20-F 1 20F2012.htm 20F UNITED STATES







Washington, D.C. 20549







For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012





Commission file number 333-146371



(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)


(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)


Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)


19, Avenue de la Liberté, L-2930 Luxembourg,

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

(Address of Registrant’s principal executive offices)


Henk Scheffer, Company Secretary, 19, Avenue de la Liberté, L-2930 Luxembourg,

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Fax: +352 4792 89 3937

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)


Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Name of each exchange on which registered

Ordinary Shares

New York Stock Exchange

6.00% Mandatorily Convertible Subordinated Debt Securities due 2016

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:


Securities for which there is reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:



Indicate the number of outstanding shares of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

Ordinary Shares


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes  x    No  ¨ 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes  ¨    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes  x    No  ¨ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‐T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).                                                                    

Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.




Large accelerated filer  

Accelerated filer  ¨ 

Non-accelerated filer  ¨ 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP  ¨  International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards

Board      Other  

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.                    

Item 17      Item 18  

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).                                           

Yes      No  




























Selected Financial Data



Capitalization and Indebtedness



Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds



Risk Factors






History and Development of the Company



Business Overview



Organizational Structure



Property, Plant and Equipment









Operating Results



Liquidity and Capital Resources



Research and Development, Patents and Licenses



Trend Information



Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements



Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations



Safe Harbor






Directors and Senior Management






Board Practices/Corporate Governance






Share Ownership






Major Shareholders



Related Party Transactions



Interest of Experts and Counsel






Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information



Significant Changes






Offer and Listing Details



Plan of Distribution






Selling Shareholders






Expenses of the Issue


ITEM 10.




Share Capital



Memorandum and Articles of Association



Material Contracts



Exchange Controls






Dividends and Paying Agents



Statements by Experts



Documents on Display



Subsidiary Information


ITEM 11.



ITEM 12.




Debt Securities



Warrants and Rights



Other Securities



American Depositary Shares





ITEM 13.



ITEM 14.



ITEM 15.






























ITEM 17.



ITEM 18.



ITEM 19.







Definitions and Terminology

Unless indicated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires, references herein to “ArcelorMittal”, “we”, “us”, “our” and the “Company” or similar terms are to ArcelorMittal, formerly known as Mittal Steel Company N.V. (“Mittal Steel”), having its registered office at 19, avenue de la Liberté, L-2930 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and, where the context requires, its consolidated subsidiaries. References to the “ArcelorMittal group” and the “Group” are to ArcelorMittal and its consolidated subsidiaries. ArcelorMittal’s principal subsidiaries, categorized by reporting segment and location, are listed below.

All references herein to “Arcelor” refer to Arcelor, a société anonyme incorporated under Luxembourg law, which was acquired by Mittal Steel on August 1, 2006. For the purposes of this annual report, the names of the following ArcelorMittal subsidiaries as abbreviated below will be used where applicable.


Name of Subsidiary





Flat Carbon Americas





ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc.


ArcelorMittal Dofasco



ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas S.A. de C.V.


ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas



ArcelorMittal USA LLC


ArcelorMittal USA



ArcelorMittal Brasil S.A.


ArcelorMittal Brasil








Flat Carbon Europe





ArcelorMittal Atlantique et Lorraine S.A.S.


ArcelorMittal Atlantique et Lorraine



ArcelorMittal Belgium N.V.


ArcelorMittal Belgium



ArcelorMittal España S.A.


ArcelorMittal España



ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe S.A.





ArcelorMittal Galati S.A.


ArcelorMittal Galati



ArcelorMittal Poland S.A.


ArcelorMittal Poland



Industeel Belgium S.A.


Industeel Belgium



Industeel France S.A.


Industeel France



ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt GmbH


ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt



ArcelorMittal Bremen GmbH


ArcelorMittal Bremen



ArcelorMittal Méditerranée S.A.S.


ArcelorMittal Méditerranée








Long Carbon Americas and Europe





Acindar Industria Argentina de Aceros S.A.





ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange S.A.


ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange



ArcelorMittal Brasil S.A.


ArcelorMittal Brasil



ArcelorMittal Hamburg GmbH


ArcelorMittal Hamburg



ArcelorMittal Las Truchas, S.A. de C.V.


ArcelorMittal Las Truchas



ArcelorMittal Montreal Inc.


ArcelorMittal Montreal



ArcelorMittal Gipuzkoa S.L.


ArcelorMittal Gipuzkoa



ArcelorMittal Ostrava a.s.


ArcelorMittal Ostrava


Czech Republic

ArcelorMittal Point Lisas Ltd.


ArcelorMittal Point Lisas


Trinidad and Tobago

Société Nationale de Sidérurgie S.A.





ArcelorMittal Duisburg GmbH


ArcelorMittal Duisburg



ArcelorMittal Warszawa S.p.z.o.o.


ArcelorMittal Warszawa













ArcelorMittal South Africa Ltd.


ArcelorMittal South Africa


South Africa

JSC ArcelorMittal Temirtau


ArcelorMittal Temirtau



OJSC ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih


ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih













ArcelorMittal Mines Canada Inc.


ArcelorMittal Mines Canada



ArcelorMittal Liberia Ltd


ArcelorMittal Liberia



JSC ArcelorMittal Temirtau


ArcelorMittal Temirtau



OJSC ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih


ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih








Distribution Solutions





ArcelorMittal International Luxembourg S.A.


ArcelorMittal International Luxembourg








In addition, unless we have indicated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report to:

·         “production capacity” are to the annual production capacity of plant and equipment based on existing technical parameters as estimated by management;

·         “steel products” are to finished and semi-finished steel products, and exclude raw materials (including those described under “upstream” below), direct reduced iron (“DRI”), hot metal, coke, etc.;

·         “sales” include shipping and handling fees and costs billed to a customer in a sales transaction;

·         “tons”, “net tons” or “ST” are to short tons and are used in measurements involving steel products (a short ton is equal to 907.2 kilograms or 2,000 pounds);

·         “tonnes” or “MT” are to metric tonnes and are used in measurements involving steel products, as well as crude steel, iron ore, iron ore pellets, DRI, hot metal, coke, coal, pig iron and scrap (a metric tonne is equal to 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.62 pounds);

·         “Articles of Association” are to the amended and restated articles of association of ArcelorMittal, dated February 8, 2013;

·         “crude steel” are to the first solid steel product upon solidification of liquid steel, including ingots from conventional mills and semis (e.g., slab, billet and blooms) from continuous casters;

·         measures of distance are stated in kilometers, each of which equals approximately 0.62 miles, or in meters, each of which equals approximately 3.28 feet;

·         “DMTU” or “dmtu” stand for dry metric tonne unit;

·         “real”, “reais” or “R$” are to Brazilian reais, the official currency of Brazil;

·         “US$”, “$”, “dollars”, “USD” or “U.S. dollars” are to United States dollars, the official currency of the United States;

·         “AUD$” or “AUD” are to Australian dollars, the official currency of Australia;

·         “C$” or “CAD” are to Canadian dollars, the official currency of Canada;

·         “HK$” are to Hong Kong dollars, the official currency of Hong Kong;

·         “CNY” are to Chinese yuan, the official currency of China;

·         “KZT” are to the Kazak tenge, the official currency of Kazakhstan;

·         “UAH” are to the Ukrainian Hryvnia, the official currency of Ukraine;

·         “euro”, “euros”, “EUR” or “€“ are to the currency of the European Union member states participating in the European Monetary Union;

·         “ZAR” are to South African rand, the official currency of the Republic of South Africa;

·         “Ps.” or “MXN” are to the Mexican peso, the official currency of the United Mexican States;

·         “downstream” are to finishing operations, for example in the case of flat products, the process after the production of hot-rolled coil/plates, and in case of long products, the process after the production of blooms/billets (including production of bars, wire rods, SBQ, etc.);





·         “upstream” are to operations that precede downstream steel-making, such as mining products (iron ore pellets and iron ore fines), coking coal, coke, sinter, DRI, blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace (“BOF”), electric arc furnace (“EAF”), casters & hot rolling/plate mill;

·         “number of employees” are to employees on the payroll of the Company;

·         “Significant Shareholder” are to a trust (HSBC Trust (C.I.) Limited, as trustee), of which Mr. Lakshmi N. Mittal, Mrs. Usha Mittal and their children are the beneficiaries, or (where the context requires) prior owners of the Significant Shareholder’s stake in ArcelorMittal;

·         “brownfield project” are to the expansion of an existing operation;

·         “greenfield project” are to the development of a new project;

·         “coking coal” are to coal that, by virtue of its coking properties, is used in the manufacture of coke, which is used in the steelmaking process;

·         “direct reduced iron” or “DRI” are to metallic iron formed by removing oxygen from iron ore without the formation of, or passage through, a smelting phase. DRI can be used as feedstock for steel production;

·         “iron ore fines” are to ultra-fine iron ore generated by mining and grinding processes, that are aggregated into iron ore pellets through an agglomeration process or used as sinter feed;

·         “iron pellets” are to agglomerated ultra-fine iron ore particles of a size and quality suitable for use in steel-making processes;

·         “sinter” are to a metallic input used in the blast furnace steel-making process, which aggregates fines, binder and other materials into a coherent mass by heating without melting;

·         “special bar quality” (“SBQ”) are to special bar quality steel, a high-quality long product;

·         “energy coal” are to coal used as a fuel source in electrical power generation, cement manufacture and various industrial applications. Energy coal may also be referred to as steam or thermal coal;

·         “metallurgical coal” are to a broader term than coking coal that includes all coals used in steelmaking, such as coal used for the pulverized coal injection process;

·         “run of mine” or “ROM” ore mined to be fed to a preparation and/or concentration process;

·         “wet recoverable” are to a quantity of iron ore or coal recovered after the material from the mine has gone through a preparation and/or concentration process excluding drying;

·         “BRICET” are to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China, Eastern Europe and Turkey;

·         “CIS” are to the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States; and

·         the “Spanish Stock Exchanges” are to the stock exchanges of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia.

