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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
or
Transition report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
Commission file number:
001-34365
cvgi-20211231_g1.jpg
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware41-1990662
(State of Incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
7800 Walton Parkway
 43054
New Albany, Ohio
 (Zip Code)
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(614) 289-5360
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareCVGIThe NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨      No  þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Schedule 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨      No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
    Large accelerated filer  ¨      Accelerated filer  þ      Non-accelerated filer  ¨      Smaller reporting company  Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes       No  þ
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on June 30, 2021, was $335,586,432.
As of March 1, 2022, 32,879,150 shares of Common Stock of the Registrant were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for its annual meeting to be held May 19, 2022 (the “2022 Proxy Statement”).
            


Table of Contents
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
 
  Page
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.
i

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CERTAIN DEFINITIONS
All references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the “Company”, “Commercial Vehicle Group”, “CVG”, “we”, “us”, and “our” refer to Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries (unless the context otherwise requires).
FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. For this purpose, any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact, including without limitation, certain statements under “Item 1 - Business” and “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and located elsewhere herein regarding industry outlook, the Company’s expectations for future periods with respect to its plans to improve financial results, the future of the Company’s end markets, including the short-term and long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and the global supply chain, changes in the Class 8 and Class 5-7 North America truck build rates, performance of the global construction equipment business, the Company’s prospects in the wire harness, warehouse automation and electric vehicle markets, the Company’s initiatives to address customer needs, organic growth, the Company’s strategic plans and plans to focus on certain segments, competition faced by the Company, volatility in and disruption to the global economic environment, including inflation and labor shortages, financial covenant compliance, anticipated effects of acquisitions, production of new products, plans for capital expenditures and our results of operations or financial position and liquidity, may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believe”, “anticipate”, “plan”, “expect”, “intend”, “will”, “should”, “could”, “would”, “project”, “continue”, “likely”, and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The important factors discussed in “Item 1A - Risk Factors”, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements made herein and presented elsewhere by management from time to time. Such forward-looking statements represent management’s current expectations and are inherently uncertain. Investors are warned that actual results may differ from management’s expectations. Additionally, various economic and competitive factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, factors which are outside our control.

Any forward-looking statement that we make in this report speaks only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or to publicly announce the results of any revision to any of those statements to reflect future events or developments. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data.

ii

Table of Contents
PART I
Item 1.    Business
COMPANY OVERVIEW
CVG is a global provider of systems, assemblies and components to the global commercial vehicle market, the electric vehicle market, and the warehouse automation markets.
We have manufacturing operations in the United States, Mexico, China, United Kingdom, Belgium, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Thailand, India and Australia. Our products are primarily sold in North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region.
We primarily manufacture customized products to meet the requirements of our customer. We believe our products are used by a majority of the North American Commercial Truck manufacturers, many construction vehicle original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") and top e-commerce retailers.
Our Long-term Strategy
Refer to Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
SEGMENTS
In the quarter ended December 31, 2021, we completed a strategic reorganization of our operations into four segments, Vehicle Solutions, Warehouse Automation, Electrical Systems and Aftermarket & Accessories. The reorganization will allow the Company to better focus on growth opportunities, capital allocation and enhancing shareholder value. As a result of the strategic reorganization, the prior period segment information has been reclassified to conform to the new organization structure. See Note 16, Segment Reporting, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our segments offer various products which are sold into many end markets such as internal combustion commercial vehicles, electric vehicles, construction equipment, warehouse automation and military. Certain of our facilities manufacture and sell products through multiple business segments. The products produced by each of our segments are more specifically described below.

The Vehicle Solutions segment designs, manufactures and sells the following products:
Commercial vehicle seats for the global commercial vehicle markets including heavy duty trucks, medium duty trucks, last mile delivery trucks and vans, construction and agriculture equipment in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. This segment includes a portion of the company’s activities in the electric vehicle market;
Plastic components ("Trim") primarily for the North America commercial vehicle market and recreational vehicle markets; and Cab structures for the North American medium-duty/heavy-duty ("MD/HD") truck market.

The Warehouse Automation segment designs, manufactures and sells the following products:
Warehouse automation subsystems including control panels, electro-mechanical assemblies, cable assemblies, and power and communication solutions.
The end markets for these products primarily include e-commerce, warehouse integration, transportation and the military/defense industry.

The Electrical Systems segment designs, manufactures and sells the following products:
Cable and harness assemblies for both high and low voltage applications, control boxes, dashboard assemblies and design and engineering for these applications.
The end markets for these products are construction, agricultural, industrial, automotive (both internal combustion and electric vehicles), truck, mining, rail and the military/ defense industries in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific.

The Aftermarket & Accessories segment designs, manufactures and sells the following products:
Seats and components sold into the commercial vehicle markets in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific;
Commercial vehicle accessories including wipers, mirrors, and sensors; and
Office seats primarily in Europe and Asia-Pacific.
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The charts below display CVG's net sales by segment and geography for the year ended December 31, 2021.
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VEHICLE SOLUTIONS SEGMENT OVERVIEW

Vehicle Solutions Segment Products

Set forth below is a brief description of our products manufactured in the Vehicle Solutions Segment and their applications.

Seats and Seating Systems. We design, engineer and produce seats for MD/HD truck, bus, construction, agriculture and military markets. Our seats are primarily sold fully-assembled and ready for installation. We offer a wide range of seats that include mechanical and air suspension seats, static seats, bus seats and military seats. As a result of our product design and product technology, we believe we are a leader in designing seats with convenience and safety features. Our seats are designed to achieve a high level of operator comfort by adding a wide range of manual and power features such as lumbar support, cushion and back bolsters, and leg and thigh support. Our seats are built to meet customer requirements in low volumes and produced in numerous feature combinations to form a full-range product line with a wide level of price points.

Our seats are sold under multiple brands, including KAB Seating, National Seating, Bostrom Seating®, and Stratos.

Plastic Assemblies and Components. We design, engineer and produce plastic components and assemblies for medium and heavy duty trucks, recreational vehicles, specialty vehicle applications, and diversified markets. We offer thermoformed products, injection molded products, reaction injection molded products (RIM), and decorated / hydrographic finished products. We also assemble components and fabrics to these formed plastic parts and deliver complete subassemblies. Our principal products in this category include:
Molded Products. Our molded products include both large and small parts. Specific components include vinyl or cloth-covered appliqués ranging from a traditional cut and sew approach to a contemporary molded styling theme, armrests, map pocket compartments, and sound-reducing insulation.

Instrument Panels. We produce and assemble instrument panels that can be integrated with the rest of the interior trim. The instrument panel is a complex system of coverings and foam, plastic and metal parts designed to house various components and act as a safety device for the vehicle occupant.

Plastics Decorating and Finishing. We offer customers a wide variety of cost-effective finishes in paint, ultra violet, hard coating and customized industrial hydrographic films (simulated appearance of wood grain, carbon fiber, brushed metal, marbles, camouflage and custom patterns), and other interior and exterior finishes.

Our plastic products are sold under several brand names including FinishTEKand AdvancTek.

Cab Structures and Interior Parts. We design, engineer and produce complete cab structures and interior design components for commercial vehicles. Our principal products in this category include:
Cab Structures. We design, manufacture and assemble complete cab structures. Our cab structures, which are manufactured from both steel and aluminum, are delivered fully assembled and primed for paint.

Cab Interiors. We design, manufacture and provide a variety of interior design products including armrests, grab handles, storage systems, floor coverings, floor mats, sleeper bunks, headliners, wall panels, and privacy curtains that can be part of the overall cab structure or standalone assemblies depending on the customer application.
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WAREHOUSE AUTOMATION SEGMENT OVERVIEW

Warehouse Automation Segment Products

Electrical Systems, Panel Assemblies, and Electro-Mechanical Assemblies. We offer a wide range of material handling equipment, electrical distribution systems, and related assemblies primarily for the e-commerce, warehouse integration, transportation and the military/ defense markets. Our principal products in this category include:
Panel Assemblies. We offer integrated assemblies and cabinets that are installed in a vehicle or unit of equipment and may be integrated with our wire harness assemblies. These components provide the user control over multiple operational functions and features.

Electro-Mechanical Assemblies. We offer electro-mechanical assemblies, including box builds, complex automated and robotic assemblies, and large multi-cabinet control cabinets with power distribution and cabling. Our service includes mechanical assembly, wire and cable routing, automated wire preparation capabilities, complex configurations, test and custom palletizing and crating solutions.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SEGMENT OVERVIEW

Electrical Systems Segment Products

Wire Harness Assemblies. We design, engineer and produce a wide range of high and low voltage electrical wire systems for vehicles and subsystems, which include, Ethernet, battery cables and power distribution boxes. Our electrical wire harness assemblies function as the primary electric current carrying devices used to provide electrical interconnections for gauges, lights, control functions, power circuits, powertrain and transmission sensors, emissions systems and other electronic applications on commercial and other vehicles. Our wire harnesses are customized to fit specific end-user requirements and can be complex. Our production capabilities include low and high volume serial production with low and high volume circuitry, RIM (reaction injection molding) and specialized testing.

Cable Harness Assemblies. Our primary product offerings include engineering design for customized cable assemblies, control boxes, fuse boxes, dashboard assemblies in multiple sizes, complexity, and applications. Our engineering and production capabilities include virtual wiring boards, automatic plug insertion stations, system architecture and schematic development and prototyping.

Our electrical systems segment products are sold into the construction, agriculture, industrial, e-commerce and electric vehicles, traditional automotive, mining, rail and military end markets.
AFTERMARKET & ACCESSORIES SEGMENT OVERVIEW

Aftermarket & Accessories Segment Products

We design, manufacture, and provide a variety of seats, mirrors, wipers and wiper systems sold into the commercial MD/HD truck, military and specialty recreational vehicles, electric vehicle, office and home office markets. These products are sold under various brands including, Bostrom®, National Seating, Moto Mirror®, KAB Seating (for both vehicles and Office markets), Sprague Devices® and RoadWatch®.

Our aftermarket products are primarily sold through the Original Equipment Service (OES) sales channel and direct into the retail aftermarket as replacements for original equipment in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific.

OUR CONSOLIDATED OPERATIONS
As a diverse global company, we are affected by economic and market developments around the world, supply chain disruptions, instability in certain regions, commodity prices, foreign currency volatility and policies regarding trade and imports. While we continue to operate, consistent with applicable government guidelines, we are experiencing, and may continue to experience, production slowdowns and/or shutdowns at our manufacturing facilities in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific as a result of government orders, our inability to obtain component parts from suppliers and/or unpredictable customer demand. In addition, many of our suppliers and customers are also experiencing, and may continue to experience, production slowdowns and/or shutdowns, which may further impact our business, sales and results of operation.
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Primary Industries Served
Commercial Vehicle Market.     Commercial vehicles are used in a wide variety of end markets, including local and long-haul commercial trucking, bus, construction, mining, agricultural, military, industrial, municipal, off-road recreational and specialty vehicle markets. The commercial vehicle supply industry can generally be separated into two categories: (1) sales to OEMs, in which products are sold in relatively large quantities directly for use by OEMs in new commercial and construction vehicles; and (2) aftermarket sales, in which products are sold as replacements to a wide range of original equipment service organizations, wholesalers, retailers and installers. Additionally, we are seeing a trend toward alternate fuel and electric vehicles, middle-mile and last-mile vehicle models.
North American Commercial Truck Market.    Purchasers of commercial trucks include fleet operators, owner operators, governmental agencies and industrial end users. Commercial vehicles used for local and long-haul commercial trucking are generally classified by gross vehicle weight. Class 8 vehicles are trucks with gross vehicle weight in excess of 33,000 lbs. and Classes 5 through 7 vehicles are trucks with gross vehicle weight from 16,001 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. Separately, we are seeing changes in e-commerce behaviors that are driving increased demand for middle-mile and last-mile vehicles.
The following describes the major markets within the commercial vehicle market in which the Vehicle Solutions Segment competes:
Class 8 Truck Market.     The global Class 8 ("Class 8" or "heavy-duty") truck manufacturing market is concentrated in three primary regions: North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The global Class 8 truck market is localized in nature due to the following factors: (1) the prohibitive costs of shipping components from one region to another, (2) the high degree of customization to meet the region-specific demands of end-users, and (3) the ability to meet just-in-time delivery requirements. New Class 8 truck demand is cyclical and is particularly sensitive to economic factors that generate a significant portion of the freight tonnage hauled by commercial vehicles.
Class 5-7 Truck Market. North American Class 5-7 ("Class 5-7" or "medium-duty") includes recreational vehicles, buses and medium-duty trucks. We primarily participate in the Class 6 and 7 portion of the medium-duty truck market. The medium-duty truck market is influenced by overall economic conditions but has historically been less cyclical than the North American Class 8 truck market.
Commercial Truck Aftermarket.     Demand for aftermarket products is driven by the quality of OEM parts, the number of vehicles in operation, the average age of the vehicle fleet, the content and value per vehicle, vehicle usage and the average useful life of vehicle parts. Aftermarket sales tend to be at a higher margin. The recurring nature of aftermarket revenue can be expected to provide some insulation to the overall cyclical nature of the industry as it tends to provide a more stable stream of revenues. Brand equity and the extent of a company’s distribution network also contribute to the level of aftermarket sales. We believe CVG has a widely recognized brand portfolio and participates in most retail sales channels including original equipment dealer networks and independent distributors.
Construction Equipment Market.     New vehicle demand in the global construction equipment market generally follows certain economic conditions including gross domestic product, infrastructure investment, housing starts, business investment, oil and energy investment and industrial production around the world. Within the construction market, there are two classes of construction equipment markets: the medium and heavy construction equipment market (weighing over 12 metric tons) and the light construction equipment market (weighing below 12 metric tons). We primarily supply OEMs with our wire harness and seating products. Our construction equipment products are primarily used in the medium and heavy construction equipment markets. The platforms that we generally participate in include: cranes, pavers, planers and profilers, dozers, loaders, graders, haulers, tractors, excavators, backhoes, material handling and compactors. Demand in the medium and heavy construction equipment market is typically related to the level of larger-scale infrastructure development projects such as highways, dams, harbors, hospitals, airports and industrial development as well as activity in the mining, forestry and other commodities industries.
Purchasers of medium and heavy construction equipment include construction companies, municipalities, local governments, rental fleet owners, quarrying and mining companies and forestry related industries. Purchasers of light construction equipment include contractors, rental fleet owners, landscapers, logistics companies and farmers.
Military Equipment Market.     We supply products for heavy- and medium-payload tactical vehicles and complex military communications equipment over multiple product lines that are used by various defense customers. Military equipment production is particularly sensitive to political and governmental budgetary considerations.
Warehouse Automation Market.     Shifting retailer behavior and consumer expectations are creating a significant need for incremental automation within warehouses. Given consumer demands for next-day (and same-day) delivery,
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there has been a surge in demand for “last mile” urban fulfillment centers, which are typically supported by very large distribution centers located in the outer ring of a city. Additionally, increased throughput volume, a greater variety of order and package types, and more frequent product returns by end consumers, all support the rationale for continued investment in automated solutions by warehouse operators. We supply material handling subsystems incorporated into automated warehouses.
Our Customer Contracts, and Sales and Marketing

