20-F 1 v435329_20f.htm FORM 20-F

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM 20-F

 

 

 

¨REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR (G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

 

OR

 

¨TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

¨SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report

 

Commission file number: 000-50826

 

 

 

KONGZHONG CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

N/A

 (Translation of registrant’s name into English)

 

 

 

Cayman Islands 35th Floor, Tengda Plaza
No. 168 Xizhimenwai Street
Beijing, China 100044
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (Address of principal executive offices)

 

Jay Chang
Telephone: (+86-10) 8857-6000
Fax: (+86-10) 8857-5891

Email: ir@kongzhong.com
35th Floor, Tengda Plaza
No. 168 Xizhimenwai Street

Beijing, China 100044

The People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and /or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, par value US$0.0000005 per share*   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
     
American Depositary Shares, each representing 40 ordinary shares   (The NASDAQ Global Select Market)

 

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The NASDAQ Global Select Market of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, each representing 40 ordinary shares.

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

 

As of December 31, 2015, 1,884,133,063 ordinary shares, par value US$0.0000005 per share, were issued and outstanding.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ¨ No x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ¨      Accelerated filer x      Non-accelerated filer ¨

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP x International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the
International Accounting Standards Board
Other  ¨

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ¨        Item 18 ¨

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS ii
     
PART I 1
     
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers 1
     
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 1
     
Item 3. Key Information 1
     
Item 4. Information on the Company 39
     
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments 70
     
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects 70
     
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees 105
     
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions 112
     
Item 8. Financial Information 124
     
Item 9. The Offer and Listing 124
     
Item 10. Additional Information 125
     
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks 132
     
Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities 133
     
PART II 135
     
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies 135
     
Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds 135
     
Item 15. Controls and Procedures 135
     
Item 16. [Reserved] 138
     
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert 138
     
Item 16B. Code of Ethics 138
     
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 138
     
Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees 139
     
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers 139
     
Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant 139
     
Item 16G. Corporate Governance 139
     
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure 140
     
PART III 141
     
Item 17. Financial Statements 141
     
Item 18. Financial Statements 141
     
Item 19. Exhibits 141

 

 - i - 

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This annual report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements that are not historical facts relating to:

 

·our ability to successfully execute our business strategies and plans;

 

·our financial performance and business operations;

 

·our development and capital expenditure plans;

 

·the expected benefit and future prospects of our long-term investments, strategic alliances and acquisitions;

 

·our ability to anticipate and launch games that respond to changing consumer tastes and preferences and predict trends in the Internet and mobile games market in the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC;

 

·our ability to license quality Internet and mobile games from the PRC and overseas Internet and mobile game developers that complement our internally developed Internet and mobile games;

 

·our dependence on a small number of Internet games developed by third party Internet games developers for a significant portion of our Internet games revenues;

 

·management estimations with respect to revenues from our Internet games, mobile games, and wireless value-added services, or WVAS, businesses;

 

·our ability to collect outstanding loans extended to related parties;

 

·the successful remediation of the material weakness identified in our internal control over financial reporting and our ability to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control;

 

·the development of our latest product offerings, including, but not limited to, offerings in our Internet games and mobile games;

 

·the development of the PRC smartphone mobile games market and the regulatory environment and changes in polices or guidelines relating to those markets;

 

·the development of the regulatory environment and changes in the policies or guidelines of the telecommunications operators in the PRC, as well as our relationships with those operators;

 

·our dependence on the substance and timing of the billing systems of the telecommunications operators in the PRC for our performance;

 

·competitive pressures and future growth in the Internet games, mobile games, WVAS, telecommunications and related industries in the PRC; and

 

 - ii - 

 

 

·our expectations with respect to the completion of our proposed going-private transaction.

 

The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “seek,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify a number of these forward-looking statements.

 

These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, these forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are not a guarantee of future performance. Actual results may differ materially from the information contained in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including, without limitation, the risk factors set forth in “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors” and the following:

 

·the effects of competition on, as well as changes in, the demand for or the price of our products or services;

 

·any changes in our relationship with telecommunications operators in the PRC;

 

·any changes in our relationships with our Internet games licensors whose games we have the rights to operate in the PRC or other markets;

 

·any changes in technologies related to telecommunications, Internet games, mobile games, or WVAS or applications based on such technologies;

 

·future developments, trends, regulatory environment and consumer preferences in China with respect to Internet and mobile games and means by which these games are distributed;

 

·any changes in the regulatory regime or the policies for the Internet games industry in the PRC, including changes in the structure, functions or policies of the regulators, which include (i) the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT(formerly the Ministry of Information Industry), (ii) the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the SAIC, (iii) the Ministry of Culture, or the MOC, (iv) the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television, or the SAPPRFT (formerly the General Administration of Press and Publication and the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television), and (v) the Ministry of Public Security, or the MPS;

 

·any changes in the regulatory regime or the policies for the PRC telecommunications industry, including changes in the structure or functions of the primary industry regulator, the MIIT, or its policies, or the policies or other regulatory measures of other relevant government or industry authorities relating to, among other matters, the granting and approval of licenses, procedures for customers to access and subscribe to mobile games or WVAS , restrictions on Internet content, or the introduction of new technology platforms, products and services;

 

·any changes in political, economic, legal or social conditions in the PRC, including the PRC government’s specific policies with respect to (i) foreign investment and entry by foreign companies into the telecommunications, Internet games, mobile games or WVAS market, (ii) economic growth, (iii) inflation, (iv) foreign exchange or (v) the availability of credit; and

 

·changes in population growth or gross domestic product, or GDP, growth or the impact of those changes on the demand for our products or services.

 

 - iii - 

 

 

We do not intend to update or otherwise revise the forward-looking statements in this annual report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Due to these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this annual report might not occur in the way we expect, or at all. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking information. All forward-looking statements contained in this annual report are qualified by reference to the cautionary statements set out in this section.

 

 - iv - 

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 3. Key Information

 

Selected Financial Data

 

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements, the notes thereto and “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014 and 2015 set forth below are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto, which are included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012 and the historical consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 set forth below are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto, which are not included in this annual report.

 

Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared and presented in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP.

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
Consolidated statements of operations data  2011   2012   2013   2014   2015 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except shares and per share data) 
                     
Revenues  US$156,180.6   US$180,586.1   US$173,653.8   US$227,595.9   US$179,113.4 
Internet games   37,076.2    82,902.8    93,792.3    118,099.8    105,045.3 
Mobile games   40,229.4    20,971.0    16,908.3    45,036.4    24,646.6 
WVAS   78,875.0    76,712.3    62,953.2    64,459.7    49,421.5 
Cost of revenues   (91,930.2)   (103,130.3)   (96,399.9)   (129,279.0)   (139,362.5)
Internet games   (15,923.6)   (39,539.8)   (45,283.8)   (61,443.1)   (52,368.8)
Mobile games   (25,248.0)   (10,935.0)   (7,780.3)   (22,977.3)   (14,776.6)
WVAS   (50,758.6)   (52,655.5)   (43,085.2)   (44,858.6)   (37,007.2)
Impairment loss on intangible assets (1)           (250.6)       (35,209.9)
Gross profit   64,250.4    77,455.8    77,253.9    98,316.9    39,750.9 
Internet games   21,152.6    43,363.0    48,508.5    56,656.7    52,676.5 
Mobile games   14,981.4    10,036.0    9,128.0    22,059.1    9,870.0 
WVAS   28,116.4    24,056.8    19,868.0    19,601.1    12,414.3 
Impairment loss on intangible assets (2)           (250.6)       (35,209.9)
Operating expenses:                         
Product development   (15,416.9)   (18,382.4)   (26,401.7)   (25,107.4)   (24,189.6)
Selling and marketing   (20,891.6)   (24,586.0)   (26,674.0)   (42,522.7)   (25,890.5)

 

 - 1 - 

 

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
Consolidated statements of operations data  2011   2012   2013   2014   2015 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except shares and per share data) 
                     
General and administrative   (11,582.2)   (11,629.3)   (8,976.2)   (12,564.6)   (13,484.2)
Impairment loss on goodwill   (20,255.3)                
Impairment loss on intangible assets   (3.9)       (1,562.4)   (1,323.3)    
Total operating expenses   (68,149.9)   (54,597.7)   (63,614.3)   (81,518.0)   (63,564.3)
Change in fair value of contingent consideration for business acquisition   (3,729.5)                
Government subsidies   319.2    301.4    2,176.4    1,138.9    1,573.6 
Income (loss) from operations   (7,309.8)   23,159.5    15,816.0    17,937.8    (22,239.8)
Interest income   3,569.2    5,231.3    6,764.0    8,864.7    5,382.0 
Interest income from loans to third parties   1,193.2    453.6            1,514.2 
Interest income from loans to related party                   1,078.8 
Interest expense   (487.8)   (262.7)   (693.3)   (895.0)   (884.0)
Impairment loss on cost method investment           (2,000.0)   (2,000.0)    
Loss on extinguishment of debt upon prepayment of convertible senior note   (1,567.5)                
Exchange gain (loss)       387.6    1,487.3    (271.6)   (802.7)
Gain on sale of trading securities   85.6    261.5             
Gain on sale of available-for-sale securities                   628.4 
Dividend received                   536.0 
Net income (loss) before income tax expense and loss in equity method investments   (4,517.1)   29,230.8    21,374.0    23,635.9    (14,787.1)
Income taxes expense   (3,137.8)   (3,490.8)   (712.4)   (1,048.0)   (796.9)
Net income (loss) after income tax expense before loss in equity method investments   (7,654.9)   25,740.0    20,661.6    22,587.9    (15,584.0)
Loss in equity method investments                   (642.7)
Net income (loss)  US$(7,654.9)  US$25,740.0   US$20,661.6   US$22,587.9   US$(16,226.7)
Net income (loss) per share:                         
Basic  US$(0.00)  US$0.02   US$0.01   US$0.01   US$(0.01)
Diluted  US$(0.00)  US$0.01   US$0.01   US$0.01   US$(0.01)
Weighted average shares used in calculating net income (loss) per share:                         
Basic   1,607,110,119    1,661,864,846    1,714,924,612    1,828,191,540    1,882,296,976 
Diluted (3)   1,607,110,119    1,721,622,756    1,751,621,340    1,875,520,094    1,882,296,976 

 

 

(1)Prior period information is presented in a manner that is consistent with the current period segment reporting.

 

(2)Prior period information is presented in a manner that is consistent with the current period segment reporting.

 

(3)As of December 31, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, we had 210 million, 285 million, 11 million, 97 million and 77 million ordinary share equivalents, respectively, outstanding that could potentially dilute income per share in the future, but that were excluded in the computation of diluted income per share in the periods as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.

 

 - 2 - 

 

 

   As of December 31, 
Consolidated balance sheet data  2011   2012   2013   2014   2015 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars) 
                     
Cash and cash equivalents  US$129,511.5   US$120,694.7   US$123,427.7   US$105,093.2   US$38,304.4 
Term deposits           4,448.8    16,907.3    25,121.4 
Available-for-sale securities               20,013.5    64,755.5 
Held-to-maturity securities   17,299.1    17,465.3    51,866.5    24,358.6    26,746.6 
Trading securities   7,754.6                 
Loans to third parties   22,187.3                14,686.0 
Loans to related party                   32,851.0 
Amount due from related party                   285.0 
Accounts receivable, net   19,903.0    23,699.7    17,230.8    30,244.3    24,484.9 
Property and equipment, net   3,620.3    3,065.5    5,842.5    5,659.2    4,653.9 
Intangible assets, net   2,347.9    75,069.3    78,726.6    55,509.8    12,515.6 
Long-term investments       4,000.0    2,000.0        4,772.8 
Goodwill   72,967.1    87,551.0    90,266.6    90,019.1    84,770.0 
Restricted cash       35,773.3    36,870.7    64,261.3    58,466.8 
Total assets   280,248.0    372,784.1    419,240.3    432,580.7    418,706.6 
Total current liabilities   32,526.0    71,229.6    67,370.8    100,790.5    106,945.6 
Convertible note payable   1,272.6                 
Total shareholders’ equity   246,177.7    282,884.1    332,609.5    321,930.2    311,761.0 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity   280,248.0    372,784.1    419,240.3    432,580.7    418,706.6 

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
Consolidated cash flow data  2011   2012   2013   2014   2015 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars) 
     
Net Cash (used in) provided by:                         
Operating activities  US$33,433.8   US$46,655.9   US$35,729.5   US$31,069.3   US$31,792.4 
Investing activities   (40,284.8)   (41,206.8)   (43,944.6)   (32,117.6)   (93,944.9)
Financing activities   (26,335.0)   (14,313.0)   8,956.8    (16,914.8)   (1,922.7)

 

Exchange Rate Information

 

We present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars. In addition, this annual report contains translations of certain Renminbi amounts to U.S. dollar amounts for transactions denominated in Renminbi. Unless otherwise specified or indicated by context, the translations of Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollar amounts have been made at the rate of RMB6.4936 = US$1.00, the central parity rate set by the People’s Bank of China, or the PBOC, China’s central bank, on December 31, 2015. The translations are not a representation that the Renminbi amounts could actually be converted to U.S. dollars at this rate. For a discussion of the exchange rates used for the presentation of our financial statements, see Note 2 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

The PBOC sets and publishes daily central parity rates with reference primarily to the supply and demand of Renminbi against a basket of currencies in the market. The PBOC also takes into account other factors such as the general conditions existing in the international foreign exchange markets. Although PRC governmental policies were introduced in 1996 to reduce restrictions on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currency for current account items, conversion of Renminbi into foreign exchange for capital items, such as foreign direct investment, loans or securities, requires the approval of the State Administration for Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, and other relevant authorities. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this annual report could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

 

 - 3 - 

 

 

The noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was RMB6.4628= US$1.00 on April 8, 2016. The following table sets forth the high and low noon buying rates between Renminbi and U.S. dollars for each of the periods shown:

 

   Noon Buying Rate 
   RMB per US$1.00 
Period  High   Low 
October 2015   6.3591    6.3180 
November 2015   6.3945    6.3180 
December 2015   6.4896    6.3883 
January 2016   6.5932    6.5219 
February 2016   6.5795    6.5154 
March 2016   6.5500    6.4480 
April 2016 (through April 8, 2016)   6.4780    6.4599 

 

The following table sets forth the average noon buying rates between Renminbi and U.S. dollars for each of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 (through April 8, 2016), calculated by averaging the noon buying rates on the last day of each month of the periods shown:

 

   Average Noon Buying 
   Rate RMB per 
Period  US$1.00 
2011   6.4630 
2012   6.3088 
2013   6.1478 
2014   6.1704 
2015   6.2869 
2016 (through April 8, 2016)   6.5096 

 

Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

 

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

 - 4 - 

 

 

Risk Factors

 

You should consider carefully all of the information in this annual report, including the risks and uncertainties described below. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed. In such event, the trading price of our ADSs could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Relating to Our Business

 

We face increasing competition in the PRC from providers of Internet games, mobile games and WVAS, which could reduce our market share and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The Internet games business is highly competitive in the PRC. We expect more companies to enter the Internet games industry in the PRC and a wider range of Internet games to be introduced to the PRC market. Our principal competitors in the PRC include Perfect World Co., Ltd., Shanda Games Limited, NetEase, Inc., Changyou.com Limited, Giant Interactive Group Inc. and Tencent Holdings Limited. Our potential competitors include major Internet portal operators, other domestic and foreign game developers and publishers and alliances between our existing and new competitors. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial and marketing resources and name recognition than we do. Some of our competitors or potential competitors, especially major foreign Internet games developers, have greater game development resources than we do. In addition, many of our competitors have developed and operated games that have proven commercially successful for a longer period of time than our games and have a larger portfolio of Internet games than we do.

 

Moreover, our competitors may introduce new business models that may be more attractive to customers than the business models we currently use. We believe that competition in the PRC Internet games market may become more intense as increasing numbers of Internet games are introduced in the market. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against any new or existing competitors, or against any new business models implemented by them. In addition, the increased competition in the Internet games industry may reduce the number of our players or growth rate of our player base, or create pressure for us to reduce usage fees or the prices of certain in-game items. Any of these events could materially decrease our revenues and profitability.

 

The development, distribution and sale of mobile games are also highly competitive in the PRC. We compete for customers primarily on the basis of game quality, brand and price. In addition, we compete for mobile game distribution platforms and telecommunications operators to distribute our mobile games, principally on the basis of the popularity of our games among customers, our historical performance, perception of our sales potential and our relationships with content and brand licensors. Furthermore, we compete for content and brand licensors who supply game content and brands, mainly on the basis of the economic terms, such as royalty rates, of our cooperation agreements with the licensors, the licensors’ perception of our ability to develop games and pre-load games in mobile handsets, our speed of execution, diversity of distribution channels and relationships with telecommunications operators. We also compete for experienced and talented employees in the mobile games business. Moreover, the entry of new competitors, such as developers of personal computer-based Internet games, major media companies, traditional video game developers, content aggregators, mobile software providers and independent mobile games developers, would likely intensify competition in the mobile games market. Increasing competition in this market could make it difficult for us to maintain or increase our market share and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

 - 5 - 

 

 

The PRC WVAS market has also experienced increasingly intense competition. The MIIT reported on its website that more than 3,800 service providers held nationwide licenses as of December 31, 2015 to supply WVAS on the PRC telecommunications operators’ networks. We compete with these companies primarily on the basis of brand, price, type and timing of service offerings, content, customer service, business partners and distribution channel relationships. We also compete with these companies for experienced and talented employees. While we believe that we have certain advantages over our competitors, some of them may have greater personnel and financial resources and a longer operating history than we do. In particular, Internet portal companies that provide WVAS may have an advantage over us as a result of their more established brand names, user bases and Internet distribution channels. Furthermore, our competitors may be able to develop or exploit new technologies faster than we can, or offer a broader range of products and services than we are presently able to offer.

 

Our ability to succeed in the PRC Internet games market is subject to many challenges and uncertainties.

 

Our ability to succeed in the PRC Internet games market is subject to many challenges, such as our ability to develop and license popular games. In particular, new Internet games are regularly introduced in the PRC, but only a relatively small number of high quality, popular games account for a significant portion of the PRC Internet games market. Moreover, it is difficult to predict prior to the introduction of an Internet game whether any particular game would be well received by PRC game players. Accordingly, any negative development relating to our Internet games could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Potential negative developments include:

 

·our failure to make quality upgrades, expansion packs, enhancements or improvements to our Internet games in a timely manner;

 

·our failure to avoid, or detect and correct, defects in our Internet games in a timely manner;

 

·any reduction in our server capacity, including our failure to adequately project our future server needs and make advanced purchases of servers to accommodate the expected increase in the number of game players;

 

·any reduction in or failure to grow our games or player base, or any decrease in the popularity of our Internet games;

 

·any failure to license popular Internet games from external game developers that complement our internally developed Internet games;

 

·any failure to properly tailor and localize any foreign games we have licensed for PRC game players;

 

·any decrease in or failure to grow the amount of revenues generated from our Internet games;

 

·a failure in our Internet games billing system, which we rely on for revenue recognition and tracking of the consumption patterns of game players; or

 

·any breach of game-related software security or prolonged server interruption due to network failures or hacking activities.

 

In addition, our ability to succeed in the Internet games market is subject to many uncertainties beyond our control. As the Internet games industry is a relatively new and evolving industry, the growth of the Internet games industry and the level of demand and market acceptance of our Internet games are subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Our future operating results will depend on numerous factors, including:

 

·the Internet infrastructure and the continued growth of personal computer, Internet and broadband penetration in the PRC and other markets in which we offer our games;

 

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·whether the Internet games industry, particularly in the PRC and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, continues to grow and the rate of any such growth;

 

·our ability to license or operate our games in overseas markets;

 

·laws, rules, regulations and policies affecting the Internet games industry, including those affecting Internet cafes in the PRC, where a substantial portion of our game players access Internet games;

 

·general economic conditions, particularly those affecting discretionary consumer spending;

 

·the availability and popularity of other forms of entertainment, particularly console game systems, which are already popular in developed countries and may gain popularity in the PRC and other countries in which we market our games;

 

·public opinion regarding Internet games;

 

·the popularity, pricing and business model of new Internet games and in-game items that we and our competitors launch and distribute; and

 

·our ability to upgrade and improve our existing games to extend their life spans and to maintain their competitive positions in the Internet games market in a timely manner.

 

Due to these challenges and uncertainties, we cannot assure you that our Internet games business will make a positive contribution to our future revenues and profitability. Our failure to successfully develop this business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

If we fail to anticipate and launch games that respond to changing consumer tastes and preferences or predict trends in the PRC Internet games market, our revenues and profitability could be materially reduced, and our growth and prospects would suffer.

 

The success of our Internet games business will largely depend on our ability to anticipate and launch games that effectively respond to changing consumer tastes and preferences, as well as technological advances, in a timely manner. For example, we may need to license from overseas developers popular game titles that we believe may be popular with game players in the PRC. These licenses may subject us to significant up-front non-refundable license fees, and there is no assurance these games will be commercially viable in the PRC market. In addition, we will need to replace our existing Internet games as they reach the end of their useful economic lives, which we believe are typically one to three years, as well as operate a larger number of Internet games to continue increasing our overall player base and revenues to meet our growth strategy. If we fail to launch and operate these games successfully in the PRC in a timely manner to meet PRC consumers’ changing tastes and preferences, or if these games fail to respond to their tastes and preferences, our revenues could decrease materially, operating costs could increase significantly, profitability could be materially reduced, and we may need to write down all or part of the up-front non-refundable license fees paid to game developers. For example, as a result of the unsatisfactory performance and uncertainty in the localization development of certain Internet games, we recognized an impairment loss of US$1.32 million and US$35.21 million, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Internet Games Business.”

 

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Moreover, any failure by us to predict and adapt our Internet games to meet market trends could materially reduce our revenues and profitability, and severely harm our growth and prospects. For example, a majority of our Internet games depend on players to download and install large client-side software, which may require significant computing resources as well as many hours to download. Game players in the PRC have been increasingly turning to web browser-based games in cases where downloading large client-side software is inconvenient or impracticable. As such, we cannot assure you that game players in the PRC will continue to download and install such types of software to play Internet games, or otherwise prefer the convenience and ease of use offered by browser-based or other games.

 

In addition, expanding our Internet games portfolio may add complexities to our Internet games business and require us to effectively adapt our business and management processes to address particular operational challenges and different requirements of new Internet games in which we operate, which we may not be able to do due to the lack of institutional expertise or otherwise. Accordingly, if we fail to anticipate and successfully launch and operate games that effectively respond to changing consumer tastes and preferences in a timely manner, our revenue and profitability could be materially reduced, and our growth and prospects would suffer.

 

We apply item-based and CD-key revenue models for a number of our current Internet games, which are relatively new revenue models and may have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have adopted an item-based revenue model for a number of our Internet games, including World of Tanks, World of Warplanes and World of Warships, under which players are able to play the Internet games free of charge for an unlimited amount of time, but are charged for purchases of in-game items, such as performance-enhancing items, clothing, accessories and pets. While several other Internet games companies have adopted the item-based model, it is still relatively new compared to time-based billing models, and may create new risks and uncertainties for us. The item-based model will require us to design games that not only attract players to spend more time playing, but also encourage them to purchase in-game items. The sale of in-game items will require us to track closely consumer tastes and preferences, particularly as shown by in-game spending trends. In addition, the item-based model may raise additional concerns for the PRC regulators, who have expressed reservations over the amount of time that Chinese youths spent on Internet games. A model that does not charge based on time spent may be viewed by the PRC regulators as undesirable. We cannot assure you that the item-based revenue model will be successful, or that it will not have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, our revenue recognition policy for the item-based games relies on our estimates of the useful lives of various items associated with each of our item-based games. We have relatively limited operating history and data for our item-based games on which to base our revenue recognition policy for these games. With respect to permanent ownership items that we sell to players, we recognize revenues over the estimated useful lives of such items. We take into account paying player behavior patterns in estimating the lives of permanent life in-game items, including the average period that the typical player plays our games based on log-on data, which are affected by various factors such as acceptance and popularity of the game, game updates and other in-game items, promotional events launched, future operating strategies and market conditions. We calculate the actual playing periods of the players based on historical log-on patterns of all the paying players over years of game operations starting from the launch of the games. We review the actual average playing periods for all active games and evaluate other various factors, such as acceptance and popularity of the game, game updates and other in-game items, promotional events launched, future operating strategies and market conditions at least annually, to assess if the estimated life of permanent ownership items remains reasonable. Given the relatively short operating history of our item-based games, however, our estimate of the period that players typically play our games may not accurately reflect the actual useful lives of the items, and changes in player behavior observed over time may also affect the estimate. We revise our estimates as we continue to gather operating data, and refining our estimation process and results accordingly. Any future revisions to estimates could affect the time period during which we recognize revenues from these items. In particular, an increase in the estimated lives of these items would increase the period of time over which the revenues from the items are recognized. If we are required to make adjustments to our financial statements as a result of revisions to our estimates, it could materially and adversely affect market sentiments toward us, and the trading price of our ADSs could decline significantly.

 

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Moreover, we have adopted other business models in our Internet games business to supplement our item-based revenue model, such as the CD-Key model, under which players are able to have full access to our Internet games but only after they have paid an upfront fee. We have adopted the CD-Key model for the Guild Wars 2 game and may in the future apply such model or other revenue models to our other Internet games. We cannot assure you that these new business models will be successful, or that it will not have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations, including our revenues, profitability and cash flows.

 

We depend on a small number of Internet games for a significant portion of our Internet games revenues, and any factors that could have an adverse impact on the development, marketing and distribution of these Internet games, or on our business relationships with the licensors of these Internet games, could materially decrease our Internet games revenues, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

A substantial majority of our Internet games revenues is generated from purchases of in-game items by game players based on a small number of Internet games we offer. The revenues generated from these Internet games are responsible for a disproportionate amount of our Internet games revenues. In 2015, revenues generated by in-game items purchased by game players who play the World of Tanks game represented over 86.33% of our Internet games revenues. If the World of Tanks game players become dissatisfied with the World of Tanks game or with the in-game items, they may choose not to purchase additional in-game credits in the future.

 

Moreover, we depend on Internet games licensors whose games we have the rights to operate in the PRC or other markets to make quality in-game items, upgrades, enhancements, and localized updates and improvements to our licensed Internet games. For example, we entered into a licensing agreement with Wargaming.net LLP, or Wargaming LLP, in August 2010. Wargaming LLP, the licensor of the World of Tanks game, is responsible for developing upgrades, enhancements and improvements to the World of Tanks game. In addition, Wargaming LLP is responsible for providing timely localized updates and enhancements to the game, as well as developing new in-game items that track the preferences and tastes of game players in the PRC. If Wargaming LLP ceased to cooperate with us, we would no longer be able to provide the World of Tanks game to game players in the PRC or generate the corresponding revenues from the game. In December 2015, Wargaming LLP assigned its rights and obligations under the licensing agreement to an affiliate, Wargaming.net Limited, or Wargaming Ltd.

 

Due to the concentration of our Internet games revenue in a small number of Internet games and our dependence on licensors of certain Internet games to continue to develop new in-game items and to upgrade and enhance those games, any factors that could have an adverse impact on the development, marketing and distribution of these Internet games, or on our business relationships with the licensors of these Internet games, could materially reduce our Internet games revenues, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our Internet games business depends on our ability to acquire and maintain licenses to popular Internet games developed by other developers, and if we are unable to acquire or maintain licenses to these Internet games, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

 

During 2015, approximately 98.5% of our Internet games revenues were generated from Internet games that we licensed from third party Internet games developers. Our ability to acquire and maintain licenses to popular Internet games from third party developers depends on a number of factors, such as:

 

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·identifying and maintaining good relationships with licensors whom we rely on to provide our game players with upgrades, expansion packs, enhancements or improvements;

 

·changes in the terms, or termination, of or the failure to renew, the Internet games licenses with our licensors, which could be caused by, among others, contractual breach by us or our licensors, demand for new royalty payments by our licensors or refusal by our licensors to renew licenses;

 

·maintaining the reputation and continued marketability of our licensed games if our licensors are unable to provide our game players with satisfactory upgrades, expansion packs or enhancements;

 

·protecting our intellectual property rights both inside and outside the PRC;

 

·complying with the different commercial and legal requirements of the international markets from which we license our games, such as Internet games import regulatory procedures, taxes and other restrictions and expenses;

 

·fluctuations in currency exchange rates; and

 

·interruptions in cross-border Internet connections or other system failures.

 

If we are unable to maintain a stable relationship with third party Internet game developers due to any of the factors listed above, or if these developers establish similar or more favorable relationships with our competitors in violation of its contractual arrangements with us or otherwise, we may not be able to properly manage our operation of licensed online games, which could materially harm our business as well as our operating results. Moreover, we have incurred significant payment obligations to third party developers. If we are unable to meet these obligations, or if financing is not available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, our ability to operate our licensed games could be materially disrupted and our licenses with third party developers could be terminated, which could materially reduce our revenues and profitability.

 

Any difficulties or delays in receiving approval from the relevant government authorities for the operation of games we license from Internet games developers outside of the PRC or any expansion packs for, or material changes to, such games could significantly reduce their popularity and profitability.

 

We currently license six Internet games from third party developers outside of the PRC. We are required to obtain relevant PRC government approvals before we are permitted to operate these games within the PRC. In addition, after such government approvals have been obtained, any expansion packs for or material changes of content to those games may require further government approvals. We may not be able to receive such government approvals, and we cannot be certain of the duration of any necessary approval processes. Any difficulties or delays in receiving these government approvals may significantly reduce the profitability and popularity of the licensed games and may entitle licensors to terminate their licenses with us.

 

If we fail to manage risks associated with licensing our internally developed games outside the PRC, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.

 

We have licensed three of our Internet games to operators outside the PRC. We plan to license our existing and new internally developed games in additional countries and regions in the future. The offering of our internally developed games to the international markets exposes us to a number of risks, including:

 

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·identifying and maintaining good relationships with licensees who are knowledgeable about, and are able to effectively distribute and operate our Internet games in, international markets;

 

·developing Internet games and expansion packs catered to markets outside the PRC;

 

·renewing our license agreements with licensees upon their expiration;

 

·maintaining the reputation of our company and our games that are being operated by licensees in international markets pursuant to their own standards;

 

·protecting our intellectual property rights both inside and outside the PRC;

 

·complying with the different commercial and legal requirements of the international markets in which we offer our games, such as Internet games import regulatory procedures, taxes and other restrictions and expenses;

 

·fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and

 

·interruptions in cross-border Internet connections or other system failures.

 

We could be liable for breaches of security of our website and third party online payment channels, which may materially harm our reputation, business and prospects.

 

A portion of our Internet games revenues is generated from sales through third party online payment platforms. In such transactions, secure transmission of confidential information, such as customers’ credit card information, personal information and billing addresses, over public networks, in some cases including the websites for our Internet games, is essential to maintain consumer confidence. While we have not experienced any breach of our security measures to date, we cannot assure you that our current security measures are sufficient. In addition, we expect that an increasing amount of our sales will be conducted over the Internet as a result of the growing use of online payment systems over time. Over the same period, online theft of confidential information will likely increase and we must be prepared to increase our security measures and efforts so that our customers have confidence in the reliability of the online payment systems that we use. We do not have control over the security measures of our third party online payment vendors, and we cannot assure you that these vendors’ security measures are sufficient or will be sufficient with the expected increased usage of online payment systems. Security breaches of the online payment systems that we use could expose us to litigation and possible liability for failing to secure confidential customer information, and could harm our reputation, ability to attract customers and ability to encourage customers to purchase in-game items, any of which could materially harm our reputation, business and prospects.

 

Undetected errors or flaws in our services or failure to maintain effective customer service could harm our reputation or decrease market acceptance of our games, which may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our products and services, such as our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS, may contain errors or flaws, which may only become apparent after their release, particularly as we often launch new products or services or introduce new features to existing products or services under tight time constraints. From time to time, our customers have informed us of flaws affecting their experience with our products or services, which we were generally able to resolve promptly. Furthermore, customer service is critical for retaining customers, and we may not be able to maintain and continuously improve the quality of our services to meet customers’ expectations. If our products or services contain programming errors or other flaws, or if we fail to provide effective customer service, our customers may be less inclined to continue using our products or services or recommend them to other potential customers, and may use our competitors’ products and services. Undetected errors, defects and unsatisfactory customer service can disrupt our operations, adversely affect the experience of our customers, harm our reputation, cause our customers to stop using our products and services, and delay market acceptance of our products and services, any of which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Our mobile games business has experienced high volatility in its operations, and the mobile games market in the PRC is subject to many uncertainties.

 

Our mobile games business has experienced high volatility in its operations. For example, revenues from our mobile games business increased 166.4% from US$16.9 million in 2013 to US$45.0 million in 2014, and decreased 45.3% from US$45.0 million in 2014 to US$24.6 million in 2015. We may continue experiencing high volatility in developing our mobile games business, the success of which will depend, among other things, on our ability to:

 

·respond to market developments, including the development of new platforms and technologies, such as smartphone mobile gaming platform, and changes in pricing and distribution models, such as the advent of application stores, or “app stores,” operated by handset manufacturers;

 

·respond to changes in policies of China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators relating to mobile games distributed through them;

 

·maintain and diversify our distribution channels, including through China Mobile and the other PRC telecommunications operators and handset manufacturers;

 

·develop new mobile games that achieve significant market acceptance, and timely improve our existing mobile games to extend their life spans and to maintain their competitiveness;

 

·successfully identify, acquire and integrate other mobile games development companies that could complement our internal mobile games development resources;

 

·acquiring mobile games from third party mobile game developers or cooperating with third party mobile game developers to jointly develop mobile games; and

 

·develop and upgrade our mobile games platform technologies.

 

In addition, the mobile games market is still relatively underdeveloped in the PRC. The continued growth of this market and the level of demand and market acceptance of our mobile games are subject to many uncertainties. The development of this market and our ability to derive revenues from this market depend on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

 

·the growth rate of mobile data services in the PRC;

 

·changes in consumer demographics, tastes and preferences;

 

·changes in handset platform technologies that accommodate consumer needs and preferences;

 

·changes in mobile games distribution channels that accommodate consumer needs and preferences;

 

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·the extent that the mobile games business remains a key area of development for our telecommunications operator partners;

 

·potential competition from established companies that develop and operate personal computer-based Internet games and may enter the mobile games market; and

 

·the popularity and price of new mobile games and merchandise and premium features embedded in games that are launched and distributed in the future.

 

Due to the uncertainties in connection with our mobile games business in particular and the PRC mobile games market generally, we cannot assure you the extent to which our mobile games business will contribute to our future revenues. Our failure to successfully develop this business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

We depend on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators for a significant portion of our revenues, and any loss or deterioration of our relationship with these telecommunications operators could result in severe disruptions to our business operations and significant loss of revenues.

 

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from the provision of mobile games and WVAS through the networks of the PRC telecommunications operators. We rely primarily on the networks of China Mobile Limited, or China Mobile, to deliver our products and services. In 2015, we derived approximately 22.6% of our total revenues and approximately 49.0% and 57.5%, respectively, of our mobile games and WVAS revenues from our cooperation arrangements with China Mobile. The remainder of our mobile games and WVAS revenues is derived from cooperation arrangements with China United Telecommunications Corporation, or China Unicom, and China Telecommunications Corporation, or China Telecom.

 

Through our consolidated variable interests entities, Beijing AirInbox Information Technologies Co., Ltd., or Beijing AirInbox, Beijing Boya Wuji Technologies Co., Ltd., or Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing Wireless Interactive Network Technologies Co., Ltd., or Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Chengxitong, Nanjing Net Book Culture Co., Ltd., or Zhulang, Beijing Xinrui Technology Co., Ltd., or BJXR, Shanghai Mailifang Communications Ltd., or Mailifang, and Xiamen Xinreli Technology Co., Ltd., or Xinreli, as the case may be, we have entered into a series of cooperation agreements with the subsidiaries of China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators to provide mobile games and WVAS through the networks of these telecommunications operators. Pursuant to our agreements with these telecommunications operators, the telecommunications operators bill and collect fees from mobile phone users for the mobile games and WVAS we provide. Our agreements with the telecommunications operators are generally for terms of one year or less, and are typically not renewed automatically. We usually renew these agreements or enter into new agreements when the prior agreements expire, but on occasion the actual renewals, or entering into, of new contracts could be delayed for one month or more. Any inability to renew these contracts or enter into new contracts could severely disrupt our business and operations and materially decrease our revenues and profitability.

 

Furthermore, telecommunications operators could discontinue or de-emphasize the use of external mobile games or WVAS providers, such as our company. If any of the PRC telecommunications operators ceases or de-emphasizes its cooperation with us, we would no longer be able to distribute mobile games or provide WVAS to such operator’s customers or generate related revenues, and our revenues from such operator’s customers would decrease substantially. In particular, if China Mobile ceases or de-emphasizes its cooperation with us, it is unlikely that we would be able to build up sufficient number of new customers through the networks of other PRC telecommunications operators to timely replace those lost from China Mobile. Due to our reliance on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators to deliver our mobile games and WVAS to our customers, any loss or deterioration of our relationship with China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators could result in severe disruptions to our business operations, significant loss of revenues and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The termination or alteration of our cooperation agreements with China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators could materially harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our negotiating leverage with China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators is limited because China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators operate the telecommunications networks through which we deliver our products and services to mobile phone users in China. Our revenues and profitability could be materially reduced if China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators decided to change the terms of their cooperation agreements with us, such as by increasing their transmission or service fees, or if they fail to comply with the terms of these agreements. We cannot assure you that China Mobile will not seek to terminate or materially alter our cooperation agreements with its provincial subsidiaries.