Financial Information

This annual report contains the audited consolidated financial statements of ArcelorMittal and its consolidated subsidiaries, including the consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2011 and 2012, and the consolidated statements of operations, other comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012. ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”).

The financial information and certain other information presented in a number of tables in this annual report have been rounded to the nearest whole number or the nearest decimal. Therefore, the sum of the numbers in a column may not conform exactly to the total figure given for that column. In addition, certain percentages presented in the tables in this annual report reflect calculations based upon the underlying information prior to rounding and, accordingly, may not conform exactly to the percentages that would be derived if the relevant calculations were based upon the rounded numbers.






Market Information

This annual report includes industry data and projections about our markets obtained from industry surveys, market research, publicly available information and industry publications. Statements on ArcelorMittal’s competitive position contained in this annual report are based primarily on public sources including, but not limited to, publications of the World Steel Association. Industry publications generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed and that the projections they contain are based on a number of significant assumptions. We have not independently verified this data or determined the reasonableness of such assumptions. In addition, in many cases we have made statements in this annual report regarding our industry and our position in the industry based on internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, as well as our own experience. While these statements are believed to be reliable, they have not been independently verified.



This annual report and the documents incorporated by reference in this annual report contain forward-looking statements based on estimates and assumptions. This annual report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning the business, future financial condition, results of operations and prospects of ArcelorMittal, including its subsidiaries. These statements usually contain the words “believes”, “plans”, “expects”, “anticipates”, “intends”, “estimates” or other similar expressions. For each of these statements, you should be aware that forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties. Although it is believed that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, there is no assurance that the actual results or developments anticipated will be realized or, even if realized, that they will have the expected effects on the business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects of ArcelorMittal.

These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which the statements were made, and no obligation has been undertaken to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements made in this annual report or elsewhere as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable laws and regulations. In addition to other factors and matters contained or incorporated by reference in this annual report, it is believed that the following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements:

·         recessions or prolonged periods of weak economic growth, either globally or in ArcelorMittal’s key markets;

·         risks relating to ongoing weakness of the Euro-zone economy, as well as ongoing concern over Euro-zone sovereign debt;

·         the risk that excessive capacity in the steel industry may weigh on the profitability of steel producers;

·         any volatility in the supply or prices of raw materials, energy or transportation, mismatches with steel price trends, or protracted low raw materials prices;

·         the risk of protracted low iron ore and steel prices or price volatility;

·         increased competition in the steel industry;

·         the risk that unfair practices in steel trade could negatively affect steel prices and reduce ArcelorMittal’s profitability, or that national trade restrictions could hamper ArcelorMittal’s access to key export markets;

·         increased competition from other materials, which could significantly reduce market prices and demand for steel products;

·         legislative or regulatory changes, including those relating to protection of the environment and health and safety;

·         laws and regulations restricting greenhouse gas emissions;

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal’s high level of indebtedness could make it difficult or expensive to refinance its maturing debt, incur new debt and/or flexibly manage its business;

·         risks relating to greenfield and brownfield projects;

·         risks relating to ArcelorMittal’s mining operations;





·         the fact that ArcelorMittal’s reserve estimates could materially differ from mineral quantities that it may be able to actually recover, that its mine life estimates may prove inaccurate and the fact that market fluctuations may render certain ore reserves uneconomical to mine;

·         drilling and production risks in relation to mining;

·         rising extraction costs in relation to mining;

·         failure to manage continued growth through acquisitions;

·         a Mittal family trust’s ability to exercise significant influence over the outcome of shareholder voting;

·         any loss or diminution in the services of Mr. Lakshmi N. Mittal, ArcelorMittal’s Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer;              

·         the risk that the earnings and cash flows of ArcelorMittal’s operating subsidiaries may not be sufficient to meet future funding needs at the holding company level;

·         the risk that changes in assumptions underlying the carrying value of certain assets, including as a result of adverse market conditions, could result in impairment of tangible and intangible assets, including goodwill;             

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal’s investment projects may add to its financing requirements;

·         ArcelorMittal’s ability to fund under-funded pension liabilities;               

·         the risk of labor disputes;

·         economic policy, political, social and legal risks and uncertainties in certain countries in which ArcelorMittal operates or proposes to operate;

·         fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly the euro to U.S. dollar exchange rate, and the risk of impositions of exchange controls in countries where ArcelorMittal operates;

·         the risk of disruptions to ArcelorMittal’s manufacturing operations;

·         the risk of damage to ArcelorMittal’s production facilities due to natural disasters;

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal’s insurance policies may provide inadequate coverage;

·         the risk of product liability claims;

·         the risk of potential liabilities from investigations, litigation and fines regarding antitrust matters;

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal’s governance and compliance processes may fail to prevent regulatory penalties or reputational harm, both at operating subsidiaries and joint ventures;

·         the fact that ArcelorMittal is subject to an extensive, complex and evolving regulatory framework and the risk of unfavorable changes to, or interpretations of, the tax laws and regulations in the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates;

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal may not be able fully to utilize its deferred tax assets; and

·         the risk that ArcelorMittal’s reputation and business could be materially harmed as a result of data breaches, data theft, unauthorized access or successful hacking.

These factors are discussed in more detail in this annual report, including under “Item 3D—Key Information—Risk Factors”.



Not applicable.


Not applicable.






ITEM 3.              KEY INFORMATION

A.    Selected Financial Data

The following tables present selected consolidated financial information of ArcelorMittal as of and for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, prepared in accordance with IFRS. This selected consolidated financial information should be read in conjunction with ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included elsewhere herein.

In accordance with IFRS 5, Statements of Operations have been adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented due to the completion of the spin-off of stainless steel operations in a separately focused company, Aperam, on January 25, 2011.



Consolidated Statements of Operations  











(Amounts in $ millions except per share data and percentages)  












Year ended December 31,
























Cost of sales (including depreciation and impairment)2 3











Selling, general and administrative expenses  











Operating income/(loss)  











Operating income as percentage of sales  











Income from investments in associates and joint ventures  











Financing costs—net  











Income/(loss) before taxes  











Net income from continuing operations (including non-controlling interest)  











Discontinued operations  











Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent  











Net income (including non-controlling interest)  











Earnings per common share—continuing operations (in U.S. dollars)  











Basic earnings per common share4











Diluted earnings per common share4











Earnings per common share— discontinued operations (in U.S. dollars)  











Basic earnings per common share4











Diluted earnings per common share4











Earnings per common share (in U.S. dollars)  











Basic earnings per common share4











Diluted earnings per common share4











Dividends declared per share  






















Consolidated Statements of Financial Position6











(Amounts in $ millions except share, production and shipment data)  












As of December 31,
























Cash and cash equivalents including restricted cash7











Property, plant and equipment and biological assets  









53 834


Total assets  











Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt  











Long-term debt, net of current portion  











Net assets  











Share capital  











Basic weighted average common shares outstanding (millions)  











Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding (millions)  






















Other Data  











Net cash provided by operating activities  











Net cash (used in) investing activities  











Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities  











Total production of crude steel (thousands of tonnes)  











Total shipments of steel products (thousands of tonnes)5

































Including $6,405 million, $3,169 million, $4,873 million, $5,875 million and $5,181 million of sales to related parties for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.


Including $2,373 million, $1,942 million, $2,448 million, $2,897 million and $1,806 million of purchases from related parties for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.


Including depreciation and impairment of $5,759 million, $5,126 million, $4,920 million, $5,000 million and $9,719 million for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.


Basic earnings per common share are computed by dividing net income attributable to equity holders of ArcelorMittal by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the periods presented. Diluted earnings per common share include assumed shares from stock options, shares from restricted stock units and convertible debt (if dilutive) in the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the periods presented.


Shipment volumes of steel products for the operations of the Company include certain inter-segment shipments.


Stainless steel assets and liabilities are reclassified to assets and liabilities held for distribution only as of December 31, 2010 and not as at the other year-ends in this table.


Including restricted cash of $11 million, $90 million, $82 million, $84 million and $138 million at December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.







B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.


D.    Risk Factors

ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially adversely affected by any of the risks and uncertainties described below.

Risks Related to the Global Economy and the Mining and Steel Industry

ArcelorMittal’s business and results are substantially affected by regional and global macroeconomic conditions.  Recessions or prolonged periods of weak growth in the global economy or the economies of ArcelorMittal’s key selling markets have in the past had and in the future would be likely to have a material adverse effect on the mining and steel industries and on ArcelorMittal’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

The mining and steel industries have historically been highly cyclical.  This is due largely to the cyclical nature of the business sectors that are the principal consumers of steel and the industrial raw materials produced from mining, namely the automotive, construction, appliance, machinery, equipment, infrastructure and transportation industries.  Demand for minerals and metals and steel products thus generally correlates to macroeconomic fluctuations in the global economy.  This correlation and the adverse effect of macroeconomic downturns on metal mining companies and steel producers were evidenced in the 2008/2009 financial and subsequent economic crisis.  The results of both mining companies and steel producers were substantially affected, with many steel producers (including ArcelorMittal), in particular, recording sharply reduced revenues and operating losses.  Since the severe economic downturn of 2008/2009, macroeconomic conditions have remained uncertain and, in 2012, particularly difficult, due among other things to the continuing Euro-zone sovereign debt crisis, economic stagnation or slow growth in developed economies and a cooling of emerging market economies.  See “Item 5—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Overview—Key Factors Affecting Results of Operations—Economic Environment”. Growth of the Chinese economy, which in recent years has been and is one of the main demand drivers in the mining and steel industries, slowed, as did that of other emerging economies.  Continued difficult macroeconomic conditions, a global recession, a recession or anemic growth in North America, a further degradation of the economic situation in Europe (discussed further below) or the continued slowdown in emerging economies that are substantial consumers of steel (such as China, Brazil, Russia and India, as well as emerging Asian markets, the Middle East and the Commonwealth of Independent States (“CIS”) regions) would likely result in continued and prolonged reduced demand for (and hence price of) minerals and steel and have a material adverse effect on the mining and steel industries in general and on ArcelorMittal’s results of operations and financial condition in particular. 