Our customers generally source business to us pursuant to written contracts, purchase orders or other commitments (“Commercial Arrangements”) with terms of price, quality, technology, and delivery. Awarded business generally covers the supply of all or a portion of a customer’s production and service requirements for a particular product program rather than the supply of a specific quantity of products. In general, these Commercial Arrangements provide that the customer can terminate them if we do not meet specified quality, delivery and cost requirements. Although these Commercial Arrangements may be terminated at any time by our customers (but generally not by us), such terminations have historically been minimal and have not had a material impact on our results of operations.

Our Commercial Arrangements with our OEM customers may provide for an annual prospective productivity price reduction. These productivity price reductions are generally calculated on an annual basis as a percentage of the previous year’s purchases by each customer. Historically, most of these price reductions have been offset by internal cost reductions and through the assistance of our supply base, although no assurances can be given that we will be able to achieve such reductions in the future. The cost reduction is achieved through engineering changes, material cost reductions, logistics savings, reductions in packaging cost, labor efficiencies and other productivity actions.
Our sales and marketing efforts are designed to create customer awareness of our engineering, design and manufacturing capabilities. Our sales and marketing staff work closely with our design and engineering personnel to prepare the materials used for bidding on new business, as well as to provide an interface between us and our key customers. We have sales and marketing personnel located in every major region in which we operate. From time to time, we participate in industry trade shows and advertise in industry publications.
Our Supply Agreements
Our supply agreements generally provide for fixed pricing but do not require us to purchase any specified quantities. Normally we do not carry inventories of raw materials or finished products in excess of what is reasonably required to meet production and shipping schedules, as well as service requirements. Steel, aluminum, petroleum-based products, copper, resin, foam, fabrics, wire and wire components comprise the most significant portion of our raw material costs. We typically purchase steel, copper and petroleum-based products at market prices that are fixed over varying periods of time. Due to the volatility in pricing, we use methods such as market index pricing and competitive bidding to assist in reducing our overall cost. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on raw materials has affected the supply and prices of certain of our products. We strive to align our customer pricing and material costs to minimize the impact of price fluctuations. Certain component purchases and suppliers are directed by our customers, so we generally will pass through directly to the customer cost changes from these components. We generally are not dependent on a single supplier or limited group of suppliers for our raw materials.
Competition
Within each of our principal product categories we compete with a variety of independent suppliers and with vertically integrated in-house operations, primarily on the basis of price, breadth of product offerings, product quality, technical expertise, development capability, product delivery and product service.
Manufacturing Processes
We utilize a wide range of manufacturing processes to produce our products. The end markets for our products can be highly specialized and our customers frequently request modified products in low volumes within an expedited delivery timeframe. As a result, we primarily utilize flexible manufacturing cells at our production facilities. Manufacturing cells are clusters of individual manufacturing operations and work stations. This provides flexibility by allowing efficient changes to the number of operations each operator performs. When compared to the more traditional, less flexible assembly line process, cell manufacturing allows us to better maintain our product output consistent with our OEM customers’ requirements and minimize the level of inventory.
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We have systems in place that allow us to provide complete customized interior kits in returnable containers and disposable dunnage that are delivered in sequence. Several of our manufacturing facilities are strategically located near our customers’ assembly facilities, which facilitates this process and minimizes shipping costs.
We employ just-in-time manufacturing and sourcing in our operations to meet customer requirements for faster deliveries and to minimize our need to carry significant inventory levels. We utilize material systems to manage inventory levels and, in certain locations, we have inventory delivered as often as two times per day from a nearby facility based on the previous day’s order, which reduces the need to carry excess inventory at our facilities.
We strive to maintain a certain portion of temporary labor to improve our ability to flex our costs and throughput as required by fluctuating customer demand. We engage our core employees to assist in making our processes efficient.
Research and Development
Our research and development capabilities offer quality and technologically advanced products to our customers at competitive prices. We offer product styling, product design, specialized simulation and testing and evaluation services that are necessary in today’s global markets. Our capabilities in acoustics, thermal efficiency, benchmarking, multi-axis durability, biomechanics, comfort, prototyping and process prove-out allow us to provide complete integrated solutions.
We engage in global engineering, and research and development activities that improve the reliability, performance and cost-effectiveness of our existing products and support the design, development and testing of new products for existing and new applications. Generally, we work with our customers’ engineering and development teams at the beginning of the design process for new components and assemblies and systems, or the re-engineering process for existing components and assemblies, in order to leverage production efficiency and quality.
Research and development costs for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 totaled $9.1 million, $6.4 million and $9.9 million, respectively.
Intellectual Property
Our major brands include CVG, Sprague Devices®, Moto Mirror®, RoadWatch®, KAB Seating, National Seating, Bostrom Seating®, Stratos, FinishTEKand AdvancTek. We believe that our brands are valuable but that our business is not dependent on any one brand. We own U.S. federal trademark registrations for several of our product brands.
Environmental
The Company is subject to changing federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment and occupational health and safety, including laws regulating air emissions, wastewater discharges, generation, storage, handling, use and transportation of hazardous materials; the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the soil, ground or air; and the health and safety of our colleagues. Stringent fines and penalties may be imposed for noncompliance with these laws. In addition, environmental laws could impose liability for costs associated with investigating and remediating contamination at the Company’s facilities or at third-party facilities at which the Company may arrange for the disposal treatment of hazardous materials.

The Company believes it is in compliance in all material respects, with all applicable environmental laws and the Company is not aware of any noncompliance or obligation to investigate or remediate contamination that could reasonably be expected to result in a material liability. Several of our facilities are either certified as, or are in the process of being certified as ISO 9001, 14000, 14001 or TS16949 (the international environmental management standard) compliant or are developing similar environmental management systems. We have made, and will continue to make, capital and other expenditures to implement such environmental programs and comply with environmental requirements.

The environmental laws continue to be amended and revised to impose stricter obligations, and compliance with future additional environmental requirements could necessitate capital outlays. However, the Company does not believe that these expenditures will ultimately result in a material adverse effect on its financial position or results of operations. The Company cannot predict the precise effect such future requirements, if enacted, would have on the Company. The Company believes that such regulations would be enacted over time and would affect the industry as a whole.
Human Capital, Environmental, Social and Governance

As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 7,600 employees of which 7,300 were permanent employees and 300 (4%) were temporary employees. 6,100 (81%) of the Company's employees are international and 1,500 (20%) of the Company's
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employees are in the United States. It is customary for the company to employ temporary employees to both flex up / down to demand rates. Of our permanent workforce, approximately 1,000 (13%) were salaried and the remainder were hourly. As of December 31, 2021, all of the Company's U.S. employees were non-union and a majority of the Company's personnel in Mexico were unionized. Approximately 74% of our European, Asian and Australian operations were represented by some form of shop steward committees.

The Company is committed to establishing and developing a workforce to support our long term diversification and growth strategy through targeted external recruiting, and internal development and succession planning. We have developed leaders and emerging leaders for targeted training opportunities and have leveraged online learning platforms to make training more accessible for our workforce.

Compensation and Benefits - Our compensation programs reinforce a pay for performance philosophy with market-based compensation and benefits that are competitive for the manufacturing sector. Specific programs vary worldwide based on regional practices and benchmarks.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - The Company is intentional in its commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion including a diverse Board of Directors and executive leadership team. Approximately one fourth of our current Board is diverse by race or gender and one fourth of our current executive team is diverse by race or gender with others bringing diversity of experience, thought and perspective to their leadership roles. Among our global workforce, 44% is female, and among our domestic workforce, 27% is racially diverse.

The Company recognizes the importance of leveraging diversity, equity and inclusion in who we are and how we work. Our Executive Diversity & Inclusion Steering Committee continues to focus on expanding the diversity of our talent pipeline through our recruiting, development, communication, and retention. We will focus on the role our culture plays in creating the right environment for diverse thinking and inclusive approaches to work. During regular engagements with our leadership teams, we are highlighting how our organizational evolution benefits from a culture of diversity. We are also reestablishing the connection to the communities where our employees live and work, enabling our teams to grow both professionally and personally.

Safety - The safety of our workforce has always been a top priority and the Company is proud of our safety record, which includes three consecutive years of declining recordable incidents and five consecutive years of declining incident rates. Our 2021 full year incident rate of 0.63 is below the industry benchmarks and five of our global facilities were incident free in calendar year 2021.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to require our focus and monitoring. We continued the evolution of safety practices and procedures to protect our employees, ensuring our work continuity as an essential manufacturing employer. During 2021, we maintained our prevention and mitigation strategies including minimal travel across borders where non-essential, visitor restrictions, and site screening protocols were in place. We continue to use safety programs in our largest facilities for rapid onsite antibody testing and high-capacity thermal scanners. As we see surges occur in local areas, our sites have adopted flexible programs regarding masks and social distancing as required. Some of our plants continue to operate with masking policies where we experience a surge in cases both in the facility or the larger community.
CVG is committed to operating in an ethical and sustainable manner that benefits all our stakeholders including customers, employees and the communities we serve. We have established company-wide environmental, human rights and labor rights policies that outline the Company’s standards for all business operations. More information on these policies can be found on our website under the caption “About Us - CVG Policies,” including highlights of our ongoing Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) efforts related to safety, quality, environmental, community engagement and corporate governance.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
We maintain a website on the Internet at www.cvgrp.com. We make available free of charge through our website, by way of a hyperlink to a third-party Securities Exchange Commission ("SEC") filing website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits and amendments to those reports electronically filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934. Such information is available as soon as such reports are filed with the SEC. Additionally, our Code of Ethics may be accessed within the Investor Relations section of our website. Information found on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report filed with the SEC.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
See Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance" in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Item 1A.Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. These are not the only risks we face. If any of these risks and uncertainties were to actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to COVID-19 Pandemic, health epidemics and Global Economy
Our financial condition and results of operations have been and will continue to be adversely affected by the coronavirus pandemic
The global spread of COVID-19 that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization and the preventative measures taken to contain or mitigate the outbreak have caused, and are continuing to cause, significant volatility and uncertainty and economic disruptions. The outbreak has resulted in governments around the world implementing increasingly stringent measures to contain or mitigate the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments, vaccine mandates and other measures. While we continue to operate, consistent with applicable government guidelines, we are experiencing, and may continue to experience, production slowdowns and/or shutdowns at our manufacturing facilities in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific as a result of government orders, our inability to obtain component parts from suppliers and/or unpredictable customer demand. In addition, many of our suppliers and customers are also experiencing, and may continue to experience, production slowdowns and/or shutdowns, which may further impact our business, sales and results of operation.
The resulting financial impact of COVID-19 has adversely affected our business, supply chain, sales, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, we may experience adverse impacts to our business due to any resulting economic inflation, recession or depression that may continue to impact customer demand and the financial instability or operating viability of our suppliers and customers. Additionally, a significant outbreak of any other contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products and adversely impact our operating results.