 

In addition, China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators could impose monetary penalties on us or terminate their cooperation agreements with us for a variety of reasons, including, if:

 

·we fail to achieve the performance standards established by the relevant telecommunications operator from time to time;

 

·we breach certain provisions under the agreements, which include, in many cases, the obligation not to deliver content that violates the relevant operator’s policies and applicable law; or

 

·the relevant operator receives a high level of customer complaints about our services.

 

Any termination or material alteration of our cooperation agreements with China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators could severely disrupt our business and operations and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Significant changes in the policies or guidelines of China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators with respect to services provided by us could result in lower revenues or additional costs for us and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators may, from time to time, issue policies or guidelines requesting or stating their preferences for certain actions to be taken, or not taken, by mobile games or WVAS providers using their networks. Due to our reliance on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators, any significant change in their policies or guidelines could cause our revenues to decrease or operating costs to increase. As a result, we cannot assure you that our business and prospects would not be materially and adversely affected by policy or guideline changes by China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators.

 

For example, in January 2010, China Mobile began implementing measures targeted at improving user experience for mobile handset embedded services. Under these measures, WVAS that are embedded in handsets are required to introduce additional notices and confirmations to end-consumers during the purchase of such services. In June 2015, China Mobile began implementing measures targeted at improving user experience for mobile handset embedded services. Under these measures, our mobile games embedded in handsets are no longer accessible by end-consumers.

 

 - 14 - 

 

 

We cannot assure you that China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators will not introduce new requirements with respect to the procedures for ordering monthly subscriptions or single-transaction downloads of our mobile games or WVAS, notifications to customers, the billing of customers, or other measures relating to consumer protection, or adopt policies that may require significant changes in the way we promote, sell and distribute our mobile games and WVAS, the occurrence of any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Competition with services offered by China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators could materially lower our revenues and profitability as well as our prospects.

 

We face competition from WVAS offered by PRC telecommunications operators. For example, China Mobile has been developing and marketing its own multimedia messaging service, or MMS, and WAP products that compete with our services. The PRC telecommunications operators may launch additional competing services in the future. Similar to our practices, China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators have entered into cooperation agreements with mobile handset manufacturers to pre-load their icons and codes on new handsets, in order to make accessing and subscribing to WVAS provided by China Mobile and other telecommunications operators easier for users of those handsets. Furthermore, China Mobile has entered into strategic alliances with selected handset manufacturers to embed menu items for only its own WVAS products and not the products of other WVAS providers, such as our company. The competing services offered by China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators could decrease our market share and result in a material decrease in our revenues, or harm our relationship with China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators, the occurrence of any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our dependence on the billing systems and records of the telecommunications operators and their subsidiaries may require us to estimate portions of our reported revenues and cost of revenues for mobile games and WVAS, which could result in subsequent significant adjustments to our financial statements.

 

As we do not bill our mobile games and WVAS customers directly, we depend on the billing systems and records of the telecommunications operators to record the volume of our mobile games and WVAS provided, bill our customers, collect payments and remit to us our portion of the revenues. We record revenues based on monthly statements from the telecommunications operators confirming the value of our services that the telecommunications operators billed to customers during the month. Due to our past experience with the timing of receipt of the monthly statements from the operators, we expect that we may need to rely on our own internal estimates for the portion of our reported revenues and cost of revenues for which we will not have received monthly statements. In such an instance, our internal estimates would be based on our own internal data of expected revenues and related fees from services provided. We may overstate or understate our revenues and cost of revenues for the relevant reporting period, which could result in subsequent significant adjustments in our financial reports when we actually receive the telecommunications operators’ monthly statements for such period. Moreover, to the extent that the telecommunications operators require longer periods of time to send us monthly statements, we may be required to increase our reliance on our internal estimates when preparing our financial statements. If we are required to make adjustments to our quarterly financial statements in subsequent quarters, it could severely damage market sentiment toward us, and the trading price of our ADSs could decline significantly. In addition, we generally do not have the ability to independently verify or challenge the accuracy of the billing systems of the telecommunications operators. Nor could we assure you that any negotiations between us and the telecommunications operators to reconcile billing discrepancies will be resolved in our favor. See “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Critical Accounting Policies — Revenue Recognition.”

 

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Our efforts to develop additional distribution channels for our mobile games and WVAS may not succeed or may be restricted or halted by the MIIT or the PRC telecommunications operators.

 

Cooperation with mobile handset manufacturers has provided us with an important distribution channel for our mobile games and WVAS. We pre-load into the menus of certain mobile handsets our mobile games, WAP icons and short codes for products offered on the MMS, SMS and interactive voice response, or IVR, platforms. A consumer who buys a new handset pre-loaded with our mobile games, icons and codes may access and subscribe to our services quickly and easily. Over the years, cooperation with mobile handset manufacturers has become one of the most important distribution channels for us, and a material portion of our revenues is derived from such cooperation. However, in recent years, China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators have entered into cooperation agreements with mobile handset manufacturers similar to our agreements with mobile handset manufacturers. We cannot assure you that mobile handset manufacturers will continue their cooperation with us or maintain their current revenue-sharing arrangements with us.

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that the MIIT or the PRC telecommunications operators will not restrict or halt our cooperation with the mobile handset manufacturers. For example, in addition to pre-loading our mobile games, WAP icons and MMS, SMS and IVR short codes into the menus of selected mobile handsets, we also had embedded our icons and codes in selected handsets until recently. After the MIIT issued a notice barring the production of mobile handsets with embedded icons and codes that cannot be changed or deleted by users, we had to alter our arrangements with mobile handset manufacturers to comply with such notice. Although mobile handset manufacturers are still permitted to pre-load our icons into the handset menus, so long as such icons can be changed or deleted, we cannot assure you that the MIIT will not expand its regulations to bar the pre-loading of icons and codes in the future.

 

China Mobile has been promoting in recent years only its own WVAS products in the embedded menus of those handsets with those manufacturers China Mobile has entered into strategic alliances. We cannot assure you that China Mobile or other telecommunications operators will not, in the future, take other steps to limit or halt our use of mobile handsets as a distribution channel. Any further actions by the telecommunications operators or the MIIT to limit or halt our use of mobile handsets as a distribution channel could materially decrease our revenues, profitability and future growth.

 

The consummation of the proposed going-private transaction is uncertain, and the announcement and pendency of the transaction could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

On June 29, 2015, our Board of Directors received a preliminary non-binding going-private proposal letter from Mr. Leilei Wang, our Chairman of the Board of Directors and our Chief Executive Officer, and IDG to acquire all of our outstanding ordinary shares not owned by them or their affiliates for US$8.56 in cash per ADS, or approximately US$0.2140 per ordinary share. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, we have not entered into any merger agreement. For more details, see “Item 4 – Information on the Company – History and Development of the Company.”

 

The negotiation of the proposed going-private transaction or any strategic alternatives involving our company could divert our management’s attention and other resources from day-to-day operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, current and prospective employees and members of management may perceive uncertainties about their future roles with us in the event that a merger agreement is executed and the going-private transaction is completed. Such uncertainties could adversely affect our ability to retain and hire employees and members of management. Furthermore, the potential change in management and the delisting of our shares from the public market could have an adverse effect on our relationships with customers and third-party game developers.

 

If the going-private transaction is not consummated, you will not receive the proposed transaction consideration and the price of our ADSs could decline. In addition, we could be subject to potential lawsuits in connection with the proposed going-private transaction. See “Item 4 – Information on the Company – Legal Proceedings.”

 

 - 16 - 

 

 

We and our independent registered accounting firm have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2015. We will allocate more resources and incur extra costs in implementing measures to remediate the material weakness in our internal control. If we cannot correct the material weakness, we may not be able to accurately report our results of operations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence in our financial reporting and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

 

As we are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. Federal securities laws, we are required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to include a report on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual reports on Form 20-F to disclose our management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our annual reports on Form 20-F shall include an independent registered public accounting firm’s attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

 

In connection with the evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, our management identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control over certain new loan transactions. Specifically, the risk assessment, recoverability and disclosure analyses and maintenance of proper documentation by management of the new loan transactions were insufficient to ensure that the transactions are properly accounted for and disclosed in conformity with U.S. GAAP. As a result of the material weakness, our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2015. Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an adverse opinion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015. Our management has also concluded that, as of December 31, 2015, our current disclosure controls and procedures were not effective, due to the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.

 

To address such material weakness, we have established a risk analysis committee comprising personnel from our investment, legal, financial and internal audit departments. Key responsibilities of the risk analysis committee are (i) formulating detailed policies regarding risk assessment, disclosure and recoverability evaluation and documentation requirements for all existing loans and further loan transactions, if any; (ii) setting up preventive and early detection mechanisms for risks associated with such loan transactions; (iii) ensuring that our internal audit department review the loans and directly report its findings to our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer periodically as part of its ongoing internal audit process; and (iv) ensuring that our audit committee receive and review our internal audit report on the loans periodically as part of its ongoing oversight process. As we continue to evaluate and improve our internal control over financial reporting, our management may implement additional measures to address potential control deficiencies. The actions that we are taking are subject to ongoing management review. See “Item 15 — Controls and Procedures.”

 

However, we cannot assure you that these remedial measures will be effective or complete, or that we will be able to implement such measures or any additional measures in a timely manner. After we implement these remedial measures, the material weakness identified in our internal control over financial reporting may not be successfully remedied. In addition, we have incurred and anticipate to continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to implement these measures to address such weakness. Furthermore, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our failure to achieve and maintain an effective internal control could result in material misstatements in our financial statements and our failure to meet our reporting obligations. This could cause our investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and could lead to a significant decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to increased litigation risks, potential delisting from the NASDAQ, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal liabilities and sanctions.

 

 - 17 - 

 

 

Our business and growth prospects would be severely disrupted if we lose the services of our key personnel, and we may not be able to grow effectively if we cannot attract and retain skilled management.

 

Our future success depends heavily upon the continued service of our key executives. In particular, we rely on the expertise and experience of Leilei Wang, the Chairman of our Board of Directors and our Chief Executive Officer, in our business operations, and on his personal relationships with the regulatory authorities, our clients, our suppliers, the telecommunications operators and our operating companies, Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Shanghai Dacheng Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Dacheng. If Mr. Wang becomes unable or unwilling to continue in his present positions, or if he joins a competitor or forms a competing company in contravention of his employment agreement, we may not be able to replace him easily, our business would be significantly disrupted and our financial condition, results of operations and prospects would be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our business would not suffer to the extent Mr. Wang is unable to devote his full time, attention and energy to our company for any reason.

 

In addition, the incentives to attract and retain employees, in particular skilled management personnel, provided by our equity incentive plans may not be as effective as in the past, in light of the volatility of the market conditions and the price of our ADSs in recent years. The expansion of our Internet games business also requires us to hire and retain experienced Internet game developers and operational staff. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain such personnel or that any personnel we hire will successfully integrate into our organization or ultimately make a positive contribution to our business. Competition among companies in the PRC Internet industry for skilled and experienced personnel may also result in our having to incur increased compensation costs. If we do not succeed in attracting skilled key personnel or retaining or motivating existing management personnel, we may be unable to manage or develop our business effectively.

 

Any damage to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, as well as our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are vulnerable to negative market perceptions regarding our company, our products and services, our personnel and other aspects of our business. Furthermore, we are exposed to the risk that litigation, employee misconduct, operational failures, senior personnel changes, customer complaints, outcome of regulatory investigations or other proceedings, and negative publicity generally, among other things, whether or not with merit, could severely damage our reputation. In particular, negative publicity could be based, for example, on allegations that we have failed to comply with applicable regulatory requirements or could result from loss of customer or confidential data, misconduct by employees (including senior management), dissatisfied customers, decline in operating performance or actions by regulatory authorities. Any damage to our reputation could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, as well as our revenues and profitability.

 

The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile and may continue to be volatile regardless of our operating performance.

 

The trading price of our ADSs has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. During the three-year period from January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2015, the closing prices of our ADSs ranged from US$ 4.93 to US$14.69 per ADS, and the closing price on April 13, 2016 was US$7.28 per ADS. The market price for our ADSs may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including:

 

·China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators’ future policies and measures taken toward WVAS providers;

 

·actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

 - 18 - 

 

 

·conditions in the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS markets;

 

·changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other companies that are perceived to be comparable to us;

 

·announcements by us or our competitors of new products, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

·addition or departure of key personnel;

 

·changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

·fluctuations of exchange rates between RMB and the U.S. dollar;

 

·intellectual property litigation;

 

·general conditions in the global financial markets; and

 

·general economic or political conditions in the PRC.

 

The stock market in general and the market prices for Internet-related companies with operations in the PRC in particular have experienced volatility that has sometimes been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the price of our ADSs, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, sales of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline.

 

Business growth and a rapidly changing operating environment may strain our limited resources.

 

We have limited operational, administrative and financial resources, which may be inadequate to sustain the growth we want to achieve. As our user base increases and as we diversify into other business segments, we will need to increase our investment in our technological infrastructure, facilities and other areas of operations. In particular, our product development, customer service and sales and marketing are important to our future success. If we are unable to manage our growth and expansion effectively, the quality of our services and our customer support may deteriorate and our business may suffer. Our future success will depend on, among other things, our ability to:

 

·develop and quickly introduce new services, adapt our existing services and maintain and improve the quality of all of our services, particularly as new mobile technologies are introduced;

 

·enter into and maintain relationships with our business partners;

 

·effectively maintain our relationships with China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators;

 

·develop or license attractive mobile and Internet games that can generate recurring revenues;

 

·continue training, motivating and retaining our existing employees, attract new employees and integrate new employees;

 

·expand the percentage of our revenues that are recurring and are derived from monthly subscription-based services;

 

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·develop and improve our operational, financial, accounting and other internal systems and controls; and

 

·maintain adequate controls and procedures relating to our periodic public disclosure under applicable laws.

 

We may need additional capital and may not be able to obtain such capital on acceptable terms.

 

Capital requirements are difficult to plan in our rapidly changing industry. We currently expect that we will need capital to fund our future acquisitions, service development, technological infrastructure and sales and marketing activities. Our ability to obtain additional capital on acceptable terms is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

 

·investors’ perceptions of, and demand for, securities of telecommunications value-added services companies and/or Internet games companies;

 

·conditions of the U.S. and other capital markets in which we may seek to raise funds;

 

·our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;

 

·PRC governmental regulation of foreign investment in value-added telecommunications companies;

 

·economic, political and other conditions in the PRC; and

 

·PRC governmental policies relating to foreign currency borrowings.

 

Any failure by us to raise additional funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, we may not be able to carry out parts of our growth strategy to acquire assets, technologies and businesses that are complementary to our existing business or necessary to maintain our growth and competitiveness.

 

We were likely classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, in 2015, and we may be classified as a PFIC in 2016, which may cause U.S. holders of our securities to be subject to adverse United States Federal income tax consequences.

 

We have substantial passive assets in the form of cash, cash equivalents and securities, which likely caused us to be classified as a PFIC for U.S. Federal income tax purposes in 2015. We cannot assure you that we will not continue to be classified as a PFIC in 2016 or future taxable years. The determination of whether we would continue to be a PFIC would be principally based upon the composition of our assets, including goodwill, the amount of which will depend, in part, on our total net assets and the market value of our ordinary shares and ADSs, which is subject to change.

 

We have limited control over some of these variables. Furthermore, with regard to any additional capital markets or corporate finance transactions we might conduct in the future, we cannot, at this stage, specify the timing, amounts or the particular uses of the net proceeds. As a result, we cannot provide any assurance as to how the net proceeds of any such transactions would impact whether we are classified as a PFIC in any future periods.

 

In respect of any taxable year during which we are a PFIC, U.S. investors of our securities may be subject to adverse U.S. Federal income tax consequences (and may be subject to adverse U.S. Federal income tax consequences in subsequent years as well). For further discussion regarding our status as a PFIC, please see “Item 10 — Additional Information — Taxation — United States Taxation — PFIC Rules.” U.S. investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to their particular circumstances.

 

 - 20 - 

 

 

The audit report included in this annual report is prepared by auditors who are not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Certified Public Accountants LLP, as auditors of companies that are publicly traded in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, or PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspection by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and applicable professional standards. Since the PRC is a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC regulatory authorities, the operations in the PRC of our independent registered public accounting firm, similar to the PRC operations of other independent registered public accounting firms, is not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

 

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside the PRC have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in the PRC prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating audits of our independent registered public accounting firm and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

 

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of the PRC that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

 

The exercise of warrants issued to various third parties could result in substantial dilution to the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs and may depress the market price of our ADSs.

 

In August 2012, in connection with the licensing of certain Internet games, we granted to each of Meteor Entertainment, Inc., or Meteor Entertainment, and ArenaNet a warrant to purchase up to 40 million of our ordinary shares (equivalent to 1 million of our ADSs) respectively. The warrants are exercisable within one year after the launch of the respective licensed games. The warrant granted to Meteor Entertainment has been forfeited as Meteor Entertainment was dissolved in August 2014. The warrant granted to ArenaNet expired in May 2015 as ArenaNet did not exercise its warrant within one year after the launch of the respective licensed game. In addition, we have issued warrants to purchase up to a total of 200 million of our ordinary shares (equivalent to 5 million of our ADSs) to Wargaming LLP in connection with our various licensing arrangements with Wargaming LLP. In May 2013, Wargaming LLP exercised the warrant to purchase 120 million of our ordinary shares. In October 2014, Wargaming LLP exercised the warrant to purchase additional 40 million of our ordinary shares. In December 2015, Wargaming LLP transferred the remaining warrants to purchase additional 40 million of our ordinary shares to Wargaming Ltd, pursuant to a share subscription and intellectual property rights contribution agreement between Wargaming Ltd and Wargaming LLP. The warrants transferred to Wargaming Ltd to purchase 40 million of our ordinary shares remain outstanding.

 

The issuance of additional ordinary shares under the warrants may result in substantial further dilution to the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs, and the market price of our ADSs could decline significantly. The sale of the ordinary shares issued as a result of the exercise of the warrants by various parties, or the perception that such events may occur, could also materially and adversely affect the market price of our ADSs. Furthermore, we may issue additional securities in the future that may have a dilutive effect to the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

 

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We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property, and we also may be exposed to infringement claims by third parties.

 

We believe the copyrights, service marks, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property we use are important to our business, and any unauthorized use of such intellectual property by third parties may harm our business and reputation. We rely on the intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements with our employees, clients, business partners and others to protect such intellectual property rights. Third parties may be able to obtain and use such intellectual property without authorization. Furthermore, the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property in the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS industries in the PRC is uncertain and still evolving, and these laws may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Due to the manner in which we obtain, collect, produce and aggregate content and applications for our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS, and because our services may be used for the distribution of information, claims may be filed against us for defamation, negligence, copyright or trademark infringement or other violations. In addition, third parties could assert claims against us for losses in reliance on information distributed by us. When we license third party content or other intellectual properties, we rely on the licensor’s representations and warranties of its rights or titles to the content or intellectual properties. Although we perform reasonable due diligence, we cannot guarantee that such a licensor actually has the legal rights or titles to the content or intellectual properties that we distribute or use. We cannot assure you that third parties will not assert claims against us or challenge the validity of our license agreements. If we are found to have infringed any intellectual property rights of others, we may be enjoined from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternative intellectual property. We may also incur significant costs in investigating and defending these claims.

 

We are not able to register the Chinese name of our service mark “KongZhong Network” in the PRC, and we may not be able to effectively prevent its unauthorized use by third parties.

 

We are unable to register the Chinese name of “KongZhong Network” as our service mark because it is deemed a generic term under existing PRC trademark laws, rules and regulations, which prohibit registration of generic terms as trademarks or service marks. As a result, we may not be able to effectively prevent the unauthorized use of the Chinese name of our service mark, “KongZhong Network,” and our brand name and reputation may be materially harmed by such unauthorized use.

 

We may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions, and such acquisitions may also expose us to uncertainties and risks, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

One of our growth strategies is to continue expanding our businesses and game development capabilities and resources through, among others, acquisitions. We believe that growing our businesses and game development capabilities and resources both organically and through selective acquisitions will enable us to expand our Internet and mobile games businesses more quickly and efficiently. However, we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions, and such acquisitions may also expose us to uncertainties and risks. In particular, acquisitions may not meet our expectations and the realization of the anticipated benefits may be delayed or reduced as a result of numerous factors, some of which are outside of our control. These factors include:

 

·unforeseen contingent risks or latent liabilities relating to acquisitions that may only become apparent in the future;

 

 - 22 - 

 

 

·difficulties in managing a much larger business;

 

·loss of key personnel; and

 

·increases in competition in the PRC Internet and mobile games industries, which, among other things, may require us to increase our development and/or marketing efforts.

 

Furthermore, acquisitions may also expose us to uncertainties and risks, including uncertainties and risks associated with:

 

·the management and development of acquired businesses;

 

·the integration of acquired businesses with our existing businesses and game development resources and infrastructures;

 

·the integration of our accounting policies and procedures with those of acquired businesses;

 

·unforeseen or potential liabilities and exposures relating to acquired businesses and their past financial results;

 

·the diversion of financial or other resources from our existing businesses; and

 

·potential loss of, or harm to, relationships with employees or customers.

 

Future strategic acquisitions may severely disrupt our ability to manage our business as well as our future growth.

 

Selective strategic acquisitions form part of our strategy to further expand our business and growth prospects. If we are presented with appropriate opportunities, we may acquire additional businesses, technologies, services or products that are complementary to our business, such as our acquisitions of Xinreli, Dacheng and Noumena in 2009, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Any strategic acquisition and the subsequent integration of new companies into our company may require significant attention from our management to ensure that the acquired company is effectively integrated with our existing operations. The diversion of our management’s attention and any difficulties encountered in any integration process could severely impair our ability to manage our business. Strategic acquisitions may also expose us to risks, including risks associated with the assimilation of new operations, services and personnel, unforeseen or hidden liabilities, the diversion of resources from our existing businesses and technologies and the inability to generate sufficient revenues to offset the costs and expenses of acquisitions. Given the sophisticated technologies used in the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS industries, the successful, cost-effective integration of other businesses’ technology platforms and services into our company will also be a critical and highly complicated aspect of any strategic acquisition. Strategic acquisitions may also result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities.

 

We may incur significant losses from our long-term investment activities.

 

As part of our business strategy, we have pursued and intend to continue to pursue long-term investments that diversify our business portfolio in addition to our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses to maximize long term returns. For example, in January 2015, we entered into a shareholders agreement of KongZhong Galaxy (Tianjin) Culture Media Co., Ltd, or KongZhong Galaxy, with two other shareholders. The shareholders agreement provides that KongZhong Galaxy shall have a registered capital of RMB50 million and shall be engaged in the production and distribution of feature films and TV series. We agreed to make capital contribution in the total amount of RMB17.5 million, representing 35.0% equity interest in KongZhong Galaxy. We were also granted the option to, within three years of the establishment of KongZhong Galaxy, purchase additional equity interest of up to 16% in KongZhong Galaxy from the other two shareholders. Pursuant to the shareholders agreement, we made our first capital contribution in the amount of RMB1.75 million in January 2015 and we agreed to make the remaining capital contribution within two years of the establishment of the company. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Investments and Acquisitions.”

 

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Long-term investments expose us to potential risks, including risks associated with the diversion of resources from our existing businesses and failure of the businesses in which we hold long-term investments to achieve expected growth. The investment returns of these long-term investments, and thus our profitability and reputation, may be materially and adversely affected. For example, KongZhong Galaxy had a loss of US$1.3 million in 2015, and we booked a loss of US$0.4 million for our 35.0% equity interest in KongZhong Galaxy for 2015.

 

As of December 31, 2015, we had total long-term investments consisted of equity method investments of US$2.0 million and available-for-sale securities of US$2.8 million. We recorded a total loss of US$0.6 million for equity method investments and US$0.4 million unrealized gains for available-for-sale securities for the year ended December 31, 2015.

 

We may not be able to collect all or part of the outstanding loans extended to a related party.

 

We entered into a series of loan agreements with KongZhong Galaxy in 2015, a related party in which we hold 35.0% equity interest and an option to purchase up to 16% additional equity interest. KongZhong Galaxy is engaged in the production and distribution of feature films and TV series. Pursuant to these loan agreements, we have extended unsecured loans to KongZhong Galaxy in the aggregate principal amount of US$32.9 million. Each of these loan agreements has a term of one year and may be terminated or extended upon mutual consent. Two of these loans in the aggregate principal amount of US$7.2 million were originally due in March 2016, and we have extended the terms of both loans to March 2017. None of the rest of these loans was due to be repaid as of April 15, 2016. For more information on the loans to KongZhong Galaxy, see “Item 7 — Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions.”

 

Our ability to ultimately collect repayments from such loans will depend on the financial conditions, including cash flow, operating results and profitability, of KongZhong Galaxy. Given the limited operational history of KongZhong Galaxy, and volatility and unpredictability of the economic success of any feature film or TV series, KongZhong Galaxy may not have generated sufficient cash flow when the loans become due, and therefore, we may not be able to recover all or part of the loans extended to KongZhong Galaxy. KongZhong Galaxy had a loss of US$1.3 million in 2015, and we booked a loss of US$0.4 million for our 35.0% equity interest in KongZhong Galaxy for 2015. If we fail to recover the full amount of the outstanding loans from KongZhong Galaxy, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted.

 

If our goodwill becomes impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to our earnings.

 

While we have not recorded impairments of goodwill on any of our reporting units in 2015, we may be required to record future impairments of goodwill if the fair value of any of our reporting units becomes less than the corresponding carrying value. As of December 31, 2015, the fair value of the Internet games reporting unit substantially exceeded its carrying value. The fair values of the mobile games and WVAS reporting units exceeded their carrying values by 12.7% and 9.7%, respectively.

 

Our estimates of fair value are based on assumptions about future cash flows of each reporting unit, discount rates applied to these cash flows and current market estimates of value. Changes in any of these assumptions could cause a material non-cash impairment charge of goodwill, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of operations.

 

 - 24 - 

 

 

We have limited business insurance coverage.

 

The insurance industry in the PRC is still at an early stage of development. Insurance companies in the PRC offer limited business insurance products, and do not, to our knowledge, offer business liability insurance. As a result, we do not have any business liability insurance coverage for our operations. Moreover, while business disruption insurance is available, we have determined that the risks of disruption and cost of the insurance are such that we do not require it at this time. Any business disruption, litigation or natural disaster could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources.

 

Our Articles of Association contain anti-takeover provisions that could adversely affect the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

 

Our Articles of Association include certain provisions that could limit the ability of others or discourage a third party to acquire control of our company and thus deprive holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs of the opportunity to sell their ordinary shares or ADSs at a premium over the prevailing market price. These provisions provide for, among others, the following:

 

·a classified board structure, with three classes of board members and each class having a three-year term;

 

·authority of our Board of Directors, or the Board, to issue up to a total of 1,000,000,000,000 ordinary shares, with or without preferred, deferred or other special rights or restrictions, whether with regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise and to such persons, at such time and on such other terms as the directors think proper;

 

·power of our Board to elect directors either as an addition to the existing directors or to fill a vacancy resulting from death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal from office or any other reason; and

 

·the directors’ discretion to decline to register any transfer of ordinary shares without assigning any reason.

 

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure

 

Our business and operations could be significantly disrupted, and we could be subject to sanctions, if the contractual arrangements between us and our consolidated variable interest entities that we depend on for operating our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS are found to be non-compliant with applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

Under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, foreign investment in Internet game operators in the PRC is subject to restrictions. In particular, the SAPPRFT, which is responsible for the registration of Internet games operated in the PRC, published a notice in September 2009 indicating that foreign investors are prohibited from obtaining control over Internet game operators in the PRC or participating in the Internet games sector through the establishment of joint venture companies or contractual or technical arrangements. In addition, foreign investment in the PRC enterprises that provide value-added telecommunications services (except for e-commerce services) is generally subject to an ownership limitation of not more than 50% . As a result, our ability to directly engage in such services is severely restricted.

 

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We and our subsidiaries, KongZhong Information Technologies (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or KongZhong Beijing, and KongZhong China Co., Ltd., or KongZhong China, are considered foreign persons or foreign-invested enterprises under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations. As a result, we operate our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS in the PRC through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, each of which is owned by PRC citizens. We do not own any equity interest in these operating companies, which are considered to be our consolidated variable interest entities for U.S. GAAP purposes, but are able to enjoy the economic benefits through contractual arrangements entered into between us and consolidated variable interest entities, including contractual arrangements relating to the provision of services and certain corporate governance and shareholder rights matters. These operating companies conduct substantially all of our operations and generate substantially all of our revenues, and also hold the licenses and approvals that are essential to our business. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 7 — Related Party Transactions — Contractual Arrangements Relating to our Operating Companies.”

 

In January 2015, the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, released for public comment a draft foreign investment law, or the Draft FIL, which proposes to include variable interest entities within the scope of entities that could be considered to be foreign-invested enterprises and be subject to restrictions under PRC law on foreign investment in certain categories of industry. Specifically, the Draft FIL introduces the concept of “actual control” which includes control through contractual arrangements for determining whether an entity is a foreign-invested enterprise. If the Draft FIL goes into effect in its current form, these provisions regarding control through contractual arrangements could be construed to apply to our variable interest entities arrangements and, as a result, our variable interest entities could become explicitly subject to restrictions on foreign investment.

 

As the applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations governing foreign investment are evolving and subject to differing interpretations, there are substantial uncertainties regarding the validity and enforceability of the contractual arrangements between us and our consolidated variable interest entities. We have been advised by our PRC legal counsel, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, that each agreement under the contractual arrangements with our consolidated variable interest entities constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations. In addition, Commerce & Finance Law Offices is of the opinion that, with respect to Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, no consent, approval or license, other than those already obtained, is required under any existing PRC laws, rules or regulations for the effectiveness and enforceability of the contractual arrangements, businesses and operations of these companies. We cannot assure you, however, that the relevant PRC regulatory authorities will not ultimately determine that these contractual arrangements are non-compliant with applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

If we or our operating companies were found to violate any existing or future PRC laws, rules or regulations, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including:

 

·revoke the business and operating licenses of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, our consolidated variable interest entities and their subsidiaries;

 

·discontinue or restrict the operations of any related party transactions among our wholly-owned subsidiaries, our consolidated variable interest entities and their subsidiaries;

 

·impose fines or other requirements on our wholly-owned subsidiaries, our consolidated variable interest entities and their subsidiaries;

 

·require us to revise our ownership structure or restructure our operations; and/or

 

·restrict or prohibit us from using the proceeds from public offerings to finance our business and operations in China.

 

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Any of these or similar actions could cause significant disruptions to our business, as well as materially reduce our revenues, profitability and cash flows.

 

In addition, if any of these actions results in our inability to direct the activities of our consolidated variable interest entities and their subsidiaries that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or such actions prevent us from receiving the economic benefits from our consolidated variable interest entities, we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of these variable interest entities into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

Our contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership of these businesses and may be difficult to enforce.

 

The applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations currently restrict foreign ownership of companies that provide value-added telecommunications services, which include Internet content services, or that operate Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. As a result, we conduct substantially all of our operations and generate substantially all of our revenues through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng pursuant to a series of direct or indirect contractual arrangements with them and their respective shareholders. These agreements may not be as effective in providing control over our operating companies as direct ownership. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of our consolidated variable interest entities. In addition, our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected, and we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of our consolidated variable interest entities into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In particular, our operating companies could fail to perform or make payments as required under the contractual agreements, and we will have to rely on the PRC legal system to enforce these agreements, which may not be effective.

 

We believe that we have the ability to cause the contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities to be renewed when necessary based on (i) our exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in our consolidated variable interest entities, when and to the extent permitted by PRC law, or request any existing shareholder of our consolidated variable interest entities to transfer all or part of the equity interest in our consolidated variable interest entities to another PRC person or entity designated by us at any time in our discretion, and (ii) the power of attorney that our consolidated variable interest entities’ shareholders have granted to us.

 

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and consolidated variable interest entities’ shareholder may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

Under our equity pledge agreements with our consolidated variable interest entities and their shareholders, these shareholders have agreed to pledge all of their respective equity interests in the consolidated variable interest entities to us. The purpose of such pledges is to secure the performance of our consolidated variable interest entities’ obligations under the various contractual arrangements, including the business operation agreements and technology development agreements. As of March 31, 2016, the pledges of equity interests by shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities have all been registered with the relevant local SAIC. According to the applicable PRC laws, when an obligor fails to pay its debt, the pledgee may choose to either conclude an agreement with the pledgor to obtain the pledged equity or seek payments from the proceeds of the auction or sell-off of the pledged equity. If our consolidated variable interest entities or their shareholder fails to perform their respective obligations secured by the pledges under the equity pledge agreements, one remedy in the event of default under the equity pledge agreements is to require the pledgor to sell the pledged equity interests in an auction or private sale and remit the proceeds to our wholly-owned subsidiaries in China, net of related taxes and expenses. Such an auction or private sale may not result in our receipt of the full value of the equity interests in consolidated variable interest entities.

 

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In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of the SAIC for the pledges, the amount of registered equity interests pledged to our wholly-owned subsidiaries, including Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli, BJXR and Dacheng, was stated as RMB10,000,000, RMB10,000,000, RMB10,100,000, RMB10,000,000, RMB10,000,000, RMB10,000,000 and RMB11,182,480, respectively, which in aggregate represent 100% of the registered capital of our consolidated variable interest entities. A PRC court may take the position that the amounts listed on the equity pledge registration forms represent the full amounts of the collateral that have been registered and perfected. In that event, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by a PRC court to be unsecured debt, and our ability to be repaid may be materially harmed.

 

The shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may substantially disrupt our business.

 

The registered shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities are our current or former directors, officers or employees and their relatives. For example, Leilei Wang, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is one of the registered shareholders of Dacheng, a consolidated variable interest entity that was acquired in 2010. In addition, Mr. Wang owned 19.4% of our outstanding ordinary shares as of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Our Corporate Structure” for a list of the registered shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities and their respective shareholdings. Conflicts of interest may arise between such shareholders’ duties to us and our consolidated variable interest entities. If such conflicts arise, these shareholders may not act in our best interests and such conflicts of interest may not be resolved in our favor. In addition, these shareholders may breach or cause our consolidated variable interest entities to breach or refuse to renew their existing contractual arrangements that allow us to exercise effective control over them and to receive economic benefits from them. The laws of the Cayman Islands provide that directors of a company owe a fiduciary duty to the company, which requires them to act in good faith and in the best interests of the company and not to use their positions for personal gain. If certain shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities do not comply with their fiduciary duties to us as our designated directors, or if we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and any current or future registered shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities, we would have to rely on legal proceedings to remedy the situation, the outcome of which is uncertain and which may result in substantial disruptions to our business.

 

The dividends and other distributions on equity we may receive from our subsidiaries are subject to restrictions under PRC law or agreements that our subsidiaries may enter into with third parties.

 

We are a holding company and rely largely on dividends and other distributions paid by our subsidiaries for cash, financing and other requirements. Our wholly-owned subsidiaries, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China, have entered into contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng through which we conduct business and receive revenues in the form of service fees. We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China, as well as service fees from Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, for our cash requirements in excess of any cash raised from investors and retained by us. If either of KongZhong Beijing or KongZhong China incurs debt in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.

 

Furthermore, PRC law requires that payment of dividends by each of KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China may be made only out of their respective net income, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under the applicable PRC laws, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China are also required to set aside no less than 10% of their respective after-tax net income each year as reserve funds unless such reserve funds, after making up losses of preceding years, have reached 50% of their respective registered capital, and these reserves are not distributable as dividends. Any limitation on the payment of dividends by our subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect on our ability to grow, fund investments, make acquisitions, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

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In addition, under the PRC enterprise income tax law and its implementation regulation, a non-PRC-resident enterprise’s net income originating from “sources within the PRC” will be subject to a 10% enterprise income tax, or EIT, rate. Whether a dividend payment constitutes income from “sources within the PRC” is determined by the location of the enterprise which pays the dividend. Income tax on dividends from the PRC payable to a non-PRC-resident enterprise is at a rate of 10%. As a result, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China may be required to withhold all or part of such income tax when paying us dividends. See “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Taxation.”

 

Our Chairman and Chief Executive Office is our single largest shareholder, and his interests may differ from other holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

Leilei Wang, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, owned 19.4% of our outstanding ordinary shares as of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F. Accordingly, he exerts significant influence in determining the outcome of any corporate transaction or other matter submitted to the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs for approval, including mergers, consolidations, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of Directors and other significant corporate actions. He will also have significant influence in preventing or causing a change in control. In addition, without his consent, we may be prevented from entering into transactions that could be beneficial to us. Mr. Wang’s interests may differ from the interests of the other holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs. In particular, our Board of Directors received a preliminary non-binding going-private proposal letter on June 29, 2015 from Mr. Wang and IDG to acquire all of our outstanding ordinary shares not owned by them or their affiliates for US$8.56 in cash per ADS, or approximately US$0.2140 per ordinary share. If completed, the proposed going-private transaction will result in us becoming a privately-held company and our ADSs will no longer be listed on the NASDAQ. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, we have not entered into any merger agreement.