The ongoing weakness of the Euro-zone economy, as well as the ongoing concern over Euro-zone sovereign debt, may continue to adversely affect the steel industry and ArcelorMittal’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Steel producers with substantial sales in Europe, such as ArcelorMittal, have been deeply affected by macroeconomic conditions in Europe over the 2010-2012 period.  The Euro-zone sovereign debt crisis, resulting austerity measures and other factors have led to recession or stagnation in many of the national economies in the Euro-zone.  Demand for steel has been depressed as a result, dropping in 2012 to 29% below 2007 levels.  Current expectations are for continued weak macroeconomic conditions in Europe in the near to mid-term (e.g., European Central Bank forecast of December 2012 of a 0.3% decrease in Euro-zone GDP in 2013, IMF forecast of October 2012 of a contraction of 0.4%).  Moreover, an aggravation of the Euro-zone sovereign debt crisis would likely further weigh on economic growth.  A continuation or worsening of the negative macroeconomic trends in the Euro-zone crisis would most likely result in continued and prolonged reduced demand for (and hence price of) steel in Europe and have a material adverse effect on the European steel industry in general and on ArcelorMittal’s results of operations and financial condition in particular. 

Excess capacity and oversupply in the steel industry may weigh on the profitability of steel producers, including ArcelorMittal.

In addition to economic conditions, the steel industry is affected by global and regional production capacity and fluctuations in steel imports/exports and tariffs. The steel industry globally has historically suffered from structural overcapacity, which is amplified during periods of global or regional economic weakness due to weaker global or regional demand. 

In Europe, structural overcapacity is considerable, with studies indicating that European production capacity may exceed European demand by as much as 40%.  As noted above, current demand levels in Europe are approximately 29% below those of 2007, widely considered to have been a peak in the industry cycle.  Reaching equilibrium would therefore require supply-side reductions.  These are difficult and costly to implement in the European context.  Moreover, the supply excess could be exacerbated by an increase in imports from emerging market producers. 

Outside of Europe, production capacity in certain developing countries, particularly in China, but also in other countries such as Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, has increased substantially in recent years.  Russia has recently joined the World Trade Organization, which will likely lead to an increase in Russian steel exports to Europe.  China is now the largest global steel producer by a large margin, and the balance between its domestic production and consumption has been an important factor influencing global steel prices in recent years. Excess capacity from developing countries, such as China, may result in exports of significant amounts of steel and steel products at prices that are at or below their costs of production, putting downward pressure on steel prices in other markets, including the United States and Europe.  While growth in Chinese steel production has slowed, the slowdown in the Chinese economy in 2012 resulted in an increase in exports to other markets (mainly Asia).

Given these structural capacity issues, ArcelorMittal remains exposed to the risk of steel production increases in China and other markets outstripping any increases in real demand.  This “overhang” will likely weigh on steel prices and therefore exacerbate the “margin squeeze” in the steel industry created by high-cost raw materials, in particular in markets marked by overcapacity such as Europe.

Volatility in the supply and prices of raw materials, energy and transportation, and mismatches with steel price trends, as well as protracted low raw materials prices, could adversely affect ArcelorMittal’s results of operations.

Steel production consumes substantial amounts of raw materials including iron ore, coking coal and coke. Because the production of direct reduced iron, the production of steel in electric arc furnaces and the re-heating of steel involve the use of significant amounts of energy, steel companies are also sensitive to natural gas and electricity prices and dependent on having access to reliable supplies of energy. Any prolonged interruption in the supply of raw materials or energy would adversely affect ArcelorMittal’s results of operation and financial condition.

The prices of iron ore, coking coal, coke and scrap are highly volatile and may be affected by, among other factors: industry structural factors (including the oligopolistic nature of the (sea-borne) iron ore industry and the fragmented nature of the steel industry); demand trends in the steel industry itself and particularly from Chinese steel producers (as the largest group of producers); new laws or regulations; suppliers’ allocations to other purchasers; business continuity of suppliers; expansion projects of suppliers; interruptions in production by suppliers; accidents or other similar events at suppliers’ premises or along the supply chain; wars, natural disasters, political disruption and other similar events; fluctuations in exchange rates; the bargaining power of raw material suppliers; and the availability and cost of transportation. Although ArcelorMittal has substantial sources of iron ore and coal from its own mines and strategic long-term contracts (the Company’s self sufficiency rates were 61% for iron ore and 20% for PCI and coal in 2012) and is expanding output at such mines and also has new mines under development, as a steelmaker it remains exposed to volatility in the supply and price of iron ore, coking coal and coke as it obtains a significant portion of such raw materials under supply contracts from third parties.  It is also exposed directly to price volatility in iron ore and coal as it sells such minerals to third parties, and expects to increase the amount of such sales in the future. 





Historically, energy prices have varied significantly, and this trend is expected to continue due to market conditions and other factors beyond the control of steel companies.

Steel and raw material prices have historically been highly correlated. A drop in raw material prices therefore typically triggers a decrease in steel prices. During the 2008/2009 crisis and again in 2012, both steel and raw materials prices dropped sharply. Another risk is embedded in the timing of the production cycle: rapidly falling steel prices can trigger write-downs of raw material inventory purchased when steel prices were higher, as well as of unsold finished steel products. ArcelorMittal recorded substantial write-downs in 2008/2009 as a result of this. Furthermore, a lack of correlation or a time lag in correlation between raw material and steel prices may also occur and result in a “margin squeeze” or “price-cost squeeze” in the steel industry.  ArcelorMittal experienced such a squeeze in late 2011, for example, when iron ore prices fell over 30% in three weeks in October 2011 and quickly resulted in a significant fall in steel prices while lower raw material prices had yet to feed into the Company’s operating costs and it continued to sell steel products using inventory manufactured with higher priced iron ore. ArcelorMittal experienced similar price-cost squeezes at various points in 2012. Because ArcelorMittal sources a substantial portion of its raw materials through long term contracts with quarterly (or more frequent) formula-based or negotiated price adjustments and sells a substantial part of its steel products at spot prices, it faces the risk of adverse differentials between its own production costs, which are affected by global raw materials prices, scrap prices and trends for steel prices in regional markets. Exposure to this risk has increased as raw material suppliers have since 2010 moved increasingly toward sales on a shorter term (quarterly or more frequent) basis.  In addition to the Company’s exposure as a steelmaker, protracted periods of low prices of iron ore and to a lesser extent coal would weigh on the revenues and profitability of the Company’s mining business, as occurred in the second half of 2012.  For additional details on ArcelorMittal’s raw materials supply and self-sufficiency, see “Item 4B—Information on the Company —Business Overview—Raw Materials and Energy”.

Protracted low iron ore and steel prices would have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s results, as could price volatility.

ArcelorMittal sells both iron ore and steel products.  Protracted low iron ore prices have a negative effect on the results of its mining business, as a result of lower sale prices and lower margins on such sales.  In addition, as indicated above, iron ore prices and steel prices are generally highly correlated, and a drop in iron ore prices therefore typically triggers a decrease in steel prices.

As indicated above, the prices of iron ore and steel products are influenced by many factors, including demand, worldwide production capacity, capacity-utilization rates, global prices and contract arrangements, steel inventory levels and exchange rates.  ArcelorMittal’s results have shown the material adverse effect of prolonged periods of low prices.  Following an extended period of rising prices, global steel prices fell sharply during the financial and economic crisis of 2008/2009.  This resulted from the sharp drop in demand and was exacerbated by massive industry destocking (i.e., customer reductions of steel inventories).  This had a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal and other steel producers, who experienced lower revenues, margins and, as discussed further below, write-downs of finished steel products and raw material inventories.  Steel prices gradually recovered in late 2009 and into 2010 while remaining below their pre-financial crisis peaks.  Steel prices remained volatile throughout 2011 rising in the first quarter on stronger demand and higher raw material prices but softening in the second half. The softening accelerated in the fourth quarter of 2011 as iron ore prices dropped sharply in October, and customers then started to destock in an uncertain economic environment.  While there were some increases in steel price levels in the first half of 2012, steel prices (as well as iron ore prices) generally declined over the second half of 2012, with a particularly sharp drop occurring in the third quarter of 2012.  ArcelorMittal’s results will likely continue to suffer from low steel prices as any sustained steel price recovery would likely require raw material price support as well as a broad economic recovery in order to underpin an increase in real demand for steel products by end users.

Developments in the competitive environment in the steel industry could have an adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s competitive position and hence its business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

The markets in which steel companies operate are highly competitive.  Competition—in the form of established producers expanding in new markets, smaller producers increasing production in anticipation of demand increases, amid an incipient recovery, or exporters selling excess capacity from markets such as China—could cause ArcelorMittal to lose market share, increase expenditures or reduce pricing.  Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Unfair trade practices in ArcelorMittal’s home markets could negatively affect steel prices and reduce ArcelorMittal’s profitability, while trade restrictions could limit ArcelorMittal’s access to key export markets.

ArcelorMittal is exposed to the effects of “dumping” and other unfair trade and pricing practices by competitors. Moreover, government subsidization of the steel industry remains widespread in certain countries, particularly those with centrally-controlled economies such as China.  As a consequence of the recent global economic crisis, there is an increased risk of unfairly-traded steel exports from such countries into various markets including North America and Europe, in which ArcelorMittal produces and sells its products. Such imports could have the effect of reducing prices and demand for ArcelorMittal products.





In addition, ArcelorMittal has significant exposure to the effects of trade actions and barriers due to the global nature of its operations. Various countries have in the past instituted trade actions and barriers, a recurrence of which could materially and adversely affect ArcelorMittal’s business by limiting the Company’s access to steel markets.

See “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations”.

Competition from other materials could reduce market prices and demand for steel products and thereby reduce ArcelorMittal’s cash flow and profitability.

