affiliated Chinese entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may adversely affect our business.
The PRC laws and regulations governing our business operations and contractual arrangements are uncertain, and if we are found to be in violation, we could be subject to sanctions. In addition, any changes in such PRC laws and regulations may have a material and adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China:

Our business could be affected by changes in China’s economic, political, regulatory or social conditions or government policies.
The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of Internet-related business and companies.
Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

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Risks Related to Our Common Shares and Our ADSs

We are controlled by a small number of our existing shareholders, whose interests may differ from those of other shareholders, and our board of directors has the power to discourage a change of control.
The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile and may continue to be volatile regardless of our operating performance.

Risks Related to Our Business

A slowdown or adverse development in the Chinese or global economy may have a material and adverse impact on our customers, demand for our services and our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe and negative impact on the Chinese and global economy since early 2020. With resurgences and corresponding lockdowns continuing to occur in various countries and regions recently, the pandemic's effect on economic conditions may be prolonged. Even before the outbreak of COVID-19, the global macroeconomic environment had been facing challenges. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, which may result in or intensify potential conflicts and lead foreign investors to close down their businesses or withdraw their investments in China. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations, tariffs and intellectual property. It is unclear whether these challenges and uncertainties will be contained or resolved, and what effects they may have on the global political and economic conditions in the long term.

Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. The growth of the Chinese economy has slowed in recent years and the trend may continue. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China’s gross domestic product growth has decreased from 7.7% in 2013 to 2.3% in 2020. Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China, and our revenues are generated by providing services to PRC businesses or affiliates of foreign firms operating in China. In an environment of slower economic growth or recession, employers may take actions such as hiring fewer employees, engaging in hiring freezes, reducing the number of employees and curtailing spending on online recruitment services and other human resource related services. For example, our net revenues decreased 7.8% in 2020 as our customers faced challenging conditions in their respective industries and in the general economy related to the significant adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, to the extent we offer credit to any customer and the customer experiences financial difficulties due to an economic slowdown, we could have difficulty collecting payment from the customer. If there are slowdowns or other adverse developments in China’s economic growth, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow may be materially and adversely affected.

Because we face significant competition in all of our businesses, we may lose market share and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We face significant competition in our online recruitment services and our other human resource related services businesses. Our online recruitment services are conducted through several websites, led by our core 51job.com platform. These websites and their related mobile applications face intense competition from other dedicated job search websites such as www.zhaopin.com. There are also niche recruitment services providers that focus on particular industry verticals, such as technology and finance, or job seeker segments, such as new college graduates and high-end, experienced professionals.

Our other human resource related services face significant competition from a variety of Chinese and foreign firms in all of our markets, including certain firms that compete with us in the market for online recruitment services.

In addition, some of the competitors we encounter in our business process outsourcing business are affiliated with local government agencies and have licenses to provide a wider range of services than we do. The competition in the training services market remains highly fragmented and primarily made up of small, local training firms, but we could face increased competition should there be a consolidation of these training firms.

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Many of our competitors or potential competitors have long operating histories, have prominent strategic partners, have local government sponsorship, have a larger customer base, and may have greater financial, management, technological development, sales, marketing and other resources than we do. They may also be able to adopt our business model and intensify competition. As a result, we may experience reduced margins, loss of market share or less use of our services by job seekers and employers. We cannot assure you that existing or future competitors will not develop or offer services and products which provide significant performance, price, creative, technological or other advantages over our services. If we are unable to compete effectively with current or future competitors as a result of these or other factors, our market share and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

New competitors face low entry barriers to our industries, and successful entry by new competitors may cause us to lose market share and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

In the future, we may face competition from new entrants in the online recruitment and other human resource industries in which we operate. We may face greater competition from Internet portals and search engines, dedicated recruitment advertising websites and mobile applications, professional and social networking platforms, online classified websites and other human resource related services providers who may enter the market for any or all of our services. Our businesses are characterized by relatively low start-up and fixed costs, modest capital requirements, short start-up lead times and an absence of significant proprietary technology that would prevent or significantly inhibit new competitors. As a result, potential market entrants face relatively low barriers to entry to all of our businesses and could acquire significant numbers of corporate customers and individual users within a relatively short period of time. Increased competition could result in a loss of market share and revenues, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If the online platforms we use to deliver our recruitment, training, assessment and other services do not grow in market acceptance, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We use the Internet to deliver many of our services to employers and job seekers in China. We generate the majority of our revenues from online recruitment services, which are conducted through several websites and mobile applications. We also provide certain training, assessment and testing services to our users through online channels. While the Internet has developed to a more advanced stage in China, the use of the Internet as a commercial medium has a limited history. We face challenges in promoting adoption and usage of our online platforms, which involves, among other things, changes in the way that employers disseminate information about jobs, the way that individuals search and apply for jobs, the way that prospective candidates are assessed and evaluated, the way that employers and job seekers communicate with each other, and the way that individuals can learn and develop new skills. If there are any negative perceptions as to the effectiveness of the recruitment, training, assessment or other services delivered through our online platforms, or any significant failure of the Internet to gain broader acceptance and trust as a reliable medium, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The market for other human resource related services, including business process outsourcing, remains in the early development stage in China, and we may be unable to expand such existing services or successfully develop new services in this area.

We believe the market for other human resource related services, including business process outsourcing, is at a relatively early stage of development in China. Many employers are unfamiliar with these services and may not accept the value proposition of these service offerings. Processing, tracking, collecting and remitting funds to the applicable regulatory agencies, employees and other third parties are complex operations, and many employers may not trust us with employee data or to make representations and payments on their behalf. As such, companies may not be willing to use our services for significant administrative functions and may instead choose to continue to perform such operations in-house.

If we are unable to extend our nationwide capability, effectively monitor ongoing changes in PRC laws and regulations, acquire, develop and use up-to-date business and management technology and software, including advanced computer and technology systems that could require significant capital expenditures, and maintain the integrity and security of our systems and process flow, we may be unable to expand our business process outsourcing operations or gain wider customer acceptance for these services. In addition, we rely on a number of third party service providers, including couriers, agents and banks. Failure by these providers, for any reason, to deliver their services in a timely and accurate manner could result in significant disruptions to our business process outsourcing operations, impact our client relationships, harm our brand names and reputation, and result in significant penalties or liabilities to us.

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In addition, as part of our strategy to be a “one-stop” human resource services provider, we strive to cross-promote our other human resource related services among our online recruitment services customers. However, we cannot assure you that such cross-promotion strategy will be effective or generate revenues as we expect. Furthermore, we may decide to develop or acquire new services in the area of other human resource related services. We cannot assure you that we will be able to deliver new products or services on a commercially viable basis or in a timely manner, or at all. If any of our efforts to cross-promote or operate new human resource related services are unsuccessful, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our business process outsourcing services may be adversely impacted by changes in PRC regulations and policies. In addition, new and future government regulations may significantly increase the number of labor disputes, which may result in higher operating costs.

The PRC Labor Contract Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and its amendment which became effective on July 1, 2013, established restrictions and increased costs for employers, including specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, temporary employment, probation, consultation with the labor union and employee assembly, employment without a contract, dismissal of employees, compensation upon termination and overtime work, and collective bargaining. The PRC Social Insurance Law, which became effective on July 1, 2011 and was amended on December 29, 2018, specified that the PRC establish a social insurance system including basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance. On August 31, 2018, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the Draft Amendment to the PRC Individual Income Tax Law, which became fully effective on January 1, 2019 and significantly changed major provisions of the law, including the determination of residence, income tax brackets, and allowable personal deduction and special itemized deductions.

We provide business process outsourcing services for human resource administrative functions, in particular social insurance, benefits and payroll services, for employers. Our business process outsourcing services are designed to assist employers to be compliant with PRC regulations and policies that continually change. Changes in regulations could affect social insurance and individual taxable income calculations, the extent and type of benefits employers are required to provide employees, and the administrative procedures, processes and documentation required by local government authorities. Such changes could reduce or eliminate the need for some of our services. New or additional requirements could also increase our cost to provide our services and require us to undertake adjustments to our operating systems, processes and procedures. Any failure by us to be updated and knowledgeable on regulatory changes and to inform, educate and assist our clients regarding new or revised regulations that impact them could materially damage our brand and reputation. In addition, any failure by us to modify our business process outsourcing services in a timely fashion in response to regulatory changes could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

In addition, since the PRC Labor Contract Law became effective, we have observed an increase in the number of labor disputes between employers and workers relating to its interpretation and application. The resolution of such labor disputes may require significant costs and resources, including the time our personnel spend dealing with increased human resource administration and legal issues for which we may not be compensated. If we incur higher operating costs for our business process outsourcing business, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We are subject to potential legal liability from both employers and individuals with respect to the recruitment process and our business process outsourcing services.

We are exposed to potential claims associated with the recruitment process, including claims by clients seeking to hold us liable for recommending a candidate who subsequently proves to be unsuitable for the position filled, claims by current or previous employers of our candidates alleging interference with employment contracts, claims by candidates against us alleging our failure to maintain the confidentiality of their employment search or alleging discrimination or other violations of employment law or other laws or regulations by our clients, and claims by either employers or their employees alleging the failure of our business process outsourcing services to comply with laws or regulations relating to employment, employee’s insurance or benefits, individual income taxes or other matters. Any such claims, regardless of merit, may force us to participate in time-consuming, costly litigation or investigation, divert significant management and staff attention, and damage our reputation and brand names. We do not maintain insurance coverage for liabilities arising from claims by employers, employees, candidates or third parties.

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We may face greater credit risk in collecting receivables as our business process outsourcing operations grow.

In providing our business process outsourcing services to enterprises, due to the difference in timing between cash receipts and remittances, we may receive from time to time short-term deposits and advances in client funds and/or make short-term prepayments on behalf of our customers to be reimbursed to us. As our business process outsourcing operations have grown, our receivables have increased. We cannot assure you that we will be able to collect payment or reimbursement fully, or in a timely manner, on receivables from our business processing outsourcing services customers. As a result, we may face a greater risk of non-payment of these receivables, and as our business process outsourcing operations increase in scale, we may need to make increased provisions for credit losses. If we are unable to successfully manage our receivables, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

Due to seasonal variations in demand for human resource services, we experience material fluctuations in our revenue streams which affect our ability to predict our quarterly results and which may also cause quarterly results to vary from period to period.

We experience material fluctuations in our revenue streams which affect our ability to predict quarterly results. For example, in the period following the Chinese New Year holiday in the first quarter, we historically experience an increase in recruitment activity. During this peak period, demand for online recruitment and other human resource related services may or may not rise significantly depending on the needs of employers as well as their perceptions of the job market. In addition, the Chinese New Year holiday is based on the lunar calendar, which varies from year to year and affects our first and second quarter results as well as their comparability to financial results of the same quarters in prior years. We usually observe significant seasonal campus recruitment activity by employers in the fourth quarter of each year but also a general slowdown in overall recruitment activity at calendar year end. Due to these factors, our revenues may vary materially from quarter to quarter and quarterly results may not be comparable to the corresponding periods of prior years. Such uncertainty makes it difficult for us to predict revenues for a particular quarter. Therefore, actual results may differ significantly from our targets or estimated quarterly results, which could cause the price of our ADSs to fall.

If we are not able to respond successfully to technological or industry developments, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

The market for online products and services is characterized by rapid technological developments, frequent launches of new products and services, introductions of new business models, changes in customer needs and behavior, and evolving industry standards. If we fail to adapt our products to these developments, our existing online recruitment services may become less competitive or obsolete. For example, the number of people accessing the Internet through mobile devices, including smartphones, tablets and other hand-held devices, has increased in recent years, and we expect this trend to continue as 5G and more advanced mobile communications technologies are broadly implemented. As we make our services available across a variety of mobile operating systems and devices, we are dependent on the interoperability of our services with popular mobile devices and mobile operating systems that we do not control, such as Android and iOS. Any changes in such mobile operating systems or devices that degrade the functionality of our services or give preferential treatment to competitive services could adversely affect usage of our services. In order to respond to new developments, we may be required to undertake substantial efforts and incur significant costs. In the event that we do not successfully respond to such developments in a timely and cost-effective manner, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

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If we are unable to protect or promote our brand names and reputation, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to generate a large volume of recruitment advertisements, successfully develop and enhance the perception of our websites and mobile applications as leading recruitment platforms, undertake effective marketing and promotional activities, and generally provide high quality services, we may not be successful in protecting or promoting our brand names and reputation in a cost-effective manner or at all. In addition, if job seeker profiles or recruitment advertisements on our websites and mobile applications are found to contain inaccurate or false information, the value proposition of our websites and mobile applications as leading online recruitment platforms may be weakened. Furthermore, we may be subject to claims by individuals and customers seeking to hold us liable for such inaccurate or false information. Any claims, regardless of merit, may force us to participate in time-consuming, costly litigation or investigation, divert significant management and staff attention, and damage our reputation and brand names. We may dedicate significantly greater resources in the future to advertising, marketing and other promotional efforts aimed at building awareness of our brand names. Any significant damage to our reputation, the perceived quality or awareness of our brand names or services, or any significant failure on our part to promote and protect our brand names and reputation could make it more difficult for us to successfully attract job seekers, compete for customers or retain qualified personnel, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Negative publicity and allegations involving us, our shareholders, directors, officers, employees and business partners may affect our reputation and, as a result, our business may be negatively affected.

We, our shareholders, directors, officers, employees and business partners may be subject to negative media coverage and publicity from time to time. Such negative coverage and publicity could threaten the perception of our brand names and damage our reputation. In addition, to the extent our employees and business partners are subject to allegations of non-compliance, regardless of merit, with any relevant laws or regulations, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation. As a result, we may be required to spend significant time and incur substantial costs in response to allegations and negative publicity, which could adversely affect our business.

We are dependent on our Internet service providers, and we are vulnerable to failures of the Internet, telecommunications networks in China and our technology platform.

Our online businesses, including the development of our websites and mobile applications, are heavily dependent on the performance and reliability of China’s Internet infrastructure, the continual accessibility of bandwidth and servers to our service providers’ networks, and the continuing performance, reliability and availability of our technology platform. We cannot assure you that the Internet infrastructure and telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in Internet usage.

Almost all access to the Internet is maintained through state-owned telecommunications operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the PRC Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT. In addition, the national networks in China connect to the Internet through a government-controlled international gateway. This international gateway is the only channel through which a domestic user can connect to the international Internet network.

We rely on a limited number of telecommunications service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and data centers to host our servers. We are unlikely to have any access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s Internet infrastructure or telecommunications networks. In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by the telecommunications service providers. If they fail to provide these services, we would be required to seek other providers, and there is no assurance that we will be able to find alternative providers willing or able to provide high quality services and there is no assurance that such providers will not charge us higher prices for their services. If the prices that we are required to pay for Internet services rise significantly, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

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We rely heavily on our information systems, and any failure to properly protect privacy and to maintain and secure our systems could seriously damage our reputation, disrupt our operations and harm our business.

The Internet industry is facing significant challenges regarding information security and privacy. As the use of the Internet grows in everyday life, the general public is increasingly aware of the vulnerability of confidential and private information. Certain data and services collected, provided or used by us in our systems or provided to and used by us, our partners, our customers or our job seekers contain confidential and private information, such as names, user IDs and passwords and payment or transaction related information. Our ability to store, retrieve, process, manage and protect substantial amounts of data and information, including our client and candidate databases, is an important part of our operations and a critical component of our success.

In recent years, PRC government authorities have enacted legislation on Internet use to protect personal information from unauthorized disclosure. In December 2012 and July 2013, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and the MIIT issued new laws and regulations to enhance the legal protection of information security and privacy on the Internet, and also require Internet operators to take measures to ensure confidentiality of user information. The PRC Counter-Terrorism Law, which became effective on January 1, 2016, requires Internet service providers to prevent the dissemination of information containing terrorist or extremist content and conduct identity verification of individuals. The PRC Cyber Security Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017, requires, among others, that network operators take security measures to protect the network from unauthorized interference, damage and unauthorized access and prevent data from being divulged, stolen or tampered with. Network operators are also required to collect and use personal information in compliance with the principles of legitimacy, properness and necessity, and strictly within the scope of authorization by the subject of personal information unless otherwise prescribed by laws or regulations. In May 2020, the PRC Civil Code, which became effective on January 1, 2021, was promulgated and also provides specific provisions regarding the protection of personal information. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company — Business Overview — Regulation — Regulations Relating to Internet Privacy and Information Security.” However, the interpretation and application of such laws in China are often uncertain and in flux.

In addition, on December 18, 2020, the PRC Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, or the MOHRSS, issued the Regulations on the Administration of Online Recruitment Services, which became effective on March 1, 2021. These regulations require human resource service organizations engaged in online recruitment services to comply with the cybersecurity protection obligations requested by PRC laws and regulations, and adopt technical or other necessary measures to ensure the network, information system and user information security of recruitment services. At the same time, such regulations require human resource service organizations to comply with personal information protection obligations requested by PRC laws and regulations when collecting and using users’ personal information, and to establish user information protection systems for online recruitment service.

While we have adopted measures and strive to comply with all relevant data protection laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against us by government agencies or others, and could damage our reputation. We cannot guarantee the effectiveness of the measures we have undertaken, and such measures may still be determined as insufficient, improper or deficient by relevant authorities. Concerns about our practices and systems with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information or other privacy related matters, and any negative publicity on our information safety or privacy protection mechanism and policy, even if unfounded, could harm our business. Any damage to our reputation and brand names may adversely impact the size, engagement and loyalty of our job seekers and employers, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. There has been media coverage making allegations about our practices, and we cannot rule out similar possibilities of such in the future. We must further develop and enhance our information systems to compete effectively and ensure our compliance with relevant laws and regulations, which may require significant staff and financial resources. If our online platforms, including our websites and mobile applications, and our other products and systems are not properly maintained and secured, our operations could be seriously disrupted and our business significantly harmed.

We rely heavily on our senior management team and key personnel, and the loss of any of their services could severely disrupt our business.

Our future success is highly dependent on the ongoing efforts of the members of our senior management and key personnel, in particular on Rick Yan, our chief executive officer. The loss of the services of one or more of our senior executives or key personnel, Mr. Yan in particular, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Competition for senior management and key personnel is intense, and the pool of suitable candidates is limited, and we may not be able to retain the services of our senior executives or key personnel, or attract and retain senior executives or key personnel in the future.

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In addition, if Mr. Yan, any other members of our senior management or any of our other key personnel joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may not be able to replace them easily and we may lose customers, business partners, key professionals and staff members. Each of our senior executives has entered into an employment agreement with us, which contains confidentiality and non-competition provisions. In the event of a dispute between any of our senior executives and us, we cannot assure you as to the extent, if any, that these provisions may be enforceable in the PRC due to uncertainties involving the PRC legal system.

If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business process outsourcing, training and placement businesses may be materially and adversely affected.

The success of our business process outsourcing, training and placement services depends heavily on our ability to attract and retain skilled personnel. Our business of performing traditional human resource department functions such as payroll, benefits and compliance management and related services for customers on an outsourced basis depends on having personnel with expertise in local and national PRC government employment and tax regulations, payroll management and other human resource department functions. The success of our training business depends on personnel with the necessary skills to conduct and support our training seminars and other activities and services in this business. Similarly, our ability to provide high quality placement and executive search services depends on a dedicated team of consultants with expertise and relationships in the geographic markets and industries in which our clients seek candidates. If we are unable to attract and retain critical skilled personnel, our business process outsourcing, training and placement businesses may be materially and adversely affected.

We operate in an evolving market, and our business and results of operations may suffer if we do not successfully manage our growth.

We operate in a rapidly evolving market. While we have grown significantly since we commenced operations in 1998, we intend to continue to expand in size and increase the number of services we provide. Our success in managing this growth will depend to a significant degree on the ability of the members of our senior management to operate effectively both independently and as a group.

As a growing company, we may encounter risks and difficulties including our potential failure to:

implement our business model and strategy and adapt and modify them as needed;
increase awareness of our brand names, protect our reputation and develop customer loyalty;
anticipate with any degree of certainty the behavioral and operational changes of our customers that have a significant impact on our business from time to time as they respond to evolving social, economic, regulatory and political changes in China;
manage our expanding operations and service offerings, including the integration of any acquisitions;
maintain adequate control of our expenses;
adequately and efficiently operate, maintain, upgrade and develop our websites, mobile applications and the other platforms and equipment we utilize in providing our services;
improve and develop financial and management information systems, controls and procedures;
attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel; and
anticipate and adapt to changing conditions in the human resource, online and other markets in which we operate as well as the impact of any changes in government regulation, mergers and acquisitions involving our competitors, technological developments and other significant competitive and market dynamics.