 

Our contractual arrangements with our consolidated variable interest entities and their respective shareholders may require us to pay additional taxes.

 

Arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audits or challenges by the PRC tax authorities. We could face material adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that our contractual arrangements between us and our consolidated variable interest entities are not arm’s-length transactions. If this were to occur, the tax authorities could adjust our subsidiaries’ and our consolidated variable interest entities’ income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, for PRC tax purposes, increase the tax liabilities of our subsidiaries and our consolidated variable interest entities. If our subsidiaries and our consolidated variable interest entities’ tax liabilities increase or if our subsidiaries and our consolidated variable interest entities are found to be subject to late payment fees or other penalties, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Risks Relating to Our Industry

 

Our ability to generate revenues could suffer if the PRC markets for Internet games, mobile games and WVAS do not develop as anticipated.

 

The Internet games, mobile games and WVAS markets in the PRC have evolved rapidly in recent years, with the introduction of new and advanced services, development of consumer preferences, changes in policies and guidelines initiated government agencies and our partners, market entry by new competitors and adoption of new strategies by existing competitors. Accordingly, it is extremely difficult to accurately predict consumer acceptance and demand for various existing and potential new offerings and services, and the future size, as well as composition and growth, of these markets. Furthermore, given the limited history and rapidly evolving nature of our markets, we cannot predict the prices that users will be willing to pay for our services and games or whether users will have concerns about security, reliability, cost and quality of service associated with Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. If acceptance of our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS is different from what we anticipate, our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and net income could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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The laws, rules and regulations governing the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS industries in the PRC are developing and subject to future changes. Substantial uncertainties exist as to the interpretation and implementation of the applicable laws, rules and regulations.

 

In recent years, the PRC government has begun to promulgate laws, rules and regulations applicable to the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS industries in the PRC, many of which are relatively new and untested and are subject to future changes. In addition, various regulatory authorities of the central PRC government, such as the State Council of the PRC, or the State Council, the MIIT, the MOC, the SAIC, the MPS and the SAPPRFT, are empowered to issue and implement rules to regulate certain aspects of Internet-related services and activities. Furthermore, certain local governments also have promulgated local rules applicable to Internet-related services and activities within their respective jurisdictions. As the Internet industry itself is at a relatively early stage of development in the PRC, there is a lack of interpretations of many of these laws, rules and regulations and it is likely that additional laws, rules and regulations will be promulgated in the future to address issues that may arise from time to time. As a result, uncertainties exist regarding the interpretation and implementation of current and future applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of these PRC laws, rules or regulations due to these uncertainties, in which case we could be subject to various penalties, including redressing the violations, confiscation of income, imposition of fines or even suspension of our operations. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Regulation.”

 

Each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, BJXR and Beijing Chengxitong has obtained a telecommunications and information services operating license for their Internet content businesses from the Beijing Telecommunications Administration Bureau. In addition, each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, BJXR, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli has obtained a value-added telecommunications license from the MIIT in order to provide services in multiple provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Each of Beijing Boya Wuji, Zhulang, Dacheng and Shanghai KongZhong Brilliant Game Co., Ltd., or Brilliant Game, has obtained a value-added telecommunications license from branches of the MIIT at the provincial level to provide intra-provincial services. Each of Dacheng and Beijing AirInbox has obtained an Internet publishing license for their Internet games business. However, due to the lack of interpretations of Internet Publishing Service Administrative Measures which became effective on March 10, 2016, we cannot assure you that Dacheng and Beijing AirInbox will be able to satisfy the requirements provided therein and continue to hold the Internet publishing license, and we cannot assure you that our other operating companies will be qualified to apply for and be granted such license. Each of Beijing AirInbox, Dacheng, Zhulang and Brilliant Game has obtained an Internet Culture Business Permit for our Internet games business. However, Xinreli is currently in the process of renewing its Internet Culture Business Permit, which expired on March 29, 2016. Although Xinreli had submitted an application for renewal before the expiry date of such license in accordance with applicable rules and regulations, we cannot assure you that Xinreli will be able to renew such license. If any of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing WINT, BJXR, Beijing Chengxitong, Zhulang, Mailifang, Xinreli, Dacheng or Brilliant Game fails to obtain, maintain or renew any required licenses or permits, it may be subject to various penalties, including redressing the violations, confiscation of income, imposition of fines or even suspension of its operations. Any of these measures could materially disrupt our business and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The PRC government has promulgated a series of rules, regulations and policies that may have negative impact on the Internet games industry, and we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not promulgate similar rules, regulations or policies in the future.

 

The PRC government has adopted a series of rules, regulations and policies to monitor and control the Internet games industry in response to, among other things, perceived addiction to Internet games and its perceived negative social effects, particularly for minors. For example, PRC governmental authorities have in the past adopted rules to curb addiction to Internet games by minors, under which PRC Internet game operators are required to reduce the value of game benefits for minor game players as their continuous playing time reaches certain thresholds. Internet games players in the PRC are also required to register their identity numbers before they can play. In addition, PRC governmental agencies have issued a series of rules and regulations limiting the use of virtual currencies in Internet games, which may result in higher costs for the operation of our Internet games and lowers sales of virtual items in our Internet games. We cannot assure you that the PRC government will not promulgate similar rules, regulations or policies in the future, particularly during periods when public opinion does not favor Internet games. Such rules, regulations and policies may significantly reduce our revenues and net income from Internet games and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Regulation.”

 

The PRC government or the telecommunications operators may prevent us from distributing, and we may be subject to sanctions for, content that any of them believes is inappropriate.

 

The PRC government has promulgated regulations governing telecommunications service providers, Internet access, the distribution of news and other information and the operation of Internet games. In the past, the PRC government has stopped the distribution of information over the Internet that it believes violates PRC law, including content that it deems to be obscene, to incite violence, to endanger national security, to be contrary to the national interest or to be defamatory. The telecommunications operators also have their own policies that restrict the distribution by WVAS providers they deem inappropriate. For instance, they have punished certain providers for distributing content deemed by them to be obscene. These punishments have included censoring of content, delays in payments of fees by the telecommunications operators to the offending service provider, forfeiture of fees owed by the telecommunications operators to the offending service provider and suspension of the service on the telecommunications operators’ networks. Accordingly, even if we comply with PRC governmental regulations relating to licensing and foreign investment restrictions, if the PRC government or the telecommunications operators were to take any action to limit or prohibit the distribution of information we provide or to limit or regulate any current or future content or services available to our users, our revenues could be materially reduced, and traffic to our reputation could be severely damaged.

 

Network interruptions, security breaches or computer virus attacks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance, reliability, security and availability of our network infrastructure may cause significant harm to our reputation and our ability to attract and maintain users. Major risks involved in such network infrastructure include, among others, any breakdowns or system failures resulting in a prolonged shutdown of all or a material portion of our servers, including failures which may be attributable to sustained power outages, or effort to gain unauthorized access to our systems causing loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware. In addition, certain players of our Internet games may attempt to obtain unauthorized access to our Internet games to gain unfair advantages in the games. The growth of our business may also be inhibited if the public concern over the security and privacy of confidential user information transmitted over the Internet and wireless networks is not adequately addressed.

 

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Our network systems are vulnerable to damage from fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hackings and other similar events. Any network interruption or inadequacy that causes interruptions in the availability of our services or deterioration in the quality of access to our services could reduce our user satisfaction and our competitiveness. In addition, any security breach caused by hacking, which involves effort to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment, and the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not maintain insurance policies covering losses relating to our systems, and we do not have business interruption insurance.

 

If we are unable to respond successfully to technological or industry developments, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

The Internet games, mobile games and WVAS industries are characterized by rapid advances in technology, industry standards and customer demands. In particular, new technologies, industry standards or market demands may render our existing products, services or technologies less competitive or even obsolete. Moreover, telecommunications operators in the PRC are currently in the process of expanding 3G telecommunications services and upgrading to 4G telecommunications services, while a number of different types of more advanced smart phone platforms have already entered the PRC market and are increasingly popular. Responding and adapting to the growing 3G and 4G telecommunications market and other technological developments and standard changes in our industry may require substantial time, effort and capital investment. In addition, updating and developing our proprietary game engines and game development platforms may also require significant expenditures in research and development. If we are unable to respond successfully to technology, industry and market developments, these developments may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as our competitiveness.

 

Risks Relating to the PRC

 

Substantially all of our assets are located in the PRC and substantially all of our revenues are derived from our operations in the PRC. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations are subject, to a significant extent, to the economic, political and legal developments in the PRC.

 

Substantially all of our assets and end customers are located in the PRC. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are, to a significant degree, subject to the economic, political and social conditions in the PRC.

 

The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources.

 

Although the PRC has been one of the world’s fastest growing economies in terms of GDP growth in the past 30 years, the global financial crisis that unfolded in 2008 and continued in the past few years, coupled with the on-going structural reform of the PRC economy, has led to a marked slowdown in the economic growth of the PRC. For example, the GDP growth rate of the PRC decreased from 11.4% in 2007 to 6.9% in 2015. The PRC economy may continue to grow at a relatively slow pace in the next few years. There is no assurance that the GDP growth rate of mainland China will not further decline. A deterioration in mainland China’s business environment as a result of the slowdown in economic growth could reduce business activities and demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our business and operations. Moreover, any negative development in the economies of the United States, the European Union and certain Asian countries may adversely affect economic growth in the PRC.

 

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In addition, growth of the PRC economy has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy but have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us.

 

Although the PRC government has implemented measures since the late 1970s emphasizing the use of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of sound corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in the PRC is still owned by the PRC government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over PRC economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. We cannot assure you that the PRC’s economic, political or legal systems will not develop in a way that is detrimental to our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Government control of currency conversion may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi, which currently is not a freely convertible currency. A portion of these revenues must be converted into other currencies to meet our foreign currency obligations including, among others, payment of dividends declared, if any, in respect of our ordinary shares.

 

Under the PRC’s existing foreign exchange regulations, our subsidiaries, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China, are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies without prior approval from the SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not take measures in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions.

 

Foreign exchange transactions under the capital accounts of our subsidiaries, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China, and of our operating companies, Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, continue to be subject to significant foreign exchange controls and require the approval of PRC governmental authorities, including the SAFE. In particular, if KongZhong Beijing or KongZhong China borrow foreign currency loans from us or other foreign lenders, these loans must be registered with SAFE, and if we finance KongZhong Beijing or KongZhong China by means of additional capital contributions, these capital contributions must be approved by certain government authorities including the MOFCOM or its local counterparts. In addition, if we finance Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli or Dacheng by loans, we must obtain approval from the SAFE. These limitations could affect the ability of KongZhong Beijing, KongZhong China, Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli or Dacheng to obtain foreign exchange through debt or equity financing.

 

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may increase the administrative burden we face and create regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our overseas and cross-border investment activity, and a failure by holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs who are PRC residents to make any required applications and filings pursuant to such regulations may prevent us from being able to distribute profits and could expose us and the PRC resident holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs to liability under PRC law.

 

SAFE has promulgated regulations that require PRC residents and PRC corporate entities to register with and obtain approvals from relevant PRC government authorities in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. These regulations may apply to holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs who are PRC residents in connection with our prior and any future offshore acquisitions.

 

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The relevant SAFE regulation required registration by March 31, 2006 of direct or indirect investments previously made by PRC residents in offshore companies prior to the implementation of the Notice on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-Raising and Reverse Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Companies on November 1, 2005. If a PRC holder of our ordinary shares or ADSs with a direct or indirect stake in an offshore parent company fails to make the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of such offshore parent company may be prohibited from making distributions of profit to the offshore parent and from paying the offshore parent proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation in respect of the PRC subsidiaries. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange restrictions.

 

Those of our Directors and senior officers who are holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs and PRC residents have informed us that they have made the necessary applications and filings, as required under this regulation. However, there is uncertainty concerning the reconciliation of this regulation with other approval requirements, and it is unclear how the regulation, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended, implemented or enforced by the relevant government authorities. The failure or inability of any PRC resident holder of our ordinary shares or ADSs to obtain any required approvals or make any required registrations may subject us to fines and other legal sanctions, and prevent us from being able to make distributions or pay dividends.

 

We may be subject to fines and legal sanctions if we or our employees who are PRC citizens fail to comply with the PRC regulations relating to employee share options granted by overseas listed companies to PRC citizens.

 

In February 2012, the SAFE promulgated the Notice Relating to Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in the Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas-Listed Companies, or SAFE Notice 7, replacing the Application Procedure of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Holding Plan or Stock Option Plan of Overseas-Listed Company promulgated in March 2007, or SAFE Notice 78. Under SAFE Notice 7, PRC individuals and foreign citizens who have been a resident of the PRC for one year or more, or, collectively, Domestic Individuals, participating in a stock incentive plan of an overseas-listed company, are required, through a PRC domestic agent to register with the SAFE and complete certain other procedures. Such PRC domestic agent should be a PRC subsidiary of the overseas-listed company or a qualified domestic institution selected by the PRC subsidiary. As we are an overseas-listed company, we and those employees deemed to be Domestic Individuals and who have been granted share options and/or restricted share units under our equity incentive plans are subject to SAFE Notice 7. We and those employees subject to SAFE Notice 7 intend to make such application and complete all the requisite procedures. In 2009 and 2010, we registered, and registered on behalf of those employees subject to SAFE Notice 7, with the relevant local SAFE branches our previously adopted employee stock incentive plans, pursuant to regulations promulgated under SAFE Notice 78. However, there exist significant uncertainties in practice with respect to the interpretation and implementation of SAFE Notice 7, and we cannot assure you that our registration under SAFE Notice 78 would be sufficient for compliance with SAFE Notice 7. If the SAFE or other PRC governmental authorities determine that we or those of our employees subject to SAFE Notice 7 have failed to comply with the provisions of SAFE Notice 7, we or they may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on the implementation of our equity incentive plans and our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, as well as our business and prospects. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Regulation — Regulation of Share Options and Restricted Share Units.”

 

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Fluctuation of the Renminbi could adversely affect the value of and dividends payable on our ADSs.

 

The value of the Renminbi fluctuates and is subject to changes in PRC political and economic conditions. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar. Under the PRC government’s new policy, the Renminbi is permitted to fluctuate within a managed band against a basket of certain foreign currencies. On June 20, 2010, the People’s Bank of China, or the PBOC, announced that the PRC government would further reform the Renminbi exchange rate regime and increase the flexibility of the exchange rate. On April 14, 2012, the PBOC announced that, effective as of April 16, 2012, the Renminbi would be permitted to fluctuate with a band of 1.0% per day, doubling the previous announced fluctuation limit of 0.5% per day. On March 14, 2014, the PBOC announced that, effective as of March 17, 2014, the Renminbi would be permitted to fluctuate with a band of 2.0% per day, again doubling the previous fluctuation limit. Although daily fluctuations of the Renminbi against the basket of currencies are currently limited to 2.0% per day, the Renminbi may appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the long term. We cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not be permitted to enter into a free float, which also may result in a significant appreciation or depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar. As we receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi and a majority of our cash and cash equivalents are denominated in Renminbi, any fluctuation in the exchange rate against the U.S. dollar will affect our balance sheet and earnings per share in U.S. dollar terms and the value of dividends, if any, payable on our ordinary shares in U.S. dollar terms and the value of any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we may make in the future. As of December 31, 2015, we had cash and cash equivalents in the amount of US$38.3 million. A 1.0% appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar will result in an estimated increase of approximately US$0.3 million in our total amount of cash and cash equivalents, and a 1.0% appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi will result in a decrease of approximately US$0.3 million in our total amount of cash and cash equivalents. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk.

 

The discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments available to us in the PRC or the rejection of our application for preferential tax treatments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

On March 16, 2007, the National People’s Congress adopted the Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the New EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008. It imposes a tax rate of 25% on all foreign-invested enterprises, and terminates many of the tax exemptions, reductions and preferential treatments available under previous tax laws and regulations. However, under the New EIT Law and its implementation rules, “high-and-new technology enterprises strongly supported by the State,” or HNTE, are entitled to a preferential tax rate of 15%, and “software enterprises” are entitled to an income tax exemption for two years beginning with their first profitable year and a 50% tax reduction to a rate of 12.5% for the subsequent three years, while all such tax exemptions and reductions applicable to “software enterprises” shall end no later than December 31, 2017. In 2014, KongZhong Beijing, Beijing AirInbox, BJXR and Tianjin Mammoth were granted the HNTE status by the PRC tax authority under the New EIT Law. In 2015, KongZhong China was granted the HNTE status by the PRC tax authority under the New EIT Law. On February 24, 2015, the State Council announced with immediate effect that there would not be any new accreditations of “software enterprise”. As of such date, Beijing AirInbox, KongZhong China, Dacheng, Xinreli, Brilliant Game and Tianjin Mammoth had been qualified as “software enterprises” by the local industry and information technology department and would continue to enjoy tax exemptions or reductions, as applicable, until December 31, 2017. We cannot assure you that the PRC tax authorities or local industry and information technology department will not revoke the HNTE status or “software enterprise” status of such companies or that we will be able to renew the HNTE status for these companies in the future. The loss of preferential tax treatments by our subsidiaries and/or operating entities could materially reduce our net income and cash flows.

 

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We may be subject to PRC income tax on our global income, or dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries may be subject to PRC withholding tax, depending on whether we are recognized as a resident enterprise in the PRC.

 

Pursuant to the New EIT Law and Enterprise Income Tax Law Implementation Rules under the New EIT Law, or the New EIT Implementation Regulation, enacted by the State Council on December 6, 2007 and which became effective on January 1, 2008, an enterprise established under the laws of a foreign country or region whose “de facto management body” is located within the PRC territory is considered a resident enterprise and will generally be subject to the enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on its global income. According to the New EIT Implementation Regulation, “de facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises, in substance, overall management and control over the production and business, personnel, accounting and assets of an enterprise. The PRC State Administration for Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice on Issues Relating to Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Enterprises as PRC Resident Enterprises by Applying the “De Facto Management Body” Test, or the SAT Notice 82, on April 22, 2009. The SAT Notice 82 provides for certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore enterprise is located in the PRC. Although the SAT Notice 82 provides that it only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those controlled by PRC individuals, like our company, it is generally believed that the determining criteria set forth in the SAT Notice 82 very likely reflect the SAT’s general position as to how the “de facto management body” test should be applied to determine the tax residency of all offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or individuals. We believe that we are not a PRC resident enterprise on the basis of the fact that (i) we are a Cayman Islands company that was incorporated outside the PRC and (ii) the SAT Notice 82 does not, on its face, apply to companies that are controlled by PRC individuals. However, if we were considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to the enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income. In such case, our profitability and cash flow would be adversely affected as a result of our global income being taxed under the New EIT Law.

 

If we are considered as a non-resident enterprise under the New EIT Law, we will not be subject to the enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income. In such case, however, dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries will be subject to a PRC withholding tax, the standard rate for which is 10%, subject to reductions pursuant to any applicable tax treaty. To the extent we are considered as a non-resident enterprise, dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries will be subject to the standard rate of 10%. Such withholding tax will increase our tax burden and reduce the amount of cash available to us.

 

Dividends payable by us to our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders, and gains on the sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs, may be subject to withholding taxes under PRC tax laws, which may materially reduce the value of your investment.

 

Prior to January 1, 2008, dividends payable to non-PRC investors were exempted from withholding tax. The New EIT Law and the New EIT Implementation Regulation, both of which became effective on January 1, 2008, provide that an income tax rate of 10% (subject to reductions pursuant to any tax treaties between the PRC and other jurisdictions) will generally be applicable to dividends payable to non-PRC investors that are derived from sources within the PRC, provided that dividends are not subject to the 10% tax if they are paid out of distributable profits accumulated before January 1, 2008. Similarly, any gain realized on the transfer of shares by such investors is also subject to 10% tax if such gains are regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC.

 

We are a Cayman Islands holding company, and substantially all of our income may come from dividends we receive from our subsidiaries located in the PRC. As a result, dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries may be subject to withholding tax under the New EIT Law. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to the PRC — We may be subject to PRC income tax on our global income, or dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiary may be subject to PRC withholding tax, depending on whether we are recognized as a resident enterprise in the PRC.” If we are recognized as a qualified PRC resident enterprise, the dividends we receive from our subsidiaries in the PRC will not be subject to any withholding tax. However, our dividends payable to our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders would be subject to withholding tax under the New EIT Law.

 

If dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries or dividends payable to our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders are subject to withholding tax under the New EIT Law, or if non-PRC foreign shareholders and ADS holders are required to pay PRC income tax on the transfer of their ordinary shares or ADSs, the value of your investment may be materially reduced.

 

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We face uncertainties with respect to application of the Circular on Strengthening the Management of Enterprise Income Tax for Equity Transfer by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises.

 

Pursuant to the Notice on Strengthening the Management of Enterprise Income Tax Collection of Proceeds from Equity Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued by the SAT on December 10, 2009, or Circular 698, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2008, which was further explained by a notice issued by the SAT implemented as of March 28, 2011, pursuant to which a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise indirectly through a disposition of equity interests in an overseas holding company (other than a purchase and sale of shares issued by a PRC resident enterprise in public securities market), or an Indirect Transfer, the gains of non-resident enterprise derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%.

 

On February 3, 2015, the SAT promulgated the Announcement on Several Issues Related to Enterprise Income Tax for Indirect Asset Transfer by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Announcement 7, which became effective immediately to supersede the existing tax rules in relation to the Indirect Transfer, while the other provisions of Circular 698 remain in force. SAT Announcement 7 introduces a new tax regime that is significantly different from that under Circular 698. In particular, SAT Announcement 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to capture not only Indirect Transfer as set forth under Circular 698, but also transactions involving transfer of real properties in China and the assets of an “establishment or place” situated in China, of a non-PRC resident enterprise through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. SAT Announcement 7 also interprets the term “transfer of the equity interest in a foreign intermediate holding company” broadly. In addition, SAT Announcement 7 provides clearer criteria than Circular 698 on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and introduces safe harbor scenarios applicable to internal group restructurings. However, it also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee of the Indirect Transfer as they are required to make self-assessment on whether the transaction should be subject to PRC tax and to file or withhold the PRC tax accordingly. Under SAT Announcement 7, the entity which has the obligation to pay the consideration for the transfer to the transferring party has the obligation to withhold any PRC enterprise income tax that is due. If the transferring party does not pay enterprise income tax that is due for a transfer and the entity which has the obligation to pay the consideration does not withhold the tax due, the PRC tax authorities may impose a penalty on the entity that so fails to withhold.

 

There is uncertainty as to the application of Circular 698 and SAT Announcement 7. The PRC tax authorities have discretion under Circular 698 or SAT Announcement 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the equity interests transferred and the cost of investment. We may pursue acquisitions in the future that involve complex corporate structures. If we are considered a non-resident enterprise under the New EIT Law and if the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of these transactions under Circular 698 or SAT Announcement 7, our income tax expenses associated with such potential acquisitions will increase, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Affiliated transactions between our PRC resident enterprises and offshore affiliates may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities.

 

On March 18, 2015, the SAT promulgated the Announcement on Issues Related to Enterprise Income Tax on the Expenses Paid by Enterprises to Offshore Affiliated Parties, or SAT Announcement 16, which became effective immediately. Pursuant to SAT Announcement 16, the expenses paid by the PRC resident enterprises to their offshore affiliates would not be deducted before tax under certain circumstances, including but not limited to the expenses paid to offshore affiliates that fail to perform their functions, bear risks and that have no substantial operating activities, and expenses paid for the services provided by offshore affiliates which cannot bring economic interests, directly or indirectly, to such PRC resident enterprises.

 

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Our PRC resident subsidiaries may pay expenses to their offshore affiliated parties in the future. If the PRC tax authorities conclude that the affiliated transactions between our PRC resident subsidiaries and their offshore affiliates have not been conducted on an arms' length basis, they may adjust the taxable income of our PRC subsidiaries through a transfer pricing adjustment and impose additional taxes (together with applicable interest) on our PRC subsidiaries, as well as penalties for under-reporting of taxable income, which may materially increase our tax expenses and decrease our net income.

 

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

 

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which decided legal cases have little precedential value. Although legislation in the PRC over the past 30 years has significantly improved the protection afforded to various forms of foreign investment and contractual arrangements in the PRC, these laws, regulations and legal requirements are relatively new and their interpretation and enforcement involve uncertainties, which could limit the legal protection available to us and foreign investors, including you. In addition, the PRC government may enact new laws or amend current laws that may be detrimental to our current contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, which may in turn have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

 

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process and enforcing judgments against us and our management.

 

We are a company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and our subsidiary and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, most of our Directors and officers and their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible to effect service of process within the United States upon our Directors or officers, including with respect to matters arising under U.S. Federal securities laws or applicable state securities laws.

 

Our PRC legal counsel, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, has advised us that the PRC does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the United States, the United Kingdom or most other Western countries. As a result, recognition and enforcement in the PRC of judgments of a court obtained in those jurisdictions may be difficult or impossible.

 

We have been advised by Maples and Calder, our Cayman Islands legal advisers, that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, or any state thereof, a judgment obtained in the United States, or any state thereof, will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands under common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided that such judgment (i) was given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction; (ii) imposes on the debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given; (iii) is final; (iv) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty; and (v) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind of enforcement that is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands.

 

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If additional remedial measures are imposed on the PRC-based affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in connection with administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms' failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC with respect to requests for the production of documents, we may not be able to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

In late 2012, the SEC commenced administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the PRC affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm. A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC. The firms will receive matching Section 106 requests, and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a single firm’s performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or in extreme cases the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms.

 

In the event the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, issuers with major PRC operations, such as our company, may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of their securities may be adversely affected.

 

If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ordinary shares from the Nasdaq Global Market or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

 

Item 4. Information on the Company

 

History and Development of the Company

 

We were incorporated on May 6, 2002 under the laws of the Cayman Islands as Communication Over The Air Inc., an exempted limited liability company. In March 2004, we changed our name to KongZhong Corporation. We are headquartered in Beijing, the PRC.

 

We are one of the leading providers of WVAS to mobile phone users and have been cooperating with all major telecommunications operators in the PRC since 2002. In 2005, we began providing feature phone mobile games on the networks of China Mobile with the acquisition of Tianjin Mammoth, a feature phone mobile games developer. To further expand our mobile games development capabilities, we acquired Noumena in 2012 in order to develop smartphone mobile games on smartphone mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS.

 

We commenced our Internet games business in 2010 through our acquisition of Dacheng, a developer and operator of Internet games in the PRC. In addition to developing and operating our self-developed Internet games, such as Loong, Demon Code and Kung Fu Hero, we are the exclusive operator of the popular World of Tanks, World of Warplanes, World of Warships and Guild Wars 2 games for the PRC Internet games market.

 

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On June 29, 2015, our Board of Directors received a preliminary non-binding going-private proposal letter, dated June 29, 2015, from Mr. Leilei Wang, our Chairman of the Board of Directors and our Chief Executive Officer, and IDG, to acquire all of our outstanding ordinary shares not owned by them or their affiliates for US$8.56 in cash per ADS, or approximately US$0.2140 per ordinary share. Our Board of Directors formed a special committee of independent directors on July 8, 2015. If completed, the proposed going-private transaction will result in us becoming a privately-held company and our ADSs will no longer be listed on the NASDAQ. See “Item 3 – Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – The consummation of the proposed-private transaction is uncertain, and the announcement and pendency of the transaction could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

 

We conduct substantially all of our business in the PRC through our wholly-owned subsidiaries in the PRC, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China. In order to meet domestic ownership requirements under PRC laws, which restrict us and our PRC subsidiaries, as either foreign or foreign-invested companies, from operating certain value-added telecommunications, Internet services and Internet games businesses, we operate Internet games, mobile games and WVAS through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, all of which are based in the PRC and are wholly owned by PRC citizens. We do not have any equity interests in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli or Dacheng, but enjoy the economic benefits of these companies through a series of contractual arrangements as described below.

 

Our principal executive office is located at 35th Floor, Tengda Plaza, No. 168, Xizhimenwai Street, Beijing, 100044, the PRC. Our telephone number is (8610) 8857-6000. The address of our primary website is www.KongZhong.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute a part of the annual report.

 

In July 2004, we completed the initial public offering of our ADSs representing our ordinary shares and listed the ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market, or NASDAQ. Effective January 1, 2008, our ADSs are listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

 

Investments and Acquisitions

 

We have made a number of acquisitions and investments and received a number of outside investments during our history. Set forth below are the most significant acquisitions and investments in our history.

 

In March 2009, we issued to Nokia Growth Partners II, L.P., or NGP, a convertible senior note due in 2014 with an aggregate principal amount of US$6,775,400, convertible into our ordinary shares. NGP also received a warrant to purchase up to 80 million of our ordinary shares at US$0.125 per ordinary share, exercisable within five years. The issuance of the convertible senior note and warrant was completed in March 2009. In February 2011, we prepaid 70% of the aggregate principal amount, plus any accrued but unpaid interest thereof, of the convertible senior note for US$9.31 million in cash. Subsequently, on March 1, 2012, NGP fully converted the convertible senior note into 22.8 million of our ordinary shares, which is equivalent to 570,000 of our ADSs, at a conversion price of US$0.08915 per ordinary share (equivalent to US$3.6 per ADS), representing approximately 1.0% of our total shares outstanding as of March 31, 2012. In August 2012, NGP transferred a warrant to purchase up to 40 million of our ordinary shares, exercisable prior to March 18, 2014, which constituted 50% of the original warrant, to Fit Run Limited. We consented to this transfer and, in exchange for the original warrant, issued a new warrant to purchase up to 40 million of our ordinary shares, exercisable prior to March 18, 2014, to NGP. In September 2013, NGP exercised the warrant to purchase 40 million of our ordinary shares and Fit Run Limited exercised the warrant to purchase 40 million of our ordinary shares.

 

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On December 15, 2009, we entered into a definitive share purchase agreement to acquire Dacheng. We agreed to pay up to US$80 million, in a mix of cash and our ordinary shares, to Dacheng’s shareholders, based on Dacheng’s 2010 net profit after tax as calculated under U.S. GAAP. Dacheng agreed to engage in a reorganization whereby an offshore holding company would be established, and Dacheng would enter into certain contractual arrangements with such holding company and/or its subsidiary that would allow the holding company to enjoy, among other things, the economic benefits of Dacheng’s operations. On January 13, 2010, we amended the original share purchase agreement to permit one of our subsidiaries to enter into a series of contractual arrangements with Dacheng that allowed us to consolidate Dacheng’s financial results. Subsequently, the reorganization was completed and we acquired the holding company. In March 2011, we completed the last payment due to Dacheng’s shareholders under the share purchase agreement. The total consideration paid for the acquisition of Dacheng was US$68.0 million, including US$24.2 million in cash and 166,292,783 million of our ordinary shares. Dacheng is a leading developer of 3D massive multiplayer online role-playing games, or MMORPGs.

 

On February 15 and February 10, 2012, respectively, we entered into definitive agreements to acquire 100% of the equity interest in Noumena Innovations (BVI) Ltd., or Noumena, and certain assets from a related party of Noumena for a total consideration of US$15 million in cash and 40 million of our ordinary shares. Noumena is a developer of cross-platform smartphone mobile game engines. The Handymo game engine, which Noumena developed, enables a proprietary JavaScript-based development environment and supports all major smartphone mobile game platforms, including Android and iOS, among other platforms. We completed the acquisition in March 2012.

 

In January 2014, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire approximately 28.6 million series A preferred shares in Ourgame International Holdings Limited, or LianZhong, for a total consideration of approximately US$16.3 million. The series A preferred shares may be converted into such number of ordinary shares of LianZhong as is determined by dividing the subscription price per series A preferred share by the then applicable conversion price per series A preferred share, at any time following the completion date of the acquisition, provided that all the outstanding series A preferred shares shall be converted into ordinary shares immediately preceding the occurrence of an initial public offering by LianZhong. The series A preferred shares we acquired accounted for 10% of LianZhong’s issued share capital on a fully diluted basis upon completion of the acquisition. The acquisition was completed in February 2014. LianZhong was subsequently listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and upon the listing, all of our series A preferred shares were converted into approximately 60.0 million ordinary shares of LianZhong, representing 7.6% of LianZhong’s equity interest upon listing. In November 2015, we entered into an agreement to sell 39.2 million ordinary shares in LianZhong to Glassy Mind Holdings Limited at a price of HK$6.1062 per share for a total consideration of approximately US$30.9 million. The transaction was completed in February 2016. After the transaction, we owned approximately 20.7 million ordinary shares in LianZhong, representing 2.6% equity interest in LianZhong as of March 31, 2016.

 

In December 2014, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire approximately 8.89 million existing ordinary shares in Forgame Holdings Limited, or Forgame, for a total cash consideration of approximately US$16.4 million. The ordinary shares we acquired accounted for 7% of Forgame’s issued share capital upon completion of the acquisition. Forgame is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The acquisition was completed on January 23, 2015. In June 2015, we acquired approximately 3.61 million additional ordinary shares of Forgame for a total consideration of approximately US$7.7 million. The investment represented 8.7% equity interest in Forgame as of December 31, 2015.

 

On January 12, 2015, we entered into a shareholders agreement of KongZhong Galaxy with two other shareholders. The shareholders agreement provides that KongZhong Galaxy shall have a registered capital of RMB50 million and shall be engaged in the production and distribution of feature films and TV series. We agreed to make capital contribution in the total amount of RMB17.5 million, representing 35.0% equity interest in KongZhong Galaxy. We were also granted the option to, within three years of the establishment of KongZhong Galaxy, purchase additional equity interest of up to 16% in KongZhong Galaxy from the other two shareholders. Pursuant to the shareholders agreement, we made our first capital contribution in the amount of RMB1.75 million in January 2015 and we agreed to make the remaining capital contribution within two years of the establishment of the company.

 

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On January 23, 2015, we entered into definitive agreements to acquire 3,275 convertible redeemable preferred shares in Cream Soft Games Co., Ltd, or Cream Soft, which represented 20% of equity interest in Cream Soft, for a total consideration of US$0.8 million. Cream Soft is engaged in mobile games development.

 

In March 2015, we entered into definitive agreements to acquire 21.05% equity interest of Shanghai Magic Wing Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Magic Wing, for a total consideration of US$1.2 million. The acquisition was completed on April 17, 2015. Magic Wing is engaged in Internet games development.

 

On May 11, 2015, we entered into a definitive subscription agreement to contribute US$1 million to F50 Ventures Fund, L.P., or F50, a Cayman Islands exempted limited partnership, and was admitted as a limited partner. F50 is a venture capital investment fund with investments in games, cloud computing and big data, smart hardware and robotics companies.

 

On May 20, 2015, we entered into a share purchase agreement to acquire 1,764,706 series A preferred shares of Blue Mobile Capital Ltd., or Blue Mobile, for a consideration of RMB5.0 million. On the same date, we entered into an investment agreement to acquire 15% of equity interest in Shenzhen Ruilan Imagination Technology Co., Ltd., or Ruilan, at a consideration of RMB5.0 million. Blue Mobile and Ruilan are affiliates controlled by the same group of shareholders and are engaged in mobile games publishing and development. We completed the acquisition of equity interest in Blue Mobile in April 2015 and Ruilan in July 2015, respectively.

 

On August 13, 2015, we entered into an investment framework agreement with Galassia International Holding Shares Limited, or Galassia. Pursuant to the investment framework agreement, we have the right to make equity investment in Galassia International and its subsidiaries and affiliates. On August 14, 2015, we executed a loan agreement with Galassia International pursuant to which we extended a loan in the principal amount of US$17 million, which may be converted to equity interest in Galassia International or its subsidiaries and affiliates upon our election. The loan was secured by personal guarantees from a founding shareholder of Galassia International. Pursuant to the terms and conditions of the investment framework agreement, in December 2015, we notified Galassia International that we would no longer proceed with the equity investment and requested repayment of the principal amount of the loan and interest accrued thereon. Galassia International repaid all of the outstanding principal of the loan and interest accrued thereon on April 13, 2016.

 

Our Corporate Structure

 

The chart below sets forth our corporate and share ownership structure as of March 31, 2016.

 

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(1)We do not have any ownership interest in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli or Dacheng. Our wholly-owned subsidiaries have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with these companies and/or their respective shareholders.

 

The applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations currently restrict foreign ownership of companies that provide value-added telecommunications services, which include Internet content services, or that operate Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. See also “— Regulation.” To comply with PRC regulations, we conduct substantially all of our Internet games, mobile games and wireless value-added operations and generate substantially all of our revenues through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, which are wholly-owned by PRC citizens, and their subsidiaries. Our operations not conducted through such consolidated variable interest entities primarily consist of our smartphone games business. In 2015, our consolidated variable interest entities accounted for an aggregate of 97.2% of our total revenue. As of December 31, 2015, our consolidated variable interest entities accounted for an aggregate of 36.3% of our total assets and 47.8% of our total liabilities. The assets not associated with our consolidated variable interest entities primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, goodwill and intangible assets.