In many applications, steel competes with other materials that may be used as substitutes, such as aluminum (particularly in the automobile industry), cement, composites, glass, plastic and wood. Government regulatory initiatives mandating the use of such materials in lieu of steel, whether for environmental or other reasons, as well as the development of other new substitutes for steel products, could significantly reduce market prices and demand for steel products and thereby reduce ArcelorMittal’s cash flow and profitability.

ArcelorMittal is subject to strict environmental laws and regulations that could give rise to a significant increase in costs and liabilities. 

ArcelorMittal is subject to a broad range of environmental laws and regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. These laws and regulations impose increasingly stringent environmental protection standards regarding, among others, air emissions, wastewater storage, treatment and discharges, the use and handling of hazardous or toxic materials, waste disposal practices, and the remediation of environmental contamination. The costs of complying with, and the imposition of liabilities pursuant to, environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and compliance with new and more stringent obligations may require additional capital expenditures or modifications in operating practices. Failure to comply can result in civil and or criminal penalties being imposed, the suspension of permits, requirements to curtail or suspend operations, and lawsuits by third parties. Despite ArcelorMittal’s efforts to comply with environmental laws and regulations, environmental incidents or accidents may occur that negatively affect the Company’s reputation or the operations of key facilities.

ArcelorMittal also incurs costs and liabilities associated with the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In addition to the impact on current facilities and operations, environmental remediation obligations can give rise to substantial liabilities in respect of divested assets and past activities. This may also be the case for acquisitions when liabilities for past acts or omissions are not adequately reflected in the terms and price of the acquisition. ArcelorMittal could become subject to further remediation obligations in the future, as additional contamination is discovered or cleanup standards become more stringent.

Costs and liabilities associated with mining activities include those resulting from tailings and sludge disposal, effluent management, and rehabilitation of land disturbed during mining processes. ArcelorMittal could become subject to unidentified liabilities in the future, such as those relating to uncontrolled tailings breaches or other future events or to underestimated emissions of polluting substances.

ArcelorMittal’s operations may be located in areas where individuals or communities may regard its activities as having a detrimental effect on their natural environment and conditions of life. Any actions taken by such individuals or communities in response to such concerns could compromise ArcelorMittal’s profitability or, in extreme cases, the viability of an operation or the development of new activities in the relevant region or country.

See “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Environmental Laws and Regulations” and “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”.

Laws and regulations restricting emissions of greenhouse gases could force ArcelorMittal to incur increased capital and operating costs and could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s results of operations and financial condition.

Compliance with new and more stringent environmental obligations relating to greenhouse gas emissions may require additional capital expenditures or modifications in operating practices, as well as additional reporting obligations. The integrated steel process involves carbon and creates carbon dioxide (CO2), which distinguishes integrated steel producers from mini-mills and many other industries where CO2 generation is primarily linked to energy use. The European Union has established greenhouse gas regulations and is revising its emission trading system for the period 2013 to 2020 in a manner that may require us to incur additional costs to acquire emissions allowances.  The United States required reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from certain large sources beginning in 2011 and has begun adopting and implementing regulations to restrict emissions of greenhouse gases under existing provisions of the Clean Air Act. Further measures, in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries, may be enacted in the future. In particular, a recently adopted international agreement, the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, calls for a second phase of the Kyoto Protocol’s greenhouse gas emissions restrictions to be effective through 2020 and for a new international treaty to come into effect and be implemented from 2020.  Such obligations, whether in the form of a national or international cap-and-trade emissions permit system, a carbon tax, emissions controls, reporting requirements, or other regulatory initiatives, could have





a negative effect on ArcelorMittal’s production levels, income and cash flows. Such regulations could also have a negative effect on the Company’s suppliers and customers, which could result in higher costs and lower sales.

Moreover, many developing nations, such as China, India and certain others, have not yet instituted significant greenhouse gas regulations. It is possible that a future international agreement to regulate emissions may provide exemptions and lesser standards for developing nations. In such case, ArcelorMittal may be at a competitive disadvantage relative to steelmakers having more or all of their production in such countries.

In addition, some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods and other climatic events. If any such events were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

See “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Environmental Laws and Regulations” and “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Environmental Liabilities”.

ArcelorMittal is subject to stringent health and safety laws and regulations that give rise to significant costs and could give rise to significant liabilities.

ArcelorMittal is subject to a broad range of health and safety laws and regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates. These laws and regulations, as interpreted by relevant agencies and the courts, impose increasingly stringent health and safety protection standards. The costs of complying with, and the imposition of liabilities pursuant to, health and safety laws and regulations could be significant, and failure to comply could result in the assessment of civil and criminal penalties, the suspension of permits or operations, and lawsuits by third parties.

Despite ArcelorMittal’s efforts to monitor and reduce accidents at its facilities (see “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations”), health and safety incidents do occur, some of which may result in costs and liabilities and negatively impact ArcelorMittal’s reputation or the operations of the affected facility. Such accidents could include explosions or gas leaks, fires or collapses in underground mining operations, vehicular accidents, other accidents involving mobile equipment, or exposure to radioactive or other potentially hazardous materials. Some of ArcelorMittal’s industrial activities involve the use, storage and transport of dangerous chemicals and toxic substances, and ArcelorMittal is therefore subject to the risk of industrial accidents which could have significant adverse consequences for the Company’s workers and facilities, as well as the environment. Such accidents could lead to production stoppages, loss of key personnel, the loss of key assets, or put at risk employees (and those of sub-contractors and suppliers) or persons living near affected sites.

ArcelorMittal may continue to be exposed to increased operational costs due to the costs and lost time associated with the HIV/AIDS and malaria infection rates within ArcelorMittal’s workforce in Africa and other regions. ArcelorMittal may also be affected by potential outbreaks of flu or other viruses or infectious diseases in any of the regions in which it operates.

Under certain circumstances, authorities could require ArcelorMittal facilities to curtail or suspend operations based on health and safety concerns.  For example, in August 2012 a local court in Italy ordered the partial closure of another company’s large steel manufacturing facility, based on concerns that its air emissions were harming the health of workers and nearby residents.  The industry is concerned that the court decision could lead to more stringent permit and other requirements, particularly at the local level, or to other similar local or national court decisions in the EU.

See “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Environmental Laws and Regulations” and “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”.

Risks Related to ArcelorMittal

ArcelorMittal has a substantial amount of indebtedness, which could make it more difficult or expensive to refinance its maturing debt, incur new debt and/or flexibly manage its business.

As of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had total debt outstanding of $26.3 billion, consisting of $4.3 billion of short-term indebtedness (including payables to banks and the current portion of long-term debt) and $22.0 billion of long-term indebtedness. As of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had $4.5 billion of cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, and $10 billion available to be drawn under existing credit facilities. As of December 31, 2012, substantial amounts of indebtedness mature in 2013 ($4.3 billion), 2014 ($3.9 billion), 2015 ($2.6 billion) and 2016 ($2.5 billion). See “Item 5B—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources”.

If the mining and steel markets deteriorate further, consequently reducing operating cash flows, ArcelorMittal’s gearing (long-term debt, plus short-term debt, less cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, divided by total equity) would likely increase,





absent sufficient asset disposals.  In such a scenario, ArcelorMittal may have difficulty accessing financial markets to refinance maturing debt on acceptable terms or, in extreme scenarios, come under liquidity pressure.  ArcelorMittal’s access to financial markets for refinancing also depends on conditions in the global capital and credit markets which are volatile and are sensitive in particular to developments in the Euro-zone sovereign debt situation.  Financial markets could conceivably deteriorate sharply, including in response to significant political or financial news, such as large credit losses at a systemically important financial institution or the bankruptcy of a large company, a default or heightened risk of default by a sovereign country in Europe or elsewhere, or worse, the voluntary exit or expulsion of certain countries from the Euro currency block and/or a collapse of the Euro-zone financial system, which would be a deeply disruptive global economic event.  Under such circumstances, the Company could experience difficulties in accessing the financial markets on acceptable terms or at all.

ArcelorMittal’s high level of debt outstanding could have adverse consequences more generally, including by impairing its ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, general corporate purposes or other purposes, and limiting its flexibility to adjust to changing market conditions or withstand competitive pressures, resulting in greater vulnerability to a downturn in general economic conditions.  While ArcelorMittal is targeting a reduction in “net debt” (i.e., long-term debt net of current portion plus payables to banks and current portion of long-term debt, less cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investments), there is no assurance that it will succeed.  

Moreover, ArcelorMittal could, in order to increase its financial flexibility and strengthen its balance sheet, implement capital raising measures such as equity offerings (as was done in January 2013), which could (depending on how they are structured) dilute the interests of existing shareholders.  In addition, ArcelorMittal is pursuing a policy of asset disposals in order to reduce debt. These asset disposals are subject to execution risk and may fail to materialize, and the proceeds received from them may not reflect values that management believes are achievable and/or cause substantial accounting losses (particularly if the disposals are done in difficult market conditions). In addition, to the extent that the asset disposals include the sale of all or part of core assets (including through an increase in the share of minority interests, such as the ArcelorMittal Mines Canada transaction announced on January 2, 2013), this could reduce ArcelorMittal’s consolidated cash flows and or the economic interest of ArcelorMittal  shareholders in such assets, which may be cash-generative and profitable ones.

In addition, credit rating agencies could downgrade ArcelorMittal’s ratings either due to factors specific to ArcelorMittal, a prolonged cyclical downturn in the steel industry or macroeconomic trends (such as global or regional recessions) and trends in credit and capital markets more generally.  In this respect, Standard & Poor’s, Moody's and Fitch downgraded the Company’s rating to below “investment grade” in August, November and December 2012, respectively, and Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s currently have ArcelorMittal’s credit rating on negative outlook.  The margin under ArcelorMittal’s principal credit facilities and certain of its outstanding bonds is subject to adjustment in the event of a change in its long-term credit ratings, and the August, November and December 2012 downgrades resulted in increased interest expense. See “Item 5B—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources”. Any further downgrades in ArcelorMittal’s credit ratings would result in a further increase in its cost of borrowing and could significantly harm its financial condition and results of operations as well as hinder its ability to refinance its existing indebtedness on acceptable terms.