Although we have achieved profitability for a period of time, we expect that our ongoing expansion will increase our operating expenses. In addition, new business initiatives may expose us to new challenges and uncertainties. Our historical results of operations should not be taken as indicative of the rate of growth, if any, or the level of profitability, if any, that can be expected in the future. If we do not successfully manage our growth, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We may not be able to successfully execute future acquisitions or efficiently manage any acquired business.

As part of our business expansion strategy, we may pursue acquisitions or investments in certain complementary or new businesses. The success of any acquisition will depend upon several factors, including:

our ability to identify and acquire businesses on a cost-effective basis;
our ability to integrate acquired personnel, operations, products and technologies into our organization effectively; and
our ability to retain and motivate key personnel and to retain the clients of acquired firms.

Any such acquisition may require a significant commitment of management time, capital investment and other resources. If we are unable to effectively integrate an acquired business or are required to incur restructuring and other charges to complete an acquisition, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Also, if we use our equity securities as consideration for acquisitions, we may dilute the value of your ADSs.

In addition, our possible future acquisitions may expose us to other potential risks, including risks associated with unforeseen or hidden liabilities, the diversion of resources from our existing businesses and technologies, our inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset the costs, expenses of acquisitions and potential loss of, or harm to, relationships with employees and customers as a result of our integration of new businesses. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to manage our business, our financial condition and our results of operations.

We may experience impairment of goodwill in connection with our acquisition of entities or other assets.

We are required to perform an annual goodwill impairment test. Goodwill can become impaired. We test goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate possible impairment, but the fair value estimates involved require a significant amount of difficult judgment and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from our projections, which may result in the need to recognize impairment of some or all of the goodwill we recorded.

We are exposed to significant downward adjustments or impairments in the market values of our investments.

As part of our business strategy, we have made long-term investments in both private and public companies. Fair values of these investments can be negatively impacted by fluctuations in the share price of the public company we own, fair value of private companies in which we are a shareholder, business prospects, financial results, foreign exchange rates, liquidity or other factors. For example, in 2019, we recognized an impairment loss of RMB98.3 million associated with an investment in a provider of on-demand work opportunities in the United States, primarily due to changes in its business prospects and financial condition. We may suffer significant impairment losses or downward adjustments of our investments in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our financial statements.

If we choose to develop or introduce new products and services outside of the human resource services industry in China, these efforts may not be successful, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

To leverage our large sales force, corporate customer base and brand names, we may expand the scope of services we provide and develop, introduce or invest in new products outside of the human resource services industry to increase our revenues. However, these efforts may not be successful. For example, our investment in a coupon advertising services company was sold at a loss in 2011. In the future, if we again choose to pursue products and services outside of the human resource services industry in China, we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so on a commercially viable basis or in a timely manner, or at all. Any of our efforts to begin or operate a business outside of the human resource services industry that are not successful may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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If we are unable to prevent others from using our intellectual property, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our intellectual property has been, and will continue to be, subject to various forms of theft and misappropriation. Competitors copy and distribute content from our platforms and from the training materials that we use, and utilize misleadingly similar Internet domain names and URLs in an effort to divert Internet traffic away from our websites. We are also susceptible to others copying our business model and methods. The legal protection of trademarks, trade names, copyrighted material, domain names, trade secrets, know-how and other forms of intellectual property in the PRC is significantly more limited than in the United States and many other countries and may afford us little or no effective protection. Preventing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult, time consuming and expensive. Misappropriation of our content, trademarks and other intellectual property could divert significant business to our competitors, damage our brand names and reputation, and require us to initiate litigation that could be expensive and divert management resources from the operation of our businesses.

If we are unable to successfully detect and prevent criminal actions or fraud perpetrated on us, we may be subject to liability and financial loss.

The management of our business process outsourcing services involves the collection of payments from our customers and the disbursement of funds on their behalf by our employees and agents. As a result, we are exposed to theft, embezzlement and other criminal and fraudulent activity by our employees, agents and third parties. If we are unable to successfully detect and prevent criminal or fraudulent activity, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

We may be subject to liability for placing advertisements with content that is deemed inappropriate.

PRC laws and regulations, such as the PRC Advertising Law which became effective on February 1, 1995 and its amendment which became effective on September 1, 2015, the Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Advertising promulgated by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the SAIC (currently known as the PRC State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR), which became effective on September 1, 2016, the Circular on Launching a Special Program to Rectify Internet Advertisements, which became effective on February 9, 2018, and the PRC E-Commerce Law, which became effective on January 1, 2019, prohibit advertising companies from producing, distributing or publishing any advertisement that contains any content that violates laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of the PRC, infringes upon personal and property safety, discloses privacy or state secrets, harms the physical and mental health of minors or the disabled, involves designs of the national flag, national emblem or national anthem or the music of the national anthem of the PRC, is reactionary, obscene, superstitious or absurd, is fraudulent, or disparages similar products. Advertisers, advertising companies and advertisement publishers are also required to distinguish online advertisement by the mark of “AD,” obtain a user’s prior consent before sending online advertisement, verify the content of online advertisement and properly display online advertisement. With regard to products or services displayed in the order of keyword auction or keyword bidding, a clear mark “AD” shall be affixed to the search results containing such products or services. If we are deemed to be in violation of such laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties including confiscation of the illegal revenues, levying of fines and suspension or revocation of our business license, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

We may be exposed to infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties, which, if successful, could cause us to pay significant damage awards.

Third parties may bring claims against us alleging patent, trademark or copyright infringement, or misappropriation of their creative ideas or formats, or other infringement of their proprietary intellectual property rights. Any such claims, regardless of merit, may involve us in time-consuming, costly litigation or investigation, divert significant management and staff attention, require us to enter into expensive royalty or licensing arrangements, prevent us from using important technologies, business methods, content or other intellectual property, result in monetary liability, or otherwise disrupt our operations.

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Hacking and computer viruses may cause delays or interruptions on our systems and may reduce use of our services and damage our reputation and brand names.

Hacking and computer viruses may cause delays or other service interruptions on our systems. Hacking involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems or to cause intentional malfunctions, loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment. In addition, the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses could expose us to a material risk of loss or litigation and possible liability. Hacking and computer viruses could result in significant damage to our hardware and software systems and databases, disruptions to our business activities, including to our e-mail and other communications systems, breaches of security and the inadvertent disclosure of confidential or sensitive information, interruptions in access to our websites through the use of “denial of service” or similar attacks, and other material adverse effects on our operations. Although to date we have not been subject to significant targeted disruptions or hacking, and our websites and mobile applications have not gone off-line or been shut down for any significant period of time, we may incur significant costs to continue to protect our systems and equipment against the threat of, and to repair any damage caused by, hacking and computer viruses. Moreover, if hacking or a computer virus affects our systems and is highly publicized, our reputation and brand names could be materially damaged and use of our services may decrease.

If we do not appropriately maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our business, results of operations and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020. See “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.”

However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. This could in turn result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs. Furthermore, we have incurred and may need to incur additional costs and use additional management and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other requirements going forward.

We are subject to changing laws and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosures that have increased both our costs and the risk of non-compliance.

We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the SEC, which is charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, which has long-arm jurisdiction on overseas securities issuance and trading activities that disrupt the domestic market order of the PRC and harm the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese investors, and various other regulatory authorities in China and the Cayman Islands, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business may be harmed.

We have limited insurance coverage.

While we have insurance for some of our properties, vehicles and equipment, we do not maintain any business liability or disruption insurance coverage for our operations. Any business disruption, litigation or natural disaster might result in substantial costs and diversion of resources.

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We face risks related to health epidemics and other natural disasters.

We face risks related to health epidemics, including, but not limited to, COVID-19, avian flu, H1N1 flu, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, or another epidemic. Health or other government regulations adopted in response to an epidemic may require temporary closure of our offices or institute travel restrictions which could adversely affect our ability to provide services to our customers throughout China. Our operations could also be disrupted if any of our employees are suspected or confirmed of contracting a disease, which could require us to quarantine some or all of these employees or disinfect our offices. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that an epidemic harms the Chinese or global economy in general.

Our results of operations have been, and may continue to be materially and adversely affected by COVID-19. To contain the spread of COVID-19, the Chinese government has instituted certain emergency measures. Due to the extension of the Chinese New Year holidays, quarantines, closure of businesses and facilities, and travel bans then in place, the traditional peak season for recruitment activity was significantly disrupted in the first quarter of 2020. Overall market demand for our online recruitment services was negatively impacted as our customers adapted to the challenges brought on by COVID-19, delayed or canceled their hiring plans, and curtailed their spending on our platforms in 2020. Our ability to conduct in-person recruitment events and training seminars was also affected by restrictions and limitations on social gatherings that were in effect from time to time. As a result, for the year ended December 31, 2020, our online recruitment services revenues decreased 13.1% and the growth of our other human resource related revenues slowed to 0.8%. While containment measures have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there have been occasional regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in China and authorities may again take these or further measures to keep the pandemic in check.

There are still significant uncertainties as to COVID-19's future and long-term impact, and the extent of the impact will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of COVID-19, the possibility of new waves and resurgences, the development and progress of vaccine distribution programs and medical treatments, and the actions taken by government authorities in response to an outbreak, which are beyond our control. As a result, certain of our estimates and assumptions, including the allowance for credit losses and the valuation of long-term investments and long-lived assets subject to impairment assessments, require significant judgments and carry a higher degree of variabilities and volatilities that could result in material changes to our current estimates in future periods.

We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities such as fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist acts or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures and Internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide our services to users and harm our business. We have backup systems, but we cannot assure you that such backup systems will be adequate if there are problems, or that they will adequately protect us from the effects of any natural disaster or other calamity.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC authorities determine that our past ownership structure was inconsistent with the requirements for operating certain of our businesses, we could be subject to sanctions.

The PRC government has historically regulated foreign ownership in entities providing advertising and human resource related services. Prior to March 2004, PRC laws and regulations prohibited foreign persons from owning a controlling interest in advertising entities. Foreign ownership in entities providing human resource related services was limited to 49% beginning in November 2003. These foreign ownership restrictions have been relaxed and foreign persons are now permitted to wholly own entities that provide advertising and human resource related services in China.

Prior to our restructuring in May 2004, 51net.com Inc., or 51net, our British Virgin Islands subsidiary and a foreign entity, owned 99% of Qianjin Network Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., or Tech JV, which in turn owned, and continues to own, 80% of Shanghai Qianjin Advertising Co., Ltd., or AdCo. AdCo owned 90% of its principal subsidiaries. In May 2004, we restructured our operations to comply with then existing PRC laws and regulations governing foreign ownership in entities conducting advertising and human resource related services. We have not received any waiver from the PRC government with respect to this past non-compliance.

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If we or any of our subsidiaries or affiliated entities were found to have been in violation of PRC laws or regulations governing foreign ownership of advertising or human resource services businesses and the proper operation of our businesses, the relevant regulatory authorities would likely have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including but not limited to:

levying fines;
revoking business licenses;
blocking our websites and mobile applications;
restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from any capital raisings to finance our business and operations in China;
requiring us to restructure the ownership structure or operations of our subsidiaries or affiliated entities; and/or
requiring us to discontinue all or a portion of our business.

Any of these or similar actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations or render us unable to conduct a substantial portion of our business operations and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on agreements with Qian Cheng, Run An and their respective shareholders to receive all of the beneficial interest of these entities. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership.

PRC laws and regulations currently limit foreign investment in entities operating as Internet content providers. Tech JV and its subsidiaries conduct most of our operations and recognize most of our revenues. 50% of our equity interest in Tech JV is effectively held by Beijing Qian Cheng Si Jin Advertising Co., Ltd., or Qian Cheng, which is wholly owned by Beijing Run An Information Consultancy Co., Ltd., or Run An. Run An is jointly owned by two long-time members of our senior management, Jingwu Chen and Tao Wang. Through agreements with Qian Cheng, Run An and their respective shareholders, we have the substantial ability to control, bear all the economic risks of, and receive all the economic rewards from, Qian Cheng and Run An. As a result, we consolidate all of these interests for U.S. GAAP reporting purposes. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 7.B. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Contractual Arrangements Among Our Group Entities.”

Although we have been advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jun He Law Offices, that the contractual arrangements as described in this annual report are valid, binding and enforceable under current PRC laws, these arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership of these businesses. For example, Qian Cheng, Run An and their respective shareholders could violate their contractual arrangements with us by refusing to make payments or otherwise refusing to perform their obligations necessary for us to realize the economic rewards from Qian Cheng and Run An. In any such event, we will have to rely on the PRC legal system to enforce our rights, which could have uncertain results. Any legal proceeding may disrupt our business, damage our reputation, divert our resources and incur substantial costs. See “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.”

If we are unable to enforce our rights, or if we suffer any significant delays or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may be unable to receive all of the economic rewards from Qian Cheng and Run An. If we are unable to consolidate Qian Cheng and Run An, and their equity interest in Tech JV, our results of operations would be materially reduced. In addition, a significant disruption in these contractual relationships as a result of governmental sanction or otherwise could result in our being required to restructure our operations which could require a significant expenditure of resources.

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The shareholders of our affiliated Chinese entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may adversely affect our business.

The principal shareholders of our affiliated entity, Run An, are Jingwu Chen and Tao Wang, and our other affiliated entity, Qian Cheng, is wholly owned by Run An. Although Messrs. Chen and Wang are contractually obligated, or obligated as a result of their fiduciary duty to our company, to act in good faith and in our best interest, potential conflicts of interest between their duties to our company and our affiliated Chinese entities may arise. When conflicts of interest arise, Messrs. Chen and Wang may not act entirely in our interests and any such conflicts of interest may not be resolved in our favor. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of our affiliated entities, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could disrupt our business, incur significant costs, distract management and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings. See “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.”

The PRC laws and regulations governing our business operations and contractual arrangements are uncertain, and if we are found to be in violation, we could be subject to sanctions. In addition, any changes in such PRC laws and regulations may have a material and adverse effect on our business.

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including but not limited to the laws and regulations governing our business, or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements in the event of the imposition of statutory liens, death, bankruptcy and criminal proceedings. We and our subsidiaries are considered foreign persons or foreign funded enterprises under PRC laws, and, as a result, we are required to comply with PRC laws and regulations, including those governing foreign ownership in value-added telecommunications businesses. These laws and regulations may be subject to future changes, and their official interpretation and enforcement may involve substantial uncertainty. The effectiveness of newly enacted laws, regulations or amendments may be delayed, resulting in detrimental reliance by foreign investors. New laws and regulations that affect existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively. Licenses, permits and beneficial treatments issued or granted to us by relevant governmental bodies may be revoked at a later time under contrary findings of higher regulatory bodies. We cannot predict what effect the interpretation of existing or new PRC laws or regulations may have on our businesses. As a result of these substantial uncertainties, we cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations.

According to PRC laws, trademark license agreements are required to be filed with the Trademark Office of the China National Intellectual Property Administration, or the CNIPA, under the SAMR for the record. Under a trademark license agreement dated as of August 15, 2000, and supplemented and amended as of August 15, 2005, August 15, 2010 and August 14, 2018, WFOE has granted to Tech JV the right to use certain trademarks in the PRC. The trademark license agreement has not been filed with the Trademark Office of the CNIPA, and as such it may not be enforceable against bona fide third parties until completion of such registration.

In or around September 2011, various media sources reported that the CSRC had prepared a report proposing regulating the use of variable interest entity, or VIE, structures or contractual arrangements, such as ours, in industry sectors subject to foreign investment restrictions in China and overseas listings by PRC-based companies. However, it is unclear whether the CSRC officially issued or submitted such a report to a higher level government authority or what any such report provides, or whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide.

On March 22, 2018, the General Office of the State Council promulgated the Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Forwarding the Opinions of the China Securities Regulatory Commission on Launching Pilot Projects for the Domestic Issuance of Shares or Depositary Receipts by Innovative Enterprises, which became effective immediately, according to which, for the pilot enterprises that have a protocol control structure, the CSRC is required to distinguish the different situations and handle them prudently in accordance with the law jointly with the relevant authorities. Although the PRC government’s attitude towards the VIE structure is still conservative and cautious, it was the first time that the State Council and the CSRC have recognized the VIE structure in official documents.

According to the PRC Civil Code which became effective on January 1, 2021 and replaced the PRC Property Rights Law, the effectiveness of an equity pledge will be denied if the pledge is not registered. Under an equity pledge agreement, the shareholders of Run An have pledged their respective equity interests to WFOE. This equity pledge has been duly registered with the relevant local branch of the SAMR.

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Although we believe our business operations and contractual arrangements are in compliance with current PRC regulations, if we or any of our subsidiaries or affiliated entities or any of our contractual arrangements are found to be or to have been in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, the relevant regulatory authorities would likely have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including but not limited to:

levying fines;
revoking business licenses;
blocking our websites and mobile applications;
restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from any capital raisings to finance our business and operations in China;
requiring us to restructure the ownership structure or operations of our subsidiaries or affiliated entities; and/or
requiring us to discontinue all or a portion our business.

Any of these or similar actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations or render us unable to conduct a substantial portion of our business operations and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are unable to quantify the likelihood that any sanctions would be imposed or the magnitude of the effect of any such sanctions on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the PRC Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Regulations and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

On January 1, 2020, the PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the FIL, and the Regulations for Implementation of the PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the Implementation Regulations, came into effect and replaced the trio of prior laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-Invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The FIL and the Implementation Regulations embody an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since they are relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to their interpretation and implementation. For instance, under the FIL, “foreign investment” refers to investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in China. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment conducted via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activity under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a catch-all provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

If the contractual arrangements with our affiliated Chinese entities are defined or regarded as a form of foreign investment in the future, our corporate governance practice may be impacted and our compliance costs may increase. For instance, the FIL requires foreign investors or foreign-funded enterprises to submit the investment information to relevant governmental authorities for review. Although the contents and scope of such information shall be determined under the principle of necessity and the information that can be obtained through interdepartmental information sharing will not be required to be resubmitted, foreign investors or foreign-funded enterprises which fail to report their investment information as requested will be required to take corrective measures and/or be subject to fines. Moreover, the FIL provides that a security examination mechanism will be established to examine any foreign investment activity that affects or may affect national security. The decision made upon the security examination may impact the operations of the foreign-funded enterprises.

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The contractual arrangements with our affiliated Chinese entities may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and result in adverse tax consequences to us.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. If the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements with our affiliated Chinese entities were not entered into on an arm’s length basis and therefore constitute a favorable transfer pricing, we could face material and adverse tax consequences. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in an increase in the PRC tax liabilities of our affiliated Chinese entities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to applicable regulations. Our net income may be materially reduced if our affiliated Chinese entities’ tax liabilities increase.

Our subsidiaries face limitations on paying dividends or making other distributions to us.

We are a holding company and rely substantially on dividends, royalty payments and license fees paid under trademark license agreements and certain other contractual arrangements paid to us by our subsidiaries and affiliated entities in the PRC to finance our operations and to pay dividends to our shareholders. These royalty payments and license fees paid under trademark license agreements and certain other contractual arrangements do not require governmental or other third party approval. However, the payment of dividends in China is subject to certain restrictions and taxes. PRC regulations currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations.

Our subsidiaries and affiliated entities in the PRC are also required to set aside a portion of their after-tax profits according to PRC accounting standards and regulations to fund statutory reserve funds that are not distributable as cash dividends. In addition, the PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of the PRC, and such controls are stringent. We may also experience difficulties in completing the administrative procedures necessary to obtain and remit foreign currency. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company — Business Overview — Regulation — Regulations Relating to Foreign Currency Exchange” and “— Regulations Relating to Dividend Distribution.” If we or any of our subsidiaries are unable to receive all of the revenues from our operations through these contractual or dividend arrangements, we may be unable to effectively finance our operations or pay dividends on our common shares.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Our business could be affected by changes in China’s economic, political, regulatory or social conditions or government policies.

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. We cannot assure you that the Chinese economy will continue to grow, or that if there is growth, such growth will be steady and uniform, or that if there is a slowdown, such slowdown will not have a negative effect on our business. We cannot assure you that the various macroeconomic measures and monetary policies adopted by the PRC government to guide economic growth and the allocation of resources will be effective in sustaining the fast growth rate of the Chinese economy. In addition, even if these measures benefit the overall Chinese economy, they may impact the hiring behavior of employers and reduce the level of expenditures on human resource services, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. The PRC government could determine to develop and support government owned or controlled human resource enterprises in direct competition with us. The PRC government could also determine to more closely regulate the telecommunications, Internet or human resource industries, which could impose additional regulatory costs and burdens on us.