 

Beijing AirInbox is 45% owned by Linguang Wu, one of our former employees; 10% owned by Guijun Wang, one of our former employees; 42% owned by Songlin Yang, uncle of Nick Yang, the former Vice Chairman of our Board of Directors; and 3% owned by Zhen Huang, wife of Nick Yang. Beijing Chengxitong is 90.1% owned by Yang Li and 9.9% owned by Xuelei Wu, both of whom are our former employees. Beijing WINT is 40% owned by Yang Yang, one of our employees, 30% owned by Jingye Sun and 30% owned by Li Ai, both of whom are our former employees. BJXR is 51% owned by Guijun Wang and 49% owned by Yang Li, both of whom are our former employees. Dacheng is 40.8% owned by Zhen Yang and 59.2% by Leilei Wang, both of whom are our employees. Xinreli is 80% owned by Tao Jia, one of our employees, and 20% owned by Junhong Chen, one of our former employees. Mailifang is 90% owned by Xu Guo and 10% owned by Yang Yang, both of whom are our employees. Zhulang is 100% owned by Beijing Chengxitong. Beijing Boya Wuji is 100% owned by Beijing AirInbox. Tianjin Mammoth is 95% owned by Beijing AirInbox and 5% owned by Beijing WINT. Shenzhen Zhida is 100% owned by Beijing WINT. Beijing Yin’ao Fulai Culture Development Co., Ltd., or Beijing Yin’ao, is 100% owned by BJXR. Beijing Shiyuan Leya is 100% owned by BJXR. Wuxi Dacheng Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuxi Dacheng, is 100% owned by Dacheng. Beijing Shangshu Boer Culture Communication Co., Ltd., or Beijing Shangshu, is 100% owned by BJXR. Brilliant Game is 100% owned by Dacheng. We completed the liquidation of Shenzhen Zhida Network Technology Co., Ltd. in March 2013, and the liquidation of Wuxi Dacheng in September 2013.

 

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We do not have any equity interests in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli or Dacheng, or their subsidiaries, but instead have effective control over and enjoy the economic benefits of these companies through a series of contractual arrangements, which we and our subsidiaries, KongZhong China and KongZhong Beijing, have entered into with these companies and/or their respective shareholders as described below. Due to the expiration of its operating term on November 15, 2014, Simlife (Beijing) Science Co., Ltd., or Simlife Beijing, is currently in the process of being deregistered from the registration records maintained by the Beijing Municipal Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the Beijing AIC, in the PRC, during which Simlife Beijing is not allowed to conduct any business except for those necessary for the deregistration. The tax deregistration procedure of Simlife Beijing was completed in December 2015. The liquidation procedure of Simlife Beijing was completed in February 2016. On December 1, 2014, Simlife Beijing terminated its option agreement, exclusive technical and consulting services agreement, share pledge agreement and business operations agreement with Xinreli and its shareholders. On the same date, KongZhong Beijing entered into an option agreement, exclusive consulting and services agreement, share pledge agreement and business operations agreement with Xinreli and its shareholders to ensure our effective control over Xinreli. For a further description of each of these agreements, see “Item 7 — Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions.”

 

Each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli and their respective shareholders also has entered into an exclusive share option agreement with KongZhong Beijing. Pursuant to these agreements, each of the shareholders of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli granted an exclusive option to KongZhong Beijing or our designees to purchase all or part of such shareholder’s equity interest in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang or Xinreli, as the case may be, in accordance with PRC laws, and agreed not to encumber such equity interest in any manner other than as permitted by KongZhong Beijing.

 

KongZhong Beijing has entered into business operation agreements with each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli and their respective shareholders. Pursuant to these agreements, Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli and their respective shareholders agreed to appoint individuals designated by KongZhong Beijing to the management team of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli and to refrain from taking certain actions that may materially affect these companies’ operations. Each of the shareholders of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli also has executed an irrevocable power of attorney in favor of individuals designated by KongZhong Beijing. Pursuant to these powers of attorney, those designated individuals have full power and authority to exercise all of such shareholders’ rights with respect to their equity interests in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang or Xinreli.

 

KongZhong Beijing has entered into technical and consulting services agreements with each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli. These technical and consulting services agreements may only be terminated or renewed at KongZhong Beijing’s sole discretion. Pursuant to these technical and consulting services agreements, KongZhong Beijing provides certain technical and consulting services to Beijing AirInbox, Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli in exchange for service fees. KongZhong Beijing has the sole discretion to determine the amounts of the technical and consulting service fees. Each of the shareholders of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli has also entered into an equity pledge agreement with KongZhong Beijing, pursuant to which these shareholders pledged their respective interests in Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang or Xinreli, as the case may be, to guarantee the performance of such companies’ payment obligations under the respective technical and consulting services agreements.

 

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Each of BJXR, Dacheng and their respective shareholders has entered into an exclusive share option agreement with KongZhong China. Pursuant to these agreements, each of the shareholders of BJXR and Dacheng has granted an exclusive option to KongZhong China or our designees to purchase all or part of such shareholder’s equity interest in BJXR or Dacheng, as the case may be, in accordance with PRC law and has agreed not to encumber such equity interest in any manner other than as permitted by KongZhong China. The purchase price is equal to the respective audited net asset value of the variable interest entities or the minimum price required under applicable PRC laws at the time of such purchase. KongZhong China has also entered into a business operation agreement with each of BJXR, Dacheng and their respective shareholders. Pursuant to these agreements, BJXR, Dacheng and their respective shareholders agreed to appoint individuals designated by KongZhong China to the management team of BJXR and Dacheng and to refrain from taking certain actions that may materially affect the operations of these companies. Each of the shareholders of BJXR and Dacheng also has executed an irrevocable power of attorney in favor of individuals designated by KongZhong China. Pursuant to these powers of attorney, those designated individuals have full power and authority to exercise all of such shareholders’ rights with respect to their equity interests in BJXR or Dacheng. KongZhong China has entered into a technical and consulting services agreement with each of BJXR and Dacheng. These technical and consulting services agreements are automatically renewed and may only be terminated at KongZhong China’s sole discretion. Pursuant to these technical and consulting services agreements, KongZhong China provides certain technical and consulting services to BJXR and Dacheng in exchange for service fees. KongZhong China has the sole discretion to determine the amounts of the technical and consulting service fees. Each of the shareholders of BJXR and Dacheng has entered into an equity pledge agreement with KongZhong China, pursuant to which these shareholders pledged their respective interests in BJXR or Dacheng, as the case may be, to guarantee the performance by these companies of their payment obligations under the technical and consulting services agreements.

 

In the opinion of our PRC legal counsel, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, each of the agreements constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation of each party to such contractual agreements under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations. In addition, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, is of the opinion that, with respect to Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, no consent, approval or license, other than those already obtained, is required under any existing PRC laws, rules or regulations for the effectiveness and enforceability of the contractual arrangements, businesses and operations of these companies. However, there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and implementation of current PRC laws, rules and regulations. See “— Regulation” and “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business do not comply with PRC government restrictions on foreign investment in the value-added telecommunications industry, we could be subject to severe penalties,” and “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — Our contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership of these businesses and may be difficult to enforce.” As discussed in those risk factors, certain events may cause us to lose the benefits and control intended to be created by these arrangements.

 

Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

 

See “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Capital Expenditures” for information concerning our principal capital expenditures since our inception and those planned for 2016. We have not undertaken any significant divestitures and do not have any significant divestitures currently in progress.

 

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Business Overview

 

We are one of the leading providers of digital entertainment services for consumers in the PRC. We operate three main business units, namely Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. We are one of the leading providers of WVAS to mobile phone users and have been in cooperation with all major telecommunications operators in the PRC since 2002. In 2005, we began providing feature phone mobile games on the networks of China Mobile with the acquisition of Tianjin Mammoth, a feature phone mobile games developer. To further expand our mobile games development capabilities, we acquired Noumena in 2012 in order to develop smartphone mobile games on smartphone mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS. We commenced our Internet games business in 2010 through our acquisition of Dacheng, a developer and operator of Internet games in the PRC. In addition to developing and operating our self-developed Internet games, such as Loong, Demon Code and Kung Fu Hero, we are the exclusive operator of the popular War Saga games developed by Wargaming Ltd, including World of Tanks, World of Warplanes and World of Warships, for the PRC Internet games market. In May 2012, we entered into a strategic partnership with Wargaming LLP, which granted us the exclusive license to all of Wargaming LLP’s future games in the PRC. In addition, as of December 31, 2015, we were also the exclusive licensee in the PRC for the Guild Wars 2 game developed by ArenaNet, Blitzkrieg 3 game developed by ZZima International Sarl, or ZZima and Auto Club Revolution game developed by Eutechnyx Limited, or Eutechnyx.

 

Our Internet Games Business

 

In January 2010, we acquired Dacheng and with it our Internet games business unit. We launched our self-developed 3D MMORPGs, Loong, EMoFaZe, XiaKeXing, ShengMoZhiXue, Kung Fu Hero, Kung Fu World and Master of Meteor Blades games from December 2009 to December 2015.

 

In 2010, we entered into a license agreement with Wargaming LLP for the World of Tanks game. World of Tanks is a “freemium” 3D team-based massive multiplayer online game, featuring historic fighting vehicles from the 1930s to the 1950s. The initial term of the license is three years, commencing from the commercial release of the game. We have the exclusive right to copy, distribute, operate and sell the World of Tanks game in the PRC, Hong Kong and Macau during the term of the license. Our license payments to Wargaming LLP, as applicable, consist of a fixed license fee in the amount of US$500,000 and a certain percentage of our gross revenue received from the services and merchandise related to the World of Tanks game. In 2012, we amended our license agreement with Wargaming LLP to extend the term of the license in perpetuity. In exchange for the extension, we granted Wargaming LLP a warrant to purchase up to 120,000,000 of our ordinary shares (equivalent to 3 million of our ADSs) and increased the percentage of our gross revenue that we pay to Wargaming LLP if the monthly gross revenue exceeds a specified target. Since its launch, the World of Tanks game has become one of the most popular games we offer. As of December 31, 2015, the World of Tanks game had over 44.2 million registered users. As a result of the successful launching of the game, revenues generated from in-game items purchased by game players who play the World of Tanks game represented over 72% and 86% of our Internet games revenues in 2014 and 2015, respectively.

 

In May 2012, we entered into a strategic partnership with Wargaming LLP under which we enjoy exclusive rights to license all of Wargaming LLP’s future games in the PRC. Under this partnership, we licensed the World of Warplanes and World of Warships games from Wargaming LLP. We launched the headstart open beta for World of Warplanes in May 2014 and we released the World of Warships to open beta test in November 2015. As of December 31, 2015 and March 31, 2016, the World of Warships game had over 0.62 million and 1.3 million registered users, respectively.

 

In August 2012, we agreed to license on an exclusive basis in the PRC the Guild Wars 2 game from ArenaNet. The initial term of the license is three years, with further extensions to be agreed among the parties, commencing from the secure public testing of the game. We launched the headstart open beta for the Guild Wars 2 game in May 2014. We agreed to pay license fees and additional royalties calculated based on revenue generated from the game. To guarantee our payment obligations to ArenaNet, we arranged a standby letter of credit with a maximum guarantee amount of US$35 million from the Bank of Communications in ArenaNet’s favor.

 

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In the six-month period ended December 31, 2014 and the six-month period ended June 30, 2015, we respectively generated revenues of US$17.70 million and US$4.02 million from the Guild Wars 2 game. The revenue generated from the Guild Wars 2 game was significantly below our expectation and we reviewed the respective game license for impairment loss as circumstances indicated that the carrying value of such game license might not be recoverable. As a result of our assessment as of June 30, 2015, the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of the intangible assets related to the game license for Guild Wars 2 would be insignificant and, accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of US$35.21 million, equal to the full carrying amount of the intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2, which created a new cost basis in the amount of zero for the intangible assets in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

In the second half of 2015, we continued to operate the Guild Wars 2 game and worked with ArenaNet to release the expansion pack. In November 2015, we released the expansion pack “Heart of Thorns”, which led to an increase in the number of registered users and revenue for the game. As of March 31, 2016, the Guild Wars 2 game had over 1.52 million registered users, representing an increase of 42.1% from June 30, 2015, which was better than our expectation when we performed the impairment assessment as of June 30, 2015. Due to the release of the expansion pack in late 2015, we currently expect an increase in the number of registered users, revenues and cash flows generated from the Guild Wars 2 game in 2016. We believe that the operation of Guild Wars 2, as reflected by the subsequent increase in the number of registered users and revenue, will bring positive cash flows to us. However, under U.S. GAAP, because an asset is considered to have a new cost basis after an impairment loss is recorded, the reversal of a previously recognized impairment loss is prohibited when there are subsequent changes in the performance, use of the asset, or economic conditions. Had there been no impairment recognized on the game license in relation to Guild Wars 2, the amortization which would be included in the costs of revenue for Guild Wars 2 would increase by US$9.60 million, US$19.21 million and US$6.40 million in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively, which would lead to reductions of the same amounts from our gross profits over the respective periods.

 

In January 2013, we agreed to license on an exclusive basis in the PRC the Blitzkrieg 3 game from ZZima. The initial term of the license is three years, with further extensions to be agreed among the parties, commencing from the open beta test of the game. We have paid a license fee in the amount of US$1.5 million to ZZima before the secure public testing of the game and have agreed to pay royalties calculated based on revenues generated from the game after the launch of the game. As of April 15, 2016, the Blitzkrieg 3 game has not been commercially released.

 

In April 2013, we agreed to license on an exclusive basis in the PRC the Auto Club Revolution game from Eutechnyx. The initial term of the license is three years, with further extensions upon our meeting certain conditions, commencing from the commercial release of the game. We have paid a license fee in the amount of US$1.5 million to Eutechnyx before the secure public testing of the game and have agreed to pay royalties calculated based on revenues generated from the game after the launch of the game. As of April 15, 2016, the Auto Club Revolution game has not been commercially released.

 

In addition to licensed games, we also develop Internet games internally based mainly on our proprietary technologies, which include our proprietary game engine (Dazzler 3D), game development platforms and online game billing system, all developed by our internal team. In particular, our Dazzler 3D game engine enables us to create high-quality 3D graphics and visual effects, and provides the technical foundation for creating innovative features in our games. Furthermore, our game development platforms give us the capacity to develop Internet games within approximately six to 24 months and to update our Internet games frequently in response to players’ preferences. Based on these platforms, we have developed on ourselves Internet games such as the Master of Meteor Blades. The Master of Meteor Blades has been licensed to another Internet game operator in China on an exclusive basis for commercial release.

 

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We use an item-based revenue model for a number of our Internet games, such as World of Tanks, World of Warplanes and World of Warships, under which players can play our games on the Internet free of charge or with small amount of initial access fee, but have to pay for purchases of in-game virtual items, such as in-game currencies, performance-enhancing clothing, weapons, accessories and pets. We distribute our electronic prepaid game cards and game points, which may be used to purchase in-game virtual items, to players through multiple payment channels.

 

Although we expect a substantial portion of our Internet games revenues to be generated in the PRC, we have also licensed our games to leading game operators outside the PRC and plan to license them in additional countries and regions.

 

Our Mobile Games Business

 

Our mobile games revenues consist of (i) revenues from carrier billing channels, which are generated from mobile games operated on the PRC telecommunications operators’ platforms, and (ii) revenues from non-carrier billing channel, which are collected from various Internet platforms, such as Xiaomi, 91 Wireless, 360 and Snappea. Our internal development team develops mobile games based primarily on the Java™ technology, but more recently we have broadened our development of mobile games to include smartphone mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS. The mobile games we develop include action, role-playing and leisure games. We established a dedicated mobile games product development team, and acquired Tianjin Mammoth, a mobile games developer, in 2005. In 2009, we acquired Xinreli, a leading mobile games developer in the PRC. In 2012, we acquired Noumena, a developer of cross-platform smartphone mobile game engines. For a detailed description of the acquisitions, see “—Investments and Acquisitions.” We believe the integration of the Noumena team into our existing mobile game development team will enable us to create new smartphone mobile games that can take advantage of the Handymo game engine technologies developed by Noumena. We believe these new smartphone mobile games will enable us to leverage our existing mobile game distribution channels in China and capture market share in the nascent PRC smartphone mobile games market.

 

In August 2013, we obtained adaptation rights on an exclusive and worldwide basis from Beijing Qingqingshu Animation Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Qingqingshu, to adapt and develop the KuiBa series of animated movies into Internet games and mobile games. The term of our agreement with Beijing Qingqingshu is 10 years, commencing from August 21, 2013 and ending on August 20, 2023. We have agreed to pay a license fee in the amount of RMB5 million in the aggregate to Beijing Qingqingshu, of which 50% has been paid and the remaining RMB2.5 million will be paid after the commercial release of the first game developed by us based on adaption of the KuiBa series of animated movies. We have also agreed to pay royalties calculated based on net revenues generated from the games. Beijing Qingqingshu agreed to pay royalties to us calculated based on the box office revenues of the Kuiba series of movies. We launched the mobile game Kuiba: the Rising of Warlord in October 2014, which is the first game developed by us based on adaption of the Kuiba series of animated movies, and the RMB2.5 million remaining license fee was paid to Beijing Qingqingshu in January 2015.

 

On October 1, 2013, we entered into an agreement with Kakao Corporation, or Kakao, a South Korean publisher for mobile games and applications, under which we partnered with Kakao to launch our mobile game Kooky Three Kingdoms on the Kakao Game Center operated by Kakao.

 

In April 2015, we launched Super God Battle Squad. In January and April 2015, we released Rushing Three Kingdoms in Taiwan and South Korea, respectively.

 

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In March 2016, we released Rushing Three Kingdoms in Japan and Battle of Warship on the iOS platform in China.

 

Our WVAS Business

 

We provide interactive entertainment, media and other interactive services to mobile phone users in China, including SMS, IVR, color ring back tone, or CRBT, WAP and MMS. Our WVAS are tailored to the technical or other requirements of our telecommunications operator partners, through whom we deliver most of our WVAS, and to various billing systems for WVAS. Our WVAS are also delivered and marketed through various media partners, including handset manufacturers, television stations, radio stations, print media and Internet sites. Our WVAS revenues accounted for 36.3%, 28.3% and 27.6% of our total revenues in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively.

 

We offer a variety of WVAS, such as mobile games, pictures, karaoke, electronic books, mobile phone personalization features, and entertainment news, chat and message boards. Customers may access these services directly from their mobile phones: (i) by using our access code or by choosing a feature pre-loaded in select models of handsets; and (ii) from a telecommunications operator’s portal or website. Substantially all of our WVAS are ordered or accessed by users directly through their mobile phones, and all services are delivered through mobile phones.

 

We provide our services mainly pursuant to our cooperation arrangements with the telecommunications operators and their provincial subsidiaries, the terms of which are generally for one year or less. We do not directly bill our users, and depend on the billing systems and records of the telecommunications operators to bill and collect all fees. We generally do not have the ability to independently verify the accuracy of the billing systems of the telecommunications operators. As the telecommunications operators do not provide us with a detailed revenue breakdown on a service-by-service basis, we depend on our internal data management system to monitor revenues derived from each of our services. We make our business decisions based on our internal data, taking into account our historical experience in reconciling our internal data to our actual results of operations and other factors, including strategic considerations. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — Our dependence on the substance and timing of the billing systems of the telecommunications operators and their subsidiaries may require us to estimate portions of our reported revenues and cost of revenues for mobile games and WVAS. As a result, subsequent adjustments may have to be made to our financial statements.”

 

Strategic Relationships

 

We have established cooperation arrangements with telecommunications operators, mobile handset manufacturers, content providers and other business partners to produce, promote and market our services. We provide our mobile games and WVAS primarily pursuant to cooperation agreements with China Mobile and other telecommunications operators. In addition, we cooperate with several leading PRC mobile handset manufacturers, which make selected handset models with a WVAS icon in the handset’s menu that enables users to access our services directly. We pay service fees to the telecommunications operators, mobile handset manufacturers, mobile handset distributors, content providers and other partners, where relevant.

 

In May 2012, we entered into a strategic partnership with Wargaming LLP under which we enjoy exclusive rights to license all of Wargaming LLP’s future games in the PRC. Under this partnership, we licensed the World of Warplanes and World of Warships games from Wargaming LLP, which then assigned its rights and obligations under the license agreements for the World of Warplanes and World of Warships, respectively, to Wargaming Ltd.

 

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Telecommunications Operators

 

China Mobile is the world’s largest mobile telecommunications network operator in terms of subscribers, with more than 826 million subscribers as of December 31, 2015, according to China Mobile’s website. Our working relationship with China Mobile is critical to the operation and continued development of our mobile games and WVAS businesses. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business —We depend on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators for the majority of our revenues, and any loss or deterioration of our relationship with these telecommunications operators may result in severe disruptions to our business operations and the loss of the majority of our revenues.” We provide WVAS in 31 Chinese provinces or provincial-level municipalities pursuant to cooperation agreements with China Mobile and its provincial subsidiaries. Generally, these agreements have terms of one year or shorter, but may be renewed automatically unless either party objects. We were one of the first wireless service providers to work with China Mobile to develop and offer WAP, MMS and Java™ services.

 

We charge our customers content fees, which vary among our different services, on either a single-transaction or a monthly subscription basis. We establish the fees paid by our customers in consultation with the telecommunications operators and, in turn, pay a portion of these fees to the telecommunications operators through which our services are provided.

 

Pursuant to our agreements with the subsidiaries of China Mobile, we generally pay to these subsidiaries 15% to 60% of the revenues we generate from providing our services to customers through their networks, with the exception of IVR services, with respect to which we pay to these subsidiaries 30% of the revenues we generate. In addition, the subsidiaries of China Mobile deduct a net transmission charge from our portion of the fees for services provided on the MMS and SMS platforms. These transmission charges are equivalent to the transmission fee set forth in the table below multiplied by the number of messages we send through the telecommunications operator’s network minus the number of messages we receive from users requesting our services.

 

Pursuant to our agreements with China Unicom and its subsidiaries, we generally pay each China Unicom subsidiary 20% to 70% of the revenues we generate from providing our services to customers through such subsidiary’s network, with the exception of IVR services, with respect to which we pay 45% of the revenues we generate.

 

Pursuant to our agreements with China Telecom and China Netcom and their respective subsidiaries, we generally pay each China Telecom subsidiary and China Netcom subsidiary 15% to 60% of the revenues we generate from providing our services to customers through such subsidiary’s network, with the exception of IVR services, with respect to which we pay 40% of the revenues we generate.

 

The following table sets forth the principal fees that we charge our customers for our mobile games and WVAS related services and the service and transmission fees that we paid to the telecommunications operators as of December 31, 2015.

 

   Fees we charged
customers
   Fees we paid telecommunication
operators
 
   Transaction fee
per unit (1)
   Monthly
subscription fee
   Service fees   Transmission
fee (2)
 
   (in RMB, except percentages) 
SMS   1.00-2.00    5.00-8.00    15%-50%   N/A 
IVR   1.00-4.00    5.00-15.00    15%   0.15-0.20 
CRBT   0.01-100.00    5.00-15.00    30%-50%   N/A 
Mobile Games   1.00-3.00    0.00-30.00    15%-50%   0.02-0.08 
MMS   1.00-30.00    15.00    30%-45%   N/A 
WAP   0.50-3.00    1.00-5.00    15%-70%   N/A 
E-Book   0.00-5.00    3.00-5.00    60%   N/A 

 

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(1)Transaction fees are per download for WAP, MMS, mobile games, SMS, CRBT and e-book services and per minute for IVR services.

 

(2)A transmission fee is assessed for each message we send in excess of the number of messages we receive. The amount of the transmission fees for each month depends on the volume of messages sent in that month. No transmission fees are assessed for WAP, mobile games, IVR or CRBT services.

 

For our mobile games and WVAS, we rely primarily on the telecommunications operators to provide billing and collection services for us. Each telecommunications operator incorporates the fees for our services into the invoices that such operator sends to its customers on a monthly basis. We receive monthly statements from each of the telecommunications operators, which indicate the aggregate amount of fees that were charged to customers for services that we provided. For a description of our revenue recognition policy, see “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Critical Accounting Policies — Revenue Recognition.” Also see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We depend on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators for the majority of our revenues, and any loss or deterioration of our relationship with these telecommunications operators may result in severe disruptions to our business operations and the loss of the majority of our revenues.”

 

Product Development

 

Product Development for Internet Games

 

We believe that timely and quality game development and operations is critical to our Internet games business and our business as a whole, and we have formed a separate department for the development of Internet games, which had 452 employees as of December 31, 2015. Our Internet games development department mainly consists of programming, design, operations and graphics divisions.

 

Unlike many of our competitors that operate MMORPGs licensed from foreign game developers, we have in-house development capabilities that allow us to develop games in timely response to constantly changing market demands and trends. Our systematic game development process includes the following key steps:

 

·Concept Generation. Our design division takes the lead in generating ideas for new games based on the latest trends in player preferences. We recruit game players for our design division to closely track popular topics among players and on the Internet. We also encourage all of our employees to provide creative ideas and concepts for game development.

 

·Detailed Proposal. Upon our management’s approval of a new game concept, the design division will prepare a detailed proposal that sets forth preliminary game storylines and characters, estimates of costs and targeted audience.

 

·Development Plan. After the completion of the technical review of the detailed proposal, a project team consisting of our programming staff, design staff and graphics artists will work together to set the technical criteria for the development of the game and formulate a development plan with certain milestones.

 

·Design, Style and Story Concepts. Based on the game development plan, our graphics artists will determine the style of the new game and design game characters, our game designers will develop the game story and define game environments and our program developers will develop both the server-end software and the user-end software modules.

 

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·Internal Reviews. Management reviews will take place upon the completion of each milestone of the development plan. Concurrently, our testing division will test the accuracy and completeness of the development milestones and our marketing department will initiate marketing campaigns according to the development milestones.

 

·Closed Beta Testing and Open Beta Testing. We conduct closed beta testing to correct technical issues of a new game. Thereafter, we conduct open beta testing to test the operation of the new game under open market conditions. Finally, we introduce the new game to players online.

 

Anticipating the potential growth of 3D Internet games in the PRC and recognizing the importance of possessing our own game engine, we have also focused on the development of our proprietary game engine, Dazzler 3D. Our game engine enables us to create quality 3D graphics, innovative gameplay and visual effects to better capture characters’ motions. Our game engine is designed to allow for effective game playing on both high-end and lower-end computers.

 

Product Development for Our Mobile Games

 

Our product development team focuses on creating innovative products that use the latest standards and technologies with respect to our mobile games. To further expand our mobile games development capabilities, we acquired Noumena in 2012 in order to develop smartphone mobile games on smartphone mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS. We have launched a number of mobile games for Android and iOS markets, including Kingdom Story, Tiny War, NecroDefense, Battleland: Warrior vs. Monster, Kuiba: the Rising of Warlord, Rushing Three Kingdoms, Super God Battle Squad and Battle of Warship during 2014, 2015 and the first quarter of 2016.

 

Product Development for Our WVAS

 

We were one of the first WVAS providers to work with China Mobile to develop and offer MMS and WAP services, and have continued to be a leading developer of innovative services compatible with these technology platforms. At the same time, we have increased our product development team’s emphasis on developing and supporting IVR and CRBT, which we distribute on the networks of China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom. We believe that our timely delivery of new services that meet telecommunications operators’ specifications demonstrates our technical capabilities and strengthens our cooperation relationship with the telecommunications operators.

 

In addition to developing a range of innovative mobile games and WVAS, we also have developed a variety of programming tools that allow us to enhance customers’ enjoyment of our services. For instance, in response to the current lack of a standard operating system among mobile phones produced by different manufacturers in the PRC, which may result in inconsistent experiences for customers accessing our services through different handset models, we have developed software tools that allow our services to be readily adapted for use on most mobile phones on the market. These tools reduce the cost of adapting our services to new models of mobile phones and optimize the user experience in terms of format and presentation of our services. In 2012, we acquired Noumena, a developer of cross-platform smartphone mobile game engines. We believe the integration of the Noumena team into our existing mobile game development team will enable us to create new smartphone mobile games that may take advantage of the Handymo game engine technologies developed by Noumena.

 

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Sales, Marketing and Customer Service

 

We are committed to establishing our KongZhong name as a well-recognized and reputable brand not only among our customers and users, but also among telecommunications operators, key industry players and other owners of brand names. We sell our mobile games and WVAS principally through the telecommunication operators, as well as other distribution partners. We market through our website, promotional events, direct marketing and media advertising. We also provide support and technical services to China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom and to our customers and users.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

In the past, we have focused our marketing activities on enhancing our KongZhong brand name, as we believed that branding was important in the wireless Internet business. However, beginning in 2008 and continuing into 2009, as we adjusted our business strategy to develop our mobile games business, we began to decrease branding efforts through traditional media channels and increase our effort to promote our mobile games in cooperation with the PRC telecommunications operators.

 

With our acquisition of Dacheng and commencement of our Internet games business, marketing our Internet games has become an important part of our strategy. Starting from 2012, we made efforts to enhance our marketing to include marketing activities for the launch of our new Internet games and game expansion packs. We aim to attract new game players and increase revenues from existing game players by introducing marketing and promotion strategies that are specifically tailored to each of our Internet games. We advertise primarily in sites devoted to Internet games and game magazines, and marketing events are usually timed with the release of a new game or updates of a game’s content. In addition, in light of the successful operation of the World of Tanks game, the launching of the World of Warplanes game and the World of Warships, we officially launched our “WAR SAGA” brand in April 2014, creating a leading military online game platform in China.

 

As of December 31, 2015, our sales and marketing department consisted of 14 persons.

 

Customer Service

 

We view both the telecommunications operators and end users of our services as customers. Customer service is a key to building our brand and our relationships with the telecommunications operators. We train our customer service representatives with an emphasis on customer satisfaction. Our customer service center handles calls, faxes and e-mails from our end users, as well as inquiries forwarded from the telecommunications operators. Our customer service representatives interact regularly with, and provide training materials to, customer service representatives of telecommunications operators to enhance our customers’ experience with our services.

 

We provide high-quality customer service and are responsive to the needs of the players of our Internet games. In particular, our game players can access our customer service center through in-game chats, phone or e-mail 24 hours a day, seven days a week. In addition, we have a website for game players to submit feedback and a service center in Shanghai, which is open to walk-in game players during normal business hours. We had 70 customer service representatives dedicated to our Internet games business as of December 31, 2015, many of whom are MMORPG enthusiasts with a deep understanding of Internet games players. We also have dedicated supervisors to monitor our calls to ensure quality services. Feedback collected by our customer service team is important to the integration of our product development and game operations teams. The information collected by our customer service team forms the basis of our feedback database, which helps us track the trends in players’ tastes and preferences and provide direction when we design changes, upgrades and expansion packs for our Internet games.

 

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Competition

 

We face significant competition in the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS markets in the PRC. We compete principally with the following three groups of competitors in the Internet games business in China: Internet games developers and operators in the PRC, other private companies in the PRC devoted to game development or operation, and international competitors. Our existing and potential competitors in the Internet games business compete with us for talent, game player spending, time spent on game playing, marketing activities, quality of games and distribution network. Some of our existing and potential competitors have significantly greater financial and marketing resources than we do.

 

Competition in the mobile game market in China and the overseas markets where we offer our mobile games is intense. We believe that the key competitive factors include design, quality, popularity and price of online games and in-game items, the ability to rapidly update and upgrade games, marketing activities, sales and distribution network and customer service. We compete principally with the following groups of competitors: mobile game developers and operators in China, including Tencent Holdings Limited, NetEase, Inc., Shanda Games Limited, Changyou.com Limited, Giant Interactive Group Inc. and other mobile game developers who recently entered into this emerging market; and other competitors, including major internet portal operators in China, and game developers and operators in the overseas markets where we offer our mobile games.

 

In particular, the MIIT has reported on its website that, as of December 31, 2015, more than 3,800 service providers held nationwide licenses to supply content and services on the PRC telecommunications operators’ networks. Moreover, China Mobile has been developing and marketing its own MMS and WAP products, and other PRC telecommunications operators may decide to do the same. We compete with these companies primarily on the basis of brand, the type and timing of service offerings, content and business partner and channel relationships. The telecommunications operators may also decide to enter the mobile games market in the future. Other potential competitors in this market include developers of personal-computer-based Internet games, major media companies, traditional video game developers, content aggregators, mobile software providers and independent mobile games developers. In addition to competition for products, services and distribution channels, we also compete for experienced and talented employees.

 

Some of our competitors may have more personnel and financial resources and a longer operating history than us. For example, Internet portals providing WVAS may have an advantage over us with their longer operating history, more established brand name, larger user base and Internet distribution channels. Furthermore, some competitors may be able to develop or exploit new technologies faster than us, or offer a broader range of products and services than we are presently able to offer. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We face increasing competition in the PRC from providers of Internet games, mobile games and WVAS, which could reduce our market share and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.”

 

Internet Games Business

 

Our principal competitors for our Internet games business in the PRC include other Internet games developers and operators, such as Perfect World Co., Ltd., Shanda Games Limited, NetEase, Inc., Changyou.com Limited, Giant Interactive Group Inc. and Tencent Holdings Limited.

 

Mobile Games Services

 

Our primary competitors in the mobile games market in the PRC include Internet portals, such as Sina Corporation, Sohu.com Inc., Phoenix New Media Limited and China Wireless Arts., as well as providers focused on mobile games and WVAS, such as Tencent Holdings Limited.

 

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WVAS Services

 

Competition is particularly intense in the WVAS market in the PRC as the barriers to entry are relatively low. Our primary competitors in this market include Internet portals, such as Sina Corporation, Sohu.com Inc. and TOM Online Inc., and providers focused on WVAS, such as Tencent Holdings Limited and A8 Music Group.

 

Intellectual Property and Proprietary Rights

 

Intellectual property right

 

We regard our copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights as critical to our business. We rely on trademark and copyright law, trade secret protection, non-competition, confidentiality and licensing agreements with our senior officers, clients, partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our effort to protect our proprietary rights, we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation of our content or technology, particularly in foreign countries where the relevant laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States or other jurisdictions. For a description of the regulations applicable to our industry in the PRC, see “— Regulation.”

 

We have registered KongZhong Network as a commercial website with the SAIC. As a result, no one else may operate a website, whether commercial or otherwise, using the name of KongZhong Network. We also have registered our logo, the KongZhong thumb, and certain of our product names as trademarks in the name of Beijing AirInbox in the PRC. Jointly with Wargaming LLP, Beijing AirInbox has registered “WAR SAGA”, a leading military online game platform in China, as a trademark in the PRC. In addition, Beijing AirInbox is the registered owner of a number of domain names, the principal ones of which are www.kongzhong.com, www.kongzhong.com.cn, www.kongzhong.net, www.kongzhong.net.cn, www.cota.com.cn, www.cota.cn, ko.cn, Kong.net, heroandgoddess.com, pocketfort.net, and nswyapp.com. Xinreli is the registered owner of a number of domain names, the principal ones of which are Simlife.com, Simlife.com.cn, Simlife.cn, Simlife.net and Simlife.net.cn. Dacheng is also the registered owner of a number of domain names, the principal ones of which are Loong3d.com, gamall.net and dacn.com.cn.

 

We are unable to register the Chinese name of “KongZhong Network” as our service mark in the PRC because it is deemed a generic term under existing PRC trademark laws, rules and regulations, which prohibit registration of generic terms as trademarks or service marks. However, we do not expect to face a proliferation of counterfeit services or products without any legal remedy, as we may seek a remedy for piracy under the PRC’s Anti-Unfair Competition Law, by bringing a suit against a third party that uses the Chinese name of “KongZhong Network” if the overall design or appearance of that third party’s services is substantially the same as that of the well-known or established services provided by us. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property, and we also may be exposed to infringement claims by third parties.”

 

Information Technology Systems and Infrastructure

 

We maintain most of our servers at the premises of Beijing Telecommunication Corporation, which is the administrator of the central hub of the ChinaNet backbone. We also maintain servers at other Internet data centers, including China United Network Communications Corporation Limited, Chongqing Mobile Communications Company Limited and Hangzhou Mobile Communications Company Limited. Following our acquisition of Dacheng, most of our servers used for our Internet games are hosted at the premises of 21 Vianet Data Center, one of the largest Internet infrastructure service providers in China. We also maintain online game servers at other Internet data centers, including Chengdu United Network Communications Company Limited, Shanghai Technology Network Company Limited, Shenzhen United Network Communications Company Limited, Hebei United Network Communications Company, Beijing United Network Communications Company, Beijing Telecommunications Corporation, Beijing United Network Communications Company and Beijing Capital Online Company Limited. We believe that utilizing these hosting partners provides significant operating benefits, such as protecting our systems from power loss, break-ins and other potential external causes of service interruption. In addition, we back up all of our data. We believe we will be able to increase our server capacity as needed to accommodate future growth.

 

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Employees

 

General

 

Our senior management and many of our employees have had prior experience in the Internet portal, Internet games or telecommunications-related industries. Our employees receive a base salary and a performance-based bonus, with the amounts of such bonuses calculated based on the performance ranking of the employee. In addition, we have a broad-based equity incentive plan pursuant to which we grant share options and restricted share units, or non-vested shares, from time to time to employees who have passed their initial probation period. We also offer internal training programs tailored to different job requirements to help enhance our employees’ talents and skills. We believe that these initiatives have contributed to the growth of our business.

 

As of December 31, 2015, we had 793 employees, including 785 employees in the PRC, 6 employees in Japan and 2 employees in Singapore. The table below sets forth the number of our employees by job function as of the dates indicated:

 

   As of December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   Number   % of Total   Number   % of Total   Number   % of Total 
                         
Sales, marketing and business development   208    18.1%   227    20.8%   187    23.6%
Customer service   111    9.6    155    14.2    70    8.8%
Product development   747    64.8    620    56.8    452    57.0%
General and administrative   87    7.5    89    8.2    84    10.6%
Total   1,153    100.0%   1,091    100.0%   793    100.0%

 

We believe that we maintain a good working relationship with our employees, and we have not experienced any significant labor disputes. Our employees are not represented through any collective bargaining agreements or by labor unions.