ArcelorMittal’s principal credit facilities contain restrictive covenants.  These covenants limit, inter alia, encumbrances on the assets of ArcelorMittal and its subsidiaries, the ability of ArcelorMittal’s subsidiaries to incur debt and the ability of ArcelorMittal and its subsidiaries to dispose of assets in certain circumstances. ArcelorMittal’s principal credit facilities also include the following financial covenant: ArcelorMittal must ensure that the “Leverage Ratio”, being the ratio of “Consolidated Total Net Borrowings” (consolidated total borrowings less consolidated cash and cash equivalents) to “Consolidated EBITDA” (the consolidated net pre-taxation profits of the ArcelorMittal group for a Measurement Period, subject to certain adjustments as defined in the facilities), at the end of each “Measurement Period” (each period of 12 months ending on the last day of a financial half-year or a financial year of ArcelorMittal), is not greater than a ratio of 3.5 to one. As of December 31, 2012, the Company was in compliance with the Leverage Ratio.

The restrictive and financial covenants could limit ArcelorMittal’s operating and financial flexibility. Failure to comply with any covenant would enable the lenders to accelerate ArcelorMittal’s repayment obligations. Moreover, ArcelorMittal’s debt facilities have provisions whereby certain events relating to other borrowers within the ArcelorMittal group could, under certain circumstances, lead to acceleration of debt repayment under such credit facilities. Any invocation of these cross-acceleration clauses could cause some or all of the other debt to accelerate, creating liquidity pressures.  In addition, even market perception of a potential breach of any financial covenant could have a negative impact on ArcelorMittal’s ability to refinance its indebtedness on acceptable conditions.

Furthermore, some of ArcelorMittal’s debt is subject to floating rates of interest and thereby exposes ArcelorMittal to interest rate risk (i.e., if interest rates rise, ArcelorMittal’s debt service obligations on its floating rate indebtedness would increase). Depending on market conditions, ArcelorMittal from time to time uses interest-rate swaps or other financial instruments to hedge a portion of its interest rate exposure either from fixed to floating or floating to fixed.  After taking into account interest-rate derivative financial instruments, ArcelorMittal had exposure to 93% of its debt at fixed interest rates and 7% at floating rates as of December 31, 2012.





Finally, ArcelorMittal has foreign exchange exposure in relation to its debt, approximately 30% of which is denominated in euros as of December 31, 2012, while its financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars.  This creates balance sheet exposure, with a depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the euro leading to an increase in debt (including for covenant compliance measurement purposes).

See “Item 5B—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources”.

ArcelorMittal’s growth strategy includes greenfield and brownfield projects that are inherently subject to completion and financing risks.

As a part of its growth strategy, the Company plans to expand its steel-making capacity and raw materials production through a combination of brownfield growth, new greenfield projects and acquisitions, mainly in emerging markets. See “Item 4B—Business Overview—Business Strategy”.  To the extent that these plans proceed, these projects would require substantial capital expenditures and their timely completion and successful operation may be affected by factors beyond the control of ArcelorMittal. These factors include receiving financing on reasonable terms, obtaining or renewing required regulatory approvals and licenses, securing and maintaining adequate property rights to land and mineral resources (especially in connection with mining projects in certain developing countries in which security of title with respect to mining concessions and property rights remains weak), local opposition to land acquisition or project development (as experienced, for example, in connection with the Company’s projects in India), managing relationships with or obtaining consents from other shareholders, demand for the Company’s products and general economic conditions. Any of these factors may cause the Company to delay, modify or forego some or all aspects of its expansion plans. The Company cannot guarantee that it will be able to execute its greenfield or brownfield development projects, and to the extent that they proceed, that it will be able to complete them on schedule, within budget, or achieve an adequate return on its investment.

Greenfield projects can also, in addition to general factors, have project-specific factors that increase the level of risk.  For example, the Company has acquired (along with a partner) Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (“Baffinland”) in view of developing the Mary River iron ore deposit in the northern end of Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Baffinland is owned 70% by the Company and 30% by its partner; in December 2012 agreements were entered into to revise the shareholding percentages to 50/50 (see “Item 4A—Information on the Company —History and Development of the Company—Key Transactions and Events in 2012”).  The scale of this project, which is at the feasibility development stage, and the location of the deposit raise unique challenges, including extremely harsh weather conditions, lack of transportation and other infrastructure and environmental concerns.  Similar to other greenfield development projects, it is subject to construction and permitting risks, including the risk of significant cost overruns and delays in construction, infrastructure development, start-up and commissioning.  The region is known for its harsh and unpredictable weather conditions resulting in periods of limited access and general lack of infrastructure.  Other specific risks the project is subject to include, but are not limited to (i) delays in obtaining, or conditions imposed by, regulatory approvals; (ii) risks associated with obtaining amendments to existing regulatory approvals or permits and additional regulatory approvals or permits which will be required; (iii) existing litigation risks; (iv) fluctuations in prices for iron ore affecting the future profitability of the project; and (v) risks associated with the Company and its partner being in a position to finance their respective share of project costs and/or obtaining financing on commercially reasonable terms.  As a result, there can be no assurance that the development or construction activities of the Mary River Project will commence or proceed in accordance with current expectations.

ArcelorMittal’s mining operations are subject to risks associated with mining activities.

ArcelorMittal operates mines and has substantially increased the scope of its mining activities in recent years. Mining operations are subject to hazards and risks usually associated with the exploration, development and production of natural resources, any of which could result in production shortfalls or damage to persons or property. In particular, hazards associated with open-pit mining operations include, among others:

·         flooding of the open pit;

·         collapse of the open-pit wall;

·         accidents associated with the operation of large open-pit mining and rock transportation equipment;

·         accidents associated with the preparation and ignition of large-scale open-pit blasting operations;

·         production disruptions due to weather; and

·         hazards associated with the disposal of mineralized waste water, such as groundwater and waterway contamination.

Hazards associated with underground mining operations, of which ArcelorMittal has several, include, among others:





·         underground fires and explosions, including those caused by flammable gas;

·         gas and coal outbursts;

·         cave-ins or falls of ground;

·         discharges of gases and toxic chemicals;

·         flooding; 

·         sinkhole formation and ground subsidence;

·         other accidents and conditions resulting from drilling;

·         difficulties associated with mining in extreme weather conditions, such as the Arctic; and

·         blasting, removing, and processing material from an underground mine.

ArcelorMittal is exposed to all of these hazards. For example, in 2012, there was a gas outburst at the Kazakhstanskaya Mine in Kazakhstan, in development roadways of unpredictable geology, resulting in one employee being fatally injured and in extended disruption of operations.  The reoccurrence of any of these events, or the occurrence of any of those listed above, could delay production, increase production costs and result in death or injury to persons, damage to property and liability for ArcelorMittal, some or all of which may not be covered by insurance, as well as substantially harm ArcelorMittal’s reputation as a company focused on ensuring the health and safety of its employees.

ArcelorMittal’s reserve estimates may materially differ from mineral quantities that it may be able to actually recover; ArcelorMittal’s estimates of mine life may prove inaccurate; and market price fluctuations and changes in operating and capital costs may render certain ore reserves uneconomical to mine.

ArcelorMittal’s reported reserves are estimated quantities of ore and metallurgical coal that it has determined can be economically mined and processed under present and anticipated conditions to extract their mineral content. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of reserves and in projecting potential future rates of mineral production, including factors beyond ArcelorMittal’s control. Reserve engineering involves estimating deposits of minerals that cannot be measured in an exact manner, and the accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data and engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. As a result, no assurance can be given that the indicated amount of ore or coal will be recovered or that it will be recovered at the anticipated rates. Estimates may vary, and results of mining and production subsequent to the date of an estimate may lead to revisions of estimates. Reserve estimates and estimates of mine life may require revisions based on actual production experience and other factors. For example, fluctuations in the market prices of minerals and metals, reduced recovery rates or increased operating and capital costs due to inflation, exchange rates, mining duties or other factors may render proven and probable reserves uneconomic to exploit and may ultimately result in a restatement of reserves.

Drilling and production risks could adversely affect the mining process.

Substantial time and expenditures are required to:

·         establish mineral reserves through drilling;

·         determine appropriate mining and metallurgical processes for optimizing the recovery of metal contained in ore and coal;

·         obtain environmental and other licenses;

·         construct mining, processing facilities and infrastructure required for greenfield properties; and

·         obtain the ore or coal or extract the minerals from the ore or coal.

If a project proves not to be economically feasible by the time ArcelorMittal is able to exploit it, ArcelorMittal may incur substantial losses and be obliged to recognize impairments. In addition, potential changes or complications involving metallurgical and other technological processes arising during the life of a project may result in delays and cost overruns that may render the project not economically feasible.





ArcelorMittal faces rising extraction costs over time as reserves deplete.

Reserves are gradually depleted in the ordinary course of a given mining operation. As mining progresses, distances to the primary crusher and to waste deposits become longer, pits become steeper and underground operations become deeper. As a result, over time, ArcelorMittal usually experiences rising unit extraction costs with respect to each mine.

ArcelorMittal has grown through acquisitions and may continue to do so. Failure to manage external growth and difficulties integrating acquired companies and subsequently implementing steel and mining development projects could harm ArcelorMittal’s future results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

ArcelorMittal results from Mittal Steel Company N.V.’s 2006 acquisition of, and 2007 merger with, Arcelor, a company of approximately equivalent size. Arcelor itself resulted from the combination of three steel companies, and Mittal Steel had previously grown through numerous acquisitions over many years. ArcelorMittal made numerous acquisitions in 2007 and 2008.  While the Company’s large-scale M&A activity has been less extensive since the 2008 financial crisis, it could make substantial acquisitions at any time.