Volatility in and disruption to the global economic environment and changes in the regulatory and business environments in which we operate may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The commercial vehicle industry as a whole has been more adversely affected by volatile economic conditions than many other industries, as the purchase or replacement of commercial vehicles, which are durable items, may be deferred for many reasons. Future changes in the regulatory and business environments in which we operate, including increased trade protectionism and tariffs, may adversely affect our ability to sell our products or source materials needed to manufacture our products. Furthermore, financial instability or bankruptcy at any of our suppliers or customers could disrupt our ability to manufacture our products and impair our ability to collect receivables, any or all of which may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, some of our customers and suppliers may experience serious cash flow problems and, thus, may find it difficult to obtain financing, if financing is available at all. Any inability of customers to pay us for our products and services, or any demands by suppliers for different payment terms, or inability of our suppliers to supply us may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, our suppliers may not be successful in generating sufficient sales, restarting or ramping up production or securing alternate financing arrangements, and therefore may no longer be able to supply goods and services to us. In that event, we would need to find alternate sources for these goods and services, and there is no assurance we would be able to find such alternate sources on favorable terms, if at all. Disruption in our supply chain has had and could continue to have an adverse effect on our ability to manufacture and deliver our products on a timely basis, and thereby affect our results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by downturns in the U.S. and global economy which are naturally accompanied by related declines in new truck orders by fleets, freight tonnage hauled and in infrastructure development and other construction projects.
Our results of operations are directly impacted by changes in the U.S. and global economic conditions, which are accompanied by related declines in freight tonnage hauled and in infrastructure development and other construction projects because, among other things:
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Demand for our MD/HD Truck products is generally dependent on the number of new MD/HD Truck commercial vehicles manufactured in North America. Historically, the demand for MD/HD Truck commercial vehicles has declined during periods of weakness in the North American economy.
Demand for our construction equipment products is dependent on vehicle demand for new commercial vehicles in the global construction equipment market.
Demand in the medium and heavy-construction vehicle market, which is where our products are primarily used, is typically related to the level of larger-scale infrastructure development projects.
If we experience periods of low demand for our products or there is volatility in the commercial vehicle market in the future, it could have an adverse effect on our revenues, operating results and financial position.

We may be unable to successfully implement our business strategy and, as a result, our businesses and financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to achieve our business and financial objectives is subject to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, we may not be successful in implementing our strategy if unforeseen factors emerge diminishing the current levels or any future expected growth in the commercial vehicle, warehouse automation or electric vehicle markets we supply or expect to penetrate, or we experience increased pressure on our margins. Any failure to successfully implement our business strategy could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and growth potential.

We may be unable to complete strategic acquisitions, or we may encounter unforeseen difficulties in integrating acquisitions.
We may pursue acquisition targets that will allow us to continue to expand into new geographic markets, add new customers, provide new products, manufacturing and service capabilities and increase penetration with existing customers. However, we expect to face competition for acquisition candidates, which may limit the number of our acquisition opportunities and may lead to higher acquisition prices. Moreover, acquisition of businesses may require additional debt and/or equity financing, perhaps resulting in additional leverage and/or shareholder dilution. The covenants relating to our debt instruments may further limit our ability to complete acquisitions. There can be no assurance we will find attractive acquisition candidates or successfully integrate acquired businesses into our existing business. If the expected synergies from acquisitions do not materialize or we fail to successfully integrate such new businesses into our existing businesses, our results of operations could also be adversely affected.

Circumstances associated with our acquisition and divestiture strategy could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
From time to time we evaluate the performance and strategic fit of our businesses and may decide to sell a business or product line based on such an evaluation. Any divestitures may result in significant write-offs, including those related to goodwill and other tangible and intangible assets, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our customer base is concentrated and the loss of business from a major customer or the discontinuation of particular commercial vehicle platforms could reduce our revenues.
Even though we may be selected as the supplier of a product by an OEM for a particular vehicle, our OEM customers issue blanket purchase orders, which generally provide for the supply of that customer’s annual requirements for that vehicle, rather than for a specific number of our products. If the OEM’s requirements are less than estimated, the number of products we sell to that OEM will be accordingly reduced. In addition, the OEM may terminate its purchase orders with us at any time. The loss of any of our large customers or the loss of significant business from any of these customers could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
On October 25, 2021, the Company provided notice to the Volvo Group (“Volvo”) of the Company’s intention to terminate its agreement with Volvo, with such termination to become effective twelve months from the date of notice, absent the parties reaching mutually agreeable terms upon which to continue their relationship. If no such agreement is reached, the loss of business from Volvo could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations as sales to Volvo represented more than 10% of reported consolidated net sales during each of the three most recent years.

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Our profitability could be adversely affected if the actual production volumes for our customers’ vehicles are significantly lower than expected or our costs are higher than expected.
We incur costs and make capital expenditures based in part upon estimates of production volumes for our customers’ vehicles. While we attempt to establish a price for our components and systems that will compensate for variances in production volumes, if the actual production of these vehicles is significantly less than anticipated, our gross margin on these products would be adversely affected. Our OEM customers have historically had a significant amount of leverage over us. We enter into agreements with our customers at the beginning of a given platform’s life to supply products for that platform. Once we enter into such agreements, fulfillment of the supply requirements is our obligation for the entire production life of the platform, with terms generally ranging from five to seven years, and we have limited provisions to terminate such contracts. We may become committed to supplying products to our customers at selling prices that are not sufficient to cover the direct cost to produce such products, which may be as a result of inflation or increased employment costs as a result of current labor markets or other factors. We cannot predict our customers’ demands for our products. If customers representing a significant amount of our revenues were to purchase materially lower volumes than expected, or if we are unable to keep our commitment under the agreements, or if our costs are higher than anticipated, it would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, we generally do not have clauses in our customer agreements that guarantee that we will recoup the design and development costs that we incurred to develop a product. In other cases, we share the design costs with the customer and thereby have some risk that not all the costs will be covered if the project does not go forward or if it is not as profitable as expected.

We may be unable to successfully implement price increases to offset inflation and, as a result, our businesses and financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our ability to implement customer price increases where margin on product is not meeting profitability targets is subject to a variety of factors, such as fluctuations in our material, freight and labor costs, inflation or other competitive conditions, which are beyond our control. For example, customers may refuse to pay increased prices that meet our profitability targets, resource from other suppliers, or not issue purchase orders to us with large volumes. Any failure to successfully implement price increases could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and growth potential.

Our inability to compete effectively in the highly competitive warehouse automation industry could result in loss of market share and reduced gross margins, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results.

The warehouse automation industry is highly competitive. Some of our competitors are companies that are larger and have greater financial and other resources than we do. Our products primarily compete on the basis of price, product quality, technical expertise, development capability, product delivery and product service. Increased competition may lead to price reductions or loss of business resulting in reduced gross margins and loss of market share.

We are subject to certain risks associated with our foreign operations.
We have operations in the Mexico, China, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Belgium, Australia, India and Thailand, which collectively accounted for approximately 24% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021. There are certain risks inherent in our international business activities including, but not limited to:
the difficulty of enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through certain foreign legal systems;
foreign customers, who may have longer payment cycles than customers in the U.S.;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations affecting our ability to match revenue received with costs;
tax rates in certain foreign countries, which may exceed those in the U.S., withholding requirements or the imposition of tariffs, exchange controls or other restrictions, including restrictions on repatriation, of foreign earnings;
intellectual property protection difficulties;
general economic and political conditions, along with major differences in business culture and practices, including the challenges of dealing with business practices that may impact the company’s compliance efforts, in countries where we operate;
exposure to local social unrest, including any acts of war, terrorism or similar events;
exposure to local minimum wage requirements;
the difficulties associated with managing a large organization spread throughout various countries; and
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complications in complying with a variety of laws and regulations related to doing business with and in foreign countries, some of which may conflict with U.S. law or may be vague or difficult to comply with.
Additionally, our international business activities are also subject to risks arising from violations of U.S. laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions, and various export control and trade embargo laws and regulations, including those which may require licenses or other authorizations for transactions relating to certain countries and/or with certain individuals identified by the U.S. government. If we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could suffer civil and criminal penalties that could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Recently, Russian troops invaded Ukraine. The invasion of Ukraine by Russia and the retaliatory measures taken by the U.S., NATO and other countries have created global security concerns and economic uncertainty that could have a lasting impact on regional and global economies. We cannot be certain that similar international tensions will not affect our facility in the Ukraine, including due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, electrical outages, cyber-attacks and periodic battles with separatists closer to our facility. In addition, certain of our employees in Ukraine are routinely conscripted into the military and/or sent to fight in the ongoing conflict. Furthermore, most of our products manufactured in Ukraine are shipped across the border from Ukraine to the Czech Republic for further delivery to our customers. If that border crossing were to be closed or restricted for any reason, or if our customers decide to stop ordering from us or shift orders to our competitors, we would experience a loss of the use of our Ukrainian facility, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Decreased availability or increased costs of materials could affect both our ability to produce products as well as the cost of producing our products.
We purchase raw materials, fabricated components, assemblies and services from a variety of suppliers. Steel, aluminum, petroleum-based products, copper, resin, foam, fabrics, wire and wire components, semiconductor chips, electronics and electrical components account for the most significant portion of our raw material costs. Although we currently maintain alternative sources for most raw materials, from time to time, however, the prices and availability of these materials fluctuate due to global market demands and other considerations, which could impair the Company's ability to procure necessary materials, or increase the cost of such materials. We may be assessed surcharges on certain purchases of steel, copper and other raw materials. There is currently a well-publicized global shortage of semiconductor chips and several of the raw materials we use that could impact the Company and our customers. Inflationary and other increases in costs or shortages of the various materials that are needed for us to produce our products are currently having an impact on our business which may continue for the foreseeable future. In addition, freight costs associated with shipping and receiving product are impacted by fluctuations in freight tonnage, freight hauler availability or capacity and the cost of oil and gas. We are currently experiencing difficulty purchasing and obtaining timely delivery of certain raw materials required for our operations, which is having an adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, to the extent we are unable to pass on the increased costs of raw materials, freight and labor to our customers, it could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We have invested substantial resources in markets where we expect growth and we may be unable to timely alter our strategies should such expectations not be realized.
Our future growth is dependent in part on us making the right investments at the right time in people, technology, product development, manufacturing capacity, and to expand into new markets including in warehouse automation and electric vehicle markets. If we fail to realize expected rates of return on our investments, we may incur losses on such investments and be unable to timely redeploy the invested capital to take advantage of other markets, potentially resulting in lost market share to our competitors.
We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in leveraging our capabilities into new markets and thus, in meeting the needs of these new customers and competing favorably in these new markets.

Our inability to compete effectively in the highly competitive commercial vehicle component supply industry could result in lower prices for our products, loss of market share and reduced gross margins, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results.
The commercial vehicle component supply industry is highly competitive. Some of our competitors are companies that are larger and have greater financial and other resources than we do. In some cases, we compete with divisions of our OEM customers. Our products primarily compete on the basis of price, breadth of product offerings, product quality, technical expertise, development capability, product delivery and product service. Increased competition may lead to price reductions resulting in reduced gross margins and loss of market share.