 

Employee Benefits Plan

 

Our full-time employees in the PRC participate in a government-mandated defined contribution plan, under which certain pension benefits, medical care, unemployment insurance, employee housing fund and other welfare benefits are provided to employees. The PRC labor regulations require us to accrue for these benefits based on certain percentages of the employees’ salaries. The total provisions for such employee benefits were approximately US$5.1 million, US$4.8 million and US$4.9 million in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively.

 

We have granted share options to our employees pursuant to our KongZhong Corporation 2002 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2002 Plan, our KongZhong Corporation 2006 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2006 Plan, and our KongZhong Corporation 2013 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2013 Plan, as described in “Item 6 — Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Stock Options and Restricted Share Units.” We did not adopt any new equity incentive plan during 2015 through the date of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

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Properties

 

Our principal executive office currently occupies approximately 12,850 square meters of office space in Beijing, the PRC, the leases for which have been extended in August 2014 for another 2 years. In addition, we lease sales offices in 11 provinces throughout the PRC.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

We may be subject to legal proceedings, investigations and claims relating to the conduct of our business from time to time. Our Board of Directors has formed a special committee of independent directors to review a proposed going-private transaction. For details in connection with the going-private transaction, see “Item 4 – Information on the Company – History and Development of the Company.” We may be subject to legal proceedings in connection with the proposed going-private transaction, whether or not the transaction is consummated. See “Item 3 – Key Information – Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – The consummation of the proposed going-private transaction is uncertain, and the announcement and pendency of the transaction could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.” Despite our effort to comply with the intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot be certain that we have not, and will not, infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, which may subject us to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of our business from time to time. Such legal proceedings or claims, even if not meritorious, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. In addition, we may also initiate litigation to protect our intellectual property rights. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property, and we also may be exposed to infringement claims by third parties.”

 

We are not currently a party to any material legal proceeding.

 

Regulation

 

The telecommunications industry in the PRC, including computer information and Internet access services, is highly regulated by the PRC government. In particular, regulations issued or implemented by the State Council, the MIIT, and other relevant government authorities cover virtually every aspect of telecommunications network operations, including entry into the telecommunications industry, the scope of permissible business activities, interconnection and transmission line arrangements, tariff policy and foreign investment.

 

The MIIT, under the leadership of the State Council, is responsible for, among other things:

 

·formulating and enforcing telecommunications industry policy, standards and regulations;

 

·granting licenses to provide telecommunications and Internet services;

 

·formulating tariff and service charge policies for telecommunications and Internet services;

 

·supervising the operations of telecommunications and Internet service providers; and

 

·maintaining fair and orderly market competition among operators.

 

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In addition, other governmental agencies that may have jurisdiction over our business activities include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

·the MOC;

 

·the MPS;

 

·the SAIC;

 

·the SAPPRFT;

 

·the State Council Information Office, or SCIO; and

 

·SAFE.

 

Telecom Regulations

 

In September 2000, the State Council promulgated the Telecommunications Regulations, or the Telecom Regulations. The Telecom Regulations categorize all telecommunications businesses in the PRC as either infrastructure telecommunications businesses or value-added telecommunications businesses, with Internet games, mobile games and WVAS classified as value-added telecommunications businesses. Pursuant to the Telecom Regulations, a commercial operator of value-added telecommunications business must obtain an operating license. The Telecom Regulations also set forth extensive guidelines with respect to different aspects of telecommunications operations in the PRC.

 

In December 2001, in order to comply with the PRC’s commitments with respect to its entry into the World Trade Organization, or the WTO, the State Council promulgated the Administrative Rules for Foreign Investments in Telecommunications Enterprises, or the Telecom FIE Rules. In September 2008, the State Council promulgated the Decree of the State Council No. 534 to amend certain provisions of the 2001 Telecom FIE Rules. The Telecom FIE Rules set forth detailed requirements with respect to capitalization, investor qualifications and application procedures in connection with the establishment of a foreign-invested telecommunications enterprise. Pursuant to the Telecom FIE Rules, the ultimate capital contribution ratio of the foreign investor(s) in a foreign-funded telecommunications enterprise that provides value-added telecommunications services shall not exceed 50%. In addition, the principal foreign investor in such an enterprise must have a sufficient track record in the operation of telecommunications business. Pursuant to the Foreign Investment Industrial Guidance Catalogue, as of March 10, 2015, the permitted foreign investment ratio of value-added telecommunications services is no more than 50%. To comply with these regulations, we conduct substantially all of our operations through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, which are wholly-owned by PRC citizens or entities and incorporated in the PRC. We do not have any equity interests in these operating companies, but instead enjoy the economic benefits of these operating companies through a series of contractual arrangements, which we and our wholly-owned subsidiaries, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China, have entered into with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli, Dacheng and their respective shareholders as described in “— Our Corporate Structure” and “Item 7 — Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions.”

 

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In July 2006, the MIIT issued the Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in and Operation of Value-added Telecommunications Business. In the circular, the MIIT reiterated the existing regulations regarding foreign investment in telecommunications business, which require foreign investors to set up foreign-invested enterprises and obtain a business operating license for Internet content provision, or an ICP license, in order to conduct any value-added telecommunications business in the PRC. Under this circular, a domestic company that holds an ICP license is prohibited from leasing, transferring or selling the license to foreign investors in any form, and from providing resources, sites or facilities to foreign investors that conduct value-added telecommunications business illegally in the PRC. Furthermore, the relevant trademarks and domain names that are used in the value-added telecommunications business shall be owned by the local ICP license holder or its shareholders. This circular further requires each ICP license holder to have the necessary facilities for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. In addition, all value-added telecommunications service providers are required to maintain network and information security in accordance with the standards set forth under relevant PRC regulations. Due to the lack of further interpretation from the PRC regulator, it remains unclear what impact the above circular will have on us or other PRC Internet companies that have adopted the same or similar corporate and contractual structures as ours.

 

In addition to the regulations promulgated by the central PRC government, some local governments have also promulgated local rules applicable to Internet or other value-added telecommunications companies operating within their respective jurisdictions. In Beijing, the Beijing Municipal Administrative Bureau of Industry and Commerce, or the Beijing AIC, has promulgated a number of Internet-related rules. In 2000, the Beijing AIC adopted the Interim Administration Rules on Filing Commercial Websites and the Detailed Rules for Implementation of Interim Administration Rules on Filing Commercial Websites, and in 2004, the Beijing AIC adopted the Administrative Rules on Filing Commercial Websites, which require owners of the domain names of commercial websites located within Beijing to file their website names and commercial websites with the Beijing AIC.

 

Regulation of Internet Content Services

 

In September 2000, the State Council promulgated the Telecom Regulations and the Internet Information Services Administrative Measures, or the Internet Information Measures. The Internet Information Measures require that commercial Internet content providers must obtain an Internet information license from the appropriate telecommunications authorities in order to carry on any commercial Internet content operations within the PRC. Internet content operators must display their operating license numbers in a conspicuous location on their home page. Internet content operators are obliged to police their websites in order to remove categories of harmful content that are broadly defined. This obligation reiterates Internet content restrictions that have been promulgated by other ministries over the past few years. In addition, the Internet Information Measures also provide that Internet content operators which operate in sensitive and strategic sectors, including news, publishing, education, health care, medicine and medical devices, must obtain additional approvals from the relevant authorities in charge of those sectors as well.

 

Certain local governments have promulgated local rules applicable to Internet companies operating within their respective jurisdictions. In Beijing, the Beijing AIC has promulgated a number of Internet-related rules. In October 2004, the Beijing AIC adopted the Administrative Rules on Filing Commercial Websites, which require owners of the domain names of commercial websites located within Beijing to file their website names and commercial websites with the Beijing AIC.

 

Each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, and BJXR has a telecommunications and information services operating license for their Internet content businesses from the Beijing Telecommunications Administration Bureau. Each of Dacheng and Brilliant Game has a value-added telecommunications business operation permit for its Internet content business from the Shanghai Telecommunications Administration Bureau. Zhulang has a value-added telecommunications business operation permit for its Internet content business from the Jiangsu Telecommunications Administration Bureau. These licenses are subject to standard annual review.

 

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Regulation of Internet Culture Activities

 

On February 17, 2011, the MOC promulgated the Interim Measures on Administration of Internet Culture, or the Internet Culture Measures, replacing previous interim measures promulgated in May 2003 and amended in July 2004. “Internet cultural products” are classified as cultural products developed, published and disseminated via the Internet, which mainly include: (i) products for publication via Internet, such as, among other things, online music and entertainment files, network games, online performing arts and artworks and online animation features and cartoons, and (ii) products converted from traditional music entertainment products, games, performing arts, artworks and animation features and cartoons, and published via the Internet. Pursuant to the Internet Culture Measures, entities are required to obtain Internet Culture Business Permits from a provincial counterpart of the MOC if they intend to commercially engage in any of the following types of activities: (1) production, duplication, import, sale or broadcasting of Internet cultural products; (2) publication of cultural products on the Internet or transmission thereof through information networks such as Internet and mobile network to computers, fixed-line or mobile phones, television sets, gaming consoles or Internet access service sites including Internet cafes for the purpose of browsing, reviewing, using or downloading such products by internet users; or (3) exhibitions or contests related to Internet cultural products. On July 2, 2015, the MOC promulgated the Circular on Implementing the “Business License before Operating Permit” to Improve the Administrative Examination and Approval for the Cultural Market, which abolished the minimum registered capital requirement for enterprises to operate the business of Internet culture and Internet games.

 

On August 12, 2013, the MOC promulgated the Notice of the Ministry of Culture on the Application of the Administrative Measures for Content Self-Review by Internet Culture Business Entities, or Self-Review Notice, which took effect on December 1, 2013. The Self-Review Notice requires an Internet culture business entity to review in advance the contents of the Internet culture products and services prior to providing services to the public, and establish and improve its content management system, establish specialized content management departments, have in place staff members who could adapt to the needs of review work to be responsible for the content management of Internet cultural products and services, and safeguard the legality of the contents of Internet cultural products and services. The content management system of an Internet culture business entity should specify the responsibilities, standards and processes for content review as well as accountability measures, and should be submitted to the local provincial cultural administrative department for record-filing.

 

Software Products Registration

 

On March 5, 2009, the MIIT issued the Measures Concerning Software Products Administration, or the Software Measures. Under the Software Measures, producers of software products registered with the relevant PRC authorities may be entitled to certain preferential policies in the PRC. Software developers or producers are allowed to sell or license their registered software products independently or through agents. Upon registration, the software products shall be granted registration certificates. Each registration certificate is valid for five years and may be renewed upon expiration. The MIIT and other relevant departments may carry out supervision and inspection over the development, production, operation and importing and exporting of software products in the PRC. On February 24, 2015, the State Council promulgated the Decision on Issues concerning Cancelling and Adjusting a Batch of Administrative Examination and Approval Items, pursuant to which new software products will no longer be registered, although the validity of existing registrations is unaffected. As of December 31, 2015, we had registered the software for the games Loong, Doodle Dino, Blood of Sheng Mo, Deification OL, Kingdom Story, Fishing Master, Jelly Roll, Ninja Chicken, Jet Heroes, Master of Meteor Blades, Three Kingdoms in Pocket and Gudong Gudong, and had registered the software of AirInbox New Media Real-time Platform, AirInbox New Customer Service Query System, AirInbox Resource Management System and AirInbox Basic Data Management System, with the relevant PRC authority and had obtained the software product registration certificates for these software products.

 

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Regulation of Information Security and Censorship

 

PRC legislation concerning information security and censorship specifically prohibits the use of Internet infrastructure where it results in a breach of public security, the provision of socially destabilizing content or the divulgence of state secrets.

 

·“A breach of public security” includes a breach of national security or disclosure of state secrets; infringement on state, social or collective interests or the legal rights and interests of citizens; or illegal or criminal activities.

 

·“Socially destabilizing content” includes any action that: (1) incites defiance or violation of PRC laws;
(2) incites subversion of state power and the overturning of the socialist system; fabricates or distorts the truth, spreads rumors or disrupts social order; (3) advocates cult activities; or (4) spreads feudal superstition, involves obscenities, pornography, gambling, violence, murder or horrific acts or instigates criminal acts.

 

·“State secrets” are defined under applicable PRC law as matters that affect the security and interest of the state. The term covers such broad areas as national defense, diplomatic affairs, policy decisions on state affairs, national economic and social development, political parties and other state secrets that the State Secrecy Bureau has determined should be safeguarded.

 

According to the aforementioned legislation, it is mandatory for Internet companies in the PRC to complete security filing procedures with the local public security bureau and for them to update their filings regularly with the local public security bureau regarding information security and censorship systems for their websites.

 

Regulation of Pornographic Materials

 

Since the development of the Internet, the PRC government has carried out a series of actions targeting pornographic materials on the Internet, mobile phones and other Internet-based equipment. On May 11, 2007, the MIIT issued the Notice of Schemes of Special Campaign Against Internet-Based Pornography and, on December 15, 2009, the MIIT issued the Further Schemes of Special Campaign against Mobile Phone Pornography to regulate the dissemination of pornographic materials through mobile phones and the Internet. Subsequently, on July 22, 2014, the MIIT issued the Notice of Further Measures Against Distributing Pornographic and Eroticism Information via Intelligent Mobile Terminal Application, pursuant to which the MIIT will take additional measures against distributing pornographic and eroticism information via Apps.

 

The Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate issued the Interpretation on Issues of Application of the Laws for Production, Reproduction, Publication, Sale and Dissemination, of Pornographic Information Through Internet, Mobile Equipment and Information Service Centers on September 3, 2004, and the Interpretation on Issues of Application of the Laws for Production, Reproduction, Publication, Sale and Dissemination, of Pornography Information Through Internet, Mobile Equipment and Information Service Centers II on February 4, 2010. These interpretations define the applicable laws, crimes and penalties for the dissemination of pornographic materials on the Internet or through mobile telecommunications equipment.

 

Due to the uncertainty over how the above-mentioned rules and regulations will be interpreted and enforced, we cannot predict how they will affect our business operations and future strategies. Although we believe that our products and services are in compliance with these rules and regulations, we cannot assure that any of the relevant governmental authorities will not disagree and will not take legal action against us.

 

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Regulation of Advertisements

 

The principal regulations governing advertisements in the PRC are the Advertising Law (amended in 2015), the Administrative Regulations of Advertisements (1987) and the Detailed Rules of Implementation of the Administrative Regulations of Advertisements (2004), pursuant to which an entity conducting advertising activities as a supplementary business must obtain a permit from the local AIC and specifically mention advertising activities as a permitted business activity in such entity’s business license. The SAIC is the government agency responsible for regulating advertising activities in the PRC. The Advertising Law (amended in 2015), the Administrative Regulations of Advertisements (1987) and the Detailed Rules of Implementation of the Administrative Regulations of Advertisements (2004) do not contain, and the SAIC has not promulgated, regulations specifically aimed at mobile advertising through SMS or MMS services.

 

In March 2004, the SAIC and the MOC jointly promulgated the Regulations on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Advertising Enterprises. The regulations provided that a foreign investor of a Chinese advertising company is required to have an operating history in direct advertising as its main business outside the PRC of at least two years if the Chinese advertising company is a joint venture, or three years if the Chinese advertising company is a wholly foreign-owned enterprise. On June 29, 2015, the SAIC promulgated the Decision to Abolish the Regulations on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Advertising Enterprises, which took effect on the date of its issuance. The decision removed the aforesaid requirements imposed upon foreign investment in advertising.

 

As part of our non-telecommunications operator marketing activities, we have developed integrated marketing campaigns with traditional media companies and multinational corporations through certain cross-selling efforts with these companies. Beijing AirInbox has applied to the Beijing AIC to amend its business license to specify that the mobile advertising business is a permitted business activity and Beijing AIC has informed Beijing AirInbox that this is not necessary because Beijing AirInbox’s business license already permits it to undertake the mobile advertising activities that it presently conducts. We cannot assure you that the SAIC or Beijing AIC will not require Beijing AirInbox to obtain an advertising permit from the Beijing AIC and specifically mention advertising activities as a permitted business in its business license in the future. In such an event, failure to comply could result in penalties including being banned from engaging in online advertising activities, confiscation of illegal earnings and fines.

 

Technology Import and Export

 

China imposes controls on technology import and export. The term “technology import and export” is broadly defined in the regulations to include, without limitation, the transfer or license of patents, software and know-how, and the provision of services in relation to technology. Depending on the nature of the relevant technology, the import and export of technology require either approval by, or registration with, the relevant PRC governmental authorities. If we enter into licensing agreements with third parties outside of the PRC through our PRC entities, such licenses will be required to be registered with applicable PRC governmental authorities. We intend to register the licenses we have granted to the non-PRC entities.

 

Regulation of Online Publications

 

The SAPPRFT is the government agency responsible for regulating publishing activities in the PRC. The Rules for the Administration of Electronic Publications, or Electronic Publication Rules, promulgated on February 21, 2008 and took effect on April 15, 2008, regulate the production, publishing and importation of electronic publication in the PRC and outline a licensing system for business operations involving electronic publishing. Under the Electronic Publication Rules and other regulations issued by the SAPPRFT, Internet games are classified as a kind of electronic production, and publishing of Internet games can be done only by licensed electronic publishing entities with standard publication codes.

 

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The Tentative Internet Publishing Administrative Measures, jointly promulgated by the MIIT and the SAPPRFT on July 27, 2002 and effective as of August 1, 2002, require Internet publishers to secure approval from the SAPPRFT. The term “Internet publishing” is defined as an act of online dissemination whereby Internet information service providers select, edit and process works created by themselves or others (including content from books, newspapers, periodicals, audio and video products, electronic publications, and other sources that have already been formally published or works that have been made public in other media) and subsequently post the same on the Internet or transmit the same to users via the Internet for browsing, using or downloading by the public. On July 6, 2005, the MOC, the MOFCOM and several other governmental authorities jointly promulgated the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Investment in the Cultural Field, or the 2005 Opinions, which prohibits foreign investment in the Internet publishing industry. Therefore, we operated our Internet publishing service business through our variable interest entities.

 

On February 4, 2016, the MIIT and the SAPPRFT jointly promulgated the Internet Publishing Service Administrative Measures, or the Internet Publishing Service Measures, which became effective on March 10, 2016 and superseded the previous Tentative Internet Publishing Administrative Measures promulgated in 2002. The Internet Publishing Service Measures further clarify that foreign-invested enterprises, whether in the form of equity or cooperative joint ventures or wholly foreign-owned enterprises, shall not engage in Internet publishing service business and require that Internet publishers obtain an Internet publishing service license from the SAPPRFT. The term “Internet publishing service” is defined as the Internet publications provided to the public through information networks. The term “Internet publications” refers to digitized works with characteristics of publishing such as editing, production or processing provided to the public through information networks and mainly includes: (1) original digitized works such as knowledgeable and thoughtful texts, pictures, maps, games, animation, audio and video readings in literature, art, science and other fields, (2) digitized works whose contents are consistent with those in published books, newspapers, periodicals, audio and video products, electronic publications and other sources, (3) digitized works such as online literature databases formed by way of selecting, compiling or collecting the above works, and (4) other types of digitized works identified by the SAPPRFT. The Internet Publishing Service Measures reiterate the prohibition on foreign investment in the Internet publishing industry first introduced by the 2005 Opinions and impose more specific and stricter requirements on the qualifications of Internet publishers than the previous Tentative Internet Publishing Administrative Measures.

 

The SAPPRFT and the MIIT have not specified whether the aforementioned approval in the Internet Publishing Service Measures is applicable to dissemination of works through SMS, MMS, WAP, Java™, IVR, CRBT or other wireless technologies. If, in the future, the SAPPRFT and the MIIT clarify that the Internet Publishing Service Measures are applicable to wireless value-added telecommunications services operators or issue new regulations or rules regulating wireless publishing, we may need to apply for a license or permit from governmental agencies in charge for our WVAS business. We cannot assure you that such application would be approved by the relevant governmental agencies. As the provision of Internet games is deemed an Internet publication activity, an Internet games operator needs to obtain an Internet publishing license in order to directly make its Internet games publicly available in the PRC. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, Beijing AirInbox and Dacheng each held an Internet publishing license from the SAPPRFT. Given the lack of interpretations of the Internet Publishing Service Measures, we cannot assure you that Beijing AirInbox and Dacheng will be able to satisfy the requirements provided therein and continue to hold the Internet publishing license, and we cannot assure you that our other operating companies will be qualified to apply for and be granted such license.

 

Regulation of Internet-Based Audio-Video Programming Services

 

On December 20, 2007, the SAPPRFT and the MIIT jointly promulgated the Regulations on Administration of Internet-based Audio-Video Programming Service, or the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations, which became effective as of January 31, 2008 and was amended on August 28, 2015. The Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations are applicable to the public dissemination of Internet-based services, including audio-video programming services within the territory of the PRC. Activities covered by the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations include producing, compiling, integrating and public dissemination over the Internet of audio or video programs, as well as aiding others to upload and disseminate such programs.

 

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Providers of Internet-based Audio-Video programming services are required to obtain the Internet-based Audio-Video License or complete registration procedures as required in the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations. Pursuant to the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations, such provider must:

 

·be a limited liability company that is either wholly owned or majority controlled by the state, without any violation of law or regulation within three years before the application date;

 

·have measures that ensure the safe dissemination of audio-video programs and protect against security breaches;

 

·have audio-video programming resources that are appropriate for their businesses and in compliance with laws and regulations;

 

·possess technical competence and network resources that are appropriate for their businesses;

 

·retain professionals who are appropriate for their businesses, and its major investors and operators did not violate any law or regulation within three years before the application date;

 

·have network technical designs that comply with laws and regulations and industry standards and guidance;

 

·be in compliance with plans, layouts and business guidelines issued by the departments in charge of radio, film and television operations under the State Council; and

 

·be in compliance with laws and administrative regulations.

 

Pursuant to explanations of the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations provided by the responsible persons at the SAPPRFT and the MIIT in a press conference, providers who engaged in Internet-based audio-video programming services before the promulgation of the Internet-based Audio-Video Regulations and who have not violated any other laws, rules or regulations are eligible to register their business and continue their operations.

 

Regulation of Virtual Currency

 

The use of “virtual currency,” which is typically used to purchase in-game virtual items, is also regulated by the PRC government. Under the Internet Cafes Notice described above, the PBOC is directed to strengthen the administration of virtual currency in Internet games to avoid any adverse impact on the economy and financial system of the PRC. This notice provides that the total amount of virtual currency issued by Internet games operators and the amount purchased by individual game players should be limited, with a strict and clear division between virtual transactions and real transactions carried out by way of electronic commerce. This notice also provides that virtual currency should only be used to purchase virtual items.

 

On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued a circular regulating the trading of Internet games virtual currencies. The circular clearly defines for the first time the meaning of virtual currency and places a set of restrictions on the trading and issuance of virtual currency. The circular also states that Internet games operators are not allowed to give out virtual items or virtual currency through lottery-based activities, such as lucky draws, betting or random computer sampling, in exchange for user’s cash or virtual money. This regulation is mainly targeted at lottery-based activities found in some Internet games.

 

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On July 20, 2009, the MOC promulgated the Filing Guidelines on Online Game Virtual Currency Issuing Enterprise and Online Game Virtual Currency Trading Enterprise, which specifically define the meaning of “issuing enterprise” and “trading enterprise” and stipulate that both of these businesses may not be operated by the same enterprise.

 

According to the Internet Game Measures, a company must also obtain an Internet Culture Business Permit in order to issue and conduct transactions in virtual currency. Furthermore, the virtual currency issued by an Internet games operator may only be used to exchange for such operator’s Internet games assets. As an additional requirement, the Internet games operator must register the kind, price, and total quantity of virtual currency used in its online games with the local provincial branch of the MOC.

 

Privacy Protection

 

On December 29, 2011, the MIIT promulgated the Several Provisions on Regulating the Market Order of Internet Information Services, which became effective on March 15, 2012. This regulation stipulates that Internet content providers must not, without the consent of users, collect information on such users that could be used, alone or in combination with other information, to identify a user, or corresponding personal information, and may not provide any user’s personal information to third parties without prior user consent. The Internet content providers may only collect personal information necessary to provide their services and must expressly inform the users of the method, content and purpose of the collection and processing of such information. In addition, an Internet content provider may use the personal information only for the stated purposes under the Internet content providers’ scope of services. The Internet content providers are also required to ensure the proper security of such personal information, and take immediate remedial measures if such information is suspected to have been disclosed. If the consequences of any such disclosure are expected to be serious, the Internet content provider must immediately report the incident to the telecommunications regulatory authorities and cooperate with the authorities in their investigations.

 

On December 28, 2012, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted the Decision to Enhance the Protection of Network Information, or the Information Protection Decision, to further enhance the protection of user’s personal information in electronic form. The Information Protection Decision provides that the Internet content providers must expressly inform their users of the purpose, manner and scope of the Internet content providers’ collection and use of personal information, publish the Internet content providers’ standards for the collection and use of personal information, and collect and use personal information only with the consent of users and only within the scope of such consent. The Information Protection Decision also mandates that Internet content providers and their employees must keep strictly confidential the personal information that they collect, and should take such technical and other measures as are necessary to safeguard the information against disclosure, damage and loss.

 

On July 16, 2013, the MIIT promulgated the Provisions on Protecting the Personal Information of Telecommunications and Internet Users, which became effective on September 1, 2013. This regulation stipulates that telecommunications business operators and Internet information service providers shall formulate rules on the collection and use of users’ personal information, and publish the same in their business or service premises. Without the consent of users, telecommunications business operators and Internet information service providers are not allowed to collect and use the personal information of the users. Telecommunications business operators and Internet information service providers shall not collect or use information in a deceptive, misleading or compulsory manner, in violation of laws, rules or administrative regulations, or in breach of the agreements between relevant parties. After users have terminated the use of telecommunications services or Internet information service, telecommunications business operators and Internet information service providers must stop the collection and use of the users’ personal information, and provide the users with services for deregistering relevant phone numbers or account numbers.

 

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On August 28, 2014, the MIIT promulgated the Guidance Suggestions on Strengthening the Network Security in the Telecommunications and Internet Sectors, or the Guidance Suggestions. The Guidance Suggestions stipulate priorities to strengthen network security, including deepening the security protection for network infrastructure and business systems, safeguarding the network security environment of the public Internet, strengthening the network security management for new technology and business. The Guidance Suggestions also set forth safeguarding measures for network security in the telecommunications and internet sectors.

 

We require the customers of our Internet games to accept a user agreement whereby they agree to provide certain personal information to us. Applicable PRC law prohibits Internet content providers from disclosing to any third parties any information transmitted by users through their networks unless otherwise permitted by law. If an Internet content provider violates these regulations, the MIIT or its local bureaus may impose penalties and the Internet content provider may be liable for damages caused to its users.

 

Regulation of Internet Games

 

In addition to rules and regulations described above, the PRC authorities have promulgated other specific regulations for Internet games.

 

On July 12, 2005, the MOC and the MIIT promulgated the Opinions on the Development and Administration of Online Game, reflecting the PRC government’s intent to foster and control the development of the Internet games industry in China. Accordingly, the MOC will censor Internet games that “threaten state security,” “disturb the social order,” or contain “obscenity” or “violence.”

 

Many of our customers access our games in Internet cafes, which are also regulated by the PRC government. Internet cafes are required to obtain a license from the MOC and the SAIC, and are subject to requirements and regulations with respect to location, size, number of computers, age limit of customers and hours of operation. In 2004, the MOC, the SAIC and other PRC governmental authorities jointly issued a notice to suspend issuance of new Internet cafe licenses. Although this nationwide suspension has been generally lifted in 2005, the local authorities have the authority of controlling the number and recipients of new licenses at their discretion. In addition, local and higher-level governmental authorities may from time to time strictly enforce customer age limits and other requirements relating to Internet cafes, as a result of the occurrence of, and media attention on, gang fights, arson or other incidents in or related to Internet cafes. On February 15, 2007, the MOC and other relevant governmental authorities jointly issued the Internet Cafes Notice, which suspended nationwide the approval for the establishment of new Internet cafes in 2007 and imposed tougher penalties for Internet cafes admitting minors. Between 2008 and 2013, the MOC, the SAIC and other relevant governmental authorities, individually or jointly, issued several notices which provide various ways to strengthen the regulation of Internet cafes, including investigating and punishing the Internet cafes which accept minors, cracking down on Internet cafes without sufficient and valid licenses, limiting the total number of Internet cafes, screening unlawful games and websites, and improving the coordination of regulation over Internet cafes and Internet games. As many of our customers access our games from Internet cafes, any reduction in the number, or any slowdown in the growth, of Internet cafes in the PRC as a result of stricter Internet cafe regulation will limit our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and expand our customer base, which will in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The SAPPRFT and several other governmental authorities have issued a circular requiring the implementation of an “anti-fatigue system” and a real-name registration (by Internet games players) system by all PRC Internet games operators, in an effort to curb addictive Internet games playing behaviors of minors. Under the anti-fatigue system, three hours or less of continuous playing by minors is considered to be “healthy,” three to five hours to be “fatiguing,” and five hours or more to be “unhealthy.” Game operators are required to reduce the value of in-game benefits to a player by half if the player has reached “fatiguing” level, and to zero in the case of “unhealthy” level. To identify whether a player is a minor and thus subject to the anti-fatigue system, a real-name registration system is also adopted, which requires Internet games players to register their real identity information before they play Internet games. Dacheng has successfully developed such an anti-fatigue system. On July 1, 2011, the SAPPRFT and several other government authorities jointly promulgated a further notice to strengthen the implementation of the anti-fatigue system and real-name registration, entitled the Notice on Initializing the Verification of Real-Name Registration for Anti-Fatigue System on Internet Games, or the Real-Name Registration Notice, which took effect on October 1, 2011. The Real-Name Registration Notice’s main focus is to prevent minors from using adults’ identification cards to play Internet games. Accordingly, the notice provides more stringent punishment for Internet game operators for not implementing the anti-fatigue and real-name registration measures properly and effectively. The most severe punishment contemplated by the Real-Name Registration Notice is termination of the operation of an Internet game if it is found to be in violation of the anti-fatigue and real-name registration requirements. On February 5, 2013, the MOC and several other governmental authorities issued the Work Plan of Comprehensive Prevention and Cure Project on Internet Games Addiction of Minors. The plan emphasizes that the cultural administrative authorities and press and publication administrative authorities must further supervise the Internet game operators to implement the anti-fatigue system and other measures. On July 25, 2014, the SAPPRFT issued the Notice of Depth Measures regarding Verification of Real-Name Registration for Anti-Fatigue System on Internet Games, which took effect on October 1, 2014. The notice provides that the press and publication administrative authorities shall take further measures to implement the verification of real-name registration for anti-fatigue system.

 

On September 7, 2009, the State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform issued the Notice on Interpretation of the State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform on Several Provisions relating to Animation, Online Game and Comprehensive Law Enforcement in Culture Market in the “Three Provisions” jointly promulgated by the MOC and the SAPPRFT, which became effective immediately. According to this notice, the SAPPRFT is responsible for the examination and approval of the Internet games prior to being uploaded on the Internet, after which the Internet games is to be administrated by the MOC.

 

On September 28, 2009, the SAPPRFT, the National Copyright Administration and the National Office of Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications jointly published the Notice on the Further Strengthening of the Administration of Pre-examination and Approval of Internet Games and the Examination and Approval of Imported Internet Games, which took effect on the same date of promulgation. This notice restates that foreign investors are not permitted to invest in Internet games operating businesses in the PRC through wholly-owned, equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture investments and expressly prohibits foreign investors from gaining control over or participating in domestic Internet games operators through establishing other joint venture companies, or contractual or technical arrangements. According to this notice, where new versions, expansion packs or new content shall be updated for Internet games which have been approved by the SAPPRFT, the operation entity shall undertake the same procedures for the examination and approval by the SAPPRFT of such new versions, expansion packs or new content.

 

On November 13, 2009, the MOC issued the Circular on Improving and Strengthening the Administration of Content in Internet Games. This circular emphasizes that correct cultural values shall be maintained to enhance the cultural implications of Internet games. Internet games which comprise mainly of killing beasts, combat and marriage shall be further restricted. Minors should be guided in their choice of games and their playing time should be limited through technical measures. This circular also requires Internet games operators to establish and maintain committees to monitor game content. Dacheng has established such a committee.

 

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On June 3, 2010, the MOC issued the Interim Measures for the Administration of Internet Games, or the Internet Game Measures, which took effect on August 1, 2010, to further strengthen the supervision over the Internet games industry. The Internet Game Measures regulate a broad range of operation activities relating to Internet games, including development and production of Internet games, operation of Internet games, issuance of virtual currencies used for Internet games, and virtual currency trading services. The Internet Game Measures provide that any entity that is engaged in the operation of Internet games must obtain an Internet Culture Business Permit, which is valid for three years and renewable before its expiration. The Internet Game Measures require the content of an imported Internet game to be examined and approved by the MOC prior to the game’s launch and the content of a domestic Internet game to be filed with the MOC. The Internet Game Measures also request Internet game operators to protect the interests of game players and stipulate that the service agreement between an Internet game operator and the players of its online games must include certain mandatory terms required by the MOC. On July 29, 2010, the MOC issued the Notice of the Ministry of Culture on the Implementation of the Interim Measures for the Administration of Internet Games, which took effect on the date of its issuance. This notice provides details as to the requirements and procedures relating to applications for Internet Culture Business Permits and the MOC’s review of the content of Internet games. In addition, the notice emphasizes the protection of minors who play online games and requests Internet games operators to promote real-name registration of their game players. Each of Beijing AirInbox, Dacheng and Brilliant Game has obtained an Internet Culture Business Permit for our Internet games business.

 

On March 19, 2015, the MOC issued the Circular on Strengthening Supervision on Internet Games Publicity and Promotion Activities, which took effect on the date of its issuance. This circular provides that a system of “blacklist” shall be set up in order to implement classified supervision on Internet games enterprises, and that those who use prohibited contents as stipulated in the Internet Game Measures shall be imposed a fine or, in the case of repeated violations, the penalty of games operation suspension or revocation of the Internet games operation permit. On January 6, 2016, the MOC issued the Administrative Measures for Blacklists for the Cultural Market (Trial Implementation), or the Blacklists Measures. Hebei, Tianjin, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong, Chongqing and Yunnan would be pilot regions of the Blacklists Measures for one year, after which the MOC may enforce the Blacklists Measures nationwide. The Blacklists Measures establish a regulatory system that blacklists cultural products which contain prohibited contents or do serious harm to the public and operators who commit material violations of the regulations of the cultural market. Such blacklists will be public. Furthermore, blacklisted operators will be subject to more frequent inspections by regulatory authorities and heavier punishment for repeated violations. Dissemination and operation of blacklisted products will be entirely prohibited.

 

Regulation of WVAS

 

Pursuant to the Telecom Regulations, a commercial operator of Internet content services must obtain an operating license. Other than this requirement, PRC legislation on wireless telecommunications is generally aimed at regulating equipment and infrastructure rather than applications and value-added service providers.

 

The Administrative Measures for Telecommunications Business Operating Licenses, or Telecom License Measures, were promulgated by the MIIT on March 5, 2009. The Telecom License Measures confirm that there are two types of telecommunications operations licenses for operators in the PRC (including foreign-invested telecommunications enterprises), namely, licenses for infrastructure services and licenses for value-added services, for which a distinction is made as to whether a license is granted for intra-provincial or nationwide activities. An appendix to the license details the permitted activities of the enterprise to which it was granted. An approved telecommunications service operator must conduct its business, for both infrastructure and value-added services types of businesses, according to the specifications recorded on its Telecom Business Operating License. The MIIT is the competent approval authority for foreign-invested telecommunications enterprises and for granting nationwide licenses to value-added telecommunications enterprises.

 

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Other than a general classification of wireless information services as value-added telecommunications services by an appendix to the Telecom Regulations, as amended, there is currently no nationwide legislation in the PRC that specifically addresses the provision of WVAS, such as SMS, MMS, WAP, Java™, IVR or CRBT services.

 

Beijing Boya Wuji has obtained a value-added telecommunications business operation permit in order to operate wireless value-added businesses in Beijing. Each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang and Xinreli has obtained a nationwide value-added telecommunications license from the MIIT in order to provide services in multiple provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. These licenses are subject to standard annual review.

 

Regulation of Foreign Exchange Control

 

The principal regulations governing foreign exchange in the PRC are the Foreign Exchange Control Regulations (Amended in 2008) and the Administration of Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange Regulations (1996), or together, the Exchange Regulations. Under the Exchange Regulations, the Renminbi is freely convertible into foreign exchange for current account items, including the distribution of dividends. Conversion of Renminbi for capital account items, such as direct investment, loans, security investment and repatriation of investment, however, is still subject to the approval of the SAFE.

 

Under the Exchange Regulations, foreign-invested enterprises are required to open and maintain separate foreign exchange accounts for capital account items (but not for other items). In addition, foreign-invested enterprises may buy, sell or remit foreign currencies only at those banks authorized to conduct foreign exchange business after providing valid commercial documents and, in the case of capital account item transactions, obtaining approval from the SAFE. On March 30, 2015, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Reforming the Management Approach Regarding the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises. Pursuant to this circular, foreign-invested enterprises may, upon obtaining clearance from the local bank and subject to ex-post supervision by the local branch of the SAFE, convert up to 100% (subject to subsequent adjustment by the SAFE) of their foreign investments into Renminbi at any time. The circular also provides that the RMB-denominated funds thus acquired and converted shall be deposited in a dedicated account which can only be used for enumerated purposes upon providing proof thereof.