The Company’s past growth through acquisitions has entailed significant investment and increased operating costs, as well as requiring greater allocation of management resources away from daily operations. Managing growth has required the continued development of ArcelorMittal’s financial and management information control systems, the integration of acquired assets with existing operations, the adoption of manufacturing best practices, attracting and retaining qualified management and personnel (particularly to work at more remote sites where there is a shortage of skilled personnel) as well as the continued training and supervision of such personnel, and the ability to manage the risks and liabilities associated with the acquired businesses. Failure to continue to manage such growth could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In particular, if integration of acquisitions is not successful, ArcelorMittal could lose key personnel and key customers, and may not be able to retain or expand its market position.

A Mittal family trust has the ability to exercise significant influence over the outcome of shareholder votes.

As of December 31, 2012, a trust (HSBC Trust (C.I.) Limited, as trustee), of which Mr. Lakshmi N. Mittal, Mrs. Usha Mittal and their children are the beneficiaries, beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) shares amounting (when aggregated with ordinary shares of ArcelorMittal and options to acquire ordinary shares held directly by Mr. and Mrs. Mittal) to 638,102,530 shares, representing 40.88% of ArcelorMittal’s outstanding shares. Giving effect as of December 31, 2012 to the completion of the share offering that occurred in January 2013, this percentage becomes 39.39%. See “Item 7A—Major Shareholders and Related party Transactions—Major Shareholders”. The trust has the ability to significantly influence the decisions adopted at the ArcelorMittal general meetings of shareholders, including matters involving mergers or other business combinations, the acquisition or disposition of assets, issuances of equity and the incurrence of indebtedness. The trust also has the ability to significantly influence a change of control of ArcelorMittal.

The loss or diminution of the services of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of ArcelorMittal could have an adverse effect on its business and prospects.

The Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of ArcelorMittal, Mr. Lakshmi N. Mittal, has for over a quarter of a century contributed significantly to shaping and implementing the business strategy of Mittal Steel and subsequently ArcelorMittal. His strategic vision was instrumental in the creation of the world’s largest and most global steel group. The loss or any diminution of the services of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer could have an adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business and prospects. ArcelorMittal does not maintain key person life insurance on its Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer.

ArcelorMittal is a holding company that depends on the earnings and cash flows of its operating subsidiaries, which may not be sufficient to meet future operational needs or for shareholder distributions.

Because ArcelorMittal is a holding company, it is dependent on the earnings and cash flows of, and dividends and distributions from, its operating subsidiaries to pay expenses, meet its debt service obligations, pay any cash dividends or distributions on its ordinary shares or conduct share buy-backs.  Significant cash or cash equivalent balances may be held from time to time at the Company’s international operating subsidiaries, including in particular those in France, where the Company maintains a cash management system under which most of its cash and cash equivalents are centralized, and in Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Kazakhstan, Morocco, South Africa, Ukraine and Venezuela.  Some of these operating subsidiaries have debt outstanding or are subject to acquisition agreements that impose restrictions on such operating subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, but such restrictions are not significant in the context of ArcelorMittal’s overall liquidity.  Repatriation of funds from operating subsidiaries may also be affected by tax and foreign exchange policies in place from time to time in the various countries where the Company operates, though none of these policies are currently significant in the context of ArcelorMittal’s overall liquidity.  Under the laws of Luxembourg,





ArcelorMittal will be able to pay dividends or distributions only to the extent that it is entitled to receive cash dividend distributions from its subsidiaries, recognize gains from the sale of its assets or record share premium from the issuance of shares.

If earnings and cash flows of its operating subsidiaries are substantially reduced, ArcelorMittal may not be in a position to meet its operational needs or to make shareholder distributions in line with announced proposals.

Changes in assumptions underlying the carrying value of certain assets, including as a result of adverse market conditions, could result in impairment of such assets, including intangible assets such as goodwill.

At each reporting date, ArcelorMittal reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets (excluding goodwill, which is reviewed annually or whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable) to determine whether there is any indication that the carrying amount of those assets may not be recoverable through continuing use. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is reviewed in order to determine the amount of the impairment, if any. The recoverable amount is the higher of its net selling price (fair value reduced by selling costs) and its value in use.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset (or cash generating unit). If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized. An impairment loss is recognized as an expense immediately as part of operating income in the consolidated statements of operations.

Goodwill represents the excess of the amounts ArcelorMittal paid to acquire subsidiaries and other businesses over the fair value of their net assets at the date of acquisition. Goodwill has been allocated at the level of the Company’s eight operating segments; the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually at the levels of the groups of cash generating units which correspond to the operating segments during the fourth quarter, or when changes in the circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The recoverable amounts of the groups of cash generating units are determined on the basis of value in use calculations, which depend on certain key assumptions. These include assumptions regarding the shipments, discount rates, growth rates and expected changes to selling prices and direct costs during the period. Management estimates discount rates using pre-tax rates that reflect current market rates for investments of similar risk. The growth rates are based on the Company’s growth forecasts, which are in line with industry trends. Changes in selling prices and direct costs are based on historical experience and expectations of future changes in the market. See Notes 2 and 9 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.

If management’s estimates change, the estimate of the recoverable amount of goodwill or the asset could fall significantly and result in impairment. While impairment does not affect reported cash flows, the decrease of the estimated recoverable amount and the related non-cash charge in the consolidated statements of operations could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s results of operations or financial condition. For example, in 2012, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $4.3 billion with respect to goodwill in its European businesses ($2.5 billion, $1 billion and $0.8 billion in the Flat Carbon Europe, Long Carbon Europe and Distribution Solutions segments, respectively). Following these impairment charges, substantial amounts of goodwill and other intangible assets remain recorded on its balance sheet (there was $8.2 billion of goodwill and $1.4 billion of other intangibles on the balance sheet at December 31, 2012).  No assurance can be given as to the absence of significant further impairment losses in future periods, particularly if market conditions continue to deteriorate.  In particular, management believes that reasonably possible changes in key assumptions would cause an additional impairment loss to be recognized in respect of the Flat Carbon Europe, Long Carbon Europe and Distribution Solutions segments, which account for $0.6 billion of goodwill at December 31, 2012. See Note 9 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.

The Company’s investment projects may add to its financing requirements and adversely affect its cash flows and results of operations.

The steelmaking and mining businesses are capital intensive requiring substantial ongoing maintenance capital expenditure.  In addition, ArcelorMittal has plans to continue certain investment projects and has certain capital expenditure obligations from transactions entered into in the past.  See “Item 4A—Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects”, “Item 5F—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations” and Note 23 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.  ArcelorMittal expects to fund these capital expenditures primarily through internal sources.  Such sources may not suffice, however, depending on the amount of internally generated cash flow and other uses of cash.  If not, ArcelorMittal may need to choose between incurring external financing, further increasing the Company’s level of indebtedness, or foregoing investments in projects targeted for profitable growth.  

See “Item 4A—Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects”.





Underfunding of pension and other post-retirement benefit plans at some of ArcelorMittal’s operating subsidiaries could require the Company to make substantial cash contributions to pension plans or to pay for employee healthcare, which may reduce the cash available for ArcelorMittal’s business. 

ArcelorMittal’s principal operating subsidiaries in Brazil, Canada, Europe, South Africa and the United States provide defined benefit pension plans to their employees. Some of these plans are currently underfunded. At December 31, 2012, the value of ArcelorMittal USA’s pension plan assets was $2.5 billion, while the projected benefit obligation was $3.9 billion, resulting in a deficit of $1.4 billion. At December 31, 2012, the value of the pension plan assets of ArcelorMittal’s Canadian subsidiaries was $3.2 billion, while the projected benefit obligation was $4.0 billion, resulting in a deficit of $0.8 billion. At December 31, 2012, the value of the pension plan assets of ArcelorMittal’s European subsidiaries was $0.8 billion, while the projected benefit obligation was $2.8 billion, resulting in a deficit of $2.0 billion. ArcelorMittal USA, ArcelorMittal’s Canadian subsidiaries, and ArcelorMittal’s European subsidiaries also had partially underfunded post-employment benefit obligations relating to life insurance and medical benefits as of December 31, 2012. The consolidated obligations totaled $6.7 billion as of December 31, 2012, while underlying plan assets were only $0.7 billion, resulting in a deficit of $6.0 billion. See Note 24 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.  Starting in January 2013, new accounting rules with respect to deferred employee benefits (IAS 19 amendments) have taken effect, the result of which will be an increase of deferred employee benefit liabilities against a charge to equity in the amount of the funding deficit (net of tax), which would have the near-term effect of an increase in gearing.

ArcelorMittal’s funding obligations depend upon future asset performance, which is tied to equity markets to a substantial extent, the level of interest rates used to discount future liabilities, actuarial assumptions and experience, benefit plan changes and government regulation. Because of the large number of variables that determine pension funding requirements, which are difficult to predict, as well as any legislative action, future cash funding requirements for ArcelorMittal’s pension plans and other post-employment benefit plans could be significantly higher than current estimates. In these circumstances funding requirements could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

ArcelorMittal could experience labor disputes that may disrupt its operations and its relationships with its customers and its ability to rationalize operations and reduce labor costs in certain markets may be limited in practice or encounter implementation difficulties.

A majority of the employees of ArcelorMittal and of its contractors are represented by labor unions and are covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements, which are subject to periodic renegotiation (see “Item 6D—Employees). Strikes or work stoppages could occur prior to, or during, the negotiations preceding new collective bargaining agreements, during wage and benefits negotiations or during other periods for other reasons, in particular in connection with any announced intentions to close certain sites.  ArcelorMittal periodically experiences strikes and work stoppages at various facilities.  Prolonged strikes or work stoppages, which may increase in their severity and frequency, may have an adverse effect on the operations and financial results of ArcelorMittal.