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We may be unable to successfully introduce new products and, as a result, our business, and financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Product innovations have been and will continue to be a part of our business strategy. We believe it is important we continue to meet our customers’ demands for product innovation, improvement and enhancement, including the continued development of new-generation products, and design improvements and innovations that improve the quality and efficiency of our products including manufacturing seats with airbags, seatbelts and other safety devices and improvements. However, such development will require us to continue to invest in research and development and sales and marketing. Such investments are subject to the risks generally associated with product development, including difficulty in gaining market acceptance, delays in product development and failure of products to operate properly. Additionally, we have exposure to excess costs as we are engaged in multiple development programs for new electric vehicles, each with unique designs and timelines. These electric vehicle programs require the use of a higher level of technical expertise with increased costs and the incremental cost is variable depending on the pace and success rate of the innovation process, the prototyping and mule build process, the production tooling process and then production ramp-up. In addition, our competitors may develop new products before us or may produce similar products that compete with our new products. We may, as a result of these factors, be unable to meaningfully focus on product innovation as a strategy and may therefore be unable to meet our customers’ demands for product innovation, which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We rely on third parties for raw materials, parts, and components.
We may source a variety of systems, components, raw materials and parts, including but not limited to top covers, fabricated steel, semiconductor chips, chemicals, seat-foam, air bag, air bag inflators, seat belts, and other components from third parties. From time to time these third-party items may not meet the quality standards that we desire, which could harm our reputation, cause delays and cause us to incur significant costs. Furthermore, we may be unable to source third-party items in sufficient quantities or at acceptable prices. We are currently experiencing difficulty sourcing certain raw materials, parts and components required for our operations, which is having an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We could experience disruption in our supply or delivery chain, which could cause one or more of our customers to halt or delay production.
We, as with other component manufactures in the commercial vehicle industry, sometimes ship products to the customers throughout the world so they are delivered on a “just-in-time” basis in order to maintain low inventory levels. Our suppliers (external suppliers as well as our own production sites) also sometimes use a similar method. This just-in-time method makes the logistics supply chain in the industries we serve very complex and very vulnerable to disruptions.
The potential loss of one of our suppliers or our own production sites could be caused by a myriad of factors. Additionally, as we expand in growth markets, the risk for such disruptions is heightened. The lack of even a small single subcomponent necessary to manufacture one of our products, for whatever reason, could force us to cease production, possibly for a prolonged period. In the event of a reduction or stoppage in production at any of our facilities, even if only temporary, or if we experience delays as a result of events that are beyond our control, delivery times to our customers could be severely affected. Any significant delay in deliveries to our customers could lead to increased returns or cancellations. Similarly, a potential quality issue could force us to halt deliveries. Even where products are ready to be shipped or have been shipped, delays may arise before they reach our customer. Our customers may halt or delay their production for the same reason if one of their other suppliers fails to deliver necessary components. This may cause our customers to suspend their orders or instruct us to suspend delivery of our products, which may adversely affect our financial performance. When we cease timely deliveries, we have to absorb our own costs for identifying and solving the root cause problem as well as expeditiously producing replacement components or products. Generally, we must also carry the costs associated with “catching up,” such as overtime and premium freight.
Additionally, if we are the cause for a customer being forced to halt production the customer may seek to recoup all of its losses and expenses from us. These losses and expenses could include consequential losses such as lost profits. Thus, any supply chain disruption, however small, could potentially cause the complete shutdown of an assembly line of one of our customers, and any such shutdown could expose us to claims for compensation. Where a customer halts production because of another supplier failing to deliver on time, we may not be fully compensated, if at all, and therefore our business and financial results could be adversely affected.

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If we are unable to recruit or retain senior management and other skilled personnel, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our operations depend to a large extent on the efforts of our senior management team as well as our ability to attract, train, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel. We seek to develop and retain an effective management team through the proper positioning of existing key employees and the addition of new management personnel where necessary. Retaining personnel with the right skills at competitive wages can be difficult in certain markets in which we are doing business, particularly those locations that are seeing much inbound investment and have highly mobile workforces. Additionally, attracting sufficiently well-educated and talented management, especially middle-management employees, in certain markets can be challenging.
We may not be able to retain our current senior management and other skilled personnel or retain similarly skilled personnel in the future. If we lose senior management or the services of our skilled workforce, or if we are unable to attract, train, integrate and retain the highly skilled personnel we need, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We may be adversely impacted by labor strikes, work stoppages and other matters.
As of December 31, 2021, a majority of employees based in Mexico are unionized. In addition, approximately 74% of our employees of our European, Asian and Australian operations were represented by a shop steward committee, which may limit our flexibility in our relationship with these employees. We may encounter future unionization efforts or other types of conflicts with labor unions or our employees.
Many of our OEM customers and their suppliers also have unionized work forces. Work stoppages or slow-downs experienced by OEMs or their other suppliers could result in slow-downs or closures of assembly plants where our products are included in assembled commercial vehicles. In the event that one or more of our customers or their suppliers experience a material work stoppage, such work stoppage could have an adverse effect on our business.
Additionally, the rapid recovery of certain COVID-19-impacted markets and locales and the low unemployment rate is causing spot shortages of labor. The Company has exposure to cost premiums as we use temporary labor during demand ramp-ups which carries with it a temporary premium cost. The Company is currently at high levels of temporary labor which could have an adverse effect on our business.

Our earnings may be adversely affected by changes to the carrying values of our tangible and intangible assets as a result of recording any impairment charges deemed necessary.
We are required to perform impairment tests whenever events and circumstances indicate the carrying value of certain assets may not be recoverable. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any impairment of assets. A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indication of impairment exists. Factors that may be considered in assessing whether goodwill or other long-lived assets may not be recoverable include a decline in our stock price or market capitalization, reduced estimates of future cash flows, the general economic environment, changes or downturns in our industry as a whole, termination of any of our customer contracts, restructuring efforts and general workforce reductions. A continued decline in our stock price may trigger an evaluation of the recoverability of the recorded goodwill and other long-lived assets. Any charge for impairment could adversely affect our reported net income and our stockholders’ equity.
We have taken, are taking, and may take future restructuring actions to realign and resize our production capacity and cost structure to meet current and projected operational and market requirements. Charges related to these actions or any further restructuring actions may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that any current or future restructuring will be completed as planned or achieve the desired results. The failure to complete restructuring as planned could have an adverse effect our results of operations.
We have established and may establish in the future valuation allowances on deferred tax assets. These changes may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.
Additionally, from time to time in the past, we have recorded asset impairment losses relating to specific plants and operations. Generally, we record asset impairment losses when we determine that our estimates of the future undiscounted cash flows from an operation will not be sufficient to recover the carrying value of that facility’s building, fixed assets and production tooling. There can be no assurance that we will not incur charges in the future as changes in economic or operating conditions impacting the estimates and assumptions could result in additional impairment. Any future impairments may adversely affect our results of operations.

Our inability to successfully achieve operational efficiencies could result in the incurrence of additional costs and expenses that could adversely affect our reported earnings.
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As part of our business strategy, we continuously seek ways to lower costs, improve manufacturing efficiencies and increase productivity in our existing operations and intend to apply this strategy to those operations acquired through acquisitions. In addition, we incur restructuring charges periodically to close facilities, such as lease termination charges, severance charges and impairment charges of leasehold improvements and/or machinery and equipment, as we continue to evaluate our manufacturing footprint to improve our cost structure and remove excess, underperforming assets, or assets that no longer fit our goals. If we decide to close or consolidate facilities, we may face execution risks which could adversely affect our ability to serve our customers. Further, we may be unsuccessful in achieving these objectives which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

The geographic profile of our taxable income could adversely impact our tax provision and therefore our results of operations.
Our future tax provision could be adversely affected by the geographic profile of our taxable income and by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. Our results could be adversely impacted by significant changes in our effective tax rate. Additionally, any changes to manufacturing activities could result in significant changes to our effective tax rate related to products manufactured either in the United States or in international jurisdictions. If the United States or another international jurisdiction implements a tax change related to products manufactured in a particular jurisdiction where we do business, our results could be adversely affected.

Exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations on cross border transactions and translation of local currency results into United States dollars could adversely impact our results of operations.
Cross border transactions, both with external parties and intercompany relationships, result in increased exposure to foreign currency fluctuations. The strengthening or weakening of the United States dollar may result in favorable or unfavorable foreign currency translation effects in as much as the results of our foreign locations are translated into United States dollars. This could adversely impact our results of operations.

We have only limited protection for our proprietary rights in our intellectual property, which makes it difficult to prevent third parties from infringing upon our rights and our operations could be limited by the rights of others.
Our success depends to a certain degree on our ability to protect our intellectual property and to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of third parties. While we have been issued patents and have registered trademarks with respect to many of our products, our competitors could independently develop similar or superior products or technologies, duplicate our designs, trademarks, processes or other intellectual property or design around any processes or designs on which we have or may obtain patents or trademark protection. In addition, it is possible third parties may have or acquire licenses for other technology or designs that we may use or desire to use, requiring us to acquire licenses to, or to contest the validity of, such patents or trademarks of third parties. Such licenses may not be made available to us on acceptable terms, if at all, or we may not prevail in contesting the validity of third party rights.
As we diversify and globalize our geographic footprint, we may encounter laws and practices in emerging markets that are not as stringent or enforceable as those present in developed markets, and thus incur a higher risk of intellectual property infringement, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our products may be susceptible to claims by third parties that our products infringe upon their proprietary rights.
As the number of products in our target markets increases and the functionality of these products further overlaps, we may become increasingly subject to claims by a third party that our technology infringes such party’s proprietary rights. Regardless of their merit, any such claims could be time consuming and expensive to defend, may divert management’s attention and resources, could cause product shipment delays and could require us to enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements. If successful, a claim of infringement against us and our inability to license the infringed or similar technology and/or product could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may be subject to product liability claims, recalls or warranty claims, which could be expensive, damage our reputation and result in a diversion of management resources.
As a supplier of products and systems, we face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability claims in the event that our products, or the equipment into which our products are incorporated, malfunction and result in injury to person or property
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or death. Product liability claims could result in significant losses as a result of expenses incurred in defending claims or the award of damages.
In addition, we may be required to participate in recalls involving systems or components sold by us if any prove to be defective, or we may or our customers may voluntarily initiate a recall and we have to make payments related to such recalls as a result of various industry or business practices, contractual obligations or the need to maintain good customer relationships. Such a recall would result in a diversion of management resources. While we maintain product liability insurance generally with a self-insured retention amount, we cannot assure you that it will be sufficient to cover all product liability claims, that such claims will not exceed our insurance coverage limits or that such insurance will continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Any product liability claim brought against us could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We warrant the workmanship and materials of many of our products under limited warranties and have entered into warranty agreements with certain customers that warranty certain of our products in the hands of customers of our customers, in some cases for many years. From time to time, we receive product warranty claims from our customers, pursuant to which we may be required to bear costs of repair or replacement of certain of our products. Accordingly, we are subject to risk of warranty claims in the event that our products do not conform to our customers’ specifications or, in some cases in the event that our products do not conform to their customers’ expectations. It is possible for warranty claims to result in costly product recalls, significant repair costs and damage to our reputation, all of which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our businesses are subject to statutory environmental and safety regulations in multiple jurisdictions, and the impact of any changes in regulation and/or the violation of any applicable laws and regulations by our businesses could result in an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to foreign, federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment and occupational health and safety, including laws regulating air emissions, wastewater discharges, generation, storage, handling, use and transportation of hazardous materials; the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the soil, ground or air; and the health and safety of our colleagues. We are also required to obtain permits from governmental authorities for certain of our operations. We cannot assure you that we are, or have been, in complete compliance with such environmental and safety laws, and regulations. Certain of our operations generate hazardous substances and wastes. If a release of such substances or wastes occurs at or from our properties, or at or from any offsite disposal location to which substances or wastes from our current or former operations were taken, or if contamination is discovered at any of our current or former properties, we may be held liable for the costs of cleanup and for any other response by governmental authorities or private parties, together with any associated fines, penalties or damages. In most jurisdictions, this liability would arise whether or not we had complied with environmental laws governing the handling of hazardous substances or wastes.
Several of our facilities are either certified as, or are in the process of being certified as ISO 9001, 14000, 14001 or TS16949 (the international environmental management standard) compliant or are developing similar environmental management systems. We have made, and will continue to make, capital and other expenditures to implement such environmental programs and comply with environmental requirements.
The environmental laws to which we are subject have become more stringent over time, and we could incur material costs or expenses in the future to comply with environmental laws. If we violate or fail to comply with these laws and regulations or do not have the requisite permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. In some instances, such a fine or sanction could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
The agreements governing our credit facilities contain covenants that may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes in our business or to take certain actions. If we are unable to comply with these covenants, our business, results of operations and liquidity could be adversely affected.
Our senior secured revolving and term loan credit facilities require us to maintain certain financial ratios and to comply with various operational and other covenants. If we do not comply with those covenants, we would be precluded from borrowing under the senior secured revolving credit facility, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and liquidity. If we are unable to borrow under our senior secured revolving credit facility, we will need to meet our capital requirements using other sources; however, alternative sources of liquidity may not be available on acceptable terms. In addition, if we fail to comply with the covenants set forth in our credit facilities the lenders thereunder could declare an event of default and cause all amounts outstanding thereunder to be due and payable immediately. We cannot assure you that our assets or cash flow would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding credit facilities or other debt instruments we
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may have in place from time to time, either upon maturity or if accelerated, upon an event of default, or that we would be able to refinance or restructure the payments on the credit facilities or such other debt instruments on acceptable terms.
In addition, the agreements governing the senior secured revolving and term loan credit facilities contain covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to:
incur liens;
incur or assume additional debt or guarantees or issue preferred stock;
prepay, or make redemptions and repurchases of, subordinated debt;
make loans and investments;
engage in mergers, acquisitions, asset sales, sale/leaseback transactions and transactions with affiliates;
place restrictions on the ability of subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments to the issuer;
change the business conducted by us or our subsidiaries; and
amend the terms of subordinated debt.