 

In July 2014, the SAFE issued the Notice on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Overseas Investment, Fund-raising and Return Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Companies, or Notice 37, which became effective on July 4, 2014 and superseded prior SAFE regulations promulgated in October 2005. Notice 37 and relevant SAFE regulations require PRC residents to register with the relevant SAFE branch before contributing the onshore or offshore assets or interests to the special purpose companies and complete amended registrations with the relevant SAFE branch upon the change of basic information of the registered overseas special purpose company such as PRC resident shareholder, name, operating period, or major events such as increase or reduce of PRC resident’s capital contribution, share transfer or exchange, merger or division. The term “PRC residents,” as used in Notice 37, includes not only PRC citizens but also other persons who habitually reside in the PRC for economic benefit.

 

A number of terms and provisions in Notice 37 and relevant SAFE regulations remain unclear. Due to the uncertainty regarding the interpretation and implementation of Notice 37 and relevant SAFE regulations, we cannot predict how such notice and regulations will affect our business operations or future strategies. For example, the ability of our present and prospective PRC subsidiaries to conduct foreign exchange activities, such as remitting dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, may be subject to compliance with requirements of Notice 37 and relevant SAFE regulations by the PRC resident holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs. Despite our efforts to fully comply with the SAFE regulations, we cannot assure you that we will obtain, or receive waivers from, any necessary approvals or not be found in violation of the SAFE regulations or any other related foreign exchange regulations. In particular, we cannot assure you that we will be able to cause all the present or prospective PRC resident holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs to comply with all SAFE regulations. A failure by the PRC resident holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs to comply with Notice 37 and relevant SAFE regulations or our inability to secure required approvals or registrations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities or affect our ownership structure, any of which could affect our business and prospects.

 

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Regulation of Share Options and Restricted Share Units

 

On December 25, 2006, the PBOC issued the Administration Measures on Individual Foreign Exchange Control, and its Implementation Rules was issued by the SAFE on January 5, 2007, both of which became effective on February 1, 2007. Under these regulations, all foreign exchange matters involved in employee share ownership plans, share option plans and other equity incentive plans participated by PRC individuals may be transacted upon receipt of the approval from the SAFE or its authorized branch.

 

In February 2012, the SAFE promulgated SAFE Notice 7, replacing SAFE Notice 78. SAFE Notice 7 is applicable to (i) PRC directors, supervisors, senior management and other employees of an overseas-listed PRC company, (ii) PRC subsidiaries or branches of, and any PRC entities directly or indirectly controlled by, an overseas-listed company, and (iii) the Domestic Individuals. Under SAFE Notice 7, Domestic Individuals who are granted stock options or any other stock-related rights and benefits under a stock incentive plan by an overseas publicly-listed company are required to complete certain procedures and transactional foreign exchange matters under the stock incentive plan upon the examination by, and the approval of, the SAFE or its authorized local counterparts.

 

In 2009 and 2010, we registered, and registered on behalf of those employees subject to SAFE Notice 7, with the relevant local SAFE branches our previously adopted employee stock incentive plans, pursuant to regulations promulgated under SAFE Notice 78. However, there exist significant uncertainties in practice with respect to the interpretation and implementation of SAFE Notice 7, and we cannot assure you that our registration under SAFE Notice 78 would be sufficient for compliance with SAFE Notice 7. If the SAFE or other PRC governmental authorities determine that we or those of our employees subject to SAFE Notice 7 have failed to comply with the provisions of the SAFE Notice 7, we or they may be subject to fines and legal sanctions.

 

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this annual report. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. In evaluating our business, you should carefully consider the information provided in “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors.”

 

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Overview

 

We are one of the leading providers of digital entertainment services for consumers in the PRC. We operate three main business units, namely Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. We are one of the leading providers of WVAS to mobile phone users and have been in cooperation with all major telecommunications operators in the PRC since 2002. In 2005, we began providing feature-phone mobile games on the networks of China Mobile with the acquisition of Tianjin Mammoth, a feature phone mobile games developer. To further expand our mobile games development capabilities, we acquired Noumena in 2012 in order to develop smartphone mobile games on smartphone mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS. We commenced our Internet games business in 2010 through our acquisition of Dacheng, a developer and operator of Internet games in the PRC. In addition to developing and operating our self-developed Internet games, such as Loong, Demon Code and Kung Fu Hero, we are the exclusive operator of the popular War Saga games for the PRC Internet games market. In May 2012, we entered into a strategic partnership with Wargaming LLP, which granted us the exclusive license to all of Wargaming LLP’s games in the PRC, including the War Saga games. In December 2015, Wargaming LLP assigned its rights and obligations under the licensing agreement to Wargaming Ltd. In addition, as of December 31, 2015, we were also the exclusive licensee in the PRC for the Guild Wars 2 game developed by ArenaNet, Blitzkrieg 3 game developed by ZZima and Auto Club Revolution game developed by Eutechnyx.

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands on May 6, 2002. Our revenues were US$179.1 million in 2015, compared to US$227.6 million in 2014. Our net loss was US$16.2 million in 2015, compared to net income of US$22.6 million in 2014. As a percentage of our total revenues, revenues generated from Internet games, mobile games and WVAS accounted for 58.6%, 13.8% and 27.6% in 2015, respectively.

 

We have a limited operating history on which to base an evaluation of our business and prospects. Our prospects should be considered in light of the risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in the early stages of their development, particularly in new and rapidly evolving markets such as the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS.

 

The major factors affecting our financial condition and results of operations include:

 

·trends in the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS markets in the PRC;

 

·continued growth in the number of players for, and revenues generated from, the World of Tanks game;

 

·our product development efforts to capitalize on market opportunities, including the successful launches of new Internet games and smartphone mobile games, which depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively respond to the changing consumer tastes and preferences and technological advances in a timely manner;

 

·changes in the policies or guidelines of China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators with respect to our mobile games and WVAS businesses;

 

·changes in laws, rules and regulation affecting our businesses;

 

·development of competing services from China Mobile, other PRC telecommunications operators, and increased competition in the Internet games and mobile games markets from the more established companies that develop and operate personal computer-based games, as well as the mobile platform application developers;

 

·effectiveness of our marketing and promotional activities;

 

·technological advancement of the mobile telecommunications market, including the adoption of 4G and subsequent standards of mobile handsets and networks, and the smartphone mobile games and Internet games market in the PRC; and

 

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·changes in the number, scope and terms of our cooperation arrangements with the telecommunications operators, content providers, mobile handset manufacturers, mobile handset distributors and other key players in the PRC’s mobile telecommunications industry.

 

In order to reduce the risk that our financial condition and results of operations will be overly dependent upon, and disproportionately impacted by, any particular service offering, technology platform or telecommunications operator, we have sought to broaden the range of our services, expand our distribution channels, cultivate new relationships with telecommunications operators and develop our non-carrier billing channel mobile games and Internet games businesses, both of which are less dependent on the telecommunications operators than either carrier billing channel mobile games or WVAS. Our acquisitions of Dacheng and Noumena are also part of this diversification strategy.

 

Revenues

 

The following table sets forth the revenues attributable to services derived from the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS segments in terms of amount and as a percentage of our total revenues (net of sales tax) for the periods indicated:

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages) 
Internet games  US$93,792.3    54.0%  US$118,099.8    51.9%  US$105,045.3    58.6%
Mobile games   16,908.3    9.7    45,036.4    19.8    24,646.6    13.8 
WVAS   62,953.2    36.3    64,459.7    28.3    49,421.5    27.6 
Total  US$173,653.8    100.0%  US$227,595.9    100.0%  US$179,113.4    100.0%

 

Internet Games Revenues

 

The Internet games revenues are primarily derived from Internet games operation revenues and licensing revenues. We earn Internet games operation revenues through the provision of Internet games services to players under an item-based revenue model, whereby players are able to play the Internet games free of charge for an unlimited amount of time, or a small amount of initial fee in the case of Guild Wars 2 game, but are charged for purchasing in-game items, such as in-game performance-enhancing items, mechanized vehicles, clothing, accessories and pets. In 2015, we derived a majority of our Internet games revenues from revenues generated through the operation of our licensed Internet games, especially the World of Tanks game, the World of Warships game, the World of Warplanes game and the Guild Wars 2 game, which generated approximately 86.3%, 4.6% , 0.9% and 6.6%, respectively, of our Internet games revenues from the in-game items purchased for the Internet games for 2015. The War Saga games are licensed from Wargaming LLP, which assigned its rights and obligations under the licensing agreement to Wargaming Ltd in December 2015, and due to our dependence on the War Saga games, our business relationship with Wargaming Ltd is critical to the continued operation of the War Saga games. For a description of risks related to our dependence on a small number of Internet games for a significant portion of our Internet games revenues, see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We depend on a small number of Internet games for a significant portion of our Internet games revenues, and any factors that could have an adverse impact on the development, marketing and distribution of these Internet games, or on our business relationships with the licensors of these Internet games, could materially decrease our Internet games revenues, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.”

 

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Revenues from the sales of in-game items are recognized when items are consumed by customers or over the estimated lives of the items. The revenue recognition policy for the item-based games relies on the useful lives of various items associated with each of our item-based games. The in-game items have different life patterns: one-time use items, limited life items with useful life ranging from three days to 90 days and permanent life items. To determine whether an in-game item has a limited or permanent life, we consider whether such in-game items are offered with unlimited lasting benefit, which means that players may use such in-game items at will without any usage or time limits as long as such players are active. Limited life in-game items have usage or time limits while permanent life in-game items offer unlimited lasting benefit. Revenues from the sales of one-time use in-game items are recognized upon consumption. Revenues from the sales of limited life in-game items are recognized ratably based on the extent of time passed until expiration. Revenues from the sales of permanent life in-game items are recognized ratably based on the estimated lives of the in-game items, which is the period during which the player is expected to continue to play the game.

 

We consider player behavior patterns in estimating the lives of permanent life in-game items, including the average period that the typically play our games based on log-on data, which are affected by various factors such as acceptance and popularity of the game, game updates and other in-game items, promotional events launched, future operating strategies and market conditions. Based on the above considerations for all active games, we have determined the estimated life for all permanent life in-game items is six months. Given the short operating history of our Internet games, our estimates of the period that game players typically play our games may not accurately reflect the actual lives of the permanent life in-game items. We review, at least annually, the average playing periods of game players for all active games to determine if the six-month estimated life for permanent in-game items remains reasonable. Based on our latest review, such estimated life remains reasonable and has not changed over time. We may revise our estimates as we continue to collect operating data and refine our estimation process and results accordingly. All paying users’ data in active games collected since the launch date of such games are used to perform the relevant assessments. Historical behavior patterns of these paying users during the period between their first log-on date and last log-on date are used to estimate the lives of the permanent life in-game items.

 

Under the item-based revenue model, proceeds received from sales of game points to players, which can be converted into in-game currencies to purchase in-game items, are initially recorded as advances from customers as game points are refundable. As players convert game points into in-game currencies, proceeds received from sales of those game points are transferred from advances from customers to deferred revenues. Deferred revenues are recognized as revenues when in-game items purchased with in-game currencies are consumed by players over the estimated lives of such items. In addition to game points that we sell and distribute by ourselves, a portion of our game points are sold and distributed through third party vendors. As we do not have control and generally do not know the ultimate selling price of the prepaid game cards or game points sold by the distributors, net proceeds from distributors are recorded as advances from customers. Upon activation of the game cards or the game points, these advances from customers are immediately transferred to deferred revenues. For a description of our revenue recognition policy, see “— Critical Accounting Policies.”

 

In addition, we entered into licensing arrangements with various licensees to operate our games in the PRC and in other countries and regions. These licensing agreements provide for two revenue streams: the initial fees and the usage-based royalty fees. In certain licensing arrangements, we provide free upgrades, maintenance support and training, which are our post-sale customer support, or PCS, for the first year. The licensees have the option to purchase PCS in subsequent years at specified renewal rates. In these arrangements, we allocate the initial fee into two parts. The first part represents the license of the game and is recognized as license revenue immediately upon the launch of the games in foreign countries or regions. The second part represents fees for the PCS and is recognized ratably over the contractual period of the PCS. In other licensing arrangements, we provide PCS over the full licensing period for no additional charge. In such cases, the total amount of the initial fee is recognized ratably over the full contractual licensing period.

 

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According to our license agreements, we are also entitled to ongoing usage-based royalties determined based on the amount of fees charged to the players’ accounts or services payable by players in a given country or region. The usage-based royalties are recognized when they are earned, provided that collection is probable.

 

Our Internet games revenues were US$105.1 million in 2015, decreased by 11.1% from US$118.1 million in 2014 mainly due to the significant decline of revenue of Guild Wars 2 from US$27.6 million in 2014 to US$7.0 million in 2015, which was attributable to short user life and the delay in the launch of the localized expansion pack of Guild Wars 2, “Heart of Thorns”, in the PRC in 2015. 99.6% of our Internet games revenues was generated from game operations and 0.4% was generated from licensing our Internet games to third party licensees.

 

Mobile Games Revenues

 

Our mobile games revenues were US$16.9 million, US$45.0 million and US$24.6 million in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Our mobile games revenues consist of (i) revenues from carrier billing channels, which are generated from mobile games operated on the PRC telecommunications operators’ platforms, and (ii) revenues from non-carrier billing channel, which are collected from various Internet platforms, such as Xiaomi, 91 Wireless, 360 and Snappea. Mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel decreased from US$23.8 million in 2014 to US$12.1 million in 2015 and mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel decreased from US$21.2 million in 2014 to US$12.6 million in 2015. The decrease in mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel was primarily due to measures adopted by telecommunications operators targeted at improving user experience pursuant to which some of our mobile games embedded in handsets became no longer accessible by end-consumers. The decrease in mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel was primarily due to shorter life cycle and high churn of recently launched smartphone games, our recent pivot to concentrate mobile game development and licensing towards primarily military genre mobile games to bolster the War Saga brand and consequently the relatively small number of mobile games launched by us in 2015. We expect this transition to influence mobile game revenues from non-carrier billing channel in the foreseeable future.

 

We generate a part of our mobile games revenues by distributing mobile games through the networks of China Mobile. As a percentage of our total mobile games revenues, mobile games revenues received through China Mobile accounted for 60.4%, 49.9% and 49.0% in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Due to our dependence on China Mobile for substantial portion of our mobile games revenues, our working relationship with China Mobile is critical to the operation of our mobile games business. For a description of risks related to our dependence on China Mobile, see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We depend on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators for a significant portion of our revenues, and any loss or deterioration of our relationship with these telecommunications operators could result in severe disruptions to our business operations and significant loss of revenues .” We expect to supplement these streams of revenues in 2016 with revenues that we expect to generate from sales of our internally developed smartphone mobile games, which we distribute through digital distribution platforms, such as app stores developed by smartphone handset manufacturers.

 

WVAS Revenues

 

The following table sets forth the revenues attributable to each line of WVAS service in terms of amount and as a percentage of our total revenues for the periods indicated:

 

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   For the year ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages) 
SMS  US$31,844.5    18.4%  US$31,923.0    14.0%  US$21,336.9    12.0%
IVR   14,658.6    8.5    13,210.5    5.8    3,957.3    2.2 
CRBT and others   14,645.0    8.4    17,993.5    7.9    22,815.3    12.7 
WAP   709.0    0.4    364.7    0.2    366.2    0.2 
MMS   1,096.1    0.6    968.0    0.4    945.8    0.5 
Total WVAS revenues  US$

62,953.2

    36.3%  US$

64,459.7

    28.3%  US$

49,421.5

    27.6%

 

We generate our WVAS revenues from fees paid by mobile phone users who use our services through the networks of China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom. As a percentage of our total WVAS revenues, WVAS revenues generated from China Mobile represented approximately 59.1% and 57.5% in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Due to our dependence on China Mobile for a substantial portion of our WVAS revenues, our working relationship with China Mobile is critical to the financial condition and results of operations of our WVAS business. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We depend on China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators for the majority of our revenues, and any loss or deterioration of our relationship with these telecommunications operators may result in severe disruptions to our business operations and the loss of the majority of our revenues.”

 

We allocate our WVAS resources based on the geographic concentration of our customers. Due to our customer base being primarily concentrated in the coastal regions of the PRC, we generally allocate more of our WVAS resources to these regions, including maintaining sales offices in most of the coastal regions of the PRC.

 

We recognize revenues derived from our services before deducting the service fees and the net transmission charges that we pay to the telecommunications operators. Fees for our services are charged on either a single-transaction or monthly subscription basis and vary according to the type of services delivered. For a description of our fees and arrangements with the telecommunications operators, see “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Our Business — Strategic Relationships — Telecommunications Operators.” We recognize all revenues in the period in which the services are performed.

 

As telecommunications operators do not provide us with a detailed revenue breakdown on a service-by-service basis, we depend on our internal data management system to monitor revenues derived from each of our services. We make our business decisions, including research and development of new services and reallocation of resources to popular services, based on our internal data, taking into account other factors including strategic considerations. For a description of our revenue recognition policy, see “— Critical Accounting Policies.”

 

The billing policies of the PRC telecommunications operators have historically had a significant impact on our WVAS revenues. In particular, China Mobile and its provincial subsidiaries have been implementing a series of policies designed to improve customer service and satisfaction. These policies include:

 

·not recognizing revenues to us and other service providers for MMS messages that cannot be delivered because of network or handset problems;

 

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·canceling monthly subscriptions of customers who have not accessed their WVAS subscriptions for a certain period of time;

 

·implementing more complicated procedures for customers to confirm new subscriptions to certain WVAS; and

 

·removing from subscriber lists those customers who fail to pay China Mobile or the provincial subsidiaries, or who cannot be billed because they use pre-paid telecommunications service cards.

 

Additional measures implemented by China Mobile with respect to the billing of customers of WVAS on its network that have had a significant impact on our financial condition and results of operations include:

 

·for any new monthly subscriptions to WVAS, China Mobile sends customers two reminder notices prior to charging monthly subscription fees in the customers’ monthly mobile phone bills, and customers must confirm twice, once in response to each reminder, that they wish to subscribe to those services on a monthly basis; previously, China Mobile sent one reminder notice immediately after a monthly subscription order was placed, and customers needed to confirm only once;

 

·customers enjoy a free trial period of 11 to 41 days, depending on the day of the month on which they place their monthly subscriptions; previously, customers enjoyed a free trial period of three to 11 days; and

 

·China Mobile cancels WAP monthly subscriptions that have not been active for more than four months.

 

The other PRC telecommunications operators have also implemented new policies requiring double confirmation of monthly subscriptions, and China Mobile sends notices of transmission fees to be incurred by using GPRS to the handsets of its customers when those customers launched their browsers, which discouraged some customers from purchasing our WAP products.

 

In addition, China Mobile has been implementing a series of measures targeted at further improving the user experience for mobile handset embedded services, in addition to the introduction of a new SMS code management system. Under these measures, WVAS that are embedded in handsets will be required to introduce additional notices and confirmations to end-consumers during the purchase of such services. In addition, services related to SMS short codes will be required to be more tailored to the specific service offerings or service partners. Previously, a single SMS code could be used for multiple service offerings or partners.

 

For a description of risks related to significant changes in the billing and service provider policies of the telecommunications operators, see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — Significant changes in the policies or guidelines of China Mobile or other PRC telecommunications operators with respect to services provided by us could result in lower revenues or additional costs for us and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.”

 

Our WVAS revenues were US$63.0 million, US$64.5 million and US$49.4 million in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. The decrease of our WVAS revenues also reflects the decreased reliance by telecommunications operators on products of third party services providers such as our company, to generate revenues as well as their increased emphasis on data transmission to generate revenues. We believe such trends are likely to continue in the near future.

 

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Cost of Revenues

 

Our cost of revenues includes Internet games cost of revenues, mobile games cost of revenues and WVAS cost of revenues.

 

Internet Games Cost of Revenues

 

Our Internet games cost of revenues consists mainly of revenue sharing paid to third party Internet game licensors, labor costs, warrant amortization, bandwidth leasing charges, depreciation and facility costs relating to equipment used to provide Internet games services. Total Internet games cost of revenues in 2013, 2014 and 2015 was US$45.5 million, US$61.4 million and US$87.6 million (including the recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets), respectively. As a percentage of our Internet games cost of revenues, revenue sharing paid to third party Internet game licensors accounted for 86.2%, 84.2% and 85.6% in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. The increase in Internet games cost of revenues (including the recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets) in 2015 was primarily due to our recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets of US$35.21 million which is equal to the full carrying amount on intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2. If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million, our Internet games cost of revenues would have decreased by 14.7% to US$52.4 million from US$61.4 million in 2014 due to the fact that the associated amortization charge of our further operation of Guild Wars 2 is not recorded as cost of revenue after our recognition of the impairment. If excluding the effect of impairment loss and including the subsequent increase in the associated amortization charge of the game license by the amount of US$9.60 million for year 2015, our Internet games cost of revenues would have increased by 0.9% to US$62.0 million in 2015 from US$61.4 million in 2014 primarily due to increase in shared revenues paid to third party Internet games licensors relating to World of Tanks and World of Warships. We began acquiring licenses to operate Internet games from other Internet games developers in 2011, as part of our plan to grow our portfolio of licensed Internet games that complement our internally developed games. We expect our Internet games cost of revenues in connection with World of Tanks and World of Warships to increase in 2016. Given our recognition of impairment loss related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2 in 2015, the associated amortization charge for Guild Wars 2 will be zero in 2016.

 

Mobile Games Cost of Revenues

 

For carrier billing channel mobile games, our cost of revenues consists mainly of server trustee fee, testing fee and fees paid to telecommunication operators. For non-carrier billing channel mobile games, our cost of revenues consists mainly of revenue sharing with channel partners and license fees. Total carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues decreased by 39.4% from US$10.3 million in 2014 to US$6.2 million in 2015. This decrease in cost of revenues is largely as a result of the decrease in fees paid to telecommunications operators in the PRC. Total non-carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues decreased from US$12.7 million in 2014 to US$8.5 million in 2015. This decrease of cost of revenues is largely as a result of the decrease in revenue sharing with third party Internet games licensors and channel partners.

 

We expect our mobile games cost of revenues to increase as a percentage of our total mobile game revenue in 2016 as a result of additional fees paid for non-carrier distribution channels as well as increased licenses fees and revenue sharing in connection with licensed mobile games. We further expect our mobile games cost of revenues to correspondingly increase as a result of higher sales of our internally developed non-carrier billing channel mobile games, which we plan to distribute through digital distribution platforms, such as app stores developed by smartphone handset manufacturers.

 

We intend to develop internally our mobile games, which generally have higher profit margin. However, in order to expand our mobile games business and increase our market share, we also plan to actively identify quality mobile games to be acquired or licensed from third parties, which generally have lower profit margins.

 

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WVAS Cost of Revenues

 

Our WVAS cost of revenues includes the following:

 

·Service fees payable by us to the telecommunications operators. In the case of China Mobile and its subsidiaries, service fees are generally 15% to 60% of the revenues, while in the case of China Unicom and China Telecom, service fees are in the range of 15% to 70%, varying according to the service platform. We are not obligated to pay the service fees to the telecommunications operators if customers cannot be billed or do not pay the telecommunications operators;

 

·Net transmission charges payable by us to the telecommunications operators, calculated as the number of messages we send to customers in any given month, minus the number of messages we receive from customers regarding our services in that month, and multiplied by a per-message transmission fee. We are obligated to pay the telecommunications operators the net transmission charges even if customers cannot be billed or do not pay the telecommunications operators;

 

·Payments to content providers for the use of their content, and to mobile handset manufacturers and other industry partners with whom we have cooperation arrangements, in the form of a fixed fee or a percentage of our aggregate net revenues received from the telecommunications operators with respect to services provided through the cooperation arrangements;

 

·Bandwidth leasing charges and depreciation and facility costs relating to equipment used to provide WVAS; and

 

·Depreciation and facility maintenance.

 

Our total WVAS cost of revenues in 2013, 2014 and 2015 was US$43.1 million, US$44.9 million and US$37.0 million, respectively. As a percentage of our WVAS revenues, our WVAS cost of revenues in 2013, 2014 and 2015 was 68.4%, 69.6% and 74.9%, respectively. In 2015, as a percentage of our WVAS cost of revenues, service fees to the telecommunications operators represented approximately 24.9%, net transmission charges to the telecommunications operators represented approximately 2.7%, payments to content providers represented approximately 9.7%, payments to other cooperation partners represented approximately 32.5% and bandwidth leasing charges, depreciation and other facility costs represented approximately 5.1%.

 

Our WVAS cost of revenues decreased in 2015 principally as a result of the decrease in service fees we paid to the telecommunications operators due to the decrease of our WVAS revenues.

 

As part of our business strategy, we expect to continue to pursue more cooperation arrangements with business partners, such as handset manufacturers, because these arrangements make it easier for customers to access our products and services and are a cost-effective way to increase our market share as compared to traditional advertising. However, as we generally pay higher rates of service fees, in terms of percentages of revenues generated from cooperation arrangements, to such business partners than those paid to telecommunications operators, this strategy may result in a decrease in our gross profit margin.

 

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Operating Expenses

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
   Amount   Percentage of
revenues
   Amount   Percentage
of revenues
 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages) 
Product development  US$26,401.7    15.2%  US$25,107.4    11.0%  US$24,189.6    13.5%
Selling and marketing   26,674.0    15.3    42,522.7    18.7    25,890.5    14.5 
General and administrative   8,976.2    5.2    12,564.6    5.5    13,484.2    7.5 
Goodwill and intangible assets impairment loss   1,562.4    0.9    1,323.3    0.6    -    - 
Total  US$63,614.3    36.6%  US$81,518.0    35.8%  US$63,564.3    35.5%

 

Product Development Expenses

 

Our product development expenses consist primarily of compensation and benefits for our product and development team. Our product development expenses in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were US$26.4 million, US$25.1 million and US$24.2 million, respectively. We expect our product development expenses to increase in 2016, as we expand our offerings in Internet games and mobile games.

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses

 

Our sales and marketing expenses consist mainly of expenses associated with sponsoring promotional events and compensation and benefits for our sales, marketing and customer service teams. Our sales and marketing expenses in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were US$26.7 million, US$42.5 million and US$25.9 million, respectively. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in 2016, as we plan to continue promoting our Internet and mobile games and launching several licensed mobile games in 2016.

 

General and Administrative Expense

 

Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation and benefits for general management, finance and administrative personnel, professional fees and other office expenses. Our general and administrative expenses in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were US$9.0 million, US$12.6 million and US$13.5 million, respectively. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in 2016 as we may incur more expenses relating to employee compensation and other administrative and professional fees.

 

Impairment of Goodwill and Intangibles

 

In the annual goodwill impairment test conducted in December 2013, 2014 and 2015, the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value. As a result, no goodwill impairment was recorded in 2013, 2014 or 2015.

 

As a result of the unsatisfactory performance and uncertainty in the localization development of certain Internet games, the carrying amount of the relevant Internet game licenses we possessed in 2014 and 2015 exceeded the sum of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of such licenses. Accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of US$1.32 million and US$35.21 million, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. We recognized the impairment loss of US$35.21 million in 2015 due to the decline in revenues generated from Guild Wars 2 from US$17.70 million for the six-month period ended December 31, 2014 to US$4.02 million for the six-month period ended June 30, 2015, resulting from the delay of the release of an expansion pack in 2015. Such delay and subsequent revenue decline were not expected as of December 31, 2014. As our assessment as of June 30, 2015, the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of the intangible assets related to the game license for Guild Wars 2 would be insignificant, we recorded the impairment loss which was equal to the full carrying amount on intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Internet Games Business.”

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

The methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on the results we report in our financial statements. Some of our accounting policies require us to make difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Set forth below is a summary of our accounting policies that we believe are both important to the portrayal of our financial results and require us to make estimates and adjustments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Our critical accounting policies generally require us to make estimates or judgments that are difficult or subjective.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Internet Games Revenues

 

We derive Internet games revenues primarily from Internet games operation revenues and licensing revenues. Normally, we earn Internet games operation revenues through providing Internet games services to players under an item-based revenue model, whereby players are able to play the Internet games free of charge for an unlimited amount of time, but are charged for purchasing in-game items, such as in-game performance-enhancing items, mechanized vehicles, clothing, accessories and pets. For Guild Wars 2, where the players need to pay an initial fee to access the games, we recognize the revenue from such initial access fees ratably throughout the estimated lives of the players in the games. Revenues from the sales of in-game items are recognized when the items are consumed by customers or over the estimated lives of the items.

 

The revenue recognition policy for the item-based games relies on the useful lives of various items associated with each of our item-based games. The in-game items have different life patterns: one-time use items, limited life items with useful life ranging from three days to 90 days and permanent life items. To determine whether an in-game item has a limited or permanent life, we consider whether such in-game items are offered with unlimited lasting benefit, which means that players may use such in-game items at will without any usage or time limits as long as such players are active. Limited life in-game items have usage or time limits while permanent life in-game items offer unlimited lasting benefit to the players. Revenues from the sales of one-time use in-game items are recognized upon consumption. Revenues from the sales of limited life in-game items are recognized ratably based on the extent of time passed until expiration. Revenues from the sales of permanent life in-game items are recognized ratably based on the estimated lives of the in-game items, which is the period during which the player is expected to continue to play the game. Revenue from initial fees for accessing the games is recognized ratably throughout the period during which the players are expected to play the game.

 

We take into account paying player behavior patterns in estimating the lives of permanent life in-game items, including the average period that the typical player plays our games based on log-on data, which are affected by various factors such as acceptance and popularity of the game, game updates and other in-game items, promotional events launched, future operating strategies and market conditions. Based on the above considerations for all active games, we have determined the estimated life for all permanent life in-game items is six months. We review, at least annually, the average playing periods of game players for all active games to determine if the six-month estimated life for permanent in-game items remains reasonable. Based on our latest review, such estimated life remains reasonable and has not changed over time. We revise our estimates as we continue to collect operating data and refine our estimation process and results accordingly. All paying users’ data collected since the launch of the games are used to perform the relevant assessments. Historical behavior patterns of these paying users during the period between their first log-on date and last log-on date are used to estimate the lives of the permanent life in-game items.

 

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Under the item-based revenue model, proceeds received from sales of game points to players, which can be converted into in-game currencies to purchase in-game items, are initially recorded as advances from customers as game points are refundable. As players convert game points into in-game currencies, proceeds received from sales of those game points are transferred from advances from customers to deferred revenues. Deferred revenues are recognized as revenues when in-game items purchased with in-game currencies are consumed by players over the estimated lives of such items. In addition to game points that we sell and distribute, we distribute and sell a portion of our game points through third party vendors. As we do not have control over and generally do not know the ultimate selling price of game points sold by third party vendors, net proceeds from sales of game points by vendors are recorded as advances from customers. These net proceeds are converted to deferred revenues and recognized as revenues in the same way we convert and recognize revenues as discussed in this paragraph.

 

We evaluate our cooperation arrangements with Wargaming Ltd and ArenaNet to determine whether to recognize our revenues of the World of Tanks, World of Warships, World of Warplane and Guild Wars 2 on a gross or net basis. Our determination is based upon an assessment of whether we act as principal or agent when providing our services. We have concluded that we act as principal in the arrangement. Factors that support our conclusion mainly include:

 

·we, instead of Wargaming Ltd and ArenaNet, are the primary obligor in the arrangement because we are responsible for the fulfillment and acceptability of the game;

 

·we have the sole latitude in establishing price;

 

·we are involved in designing the changes to the content of the game; and

 

·we are involved in the determination of content specifications of the game.

 

Based on these factors, we believe that recognizing our revenues of the World of Tanks, World of Warships, World of Warplanes and Guild Wars 2 on a gross basis is appropriate.

 

Mobile Games Revenues

 

The mobile games revenues consist of mobile games revenues from carrier billing channels and non-carrier billing channels. We recognize mobile games revenues from carrier billing channels for mobile games services provided on the platforms of PRC telecommunications operators. Mobile phone users download the mobile games in the same manner as they download WVAS, and we recognize revenues from such carrier billing channel mobile games services in the same way as we recognize WVAS revenues. Mobile phone users could also download games on Android platforms and we recognize revenues from such services in the same way as we recognize revenues from non-carrier billing channels. We recognize mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channels for mobile games services provided on platforms such as global Android and iOS platforms. Mobile phone users download the mobile games on Android and iOS platforms. We adopt the item-based revenue model. The basic game play functions are free of charge, and players are charged for purchases of in-game items.

 

We record revenue generated from self-developed mobile games on a gross basis as we are acting as the principal and the primary obligor to end-users for the games distributed through digital storefronts. The principal agent consideration is based on an assessment of various factors, including but not limited to whether we (i) are the primary obligor in the arrangement; (ii) have latitude in establishing the selling price; (iii) change the product or perform part of the service and (iv) have involvement in the determination of product and service specifications.

 

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WVAS Revenues

 

Our revenues are primarily derived from providing wireless interactive entertainment, media and community value-added services to customers of the PRC telecommunications operators. The fees for these services are determined by us in consultation with the telecommunications operators, are charged on a single-transaction basis or on a monthly subscription basis, and vary according to the type of services delivered.

 

We deliver WVAS to users through the networks of the telecommunications operators, and we rely upon the telecommunications operators to provide us with billing and collection services. We record revenues based on monthly statements from the telecommunications operators confirming the value of our services that they billed to users in the month. China Mobile and its provincial subsidiaries typically send such statements within 30 days after the end of each month.

 

The billing and collection cycles of China Unicom, China Telecom, China Netcom and their respective subsidiaries are generally longer than those of China Mobile. As a general matter, we receive statements from China Unicom within 120 days after the end of each month, and within 70 days after the end of each month from China Telecom and China Netcom. We cannot assure you that the length of the billing cycle will not increase further in the future.

 

Due to our past experience with the timing of receipt of the monthly statements from the operators, we expect that we may need to rely on our own internal estimates for the portion of our reported revenues and cost of revenues for which we will not have received monthly statements. In such an instance, our internal estimates would be based on our own internal data of expected revenues and related fees from services provided. As a result of reliance on our internal estimates, we may overstate or understate our revenues and cost of revenues for the relevant reporting period. Our internal estimates of revenues and cost of revenues for any period are subsequently adjusted in our financial reports when we actually receive the monthly statements for such period.

 

In 2014 and 2015, estimated revenues generally accounted for less than 5% of our reported quarterly revenues and less than 5% of our reported annual revenues. Our estimates are based on:

 

·our internal data management system;

 

·our past experience; and

 

·our verbal communications with the telecommunications operators.

 

We internally tabulate the value of a WVAS that we have provided based in part on service delivery confirmations sent to us by the PRC telecommunications operators. There has historically been a discrepancy between the value that we estimate and the value that we are entitled to receive based on the monthly statements provided by the telecommunications operators. This discrepancy varies across different technology platforms and arises for various reasons, including the following:

 

·Late notification of delinquent customers. The telecommunications operators may from time to time classify certain customers as delinquent customers for non-payment of services. The telecommunications operators would request all service providers to cease delivering services to customers once they are classified as delinquent. However, time lags often exist between when a customer is classified as delinquent and when we receive such information from the telecommunications operators. As a result, we occasionally provide services to these delinquent customers for which the telecommunications operators will not make any payments to us.

 

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·Customer database out of synchronization. Customers may cancel their subscriptions through the telecommunications operators. Although we synchronize the customer information databases of the telecommunications operators with our databases on an ongoing basis, the databases are not always completely in synchronization. As a result, until our databases are synchronized with those of the telecommunications operators, we could provide services to customers who have cancelled their subscriptions, for which we are not entitled to receive payment.

 

·Duplicate billing. China Mobile typically generates system identification numbers to identify customers who use our WAP services, rather than using the actual mobile phone numbers. As a result, the platform operators may on occasion inadvertently generate multiple identification numbers for a mobile phone number. In such a case, the multiple bills generated need to be eliminated from the monthly statement the telecommunications operators provide to us.

 

·Delivery failure. When telecommunications operators send us delivery confirmations within 72 hours of our delivery of value-added services, the confirmations will indicate three possible outcomes: success, failure or unknown. Our internal system recognizes successful confirmations as services provided. As a result, discrepancies may exist between our records and the monthly statement provided by the telecommunications operators for confirmations marked as “unknown” where our services were successfully delivered or where the confirmation was incorrect.

 

The telecommunications operators remit to us amounts net of an allowance they have made for the doubtful debts in respect of the amounts due to us from our customers. They also net their fees for the services they provide to us, including billing and collection services, and net transmission charges from their remittances to us. Certain telecommunications operators do not provide an itemized analysis of their remittances, and as a result we are unable to determine what allowance, if any, for doubtful or bad debts should be recorded for our services delivered through such telecommunications operators. Accordingly, recognition of revenues is based upon the gross amounts reported on the telecommunications operators’ monthly statements to us, which are net of doubtful debts.

 

Due to the factors set forth above, we would multiply our internal tabulation of expected revenues from telecommunications operators from whom we have not received monthly statements by a realization factor applicable to the relevant telecommunications operator and service and determined according to the average discrepancy over the previous 12 months between our internal tabulations of expected revenues and the actual revenues based on the monthly statements. In addition, we also seek to verify the estimated revenues through discussions with the billing personnel of the telecommunications operators, although we cannot assure that we would be able to reduce the discrepancy between our revenue estimates and the revenues calculated by telecommunications operators and their subsidiaries.