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The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.

The PRC legal system is based upon written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but are not binding on subsequent cases and have limited value as precedents. Since 1979, the PRC legislative bodies have promulgated laws and regulations dealing with economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation and trade. The overall effect of legislation over the past decades has significantly increased the protections afforded to various forms of foreign or private-sector investment in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may be unaware of our violation of these policies and rules until some time later.

Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of Internet-related business and companies.

The PRC government extensively regulates the Internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the Internet industry. These Internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with applicable PRC Internet regulations could subject us to severe sanctions.

In July 2006, the MIIT issued the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in the Operation of Value-Added Telecommunications Business, or the MIIT Notice. According to the MIIT Notice, foreign investors can only operate a telecommunications business in China by establishing a telecommunications enterprise with a valid telecommunications business operation license. Domestic value-added telecommunications services license holders are prohibited from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunications business operation licenses to foreign investors in any form, and from providing any resource, sites or facilities to foreign investors to facilitate the illegal operation of a telecommunications business in China. The MIIT Notice also requires that value-added telecommunications services license holders (including their shareholders) directly own the domain names and registered trademarks used by such value-added telecommunications services license holders in their daily operations. The MIIT Notice further requires each value-added telecommunications services license holder to have the necessary facilities for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. Tech JV, our operating entity which provides online recruitment services, has obtained a value-added telecommunications business operation license permitting it to provide information service via the Internet and mobile networks.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the Internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, Internet businesses in China. If new laws and regulations are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations at the time they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties. We cannot assure you that relevant government authorities will not adopt new laws or regulations in the future which may be burdensome on our business or cause substantial compliance costs to us, nor can we assure you that we will always be able to comply with such laws and regulations.

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The discontinuation of preferential tax treatments currently available in the PRC could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was amended on February 24, 2017 and December 29, 2018, respectively, applies a uniform 25% enterprise income tax, or EIT, rate to both foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises. Subject to certain factors described in the EIT Law and related regulations, an enterprise may benefit from a preferential tax rate of 15% under the EIT Law if it qualifies as a “High and New Technology Enterprise,” or HNTE.

In December 2009, our main operating subsidiary, Tech JV, was designated by relevant local authorities in Shanghai as a HNTE and became subject to a preferential tax rate of 15%. Tech JV is entitled to this preferential 15% tax rate as long as it maintains the required qualifications, which is subject to review every three years. In 2018, its preferential tax status was renewed and is valid through 2020. We cannot assure you that Tech JV will continue to qualify as a HNTE when it is subject to reevaluation in the future. If Tech JV does not maintain its status as a HNTE and the EIT rates of our PRC subsidiaries increase, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries are subject to PRC withholding tax.

Under the EIT Law and related regulations, dividends, interests, rent or royalties payable by a foreign-invested enterprise, such as our PRC subsidiaries, to any of its foreign non-resident enterprise investors shall be subject to a 10% withholding tax, and proceeds from the disposition of assets (after deducting the net value of such assets as determined under PRC tax laws) by such foreign enterprise investor shall be subject to a 10% tax, unless such foreign enterprise investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for a reduced rate of tax. We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands which does not have such a tax treaty with China. Undistributed profits earned by foreign-invested enterprises prior to January 1, 2008 are exempted from any withholding tax.

We may be deemed a PRC resident enterprise under the EIT Law, which could subject us to PRC taxation on our global income and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, enterprises incorporated under the laws of jurisdictions outside China with their “de facto management bodies” located within China may be considered PRC resident enterprises and therefore subject to an EIT rate of 25% on their worldwide income. Under the implementation regulations issued by the State Council, relating to the EIT Law, “de facto management bodies” is defined as the bodies that have material and overall management control over the production and business operations, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In April 2009, the PRC State Taxation Administration, or the STA, issued the Circular on Identification of China-Controlled Overseas-Registered Enterprises as Resident Enterprises on the Basis of Actual Management Organization, or Circular 82, which further provided certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise is located in the PRC. For more details about these criteria, please refer to “Item 10.E. Additional Information — Taxation — People’s Republic of China Taxation.” Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by enterprises or an enterprise group located within the PRC, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the tax authorities’ general position on how the “de facto management body” test may be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises. We are a Cayman Islands holding company and substantially all of our operational management is based in China. As the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to the determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body” as applicable to our offshore entities, we cannot assure you that we will not be considered as a PRC tax resident enterprise. If we are considered to be an enterprise established outside China with “de facto management bodies” located in China and thus a resident enterprise, we may be subject to the uniform 25% EIT rate as to our global income, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

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If we are considered a PRC resident under the EIT Law, dividends payable to foreign investors and gains on the sale of our common shares or ADSs by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC taxation.

If we are considered to be a PRC resident enterprise under the EIT Law, any dividends payable to non-resident enterprise holders of our common shares or ADSs may be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and therefore subject to a 10% withholding tax (or 20% in the case of non-resident individual holders) unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise. In addition, capital gains realized by non-resident enterprise holders upon the disposition of our common shares or ADSs may be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and therefore subject to 10% income tax (or 20% in the case of non-resident individual holders) unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise. If we are required under the EIT Law to withhold PRC income tax on dividends payable to our non-PRC investors or if you are required to pay PRC income tax on any gains realized from the transfer of our common shares or ADSs, the value of your investment in our common shares or ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

We face uncertainty from the PRC’s Circular on Strengthening the Management of Enterprise Income Tax Collection of Income Derived by Non-Resident Enterprises from Equity Transfers.

The STA issued the Circular on Strengthening the Management of Enterprise Income Tax Collection of Income Derived by Non-Resident Enterprises from Equity Transfers, or Circular 698, in December 2009, which addresses the transfer of equity by non-PRC tax resident enterprises. Under Circular 698, where a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests of a PRC resident enterprise indirectly by disposition of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, or an Indirect Transfer, it is required to report such Indirect Transfer to the PRC tax authority if the overseas holding company is located in a tax jurisdiction that has an effective tax rate of less than 12.5% or does not levy tax on such foreign-sourced capital gains of its residents. If the overseas holding company mainly serves as a tax avoidance vehicle and does not have any reasonable business purpose, the PRC in-charge tax authority may, upon verification of the STA, disregard the overseas holding company and re-characterize the Indirect Transfer by referring to its economic essence, and as a result, the overseas controlling party may be subject to a 10% PRC tax for the capital gains realized from the Indirect Transfer.

On February 3, 2015, the STA issued the Bulletin on Several Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Income Arising from Indirect Transfers of Property by Non-Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which supersedes the provisions of Circular 698 in relation to Indirect Transfers, while the other provisions of Circular 698 remain in force. Bulletin 7 introduces a new tax regime that is significantly different from that under Circular 698. Bulletin 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to not only include Indirect Transfers as set forth under Circular 698 but also transactions involving the transfer of real property in China and the assets of an establishment or place situated in China, through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. Under Bulletin 7, if an Indirect Transfer is re-characterized as a direct transfer, the transaction will be subject to (i) 25% EIT rate on the gains derived from the transfer of the property of an establishment or place situated in China, or (ii) 10% EIT rate on the gains derived from the transfer of real property situated in China or equity interests in PRC resident enterprises, unless an applicable tax treaty provides otherwise. Moreover, Bulletin 7 provides clearer criteria than Circular 698 on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. However, Bulletin 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee of the Indirect Transfer as they are required to make a self-assessment of whether the transaction should be subject to PRC tax and to file or withhold the PRC tax accordingly. The transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

On October 17, 2017, the STA issued the Bulletin on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Enterprise Income Tax at Source on Non-Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 37, which repeals Circular 698 effective on December 1, 2017. Bulletin 37 further elaborates on the taxable income from equity transfer, which is the balance of deducting the equity’s net value from the total income from equity transfer. The equity’s net value refers to (i) the capital actually contributed by the equity transferor when it invested in the PRC resident enterprise, or (ii) the actual cost at which the equity transferor bought such equities from its predecessor. Where such equity depreciates or appreciates during the shareholding by the transferor, and the amount depreciated or appreciated can be determined pursuant to the regulations issued by the relevant finance and tax authorities, such equity’s net value should be adjusted accordingly.

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We face uncertainties with respect to the reporting and consequences of private equity financing transactions, share exchange or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, or sale or purchase of shares in other non-PRC resident companies or other taxable assets by us. The transferors and transferees may be subject to the tax filing and withholding or tax payment obligation, while our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Furthermore, we may be required to spend valuable resources to comply with Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37, or to establish that we should not be taxed under Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The PRC tax authorities have discretion under Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the taxable assets transferred and cost of investment. We have made acquisitions in the past and may conduct additional acquisitions in the future. If the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of transactions under Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37, our income tax costs associated with such potential acquisitions will increase, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

Certain PRC regulations and rules establish additional procedures and requirements for mergers and acquisitions in China. Under the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, companies undertaking acquisitions relating to businesses in China must notify the anti-monopoly enforcement agency, in advance of any transaction where the parties’ revenues in the China market exceed certain thresholds and the buyer would obtain control of, or decisive influence over, the other party. Under the FIL, where a foreign investor acquires any domestic enterprise in the PRC or participates in the concentration of business operators by other means (i.e., obtaining control over or decisive influence on other business operators by means of merger, acquisition of equity interests or assets, or contracts, among others, as defined in the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law), it is subject to review on concentration of business operators pursuant to the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law. In addition, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the PRC Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the STA, the SAIC, the CSRC and the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and was amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules require that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, if (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that have or may have impact on the national economic security, or (iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds famous trademarks or PRC time-honored brands.

On February 7, 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council published the Guideline on Anti-Monopoly of Platform Economy Sector, or the Guideline, which went into effect on the same day. The Guideline aims at specifying some of the circumstances under which an activity of Internet platforms may be identified as a monopolistic act as well as setting out merger controlling filing procedures involving variable interest entities. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with the Guideline and other anti-monopoly laws and regulations may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigation, claims and negative publicity against us and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete acquisitions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes may delay or inhibit our ability to complete transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business.

PRC regulation of direct investment and loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or limit us from making capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiaries.

Any capital contributions or loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our PRC subsidiaries are subject to PRC regulations. For example, none of our loans to a PRC subsidiary can exceed the difference between its total amount of investment and its registered capital approved under relevant PRC laws, and the loans must be registered with the local branch of the SAFE. Our capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries must be approved by or filed with the MOFCOM or its local counterpart. We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval on a timely basis, or at all. If we fail to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval, our ability to make loans or equity contributions to our PRC subsidiaries may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our PRC subsidiaries’ liquidity and their ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments.

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Our business has benefitted from financial incentives granted by local governments. The elimination of these incentives or changes to local government policies would materially affect our results of operations.

Local governments in China have granted financial incentives from time to time to some of our PRC subsidiaries as part of their efforts to encourage and support the development of local businesses. We received approximately RMB173.8 million, RMB202.4 million and RMB169.8 million (US$26.0 million) in financial incentives from local governments in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The timing, amount and criteria of incentives are determined within the sole discretion of the local government authorities and cannot be expected or predicted before we actually receive any incentives. Local governments may decide to reduce or eliminate incentives or change their policies at any time, and we cannot assure you of the continued availability of these incentives. Any reduction or elimination of incentives would materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

If the chops of our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities are not kept safely, are stolen, or are misused or misappropriated by unauthorized persons, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

In the PRC, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company to third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in the PRC is required to have a company chop, which must be registered with the local public security bureau and the local counterpart of the SAMR. In addition to this mandatory chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities are held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent these chops are not kept safely, are stolen, or are misused or misappropriated by unauthorized persons, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised. As a result, these corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so, which may require us to take legal action, divert resources and management attention, and could materially and adversely affect our business and operations.

Fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions. The conversion of the Renminbi into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar, has been based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and U.S. dollar in the future.

Substantially all of our revenues and costs are denominated in the Renminbi. Any significant revaluation of the Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our cash flows, revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or ADSs, for strategic acquisitions or investments, or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the Renminbi relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported, regardless of any underlying change in our business or results of operations, as the Renminbi is our reporting currency.

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Governmental control of currency conversion may affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China, and such controls are stringent. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi, which is currently not a freely convertible currency. Under our current structure, our income will be primarily derived from dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries and other payments such as royalty and licensing fees. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries and our affiliated entities to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends, royalty payments or other fees to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency dominated obligations. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and expenditures from the transaction, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from the SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from appropriate governmental authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of bank loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currency to satisfy our currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may increase our administrative burden and adversely impact our business and prospects. If our shareholders who are PRC residents fail to make any required registrations or filings under such regulations, we may be unable to distribute profits and may become subject to liability under PRC laws.

The SAFE promulgated the Notice on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-Raising and Round-Trip Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Companies, or Circular 75, which became effective on November 1, 2005, requiring PRC residents to register with local branches of the SAFE before establishing or controlling any company outside of China for the purpose of raising funds from overseas to acquire or exchange the assets of, or acquiring equity interests in, PRC entities held by such PRC residents. On July 4, 2014, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Round-Trip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or Circular 37, which superseded Circular 75. Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of the SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. On February 13, 2015, the SAFE promulgated the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or Circular 13, which became effective on June 1, 2015. Pursuant to Circular 13, entities and individuals are required to apply for foreign exchange registration of foreign direct investment and overseas direct investment, including those required under Circular 37, with qualified banks, instead of the SAFE. The qualified banks, under the supervision of the SAFE, will directly review the applications and process the registration.

We have notified beneficial owners of common shares of our company who we know are PRC residents of their filing obligation. However, we may not be aware of the identities of all of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents. We do not have control over our beneficial owners and cannot assure you that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners have fully complied or will fully comply with Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules. The failure or inability of our PRC-resident beneficial owners to comply with the registration procedures set forth therein may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute profits to our company or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

In March 2007, the SAFE promulgated the Application Procedure of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Holding Plan or Stock Option Plan of Overseas-Listed Company, or the Stock Option Rule, to regulate foreign exchange procedures for PRC individuals participating in employee stock holding and stock option plans of overseas companies. On February 15, 2012, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Certain Foreign Exchange Issues Relating to Domestic Individuals’ Participation in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas-Listed Company, or the New Stock Option Rule. Upon the effectiveness of the New Stock Option Rule on February 15, 2012, the Stock Option Rule became void, although the basic requirements and procedures provided under the Stock Option Rule are kept unchanged in the New Stock Option Rule. Directors, supervisors, the senior management and other employees of the domestic subsidiary of an overseas-listed company (which shall include companies and other subsidiaries directly or indirectly established or controlled by such overseas-listed company in China) participating in any stock incentive plan of the overseas-listed company who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with the SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas-listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We and our PRC employees, directors and senior management are subject to these regulations.

In addition, the STA has issued circulars concerning employee share options. Under these circulars, individuals working in China who exercise share options will be subject to PRC individual income tax. We have obligations to file documents related to employee share options with relevant tax authorities and withhold the individual income taxes of employees who exercise their share options. If we or our PRC optionees fail to comply with these regulations, we or our PRC optionees may be subject to fines and other legal and administrative sanctions.

Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the United States.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issued the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB.

On March 24, 2021, the SEC has adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will not be required to comply with these rules until the SEC has identified us as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above.

The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfill its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.

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The interim final rules will become effective on May 5, 2021. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its final rulemaking and when such final rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible regulation in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of our ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If our securities are unable to be listed on a securities exchange outside the jurisdiction of the United States by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.

The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ADSs are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB in the PRC or by the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

Proceedings instituted by the SEC against certain PRC-based accounting firms, including the affiliate of our independent registered public accounting firm, or any related adverse regulatory development in the PRC, could result in our financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In December 2012, the SEC instituted administrative proceedings against the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that these firms had violated U.S. securities laws and the SEC’s rules and regulations thereunder by failing to provide to the SEC the firms’ audit work papers with respect to certain PRC-based companies that are publicly traded in the United States.

On January 22, 2014, the administrative law judge presiding over the matter rendered an initial decision that each of the firms had violated the SEC’s rules of practice by failing to produce audit papers and other documents to the SEC. The initial decision censured each of the firms and barred them from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months.

On February 6, 2015, each of the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC and audit U.S.-listed companies. The settlement required the firms to follow detailed procedures and to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four China-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. While we cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four China-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions, if the accounting firms are subject to additional remedial measures, our ability to file our financial statements in compliance with SEC requirements could be impacted. A determination that we have not timely filed financial statements in compliance with SEC requirements could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ADSs or the termination of the registration of our ADSs under the Exchange Act, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

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Risks Related to Our Common Shares and Our ADSs

We are controlled by a small number of our existing shareholders, whose interests may differ from those of other shareholders, and our board of directors has the power to discourage a change of control.

As of March 31, 2021, the following shareholders beneficially owned 36.5 million common shares:

Recruit Holdings Co., Ltd., or Recruit, a leading human resource and information services company in Japan listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which beneficially owned 23.4 million common shares, or approximately 34.8% of our issued and outstanding common shares, and which is affiliated with Junichi Arai, one of our directors; and
Rick Yan, our chief executive officer and a director, who beneficially owned 13.1 million common shares, or approximately 19.2% of our issued and outstanding common shares.

These shareholders, together with our other directors and members of senior management, beneficially owned approximately 39.4 million common shares. Accordingly, Recruit or Mr. Yan individually could have significant influence in determining the outcome of any corporate transaction or other matter submitted to the shareholders for approval, including mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. In cases where their interests are aligned and they vote together, these shareholders will also have the power to prevent or cause a change in control. Without the consent of some or all of these shareholders, we may be prevented from entering into transactions that could be beneficial to us. In addition, these parties could violate their director or employment agreements with us or otherwise violate their fiduciary duties by diverting business opportunities from us to themselves or others. The interests of our largest shareholders may differ from the interests of our other shareholders.

The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile and may continue to be volatile regardless of our operating performance.

The trading price of our ADSs has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations;
changes or revisions by us to previously released operating and financial targets;
announcements by us or our competitors of new services, significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;
conditions in our industry, which is the market for online recruitment services and other human resource related services in China;
additions or departures of key personnel;
public perception or negative news about us, our services or our industry;
fluctuations of exchanges rates between the Renminbi and U.S. dollar;
approvals or revocations of operating licenses or permits in relation to our business;
pending or potential litigation or regulatory investigations; and
general economic or political conditions in China or elsewhere in the world.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the trading prices for Internet-related companies and companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of such companies. These market and industry fluctuations may significantly affect the trading price of our ADSs. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities. Furthermore, volatility or a lack of positive performance in our ADS price may adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, most of whom have been granted stock options.

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The future sales, or perceived potential sales, of a substantial number of our ADSs in the public market could adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs. Such sales might make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate. If any existing shareholder or shareholders sell a substantial amount of ADSs, the prevailing market price for our ADSs could be adversely affected. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our shareholders will have on the market price of our ADSs. In addition, if we pay for our future acquisitions in whole or in part with additionally issued common shares, your ownership interests in our company would be diluted and this, in turn, could have a material and adverse effect on the price of our ADSs.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution of your holdings.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not offer you those rights unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities is either registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote.

Except as described in this annual report and in the deposit agreement, holders of our ADSs will not be able to exercise voting rights attaching to the common shares represented by our ADSs on an individual basis. Holders of our ADSs will appoint the depositary or its nominee as their representative to exercise the voting rights attaching to the common shares represented by the ADSs. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying common shares in accordance with these instructions.

Under our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required for convening either an annual general meeting or an extraordinary general meeting called to vote on matters requiring the approval by special resolution is 20 days. The minimum notice period for other extraordinary general meetings is 14 days. When a general meeting is convened, we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and there may be nothing you can do if the underlying common shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

Under our deposit agreement, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the common shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders’ meetings if you do not vote, unless we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given or any of the other situations specified under the deposit agreement takes place. The effect of this discretionary proxy is that you cannot prevent common shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, absent the situations described above, and it may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company.

You may not receive distributions on common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on common shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive the distribution we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may have a material adverse effect on the value of your ADSs.