Faced with temporary or structural overcapacity in various markets, particularly developed ones, ArcelorMittal has in the past sought and may in the future seek to rationalize operations through temporary shutdowns and closures of plants.  These initiatives have in the past and may in the future lead to protracted labor disputes and political controversy.  A recent example is the announced closure of the liquid phase of ArcelorMittal’s plant in Florange, France (see “Item 4A—Information on the Company —History and Development of the Company—Key Transactions and Events in 2012”), which attracted substantial media and political attention – even at one stage involving the threat of nationalization.  Such situations carry the risk of delaying or increasing the cost of production rationalization measures, harming ArcelorMittal’s reputation and business standing in given markets and even the risk of nationalization.

ArcelorMittal is subject to economic policy risks and political, social and legal uncertainties in certain of the emerging markets in which it operates or proposes to operate, and these uncertainties may have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

ArcelorMittal operates, or proposes to operate, in a large number of emerging markets. In recent years, many of these countries have implemented measures aimed at improving the business environment and providing a stable platform for economic development. ArcelorMittal’s business strategy has been developed partly on the assumption that this modernization, restructuring and upgrading of the business climate and physical infrastructure will continue, but this cannot be guaranteed. Any slowdown in the development of these economies could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects, as could insufficient investment by government agencies or the private sector in physical infrastructure. For example, the failure of a country to develop reliable electricity and natural gas supplies and networks, and any resulting shortages or rationing, could lead to disruptions in ArcelorMittal’s production.

Moreover, some of the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates have been undergoing substantial political transformations from centrally-controlled command economies to market-oriented systems or from authoritarian regimes to democratically-elected governments and vice-versa. Political, economic and legal reforms necessary to complete such transformation may not progress sufficiently. On occasion, ethnic, religious, historical and other divisions have given rise to tensions and, in certain cases, wide-scale





civil disturbances and military conflict. The political systems in these countries are vulnerable to their populations’ dissatisfaction with their government, reforms or the lack thereof, social and ethnic unrest and changes in governmental policies, any of which could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects and its ability to continue to do business in these countries.  Certain of ArcelorMittal’s operations are also located in areas where acute drug-related violence (including executions and kidnappings of non-gang civilians) occurs and the largest drug cartels operate, such as the states of Michoacan, Sinaloa and Sonora in Mexico.

In addition, the legal systems in some of the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates remain less than fully developed, particularly with respect to property rights, the protection of foreign investment and bankruptcy proceedings, generally resulting in a lower level of legal certainty or security for foreign investment than in more developed countries. ArcelorMittal may encounter difficulties in enforcing court judgments or arbitral awards in some countries in which it operates among other reasons because those countries may not be parties to treaties that recognize the mutual enforcement of court judgments. Assets in certain countries where ArcelorMittal operates could also be at risk of expropriation or nationalization, and compensation for such assets may be below fair value. For example, the Venezuelan government has implemented a number of selective nationalizations of companies operating in the country to date. Although ArcelorMittal believes that the long-term growth potential in emerging markets is strong, and intends them to be the focus of the majority of its near-term growth capital expenditures, legal obstacles could have a material adverse effect on the implementation of ArcelorMittal’s growth plans and its operations in such countries.

ArcelorMittal’s results of operations could be affected by fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, particularly the euro to U.S. dollar exchange rate, as well as by exchange controls imposed by governmental authorities in the countries where it operates.

ArcelorMittal operates and sells products globally, and, as a result, its business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be adversely affected by fluctuations in exchange rates. A substantial portion of ArcelorMittal’s assets, liabilities, operating costs, sales and earnings are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar (ArcelorMittal’s reporting currency). Accordingly, fluctuations in exchange rates to the U.S. dollar, could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

ArcelorMittal operates in several countries whose currencies are, or have in the past been, subject to limitations imposed by those countries’ central banks, or which have experienced sudden and significant devaluations.  In Europe, the ongoing crisis raises the risk of a substantial depreciation of the euro against the U.S. Dollar.  Currency devaluations, the imposition of new exchange controls or other similar restrictions on currency convertibility, or the tightening of existing controls, in the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates could adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. See “Item 4B—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Key Currency Regulations and Exchange Controls”.

Disruptions to ArcelorMittal’s manufacturing processes could adversely affect its operations, customer service levels and financial results.

Steel manufacturing processes are dependent on critical steel-making equipment, such as furnaces, continuous casters, rolling mills and electrical equipment (such as transformers), and such equipment may incur downtime as a result of unanticipated failures or other events, such as fires or furnace breakdowns. ArcelorMittal’s manufacturing plants have experienced, and may in the future experience, plant shutdowns or periods of reduced production as a result of such equipment failures or other events, such as the fire that occurred in February 2013 at the Vanderbijlpark plant of ArcelorMittal South Africa (see “Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Recent Developments”). To the extent that lost production as a result of such a disruption could not be compensated for by unaffected facilities, such disruptions could have an adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s operations, customer service levels and financial results.

Natural disasters could damage ArcelorMittal’s production facilities.

Natural disasters could significantly damage ArcelorMittal’s production facilities and general infrastructure. For example, ArcelorMittal Lázaro Cárdenas’s production facilities located in Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán, Mexico and ArcelorMittal Galati’s production facilities in Romania are located in or close to regions prone to earthquakes of varying magnitudes. The Lázaro Cárdenas area has, in addition, been subject to a number of tsunamis in the past. ArcelorMittal Point Lisas is located in Trinidad & Tobago, an area vulnerable to both hurricanes and earthquakes. The ArcelorMittal wire drawing operations in the United States are located in an area subject to tornados. Although risk mitigation efforts have been incorporated in plant design and operations, extensive damage in the event of a tornado cannot be excluded. Extensive damage to the foregoing facilities or any of ArcelorMittal’s other major production complexes and potential resulting staff casualties, whether as a result of floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis or other natural disasters, could, to the extent that lost production could not be compensated for by unaffected facilities, severely affect ArcelorMittal’s ability to conduct its business operations and, as a result, reduce its future operating results.





ArcelorMittal’s insurance policies provide limited coverage, potentially leaving it uninsured against some business risks.

The occurrence of an event that is uninsurable or not fully insured could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. ArcelorMittal maintains insurance on property and equipment and product liability insurance in amounts believed to be consistent with industry practices but it is not fully insured against all such risks. ArcelorMittal’s insurance policies cover physical loss or damage to its property and equipment on a reinstatement basis arising from a number of specified risks and certain consequential losses, including business interruption arising from the occurrence of an insured event under the policies. Under ArcelorMittal’s property and equipment policies, damages and losses caused by certain natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods and windstorms, are also covered. ArcelorMittal also maintains various other types of insurance, such as directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, workmen’s compensation insurance and marine insurance.

In addition, ArcelorMittal maintains trade credit insurance on receivables from selected customers, subject to limits that it believes are consistent with those in the industry, in order to protect it against the risk of non-payment due to customers’ insolvency or other causes. Not all of ArcelorMittal’s customers are or can be insured, and even when insurance is available, it may not fully cover the exposure.

Notwithstanding the insurance coverage that ArcelorMittal and its subsidiaries carry, the occurrence of an event that causes losses in excess of limits specified under the relevant policy, or losses arising from events not covered by insurance policies, could materially harm ArcelorMittal’s financial condition and future operating results.

Product liability claims could have a significant adverse financial impact on ArcelorMittal.

ArcelorMittal sells products to major manufacturers engaged in manufacturing and selling a wide range of end products. ArcelorMittal also from time to time offers advice to these manufacturers. Furthermore, ArcelorMittal’s products are also sold to, and used in, certain safety-critical applications, such as, for example, pipes used in gas or oil pipelines and in automotive applications. There could be significant consequential damages resulting from the use of or defects in such products. ArcelorMittal has a limited amount of product liability insurance coverage, and a major claim for damages related to ArcelorMittal products sold and, as the case may be, advice given in connection with such products could leave ArcelorMittal uninsured against a portion or the entirety of the award and, as a result, materially harm its financial condition and future operating results.

ArcelorMittal is subject to regulatory risk, and may incur liabilities arising from investigations by governmental authorities, litigation and fines, among others, regarding its pricing and marketing practices or other antitrust matters.

ArcelorMittal is the largest steel producer in the world. As a result of this position, ArcelorMittal may be subject to exacting scrutiny from regulatory authorities and private parties, particularly regarding its trade practices and dealings with customers and counterparties. As a result of its position in the steel markets and its historically acquisitive growth strategy, ArcelorMittal could be the target of governmental investigations and lawsuits based on antitrust laws in particular. These could require significant expenditures and result in liabilities or governmental orders that could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s business, operating results, financial condition and prospects. ArcelorMittal and certain of its subsidiaries are currently under investigation by governmental entities in several countries, and are named as defendants in a number of lawsuits relating to various antitrust matters. For example, in September 2008, Standard Iron Works filed a class action complaint in U.S. federal court against ArcelorMittal, ArcelorMittal USA LLC and other steel manufacturers, alleging that the defendants had conspired to restrict the output of steel products in order to affect steel prices. Since the filing of the Standard Iron Works lawsuit, other similar direct purchaser lawsuits have been filed in the same court and consolidated with the Standard Iron Works law suit.  In addition, class actions on behalf of indirect purchasers have been filed.  A motion by ArcelorMittal and the other defendants to dismiss the direct purchaser claims was denied in June 2009, and the litigation is now in the discovery and class certification briefing stage.  Antitrust proceedings and investigations involving ArcelorMittal subsidiaries are also currently pending in Brazil and South Africa. See “Item 8A—Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Legal Claims—Competition/Antitrust Claims”.

Because of the fact-intensive nature of the issues involved and the inherent uncertainty of such litigation and investigations, negative outcomes are possible. An adverse ruling in the proceedings described above or in other similar proceedings in the future could subject ArcelorMittal to substantial administrative penalties and/or civil damages. In cases relating to other companies, civil damages have ranged as high as hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars in major civil antitrust proceedings during the last decade. With respect to the pending U.S. federal court litigation, ArcelorMittal could be subject to treble damages. Unfavorable outcomes in current and potential future litigation and investigations could reduce ArcelorMittal’s liquidity and negatively affect its financial performance and its financial condition.