Our indebtedness may adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to operate our business, remain in compliance with debt covenants and make payments on our indebtedness.
Our indebtedness, combined with our lease and other financial obligations and contractual commitments could have other important consequences to our stockholders, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness, including the revolving credit facility, term loan and our other debt instruments, and any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments, including financial and other restrictive covenants, could result in an event of default under the revolving credit facility or term loan and the governing documents of our debt instruments;
the possibility that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay, when due, the principal of, interest on or other amounts due in respect of our indebtedness;
making us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, or execution of our business strategy or other purposes.
Any of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt service and working capital requirements, we may need to seek additional financing or sell assets. This may make it more difficult for us to obtain financing on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. Without any such financing, we could be forced to sell assets to make up for any shortfall in our payment obligations under unfavorable circumstances. If necessary, we may not be able to sell assets quickly enough or for sufficient amounts to enable us to meet our obligations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our operating results, revenues and expenses may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year, which could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Our operating results, revenues and expenses have in the past varied and may in the future vary significantly from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year. These fluctuations could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We base our operating expense budgets in large part on expected revenue trends. However, certain of our expenses are relatively fixed and as such we may be unable to adjust expenses quickly enough to offset any unexpected revenue shortfall. Accordingly, any significant change in revenue may cause significant variation in operating results in any quarter or year.
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It is possible that in one or more future quarters or years, our operating results may be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors and may result in changes in analysts’ estimates. In such events, the trading price of our common stock may be adversely affected.

Our common stock has historically had a low trading volume with limited analyst coverage and, as a result, any sale of a significant number of shares may depress the trading price of our stock; stockholders may be unable to sell their shares above the purchase price.
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “CVGI.” The trading volume and analyst coverage of our common stock has historically been limited as compared to common stock of an issuer that has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share prices. Because of the limited trading volume, holders of our securities may not be able to sell quickly any significant number of such shares, and any attempted sale of a large number of our shares may have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock. Additionally, because of the limited number of shares being traded, and changes in stock market analyst recommendations regarding our common stock or lack of analyst coverage, the price per share of our common stock is subject to volatility and may continue to be subject to rapid price swings in the future that may result in stockholders’ inability to sell their common stock at or above purchase price.

Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage potential acquisition proposals, could delay, deter or prevent a change in control and could limit the price certain investors might be willing to pay for our stock.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and by-laws may inhibit changes in control of our company not approved by our board of directors. These provisions include:
a prohibition on stockholder action through written consents;
a requirement that special meetings of stockholders be called only by the board of directors;
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations;
limitations on the ability of stockholders to amend, alter or repeal the by-laws; and
the authority of the board of directors to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock and common stock with such terms as the board of directors may determine.
We are also afforded the protections of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which would prevent us from engaging in a business combination with a person who becomes a 15% or greater stockholder for a period of three years from the date such person acquired such status unless certain board or stockholder approvals were obtained. These provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, discourage potential acquisition proposals and delay, deter or prevent a change in control.

General Risk Factors
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information systems and expose us to liability, which could cause our business and reputation to suffer.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, financial information, our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in our data centers and on our networks. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfunction, malfeasance or other disruptions. Like most companies, our systems are under attack on a routine basis. At times there are breaches of our security measures. While past breaches have not been material, there is no guarantee that future breaches could not have a material impact. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties, disrupt our operations and the services we provide to customers, damage our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, which could adversely affect our business and our results of operations.

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 2.Properties
Our corporate office is located in New Albany, Ohio. Several of our facilities are located near our OEM customers to reduce distribution costs, reduce risk of interruptions in our delivery schedule, further improve customer service and provide our customers with reliable delivery of products and services. We have seven owned and 24 leased principal facilities. We consider our properties to generally be in good condition, well maintained, and suitable and adequate to meet our business requirements for the foreseeable future. We do not anticipate difficulty in renewing existing leases as they expire or in finding alternative facilities. Our owned domestic facilities are subject to liens securing our obligations under our revolving credit facility and term loan credit facility as described in Note 3, Debt, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Utilization of our facilities varies with North American, European, Asian and Australian commercial vehicle production and general economic conditions in the regions. All locations are principally used for manufacturing, assembly, distribution or warehousing, except for our New Albany, Ohio facility, which is principally an administrative office.
Item 3.Legal Proceedings

We are subject to various legal proceedings and claims arising in the ordinary course of business, including, but not limited to, product liability claims, customer and supplier disputes, service provider disputes, examinations by taxing authorities, employment disputes, workers’ compensation claims, unfair labor practice charges, OSHA investigations, intellectual property disputes and environmental claims arising out of the conduct of our businesses. Based upon the information available to management and discussions with legal counsel, it is the opinion of management that the ultimate outcome of the various legal actions and claims that are incidental to our business are not expected to have a material adverse impact on the consolidated financial position, results of operations, stockholders' equity or cash flows; however, such matters are subject to many uncertainties and the outcomes of individual matters are not predictable with any degree of assurance.
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
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Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “CVGI.”
As of March 1, 2022, there were approximately 150 holders of record of our outstanding common stock.
We have not declared or paid any dividends to the holders of our common stock in the past and do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future payment of dividends is within the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other factors, the capital requirements, operating results and financial condition of CVG.
The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return to holders of CVG’s common stock to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite Index and a Peer Group. The peer group includes Altra Industrial Motion Corp., American Railcar Industries Inc., ASTEC Industries Inc., Columbus McKinnon Corp., Dorman Products Inc., EnPro Industries, Federal Signal Corp., Freightcar America Inc., Gentherm Inc., L.B. Foster Company, LCI Industries, Modine Manufacturing, Shiloh Industries, Spartan Motors Inc., Standard Motor Products Inc., Stoneridge Inc., and Supreme Industries. Supreme Industries was purchased by Wabash National Corporation and is reported as part of the peer group only through 2017. American Railcar Industries, Inc. was purchased by ITE Management and is reported as part of the peer group only through 2018. Shiloh Industries was purchased by MiddleGround Capital LLC and is reported as part of the peer group only through 2020. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in the Company’s common stock in the peer group and the index (including reinvestment of dividends) was $100 on December 31, 2016 and tracks it through December 31, 2021.
cvgi-20211231_g4.jpg
12/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/2021
Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc.100.00160.2185.4295.16129.52120.69
NASDAQ Composite100.00151.41147.16201.22291.89356.72
New Peer Group100.00145.60122.49159.20196.58237.77
The information in the graph and table above is not “solicitation material”, is not deemed “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is not to be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date of this annual report, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate such information by reference.
We did not repurchase any of our common stock on the open market during 2021. Our employees surrendered 148,358 shares of our common stock in 2021 to satisfy tax withholding obligations on the vesting of restricted stock awards issued under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan. The following table sets forth information in connection with purchases made by, or on behalf of, us or any affiliated purchaser, of shares of our common stock during the period ended December 31, 2021:
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Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Surrendered
Average
Price Paid
per Share
(or Unit)
Total Number
of Shares (or
Units) Purchased 
as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
Maximum Number
(or Approximate
Dollar Value) of
Shares (or Units)
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs
March 1, 2021 through March 31, 20217,031 $10.45 — — 
October 1, 2021 through October 31, 202125,660 $10.19 — — 
December 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021115,667 $8.15 — — 

No other shares were surrendered during the year ended December 31, 2021.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
We did not sell any equity securities during 2021 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Item 6.[Reserved]

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Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis in conjunction with the information set forth in our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our long-term strategy, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity and capital resources and other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Information” on page ii of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described under “Item 1A - Risk Factors.” Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Business Overview

CVG is a global provider of systems, assemblies and components to the global commercial vehicle market, the electric vehicle market, and the warehouse automation markets.
We have manufacturing operations in the United States, Mexico, China, United Kingdom, Belgium, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Thailand, India and Australia. Our products are primarily sold in North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region.
We primarily manufacture customized products to meet the requirements of our customer. We believe our products are used by a majority of the North American Commercial Truck markets, many construction vehicle OEMs and top e-commerce retailers.
Commercial Trends in the Vehicle Solutions and Aftermarket Segments
Demand for our products may be driven by preferences of the end-user of the vehicle, particularly with respect to heavy-duty trucks in North America. Heavy-duty truck OEMs generally dictate the specifications of component parts that will be used to manufacture the vehicle, including a wide variety of cab interior styles and colors, brand and type of seats, type of seat fabric and color, and interior styling. Certain of our products are only utilized in heavy-duty trucks, such as our storage systems, sleeper boxes and privacy curtains. To the extent that demand for higher content vehicles increases or decreases, our revenues and gross profit will be impacted positively or negatively.
Current trends include future adoption of electric vehicles in the commercial truck segment. Commercial truck makers are developing electric models of all classes of trucks and buses in their fleets. This has created an increased number of platform opportunities relative to historical trends of platform changes. The Company competes to retain its existing positions on platforms that are getting refreshed, competitively win new positions on platforms on which it is not the incumbent supplier, and gain first fit positions on new Electric Vehicle platforms. The global truck market is evolving to include many offerings aimed at low emissions and less impact on the environment.
In general, demand for our heavy-duty (or "Class 8") truck products is generally dependent on the number of new heavy-duty trucks manufactured in North America, which in turn is a function of general economic conditions, supply chain constraints, interest rates, changes in government regulations, consumer spending, fuel costs, freight costs, fleet operators' financial health and access to capital, used truck prices and our customers’ inventory levels. New heavy-duty truck demand has historically been cyclical and is particularly sensitive to the industrial sector of the economy, which generates a significant portion of the freight tonnage hauled by commercial vehicles.
North American heavy-duty truck production was 264,470 units in 2021. According to a February 2022 report by ACT Research, a publisher of industry market research, North American Class 8 production levels are expected to increase to 300,000 units in 2022. ACT Research estimated that the average age of active North American Class 8 trucks was 11 years in 2021. As vehicles age, maintenance costs typically increase. ACT Research forecasts that the vehicle age will decline as aging fleets are replaced.
North American medium-duty (or "Class 5-7") truck production was 235,335 units in 2021. According to a February 2022 report by ACT Research, North American Class 5-7 truck production is expected to increase to 261,000 units in 2022. We primarily participate in the class 6 and 7 portion of the medium-duty truck market.
Commercial Trends in Warehouse Automation Segment
Demand for our warehouse automation subsystems is derived by expansion of supply chain infrastructures to accommodate increased customer orders in e-commerce and product movement globally. As the percentage of products ordered on-line increases, the delivery mechanisms must expand to increase output. Additionally, desire for cost reduction, increased throughput volume and SKU proliferation, a greater variety of order and package types, more frequent product returns by end consumers, and COVID-19-driven social distancing protocols on warehouse floors all have driven increased investment in automated solutions by warehouse operators. The Company assembles the material handling subsystems incorporated into automated warehouses.
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Commercial Trends in the Electrical Systems Segment
Demand for our Electrical Systems products, such as wire harnesses, is primarily driven by construction equipment vehicle production. Demand for new vehicles in the global construction equipment market generally follows certain economic conditions around the world. Our products are primarily used in the medium- and heavy-duty construction equipment markets (vehicles weighing over 12 metric tons). Demand in the medium- and heavy-duty construction equipment market is typically related to the level of large scale infrastructure development projects, such as highways, dams, harbors, hospitals, airports and industrial development, as well as activity in the mining, forestry and commodities industries.
Other Key Developments

On October 25, 2021, the Company provided notice to the Volvo Group (“Volvo”) of the Company’s intention to terminate its agreement with Volvo, with such termination to become effective twelve months from the date of notice, absent the parties reaching mutually agreeable terms upon which to continue their relationship. The Company is focused on implementing customer price increases where margin on product is not meeting profitability targets. If no such agreement is reached, the loss of business from Volvo could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations as sales to Volvo represented more than 10% of reported consolidated net sales during each of the three most recent years.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and continues to cause, significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruptions to our business. While we continue to operate our facilities, we may experience production slowdowns and/or shutdowns at our manufacturing facilities in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific as a result of government orders, our inability to obtain component parts from suppliers and/or inconsistent customer demand. In addition, many of our suppliers and customers may experience production slowdowns and/or shutdowns, which may further impact our business, sales and results of operation. The extent of the adverse effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business results depends on a number of factors beyond our control.