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You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law, we conduct substantially all of our operations in China and most of our directors and executive officers reside outside the United States.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and conduct substantially all of our operations in China. The majority of our assets are located in China. In addition, many of our directors and executive officers reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States or elsewhere outside the Cayman Islands and China on us or our directors or officers, including with respect to matters arising under U.S. federal securities laws or applicable state securities laws. It may also be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against our directors and officers in the Cayman Islands or in China in the event that you believe your rights as an ADS holder have been infringed under the securities laws of the United States or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. There is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will, at common law, recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the liquidated sum for which such judgment has been given, provided such judgment (i) is final and conclusive, (ii) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty, and (iii) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands. Moreover, our PRC legal counsel has advised us that China does not have treaties with the United States or many other countries providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgment of courts.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Cayman Islands Companies Act (As Revised), as amended and revised from time to time, and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, which provides persuasive, but not binding, authority in a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provides significantly less protection to investors. In addition, shareholders of Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors or our major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could adversely affect the rights of holders of our common shares and ADSs.

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to issue preferred shares without approval by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

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We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we have published our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to NASDAQ Stock Market rules and regulations. Press releases relating to financial results and material events also have been furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC are less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ADSs or common shares.

A non-U.S. corporation, such as our company, will be classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income, or (ii) 50% or more of the value of its assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties and rents (other than royalties or rents derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and not derived from a related person), annuities, net gains from the sale or exchange of property producing passive income, and net foreign currency gains. Cash is generally a passive asset for these purposes. Goodwill is generally characterized as a non-passive or passive asset based on the nature of the income produced in the activity to which the goodwill is attributable. The determination of whether we are a PFIC is made annually.

Based on the past composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets, including goodwill, we do not believe that we were classified as a PFIC for the taxable year ending December 31, 2020. However, our PFIC status for any taxable year will depend on the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets from time to time, which may be determined, in large part, by reference to the market price of our ADSs. Therefore, the risk of us being or becoming a PFIC will increase if during any taxable year our ADS price declines significantly.

In addition, if it is determined that we do not own the equity of our affiliated PRC entities, which is held through contractual arrangements, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be treated as a PFIC. There exist substantial uncertainties regarding the application, interpretation and enforcement of relevant current and future PRC laws and regulations and their potential effect on our corporate structure and contractual arrangements with certain of our affiliated PRC entities. There can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view different from those of our PRC legal counsel. Further, even if the uncertainties as to PRC laws and regulations did not exist, there are also substantial uncertainties as to the treatment of our corporate structure and ownership of these affiliated PRC entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

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If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold our ADSs or common shares, such characterization could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to you if you are a U.S. investor. For example, if we are or become a PFIC, our U.S. investors may become subject to increased tax liabilities under U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations, and will become subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Moreover, non-corporate U.S. investors will not be eligible for reduced rates on taxation on any dividends received from us, if we are a PFIC in the taxable year in which such dividends are paid or in the preceding taxable year. See “Item 10.E. Additional Information — Taxation — Certain United States Federal Income Tax Considerations — Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

ITEM 4.        INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.    History and Development of the Company

We commenced our business in 1998. In March 2000, our founders incorporated a new holding company, now called 51job, Inc., as an exempted company with limited liability in the Cayman Islands under the Cayman Islands Companies Act (As Revised). Subsequently, 51job, Inc. acquired 51net.com Inc., or 51net, a British Virgin Islands business company and the registered owner of our www.51job.com domain name, and other subsidiaries to become the holding company of our corporate group. As of December 31, 2020, we mainly operated our business through the following significant PRC subsidiaries and affiliated Chinese entities:

Qianjin Network Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., or Tech JV, which is owned by 51net, Qian Cheng and Wuhan AdCo, and holds licenses which allow it to provide online advertising, human resource related and value-added telecommunications services;
Beijing Qian Cheng Si Jin Advertising Co., Ltd., or Qian Cheng, which is wholly owned by Run An, is our joint venture partner in Tech JV and has an equity interest in Shanghai Qianjin Advertising Co., Ltd., or AdCo;
Beijing Run An Information Consultancy Co., Ltd., or Run An, which is jointly owned by Jingwu Chen and Tao Wang, two senior executives of our company;
Qian Cheng Wu You Network Information Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or WFOE, which is wholly owned by 51net Beijing, a Cayman Islands company wholly owned by 51job, Inc., and owns our trademarks and registered copyrights; and
Wuhan Mei Hao Qian Cheng Advertising Co., Ltd., or Wuhan AdCo, which is wholly owned by Qian Cheng and has an equity interest in Tech JV.

Our business and operations are mainly conducted through Tech JV and its subsidiaries.

In May 2004, we restructured our operations to comply with then existing PRC laws and regulations governing foreign ownership in entities conducting advertising and human resource related services. For a discussion on our group structure, see “Item 4.C. Information on the Company — Organizational Structure.”

In September 2004, we completed our initial public offering of 6,037,500 ADSs and the trading of our ADSs commenced on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “JOBS.”

In September 2008, we announced a share repurchase program, which provided authorization to purchase up to US$25 million worth of our outstanding ADSs. Under this program, from 2008 to 2011, we purchased 2,030,658 ADSs, through open-market transactions for an aggregate consideration of approximately US$11 million, including transaction fees. In June 2014, our shareholders approved an increase to the size of the share repurchase program from US$25 million to US$75 million. From 2014 to 2015, we purchased 1,698,243 ADSs, through open-market transactions for an aggregate consideration of approximately US$49 million, including transaction fees.

In April 2014, we completed an offering of US$172.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 3.25% convertible senior notes due 2019. The notes were offered to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act and to certain non-U.S. persons in compliance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The notes matured on April 15, 2019 and were converted into our ADSs at a rate of 23.3952 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount, which resulted in the issuance of 4,035,664 shares and a cash payment of approximately US$704 for the fractional shares.

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From time to time, we have selectively acquired or invested in businesses that complement our existing business, and we intend to continue to do so in the future to expand and develop our business. In 2018, we made several long-term investments totaling RMB156.8 million, which included companies that provide talent assessment, human resource consulting and business process outsourcing services as well as participation in investment funds that are focused on companies that primarily provide services in the education and training market in China. In 2019, we made several long-term investments totaling RMB876.6 million, which included companies that provide technology solutions, talent management, education and business process outsourcing services. In 2020, we made long-term investments totaling RMB25.1 million (US$3.8 million) in companies that provide recruitment and business process outsourcing services. We have utilized our existing cash resources for payments related to these acquisitions and investments.

See “Item 5.B. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Capital Resources” for a discussion of our capital expenditures.

Our principal executive offices are located at Building 3, No. 1387 Zhang Dong Road, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86-21-6160-1888. Our principal website address is www.51job.com. The information on our websites should not be deemed to be part of this annual report.

B.    Business Overview

We believe that we are a leading nationwide provider of integrated human resource services in China. We have a strong focus on online recruitment advertising, and our websites and their related mobile applications are utilized by a broad base of corporate employers, reach a wide and diverse audience of job seekers and aggregate job information from nearly 200 cities across China.

In addition to online recruitment services, we also provide other complementary human resource related services, consisting primarily of business process outsourcing, campus recruitment, training, assessment and placement services. We aim to be a comprehensive, “one-stop” solution to human resource departments by providing recruitment and other human resource related services to employers through local offices in more than 30 cities in China and a national sales and customer service call center in Wuhan. Although we provide services to both employers and job seekers, we derive substantially all of our revenues from employers.

Our Products and Services

We provide a range of human resource services in the following categories:

online recruitment services; and
other human resource related services, such as business process outsourcing, campus recruitment, training, assessment and placement services.

We generate a significant majority of our revenues from our online recruitment services. Our online recruitment services business generated 64.3% of our revenues in 2018, 61.8% of our revenues in 2019 and 58.2% of our revenues in 2020. Other human resource related services generated 35.7% of our revenues in 2018, 38.2% of our revenues in 2019 and 41.8% of our revenues in 2020.

Online Recruitment Services

Our online recruitment services are delivered through several brand names. Each website and its corresponding mobile application focuses on the needs of job seekers and employers in a designated labor market segment or demographic group in China.

www.51job.com. We established our flagship online recruitment website, www.51job.com, in 1999. Recruitment advertisements on 51job.com primarily target white-collar workers between the ages of 20 to 35 and cover many different job categories ranging from professional and middle management positions to entry-level and clerical jobs. We generally update the advertisements on 51job.com several times each hour, which provides job seekers with new opportunities constantly and allows employers to receive timely responses.

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On the 51job.com platform, employers can:

post recruitment advertisements, search our job candidate database and download resumés;
manage, organize and streamline the recruitment process, such as to track applicant status, establish interview schedules, retain past job postings and maintain candidate folders;
place advertising banners, trademarks, logos, website hyperlinks and other forms of advertising to promote their corporate image;
utilize enhanced marketing tools, such as priority placement of their job postings in keyword search results and e-mail marketing campaigns to a targeted group of job seekers;
communicate with applicants through direct messages, online chat and video interview on our platform;
verify job candidate details through an online background-checking report; and
broadcast corporate videos and live stream recruitment events.

In addition, we offer website design as a value-added service to increase the corporate image of employers. We can build customized “private label” recruitment websites with the “look and feel” of a dedicated website. We design these sites in-house to client specifications and operate and maintain these sites for our clients.

For job seekers, 51job.com has online tools which allow them to:

view all current recruitment advertisements and search for positions using keywords or based on a number of criteria, including city of employment, industry, job function, company type, and salary level;
submit resumés directly to prospective employers to apply for a desired position;
organize job applications and track submission status;
manage privacy settings and determine level of interest to be contacted about job opportunities;
obtain career development advice, salary benchmarking data and other job-related information;
set up job alerts and notifications for specific companies of their choice; and
receive recommendations of job opportunities matching the job seeker’s profile and preferences.

We believe that 51job.com is one of the largest dedicated national recruitment websites in China in terms of the number of recruitment advertisements. We also believe that 51job.com is among the largest in terms of the number of registered job user accounts and posted job seeker resumés, with approximately 171 million user accounts established since the launch of this website in 1999 and approximately 154 million resumés posted online as of December 31, 2020. We believe that 51job.com is perceived as a “destination site” by job seekers because of its large volume of advertisements and the job search, training, and general career management content available on the website.

www.yingjiesheng.com. Yingjiesheng.com, or YJS, is an online recruitment website which focuses on college graduates and students in China. YJS enables employers to place recruitment advertisements and allows job seekers to apply to full-time, part-time and internship job opportunities. YJS also disseminates information about application deadlines, on-campus talks, corporate visits and recruitment fairs. In addition, YJS moderates online career advice and job seeker counseling forums that facilitate information sharing and engagement among its users.

We believe YJS is an important complement to 51job.com as it attracts new highly educated, first-time workers that may be migrated to 51job.com for further job opportunities as they mature and gain experience. YJS also provides access to a younger audience that is particularly valuable to employers who seek to build a long-term talent pipeline. The collaboration of the online presence of YJS and our offline campus recruitment services further increase and strengthen our overall service effectiveness to employers.

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www.51jingying.com. The website www.51jingying.com, or Jingying, is a platform that connects recruiters with primarily passive job seekers who are usually currently employed, older, more experienced and highly skilled. We believe that Jingying addresses a segment of the labor market in China that has been traditionally served by a highly fragmented, offline community of local, small headhunting firms. Through Jingying, recruiters may post employment opportunities and search job candidate profiles. Conversely, job seekers can apply to these listings and access recruiter profiles that provide background details on industry of expertise, previous job placements and verification of professional credentials. Jingying’s complementary mobile application also enables users to digitally scan name cards, manage contacts and build their own professional networks.

www.lagou.com. Lagou.com is a recruitment website specializing in technology and engineering talent in China. Recruitment advertisements on Lagou.com come from employers seeking to hire for positions such as software developers, computer programmers, web designers, systems administrators, data analysts and project managers. For the convenience of its targeted audience of technology and engineering professionals, job opportunities on Lagou.com are organized and categorized into niches in the technology hiring spectrum, such as positions requiring experience with a certain programming language or those openings specifically in the emerging areas of artificial intelligence, big data or cloud computing. Lagou.com also provides industry trends, company profiles and reviews, and user discussion forums.

Due to the rapid rise of the technology industry and an increased focus on innovation among businesses in China, we believe Lagou.com addresses a growing imbalance between labor supply and demand as employers compete aggressively for workers with particular technical skills and expertise. We also believe that the strong demand for these highly skilled technology professionals will drive further need for effective recruitment solutions due to the scarcity of such professionals.

www.51mdd.com. 51Miduoduo is our brand and platform that focuses on front line workers in the services sector. The job opportunities are mainly in the areas of sales, customer service, logistics and operations, which are popular in such industries as retail, food and beverage, health and beauty, transport and housing. Through the 51Miduduo mobile application, location-based job search helps to easily connect users with positions that are geographically suitable and convenient for them. We believe that 51Miduoduo expands our coverage in the labor market to address service jobs that usually have high turnover and flexible employment terms.

Mobile applications. For all of our online brand names, we have mobile applications that enable job seekers to access their accounts through mobile devices and utilize most functions available on their respective websites. We believe that these mobile offerings help job seekers receive information anywhere and anytime, allowing them to more quickly apply to desired job positions and respond to employers when they do not have readily available access to a personal computer. We believe these mobile offerings increase job seeker engagement, provide important real-time benefits and enhance the job search experience for our users.

We provide job seekers access to our websites and mobile applications free of charge.

Other Human Resource Related Services

Business Process Outsourcing. We perform business process outsourcing services by managing human resource administrative functions for employers on an outsourced basis. Our services to corporate clients mainly consist of social insurance, benefits and payroll processing as well as compliance services to adhere with local governmental employment regulations. While the market for business process outsourcing services in China is relatively new compared to developed economies like the United States, we believe that there is significant future potential for these services as companies in China grow and their organizations become more complex, thereby increasing the need and demand for using third parties to perform human resource administrative functions. In providing our business process outsourcing services, we strive for close operational integration with our recruitment services, which enables us to share staff resources and leverage our sales and marketing investments. We continue to build our outsourcing capability and aim to increase the number of companies and individuals we serve as well as to expand the type of services we provide.

Campus Recruitment. We provide campus recruitment services to corporations seeking to recruit college and university students. We assist corporations with recruitment strategy, the selection of targeted schools, the scheduling of campus visits, and the marketing and promotion of their image to students. We handle on-campus logistical arrangements and event management for our clients, including venue reservation, event design and decor, equipment rental, photography and videography. We also create, produce and broadcast media content and live stream events on the Internet for our clients related to their recruitment activities.

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Training. We conduct training seminars in such areas as business management, leadership, sales and marketing, human resource, negotiation skills, financial planning and analysis, public administration, manufacturing, secretarial and other skills. We provide our seminars to the general public and on a customized, in-house basis for corporate clients. We license content and materials from third parties for some of the training courses we provide, and enter into arrangements with certain trainers and lecturers that meet our knowledge, expertise and experience requirements. In addition to classroom-style seminars, we provide outdoor-based training exercises and programs for corporate clients to promote personal development, team building and communication among their employees. Individuals can also access some of our training content, such as videos and podcasts, online. We believe that our training services build our brand awareness as a provider of comprehensive, integrated human resource services.

Professional Assessment Tools. We provide professional and scientific assessment tools to assist human resource departments in evaluating capabilities and dispositions of job candidates and existing employees. Our talent assessment services, including a system of in-house developed, proprietary psychometric tests, help employers to identify ideal job candidates and better allocate talent resources in their organizations in China.

Placement and Executive Search. We provide placement and executive search services to employers seeking to attract high demand talent and fill urgent job vacancies that require workers with specific skills, qualifications or experience. Depending on the terms and conditions stated in our scope of work agreements with employers, we may identify and select prospective candidates, conduct interviews, negotiate compensation packages and complete hiring procedures on behalf of our corporate clients.

Salary and Other Human Resource Related Surveys. We conduct general and customized salary survey studies with analyses of compensation and benefits packages across various cities, industries and job positions. Human resource departments utilize this data to understand the market for compensation levels and to assist in their determination of compensation and benefits packages. We also conduct surveys on employee retention and other human resource related topics.

Human Resource Conferences. We organize and host annual human resource conferences and events in some of our cities. These conferences and events include lectures, seminars, workshops and networking opportunities for human resource professionals. Although we do not generate significant revenues from hosting these conferences and events, this service provides us with exposure to, and interaction with, existing and prospective clients.

Other Products. We also perform support and administrative services for employers on select recruitment projects, such as career fairs and overseas events.

Seasonality

Our business experiences seasonal variations in recruitment demand and activities. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations” for a discussion of seasonality in the human resource services market.

Technology

We design and update our websites and mobile applications as well as develop our proprietary software entirely in-house. We own the copyrights, software, trademarks and other intellectual property with respect to the design and content of our websites and mobile applications, other than the advertisements and trademarks provided by our advertisers.

We employ a large team of graphic designers and technical staff to create, update and enhance our websites, mobile applications and user interfaces. We also design, build and provide assistance to customers whose recruitment websites we are maintaining. New recruitment advertisements provided to us by employers who have purchased and registered online accounts generally appear on our platforms within a few hours.

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We may experience slower Internet service from our Internet service providers as a result of technical difficulties associated with high traffic volumes, computer viruses, the proliferation of “spam” e-mail traffic and other difficulties that generally affect Internet traffic. We have not been subject to significant targeted disruptions or hacking, and we believe that difficulties we have experienced relating to the speed of the Internet service and web-hosting provided by the telecommunications service providers are consistent with the difficulties that affect Internet service in China generally. To date, our websites and mobile applications have not gone off-line or been shut down for any significant period of time. We do not believe that our business has been materially disrupted or negatively affected by technical difficulties with respect to our websites and mobile applications. However, we cannot assure you that our business will not face material disruptions or damage from spam, viruses, hacking or other technical difficulties. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — Hacking and computer viruses may cause delays or interruptions on our systems and may reduce use of our services and damage our reputation and brand names;” “— We face risks related to health epidemics and other natural disasters;” and “— We are dependent on our Internet service providers, and we are vulnerable to failures of the Internet, telecommunications networks in China and our technology platform.”

Competition

We face significant competition in all of our business lines. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — Because we face significant competition in all of our businesses, we may lose market share and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.”

Online Recruitment Services

We experience competition in our online recruitment services business from dedicated job search websites, such as www.zhaopin.com, as well as market niche players that focus on particular industry verticals, such as technology and finance, or job seeker segments.

None of the well-established nationwide Internet portals, search engines and online classified websites, such as www.58.com, www.baidu.com, www.qq.com and www.sina.com.cn, are dedicated providers of recruitment advertising or other human resource products in China, and each offers a wide variety of other online services. However, any or all of our online competitors may decide to allocate significant additional resources to providing recruitment advertising or other human resource related services. We may also face competition from professional and social networking websites as well as other large Internet companies who may enter the market for any or all of our services in China. As a result of these events, we could encounter significantly increased competition in some or all of our markets.

Other Human Resource Related Services

We believe the market for business process outsourcing services is underpenetrated and at a relatively early stage of development in China. Our key competitors are typically service agencies affiliated with or sponsored by local government and human resources and social security bureaus. For campus recruitment services, we generally face those competitors that also provide online recruitment services. In the training services market, we face competition primarily from small, local training firms or individual trainers who specialize in specific areas of expertise. The competition in the placement and executive search services market in China is largely fragmented.

Customers

Our customers consist of large multinational corporations, large national Chinese corporations and local Chinese enterprises of all sizes.

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Sales and Marketing

Our sales and marketing strategy is focused on promoting our brand names and further establishing our reputation as an integrated provider of high quality human resource services. We utilize various marketing channels to target these key groups:

job seekers;
employers with hiring and/or training needs;
executive recruiters and headhunting firms; and
human resource departments with actual or potential outsourcing needs.

Direct Marketing. We target employers principally through direct marketing, which we believe has been highly effective in attracting new customers and serving existing customers. As of December 31, 2020, we employed nearly 4,300 sales and account management representatives that identify and directly contact customers via the Internet, telephone and personal sales visits. We maintain local offices in more than 30 cities in China and have also established a national sales and customer service call center in Wuhan. We train our sales staff to cross-sell all of our services and to design comprehensive packages of human resource services for clients to meet their specific requirements. In addition, we believe that the personal nature of direct marketing has enabled us to better understand the needs of our existing and prospective customers and helped us to develop new products and services.

Event Marketing. We organize customer events, such as recruiting workshops, product information seminars, industry roundtables and networking events, to provide our sales team an opportunity to personally interact with employers and understand their recruitment and human capital management needs.

Online and Mobile Marketing. We utilize advertising, such as banner advertisements, keyword and hyperlink purchases, paid listings and video, to promote our brand names on the Internet and mobile marketplaces. We also conduct and sponsor online promotion campaigns such as drawings, giveaways and contests to attract traffic, increase usage and enhance the loyalty of job seekers to our websites and mobile applications.