 

In 2015, the average time from our receipt of statements from the telecommunication operators until they paid us the amounts due under such statements was approximately 60 days. We cannot assure you that our period to collect accounts receivables will not increase in the future.

 

We evaluate our cooperation arrangements with the telecommunications operators to determine whether to recognize our revenues on a gross basis or net of the service fees and net transmission charges paid to the telecommunications operators. Our determination is based upon an assessment of whether we act as a principal or agent when providing our services. We have concluded that we act as principal in the arrangement. Factors that support our conclusion mainly include:

 

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·we are the primary obligor in the arrangement;

 

·we are able to establish prices within price caps prescribed by the telecommunications operators to reflect or react to changes in the market;

 

·we determine the service specifications of the services we will be rendering;

 

·we are able to control the selection of our content suppliers; and

 

·the telecommunications operators usually will not pay us if users cannot be billed or if users do not pay the telecommunications operators for services delivered and, as a result, we bear the delivery and billing risks for the revenues generated with respect to our services.

 

Based on these factors, we believe that recognizing revenues on a gross basis is appropriate. However, as noted above, our reported revenues are net of bad debt charges that have been deducted by the telecommunications operators.

 

Share-based Compensation Expense

 

Our share-based employee compensation plans are described in more detail under “Item 6 — Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Share Options.” Share-based compensation to employees is measured based on the fair value of the equity instrument on its grant date. We recognize these compensation costs net of a forfeiture rate on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally the vesting period of the award. The forfeiture rate is estimated based on historical forfeiture data and will be adjusted over the requisite service period to the extent that actual forfeitures differ, or are expected to differ, from such estimates. Changes in estimated forfeitures will be recognized through a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period of change, which will impact the amount of share-based compensation expense to be recognized in future periods.

 

We adopted valuation models to determine the fair value of equity awards granted, which is generally expensed over the vesting period. Significant judgment on parameters, such as the estimated volatility of the underlying ordinary shares, is required to be made by our management in applying the models.

 

Capitalization and Impairment of Intangibles Related to Game Licenses

 

We purchased game licenses from both China and overseas game developers in 2013, 2014 and 2015. The consideration for these game licenses include cash, warrants exercisable into our ordinary shares and royalty payments. We capitalize the consideration for these game licenses and recorded the assets as definite life intangible assets at the fair value of the total consideration on the relevant transaction dates. We have estimated that the useful life of the intangible assets related to these game licenses is three years based on the useful life of other games that we have launched historically. We amortize the intangible assets over the useful life of three years starting from the commercial launch date of the game.

 

For purposes of recognition and measurement of an impairment loss, each intangible asset is considered the lowest level asset group that generates identifiable independent cash flows. As a result of the unsatisfactory performance of certain Internet games and uncertainty in the localization development of some other Internet games, the carrying amount of the relevant Internet game licenses we possessed in 2014 and 2015 exceeded the sum of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of such licenses. Accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of US$1.32 million and US$35.21 million, respectively, in 2014 and 2015, which were reported in impairment loss of intangible assets. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Internet Games Business” and “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Expenses — Impairment of Goodwill and Intangibles.”

 

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Net loans receivable

 

Loans receivable primarily represent loan balances that the management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff. Loans receivable are recorded at unpaid principal balances, net of unearned income and allowance that reflects our best estimate of the amounts that will not be collected.

 

Allowance for loan losses

 

The allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level considered adequate to provide for losses that can be reasonably anticipated. We perform an evaluation of the adequacy of the allowance based on our assessment of adverse situations that may affect the borrower’s ability to repay, current economic conditions and other relevant factors. This evaluation is inherently subjective as it requires material estimates that may be susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available. We did not record any allowance for loan losses in 2015.

 

Long-Term Investments

 

Our long-term investments consist of cost method investments, equity method investments and available-for-sale securities.

 

We review our cost method investments for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that an other-than-temporary decline has occurred. An impairment loss is recognized in earnings equal to the amount of the investment’s carrying amount in excess of its fair value at the assessment date. The fair value of the investment would then become the new cost basis of the investment. In view of the declines of fair value below the carrying cost of certain cost method investments, we performed an evaluation to determine whether any of the declines were other-than-temporary. We recognized US$2 million in impairment losses on cost method investments in each of 2013 and 2014, primarily attributable to the cost method investments having been in a continuous loss-making position and failing to generate profit as contemplated at the time of our investments. We did not recognize any impairment losses in 2015.

 

Our equity investments are initially recorded at cost and adjusted for our share of undistributed earnings or losses of the investee. When our carrying value in an equity method investee is reduced to zero, no further losses are recorded in our consolidated financial statements unless we guarantee obligations of the investee company, have committed additional funding or make additional financial support including loans and advances. When we need to share further losses, we recognize such further losses based on the ownership level of the particular loan or advance held by us to which the relevant losses are being applied. When the investee company subsequently reports income, we do not record its share of such income until it exceeds the amount of its share of losses not previously recognized. An equity method investment is written down to fair value if there is evidence of a loss in value which is other than temporary. We may estimate the fair value of its equity method investments by considering factors such as recent investee equity transactions, discounted cash flow analysis, and recent operating results. We recorded a total loss of US$0.6 million for equity method investments in 2015.

 

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Our available-for-sale securities comprise of debt and equity securities which are reported at fair value. We measure the fair value of investment in convertible redeemable preferred shares of Blue Mobile and purchased capital of Ruilan based on a valuation which utilizes market approach to determine the equity value and the options-pricing method to determine the allocated values between preferred shares and common shares. The significant unobservable inputs include the market multiple estimated based on stock prices and price to sales ratios of comparable companies in the same industry. We measure the fair value of investment in convertible redeemable preferred shares of Cream Soft based on a valuation which utilizes the income approach to determine the relevant equity value and options-pricing method to determine the allocated value to preferred shares. The significant unobservable inputs include the forecast financial performance of the investee business and discount rate to determine the fair value of the business. We review our investments in available-for-sale securities for other-than-temporary impairment based on the specific identification method. We consider available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of the investment. If the cost of an investment exceeds the investment’s fair value, we consider, among other factors, general market conditions, government economic plans, the duration and the extent to which the fair value of the investment is less than the cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment in determining if impairment is needed. We recorded a total of US$0.4 million unrealized gains for available-for-sale securities in 2015.

 

Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities

 

The applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations currently restrict foreign ownership of business entities providing value-added telecommunications services which include Internet content services, or operating Internet games, mobile games and WVAS in the PRC. To comply with these laws, rules and regulations, we conduct substantially all of our business through our variable interest entities and their subsidiaries. We have, through two of our wholly-owned subsidiaries in the PRC, entered into contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli, BJXR and Dacheng, such that these entities are considered as our variable interest entities and we are considered as their primary beneficiary. As advised by our PRC counsel, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, the terms of each agreement under the contractual arrangements are currently exercisable and legally enforceable under the applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations. More specifically, we believe that, subject to compliance with applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, we have the sole discretion under the contractual arrangements to designate and/or replace the shareholders, directors and senior management of these entities. As a result, we believe this gives us the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of these entities and their subsidiaries. We believe that we also have the right to receive substantially all of the economic benefits from these entities and their subsidiaries. Accordingly, as the primary beneficiary of these entities and in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we consolidate financial results and assets and liabilities of these variable interest entities into our consolidated financial statements.

 

We note that the PRC laws, rules and regulations governing the validity of the contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities are uncertain and the relevant government authorities may have broad discretion in interpreting these laws, rules and regulations. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure—Our business and operations could be significantly disrupted, and we could be subject to sanctions, if the contractual arrangements between us and our consolidated variable interest entities that we depend on for operating our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS are found to be non-compliant with applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations.” and “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — Our contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership of these businesses and may be difficult to enforce.” and “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — The shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may substantially disrupt our business.”

 

Goodwill

 

The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded on our consolidated balance sheet as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired, such as a significant change in the prices of our ADSs. We perform our annual goodwill impairment test on December 31 of each fiscal year for all reporting units. Goodwill is tested following a two-step process. The first step compares the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of each reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered to be impaired and the second step will not be required. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step compares the implied fair value of goodwill to the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill. The implied fair value of goodwill is calculated in the same manner that goodwill is calculated in a business combination, whereby the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit, with the excess purchase price over the amounts assigned to assets and liability representing the implied fair value of goodwill. An impairment loss is recognized for any excess in the carrying value of goodwill over the implied fair value of goodwill.

 

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As of December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015, we had three reporting units: Internet games, mobile games and WVAS.

 

We estimate the fair value of our reporting units using the income approach valuation, which includes the discounted cash flow method, taking into consideration the market approach and certain market multiples as a validation of the values derived using the discounted cash flow methodology. The discounted cash flows for each reporting unit are based on discrete five-year financial forecasts developed by our management for planning purposes. Cash flows beyond the forecasted period and discrete forecasts are estimated using a terminal value calculation, which incorporates historical and forecasted financial trends for each reporting unit and considers long-term earnings growth rates for publicly traded peer companies. Publicly available information with respect to the market capitalization of our company is also considered in assessing the reasonableness of the aggregate fair value of our reporting units, estimated using the discounted cash flow methodology. No goodwill impairment was recorded in 2013, 2014 or 2015.

 

The following table sets forth the details of the goodwill impairment test as of December 31, 2015.

 

   Internet Games   Mobile Games   WVAS 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages) 
Estimated fair value   308,149.6    52,513.2    40,655.4 
Carrying value net   228,098.2    46,610.0    37,052.8 
Percentage by which the fair value exceed or (below) the carrying value   35.1%   12.7%   9.7%
The carrying value of goodwill   63,177.0    19,650.7    1,942.3 

 

The principal assumptions made by management in determining goodwill impairment as of December 31, 2015 include the following:

 

·cash flow discount rates of 27%, 26% and 26% and terminal value growth rates of 3%, 3% and 1% were used for the Internet games, mobile games and WVAS units, respectively as of December 31, 2015;

 

·there will be no major changes in existing political, legal, fiscal and economic conditions in the PRC;

 

·except for the new enterprise income tax law that took effect on January 1, 2008, there will be no major changes in the current tax law of the PRC, and all applicable laws and regulations will be complied with;

 

·exchange rates and interest rates will not differ materially from those presently prevailing;

 

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·each reporting unit will retain and have competent management, key personnel, and technical staff to support its ongoing operations;

 

·the availability of financing will not be a constraint on the forecasted growth of operations; and

 

·industry trends and market conditions for related industries will not deviate significantly from economic forecasts.

 

As of December 31, 2015, the estimated fair value of our Internet games reporting unit substantially exceeded its carrying value by 35.1%. The fair values of our mobile games and WVAS reporting units exceeded their carrying values by 12.7% and 9.7%, respectively. We also performed a sensitivity analysis on the financial results of all of the reporting units. If the discount rate were to increase by 5% of the existing rate or the projected revenue growth rate for 2016 were to decrease by 5% of the existing rate, the fair value of each reporting unit is expected to continue to be higher than the carrying value of the respective reporting unit.

 

Due to the uncertainty of our future growth and the assumptions used to estimate goodwill recoverability in our reporting units, our management’s financial forecasts for each reporting unit may change significantly in the future, which could have a material negative impact on the discounted cash flows derived from such financial forecasts. Decreases in the discounted cash flows of a reporting unit, which could result from uncertainties with respect to the number of new games successfully launched, the timeliness, acceptance and popularity of expansion packs, promotional events launched, market conditions of our major games, the success of our recent pivot to concentrate mobile game development and licensing towards primarily military genre mobile games and other factors, could cause a material impairment of goodwill of such reporting unit.

 

Please see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — If our goodwill becomes impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to our earnings.”

 

Income Taxes

 

As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This process involves estimating our actual current tax exposure together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheet. We must then assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and, to the extent we believe that recovery is not likely, we must establish a valuation allowance. To the extent we establish a valuation allowance or increase this allowance in a certain period, we must include an expense within the tax provision in the statement of operations.

 

Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our deferred tax assets. The valuation allowance is based on our estimates of taxable income by jurisdiction in which we operate and the period over which our deferred tax assets will be recoverable. In the event that actual results differ from these estimates or we adjust these estimates in future periods, we may need to establish an additional valuation allowance, which could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return is recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant tax authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Interest and penalties on income taxes will be classified as a component of the provisions for income taxes. We have concluded that there were no significant uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015. We did not incur any interest and penalties related to potential underpaid income tax expenses and also do not anticipate any significant increases or decreases in unrecognized tax benefits in the next 12 months. However, taxes relating to 2013 to 2015 remain subject to examination by the PRC tax authorities.

 

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Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

 

In April 2014, the FASB issued a new pronouncement which amends the criteria for reporting discontinued operations while enhancing disclosures in this area. It also addresses sources of confusion and inconsistent application related to financial reporting of discontinued operations guidance in U.S. GAAP.

 

Under the new guidance, only disposals representing a strategic shift in operations should be presented as discontinued operations. Those strategic shifts should have a major effect on the organization's operations and financial results. Examples include a disposal of a major geographic area, a major line of business, or a major equity method investment.

 

In addition, the new guidance requires expanded disclosures about discontinued operations that will provide financial statement users with more information about the assets, liabilities, income, and expenses of discontinued operations.

 

The new guidance also requires disclosure of the pre-tax income attributable to a disposal of a significant part of an organization that does not qualify for discontinued operations reporting. This disclosure will provide information about the ongoing trends in a reporting organization's results from continuing operations. The amendments in the ASU were effective in the first quarter of 2015 for public organizations with calendar year ends. The adoption of this guidance does not have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

 

In August 2015, the FASB issued a new pronouncement, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date. The amendments in this ASU defer the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year. ASU 2014-09 outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance for all entities. Public business entities should apply the guidance in ASU 2014-09 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. Earlier application is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements of adopting this guidance.

 

In September 2015, the FASB issued a new pronouncement, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments. To simplify the accounting for adjustments made to provisional amounts recognized in a business combination, the amendments eliminate the requirement to retrospectively account for those adjustments.

 

Under this ASU, an acquirer must recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. The ASU also requires acquirers to present separately on the face of the income statement, or disclose in the notes, the portion of the amount recorded in current-period earnings by line item that would have been recorded in previous reporting periods if the adjustment to the provisional amounts had been recognized as of the acquisition date.

 

For public business entities, the ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The ASU must be applied prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date. Early adoption is permitted for financial statements that have not been issued. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a significant effect on its consolidated financial statements.

 

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In November 2015, the FASB issued a new pronouncement which changes how deferred taxes are classified on organizations’ balance sheets.

 

The ASU eliminates the current requirement for organizations to present deferred tax liabilities and assets as current and noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. Instead, organizations will be required to classify all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent.

 

The amendments apply to all organizations that present a classified balance sheet. For public companies, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Earlier application is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a significant effect on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In January 2016, the FASB issued a new pronouncement which is intended to improve the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. The ASU affects public and private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans that hold financial assets or owe financial liabilities.

 

The new guidance makes targeted improvements to existing U.S. GAAP by:

 

·Requiring equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income;
·Requiring public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes;
·Requiring separate presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset (i.e., securities or loans and receivables) on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements;
·Eliminating the requirement to disclose the fair value of financial instruments measured at amortized cost for organizations that are not public business entities;
·Eliminating the requirement for public business entities to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet; and
·Requiring a reporting organization to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk (also referred to as “own credit”) when the organization has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments.

 

The new guidance is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The new guidance permits early adoption of the own credit provision. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a significant effect on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The guidance supersedes existing guidance on accounting for leases with the main difference being that operating leases are to be recorded in the statement of financial position as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments. For operating leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election not to recognize lease assets and liabilities. For public business entities, the guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application of the guidance is permitted. In transition, entities are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements of adopting this guidance.

 

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Results of Operations

 

Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015

 

The following table sets forth certain data from our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated. This information should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   Amount   Percentage of
revenues
   Amount   Percentage of
revenues
   Amount   Percentage of
revenues
 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages) 
Revenues                              
Internet games  $93,792.3    54.0%  $118,099.8    51.9%  $105,045.3    58.6%
Mobile games   16,908.3    9.7    45,036.4    19.8    24,646.6    13.8 
WVAS   62,953.2    36.3    64,459.7    28.3    49,421.5    27.6 
Total net revenues   173,653.8    100.0%   227,595.9    100.0%   179,113.4    100.0%
                               
Cost of revenues                              
Internet games   (45,283.8)   (26.1)%   (61.443.1)   (27.0)%   (52,368.8)   (29.2)%
Mobile games   (7,780.3)   (4.5)   (22,977.3)   (10.1)   (14,776.6)   (8.2)
WVAS   (43,085.2)   (24.8)   (44,858.6)   (19.7)   (37,007.2)   (20.7)
Impairment loss on intangible assets (1)   (250.6)   (0.1)           (35,209.9)   (19.7)
Total cost of revenues   (96,399.9)   (55.5)%   (129,279.0)   (56.8)%   (139,362.5)   (77.8)%
                               
Gross profit                              
Internet games   48,508.5    27.9%   56,656.7    24.9%   52,676.5    29.4%
Mobile games   9,128.0    5.3    22,059.1    9.7    9,870.0    5.5 
WVAS   19,868.0    11.4    19,601.1    8.6    12,414.3    7.0 
Impairment loss on intangible assets (2)   (250.6)   (0.1)           (35,209.9)   (19.7)
Total gross profit   77,253.9    44.5%   98,316.9    43.2%   39,750.9    22.2%
                               
Operating expenses:                              
Product development   (26,401.7)   (15.2)%   (25,107.4)   (11.0)%   (24,189.6)   (13.5)%
Selling and marketing   (26,674.0)   (15.3)   (42,522.7)   (18.7)   (25,890.5)   (14.5)
General and administrative   (8,976.2)   (5.2)   (12,564.6)   (5.5)   (13,484.2)   (7.5)
Impairment loss on goodwill                        
Impairment loss on intangible assets   (1,562.4)   (0.9)   (1,323.3)   (0.6)        
Total operating expenses   (63,614.3)   (36.6)%   (81,518.0)   (35.8)%   (63,564.3)   (35.5)%
                               
Government subsidies   2,176.4    1.2%   1,138.9    0.5%   1,573.6    0.9%
Income (loss) from operations   15,816.0    9.1    17,937.8    7.9    (22,239.8)   (12.4)
Interest income  $6,764.0    3.9   $8,864.7    3.9   $5,382.0    3.0 
Interest income from loans to third parties                   1,514.2    0.8 
Interest income from loans to related party                   1,078.8    0.6 
Interest expense   (693.3)   (0.4)   (895.0)   (0.4)   (884.0)   (0.5)
Impairment loss on cost method investment   (2,000.0)   (1.1)   (2,000.0)   (0.9)        
Exchange gain (loss)   1,487.3    0.9%   (271.6)   (0.1)   (802.7)   (0.5)
Gain on sale of available-for-sale securities                   536.0    0.3 
Dividend received                   628.4    0.4 
Net income (loss) before income tax expense and loss in equity method investments   21,374.0    12.3%   23,635.9    10.4%   (14,787.1)   (8.3)%
Income taxes expense   (712.4)   (0.4)   (1,048.0)   (0.5)   (796.9)   (0.4)
Loss in equity method investments                   (642.7)   (0.4)
Net income (loss)  $20,661.6    11.9%  $22,587.9    9.9%  $(16,226.7)   (9.1)%

 

 

(1)Prior period information is presented in a manner that is consistent with the current period segment reporting.

  

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(2)Prior period information is presented in a manner that is consistent with the current period segment reporting.

 

Year ended December 31, 2015 compared to year ended December 31, 2014

 

Revenues. Our total revenues decreased by 21.3% to US$179.1 million in 2015 from US$227.6 million in 2014. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in revenues generated from our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses.

 

Our Internet games revenues decreased by 11.1% to US$105.0 million in 2015 from US$118.1 million in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the significant decline of revenue of Guild Wars 2 from US$27.6 million in 2014 to US$7.0 million in 2015, which was attributable to short user life and the delay in the launch of the localized expansion pack of Guild Wars 2, “Heart of Thorns”, in the PRC in 2015. The decrease was partially offset by significant growth in revenues generated from the operations of the World of Tanks game in the PRC, resulting from an increase in sales of in-game items, as well as revenues contributed by World of Warships, which was released to Internet game players in the PRC in November 2015.

 

Our Internet games revenues are primarily derived from Internet games operation revenues and licensing revenues. We earn Internet games operation revenues through the provision of Internet games services to players under an item-based revenue model, whereby players are able to play the Internet games free of charge for an unlimited amount of time, or a small amount of initial access fee in the case of Guild Wars 2 game, but are charged for purchasing in-game items, such as in-game performance-enhancing items, mechanized vehicles, clothing, accessories and pets. For a detailed description of our revenue recognition policy on Internet games revenues, see “– Critical Accounting Policies – Revenue Recognition – Internet Games Revenues”.

 

Our Internet games licensing revenues decreased by 72.1% from US$1.3 million in 2014 to US$0.4 million in 2015. Revenues generated outside the PRC decreased by 72.1% to US$0.4 million in 2015 from US$1.3 million in 2014, representing approximately 0.4% and 1.1% of our Internet games revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The portion of our Internet games revenues derived outside the PRC includes both license fees and revenue share generated from the operation of our self-developed games by third party publishing partners.

 

Our mobile games revenues decreased by 45.3% to US$24.6 million in 2015 from US$45.0 million in 2014. Our mobile games revenues consist of mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel and non-carrier billing channel. Mobile games revenues for carrier billing channel decreased from US$23.8 million in 2014 to US$12.1 million in 2015 and mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel decreased from US$21.2 million in 2014 to US$12.6 million in 2015. The decrease in mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel was primarily due to measures adopted by telecommunications operators targeted at improving user experience pursuant to which some of our mobile games embedded in handsets became no longer accessible by end-consumers. The decrease in mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel was primarily due to shorter life cycle and high churn of recently launched smartphone games, our recent pivot to concentrate mobile game development and licensing towards primarily military genre mobile games to bolster the War Saga brand and consequently the relatively small number of mobile games launched by us in 2015. We expect this transition to influence mobile game revenues from non-carrier billing channel in the foreseeable future.

 

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Our WVAS revenues decreased by 23.3% to US$49.4 million in 2015 from US$64.5 million in 2014. Revenues from our SMS services decreased by 33.2% to US$21.3 million in 2015 from US$31.9 million in 2014. Revenues from our IVR services decreased by 70.0% to US$4.0 million in 2015 from US$13.2 million in 2014. The decrease was mainly due to the shrink of traditional WVAS service and competition from applications installed in smartphones. Revenues from CRBT and others increased by 26.8% to US$22.8 million from US$18.0 million in 2014. The increase was mainly due to the further expansion of our online reading platform, the revenue of which increased by 30.0 % to US$15.6 million in 2015 from US$12.0 million in 2014.

 

Cost of Revenues. Our total cost of revenues increased by 7.8% to US$139.4 million in 2015 from US$129.3 million in 2014, representing 77.8% and 56.8% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. This increase was largely due to the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million. This impairment loss was equal to the full carrying amount on intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2 due to the decline in revenues generated from Guild Wars 2 from US$17.70 million for the six-month period ended December 31, 2014 to US$4.02 million for the six-month period ended June 30, 2015 and our assessment as of June 30, 2015 that the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of the intangible assets related to the game license for Guild Wars 2 would be insignificant. Even though we believe that the operation of Guild Wars 2, as reflected by the subsequent increase in the number of registered users and revenue, will continue to bring positive cash flows to us due to the release of the expansion pack in late 2015, the reversal of a previously recognized impairment loss is prohibited when there are subsequent changes in the performance, use of the asset, or economic conditions under U.S. GAAP because an asset is considered to have a new cost basis after an impairment loss is recorded. Had there been no impairment recognized on the game license in relation to Guild Wars 2, the amortization which would be included in the costs of revenue for Guild Wars 2 would increase by US$9.60 million, US$19.21 million and US$6.40 million in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively, which would lead to reductions of the same amounts from our gross profits over the respective periods. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Internet Games Business.” If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million and including the subsequent increase in the associated amortization charge of the game license by the amount of US$9.60 million for year 2015, our total cost of revenue would have decreased by 12.0% to US$113.8 million in 2015 from US$129.3 million in 2014, representing 63.5% and 56.8% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014. Such decrease was largely due to a decrease in the volume of our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses and the associated decrease in shared revenues paid to third party Internet games licensors and service fees we paid to our content providers, media partners and telecommunications operators.

 

Our Internet games cost of revenues (including the recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets) increased by 42.7% to US$87.6 million in 2015 from US$61.4 million in 2014. This increase was largely due to our recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets of US$35.21 million which is equal to the full carrying amount on intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2. If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million, our Internet games cost of revenues would have decreased by 14.7% to US$52.4 million from US$61.4 million in 2014 due to the fact that the associated amortization charge of our further operation of Guild Wars 2 is not recorded as cost of revenue after such recognition of impairment loss. If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million and including the subsequent increase in the associated amortization charge of the game license by the amount of US$9.60 million for year 2015, our Internet games cost of revenues would have increased by 0.9% to US$62.0 million in 2015 from US$61.4 million in 2014. The increase in our Internet games cost of revenues was primarily due to increase in shared revenues paid to third party Internet games licensors relating to World of Tanks and World of Warships.

 

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Our mobile games cost of revenues decreased by 35.7% to US$14.8 million in 2015 from US$23.0 million in 2014. Total carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues decreased by 39.4% from US$10.3 million in 2014 to US$6.2 million in 2015. This decrease in cost of revenues is largely as a result of the decrease in fees paid to telecommunications operators in the PRC. Total non-carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues decreased from US$12.7 million in 2014 to US$8.5 million in 2015. This decrease in cost of revenues is largely as a result of the decrease in revenue sharing with third party mobile games licensors and channel partners.

 

Our WVAS cost of revenues decreased by 17.5% to US$37.0 million in 2015 from US$44.9 million in 2014, representing 74.9% and 69.6% of our WVAS revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Our WVAS cost of revenues decreased in 2015 largely as a result of the decrease in service fees we paid to the telecommunications operators due to the decrease of our WVAS revenues.

 

Gross Profit and Gross Margin. Our total gross profit decreased by 59.6% to US$39.8 million in 2015 from US$98.3 million in 2014, mainly due to the decrease in the volume of our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses and recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets. Our gross margin decreased to 22.2% in 2015 from 43.2% in 2014, mainly due to the recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Internet Games Business” and “Item 5 — Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Results of Operations — Cost of Revenues.” If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million and including the subsequent increase in the associated amortization charge of the game license by the amount of US$9.60 million for year 2015, our total gross profit would have decreased by 33.5% to US$65.4 million in 2015 from US$98.3 million in 2014, mainly due to the decrease in the volume of our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses and our gross margin decreased to 36.5% in 2015 from 43.2% in 2014, due to the decrease of gross margin of our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses.

 

Our Internet games gross profit decreased by 7.0% to US$52.7 million in 2015 from US$56.7 million in 2014, largely due to decreases in the volume of our Internet games business, driven by decreases in sales from in-game item purchases made by players of the Guild Wars 2 game and the World of Warplanes game. Our Internet games gross margin increased to 50.1% in 2015 from 48.0% in 2014, principally as a result of our recognition of impairment loss on intangible assets which is equal to the full carrying amount on intangible assets related to the licensing arrangement for Guild Wars 2, as a result of which the associated amortization charge of our further operation of Guild Wars 2 is not recorded as cost of revenue after such recognition of impairment loss. If excluding the effect of impairment loss on intangible assets in the amount of US$35.21 million and including the subsequent increase in the associated amortization charge of the game license by the amount of US$9.60 million for year 2015, our Internet games gross profit would have decreased by 24.0% to US$43.1 million in 2015 from US$56.7 million in 2014, mainly due to decreases in the volume of our Internet games business and our Internet games gross margin decreased to 41.0% in 2015 from 48.0% in 2014, mainly due to the decrease in our Internet games revenues relative to the decrease in our Internet games cost of revenues. Even though certain of our Internet games faced sharp declines in revenues in 2015, the licensing arrangement with respect to such Internet game was accounted for as one accounting unit, therefore the upfront fee being recognized on a straight line basis over the support and maintenance services period beginning from the commercial launch of such game by us.

 

Our mobile games gross profit decreased by 55.3% to US$9.9 million in 2015 from US$22.1 million in 2014, largely due to decreases in the volume of our mobile games business. Our mobile games gross margin decreased to 40.0% in 2015 from 49.0% in 2014, primarily due to the decrease in gross margin for non-carrier billing channel mobile games from 40.2% in 2014 to 32.1% in 2015 as a result of increases in revenue sharing to channel partners and in license fees, and the decrease in gross margin for carrier billing channel mobile games from 56.8% in 2014 to 48.3% in 2015 as a result of increases in fees paid to telecommunications operators.

 

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Our WVAS gross profit decreased by 36.7% to US$12.4 million in 2015 from US$19.6 million in 2014, primarily due to the decreases in the volume of our WVAS business. Our WVAS gross profit margin decreased to 25.1% in 2015 from 30.4% in 2014, primarily as a result of the further expansion of our online reading platform, which has a relatively low gross profit margin as compared to other WVAS services.

 

Operating Expenses. Our operating expenses decreased by 20.7% to US$63.6 million in 2015 from US$80.2 million in 2014, representing 35.5% and 35.2% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

Our product development expenses decreased by 3.7% to US$24.2 million in 2015 from US$25.1 million in 2014, representing 13.5% and 11.0% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in our product and development expenses was primarily due to decreased software development expense and decrease in the number of our product development employees, which decreased to 452 as of December 31, 2015 from 620 as of December 31, 2014.

 

Our sales and marketing expenses decreased by 39.1% to US$25.9 million in 2015 from US$42.5 million in 2014, representing 14.5% and 18.7% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in our sales and marketing expenses was primarily due to decreases in sales and marketing activities associated with our Internet games business and decrease in the number of our sales and marketing employees, which decreased to 187 employees as of December 31, 2015 from 227 employees as of December 31, 2014, and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in our customer service employees, which decreased to 70 employees as of December 31, 2015 from 155 employees as of December 31, 2014.

 

Our general and administrative expenses increased by 7.3% to US$13.5 million in 2015 from US$12.6 million in 2014, representing 7.5% and 5.5% of our total revenues in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The increase in our general and administrative expenses was primarily due to the increase in legal and consulting fees as a result of our investment activities in 2015.

 

Income Tax. Our income tax decreased to US$0.8 million in 2015 from US$1.0 million in 2014, primarily reflecting the decrease in our taxable income.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, we had net loss of US$16.2 million in 2015 compared to a net income of US$22.6 million in 2014.

 

Year ended December 31, 2014 compared to year ended December 31, 2013

 

Revenues. Our total revenues increased by 31.1% to US$227.6 million in 2014 from US$173.7 million in 2013. This increase was primarily due to revenues generated by newly launched Internet games, such as the Guild Wars 2 game and the World of Warplanes game, and newly launched mobile games, such as Rushing Three Kingdoms, My Princess is Cutest, and General Three Kingdoms, and the launch of more mobile games, including self-developed smartphone games, on telecommunication carriers’ platforms.

 

Our Internet games revenues increased 25.9% to US$118.1 million in 2014 from US$93.8 million in 2013. This increase was mainly due to our releases of Guild Wars 2 and World of Warplanes to Internet game players in the PRC in 2014. In addition, the increase was also driven by the continued stable performance of World of Tanks in the PRC, as we continued to release new updates in 2014 for this massive multiplayer online game. We have established a strong long-term operating strategy to become a leader in the Chinese Internet games market through the War Saga Brand, Guild Wars 2 and other differentiated Internet games under development.

 

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Our Internet games revenues are primarily derived from Internet games operation revenues and licensing revenues. We earn Internet games operation revenues through the provision of Internet games services to players under an item-based revenue model, whereby players are able to play the Internet games free of charge for an unlimited amount of time, or a small amount of initial access fee in the case of Guild Wars 2 game, but are charged for purchasing in-game items, such as in-game performance-enhancing items, mechanized vehicles, clothing, accessories and pets. For a detailed description of our revenue recognition policy on Internet games revenues, see “– Critical Accounting Policies – Revenue Recognition – Internet Games Revenues”. Our Internet games licensing revenues decreased by 45.9% from US$2.5 million in 2013 to US$1.3 million in 2014. Revenues generated within the PRC increased to US$116.8 million in 2014 from US$91.3 million in 2013, representing approximately 98.9% and 97.4% of our total Internet games revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The portion of our Internet games revenues derived outside the PRC includes both license fees and revenue share generated from the operation of our self-developed games by third party publishing partners. Revenues generated outside the PRC decreased by 45.9% to US$1.3 million in 2014 from US$2.5 million in 2013, representing approximately 1.1% and 2.6% of our Internet games revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

 

Our mobile games revenues increased by 166.4% to US$45.0 million in 2014 from US$16.9 million in 2013. Our mobile games revenues consist of mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel and non-carrier billing channel. Mobile games revenues for carrier billing channel increased from US$10.1 million in 2013 to US$23.8 million in 2014 and mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel increased from US$6.7 million to US$21.2 million in 2014. The increase in mobile games revenues from carrier billing channel in 2014 was primarily due to the launch of more mobile games, including self-developed smartphone games, on telecommunication carriers’ platforms. The increase in mobile games revenues from non-carrier billing channel in 2014 was primarily due to new self-developed and licensed smartphone games we launched on the Android and iOS platforms during 2014, including Rushing Three Kingdoms, My Princess is Cutest and Kuiba: the Rising of Warlord.

 

Our WVAS revenues increased by 2.4% to US$64.5 million in 2014 from US$63.0 million in 2013. The increase was mainly due to the stable performance of WVAS business.

 

Cost of Revenues. Our total cost of revenues increased by 34.1% to US$129.3 million in 2014 from US$96.4 million in 2013, representing 56.8% and 55.5% of our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. This increase was largely due to an increase in the volume of our mobile games business and associated fees paid to telecommunications operators in the PRC, revenue sharing with channel partners and license fees. In addition, the increase was also driven by the increase in our Internet games cost of revenues, which is mainly attributable to the increased license fees and revenue sharing with Internet game licensors.

 

Our Internet games cost of revenues increased by 34.9% to US$61.4 million in 2014 from US$45.5 million in 2013, representing 52.0% and 48.5% of our Internet games revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in our Internet games cost of revenues was primarily due to the increase in shared revenues paid to third party Internet games licensors, largely as a result of increases in the volume of our Internet games business. In particular, the increase in shared revenues paid to third party Internet games licensors was primarily due to increases in shared revenues relating to the World of Tanks game, the World of Warplanes game and the Guild Wars 2 game.

 

Our mobile games cost of revenues increased by 195.3% to US$23.0 million in 2014 from US$7.8 million in 2013. Total carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues increased by 70.5% from US$6.1 million in 2013 to US$10.3 million in 2014. This increase in cost of revenues is largely as a result of the increase in fees paid to telecommunications operators in the PRC. Total non-carrier billing channel mobile games cost of revenues increased from US$1.7 million in 2013 to US$12.7 million in 2014. This increase of cost of revenues is largely as a result of the increase in revenue sharing with channel partners and the increase in license fees.

 

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Our WVAS cost of revenues increased by 4.1% to US$44.9 million in 2014 from US$43.1 million in 2013, representing 69.6% and 68.4% of our WVAS revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

 

Gross Profit and Gross Margin. Our total gross profit increased by 27.3% to US$98.3 million in 2014 from US$77.3 million in 2013, mainly due to the increase in the volume of our Internet games and mobile games businesses, which was partially offset by the decreases in the volume of our WVAS business. Our gross margin decreased to 43.2% in 2014 from 44.5% in 2013, mainly due to the increase in shared revenues relating to licensed Internet games and increase in revenue sharing with channel partners and license fees for the non-carrier billing channel mobile games.

 

Our Internet games gross profit increased by 17.4% to US$56.7 million in 2014 from US$48.3 million in 2013, largely due to increases in the volume of our Internet games business, driven by increases in sales from in-game item purchases made by players of the World of Tanks game and the World of Warplanes game, and the initial access fee for the Guild Wars 2 game. Our Internet games gross margin decreased to 48.0% in 2014 from 51.5% in 2013, principally as a result of increases in shared revenues relating to the World of Tanks game, the World of Warplanes game and the Guild Wars 2 game, and decreases in the revenues of our self-developed Internet games.

 

Our mobile games gross profit increased by 141.7% to US$22.1 million in 2014 from US$9.1 million in 2013, largely due to increases in the volume of our mobile games business as a result of newly launched mobile games on Android and iOS platforms and the launch of more mobile games, including self-developed smartphone games, on telecommunication carriers platforms. Our mobile games gross margin decreased to 49.0% in 2014 from 54.0% in 2013, primarily due to the decrease in gross margin for non-carrier billing channel mobile games from 74.1% in 2013 to 40.2% in 2014 as a result of increases in revenue sharing to channel partners and in license fees, which is partially offset by the increase in gross margin for carrier billing channel mobile games from 40.5% in 2013 to 56.8% in 2014.

 

Our WVAS gross profit decreased by 1.3% to US$19.6 million in 2014 from US$19.9 million in 2013, primarily due to the decrease in our WVAS revenues relative to the decrease in our WVAS cost of revenues. Our WVAS gross profit margin decreased to 30.4% in 2014 from 31.6% in 2013.