While backlog was strong in the truck markets during the year ended December 31, 2021, all markets we operate in were impacted by supply chain constraints which caused volatility on our customers' production schedules and had a negative impact on our results. Overall, we continued to experience global supply chain disruptions and significant inflation, including longer lead-times to procure parts from China and due to port backups, labor inflation, chip shortages, steel and other raw material inflation, and freight cost increases. The impact of the pandemic and related economic recovery continue to be uneven from period to period and across our global footprint based on local and regional outbreaks. We continue to proactively monitor, assess and minimize to the extent possible disruptions and delays in production due to labor shortages or customer schedules, focus on cost control and recovery through pricing adjustments, and take reasonable measures to protect our workforce.

On November 1, 2021, the Company's Board of Directors approved a restructuring program to align the Company’s cost structure to support margin expansion. The program includes workforce reductions and footprint optimization across segments. We incurred $1.9 million expense during the year ended December 31, 2021 related to this program and expect the cost to be between $4.0 million to $6.0 million for the entire program.
2022 Demand Outlook

According to a February 2022 report by ACT Research, a publisher of industry market research, 2021 North American Class 8 truck build production was 264,470 units and Class 5-7 production was 235,335 units. 2022 North American Class 8 truck production levels are forecast to be at 300,000 units. We are estimating the industry will be able to make approximately 270,000 trucks, or roughly flat to 2021. 2022 Class 5-7 production are expected to be at 261,000 units. This outlook supports demand for the Company’s truck products.
According to LogisticsIQ, demand for warehouse automation products is expected to grow approximately 14% per year through 2026. This outlook supports demand for the Company's warehouse automation products.
Our Long-term Strategy

The Company's long-term strategy is to increase its sales, profits and shareholder value by financially optimizing its core legacy businesses, organically growing in targeted areas, strengthening its product portfolio, increasing its margins and adding to its business segments through a focused M&A program. The Company expects to diversify its revenue and profits by product, customer, platform, and end market. Our products include seating systems, plastic components, cab structures, warehouse automation subsystems, electrical wire harnesses, mirrors, wipers and other accessories.

We believe we are having success with our strategy to strengthen our business, including:
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A growing current business in the warehouse automation market primarily through business expansion enabled by the FSE acquisition in 2019;
A growing amount of future business in new emerging electric vehicle platforms as a multi-product global provider of electric vehicle design, subsystems and components; and
A growing amount of new business wins that are in diverse end markets but fit the company’s current know-how, assets, and footprint.

We expect to lessen our dependence on certain products and markets, broaden the company’s customer list, broaden the company’s product offering and increase our margins. The goal is to become less cyclical and less customer concentrated and increase focus in other end markets.

We have a long-term strategy to globally optimize our cost structure through manufacturing process enhancements, low cost footprint and global sourcing. We periodically evaluate our short-term and long-term strategies and may adjust actions in response to changes in our business environment and other factors, such as implementing restructuring as needed.

We are also supplementing our organic strategies by evaluating strategic acquisition opportunities. The company has many opportunities to accomplish this type of business improvement and is being selective. The goal is to strengthen / enhance current positions, enter new markets, develop relationships with new customers, and enhance service to our customers, leading to increased return to our stockholders.

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The table below sets forth certain operating data expressed as a percentage of revenues for the periods indicated (dollars are in thousands):
 202120202019
Revenues$971,578 100.0 %$717,699 100.0 %$901,238 100.0 %
Cost of revenues852,591 87.8 643,623 89.7 796,101 88.3 
Gross profit118,987 12.2 74,076 10.3 105,137 11.7 
Selling, general and administrative expenses69,406 7.1 68,228 9.5 64,501 7.2 
Goodwill and other impairment— — 29,017 4.0 — — 
Operating income (loss)49,581 5.1 (23,169)(3.2)40,636 4.5 
Other (income) expense(878)(0.1)728 0.1 2,225 0.2 
Interest expense11,179 1.2 20,603 2.9 16,855 1.9 
Loss on extinguishment of debt7,155 0.7 — — — — 
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes32,125 3.3 (44,500)(6.2)21,556 2.4 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes8,393 0.9 (7,451)(1.0)5,778 0.6 
Net income (loss) $23,732 2.4 %$(37,049)(5.2)%$15,778 1.8 %


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Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020

Consolidated Results

The table below sets forth certain consolidated operating data for the periods indicated (dollars are in thousands):
 20212020Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$971,578 $717,699 $253,879 35.4%
Gross profit118,987 74,076 44,911 60.6
Selling, general and administrative expenses69,406 68,228 1,178 1.7
Goodwill and other impairment— 29,017 (29,017)(100.0)
Other (income) expense(878)728 (1,606)
NM 1
Interest expense11,179 20,603 (9,424)(45.7)
Loss on extinguishment of debt7,155 — 7,155 100.0
Provision (benefit) for income taxes8,393 (7,451)15,844 
NM 1
Net income (loss) 23,732 (37,049)60,781 
NM 1
1.Not meaningful
Fluctuations in results from operations during the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 compared to twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were primarily driven by weak operating performance during the second and third quarters of 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Revenues. The increase in consolidated revenues resulted from:
a $143.6 million, or 26.1%, increase in sales to OEM;
a $99.1 million, or 151.9%, increase in warehouse automation sales;
a $6.4 million, or 6.4%, increase in aftermarket and OES sales; and
a $4.8 million, or 112.0%, increase in other revenues.
Twelve months ended December 31, 2021 revenues were favorably impacted by foreign currency exchange translation of $13.2 million, which is reflected in the change in revenues above.

Gross Profit.  Included in gross profit is cost of revenues, which consists primarily of raw materials and purchased components for our products, wages and benefits for our employees and overhead expenses such as manufacturing supplies, facility rent and utilities costs related to our operations. The increase in gross profit is primarily attributable to the increase in sales volume, increased pricing to offset material cost increases, and an improved cost structure. Cost of revenues increased $209.0 million, or 32.5% as a result of an increase in raw material and purchased component costs of $160.7 million, or 39.3%; an increase in wages and benefits of $17.0 million, or 30.3%; and an increase in overhead expenses of $31.3 million, or 17.5%. As a percentage of revenues, gross profit margin was 12.2% for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 10.3% for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses consist primarily of wages and benefits and other expenses such as Contingent Consideration, marketing, travel, legal, audit, rent and utilities costs, which are not directly or indirectly associated with the manufacturing of our products. SG&A expenses increased $1.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily as a result of wages and benefits returning to or increasing beyond pre-pandemic levels in 2021 when compared to the reduced wages and benefits in 2020 due to the temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase was offset by a decrease in non-recurring payments relating to CEO transition and investigation expense incurred during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 of $5.2 million, a $4.4 million decrease in charge for Contingent Consideration, and a $1.5 million decrease in charges associated with ongoing restructuring initiatives. As a percentage of revenues, SG&A expense was 7.1% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 compared to 9.5% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.
Impairment Expense. As a result of the Company's market capitalization having a value less than the carrying value of its equity for a period of time and market conditions impacting long-lived assets, the Company determined it had impairment indicators during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. Accordingly, we recognized a $27.1 million impairment of goodwill and impairment of long-lived assets of $1.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, which did not recur in 2021.
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Other (Income) Expense. Other income increased $1.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020 due primarily to a favorable change in foreign currency of $0.9 million.
Interest Expense.  Interest associated with our debt was $11.2 million and $20.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The decrease primarily related to a lower interest expense of $7.0 million due to refinancing of the Company's long term debt in April 2021, a decrease of $3.2 million in Payment In Kind interest expense resulting from the loan amendment that occurred in the second quarter of 2020 and a favorable change in interest rate swap adjustments of $1.0 million.
Loss on extinguishment of debt. On April 30, 2021, the Company refinanced its long-term debt, which resulted in a loss of $7.2 million, including a $3.7 million non-cash write off relating to deferred financing costs and unamortized discount of the 2023 Term Loan Facility, a voluntary prepayment premium of $3.0 million and $0.5 million of other fees associated with the new debt.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes. Income tax expense of $8.4 million and an income tax benefit of $7.5 million were recorded for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The period over period change in income tax was primarily attributable to the $32.1 million pre-tax income generated in the current year versus the $44.5 million pre-tax loss sustained in the prior year period.

Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019

Consolidated Results

The table below sets forth certain consolidated operating data for the periods indicated (dollars are in thousands):
20202019Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$717,699 $901,238 $(183,539)(20.4)%
Gross profit74,076 105,137 (31,061)(29.5)
Selling, general and administrative expenses68,228 64,501 3,727 5.8
Goodwill and other impairment29,017 — 29,017 
NM1
Other expense728 2,225 (1,497)(67.3)
Interest expense20,603 16,855 3,748 22.2
Provision (benefit) for income taxes(7,451)5,778 (13,229)
NM1
Net income (loss)(37,049)15,778 (52,827)
NM1
1.Not meaningful

In late March 2020, the Company took action to right-size the business and working capital profile to protect profit margin and liquidity levels. We implemented a comprehensive program of cost reduction initiatives and manufacturing capacity rationalization initiatives. These actions continued through the end of 2020. Actions included headcount reductions, reduction in recurring consulting expenses, re-prioritization and decrease in capital spending and reduction in sales and marketing expenses. Additionally, the Company eliminated the Corporate Business Development, Aviation, Quality, Procurement and Operating Excellence departments. The Company also implemented other temporary measures including pay reductions, plant shutdowns, furloughs, elimination of most annual incentive pay, suspension of the employer 401(k) match, and reduction in non-essential travel in an effort to mitigate the uncertainty.

Revenues. Consolidated revenues of $717.7 million decreased $183.5 million compared to 2019 primarily due to North American MD/HD truck production volume decreases in 2020, resulting in decreased sales into that market. Consolidated revenues in 2020 compared to 2019 were as follows:

a $213.5 million, or 38.9%, decrease in sales to OEM;
a $63.6 million, or 97.4%, increase in warehouse automation sales primarily attributable to the timing of the FSE acquisition which occurred in September 2019;
a $31.2 million, or 24.0%, decrease in aftermarket and OES sales; and
a $2.4 million, or 57.1%, decrease in other revenues.
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While the end markets CVG serves were anticipated to decline somewhat in 2020 as compared to 2019, the sharp market declines noted in the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were primarily a result of the COVID-19 pandemic on the end markets we serve. These sharp market declines were partially offset by increased sales in industrial and military end markets we serve through the FSE business acquired in 2019. Revenues were adversely impacted by foreign currency exchange translation of $0.2 million, which is reflected in the change in revenue above.

Gross Profit.  Included in gross profit is cost of revenues, which consists primarily of raw materials and purchased components for our products, wages and benefits for our employees and overhead expenses such as manufacturing supplies, facility rent and utilities costs related to our operations. The decrease in gross profit is primarily attributable to the decrease in sales volume. Cost of revenues decreased $152.5 million, or 19.2% in line with the sales decrease of 20.4%. The cost of revenue decrease included a decrease in raw material and purchased component costs of $99.0 million, or 19.5%; a decrease in wages and benefits of $16.2 million, or 22.4%; and a decrease in overhead expenses of $37.3 million, or 17.3%.  During 2019, the Company began implementing cost reduction and manufacturing capacity rationalization initiatives (the "Restructuring Initiatives") in response to declines in end market volumes. The Restructuring Initiatives consisted primarily of headcount reductions in each segment and at corporate. Cost of revenues benefited from the Restructuring Initiatives and the Temporary Actions. The twelve months ended December 31, 2020 results include charges of $4.7 million associated with ongoing Restructuring Initiatives. As a percentage of revenues, gross profit margin was 10.3% for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 11.7% for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  SG&A expenses increased $2.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 due primarily to a $5.0 million charge for future milestone payments related to the performance of the FSE business, increase in charges of $1.4 million associated with ongoing Restructuring Initiatives, $3.1 million increase in incentive compensation costs, 2020 charges of $4.0 million associated with the 2018 and quarterly 2019 financial statements restatement investigation and $2.3 million in costs associated with the CEO transition. These costs were offset by the Restructuring Initiatives and the Temporary Actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Impairment Expense. As a result of the Company's market capitalization maintaining a value less than the carrying value of its equity for a period of time, the Company determined it had an impairment indicator during the first quarter of 2020. Accordingly, we recognized a $27.1 million impairment of goodwill for the year ended December 31, 2020. Additionally during the first quarter of 2020, the Company determined it had an impairment indicator of long-lived assets due to market conditions resulting in an impairment of $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Other Expense. Other expenses decreased $1.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 due primarily to the prior year $2.5 million non-cash charge associated with the early payout of benefits to term vested participants in the U.S. pension plan, which reduced future financial risk associated with the U.S. pension plan and contributed to an improvement in funded status of that plan to approximately 100%. The offset to this decrease is primarily attributable to an unfavorable change in foreign exchange translation adjustments of $1.2 million.
Interest Expense.  Interest associated with our debt was $20.6 million and $16.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The increase primarily related to a $5.4 million Payment In Kind interest expense resulting from the amendment to our credit facilities that occurred in the second quarter of 2020. The increase was offset by lower interest expense of $1.6 million due to declining interest rates.
(Benefit) Provision for Income Taxes. An income tax benefit of $7.5 million and an income tax provision of $5.8 million were recorded for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The period over period change in income tax was primarily attributable to the $44.5 million pre-tax loss sustained in 2020 versus the $21.6 million pre-tax income generated in 2019, and unfavorable valuation allowance adjustments resulting in $2.1 million income tax expense in 2020 versus a $2.1 million income tax benefit in 2019.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a $1.3 million U.S. federal income tax benefit for the impact of the High-Tax Exception to GILTI which consisted of a $0.5 million tax benefit related to the year ended December 31, 2019, and a $0.8 million tax benefit related to the year ended December 31, 2018.