Mass Media Advertising. We use traditional mass media advertising to increase our brand visibility and corporate image. We advertise through various media, including outdoor advertising on digital displays, billboards, bus stops and public transportation.

Cross-Marketing. We have established sponsorships and cross-marketing relationships between our platforms and a variety of partners. In addition, we believe that we benefit from recommendations and referrals by the large base of job seekers and employers who use our websites and mobile applications.

Media Promotions. We produce surveys and analyses on job market trends and developments that are regularly featured and published in magazines, newspapers and on the Internet. We believe this exposure heightens our corporate image among both employers and job seekers and attracts interest and sales inquiries for our services.

Intellectual Property and Proprietary Rights

We regard our copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights as critical to our business. We rely on trademark and copyright law, trade secret protection, non-competition and confidentiality and/or licensing agreements with our senior management, clients, contractors and others to protect our intellectual property rights. We have registered several Internet domain names, including our main website www.51job.com, as well as a number of similar and other domain names in an effort to prevent entities from diverting online traffic away from our websites.

We have registered trademarks, including前程无忧, 前程, 51job.com, 无忧工作网and 网才, with the Trademark Office of the CNIPA in the PRC. In January 2010, 前程无忧 was designated a “Well-Known Trademark,” which is the highest recognition for consumer brands granted by the Trademark Office of the CNIPA.

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Under a trademark license agreement between WFOE, as licensor, and Tech JV, as licensee, Tech JV has the right to use certain trademarks in the PRC, with no right of assignment or sublicense. Under a domain name license agreement between 51net, as licensor, and Tech JV, as licensee, Tech JV has the right to use the www.51job.com domain name in connection with the operation of this website. See “Item 7.B. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Contractual Arrangements Among Our Group Entities.”

Our intellectual property is subject to theft and other unauthorized use, and our ability to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use is limited. In addition, we may in the future be subject to claims that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of others. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — If we are unable to prevent others from using our intellectual property, our business may be materially and adversely affected” and “— We may be exposed to infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties, which, if successful, could cause us to pay significant damage awards.”

Regulation

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant PRC regulations that affect the businesses and the industries in which we operate. Advertising agencies, human resource services firms and Internet content providers are subject to substantial regulation by the PRC government.

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of existing or proposed PRC laws and regulations. We cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities would find that our corporate structure and our business operations comply with PRC laws and regulations. If the PRC government finds us to be in violation of PRC laws and regulations, we may be required to pay fines and penalties, obtain certain licenses or permits and change, suspend or discontinue our business operations until we comply with applicable PRC laws and regulations.

Regulations on Foreign Investment

On January 1, 2020, the PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the FIL, and the Regulations for Implementation of the Foreign Investment Law, or the Implementation Regulations, came into effect and became the principal laws and regulations governing foreign investment in the PRC, replacing the trio of prior laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-Invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations.

According to the FIL, “foreign investment” refers to the investment activities conducted directly or indirectly by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in the PRC, including the following circumstances: (i) the establishment of foreign-invested enterprises in the PRC by foreign investors solely or jointly with other investors; (ii) a foreign investors’ acquisition of shares, equity interests, property portions or other similar rights and interests of enterprises in the PRC; (iii) investment in new projects in the PRC by foreign investors solely or jointly with other investors; and (iv) investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Pursuant to the FIL, China has adopted a reformed system with respect to foreign investment administration, under which the Chinese government applies national treatment to foreign investors in terms of investment entry and the foreign investor needs to comply with the requirements as provided in the negative list for foreign investment. The negative list will be issued by, amended or released upon approval by the State Council, from time to time. The negative list will consist of a list of industries in which foreign investments are prohibited and a list of industries in which foreign investments are restricted. Foreign investors will be prohibited from making investments in prohibited industries, while foreign investments must satisfy certain conditions stipulated in the negative list for investments in restricted industries. Foreign investments and domestic investments in industries outside the scope of the prohibited industries and restricted industries stipulated in the negative list will be treated equally. Any foreign-invested enterprise established prior to the effectiveness of the FIL may maintain its original corporate forms for a period of five years after January 1, 2020.

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The Implementation Regulations restate certain principles of the FIL and further provide that, among others, (i) if a foreign-invested enterprise established prior to the effective date of the FIL fails to adjust its legal form or governance structure to comply with the provisions of the PRC Company Law or the PRC Partnership Enterprise Law, as applicable, and complete amendment registration before January 1, 2025, the enterprise registration authority will not process other registration matters of the foreign-invested enterprise and may publicize such non-compliance thereafter; and (ii) the provisions regarding equity interest transfer and distribution of profits and remaining assets as stipulated in the contracts among the joint venture parties of a foreign-invested enterprise established before the effective date of the FIL may, after adjustment of the legal form and governing structure of such foreign-invested enterprise, remain binding upon the parties.

On December 31, 2019, the MOFCOM and the SAMR jointly promulgated the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, which became effective on January 1, 2020. Pursuant to the measures, where a foreign investor directly or indirectly carries out investment activities in China, the foreign investor or the foreign-invested enterprise must submit the investment information to the relevant commerce department.

On December 19, 2020, the PRC National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, and the MOFCOM jointly promulgated the Measures on the Security Review of Foreign Investment, effective on January 18, 2021, setting forth provisions concerning the security review mechanism on foreign investment, including the types of investments subject to review, review scopes and procedures, among others. The Office of the Working Mechanism of the Security Review of Foreign Investment, or the Office of the Working Mechanism, will be established under the NDRC, who will lead the task together with the MOFCOM. Foreign investor or relevant parties in China must declare the security review to the Office of the Working Mechanism prior to (i) the investments in the military industry, military industrial supporting and other fields relating to the security of national defense, and investments in areas surrounding military facilities and military industry facilities; and (ii) investments in important agricultural products, important energy and resources, important equipment manufacturing, important infrastructure, important transport services, important cultural products and services, important information technology and Internet products and services, important financial services, key technologies and other important fields relating to national security, and obtain control in the target enterprise. Control exists when the foreign investor (i) holds over 50% equity interests in the target; (ii) has voting rights that can materially impact on the resolutions of the board of directors or shareholders meeting of the target even when it holds less than 50% equity interests in the target; or (iii) has material impact on target's business decisions, human resources, accounting and technology.

Limitations on Foreign Ownership of Our Businesses

Advertising

The principal regulation governing foreign ownership of advertising companies in China, the Administrative Regulations Concerning Foreign-Invested Advertising Enterprises (2008 Revision), was repealed on June 29, 2015. Foreign investors are allowed to own 100% of an advertising agency in China subject to certain qualification requirements. However, for those advertising agencies that provide online advertising service, foreign ownership restrictions on the value-added telecommunications business are still applicable.

Human Resource Services Companies

The principal regulation governing foreign ownership in human resource services companies in China is the Interim Regulations on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Enterprise as Human Resource Agencies (2003, as amended in 2005, 2015 and 2019, formerly known as the Interim Regulations on the Administration of Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture as Human Resource Agencies), or the Human Resource Regulations for Foreign Investment, jointly promulgated by the MOHRSS, the MOFCOM and the SAIC. Before the revision of this regulation on December 31, 2019, the percentage of foreign ownership in the equity interest of a human resource services company was subject to limitations. Foreign investors are now permitted to wholly own entities that provide human resource related services.

Value-Added Telecommunications Services and Internet Content Providers

In the PRC, an entity that coordinates with Internet service providers (such as telecommunications companies) to effect the online placement of content provided by either itself or third parties is defined as an “Internet content provider,” or ICP, and requires a special license. Internet content services, or ICP services, are classified as value-added telecommunications businesses.

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The principal regulations governing foreign ownership in ICPs in China include:

Administrative Rules for Foreign Investments in Telecommunications Enterprises (2016 Revision), effective on February 6, 2016;
Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (Edition 2020), effective on July 23, 2020; and
Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access in Pilot Free Trade Zones (2020 Version), effective on July 23, 2020.

Under these regulations, foreign investors, individually or in the aggregate, are prohibited from owning more than 50% of a PRC entity that provides value-added telecommunications services (except for a few businesses such as e-commerce, Internet app store, domestic multi-party communications services, store and forward services, and call center services), which includes ICP services.

According to the Opinion on Further Opening Value-Added Telecommunications Services to Foreigners in China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, foreign ownership in certain value-added telecommunications service providers (such as ICPs providing app store services) may exceed 50% in China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone; however, service providers providing online advertising and human resource services are not included.

In addition, according to the MIIT Notice, value-added telecommunications services license holders (including their shareholders) shall directly own the domain names and registered trademarks used by such value-added telecommunications services license holders in their daily operations and is prohibited from leasing, transferring or selling the license to foreign investors in any form, and from providing any assistance in forms of resources, sites or facilities to foreign investors that conduct value-added telecommunications business illegally in China. For those who are not in compliance with the above requirements and fail to rectify the non-compliance, the relevant PRC government authorities may revoke their operating licenses. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of Internet-related business and companies.”

General Regulation of Our Businesses

Advertising

The SAMR is responsible for regulating advertising activities in the PRC. The principal regulations governing advertising (including online advertising) in China include:

Advertising Law (amended in 2018);
Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Advertising (2016);
Administration of Advertising Regulations (1987); and
Provisions on the Administration of Advertisement Publishing Registration (2016).

All enterprises, except for broadcast stations, television stations, newspapers and periodical publication entities, are no longer required to apply for the registration of advertisement publishing although they are required to apply for inclusion of “advertising services” in their business licenses.

Human Resource Services

Human resource services firms in the PRC are mainly regulated by the MOHRSS. The principal regulations applicable to human resource services firms include:

Regulations on the Administration of Human Resource Markets (2001, as amended in 2005, 2015 and 2019);
Human Resource Regulations for Foreign Investment (2003, as amended in 2005, 2015 and 2019); and
Provisional Regulations on Human Resource Markets (2018).

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Any entity providing human resource services in China, whether it is a PRC entity or foreign-invested entity, must obtain a human resource services license from the local administration of human resources and social security at the county level and above.

Based on the specific businesses engaged in by commercial human resource service organizations, different licensing procedures are required. For those engaging in employment agency activities, a human resource services license must be obtained. For those engaging in the collection and dissemination of human resource supply and demand information, employment and entrepreneurship guidance, human resource management consulting, human resource evaluation, human resource training, and those undertaking outsourcing contracts of human resource services, only the completion of filing formalities is required.

Value-Added Telecommunications Services

The delivery of content on our online platforms is subject to PRC laws and regulations applicable to telecommunications and Internet service providers. We are also within the regulatory jurisdiction of various governmental bodies, including the MIIT and the SAMR. The principal regulations applicable to the telecommunications industry and Internet include:

Telecommunications Regulations (2016 Revision);
The Administrative Measures for Telecommunications Business Operating Licenses (2017); and
The Internet Information Services Administrative Measures (2011 Revision).

Under these regulations, ICP services are classified as value-added telecommunications businesses, and a commercial operator of such services must obtain an ICP license from the appropriate telecommunications authorities.

Online Recruitment Services

Our online recruitment services is subject to the Regulations on the Administration of Online Recruitment Services, or Online Recruitment Regulations, which was promulgated by the MOHRSS on December 18, 2020 and became effective on March 1, 2021.

Regarding the business qualifications for the engagement of online recruitment services, the Online Recruitment Regulations require that operators must obtain a human resource services license in accordance with PRC laws and must also obtain the relevant telecommunication license if any telecommunication service is involved.

Furthermore, operators engaged in online recruitment services must strictly abide by relevant compliance obligations according to the Online Recruitment Regulations, including but not limited to: (i) continuously publicize information such as business licenses, human resource service permits, or relevant identification links in prominent locations on the home pages of their websites and mobile applications; (ii) establish online recruitment information management systems to review the authenticity and legality of the materials provided by employers; (iii) perform the cybersecurity protection and personal information protection obligations according to PRC laws and regulations; (iv) ensure that the cross-border transfer of personal information and important data that is collected within the PRC complies with PRC laws; (v) clearly state service terms and fee standards to workers without collecting deposits from workers; (vi) establish a complaint and report system for online recruitment services; (vii) formulate platform service agreements and service rules; and (viii) record and keep relevant recruitment and service information for at least three years.

Online Commerce

The SAIC promulgated the Administrative Measure for Online Trading on January 26, 2014, which applies to all online commerce businesses in general and requires all online commerce operators to register with the SAIC or its local offices.

On March 15, 2021, the SAMR promulgated the Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Online Trading, or New Online Trading Measures, which will come into effect on May 1, 2021 and replace the above original Administrative Measure for Online Trading. The New Online Trading Measures also apply to all online commerce business conducted through information networks in general, with particular emphasis on transactions through online social networking and online live streaming. Under the New Online Trading Measures, online trading operators shall perform relevant compliance obligations, such as registration with the SAMR, protection of customers’ personal information and fair competition.

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Under the PRC E-Commerce Law, which became effective on January 1, 2019, e-commerce operators are required to abide by the relevant provisions of the PRC Advertising Law when transmitting advertisements to the consumer. With regard to products or services displayed in the order of keyword auction or keyword bidding, a clear mark “AD” must be affixed to the search results containing such products or services.

On October 31, 2019, the Notice on Launching Special Action to Implement the Responsibility of E-Commerce Platform was promulgated by the SAMR and became effective immediately, according to which, the SAMR will strictly examine the e-commerce platform operators regarding their performance of information publicity obligation, protection of intellectual property rights and consumers’ rights, performance of supervision assistance obligation, among others.

Mobile Applications

The Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, promulgated the Administrative Provisions on Mobile Internet Application Information Services, or the Mobile Application Administrative Provisions, in June 2016, which became effective on August 1, 2016. Pursuant to the Mobile Application Administrative Provisions, a mobile Internet application refers to an app software that runs on mobile smart devices providing information services after being pre-installed, downloaded or embedded through other means. Mobile Internet app providers refer to the owners or operators of mobile Internet apps. Internet app stores refer to platforms which provide services related to online browsing, searching and downloading of app software and releasing of development tools and products through the Internet.

Under the Mobile Application Administrative Provisions, an Internet app provider must verify a user’s mobile phone number and other identity information under the principle of mandatory real name registration at the back-office end and voluntary real name display at the front-office end. An Internet app provider must not enable functions that can collect a user’s geographical location information, access the user’s contact list, activate the camera or recorder of the user’s mobile smart device or other functions irrelevant to its services, nor is it allowed to conduct bundle installations of irrelevant app programs, unless it has clearly indicated to the user and obtained the user’s consent on such functions and app programs. In respect of an Internet app store service provider, the Mobile Application Administrative Provisions require that, among others, it must file a record with the local authority within 30 days after it rolls out the Internet app store service online. It must also examine the authenticity, security and legality of Internet app providers on its platform, establish a system to monitor app providers’ credit and file a record of such information with relevant government authorities. If an app provider violates the regulations, the Internet app store service provider must take measures to stop the violations, including giving a warning, suspension of release, withdrawal of the app from the platform, keeping a record of the incident and reporting the incident to the relevant government authorities.

In December 2016, the MIIT promulgated the Interim Measures on the Administration of Pre-Installation and Distribution of Applications for Mobile Smart Terminals, which came into effect on July 1, 2017. These measures aim to enhance the administration of mobile apps, and require, among others, that mobile phone manufacturers and Internet information service providers must ensure that a mobile app, as well as its ancillary resource files, configuration files and user data can be uninstalled by a user on a convenient basis, unless it is a basic function software, which refers to a software that supports the normal functioning of the hardware and operating system of a mobile smart device.

On March 15, 2019, the SAMR and the CAC jointly promulgated the Announcement on the Implementation of App Security Certification, or the Implementation Announcement, according to which, the China Cyber Security Review Technology and Certification Center shall be responsible for the app security certification work, and app operators are encouraged to undergo such security certification voluntarily; search engines, app stores, among others, are encouraged to clearly mark and give priority to recommend the apps which have been certified. As an attachment to the Implementation Announcement, the Implementation Rules of App Security Certification stipulated specific certification procedures, post-certification supervision and management of app security certification.

On November 28, 2019, the CAC, the MIIT and the SAMR jointly promulgated the Notice on Promulgation of the Method for Identifying the Illegal Collection and Use of Personal Information by Apps, effective immediately, which provides several specific standards and examples to identify the illegal collection and use of personal information by apps, including non-disclosure of collection and use rules, failing to expressly state the purpose, method and scope of collecting and using personal information, and collecting or using personal information without the consent of users.

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On March 12, 2021, the CAC, the MIIT, the PRC Ministry of Public Security, or the MPS, and the SAMR jointly promulgated the Regulations on the Scope of Necessary Personal Information for Common Types of Mobile Internet Applications, which will become effective on May 1, 2021. According to these regulations, an application may not refuse a user from using its basic functional services if the user disagrees to provide unnecessary personal information. In particular, basic functional services of job hunting and recruitment applications are the "exchange of job hunting and recruitment information," and the necessary personal information includes mobile phone numbers of registered users and resumés provided by job seekers. Additionally, the regulations also apply to mini programs, which are applications developed and based on open platform interfaces and available to users without installation.

Labor and Social Insurance

Under the PRC Labor Law, effective in 1995 and its amendment which became effective on December 29, 2018, and the PRC Labor Contract Law, effective in 2008 and its amendment which became effective on July 1, 2013, a written labor contract must be executed between an employer and an employee. Labor-related regulations and rules of the PRC also stipulate the maximum number of working hours per day and per week as well as the minimum wage standards. In addition, an employer is required to establish occupational safety and sanitation systems, implement the national occupational safety and sanitation rules and standards, and provide employees with workplace safety training.

In the PRC, workers dispatched by an employment agency are normally engaged in temporary, auxiliary or substitute work. Under the PRC Labor Contract Law, an employment agency is the employer for workers dispatched by it and is required to perform an employer’s obligations toward them. The employment contract between the employment agency and the dispatched workers, and the placement agreement between the employment agency and the company that receives the dispatched workers is required to be in writing. Furthermore, the company that accepts the dispatched workers must bear joint and several liability for any violation of the PRC Labor Contract Law by the employment agencies arising from their contracts with dispatched workers. The MOHRSS promulgated the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch, effective March 1, 2014, which clarified the use of the labor dispatch employment model, required revisions to the content in labor dispatch contracts and instituted a 10% maximum limit of dispatched workers to total workforce for companies in China while providing a two-year transition period for compliance.

An employer is obligated to sign an indefinite term labor contract with an employee if the employer continues to employ the employee after two consecutive fixed-term labor contracts and under some other circumstances. The employer also has to pay compensation to the employee if the employer terminates an indefinite term labor contract except where such employee makes certain serious faults. Except where the employer proposes to renew a labor contract by maintaining or raising the conditions of the labor contract and the employee is not agreeable to the renewal, an employer is required to compensate the employee when a definite term labor contract expires. Furthermore, under the Regulations on Paid Annual Leave for Employees issued in December 2007 and effective as of January 2008 and its implementation measures, an employee who has served an employer for more than one year and less than ten years is entitled to a 5-day paid vacation, those whose service period ranges from 10 to 20 years is entitled to a 10-day paid vacation, and those who has served for more than 20 years is entitled to a 15-day paid vacation. An employee who does not use such vacation time at the request of the employer must be compensated at three times their normal salaries for each waived vacation day.

On December 29, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Labor Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law, according to which, when a labor dispute arises and the parties are unwilling to have a consultation, or the consultation fails, or the settlement agreement reached is not performed, they may apply to a mediation institution for mediation. Where the parties are unwilling to have mediation, or the mediation fails, or the mediation agreement reached is not performed, they may apply to a labor dispute arbitration commission for arbitration. Unless otherwise restricted, where parties in disputes are dissatisfied with the arbitration, they may bring the case to court.

The PRC Employment Promotion Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was further amended on April 24, 2015, requires that individuals have equal employment opportunities, both in hiring and in employment terms, without discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, race, gender, religious belief, communicable disease or domicile. Under this law, enterprises are also required to provide employees with vocational training.

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Under the Regulations on Work-Related Injury Insurance effective in 2004 and amended in 2010, and the Interim Measures Concerning the Maternity Insurance for Enterprise Employees effective in 1995, PRC companies must pay work-related injury insurance premiums and maternity insurance premiums for their employees. On December 20, 2010, the State Council promulgated the amended Regulations on Work-Related Injury Insurance that became effective on January 1, 2011. The amendments expand the scope of work-related injury to include the injury of employees caused by traffic accidents en route to or from the office not primarily attributable to the employees. Employees are entitled to certain treatments under work-related injury insurance that are calculated based on the circumstances of the work-related injury. Under the Interim Regulations on the Collection and Payment of Social Insurance Premiums effective in 1999 and revised in 2019, basic pension insurance, medical insurance and unemployment insurance are collectively referred to as social insurance. Both PRC companies and their employees are required to contribute to the social insurance plans. Under the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Fund effective in 1999, as amended in 2002 and 2019, PRC companies must register with applicable housing fund management centers and establish a special housing fund account in an entrusted bank. Both PRC companies and their employees are required to contribute to the housing funds.