 

Operating Expenses. Our operating expenses increased by 28.1% to US$81.5 million in 2014 from US$63.6 million in 2013, representing 35.8% and 36.6% our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

 

Our product development expenses decreased by 4.9% to US$25.1 million in 2014 from US$26.4 million in 2013, representing 11.0% and 15.2% of our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The decrease in our product and development expenses was primarily due to decreased software development expense and decreases in the number of our product development employees, which decreased to 620 as of December 31, 2014 from 747 as of December 31, 2013.

 

Our sales and marketing expenses increased by 59.4% to US$42.5 million in 2014 from US$26.7 million in 2013, representing 18.7% and 15.3% of our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in our sales and marketing expenses was mainly due to increased sales and marketing activity associated with our newly launched Internet games such as Guild Wars 2 game and World of Warplanes game, and mobile games operated on smartphones.

 

Our general and administrative expenses increased by 40% to US$12.6 million in 2014 from US$9.0 million in 2013, representing 5.5% and 5.2% of our total revenues in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in our general and administrative expenses was primarily due to the increase in average salaries for our employees/staff. In addition, our increased investment activities in 2014 also resulted in an increase in legal and consulting fees.

 

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Income Tax. Our income tax increased to US$1.0 million in 2014 from US$0.7 million in 2013, primarily reflecting the increase in our taxable income.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, we had net income of US$22.6 million in 2014 compared to a net income of US$20.7 million in 2013.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Cash Flows and Working Capital

 

The following table sets forth our cash flows with respect to operating, investing and financing activities for the periods indicated.

 

   For the year ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars) 
Net cash provided by operating activities  US$35,729.5   US$31,069.3   US$31,792.4 
Net cash used in investing activities   (43,944.6)   (32,117.6)   (93,944.9)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities   8,956.8    (16,914.8)   (1,922.7)
Effect of exchange rate changes   1,991.3    (371.4)   (2,713.6)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents   2,733.0    (18,334.5)   (66,788.8)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year   120,694.7    123,427.7    105,093.2 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year  US$123,427.7   US$105,093.2   US$38,304.4 

 

Our primary source of liquidity is cash flow from operating activities. As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2015, our cash and cash equivalents were US$105.1 million and US$38.3 million, respectively.

 

We do not bill or collect payment from users of carrier billing channel mobile games and WVAS directly, but instead depend on the billing systems and records of China Mobile and other PRC telecommunications operators to record the volume of such services provided, charge our customers, collect payments and remit payments to us less transmission fees and service fees. If China Mobile or any other PRC telecommunications operator ceases to continue cooperating with us, we would have to explore further cooperation with other telecommunications service providers and/or explore alternative billing systems to collect payments from customers.

 

Net cash provided by operating activities increased to US$31.8 million in 2015 from US$31.1 million in 2014. This increase was primarily due to an increase in cash provided by our Internet games business resulting from a sharp decline in cash outflow from marketing activities. Net cash provided by operating activities decreased to US$31.1 million in 2014 from US$35.7 million in 2013. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in cash provided by our WVAS business resulting from longer receivables collection cycle compared to previous periods as a result of the development of the regulatory environment.

 

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Net cash used in investing activities increased to US$93.9 million in 2015 from US$32.1 million in 2014. The increase of net cash used in investing activities was primarily due to a decrease of US$160.2 million in proceeds from disposal of held-to-maturity securities, an increase of US$34.4 million in loans to related party, an increase of US$26.4 million in loans to third party and an increase of US$10.7 million in purchase of available-for sale securities, which was partially offset by a decrease of US$129.3 million in purchase of held-to-maturity securities, a decrease of US$28.2 million in restricted cash, an increase of US$11.6 million in loan repayment from third parties and a decrease of US$8.5 million in purchase of term deposits. Net cash used in investing activities decreased to US$32.1 million in 2014 from US$43.9 million in 2013. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease of US$68.5 million in the purchase of held-to-maturity securities, which was partially offset by an increase of US$27.4 million in restricted cash and by our acquisition of a minority interest in Lianzhong for a total consideration of approximately US$16.3 million.

 

Net cash used in financing activities decreased to US$1.9 million in 2015 from US$16.9 million in 2014. The decrease of net cash used in financing activities was primarily due to a decrease of US$41.0 million in dividends paid to shareholders and a decrease of US$11.4 million in deferred payments for intangible assets, which was partially offset by a decrease of US$34.9 million in the proceeds from bank borrowings. Net cash used in financing activities was US$16.9 million in 2014, compared to net cash provided by financing activities of US$9.0 million in 2013. The increase of net cash used in financing activities was primarily due to an increase of US$41.0 million in dividends paid to shareholders, an increase of US$15.2 million in deferred payments for intangible assets and a decrease of US$21.9 million in proceeds from the exercise of warrants to purchase our ordinary shares by third parties. These amounts were partially offset by an increase of US$33.4 million in the proceeds from bank borrowings.

 

We believe that our current cash and cash equivalents and cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs, including for working capital purposes, capital expenditures and various contractual obligations, for at least the next 12 months. We may, however, require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue. If these sources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional debt securities or equity or to obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional convertible debt securities or equity securities could result in additional dilution to holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in incurring debt service obligations, which could result in operating and financial covenants that would restrict our operations. We currently do not have any lines of credit or loans with any commercial banks. As a result, we are unlikely to rely on any bank loans to meet our liquidity needs. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

 

We are a holding company with no operations of our own. Our operations are conducted through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, BJXR, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng and their subsidiaries in the PRC. See “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Our Corporate Structure” for a summary of these contractual arrangements. In 2015, our consolidated variable interest entities accounted for an aggregate of 97.2% of our total revenue. As of December 31, 2015, our consolidated variable interest entities accounted for an aggregate of 36.3% of our total assets and 47.8% of our total liabilities. The assets not associated with our consolidated variable interest entities primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, goodwill, intangible assets and loans to third parties.

 

As a holding company, our ability to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders depends in part upon dividends and other distributions paid to us by our wholly-owned subsidiaries in the PRC. The amount of dividends paid by our wholly-owned subsidiaries to us primarily depends on the service fees paid to such subsidiaries by Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, BJXR, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng, and, to a lesser degree, the retained earnings of such subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2015, the total amount of service fees payable to our wholly-owned subsidiaries from our consolidated variable interest entities under the service agreements was US$2.9 million. Conducting our operations through contractual arrangements with our consolidated variable interest entities entails a risk that we may lose the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of our consolidated variable interest entities, which may result in our being unable to consolidate their financial results with our financial results and may impair our access to their cash flow from operations and thereby reduce our liquidity. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — Our contractual arrangements with Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership of these businesses and may be difficult to enforce.” and “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — Our business and operations could be significantly disrupted, and we could be subject to sanctions, if the contractual arrangements between us and our consolidated variable interest entities that we depend on for operating our Internet games, mobile games and WVAS businesses are found to be non-compliant with applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations.”

 

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If our subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, PRC legal restrictions permit payment of dividends to us by our subsidiaries only out of the net income from our subsidiaries, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under PRC law, our subsidiaries are required to set aside no less than 10% of their respective after-tax net income each year as reserve funds unless such reserve funds, after making up losses of preceding years, have reached 50% of their respective registered capital, and these reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — The dividends and other distributions on equity we may receive from our subsidiaries are subject to restrictions under PRC law or agreements that our subsidiaries may enter into with third parties.” In addition, our subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations applicable to such subsidiaries.

 

Indebtedness

 

In October 2014, we received a loan of US$42.4 million from Hang Seng Bank to finance our general offshore working capital, including dividend payment, offshore procurement and mergers and acquisitions. We used US$41.0 million of the net proceeds from this loan to finance a special one-time cash dividend distribution declared on October 17, 2014 and paid to ADS holders on November 10, 2014. The loan is due in October 2016 and secured by a pledge of deposit in the amount of RMB267 million.

 

In January 2015, we received an additional loan of US$7.5 million from Hang Seng Bank to acquire issued ordinary shares of Forgame. The loan is due in July 2016 and secured by a pledge of deposit in the amount of RMB50 million.

 

We intend to meet the majority of our future funding needs through cash flow generated from operating activities and our current cash and cash equivalents. Our treasury objective is to maintain the safety and liquidity of our cash. Substantially all of our cash and cash equivalents are denominated in Renminbi.

 

Except as described above, as of December 31, 2015, we did not have any outstanding loan capital issued or agreed to be issued, bank overdrafts, loans, debt securities or other similar indebtedness, liabilities under acceptance (other than normal trade bills) or acceptance credits, debentures, mortgages, charges, finance leases or purchase commitments, guarantees or other material contingent liabilities.

 

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Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments

 

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2015:

 

   Payments due by period 
   Total   Less than
1 year
   1-3 years   Within
3-5 years
   More than
5 years
 
   (in thousands of U.S. dollars) 
License Fee Obligations(1)  US$11,500.0   US$11,500.0   US$-   US$-   US$- 
Operating Lease Obligations   7,087.3    3,872.5    2,602.2    612.5    - 
Purchase Obligations   2,708.5    1,557.3    1,151.1    0.2    - 
Short-term Bank Loans   49,962.5    49,962.5    -    -    - 
Total  US$71,258.3   US$66,892.3   US$3,753.3   US$612.7   US$- 

 

 

(1) The amount includes the outstanding payment obligations of US$10 million in minimum guaranteed royalty fee to ArenaNet for an exclusive PRC license relating to the Guild Wars 2 game which is expected to be paid in less than one year. There is no cancellation provision under the license agreement.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

Our total capital expenditures in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were US$13.1 million, US$25.0 million and US$12.7 million, respectively. The decrease in capital expenditure in 2015 from 2014 was primarily due to a decrease in the payment for minimum guarantee for Guild Wars 2 in 2015. The increase in capital expenditure in 2014 from 2013 was primarily due to deferred payments for license fee and minimum guarantee for Guild Wars 2. We did not have any material commitment for capital expenditures as of December 31, 2015. We currently do not have any material capital expenditures in progress.

 

Our capital expenditures are spent primarily on license fees, servers, computers, office equipment, leasehold improvement and vehicles. In general, there is a positive correlation between our revenues and the amount of traffic that passes through our servers and transmission equipment. From time to time we need to purchase additional servers and transmission equipment as a result of increased business traffic. Our purchase of personal computers is primarily driven by headcount increases.

 

As the telecommunications operators do not provide us with detailed revenue breakdown on a service-by-service basis, we depend on our internal database system to monitor revenues derived from each of our services that are delivered through the telecommunications operators. We make our business decisions based on our internal data, taking into account other factors, including strategic considerations.

 

Off-balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We have not entered into any financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. In addition, we have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our own shares and classified as shareholders’ equity, or that are not reflected in our financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. Moreover, we do not have any variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

 

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Taxation

 

Cayman Islands

 

The Cayman Islands currently do not levy any taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation, and there is no taxation in the nature of an inheritance tax or estate duty. In addition, pursuant to Section 6 of the Tax Concessions Law (2011 Revision) of the Cayman Islands, we have obtained an undertaking from the Governor-in-Council that (i) no law which is enacted in the Cayman Islands imposing any tax to be levied on profits or income or gains or appreciations shall apply to us or our operations and (ii) no tax to be levied on profits, income gains or appreciations or which is in the nature of an estate duty or inheritance tax shall be payable by us on or in respect of our shares, debentures or other obligations or by way of the withholding in whole or in part of any relevant payment as defined in Section 6(3) of the Tax Concessions Law (2011 Revision). This undertaking is for a period of 20 years from May 21, 2002.

 

PRC

 

Our PRC subsidiaries and operating companies are subject to the New EIT Law, which ordinarily imposes a tax rate of 25% on all enterprises (other than individual proprietorships and partnerships). However, under the New EIT Law and its implementation rules, “high-and-new technology enterprises strongly supported by the State,” or HNTE, are entitled to a preferential tax rate of 15%, and “software enterprises” are entitled to an income tax exemption for two years beginning with their first profitable year and a 50% tax reduction to a rate of 12.5% for the subsequent three years, while all such tax exemptions and reductions applicable to “software enterprises” shall end no later than December 31, 2017. HNTE status allows qualifying PRC-based enterprises to use a 15% tax rate for three years, renewable for an additional three-year period if the business operations of these enterprises continue to qualify for HNTE status. In 2014, each of KongZhong Beijing, Beijing AirInbox, BJXR and Tianjin Mammoth renewed its HNTE status for an additional six-year period. In 2015, KongZhong China renewed its HNTE status for an additional three-year period. In addition, the PRC tax authority also granted Xinreli and Dacheng, in 2010 and 2011, respectively, an income tax exemption for two years and a 50% tax relief for three years thereafter. According to the Administrative Measures for the Determination of High and New Technology Enterprises promulgated by Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation on April 14, 2008, PRC-based enterprises that have already enjoyed HNTE status for six years must reapply for HNTE status at the end of the second three-year period. On February 24, 2015, the State Council announced with immediate effect that there would not be any new accreditations of “software enterprise”. As at such date, Beijing AirInbox, KongZhong China, Dacheng, Xinreli, Brilliant Game and Tianjin Mammoth were qualified as “software enterprises” by the local industry and information technology department and would continue to enjoy tax exemptions or reductions, as applicable, until December 31, 2017. For risks relating to the discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments or the renewal of HNTE status, see “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to the PRC — The discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments available to us in the PRC or the rejection of our application for preferential tax treatments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.”

 

Under the New EIT Law, enterprises are classified as either resident or non-resident. A resident enterprise refers to one that is incorporated under the PRC law or under the law of a jurisdiction outside the PRC with its “de facto management organization” located within the PRC. Non-resident enterprise refers to one that is incorporated under the law of a jurisdiction outside the PRC with its “de facto management organization” located also outside the PRC, but which has either set up institutions or establishments in the PRC or has income originating from the PRC without setting up any institution or establishment in the PRC. Under the New EIT Implementation Regulation, “de facto management organization” is defined as the organization of an enterprise through which substantial and comprehensive management and control over the business, operations, personnel, accounting and properties of the enterprise are exercised. Under the New EIT Law and the New EIT Implementation Regulation, a resident enterprise’s global net income will be subject to a 25% EIT rate. Uncertainties exist with respect to how the New EIT Law applies to our overall operations and, more specifically, with respect to the determination of tax residency for certain of our legal entities incorporated outside the PRC. We do not believe that our legal entities incorporated outside the PRC should be treated as residents under the New EIT Law. The SAT Notice 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise is located in the PRC. However, the SAT Notice 82 applies only to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those invested in by PRC individuals, like our company. Currently there are no further detailed rules or precedents applicable to us governing the procedures and specific criteria for determining the “de facto management body” for a company of our type. If the PRC authorities were to subsequently determine, or any future regulation provides, that we should be treated as a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to a 25% enterprise income tax on our global income, which may significantly increase our tax burden and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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In addition, the New EIT Law and the New EIT Implementation Regulation provide that, in some circumstances, an income tax rate of 10% would be applied to dividends payable to foreign investors. However, dividend income received by a resident enterprise from another resident enterprise is exempted from the EIT. Under the New EIT Law and the New EIT Implementation Regulation, a non-resident enterprise’s net income originating from “sources within the PRC” will be subject to a 10% EIT rate. Under the New EIT Implementation Regulation, whether a dividend payment constitutes income from “sources within the PRC” is determined by the location of the enterprise which pays the dividend. The income tax rate on dividends from the PRC payable to a non-PRC-resident enterprise is 10%. As a result, KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China may be required to withhold all or part of such income tax when paying us dividends. The aggregate undistributed earnings of our subsidiaries and our PRC operating companies and their subsidiaries that are available for distribution to us as of December 31, 2014 are considered to be indefinitely reinvested and, accordingly, no provision has been made for the dividend withholding taxes that would be payable upon the distribution of those amounts to us under the New EIT Law and New EIT Implementation Regulation. The PRC tax authorities have also clarified that distributions made out of retained earnings derived from income before January 1, 2008 will not be subject to such withholding tax. See “Item 3 — Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to the PRC — We may be subject to PRC income tax on our global income, or dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries may be subject to PRC withholding tax, depending on whether we are recognized as a resident enterprise in the PRC.”

 

Moreover, our revenues are subject to sales taxes. Since August 2003, each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Simlife Beijing, Beijing Shiyuan Leya, Mailifang, Xinreli, Zhulang and Dacheng is subject to a 3% business tax for WVAS, an aggregate of 8% in sales tax and cultural business construction fee for mobile advertising services and a 5% business tax for other services. Each of KongZhong Beijing, KongZhong China and Tianjin Mammoth is subject to a 5% sales tax. In future periods, we expect that a substantial portion of our revenues will be generated through Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Mailifang, Xinreli and Dacheng. In addition, pursuant to the arrangements that KongZhong Beijing has entered into with each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang and Xinreli and that KongZhong China has entered into with each of BJXR and Dacheng, each of Beijing AirInbox, Beijing WINT, Beijing Chengxitong, Mailifang, Xinreli, BJXR and Dacheng pays us service fees. The amount of such payments will be subject to the 5% business tax payable by KongZhong Beijing and KongZhong China. See “Item 7 — Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions.”

 

On January 1, 2012, the State Council of the PRC officially launched a pilot value-added tax reform program, or the pilot program, applicable to businesses in selected industries. Businesses subject to the pilot program would pay value-added taxes instead of business taxes. Commencing on August 1, 2013, the pilot program was expanded to cover all regions in the PRC. Commencing on June 1, 2014, the telecommunications industry as a whole was included in the pilot program. Certain of our subsidiaries and variable interest entities have been subject to the pilot program since late 2012. For example, from September 2012 to December 2013, Beijing AirInbox was subject to a 3% or 5% business tax for Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. Since January 2014, Beijing AirInbox has been subject to a 6% value-added tax and 3% cultural business construction fee for Internet games, mobile games and WVAS. Since December 31, 2013, each of Dacheng, Brilliant Game, KongZhong Beijing, KongZhong China, Beijing WINT and Beijing Shiyuan Leya has been subject to a 6% value-added tax; and each of Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Beijing Boya Wuji, Beijing Yin’ao, Beijing Shangshu, Tianjin Mammoth and Simlife Beijing has been subject to a 3% value-added tax. Since June 2014, each of Beijing Chengxitong, BJXR, Tianjin Mammoth and Zhulang has been subject to a 6% value-added tax.

 

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PRC business tax is levied on PRC taxable revenues as defined by the related PRC tax rules and regulations. We have calculated our PRC taxable revenues after deducting certain costs of revenues, including service fees, transmission charges payable to the telecommunications operators and business cooperation fees. We believe that our calculation of our PRC taxable revenues is consistent with PRC tax rules and regulations. However, we cannot assure you that PRC tax authorities in the future will not require changes in our calculation of taxable revenues for historical periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

On December 10, 2009, the SAT issued Notice on Strengthening the Management of Enterprise Income Tax Collection of Proceeds from Equity Transfers by Non-resident Enterprises, or Circular 698, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2008, which was further explained by a notice issued by the SAT implemented as of March 28, 2011, pursuant to which a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise indirectly through a disposition of equity interests in an overseas holding company (other than a purchase and sale of shares issued by a PRC resident enterprise in public securities market), or an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise, as the seller, may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, if the tax authority considers that the foreign investor has adopted an abusive arrangement without reasonable commercial purposes and for the purpose of avoiding or reducing PRC tax, they will disregard the existence of the overseas holding company that is used for tax planning purposes and re-characterize the Indirect Transfer. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%.

 

On February 3, 2015, the SAT promulgated SAT Announcement 7, which became effective immediately to supersede the existing tax rules in relation to the Indirect Transfer, while the other provisions of Circular 698 remain in force. Pursuant to SAT Announcement 7, if a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests of or similar rights or interests in overseas companies which directly or indirectly own PRC taxable assets through an arrangement without a reasonable commercial purpose, but rather to avoid PRC enterprise income tax, the transaction will be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets subject to PRC enterprise income tax. SAT Announcement 7 specifies certain factors that should be considered in determining whether an indirect transfer has a reasonable commercial purpose. However, as SAT Announcement 7 is newly issued, there is uncertainty as to the application of SAT Announcement 7 and the interpretation of the term “reasonable commercial purpose.” Under SAT Announcement 7, the entity which has the obligation to pay the consideration for the transfer to the transferring party has the obligation to withhold any PRC enterprise income tax that is due. If the transferring party does not pay enterprise income tax that is due for a transfer and the entity which has the obligation to pay the consideration does not withhold the tax due, the PRC tax authorities may impose a penalty on the entity that so fails to withhold. The entity which has the obligation to pay the consideration may be relieved or exempted from the withholding obligation and any resulting penalty under certain circumstances if it reports such transfer to the PRC tax authorities.

 

On March 18, 2015, the SAT promulgated SAT Announcement 16, which became effective immediately. SAT Announcement 16 further strengthens the administration of expense payment from PRC resident enterprise to its offshore affiliates. Pursuant to SAT Announcement 16, the expenses paid by the PRC resident enterprises to their offshore affiliates would not be deducted before tax under certain circumstances, including but not limited to the expenses paid to offshore affiliates that fail to perform their functions, bear risks and that have no substantial operating activities, and expenses paid for the services provided by offshore affiliates which cannot cause direct or indirect economic interests to such PRC resident enterprises.

 

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Item 6.          Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

General

 

The functions and powers of our Board include, among others:

 

·convening shareholders’ meetings and reporting its work to shareholders at such meetings;

 

·implementing shareholders’ resolutions;

 

·determining our business plans and investment proposals;

 

·formulating our profit distribution plans and loss recovery plans;

 

·formulating our debt and finance policies and proposals for the increase or decrease in our issued capital and the issuance of debentures;

 

·formulating our major acquisition and disposal plans, and plans for merger, division or dissolution;

 

·formulating proposals for any amendments to our Memorandum and Articles of Association; and

 

·exercising any other powers conferred by the shareholders’ meetings or under our Memorandum and Articles of Association.

 

Directors and Senior Officers

 

The following table sets forth certain information concerning our Directors and senior officers. The business address of each of our Directors and executive officers is 35th Floor, Tengda Plaza, No. 168 Xizhimenwai Street, Beijing, 100044, the PRC.

 

Name   Age   Position
Leilei Wang   43   Chairman of the Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer
Jay Chang   44   Director and Chief Financial Officer
Tai Fan   44   Director and Chief Investment Officer
Xiaoxin Chen   43   Independent Director
Hope Ni   43   Independent Director
Xiaolong Li   50   Independent Director
Zhi Wang   73   Independent Director

 

Leilei Wang, 43, has served as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of our company and our Chief Executive Officer since October 2008. His current term expires in 2016. Mr. Wang was the chief executive officer of TOM Online from September 2003 to September 2008. Between 1999, when Mr. Wang joined TOM Group Limited, or TOM Group, TOM Online’s parent company, and 2003, Mr. Wang held various management positions within TOM Group. Mr. Wang graduated in 1996 from the Electronic Engineering Department of Tsinghua University with a bachelor’s degree in Electronic Technology and Information.

 

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Jay Chang, 44, has served as the Chief Financial Officer of our company since February 2009 and has been a Director of our company since July 2010. His current term expires in 2017. Before joining our company, Mr. Chang was the president and chief financial officer of 56.com, a leading online video provider in the PRC. Before that, he was the chief financial officer of TOM Online for over two years. Prior to TOM Online, for nearly six years, Mr. Chang was the director of equity research at Credit Suisse, responsible for covering the Internet and telecommunications sectors in the PRC. Mr. Chang graduated in 1994 from the University of Washington with a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering.

 

Tai Fan, 44, has served as the Chief Investment Officer of our company since March 2009 and has been a Director of our company since December 2014. His current term expires in 2018. Since August 2002, Mr. Fan has served as the vice president of the department of finance at Beijing Super Channel, a subsidiary of TOM Online, and as an executive vice president of TOM Online. Prior to joining TOM Online, Mr. Fan served as the financial controller of Xin De Telecom and was an auditor at KPMG. Mr. Fan graduated in 2003 from the State University of New Jersey, Rutgers with an EMBA and in 1994 from Beijing College of Economics with a bachelor’s degree in Accounting.

 

Xiaoxin Chen, 43, has been an Independent Director of our company since September 2008. His current term expires in 2016.  Mr. Chen was the chief financial officer of Oak Pacific Interactive, later renamed Renren Inc., a leading social networking service provider in China. Before joining Renren Inc., Mr. Chen was an investment banker at Citigroup Hong Kong. Mr. Chen graduated at the top of his class and received his bachelor’s degree in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering (summa cum laude) from Cornell University. He received his MBA degree from Stanford Graduate School of Business and was a recipient of the 2000 Arjay Miller Scholar Award upon graduation.

 

Hope Ni, 43, has been an Independent Director of our company since January 2007. Her current term expires in 2018. Ms. Ni is the chairwoman of Inspire Capital and an executive director and the chief investment officer of Cogobuy Group (listed on the Main Board of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange). She is currently serving as an independent director and the chairwoman of the audit committee as well as a member of the compensation and nomination committee at JA Solar Holdings, Co. Ltd., a NASDAQ-listed company, and an independent director, the chairwoman of the audit committee and a member of the compensation committee of ATA Inc., a NASDAQ-listed company. She has also been serving as an independent non-executive director of Digital China Holdings Limited (listed on the Main Board of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange) since September 2010 and as a director of ATA Online (Beijing) Education Technology Co., Ltd. (listed on the National Equities Exchange and Quotations System of China) since July 2015. From August 2004 to January 2008, Ms. Ni served as the chief financial officer and director of Viewtran Group, Inc., or Viewtran, and subsequently served as its vice chairwoman until early 2009. Prior to joining Viewtran, Ms. Ni spent six years as a practicing attorney at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP in New York and Hong Kong, specializing in corporate finance. Prior to that, Ms. Ni worked at Merrill Lynch’s investment banking division in New York. Ms. Ni received her J.D. Degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and her Bachelor’s Degree in Applied Economics and Business Management from Cornell University.

 

Xiaolong Li, 50, has been an Independent Director of our company since December 2013. His current term expires in 2017. Mr. Li currently serves as a director of several companies, some of them in the United States. Mr. Li serves as an independent director of E-Commerce China Dangdang Inc., a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Mr. Li has more than 20 years of experience in the industry of information technology and telecommunications. He founded 263 Network Communication Company Limited, a company currently listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, in 1999 and has been its chairman since then. Prior to that, he founded Beijing Jingxun Public Information Technology Company Limited in 1997 and served as its executive director until 1999. In 1992, he founded Beijing Haicheng Telecommunication Technology Company Limited and served as its chairman until 1997. Mr. Li attended the undergraduate program in software engineering in Beijing University of Technology.

 

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Zhi Wang, 73, has been an Independent Director of our company since December 2014. His current term expires in 2017. Mr. Wang has been chairman of the board of directors of Powertech Technology (Suzhou) Co., Ltd. since September 2009. He has also served as chairman of the board of directors of Payton Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. since July 2004, and chairman of the board of directors of Kingston Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. since August 2004. Mr. Wang also served as chairman and President of China Great Wall computer group Company, or Great Wall Group, from May 1995 to May 2004, and served as general manager of Great Wall Group from December 1986 to May 1995. In June 1985, Mr. Wang, as deputy director of the Computer Authority of the former Ministry of Electronics Industry, led a microcomputer development team and successfully developed China's first micro-computer - Great Wall 0520CH. Mr. Wang graduated in 1966 from the Military Missile Engineering Department of Harbin Military Engineering College with a bachelor degree in wireless remote controls.

 

There is no family relationship between any of our Directors or senior officers.

 

As a NASDAQ-listed company, we are required by the NASDAQ Listing Rules to have a majority of the Board of Directors comprised of independent directors. Our Independent Directors currently are Hope Ni, Xiaoxin Chen, Xiaolong Li and Zhi Wang. Our Independent Directors held executive sessions at which only Independent Directors were present once in each quarter of 2015.

 

Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide for three classes of Directors, each with three-year terms. Retiring Directors are eligible for re-election. Each of our executive Directors has entered into a service contract with us, while other Directors have not entered into such agreements.

 

In 2015, each of our Independent Directors who served on three committees received US$30,000 for each year of service. In addition, we granted restricted share units covering 125,000 of our ordinary shares per year to each of our Independent Directors when he or she was appointed. Such restricted share units are vested quarterly in 12 equal tranches as long as such Director is continuing his or her service.

 

Each of our senior officers has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. Pursuant to the employment agreements, each of our senior officers is entitled to receive a basic salary and may also receive an annual bonus if a certain level of performance has been achieved. All senior officers are bound by the confidentiality and non-competition provisions in their respective employment agreements and non-compete agreements with us. Our senior officers receive no benefits upon termination of service.

 

Board Practices

 

To enhance our corporate governance, the Board of Directors established three board committees: an audit committee, a nominations committee and a compensation committee, which are comprised solely of Independent Directors. Our Independent Directors held one meeting in each quarter of 2015 at which only Independent Directors were present.

 

Audit Committee

 

We have established an audit committee in accordance with the NASDAQ Listing Rules, which reviews our internal accounting procedures and considers and reports to the Board of Directors with respect to other auditing and accounting matters, including the selection of an independent registered public accounting firm, the scope of annual audits, fees to be paid to the independent registered public accounting firm and the performance of the independent registered public accounting firm. The committee has a formal written charter that sets forth its duties and powers. The current members of our audit committee are Xiaoxin Chen, Hope Ni and Xiaolong Li, each of whom is an Independent Director. The Board of Directors has determined that each of Mr. Chen and Ms. Ni is an audit committee financial expert within the meaning of the U.S. securities laws. Our audit committee met at least once in each quarter of 2015.

 

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Nominations Committee

 

We have established a nominations committee, which identifies individuals qualified to become Directors and recommends Director nominees to be approved by the Board of Directors. The committee has a formal written charter that sets forth its duties and powers. The current members of our nominations committee are Xiaoxin Chen and Xiaolong Li, each of whom is an Independent Director.

 

Compensation Committee

 

We have established a compensation committee to determine the salaries and benefits of our Directors and senior officers. The committee has a formal written charter that sets forth its duties and powers. The current members of our compensation committee are Xiaoxin Chen and Xiaolong Li, each of whom is an Independent Director.

 

Independent Committee

 

On July 8, 2015, our Board of Directors formed a special committee of independent directors consisting of Hope Ni and Xiaolong Li in response to a preliminary non-binding going-private proposal letter that the Board of Directors received on June 29, 2015 from Mr. Leilei Wang, our Chairman of the Board of Directors and our Chief Executive Officer, and IDG, to acquire all of our outstanding ordinary shares not owned by them or their affiliates. For more details, see “Item 4 – Information on the Company – History and Development of the Company.”

 

Compensation of Directors, Senior Officers and Employees

 

Our senior officers receive compensation in the form of salaries, annual bonuses and stock options. We have entered into service agreements with each of our senior officers. None of these service agreements provides benefits to our senior officers upon termination. The aggregate remuneration paid and benefits in kind granted to our senior officers in 2014 and 2015 were approximately US$0.85 million and US$0.81 million, respectively. In addition, the aggregate remuneration paid to our Independent Directors was US$145,000 and US$336,000, respectively, in 2014 and 2015.

 

In 2015, the total amount set aside or accrued by us or our subsidiaries to provide housing, medical and pension benefits, unemployment insurance and staff welfare for employees, including our non-Independent Directors and senior officers, was US$4.9 million.

 

Stock Options and Restricted Share Units

 

Our 2002 Plan, 2006 Plan and 2013 Plan are intended to provide incentives to our Directors, officers and employees as well as consultants and advisors of our company and its present or future parent company or subsidiaries, or any related corporations.

 

KongZhong Corporation 2002 Equity Incentive Plan

 

The 2002 Plan was approved by our shareholders at a meeting held on June 6, 2002. Pursuant to the 2002 Plan, we originally reserved a total of 70,000,000 ordinary shares for issuance under two categories of options: incentive stock options, which may be granted to officers and employees of our company and any present or future parent or subsidiary of our company, or the related corporations, and non-qualified options, which may be granted to any employee, officer, Director, consultant or advisor of our company and the related corporations. We increased the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance under the 2002 Plan to 105,000,000 on February 15, 2004, and to 137,000,000 on September 6, 2005. Both increases have been approved by our shareholders. On December 30, 2005, the Board of Directors, following the recommendation of the compensation committee, approved a resolution authorizing our Chief Executive Officer to grant up to 8,000,000 stock options to non-officer employees without the prior written approval of the compensation committee or the Board.

 

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As of December 31, 2015, under the 2002 Plan, we had granted options to purchase an aggregate of 296,770,280 of our ordinary shares, of which options to purchase 166,515,220 ordinary shares have lapsed and 24,784,420 were exercisable at exercise prices ranging from US$0.0703 to US$0.2225 per ordinary share. The exercise prices represent the fair market values of the underlying ordinary shares on the dates the options were granted.

 

During 2015, under the 2002 Plan, no option was granted, options to purchase 1,327,000 of our ordinary shares lapsed, and options to purchase 8,915,040 of our ordinary shares were exercised. In June 2012, our 2002 Plan expired without being renewed.

 

KongZhong Corporation 2006 Equity Incentive Plan

 

The 2006 Plan was approved by our shareholders at our annual general meeting on October 12, 2006. Pursuant to the 2006 Plan, we originally reserved a total of 40,000,000 ordinary shares for issuance in respect of stock options, restricted share units and other forms of equity compensation. We increased the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance under the 2006 Plan to 180,000,000 on December 18, 2008. This increase has been approved by our shareholders.

 

As of December 31, 2015, under the 2006 Plan, we had granted an aggregate of 224,440,000 restricted share units, of which 47,122,500 have lapsed. We did not grant any restricted share units or options under the 2006 Plan during 2015. The Board of Directors administers the 2006 Plan and has wide discretion in awarding stock options, restricted share units and other forms of equity compensation. Subject to the provisions of the 2006 Plan, the Board of Directors determines who will be granted equity compensation, the type and timing of equity compensation to be granted, the vesting schedule and other terms and conditions of the equity compensation, including the exercise price of the stock options.

 

KongZhong Corporation 2013 Equity Incentive Plan

 

The 2013 Plan was approved by our shareholders at our annual general meeting on December 18, 2013. Pursuant to the 2013 Plan, we reserved a total of 80,000,000 ordinary shares for issuance in respect of share options and restricted share units.

 

As of December 31, 2015, under the 2013 Plan, we had granted options to purchase an aggregate of 2,000,000 of our ordinary shares, which were exercisable at exercise prices ranging from US$0.1413 to US$0.2170 per ordinary share. The exercise prices represent the fair market values of the underlying ordinary shares on the dates the options were granted. As of December 31, 2015, under the 2013 Plan, we had granted an aggregate of 6,320,000 restricted share units.

 

The Compensation Committee administers the 2013 Plan and has wide discretion in awarding share options and restricted share units. Subject to the provisions of the 2013 Plan, the Compensation Committee determines who will be granted equity compensation, the type and timing of equity compensation to be granted, the vesting schedule and other terms and conditions of the equity compensation, including the exercise price of the stock options, as well as rules and regulations relating to the 2013 Plan, including rules governing its operations.

 

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Generally, if an outstanding equity compensation award granted under the 2002 Plan, the 2006 Plan and the 2013 Plan has not vested by the date of termination of the grantee’s employment with us, no further tranches of the grantee’s equity compensation award will become exercisable following the date of such cessation of employment, and the grantee’s already vested but unexercised equity compensation awards will terminate after a period of 90 days from such cessation of employment.

 

The Board of Directors may terminate or amend the 2006 Plan and the 2013 Plan at any time. However, the Board of Directors must seek our shareholders’ approval with respect to certain major modifications to the 2006 Plan and the 2013 Plan, and, if such amendment or termination would adversely affect the rights of a grantee under any equity compensation granted, the approval of such grantee would be required. Without further action by our Board, the 2006 Plan will terminate on October 11, 2016 and the 2013 Plan will terminate on December 17, 2023.

 

The 2002 Plan, the 2006 Plan and the 2013 Plan provide for the acceleration of awards upon the occurrence of certain consolidations, mergers, acquisitions or sale of all or substantially all assets or shares of our company. In any such case, our Board, in relation to the 2002 Plan and the 2006 Plan, and the Compensation Committee, in relation to the 2013 Plan, shall take, among others, one or more of the following actions: accelerate the date of exercise/vesting of such options/restricted share units or any tranche of such options/restricted share units, provide a fixed period of time that the grantees must exercise such options or terminate all options/restricted share units in exchange for cash payment.

 

The following table sets forth information on stock options and restricted share units that have been granted and are outstanding as of December 31, 2015, pursuant to the 2002 Plan, the 2006 Plan and the 2013 Plan:

 

   Ordinary shares underlying options   Restricted Share Units 
   2015 option
grants
   Pre-2015
option grants
   Expiration
date
  

Exercise
price per
share (US
dollars)(1)

   2015 grants   Pre-2015
grants
   Expiration
date
 
Directors and Senior Officers                                   
Leilei Wang                       (2)    
Xiaoxin Chen                   360,000    (3)   Jan. 4, 2025 
Hope Ni                   360,000    (4)   Jan. 4, 2025 
Xiaolong Li                       240,000(5)   May 20, 2025 
Jay Chang       2,000,000    Oct. 2, 2021    0.0950        (6)     
Tai Fan                       (7)     
Zhi Wang                   360,000    (8)   Jan. 4, 2025 
Other employees (comprising 100 individuals)       30,649,420    Oct. 23, 2018 to Oct. 27, 2024    0.0025 to 0.3180    1,200,000