SEGMENT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

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Vehicle Solutions Segment Results

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020 and Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019

The table below sets forth certain Vehicle Solutions Segment operating data for the twelve months ended, (dollars are in thousands):
 20212020Dollar Change% Change2019Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$498,913 $366,636 $132,277 36.1%$577,989 $(211,353)(36.6)%
Gross profit50,608 32,398 18,210 56.265,121 (32,723)(50.2)%
Selling, general & administrative expenses 26,959 22,510 4,449 19.824,875 (2,365)(9.5)%
Goodwill and other impairment— 7,245 (7,245)(100.0)— 7,245 
NM 1
Operating income (loss)23,649 2,643 21,006 794.840,246 (37,603)(93.4)%
Revenues.  The increase in 2021 revenues of $132.3 million from 2020 is primarily a result of volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. The decrease in 2020 revenues of $211.4 million from 2019 was primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic causing demand reductions in the Class 8 truck market.
Gross Profit. The increase in 2021 gross profit of $18.2 million from 2020 was primarily attributable to the increase in sales volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. Cost of revenues increased $114.1 million, or 34.1%, in line with the sales increase of 36.1%. The cost of revenue increase included an increase in raw material and purchased component costs of $92.4 million, or 45.1%; an increase in wages and benefits of $6.3 million, or 25.0%; and an increase in overhead expenses of $15.4 million, or 14.8%. The decrease in 2020 gross profit of $32.7 million from 2019 was primarily due to volume declines and the related Restructuring Initiatives and temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As a percentage of revenues, gross profit for each of the years in the three‑year period ended December 31, 2021, was 10.1%, 8.8%, and 11.3%, respectively. The decrease in 2020 was primarily due to fixed cost pressure during the height of the COVID-19 related disruptions.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  The increase in 2021 SG&A expenses of $4.4 million from 2020 was primarily due to wages and benefits returning to or increasing beyond pre-pandemic levels in 2021 when compared to the reduced wages and benefits in 2020 due to the temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which were reduced $2.4 million over 2019.
Impairment Expense. The Company recorded an impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.

Warehouse Automation Segment Results

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020 and Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019

The table below sets forth certain Warehouse Automation Segment operating data for the twelve months ended, (dollars are in thousands):
 20212020Dollar Change% Change2019Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$187,912 $101,655 $86,257 84.9%$12,803 $88,852 694.0%
Gross profit29,669 13,205 16,464 124.71,248 11,957 958.1
Selling, general & administrative expenses6,106 9,698 (3,592)(37.0)1,396 8,302 594.7
Goodwill and other impairment— 19,829 (19,829)(100.0)— 19,829 
NM 1
Operating income (loss)23,563 (16,322)39,885 
NM1
(148)(16,174)
NM 1
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Revenues.  The increase in 2021 revenues of $86.3 million from 2020 is primarily a result of volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. The increase in 2020 revenues of $88.9 million from 2019 was primarily a result of the timing of the FSE acquisition which occurred in September 2019.
Gross Profit.  The increase in 2021 gross profit of $16.5 million from 2020 was primarily attributable to the increase in sales volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. Cost of revenues increase $69.8 million, or 78.9%, in line with the sales increase of 84.9%. The cost of revenue increase included an increase in raw material and purchased component costs of $55.3 million, or 77.9%; an increase in wages and benefits of $3.7 million, or 58.6%; and an increase in overhead expenses of $10.7 million, or 96.8%. The increase in 2020 gross profit of $12.0 million from 2019 was primarily attributable to the timing of the FSE acquisition which occurred in September 2019.

As a percentage of revenues, gross profit for each of the years in the three‑year period ended December 31, 2021, was 15.8%, 13.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. The sequential increase is primarily due to fixed cost leverage.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  The decrease in 2021 SG&A expenses of $3.6 million from 2020 was primarily due to wages and benefits returning to or increasing beyond pre-pandemic levels in 2021 when compared to the reduced wages and benefits in 2020 due to the temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, offset by a $5.0 million decrease in charge for Contingent Consideration. In 2020 SG&A expenses had increased by $8.3 million over 2019 due to the timing of the FSE acquisition.

Impairment Expense. The Company recorded an impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.


Electrical Systems Segment Results

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020 and Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019

The table below sets forth certain Electrical Systems Segment operating data for the twelve months ended, (dollars are in thousands):
 20212020Dollar Change% Change2019Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$168,971 $141,094 $27,877 19.8 %$178,398 $(37,304)(20.9)%
Gross profit20,773 12,185 8,588 70.5 16,588 (4,403)(26.5)%
Selling, general & administrative expenses 6,213 3,996 2,217 55.5 5,331 (1,335)(25.0)%
Goodwill and other impairment— 1,150 (1,150)(100.0)— 1,150 
NM 1
Operating income14,560 7,039 7,521 106.8 11,257 (4,218)(37.5)%

Revenues.  The increase in 2021 revenues of $27.9 million from 2020 is primarily a result of volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. The decrease in 2020 revenues of $37.3 million from 2019 was primarily a result of the COVID-19 pandemic on the end markets we serve.
Gross Profit.  The increase in 2021 gross profit of $8.6 million from 2020 was primarily attributable to the increase in sales volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. Cost of revenues increased $19.3 million, or 15.0%, in line with the sales increase of 19.8%. The cost of revenue increase included an increase in raw material and purchased component costs of $12.0 million, or 17.0%; an increase in wages and benefits of $3.7 million, or 18.7%; and an increase in overhead expenses of $3.5 million, or 9.2%. The decrease in 2020 gross profit of $4.4 million from 2019 was primarily due to volume declines and the related Restructuring Initiatives and temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As a percentage of revenues, gross profit for each of the years in the three‑year period ended December 31, 2021, was 12.3%, 8.6%, and 9.3%, respectively. The decrease in 2020 was primarily due to fixed cost pressure during the height of the COVID-19 related disruptions.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. The increase in 2021 SG&A expenses of $2.2 million from 2020 was primarily due to wages and benefits returning to or increasing beyond pre-pandemic levels in 2021 when compared to the reduced wages and benefits in 2020 due to the temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which were reduced $1.3 million over 2019.

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Impairment Expense. The Company recorded an impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.


Aftermarket & Accessories Segment Results

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020 and Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019

The table below sets forth certain Aftermarket & Accessories Segment operating data for the twelve months ended, (dollars are in thousands):
 20212020Dollar Change% Change2019Dollar Change% Change
Revenues$115,782 $108,314 $7,4686.9%$132,048 $(23,734)(18.0)%
Gross profit17,980 16,658 1,322 7.922,252 (5,594)(25.1)
Selling, general & administrative expenses5,889 5,396 493 9.16,594 (1,198)(18.2)
Operating income12,091 11,262 829 7.415,658 (4,396)(28.1)

Revenues.  The increase in 2021 revenues of $7.5 million from 2020 is primarily a result of volume and increased pricing to offset material cost increases. The decrease in 2020 revenues of $23.7 million from 2019 was primarily a result of the COVID-19 pandemic on the end markets we serve.
Gross Profit. The increase in 2021 gross profit of $1.3 million from 2020 was consistent with the revenue increase. Cost of revenues increased $6.1 million, or 6.7%, in line with the sales increase of 6.9%. The cost of revenue increase included an increase in raw material and purchased component costs of $1.1 million, or 1.8%; an increase in wages and benefits of $3.3 million, or 69.0%; and an increase in overhead expenses of $1.8 million, or 7.1%. The decrease in 2020 gross profit of $5.6 million from 2019 was primarily due to volume declines and the related Restructuring Initiatives and temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As a percentage of revenues, gross profit for each of the years in the three‑year period ended December 31, 2021, was 15.5%, 15.4%, and 16.9%, respectively. The decrease in 2020 was primarily due to fixed cost pressure during the height of the COVID-19 related disruptions.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  The increase in 2021 SG&A expenses of $0.5 million from 2020 was primarily due to wages and benefits returning to or increasing beyond pre-pandemic levels in 2021 when compared to the reduced wages and benefits in 2020 due to the temporary actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which were reduced $1.2 million over 2019.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company borrowed $49.4 million under its revolving credit facility. At December 31, 2021, the Company had liquidity of $109.2 million; $35.0 million of cash and $74.2 million availability from its revolving credit facility.
We intend to allocate resources consistent with the following priorities: (1) invest in growth; (2) invest in operational improvements; (3) manage working capital; (4) to reduce debt; and (5) other actions deemed appropriate by management to improve operational performance.

Our primary source of liquidity during the year ended December 31, 2021 was cash and availability under our revolving credit facility. We believe that these sources of liquidity will provide adequate funds for our working capital needs, planned capital expenditures and servicing of our debt through the next twelve months. However, there is no assurance that these sources of capital will provide for our funding needs. We also rely on the timely collection of receivables as a source of liquidity. As of December 31, 2021, we had $49.4 million of borrowings under our revolving credit facility, outstanding letters of credit of $1.4 million and borrowing availability of $74.2 million.

On October 25, 2021, the Company entered into the Amendment to the Credit Agreement. The Amendment permits the Company to engage in supply chain financing arrangements with financial institutions to cover up to $20.0 million in accounts
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receivable from customers per month. Additionally, the Amendment increased the Company’s capital expenditure investment threshold from $25.0 million to $32.0 million.

As of December 31, 2021, cash of $34.6 million was held by foreign subsidiaries. The Company had a $0.5 million deferred tax liability as of December 31, 2021 for the expected future income tax implications of repatriating cash from the foreign subsidiaries for which no indefinite reinvestment assertion has been made.

Covenants and Liquidity

Our ability to comply with the covenants in the Credit Agreement, as discussed in Note 3, Debt, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, may be affected by economic or business conditions beyond our control. Based on our current forecast, we believe that we will be able to maintain compliance with the financial maintenance covenants and the fixed charge coverage ratio covenant, if applicable, and other covenants in the Credit Agreement for the next twelve months; however, no assurances can be given that we will be able to comply. We base our forecasts on historical experience, industry forecasts and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. If actual results are substantially different than our current forecast we may not be able to comply with our financial covenants. If we do not comply with the financial and other covenants in the Credit Agreement, the lenders could declare an event of default under the Credit Agreement and our indebtedness thereunder could be declared immediately due and payable. The Credit Agreement contain cross default provisions. If we are unable to borrow under the Credit Agreement, we will need to meet our capital requirements using alternative sources of liquidity which may not be available on acceptable terms. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and liquidity.

Cash Flows
202120202019
(In thousands)
Net cash (used) provided by operating activities$(29,832)$34,372 $36,746 
Net cash used in investing activities(17,566)(6,420)(57,979)
Net cash provided (used) in financing activities31,011 (19,262)(10,113)
Effect of currency exchange rate changes on cash842 2,302 (56)
Net increase (decrease) in cash$(15,545)$10,992 $(31,402)

Operating activities. For the year ended December 31, 2021, net cash used in operations was $29.8 million compared to the net cash provided by operations of $34.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net cash used in operating activities is primarily attributable to the increase in working capital for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the prior year period.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, net cash provided by operations was $34.4 million compared to $36.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities is primarily attributable to the decrease in net income associated with the sales declines in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the to the prior year period. This reduction was offset by cash generated from working capital primarily resulting from timing of the payment of payables and expenses. 