On October 28, 2010, the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Social Insurance Law, which became effective in 2011 and was amended in 2018. The PRC Social Insurance Law specified that the PRC establish a social insurance system including basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance. An employer is required to pay the social insurance for its employees in accordance with the rates provided under relevant regulations and to withhold the social insurance that should be assumed by the employees. The authorities in charge of social insurance may request an employer’s compliance and impose sanctions if such employer fails to pay and withhold social insurance in a timely manner.

Regulations Relating to Intellectual Property Rights

The PRC has adopted legislation governing intellectual property rights, including copyrights, trademarks, and domain names.

Copyright. The PRC Copyright Law, or the Copyright Law, was adopted in 1990 and amended in 2001, 2010 and 2020. The latest revision will come into effect on June 1, 2021. Under the currently effective Copyright Law, Chinese citizens, legal persons, or other organizations shall, whether published or not, enjoy copyright in their works, which include, among others, works of literature, art, natural science, social science, engineering technology and computer software. The Copyright Law extends copyright protection to cover Internet activities and products disseminated over the Internet. In addition, there is a voluntary registration system administered by the China Copyright Protection Center.

The Regulation for the Protection of Computer Software was promulgated by the State Council on December 20, 2001 and last amended on January 30, 2013. To further implement this regulation, the Computer Software Copyright Registration Measures, which was promulgated by the National Copyright Administration on February 20, 2002, regulates software copyright registration, exclusive licensing contracts of software copyright and transfer agreements. Although such registration is not mandatory under PRC law, software copyright owners are encouraged to go through the registration process and registered software may receive better protection.

Trademarks. Registered trademarks are protected under the PRC Trademark Law adopted in 1982 and revised in 2001, 2013 and 2019. Trademarks can be registered with the Trademark Office of the CNIPA for renewable ten-year periods. Trademark license agreements are required to be filed with the Trademark Office of the CNIPA for the record, and the failure to complete such filings may cause the trademark license agreements to be unenforceable against bona fide third parties.

Domain names. Domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures on Internet Domain Names, which was promulgated by the MIIT on August 24, 2017 and became effective in November 2017. The MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of PRC Internet domain names, and under the supervision of the MIIT, the China Internet Network Information Center is responsible for the daily administration of “.cn” domain names and Chinese domain names. Any party that engages in Internet information services shall use its domain name in compliance with laws and regulations, and shall not use its domain name to commit any illegal act.

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Regulations Relating to Internet Content

The PRC government has promulgated measures relating to Internet content through various ministries and agencies, including the CAC, MIIT, the News Office of the State Council, the PRC Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the PRC State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television, or the SAPPRFT (currently known as the National Radio and Television Administration, or the NRTA). In addition to various approval and license requirements, these measures specifically prohibit Internet activities that result in the dissemination of any content which is found to contain pornography, promote gambling or violence, instigate crimes, undermine public morality or the cultural traditions of the PRC, or compromise state security or secrets. ICPs must monitor and control the information posted on their websites, and Internet information service providers that provide Internet information services with public opinion attributes or social mobilization capacity must conduct security assessment on their own and be responsible for the assessment results. If any prohibited content is found, they must remove the content immediately, keep a record of it and report to the relevant authorities. If an ICP violates these measures, the PRC government may impose fines, shut down the websites and revoke any relevant business operation licenses.

In addition, at the end of 2019, the CAC issued the Provisions on the Management of Network Information Content Ecology, or the CAC Order No. 5, which became effective on March 1, 2020, to further strengthen the regulation and management of network information content. Pursuant to the CAC Order No. 5, each network information content service platform is required, among others: (i) not to disseminate any information prohibited by laws and regulations, such as information jeopardizing national security; (ii) to strengthen the examination of advertisements published on such network information content service platform; (iii) to promulgate management rules and platform convention and improve user agreement, such that such network information content service platform could clarify users’ rights and obligations and perform management responsibilities required by laws, regulations, rules and convention; (iv) to establish convenient means for complaints and reports; and (v) to prepare an annual work report regarding its management of network information content ecology. In addition, a network information content service platform must not, among others: (i) utilize new technologies such as deep-learning and virtual reality to engage in activities prohibited by laws and regulations; (ii) engage in online traffic fraud, malicious traffic rerouting and other activities related to fraudulent account, illegal transaction account or maneuver of users’ account; or (iii) infringe on a third party’s legitimate rights or seek illegal interests by way of interfering with information display.

Regulations Relating to Internet Privacy and Information Security

The PRC Constitution provides that PRC law protects the freedom and privacy of communications of citizens and that infringement of such rights is not permitted. While PRC laws do not prohibit ICPs from collecting and using personal information of their users, such collection and use is subject to the users’ prior consent. Also, the relevant government authorities have enacted legislation on the use of the Internet that recognizes the protection of personal information from unauthorized disclosure. Under the Regulations on Internet Information Service, Internet information service providers are prohibited from producing, copying, publishing or distributing information that is humiliating or slanderous to others or that trespasses the lawful rights and interests of others. Depending on the nature of their violation, ICPs that violate this provision may face criminal charges or be sanctioned by security authorities. In addition, they may be ordered to temporarily suspend their service, or their licenses may be revoked.

Under the Several Provisions on Regulating the Market Order of Internet Information Services effective in March 2012, without the consent of users, Internet information service providers may not collect personal information of users or provide such information to others. Where the Internet information service providers obtain the consent of users, it must clearly inform users of the methods, contents and purposes for collecting and processing the personal information of users, and it may not collect the information unnecessary for providing services nor use the personal information of users for purposes other than providing services.

Under the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Strengthening Information Protection on Networks effective in December 2012, Internet service providers and other enterprises and institutions must, when gathering and using electronic personal information of citizens in business activities, adhere to the principles of legality and rationality to necessarily, explicitly state the purposes, manners and scopes of collecting and using information, and obtain the consent of those from whom information is collected, and may not collect and use information in violation of laws, regulations or the agreement between both sides. Internet service providers and other enterprises and institutions must, when gathering and using electronic personal information of citizens, publish their collection and use rules.

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Under the Provisions on Protecting the Personal Information of Telecommunications and Internet Users effective in September 2013, telecommunications service operators and Internet information service providers must formulate the rules for collection and use of users’ personal information and publish such rules in their business or service premises or on their websites. Without the consent of users, no telecommunications service operator or Internet information service provider may collect and use users’ personal information. When collecting and using users’ personal information, telecommunications service operators and Internet information service providers must clearly inform users of the purpose, manner and scope for collection and use of information, the channels for inquiry and correction of information, the consequences from refusal to provide information and other relevant matters. Telecommunications service operators and Internet information service providers may not collect users’ personal information other than that necessary for providing services, or use information for purposes other than the provision of services, and they may not collect and use information by fraud, misleading, coercion or any other means or in violation of laws, administrative regulations or agreements between both sides.

Under the Provisions on the Administration of Account Names of Internet Users effective in March 2015, Internet information service providers must protect the users’ information and privacy of citizens and conduct identity verification of individuals before account registration. Under the Provisions on the Administration of Communications Short Message Services effective in June 2015, short message service providers and short message content providers may not send commercial short messages to users without the users’ consent or request, or must stop sending such short messages to users when the latter clearly present their refusal after their consent.

Under the PRC Advertising Law, the amendment of which became effective in September 2015, without the consent or request of the recipient, no entity or individual may send advertisements to the recipient’s residence or vehicle, among others, or send advertisements in the form of electronic information. Where an advertisement is sent in the form of electronic information, the sender’s true identity and contact information must be explicitly indicated, and the sender must provide the recipient with a method for the recipient to discontinue receiving such advertisements. Under the PRC Counter-Terrorism Law, which became effective in January 2016 and was amended in 2018, Internet service providers are required to conduct identity verification of individuals.

Under the PRC Cyber Security Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017, Internet product and service providers must explicitly notify their users and obtain their consent for collection and use of personal information. If any user’s personal information is involved, the provider must also comply with the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations on the protection of personal information. Personal information and important data collected and produced by critical information infrastructure operators during their operations within the territory of China must be stored within China. However, the PRC Cyber Security Law does not provide a detailed standard to classify “critical information infrastructure operators.”

On January 25, 2019, the Announcement of Launching Special Crackdown Against Illegal Collection and Use of Personal Information by Apps, or the Announcement, was promulgated jointly by the CAC, the MIIT, the MPS and the SAMR and became effective immediately. Under this Announcement, app operators must strictly fulfill their obligations regulated in the PRC Cyber Security Law when collecting and using personal information. The relevant authorities will evaluate the privacy policies of and collection and use of personal information by the apps with a large number of users and those closely related to people’s lives, and strengthen the regulation and punishment of the illegal collection and use of personal information. For the implementation of this Announcement, the relevant authorities have established the App Special Crackdown Working Group, or App Working Group. The App Working Group promulgated the Self-Assessment Guidelines for Apps Regarding the Illegal Collection of Personal Information on March 1, 2019, which provide nine self-assessment guidelines and standards for the collection and use of personal information by app operators from three aspects: (i) privacy policy text; (ii) behavior in the collection and use of personal information; and (iii) app operator’s obligation to protect users’ rights. On November 28, 2019, the Notice on Promulgation of the Method for Identifying the Illegal Collection and Use of Personal Information by Apps was jointly promulgated by the CAC, the MIIT and the SAMR and became effective immediately, under which, non-disclosure of collection and use rules, failing to expressly state the purpose, method and scope of collecting and using personal information, and collecting or using personal information without the consent of users are clearly stipulated as illegal collection and use of personal information.

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On April 10, 2019, the MPS and the Beijing Network Industry Association jointly promulgated the Guidelines for Internet Personal Information Security Protection, which regulates the personal information protection obligations of personal information holders in terms of management mechanisms, technical measures and business processes. Such guidelines include specialized departments or personnel must be appointed to be responsible for the formulation of security management systems, the consent and authorization from the personal information subject must be obtained, and the personal information unrelated to the services provided must not be collected.

On May 28, 2020, the National People's Congress approved the PRC Civil Code, or the Civil Code, which came into effect on January 1, 2021 and abolished the General Rules of the Civil Law of the PRC. Pursuant to the Civil Code, the collection, storage, use, process, transmission, provision and disclosure of personal information should follow the principles of legitimacy, properness and necessity.

On July 7, 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress issued the Draft Data Security Law for public comments. The Draft Data Security Law proposes to establish a series of fundamental systems for data security management in the PRC. Under the Draft Data Security Law, organizations and individuals shall fulfill the data security protection obligations, including but not limited to: (i) to establish data security management systems and undertake data security education and training, as well as technical security measures; (ii) to strengthen risk monitoring of data activities and report to the relevant authorities any data security incidents promptly; (iii) to obtain data in a legal and proper manner; (iv) to require a data provider to explain data sources and authenticate the identity of the trading parties when providing transaction intermediary services; and (v) not to provide data stored within the PRC to any overseas law enforcement agency until approval is obtained from the relevant authorities. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Data Security Law is still pending approval and has not come into effect.

On October 21, 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress issued the Draft Personal Information Protection Law for public comments. The Draft Personal Information Protection Law integrates provisions from several rules with respect to personal information rights and privacy protection. According to the Draft Personal Information Protection Law, personal information refers to information related to identified or identifiable natural persons which is recorded by electronic or other means (excluding the anonymized information). The Draft Personal Information Protection Law provides the circumstances under which a personal information processor could process personal information, such as where the consent of the individual concerned is obtained and where it is necessary for the conclusion or performance of a contract to which such individual is a party to such contract. It also stipulates certain specific provisions with respect to the obligations of a personal information processor. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Personal Information Protection Law is still pending approval and has not come into effect.

To comply with these regulations, we provide users of our websites and mobile applications with a range of confidentiality, communications and information sharing options. They may choose to authorize us to disclose their personal information to third parties, or to instruct us to keep this information strictly confidential. Our systems are designed to maintain information received from these users in accordance with their instructions.

However, the PRC government retains the power and authority to order ICPs to turn over personal information of Internet users if the users post any prohibited content or engage in illegal activities on the Internet.

Regulations Relating to Internet Publishing

The Administrative Provisions on Online Publishing Services, or the Online Publishing Provisions, was jointly issued by the MIIT and the SAPPRFT, in 2016, and came into effect on March 10, 2016. The Online Publishing Provisions define “online publishing services” as providing online publications to the public through information networks. Any online publishing services provided in the territory of the PRC are subject to these provisions. The Online Publishing Provisions require any Internet publishing services provider to obtain an online publishing service license to engage in online publishing services. Under the Online Publishing Provisions, online publications refer to digital works which have publishing features, such as digital works that have been edited, produced or processed and which are made available to the public through information networks, including written works, pictures, maps, games, cartoons, audio/video reading materials and other methods. Any online game must obtain approval from the SAPPRFT before it is launched online. Furthermore, Sino-foreign equity joint ventures, Sino-foreign cooperative joint ventures and wholly foreign owned enterprises cannot engage in providing web publishing services.

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We do not believe the activities we engage in on our websites and mobile applications constitute “Internet publishing activities” as such term is used in the Online Publishing Provisions. As a result, we have not applied or obtained an Internet publishing license. However, in the event that our activities are deemed to be “Internet publishing,” we may be required to obtain approval from the relevant PRC authorities. If we are deemed to be in breach of the Internet publishing regulations, the relevant PRC authorities may seize the related equipment and servers used primarily for such activities and confiscate any revenues generated from such activities. In addition, the relevant PRC authorities may also impose fines.

Regulations Relating to Internet News Information Service

The CAC issued the Provisions for the Administration of Internet News Information Services, or the Internet News Regulation, which became effective on June 1, 2017 and replaced the original provisions promulgated in 2005.

Internet news information services must include service of collecting, editing and publishing Internet news information, service of reposting and service of providing propagation platform. Under the Internet News Regulation, Internet news service providers must also include entities that are not established by the press but reproduce Internet news from other sources, provide electronic bulletin services on current and political events, and transmit such information to the public. The CAC is in charge of the supervision and administration of the Internet news information services throughout China.

If we release information that may be deemed by authorities as Internet news, we may be required to obtain an Internet news information service license. We do not believe that we are required to obtain an Internet news releasing license because the news posted on our websites and mobile applications are related to the recruitment and human resource services industries which are not political in nature. However, if any of the Internet news posted on our websites and mobile applications is deemed by the government to be political in nature, related to macroeconomics, or otherwise requires such license based on the sole discretion of the government authority, we would need to apply for such license. If we are deemed to be in breach of the Internet News Regulation or other relevant Internet news releasing regulations, the PRC regulatory authorities may suspend our information release activities and impose a fine. In serious cases, the PRC regulatory authorities may even suspend the Internet service or Internet access.

Regulations Relating to Broadcasting Audio/Video Programs through the Internet

In July 2004, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT (currently known as the NRTA), promulgated the Rules for the Administration of Broadcasting of Audio/Video Programs through the Internet and Other Information Networks, or the A/V Broadcasting Rules, which were replaced by Provisions on the Administration of Private Network and Targeted Communication Audio-Visual Program Services which took effect on June 1, 2016. For an entity that engages in content delivery, integrated broadcast control, transmission distribution and other private network and targeted communication to send audio-visual program service, an “Internet audio/video program transmission license” is required.

In April 2005, the State Council announced Several Decisions on Investment by Non-State-Owned Companies in Culture-Related Business in China. These decisions encourage and support non-state-owned companies to enter certain culture-related business in China, subject to restrictions and prohibitions for investment in audio/video broadcasting, website news and certain other businesses by non-state-owned companies. These decisions authorize the SARFT, the Ministry of Culture and the General Administration of Press and Publication to adopt detailed implementation rules according to these decisions.

In December 2007, the SARFT and the MIIT jointly issued the Rules for the Administration of Internet Audio and Video Program Services, or Circular 56, which came into effect as of January 31, 2008 and was amended in August 2015. Circular 56 reiterates the requirement set forth in the A/V Broadcasting Rules that online audio/video service providers must obtain an Internet audio/video program transmission license from the SARFT. Furthermore, Circular 56 requires all online audio/video service providers to be either wholly state-owned or state-controlled companies. According to relevant official answers to press questions published on the SARFT’s website dated February 3, 2008, officials from the SARFT and the MIIT clarified that online audio/video service providers that already had been operating lawfully prior to the issuance of Circular 56 may re-register and continue to operate without becoming state-owned or controlled, provided that such providers have not engaged in any unlawful activities. This exemption will not be granted to online audio/video service providers established after Circular 56 was issued. These policies have been reflected in the Application Procedure for Audio/Video Program Transmission License. Failure to obtain the Internet audio/video program transmission license may subject an online audio/video service provider to various penalties, including fines of up to RMB30,000, seizure of related equipment and servers used primarily for such activities and even suspension of its online audio/video services.

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Regulations Relating to Foreign Currency Exchange

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in the PRC are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, as amended in August 2008, and the Administration Rules of the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange. Under these regulations, the Renminbi is freely convertible for payments of current account items, such as trade and service related foreign exchange transactions and dividend payments, but not for expenses of capital, such as direct investment, loan or investment in securities, outside the PRC unless the prior approval of the SAFE is obtained and prior registration with the SAFE is made.

Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, foreign-invested enterprises in the PRC may purchase or remit foreign exchange without the approval of the SAFE for trade and service related foreign exchange transactions by providing commercial documents evidencing these transactions. They may also retain foreign exchange (subject to a cap approved by the SAFE) to satisfy foreign exchange liabilities or to pay dividends. However, the relevant PRC government authorities, which have significant administrative discretion in implementing the laws, may restrict or eliminate the ability of foreign-invested enterprises to purchase and retain foreign currencies in the future. In addition, foreign exchange transactions involving direct investment, loan and investment in securities outside the PRC are subject to limitations and require approvals from the SAFE.

Under the Administration Rules of the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange effective in 1996, foreign-invested enterprises may only buy, sell and/or remit foreign currencies at banks authorized to conduct foreign exchange business after providing valid supporting documents and, in the case of capital account item transactions, obtaining approval from the SAFE or its relevant local counterpart.

The SAFE promulgated the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Regarding Administration Improvement of Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or Circular 142, on August 29, 2008. Under Circular 142, registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise settled in Renminbi converted from foreign currencies may only be used within the business scope approved by the applicable governmental authority and may not be used for equity investments in the PRC. In addition, foreign-invested enterprises may not change how they use such capital without the SAFE’s approval, and may not in any case use such capital to repay Renminbi loans if they have not used the proceeds of such loans.

The SAFE promulgated the Notice of the SAFE on Reforming the Administrative Approach Regarding the Settlement of the Foreign Exchange Capitals of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or Circular 19, on June 1, 2015, which superseded Circular 142. Under Circular 19, foreign-invested enterprises are allowed to settle 100% of their foreign currency-denominated capital in Renminbi on a discretionary basis. The Renminbi obtained by foreign-invested enterprises from the discretionary settlement of their capital in foreign currencies must be managed under the accounts for foreign exchange settlement pending payment, and foreign-invested enterprises must make various payments from such account for the following scope of use: expenditure within the business scope; payment for domestic equity investment and Renminbi deposits; transfers to the special centralized fund management account and the account for foreign exchange settlement pending payment under the same name; repayment of the Renminbi loans that have been fully used; repayment of external debts directly or by foreign exchange purchase and payment; external payment of funds to foreign investors due to capital reduction or divestment directly or by foreign exchange purchase and payment; external payment of current account expenditure directly or by foreign exchange purchase and payment; and other capital account expenditure registered by the relevant foreign exchange bureau (bank) or approved by the relevant foreign exchange bureau. Foreign-invested enterprises may not use their capital and the Renminbi obtained from foreign exchange settlement for any of the following purposes: direct or indirect use for expenditure beyond its business scope or expenditure prohibited by PRC laws and regulations; directly or indirect use for investment in securities, unless otherwise prescribed by laws and regulations; directly or indirect use for granting entrusted loans (unless permitted under its business scope), repaying inter-company loans (including third party advances) and repaying Renminbi bank loans that have been transferred to a third party; or use for the expenses related to the purchase of real estate not for self-use, unless it is a foreign-invested real estate enterprise. Circular 19 may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in the PRC.

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The SAFE promulgated the Notice of the SAFE on Reforming and Standardizing the Administrative Provisions on Capital Account Foreign Exchange Settlement, or Circular 16, on June 9, 2016. Under Circular 16, onshore enterprises (including Chinese-funded enterprises and foreign-invested enterprises, excluding financial institutions) may all settle their external debts in foreign currencies according to the method of voluntary foreign exchange settlement. The banks must, in handling each transaction of foreign exchange settlement for an onshore enterprise according to the principle of payment-based foreign exchange settlement, review the authenticity and compliance of the use by the domestic institution of the foreign exchange funds settled in the previous transaction (including voluntary settlement and payment-based settlement). The earnings and expenditures of the account for foreign exchange settlement pending payment are limited to certain scope. The use of foreign exchange earnings under capital account must be within the enterprise’s business scope and in a truthful manner for proprietary purposes.

The SAFE promulgated the Notice of the SAFE on Further Promoting the Facilitation of Cross-Border Trade and Investment, or Circular 28, on October 23, 2019, which cancelled the restrictions and allowed non-investment foreign-invested enterprises to make domestic equity investment with their capital funds in accordance with the law under the premise that such investment does not violate the existing special administrative measures (negative list) for foreign investment and the project invested in China is authentic and compliant. According to Circular 28, upon receiving the payment of consideration from a foreign investor for the equity transfer under foreign direct investment, the domestic transferor, with relevant registration certificates, can process the formalities for account opening, fund receipt, and foreign exchange settlement and use directly at the bank. The foreign investor’s deposit remitted from overseas or transferred from domestic accounts can be directly used for its lawful domestic capital contribution as well as domestic and overseas payment after the transaction is concluded. Under Circular 28, eligible enterprises in pilot regions are allowed to use the income under capital account, from such sources as capital funds, foreign debt and overseas listing, for domestic payment without having to provide supporting authentication materials to the banks for every transaction, but the use of funds shall be true and compliant as well as conform to the existing administration regulations regarding use of income under capital account.

Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange Registration of Offshore Investment by PRC Residents

Under Circular 75 issued on October 21, 2005, (i) a PRC resident, including a PRC resident natural person (such as a PRC citizen or a foreign citizen who resides primarily in China), must register with the local branch of the SAFE before it establishes or controls an overseas special purpose vehicle for the purpose of overseas equity financing (including convertible debt financing); (ii) when a PRC resident contributes the assets of or its equity interests in a domestic enterprise to an overseas special purpose vehicle, or engages in overseas financing after contributing assets or equity interests to an overseas special purpose vehicle, such PRC resident must register his or her interest in the overseas special purpose vehicle and the change thereof with the local SAFE branch; and (iii) when the overseas special purpose vehicle undergoes a material event outside of China, such as a change in share capital, or merger or acquisition, the PRC resident must, within 30 days of the occurrence of such event, register such change with the local SAFE branch. PRC residents who are shareholders of overseas special purpose vehicles established before November 1, 2005 were required to register with the local SAFE branch before March 31, 2006.

The SAFE promulgated Circular 37 on July 4, 2014, which superseded Circular 75. Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of the SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. According to Circular 13 issued by the SAFE on February 13, 2015, starting from June 1, 2015, all new such registrations required under Circular 37 (other than make-up registrations) will be handled by qualified banks instead of the local SAFE branches. The qualified banks, under the supervision of the SAFE, will directly review the applications and process the registration.

Under Circular 37, in the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may increase our administrative burden and adversely impact our business and prospects.”

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Regulations Relating to Employee Stock Option Plans

On December 25, 2006, the People’s Bank of China promulgated the Measures for the Administration of Individual Foreign Exchange, and on January 5, 2007, the SAFE further promulgated the implementation rules on those measures. Both became effective on February 1, 2007. According to the implementation rules, if individuals in the PRC participate in any employee stock ownership plan or stock option plan of an overseas-listed company, those individuals must apply as a group through the company or a domestic agency to the SAFE or the appropriate local branch for approval for any foreign exchange-related transactions concerning that plan.

On March 28, 2007, the SAFE promulgated the Stock Option Rule. Under the Stock Option Rule, PRC citizens who are granted stock options by an overseas-listed company are required, through a PRC agent or PRC subsidiary of such overseas-listed company, to register with the SAFE and complete certain other procedures.

On February 15, 2012, the SAFE promulgated the New Stock Option Rule. Upon the effectiveness of the New Stock Option Rule on February 15, 2012, the Stock Option Rule became void, although the basic requirements and procedures provided under the Stock Option Rule are kept unchanged in the New Stock Option Rule, i.e., the domestic employees participating in stock incentive plan of an overseas-listed company must appoint the PRC subsidiary of the overseas-listed company or a domestic qualified agent to make the registration of the stock incentive plan with the SAFE and handle all foreign exchange-related matters of the stock incentive plan through the special bank account approved by the SAFE. The New Stock Option Rule clarifies that the domestic subsidiary of an overseas-listed company must include the limited liability company, partnership and the representative office directly or indirectly established by such overseas-listed company in China and the domestic employees must include the directors, supervisors, the senior management and other employees of the domestic subsidiary, including the foreign employees of the domestic subsidiary who continuously reside in China for no less than one year.

Similar to the Stock Option Rule, the New Stock Option Rule requires that the annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with stock holding or stock option exercises be subject to the approval of the SAFE. The New Stock Option Rule further requires that the material amendments of the stock incentive plan be filed with the SAFE within three months following the occurrence of the material amendments. The domestic agent must also make a quarterly update to the SAFE to disclose the information with respect to the stock option exercises, the stock holding and foreign exchange matters. If the domestic employees or the domestic agent fails to comply with the requirements of the New Stock Option Rule, the SAFE may require the remedy and even impose administrative penalties that the SAFE deems appropriate.

In addition, the STA has issued circulars concerning employee share options. Under these circulars, individuals working in China who exercise share options will be subject to PRC individual income tax. We have obligations to file documents related to employee share options with relevant tax authorities and withhold the individual income taxes of employees who exercise their share options.

Regulations Relating to Dividend Distribution

The principal regulations governing distribution of dividends paid by foreign-invested enterprises include:

PRC Foreign Investment Law (2020);
Implementation Regulations for the PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the Implementation Regulations (2020);
PRC Company Law (1993), amended in 1999, 2004, 2005, 2013, and 2018;
PRC Partnership Enterprise Law (1997), amended in 2006; and
PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its Implementation Rules (2007), amended in 2017, 2018, and 2019.

Under the current laws and regulations, foreign-invested enterprises are required to set aside 10% of their after-tax profits according to PRC accounting standards and regulations to fund the statutory reserve funds until the cumulative amount of the statutory reserve funds exceed 50% of their registered capital. Such statutory reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

The dividend distribution among shareholders of a foreign-invested enterprise is no longer required to be made in accordance with their capital contribution. Instead, the dividend distribution method can be otherwise agreed upon by all the shareholders. Regardless of the above, the dividend distribution method agreed in the existing contract among the equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture parties may remain effective, at the choice of such parties, and the foreign-invested enterprise may continue to make their dividend distribution in accordance with such existing contracts.

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Regulations Relating to Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors

In August 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies jointly adopted the M&A Rules, which became effective in September 2006 and was further amended in June 2009. The M&A Rules established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. These rules require, among other things, that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor will take control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008 are triggered.

Under the FIL, where a foreign investor acquires any domestic enterprise in the PRC or participates in the concentration of business operators by other means (i.e., obtaining control over or decisive influence on other business operators by means of merger, acquisition of equity interests or assets, or contracts, among others, as defined in the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law), it is subject to review on concentration of business operators pursuant to the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law. Additionally, under the Guideline on Anti-Monopoly of Platform Economy Sector, which became effective on February 7, 2021, the concentration of undertakings that involves a contractual arrangements structure falls within the scope of anti-monopoly review of concentration of undertakings.

Complying with these requirements could affect our ability to expand our business. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.”

Regulations Relating to Taxation

For a discussion of applicable PRC tax regulations, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results —Taxation — PRC.”

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C.    Organizational Structure

The following chart illustrates our corporate structure, including our principal operating subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities as of the date of this annual report.

Graphic

(1)Acquired in December 2017. Includes Lagou Information HongKong Limited, a wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary, which is the shareholder of Beijing Lagou Science and Technology Co, Ltd., a PRC wholly foreign owned enterprise.
(2)Includes Shanghai Wang Ju Human Resource Consulting Co., Ltd., incorporated in the PRC, which conducts human resource services and is 70% owned by 51net HR and 30% owned by Run An.
(3)In addition, 51net directly or indirectly wholly owns three PRC subsidiaries which have no current operations: Shanghai Wang Ju Advertising Co., Ltd.; Wang Jin Information Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., or Wang Jin; and Wuhan Wang Cai Information Technology Co., Ltd.
(4)Includes Shanghai Jinli Information Technology Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary with no current operations.

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(5)Includes four PRC subsidiaries of Tech JV: Qianjin Human Resource Services (Guangzhou) Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary which conducts human resource services; Shanghai Qianjin Zhong Cheng Human Resources Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary which conducts human resource services; Shanghai Yishu Information Technology Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary which conducts online recruitment services; and Beijing Zhiding Youyuan Management Consulting Co., Ltd., a 60% owned subsidiary which conducts human resource services. In addition, Tech JV directly or indirectly owns four PRC subsidiaries which have no current operations: Qianjin Wu You Network Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary; Shanghai Qianjin Advertising Co., Ltd., or AdCo, an 80% owned subsidiary; Shanghai Wang Cai Advertising Co., Ltd., or Wang Cai, a subsidiary jointly owned by Tech JV and AdCo; and Zhongli Information Technology Services (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., a subsidiary owned by Tech JV, Wang Cai, Wang Jin and AdCo.
(6)Includes Beijing Lagou Network Technology Co., Ltd., a 60% owned PRC subsidiary which conducts online recruitment services. In addition, Run An directly and indirectly wholly owns three PRC subsidiaries which have no current operations: Ningbo Yijian Network Science and Technology Co., Ltd.; Shenzhen City Huiyuan Cultural Industry Communication Co., Ltd.; and Wanyi (Shanghai) Internet Information Service Co., Ltd.
(7)Includes Qianjin Zhong Cheng Technology (Wuhan) Co., Ltd., a wholly owned PRC subsidiary which conducts human resource services.

Our subsidiary, 51net, directly holds 50% of the outstanding shares of Tech JV, Qian Cheng directly holds 1% of the outstanding shares of Tech JV, and Wuhan AdCo directly holds the remaining 49% of the outstanding shares of Tech JV. As a result of Qian Cheng’s ownership of Wuhan AdCo, each of 51net and Qian Cheng effectively holds 50% of the equity interest in Tech JV.

Our services are principally provided through Tech JV and its subsidiaries, which hold licenses to provide online advertising services, human resource related services and information services via the Internet and mobile networks.

Tech JV and its subsidiaries recognize most of our revenues and receive most of the cash payments from our clients. Our relationships with Qian Cheng and Run An, our affiliated entities, have been governed by a series of agreements, under which we have borne all of the economic risks and received all of the economic rewards in these affiliated entities. In addition, through a call option agreement between 51net and Qian Cheng, 51net or its designee is able to purchase the equity interests in Tech JV that are held by Qian Cheng and Wuhan AdCo as well as the equity interest in AdCo that is held by Qian Cheng. As a result, the historical financial results of these entities have been consolidated in our financial statements. For a discussion on the contractual arrangements among our entities, see “Item 7.B. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Contractual Arrangements Among Our Group Entities.”

We have been advised by Jun He Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, that:

our current ownership structure is in compliance with existing PRC laws and regulations;
the agreements among our subsidiaries, affiliated entities and their respective shareholders are valid and binding, and are enforceable under, and will not result in any violation of, existing PRC laws or regulations, with exception to the trademark license agreement, which may not be enforceable against bona fide third parties until registration with the relevant trademark administration authorities; and
except as otherwise disclosed herein, our current business operations as described in this annual report are not in violation of existing PRC laws, rules and regulations in all material aspects.

There are, however, substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including but not limited to the laws and regulations governing our business or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements in the event of the imposition of statutory liens, death, bankruptcy and criminal proceedings. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to that of our PRC legal counsel. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure — The PRC laws and regulations governing our business operations and contractual arrangements are uncertain, and if we are found to be in violation, we could be subject to sanctions” and “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.”

We intend to continue to evaluate from time to time the PRC regulatory environment with respect to the foreign ownership of value-added communications services and plan to continue to streamline our ownership structure and operations as and when permitted by PRC laws and regulations.

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D.    Property, Plants and Equipment

Our executive offices as well as our principal marketing and development facilities, comprising approximately 12,600 square meters, are currently located at No. 1387 Zhang Dong Road, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of China. We operate a national sales and customer service call center with a total floor area of approximately 18,840 square meters across two locations in Wuhan. We also maintain a large sales office in downtown Shanghai comprising of three floors in an office building, totaling approximately 4,845 square meters. In addition, we lease space for our network of sales offices and service locations in more than 30 cities across China, including Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Wuhan. As of the date of this annual report, we have leases for office space totaling approximately 44,500 square meters. We believe that we will be able to obtain adequate facilities to accommodate our expansion plans in the near future.

In March 2018, we completed the acquisition of office space in Shanghai to accommodate our growing business operations. The purchase price was RMB57.4 million and was fully paid from our existing cash resources.

ITEM 4A.        UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 5.        OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and their related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors” or in other parts of this annual report.

A.    Operating Results

Overview

We believe that we are a leading nationwide provider of integrated human resource services in China. We provide online recruitment services and other complementary human resource related services, consisting primarily of business process outsourcing, campus recruitment, training, assessment and placement services. We aim to be a “one-stop” solution to human resource departments by providing recruitment and other human resource related services to employers.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, our online recruitment services generated approximately 58% of our revenues with the remaining 42% from our other human resource related services.

Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

Growth of the Chinese Economy and Demand for Human Resource Services in China

China’s economic growth has served as an important catalyst for the development of the country’s human resource services industry. The rise of the private sector as well as the increasing contribution of the service industry to gross domestic product has also driven a proliferation of new enterprises that has led to increased market liberalization and competition. As a result, companies in China are recognizing the need for improved recruitment and talent management processes, which stimulates the demand for human resource services.

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Our financial results are sensitive to the overall growth of the Chinese economy and market demand for human resource services, in particular recruitment services. We could be adversely affected by an economic slowdown, geopolitical uncertainty or other negative developments that harm China’s economy. In an environment of slower economic growth or recession, market demand for human resource services may decline. Employers may take actions such as hiring fewer employees, engaging in hiring freezes, reducing the number of employees and curtailing spending on human resource services. If this occurs, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by lower or negative revenue growth rates, margin contraction and decreased profitability. For example, due to the global economic and financial market crisis, the Chinese economy saw a downturn in economic activity, and we experienced a period of revenue reduction and lower margins in 2008 and 2009. Recently, our results of operations have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on the Chinese and global economy. For details, see “— Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Our Operations.”

Breadth and Effectiveness of Our Service Offerings

Our results of operations depend on our ability to provide a comprehensive suite of services that are effective in assisting our customers to attract, hire, train, manage and retain workers. As the Chinese economy grows and changes, the need for workers by different skill level, educational background, experience, geography and other characteristics has been evolving. We operate multiple recruitment platforms that target various segments of the labor market, and we also have a large team of sales and customer service staff that provides online and offline support to employers and individuals. In addition to our broad range of recruitment solutions, we offer business process outsourcing, training and assessment services. We continue to upgrade our platforms and expand our service offerings through in-house product development, acquisition and partnerships. Our ability to successfully increase user acceptance and adoption of our services materially affects our results of operations.

Our Brand Recognition and Market Leadership

While the 51job name has become well known in the human resource services industry in China over the past two decades, our ability to strengthen our brand recognition and market leadership is critical for us to attract new users and deepen our relationships with existing customers. As we broaden our product portfolio and launch new services, we may also need to establish new brand names. To further solidify our brand recognition and our reputation as an industry leader, we may increase our investments in sales and marketing activities, technology and product development, which may affect our margins and profitability.

Our Ability to Improve Productivity and Manage Operating Efficiency

Our results of operations have been, and will continue to be, affected by our ability to improve our productivity and manage our operating efficiency. We utilize a direct sales approach with over 4,300 account management and service representatives that serve our corporate customers. Our productivity depends on the success of our sales people to engage with employers, to explain the value proposition of our products, and to ultimately increase customer usage and their spending with us. To support these efforts, we incur operating costs to conduct advertising and promotion campaigns as well as invest in technology and product development to create up-selling and cross-selling opportunities. Although we expect our sales force to expand and our operating costs to increase, we aim to improve our sales productivity and operating efficiency in the long term.

Seasonality in the Human Resource Services Market

The human resource services industry is characterized by seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations, particularly in the seasonal peak recruitment period following the Chinese New Year holiday in the first quarter, may cause our results to vary from quarter to quarter. During the seasonal peak period, demand for online recruitment and other human resource related services may or may not rise significantly depending on the needs of employers as well as their perceptions of the job market. In addition, the Chinese New Year holiday is based on the lunar calendar, which varies from year to year and affects our first and second quarter results as well as their comparability to financial results of the same quarters in prior years. We historically observe strong seasonal campus recruitment activity by employers in the fourth quarter of each year but also a general slowdown in overall recruitment at calendar year end. Our future results may continue to be affected by such seasonal fluctuations.

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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Our Operations

Our results of operations have been, and may continue to be materially and adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To contain the spread of COVID-19, the Chinese government has instituted certain emergency measures. Due to the extension of the Chinese New Year holidays, quarantines, closure of businesses and facilities, and travel bans then in place, the traditional peak season for recruitment activity was significantly disrupted in the first quarter of 2020. Overall market demand for our online recruitment services was negatively impacted as our customers adapted to the challenges brought on by the pandemic, delayed or canceled their hiring plans, and curtailed their spending on our platforms in 2020. Our ability to conduct in-person recruitment events and training seminars was also affected by restrictions and limitations on social gatherings that were in effect from time to time. As a result, for the year ended December 31, 2020, our online recruitment services revenues decreased 13.1% and the growth of our other human resource related revenues slowed to 0.8%. While containment measures have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there have been occasional regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in China and authorities may again take these or further measures to keep the pandemic in check.

There are still significant uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The duration and extent of the pandemic’s impact on our financial results and outlook cannot be reasonably or fully estimated at this time. See also “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Industry — We face risks related to health epidemics and other natural disasters.”

Key Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenues

A significant majority of our revenues come from employers who purchase our online recruitment services. We also provide other complementary human resource related services, consisting primarily of business process outsourcing, campus recruitment, training, assessment and placement services.

The following table sets forth the revenues from our principal lines of business as a percentage of our net revenues for the periods indicated.

For the year ended December 31,

 

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

 

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Online recruitment services

 

64.3

%  

61.8

%  

58.2

%

Other human resource related revenues

 

35.7

 

38.2

 

41.8

Net revenues

 

100.0

%  

100.0

%  

100.0

%

The following table sets forth our revenue growth rates by business line for the periods indicated.

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

 

compared to

compared to

compared to

2017

2018

2019

Online recruitment services

 

29.9

%  

1.6

%  

(13.1)

%

Other human resource related revenues

 

33.7

%  

13.2

%  

0.8

%  

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Online Recruitment Revenues

We generate our online recruitment services revenues from fees we charge employers for placing recruitment and related advertisements on our websites and mobile applications, downloading information from our online resumé database and utilizing our recruitment management tools and systems. We also provide online marketing services to employers, such as priority listings, keyword purchases, display advertising, and e-mail and text messaging campaigns, which enhance the placement of their job opportunities across our various recruitment platforms and enable them to target and attract the attention of certain job seekers. In addition, we generate online revenues for website design and hosting services that we provide to corporations that wish to maintain their own dedicated recruitment website within our platforms. While we do not charge job seekers for accessing our websites, installing our mobile applications on their devices and using basic functions, including the ability to register and maintain a user account, search and browse job postings and submit job applications, certain enhanced services are available to job seekers for a fee.

For the future, we expect the growth of our online recruitment services revenues will be primarily driven by increasing average revenue per unique employer through our up-selling efforts and potential price adjustments. As customers become increasingly familiar with our online platforms and we build customer loyalty, we aim to upgrade them to higher priced products, to sell them a package of multiple online recruitment services, and/or extend the length of their membership period, all of which increase our average revenue per unique employer. In addition, another component of our growth strategy is to selectively acquire new employers to our customer base, which may require us to deploy greater resources in sales and marketing activities. Our ability to attract new employers, retain existing customers and increase average revenue per unique employer may be adversely affected by, among other things, economic growth and policies in China, market demand for online recruitment services, difficulties we may encounter in developing or launching higher priced services and price competition in the online recruitment services market in China.