Investing activities. For the year ended December 31, 2021, net cash used in investing activities was $17.6 million compared to $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. In 2022, we expect capital expenditures to be in the range of $20 million to $25 million.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, net cash used in investing activities was $6.4 million compared to $58.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in investing activities is primarily due to the FSE Acquisition for $34.0 million during 2019, and decreased capital spending in 2020.

Financing activities. For the year ended December 31, 2021, net cash provided by financing activities was $31.0 million compared to the net cash used in financing activities of $19.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 is attributable to $49.4 million of net borrowings under the revolving credit facility offset by $8.0 million of costs attributed to debt amendment and extinguishment completed during the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and a $5.0 million Contingent Consideration payment. Net cash used in financing activities for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 is attributable to an additional repayment of $5.0 million of the senior secured term loan credit facility and loan amendment costs of $2.8 million
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For the year ended December 31, 2020, net cash used in financing activities was $19.3 million compared to $10.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 is attributable to additional repayment of $10.0 million of the senior secured term loan credit facility and associated fees, along with a contingent consideration milestone payment of $1.0 million related to the FSE acquisition.

Debt and Credit Facilities

The debt and credit facility summaries described in Note 3, Debt, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are incorporated in this section by reference.
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
The following table reflects our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
 Payments Due by Period
 Total
1 Year
2-3 Years4-5 YearsMore than
5 Years
Debt obligations$195,650 $9,375 $30,000 $156,275 $— 
Estimated interest payments15,002 4,354 7,620 3,028 — 
Leasing obligations32,535 10,862 12,276 8,008 1,389 
Non-U.S. pension funding16,791 1,082 2,361 2,627 10,721 
Total$259,978 $25,673 $52,257 $169,938 $12,110 

We estimated future interest payments based on the effective interest rate as of December 31, 2021. Since December 31, 2021, there have been no material changes outside the ordinary course of business to our contractual obligations as set forth above.
We expect to contribute approximately $1.1 million to our UK pension plan in 2022. No contributions are expected to be made to our U.S. pension plan in 2022.
Generally, we enter into agreements with our customers at the beginning of a given vehicle platform’s life to supply products for the entire life of that vehicle platform. These agreements generally provide for the supply of a customer’s production requirements for a particular platform rather than for the purchase of a specific quantity of products. The obligations under these agreements and regulations are not reflected in the contractual obligations table above.
As of December 31, 2021, we were not a party to significant purchase obligations for goods or services.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). For a comprehensive discussion of our significant accounting policies, see Note 1, Significant Accounting Policies, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis, particularly relating to accounts receivable reserves, inventory reserves, goodwill, intangible and long-lived assets, income taxes, warranty reserves, litigation reserves and pension and other post-retirement benefit plans. We base our estimates on historical experience and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets, liabilities and equity that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and outcomes could differ materially from these estimates and assumptions. See Item 1A - Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding risk factors that may impact our estimates.
Revenue Recognition — We recognize revenue when our performance obligation has been satisfied and control of products has been transferred to a customer, which typically occurs upon shipment. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the transfer of goods or services. We enter into agreements with certain customers in the Vehicle Solutions segment at the beginning of a vehicle platform’s life to supply products for that vehicle platform. Once we enter into such agreements, fulfillment of our requirements is our obligation for the entire production life of
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the platform and we have no provisions to terminate such contracts. Management judgments and estimates must be made in estimating sales returns and allowances relating to revenue recognized in a given period.
Inventory — Inventories are valued at the lower of first-in, first-out cost or net realizable value. Cost includes applicable material, labor and overhead. We value our finished goods inventory at a standard cost that is periodically adjusted to approximate actual cost. Inventory quantities on-hand are regularly reviewed, and where necessary, provisions for excess and obsolete inventory are recorded based primarily on our estimated production requirements driven by expected market volumes.
Income Taxes — We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in our financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax laws and rates expected to be in place when the deferred tax items are realized. We recognize tax positions initially in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. We provide a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a portion of such deferred tax assets will not be realized.


Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to various market risks, including changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Market risk is the potential loss arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices, such as foreign currency exchange and interest rates. We do not enter into derivatives or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We enter into financial instruments, from time to time, to manage the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates and to hedge a portion of future anticipated currency transactions. The counterparties are primarily major financial institutions.
Interest Rate Risk
We manage our interest rate risk by balancing the amount of our fixed rate and variable rate debt. To manage its exposure to variable interest rates in a cost-efficient manner, the Company enters into interest rate swaps in which the Company agrees to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between fixed and variable interest amounts calculated by reference to an agreed-upon notional principal amount. The Company entered into an interest rate swap agreement to fix the interest rate on an initial aggregate amount of $73.1 million, which is 50% of the outstanding Term Loan Facility as of December 31, 2021 thereby reducing exposure to interest rate changes. A change in our variable interest rate of 100 basis points for a full twelve-month period would have an approximate $1.0 million impact on interest expense assuming approximately 50% of our average fiscal 2021 variable-rate term loan debt had not been hedged via an interest rate swap agreement.
In connection with the transition away from the use of the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) as an interest rate benchmark, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that for U.S. dollar LIBOR, the cessation date has been deferred to June 30, 2023 for the most commonly used tenors (overnight and one, three, six and 12 months). Prior to the USD LIBOR ceasing to be published or no longer represented, we will work with our credit lending banks and expect to come to an agreement to replace the benchmark rate on our floating rate debt to be in line with the industry recommended benchmark replacement, which is likely the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) plus a spread adjustment.

Additionally, with respect to our interest rate swaps, we are managing the transition from LIBOR based on industry-wide LIBOR reform efforts, including the LIBOR protocols issued by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association.

We are in the process of managing the transition, and any financial impact will be accounted for under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.
Foreign Currency Risk
Foreign currency risk is the risk that we will incur economic losses due to adverse changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We use forward exchange contracts to hedge certain foreign currency transaction exposures. We estimate our projected revenues and purchases in certain foreign currencies and locations and will hedge a portion or all of the anticipated long or short position. The contracts typically run from one month up to eighteen months. To mitigate our exposure to Mexican Pesos, where we have our greatest exposure, we have entered into multiple monthly forward exchange contracts that have been designated as cash flow hedge instruments which are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. Noncash gains and losses are deferred in accumulated other comprehensive loss and recognized when settled in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. We do not hold or issue foreign exchange options or forward contracts for trading purposes.
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Outstanding foreign currency forward exchange contracts at December 31, 2021 are more fully described in Note 6, Fair Value Measurement, to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At December 31, 2021 and 2020, the potential reduction in earnings from a hypothetical 10% adverse change in quoted foreign currency spot rates applied to foreign currency sensitive instruments would have been immaterial.
Foreign Currency Transactions
A portion of our revenues during the year ended December 31, 2021 were derived from manufacturing operations outside of the U.S. The results of operations and the financial position of our operations in these other countries are primarily measured in their respective currency and translated into U.S. Dollars. A portion of the expenses incurred in these countries is in currencies different from which revenue is generated. As discussed above, from time to time, we enter into forward exchange contracts to mitigate a portion of this currency risk. The reported income of these operations will be higher or lower depending on a weakening or strengthening of the U.S. Dollar against the respective foreign currency.
A portion of our long-term assets and liabilities at December 31, 2021 are based in our foreign operations and are translated into U.S. Dollars at foreign currency exchange rates in effect as of the end of each period with the effect of such translation reflected as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Accordingly, our stockholders’ investment will fluctuate depending upon the weakening or strengthening of the U.S. Dollar against the respective foreign currency. The principal currencies of exposure are the Mexican Peso, Chinese Yuan, British Pound, Euro, Czech Koruna, Australian Dollar, Japanese Yen, Indian Rupee, Thai Baht, and Ukrainian Hryvnia. Foreign currency translation adversely impacted fiscal year 2021 revenues by $13.2 million.
Effects of Inflation
Inflation potentially affects us in two principal ways. First, borrowings under our revolving credit facility are tied to prevailing short-term interest rates that may change as a result of inflation rates, translating into changes in interest expense. Second, general inflation can impact material purchases, labor, and pension liabilities. In many cases, we have limited ability to pass through inflation-related cost increases due to the competitive nature of the markets that we serve.
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Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Documents Filed as Part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K
Page
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc.:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated March 1, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Testing of revenue

As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, revenue is recognized when a performance obligation has been satisfied and control of products has been transferred to the customer, usually at a designated shipping point and in accordance with customer specifications. Revenue is measured based on the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for the transfer of goods or services. For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company recorded $971.6 million of revenue.

We identified the testing of revenue as a critical audit matter due to the large volume of data and the number and complexity of the revenue accounting systems. While revenues consist of a large number of similar, individually low value transactions, the processing and recording of revenue is reliant upon multiple information technology (IT) systems used to process large volumes
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of customer billing data. Specialized skills and knowledge were needed to test the IT systems used for the processing and recording of revenue.

The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We applied auditor judgment to determine the nature and extent of procedures to be performed over revenue. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the processing and recording of revenue. This included controls over the IT systems and automated and manual process level controls related to the processing and recording of revenue. For a selection of transactions, we (1) compared the amount of revenue recorded to a combination of Company internal data, executed contracts, and/or other relevant and reliable third-party data, including cash received from customers and (2) evaluated the timing of revenue recognition based on the shipment date. In addition, we involved IT professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in the identification and testing of certain IT systems used by the Company for the processing and recording of revenue. We evaluated the sufficiency of audit evidence obtained by assessing the results of procedures performed, including the appropriateness of the nature and extent of the audit effort.

/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2012.
Columbus, Ohio
March 1, 2022
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019
 
202120202019
 (In thousands, except per share amounts)
Revenues$971,578 $717,699 $901,238 
Cost of revenues852,591 643,623 796,101 
Gross profit118,987 74,076 105,137 
Selling, general and administrative expenses69,406 68,228 64,501 
Goodwill and other impairment 29,017  
Operating income (loss)49,581 (23,169)40,636 
Other (income) expense(878)728 2,225 
Interest expense11,179 20,603 16,855 
Loss on extinguishment of debt7,155   
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes32,125 (44,500)21,556 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes8,393 (7,451)5,778 
Net income (loss)$23,732 $(37,049)$15,778 
Earnings (loss) per common share
Basic$0.75 $(1.20)$0.52 
Diluted$0.72 $(1.20)$0.51 
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic31,501 30,943 30,602 
Diluted32,790 30,943 30,823 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019
 
202120202019
 (In thousands)
Net income (loss)$23,732 $(37,049)$15,778 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments(1,421)5,008 (1,185)
Change in defined benefit plans, net of tax4,673 (5,041)2,738 
Derivative instruments, net of tax(684)977 (32)
Other comprehensive income2,568 944 1,521 
Comprehensive income (loss)$26,300 $(36,105)$17,299 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 31, 2021 and 2020  
20212020
ASSETS(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Current assets:
Cash$34,958 $50,503 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $243 and $644, respectively
174,472 151,101 
Inventories141,045 91,247 
Other current assets20,201 17,686 
Total current assets370,676 310,537 
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $172,536 and $159,026, respectively
63,126 62,776 
Operating lease right-of-use asset, net26,116 30,047 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $18,180 and $14,831, respectively
18,283 21,804 
Deferred income taxes, net24,108 25,981 
Other assets5,384 3,228 
TOTAL ASSETS$507,693 $454,373 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$101,915 $112,402 
Current operating lease liabilities9,048 9,236 
Accrued liabilities and other41,792 40,820 
Current portion of long-term debt9,375 2,429 
Total current liabilities162,130 164,887 
Long-term debt185,581 144,147 
Long-term operating lease liabilities18,519 23,932 
Pension and other post-retirement liabilities9,905 15,296 
Other long-term liabilities4,905 10,741 
Total liabilities381,040 359,003 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value (5,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding)
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value (60,000,000 shares authorized; 32,034,592 and 31,249,811 shares issued and outstanding, respectively)
321 313 
Treasury stock, at cost: 1,708,981 and 1,560,623 shares, respectively
(13,172)(11,893)
Additional paid-in capital255,566 249,312 
Retained deficit(73,624)(97,356)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(42,438)(45,006)
Total stockholders’ equity126,653 95,370 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY$507,693 $454,373 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE GROUP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019
 Common StockTreasury
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total CVG
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
 (In thousands, except share data )
Balance - December 31, 201830,512,843 $318 $(10,245)$243,007 $(76,013)$(47,471)$109,596 
Issuance of restricted stock418,553 5 — — — — 5 
Surrender of common stock by employees(130,141)— (985)— — — (985)
Share-based compensation expense— — — 2,845 — — 2,845 
Cumulative effect of adoption of Topic 842— — — — (72)— (72)
Total comprehensive income15,778 1,521 17,299 
Balance - December 31, 201930,801,255 $323 $(11,230)$245,852 $(60,307)