We define a unique employer as a customer that purchases our online recruitment services during a specified period. An employer who purchases online services multiple times or in multiple quarters throughout the fiscal year is counted as one unique employer for the annual total. We make adjustments for multiple purchases by the same customer within a city to avoid double counting. Each employer is assigned a unique identification number in our management information system. Affiliates and branches of a given employer may, under certain circumstances, be counted as separate unique employers. Our calculation of the number of unique employers is subject to misidentification and other forms of error, including errors in judgment as to appropriate adjustments to be made to the data. We cannot assure you that our methodology, employer identification, calculations and analyses are accurate, or that they yield results that are comparable between periods or give a correct approximation of actual numbers of customers. The estimated number of unique employers using our online recruitment services does not include employers utilizing Lagou.com, which we acquired in December 2017. We define average revenue per unique employer as online recruitment services revenues divided by the number of unique employers for the specified period.

The following table sets forth the estimated number of unique employers who used our online recruitment services and the average revenue per unique employer for the periods indicated. In 2019, due to weak macroeconomic conditions that resulted in business inactivity and closures especially among smaller-sized companies, we saw a decrease in the estimated number of unique employers who used our online recruitment services. In 2020, the severe disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic also led to a reduction in the number of unique employers using our online platforms. However, despite the decline in unique employers, the average revenue per unique employer grew in 2019 and 2020 due to our successful efforts to increase spending among active customers and greater contribution from larger-sized accounts, whose hiring plans and budgets demonstrated better adaptability and continuity under challenging market and economic circumstances.

For the year ended December 31,

2018

2019

2020

Estimated unique employers using online recruitment services

485,008

422,458

360,755

Average revenue per unique employer (in RMB)

5,014

5,850

5,952

We generally require that all advertising fees be paid in advance of posting an advertisement on our platforms, although we may offer credit terms to select clients on a case-by-case basis.

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Other Human Resource Related Revenues

We generate revenues from employers and enterprises for using our other human resource related services. For our business processing outsourcing services, we receive a monthly fee, which is based on such factors as the scope and complexity of services provided, the cities where services will be delivered and the number of employees under contract to us, per each individual we serve on behalf of our corporate clients. For our campus recruitment services, we charge employers fees for preparing a customized campus recruitment strategic plan, promoting their image to students and schools, and handling on-campus logistics, event management, media content production and administrative tasks. For our training services, we receive participant fees for attending our seminars and workshops in-person and to access our various training materials and programs online. For our professional assessment tools and tests, we charge a subscription fee based on the number of individuals evaluated or tests taken as well as the type of tests administered on behalf of employers. For engaging our placement and executive search services, we receive fees for identifying prospective candidates, conducting interviews and completing new hires on behalf of employers. In addition, we also charge enterprises for purchasing our studies and reports on compensation and other human resource topics and for participating in our industry conferences and events. We expect to continue to expand and develop additional human resource related services and products for our corporate clients. We believe that these services are an important component of our “one-stop” human resource solutions strategy and enhance our reputation and image as an industry innovator. In addition, we believe our business process outsourcing business may experience less seasonal and cyclical variations in revenues than our online recruitment services over time.

The growth of our other human resource related services will be dependent on our ability to successfully develop, introduce and increase usage of these types of products and services. In addition, changes in government regulations and enforcement policies in China, as well as changes in the behavior and attitude of employers regarding compliance to tax and labor laws, talent development and human resource management, may affect the growth of our other human resource related services.

We believe the increase in our other human resource related revenues has been primarily driven by our ongoing sales and marketing efforts to promote customer understanding, acceptance and adoption of these products and services, particularly our business process outsourcing and training services. We expect that as we continue to expand the scale and scope of these services and meet growing market demand, revenues generated from these services may increase as a percentage of our overall revenues in the future.

Costs

We operate and manage our various businesses as a single segment. In addition, we share operating costs and management resources amongst these businesses. As a result, we do not account for our results of operations on a geographical or other basis, and we are unable to allocate costs among our various businesses.

The following table sets forth our cost of services and total operating expenses as a percentage of our net revenues for the periods indicated.

For the year ended December 31,

 

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

 

Cost of services

 

(28.6)

%  

(30.6)

%  

(34.2)

%

Total operating expenses

 

(41.0)

%  

(39.3)

%  

(42.3)

%

Our cost of services as a percentage of our net revenues is affected by our ability to achieve economies of scale and operating efficiencies. We believe that as we grow our operations and infrastructure, we can increase up-selling and cross-selling opportunities with customers across multiple markets and services, thereby allowing us to achieve economies of scale as we may be able to realize a higher level of revenues relative to our direct costs.

Although we expect to increase spending on sales and marketing activities and product development in order to strengthen our brand names and enhance our service offerings, we aim to decrease our cost of services and total operating expenses as a percentage of our net revenues in the longer term through greater economies of scale and improved operating efficiencies. However, our ability to achieve these objectives is subject to significant uncertainties, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to decrease these costs as a percentage of our net revenues.

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Cost of Services

Our cost of services primarily consists of the following: salary and employee compensation; subcontracting expenses; venue rental, event decoration, media content production, and other planning and logistics costs related to providing our campus recruitment services; costs related to training materials and contracted instructors; and data storage and bandwidth costs. The majority of our employee compensation and other service costs are largely shared across our various business lines. We pay subcontracting fees to third parties to provide services to us in connection with the operations of our business process outsourcing business. For our online recruitment services business, we have been able to leverage our existing infrastructure to grow our revenues, allowing us to incur limited additional costs relative to the higher revenues we have generated. While we expect that our cost of services in absolute amount will increase as we expand our business operations, we aim to lower this cost as a percentage of net revenues over time through greater economies of scale and scope as well as improved efficiency and productivity. However, cost of services as a percentage of net revenues increased in 2019 and 2020 due to headcount additions and greater employee costs which outpaced slower revenue growth in a period of heightened economic uncertainty and reduced market demand for our services in China.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses include sales and marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses.

The following table sets forth our operating expenses as a percentage of our net revenues for the periods indicated.

For the year ended December 31,

 

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

 

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Sales and marketing

 

(31.7)

%  

(29.7)

%  

(32.1)

%

General and administrative

 

(9.3)

 

(9.6)

 

(10.2)

Total operating expenses

 

(41.0)

%  

(39.3)

%  

(42.3)

%

Our sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of the following: salaries, commissions and share-based compensation for our sales and marketing staff; advertising and promotion expenses; and expenses for our sales management and staff related to our daily operations in local markets. The level of sales and marketing expenditures varies in each city annually and is impacted by a number of factors, including customer demand, competition and our strategic objectives in each market. In addition, the sales and marketing strategies we employ in each city varies depending on our determination of the most effective means to promote our brand names and services. We expect to continue to invest resources to strengthen our market position and brand names, to expand our sales force and to promote new products and services. Although we expect that our sales and marketing expenses in absolute amount will increase as we grow our businesses, we aim to manage these expenses as a percentage of net revenues over time by focusing on operational scalability and efficiency improvements.

Our general and administrative expenses primarily consist of the following: employee salaries, bonuses and share-based compensation; building depreciation, office rent and property management fees; administrative office expenses; and professional services fees. While we expect that our general and administrative expenses in absolute amount will increase as we grow our businesses, we aim to lower our general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net revenues in the longer term by capitalizing on operational and management efficiencies.

Taxation

We file income tax returns in multiple jurisdictions because we, our subsidiaries and our affiliated entities are tax residents of different jurisdictions.

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation, and there is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. No Cayman Islands stamp duty will be payable unless an instrument is executed in, or after execution, brought to or produced before a court in the Cayman Islands.

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British Virgin Islands

51net, our subsidiary incorporated in the British Virgin Islands, or BVI, is a business company subject to the provisions of the BVI Business Companies Act 2004 (as amended). Under current BVI laws, 51net is exempt from all provisions of the Income Tax Ordinance of the BVI (including with respect to all dividends, interests, rents, royalties, compensation and other amounts payable by 51net to persons who are not persons resident in the BVI). Capital gains realized with respect to any shares, debt obligations or other securities of a company by persons who are not persons resident in the BVI are also exempt from all provisions of the Income Tax Ordinance of the BVI. In addition, there are currently no withholding taxes or exchange control regulations in the BVI applicable to 51net.

Hong Kong

51net is registered in Hong Kong as a non-Hong Kong company and is subject to Hong Kong profits tax at a rate of 16.5% on its assessable profit.

PRC

Enterprise Income Tax. In March 2007, the National People’s Congress enacted the EIT Law (as amended in February 2017 and December 2018, respectively), which applies a uniform 25% EIT rate to both foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises effective from January 1, 2008. In December 2009, Tech JV was designated by relevant local authorities in Shanghai as a “High and New Technology Enterprise,” or HNTE, under the EIT Law and became subject to a preferential tax rate of 15%. Tech JV is entitled to this preferential 15% tax rate as long as it maintains the required qualifications, which is subject to review every three years. In 2018, its preferential tax status was renewed and is valid through 2020. We cannot assure you that Tech JV will continue to qualify as a HNTE when it is subject to reevaluation in the future.

The amount of income tax payable by our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities in the future will depend on various factors, including, among other things, the results of operations and taxable income of, and the EIT rate applicable to, each of the subsidiaries and affiliated entities, and our effective tax rate depends in part on the extent of each of our subsidiaries’ and affiliated entities’ relative contribution to our consolidated taxable income. As our overseas entities recognize share-based compensation expense and may recognize losses from foreign currency translation and from the change in fair values of financial instruments, which are not deductible for PRC tax purposes, our effective tax rate has at times exceeded the EIT rate in our history, including in 2019.

Withholding Tax. Under the EIT Law, dividends payable by a foreign-invested enterprise to its foreign investors from profits earned after January 1, 2008 are subject to a 10% withholding tax, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for a different withholding arrangement. The Cayman Islands, where we are incorporated, does not have such a tax treaty with China. Since we intend to permanently reinvest earnings to further expand our businesses in China, we do not intend to declare dividends from our foreign-invested enterprises in China to its immediate foreign holding entities in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2020, we have not recorded any withholding tax on the retained earnings of our foreign-invested enterprises in China.

Tax Residence. Under the EIT Law, enterprises organized under the laws of jurisdictions outside China with their “de facto management bodies” located within China may be considered PRC resident enterprises and therefore subject to an EIT rate of 25% on their worldwide income. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may be deemed a PRC resident enterprise under the EIT Law, which could subject us to PRC taxation on our global income and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.”

Value-Added Tax. Our net revenues reflect the impact of value-added tax, or VAT, which are levied on revenues generated from services we provide in China. Generally, our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities are subject to VAT rates of 5% or 6%, and are permitted to offset input VAT supported by valid VAT special invoices received from vendors against their VAT liability. VAT on the invoiced amount collected by the PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities on behalf of tax authorities in respect of services provided, net of VAT paid for purchases, is recorded as taxes payable until it is paid to the tax authorities.

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Government Surcharges. Our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities are also subject to certain government surcharges, including urban maintenance and construction tax and education surcharge, on the VAT payable in the PRC. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities providing advertising services are subject to the cultural business construction fee at the rate of 3% on the relevant taxable sales amount. Beginning January 1, 2019, the presentation of government surcharges has been included in cost of services. The amount of government surcharges for the year ended December 31, 2018 has been reclassified to conform with the current year’s presentation. This reclassification had no effect on the reported results in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.

Critical Accounting Policies

We prepare financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the financial reporting period. Our significant estimates include those related to allowances for accounts receivable and payments made on behalf of customers, estimated useful lives of property and equipment and intangible assets, fair values of options to purchase our common shares, fair values of financial instruments, impairment of long-lived assets, long-term investments and goodwill, the purchase price allocation and fair value of non-controlling interests with respect to business combinations, and deferred tax valuation allowance. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from those estimates. We consider the policies discussed below to be critical to an understanding of our financial statements as their application assists our management in making business decisions.

We operate and manage our various businesses as a single segment. In addition, since our revenues are primarily generated from customers in the PRC, we do not account for our results of operations on a geographical or other basis. Since many of our management and staff provide services with respect to many or all of our businesses, and since our infrastructure and operations are designed to facilitate all of our businesses as an integrated unit, we are unable to allocate costs among our various businesses or present our financial results in terms of multiple business segments.

Basis for Consolidation and Our Relationships with Our Affiliated Variable Interest Entities

We consolidate 100% of the interests of all of our subsidiaries and affiliated variable interest entities.

We have entered into contractual arrangements with Qian Cheng and Run An under which we bear all of their economic risks and received all of their economic rewards. In our consolidated financial statements, we have consolidated all of the interests of Qian Cheng and Run An under Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 810 “Consolidation,” or ASC 810. Qian Cheng is wholly owned by Run An. Run An is jointly owned by Jingwu Chen and Tao Wang, PRC nationals and long-time members of our senior management team.

ASC 810 requires a “variable interest entity” to be consolidated by the primary beneficiary of such entity. An entity is considered to be a variable interest entity if certain conditions are present, such as if the equity investors in the entity do not have the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or the entity does not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties. Under various agreements with Qian Cheng and Run An, we are considered the primary beneficiary of Qian Cheng and Run An, and all of their interests have been consolidated in our financial statements. All significant transactions and balances between us, our subsidiaries, Qian Cheng and Run An have been eliminated upon consolidation.

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We have been advised by Jun He Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, except as otherwise disclosed in this annual report, that these contractual arrangements are enforceable and our current business operations are not in violation of existing PRC laws, rules and regulations in all material aspects. There are, however, substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including but not limited to the laws and regulations governing our business or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements in the event of the imposition of statutory liens, death, bankruptcy and criminal proceedings. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to that of our PRC legal counsel. See “Item 3.D. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure —The PRC laws and regulations governing our business operations and contractual arrangements are uncertain, and if we are found to be in violation, we could be subject to sanctions” and “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC legal system has inherent uncertainties that could materially and adversely affect us.”

For additional information with respect to our contractual arrangements with Qian Cheng and Run An, see “Item 7.B. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Contractual Arrangements Among Our Group Entities.”

Revenue Recognition

In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.

The following is a description of the accounting policy for our principal revenue streams.

Online Recruitment Services Revenues

We provide online recruitment services through several websites and their respective mobile applications.

We sell recruitment packages that provide a single service or combination of services, such as job postings, access to a searchable resumé database, advertising and online management tools, which assist employers with their hiring process. The subscription period of recruitment packages ranges from one month to one year, and the display period for online advertising ranges from one week to one year. Revenue is recognized when services are provided over the subscription or display period.

Other Human Resource Related Revenues

We provide other value-added human resource services, such as business process outsourcing, campus recruitment, training, assessment, placement and other services.

We assist employers with human resource administrative functions on an outsourced basis, which mainly consist of social insurance, benefits and payroll processing as well as regulatory compliance services. Employers can choose to utilize a single service or combination of services. The fees collected for providing these services are mainly based on a fixed fee per employee or transaction processed. The contract term for business process outsourcing services ranges from one to three years. Revenue is recognized when services are performed and the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits from these services, generally on a monthly basis.

We provide campus recruitment services to employers. These services include planning, promoting and managing recruitment events online or in-person on or near college campuses as well as a host of selection and screening services that enable employers to successfully recruit college students and graduates. Revenue is recognized when these events and the tasks in conjunction to these events as outlined in the contract with customers have been completed.

We conduct training programs, workshops and physical activities related to a variety of business and management topics, such as leadership, communication skills and team building. Revenue is recognized when participants attend training events we organize. For professional assessment tests, revenue is recognized when tests are administered to job candidates and employees.

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For placement services, revenue is recognized as the identification of prospective candidates to fill job positions as designated in the contract is completed and accepted by customers. For other services such as compensation benchmarking reports, revenue is recognized when services are performed and items are delivered.

For a contract involving multiple services, we allocate revenue based on a relative basis, using the value of each service on a standalone basis, which is determined utilizing our regular selling prices charged in unbundled arrangements. Cash received in advance of services being delivered are recognized as advances from customers.

See Note 2(k) to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for further discussion of revenue recognition under ASC 606.

Allowances for Credit Losses on Accounts Receivable and Payments Made on Behalf of Customers

On January 1, 2020, we adopted ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which amends previously issued guidance regarding the impairment of financial instruments by creating an impairment model that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. The adoption of this standard had no material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

To estimate expected credit losses, we have identified the relevant risk characteristics of our customers and the related accounts receivable and payments made on behalf of customers which include size, type of the services or the products we provide, or a combination of these characteristics. Receivables with similar risk characteristics have been grouped into pools. For each pool, we consider the past collection experience, current economic conditions, future economic conditions (external data and macroeconomic factors) and changes in our customer collection trends. This is assessed at each quarter based on specific facts and circumstances.

Long-Term Investments

Our long-term investments include equity securities with readily determinable fair values, equity securities without readily determinable fair values, equity method investments and available-for-sale debt securities. Equity securities with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value with unrealized gains and losses recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. Equity securities without readily determinable fair values, and for which we do not control or exercise significant influence, are measured and recorded using a measurement alternative that measures the securities at cost less impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from qualifying observable price changes. For investees over which we do have the ability to exercise significant influence, but do not have a controlling interest, we account for these investments under the equity method. Under the equity method, we initially record investments at cost and subsequently recognize proportionate share of each equity investee’s change in fair value in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and accordingly adjust the carrying amount of the investment. Available-for-sale debt securities are carried at their fair value at each balance sheet date and changes in fair value are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. We also evaluate equity method investments and available-for-sale debt securities for other-than-temporary impairment. No other-than-temporary impairment charge for our long-term investments was incurred in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized an impairment loss of RMB98.3 million associated with an investment in a provider of on-demand work opportunities in the United States, primarily due to changes in its business prospects and financial condition.

Fair Value of Available-for-Sale Debt Securities

We report available-for-sale debt securities at fair value at each balance sheet date and changes in fair value are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. Fair value of the available-for-sale debt securities is measured using Level 3 inputs within the fair value hierarchy. In determining the fair value and with assistance from an independent appraisal, we utilize a market approach, which requires management to use unobservable inputs such as the probabilities of various exit scenarios to the investment, time to exit events and the expected share volatility based on volatilities of selected peer companies. These unobservable inputs and resulting fair value estimates may be affected by unexpected changes in future market or economic conditions.

For details of the fair value measurement of available-for-sale debt securities and the fair value hierarchy, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

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Long-Lived Assets

Our accounting for long-lived assets, including property and equipment, goodwill and intangible assets, is described in Notes 2(g) and 2(i) to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The recorded value of long-lived assets is affected by a number of management estimates, including estimated useful lives, residual values and impairment charges.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets Other Than Goodwill

We assess long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of an asset group based on the undiscounted future cash flows the asset group is expected to generate and recognize an impairment loss when the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group plus net proceeds expected from the disposition of the asset group, if any, are less than the carrying value of the asset group. If we identify an impairment, we reduce the carrying amount of the asset group to its estimated fair value based on a discounted cash flow approach or, when available and appropriate, to comparable market values. We did not record any impairment charges for long-lived assets for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020.

Impairment of Goodwill

We assess goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired. Our annual testing date is December 31. We first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. In the qualitative assessment, we consider primary factors such as industry and market considerations, overall financial performance of the reporting unit, and other specific information related to the operations. Based on the qualitative assessment, if it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is performed.

In performing the two-step quantitative impairment test, we first compare the book value of net assets to the fair value of the reporting units. If the fair value is determined to be less than the book value, a second step is performed to compute the amount of impairment as the difference between the estimated fair value of goodwill and the carrying value.

On January 1, 2020, we adopted ASU No. 2017-04, "Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment," which simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by removing the second step. We, therefore, perform the goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.

Application of a goodwill impairment test requires significant management judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assigning assets, liabilities and goodwill to reporting units, and determining the fair value of each reporting unit. We estimate the fair value of the reporting unit using a discounted cash flow model. This valuation approach considers various assumptions including projections of future cash flows, perpetual growth rates and discount rates. The assumptions about future cash flows and growth rates are based on management’s assessment of a number of factors, including the reporting unit’s recent performance against budget, performance in the market that the reporting unit serves, as well as industry and general economic data from third party sources. Discount rate assumptions reflect an assessment of the risk inherent in those future cash flows. Changes to the underlying businesses could affect the future cash flows, which in turn could affect the fair value of the reporting unit.

We had no goodwill impairment for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020.

Share-Based Compensation

We account for share-based compensatio