ArcelorMittal’s business is subject to an extensive, complex and evolving regulatory framework and its governance and compliance processes may fail to prevent regulatory penalties and reputational harm, whether at operating subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates.

ArcelorMittal operates in a global environment, and its business straddles multiple jurisdictions and complex regulatory frameworks, at a time of increased enforcement activity and enforcement initiatives worldwide. Such regulatory frameworks, including but not limited to the area of economic sanctions, are constantly evolving, and ArcelorMittal may as a result become subject to increasing limitations on its business activities and to the risk of fines or other sanctions for non-compliance.  Moreover, ArcelorMittal’s governance and compliance processes, which include the review of internal controls over financial reporting, may not prevent breaches of law, accounting or governance standards at the Company or its subsidiaries. Risks of violations are also present at the Company’s joint ventures and associates where ArcelorMittal has only a non-controlling stake and does not control governance practices or accounting and reporting procedures. In addition, ArcelorMittal may be subject to breaches of its Code of Business Conduct, other rules and protocols for the conduct of business, as well as instances of fraudulent behavior and dishonesty by its employees, contractors or other agents. The Company’s failure to comply with applicable laws and other standards could subject it to fines, litigation, loss of operating licenses and reputational harm.

The income tax liability of ArcelorMittal may substantially increase if the tax laws and regulations in countries in which it operates change or become subject to adverse interpretations or inconsistent enforcement.

Taxes payable by companies in many of the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates are substantial and include value-added tax, excise duties, profit taxes, payroll-related taxes, property taxes and other taxes. Tax laws and regulations in some of these countries may be subject to frequent change, varying interpretation and inconsistent enforcement. Ineffective tax collection systems and national or local government budget requirements may increase the likelihood of the imposition of arbitrary or onerous taxes and penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s financial condition and results of operations. In addition to the usual tax burden imposed on taxpayers, these conditions create uncertainty as to the tax implications of various business decisions. This uncertainty could expose ArcelorMittal to significant fines and penalties and to enforcement measures despite its best efforts at compliance, and could result in a greater than expected tax burden. See Note 20 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.

In addition, many of the jurisdictions in which ArcelorMittal operates have adopted transfer pricing legislation. If tax authorities impose significant additional tax liabilities as a result of transfer pricing adjustments, it could have a material adverse effect on ArcelorMittal’s financial condition and results of operations.

It is possible that tax authorities in the countries in which ArcelorMittal operates will introduce additional revenue raising measures. The introduction of any such provisions may affect the overall tax efficiency of ArcelorMittal and may result in significant additional taxes becoming payable. Any such additional tax exposure could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.

ArcelorMittal may face a significant increase in its income taxes if tax rates increase or the tax laws or regulations in the jurisdictions in which it operates, or treaties between those jurisdictions, are modified in an adverse manner. This may adversely affect ArcelorMittal’s cash flows, liquidity and ability to pay dividends.

If ArcelorMittal were unable to utilize fully its deferred tax assets, its profitability and future cash flows could be reduced.

At December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had $8.1 billion recorded as deferred tax assets on its consolidated statements of financial position. These assets can be utilized only if, and only to the extent that, ArcelorMittal’s operating subsidiaries generate adequate levels of taxable income in future periods to offset the tax loss carry forwards and reverse the temporary differences prior to expiration.

At December 31, 2012, the amount of future income required to recover ArcelorMittal’s deferred tax assets of $8.1 billion was at least $30.6 billion at certain operating subsidiaries.

ArcelorMittal’s ability to generate taxable income is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond its control.  If ArcelorMittal generates lower taxable income than the amount it has assumed in determining its deferred tax assets, then the value of deferred tax assets will be reduced. In addition, changes in tax law may result in a reduction in the value of deferred tax assets.

ArcelorMittal’s reputation and business could be materially harmed as a result of data breaches, data theft, unauthorized access or successful hacking.

ArcelorMittal’s operations depend on the secure and reliable performance of its information technology systems. An increasing number of companies, including ArcelorMittal, have recently experienced intrusion attempts or even breaches of their information technology security, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks on their computer networks.





ArcelorMittal’s corporate website was the target of a hacking attack in January 2012, which brought the website down for several days. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, the Company may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement in a timely manner effective and efficient countermeasures.

If unauthorized parties attempt or manage to bring down the Company’s website or force access to its information technology systems, they may be able to misappropriate confidential information, cause interruptions in the Company’s operations, damage its computers or otherwise damage its reputation and business. In such circumstances, the Company could be held liable or be subject to regulatory or other actions for breaching confidentiality and personal data protection rules. Any compromise of the security of the Company’s information technology systems could result in a loss of confidence in the Company’s security measures and subject it to litigation, civil or criminal penalties, and adverse publicity that could adversely affect its reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

The audit report included in this annual report has been prepared by auditors who are not inspected by the US Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), as such, investors in ArcelorMittal currently do not have the benefits of PCAOB oversight.

ArcelorMittal’s auditor, Deloitte Audit, S.à.r.l., as an auditor of companies with shares that are traded publicly in the United States and as a firm registered with the US Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”), is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and applicable United States professional standards.

Because ArcelorMittal’s auditor is located in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Luxembourg Public Audit Supervisor, ArcelorMittal’s auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB. Investors who rely on ArcelorMittal’s auditors’ audit reports are deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections of auditors, which may identify deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures and improve future audit quality.

U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against ArcelorMittal and its directors and senior management.

ArcelorMittal is incorporated under the laws of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg with its principal executive offices and corporate headquarters in Luxembourg. The majority of ArcelorMittal’s directors and senior management are residents of jurisdictions outside of the United States. The majority of ArcelorMittal’s assets and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, U.S. investors may find it difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon ArcelorMittal or these persons or to enforce outside the United States judgments obtained against ArcelorMittal or these persons in U.S. courts, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. Likewise, it may also be difficult for an investor to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained against ArcelorMittal or these persons in courts in jurisdictions outside the United States, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. It may also be difficult for a U.S. investor to bring an original action in a Luxembourg court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against ArcelorMittal’s directors and senior management and non-U.S. experts named in this annual report.



A.    History and Development of the Company

ArcelorMittal is the world’s leading integrated steel and mining company. It results from the combination in 2006 of Mittal Steel and Arcelor, which were at the time the world’s largest and second largest steel companies by production volume respectively.

ArcelorMittal had sales of approximately $84.2 billion, steel shipments of approximately 83.8 million tonnes, crude steel production of approximately 88.2 million tonnes, iron ore production from own mines and strategic contracts of 68.1 million tonnes and coal production from own mines and strategic contracts of 8.9 million tonnes for the year ended December 31, 2012, as compared to sales of approximately $94.0 billion, steel shipments of approximately 85.8 million tonnes, crude steel production of approximately 91.9 million tonnes, iron ore production of 65.2 million tonnes and coal production of 8.9 million tonnes for the year ended December 31, 2011.

ArcelorMittal’s net loss attributable to equity holders of the parent for the year ended December 31, 2012, was $3.7 billion, or $(2.41) per share, as compared with net income attributable to equity holders of the parent of $2.3 billion, or $1.46 per share, for the year ended December 31, 2011.





As of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had equity of $55.2 billion, total debt of $26.3 billion and cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, of $4.5 billion as compared to equity of $60.5 billion, total debt of $26.4 billion and cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, of $3.9 billion as of December 31, 2011.

ArcelorMittal has been built on a management strategy that emphasizes size and scale, vertical integration, product diversity and quality, continuous growth in higher value products, and a strong focus on employee well-being and customer service. The Company’s three-dimensional strategy, described under “Item 4B—Business Overview—Business Strategy”, is its key to sustainability and growth. ArcelorMittal has unique geographical and product diversification coupled with upstream and downstream integration designed to minimize risk caused by economic cycles.

Geography: ArcelorMittal is the largest steel producer in the Americas, Africa and Europe and is the fourth largest producer in the CIS region. ArcelorMittal has steel-making operations in 20 countries on four continents, including 58 integrated, mini-mill and integrated mini-mill steel-making facilities. As of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had approximately 245,000 employees.

ArcelorMittal reports its business in six reportable segments corresponding to continuing operations: Flat Carbon Americas; Flat Carbon Europe; Long Carbon Americas and Europe; Asia, Africa and CIS; Distribution Solutions; and Mining. In January 2011, ArcelorMittal completed the spin-off of its stainless steel division to a separately-focused company, Aperam, and these operations were therefore reported as discontinued operations. Beginning in the first quarter of 2011, ArcelorMittal began reporting Mining as a separate reportable segment in order to reflect changes in the Company’s approach to managing its mining operations.

ArcelorMittal’s steel-making operations have a high degree of geographic diversification. Approximately 39% of its steel is produced in the Americas, approximately 44% is produced in Europe and approximately 17% is produced in other countries, such as Kazakhstan, South Africa and Ukraine. In addition, ArcelorMittal’s sales of steel products are spread over both developed and developing markets, which have different consumption characteristics. ArcelorMittal’s mining operations, present in North and South America, Africa, Europe and the CIS region, are integrated with its global steel-making facilities and are important producers of iron ore and coal in their own right.

Products: ArcelorMittal produces a broad range of high-quality steel finished and semi-finished products. Specifically, ArcelorMittal produces flat steel products, including sheet and plate, long steel products, including bars, rods and structural shapes. ArcelorMittal also produces pipes and tubes for various applications. ArcelorMittal sells its steel products primarily in local markets and through its centralized marketing organization to a diverse range of customers in over 170 countries including the automotive, appliance, engineering, construction and machinery industries. The Company also produces various types of mining products including iron ore lump, fines, concentrate and sinter feed, as well as coking, PCI and thermal coal.

As a global steel producer, the Company is able to meet the needs of different markets. Steel consumption and product requirements clearly differ between developed markets and developing markets. Steel consumption in developed economies is weighted towards flat products and a higher value-added mix, while developing markets utilize a higher proportion of long products and commodity grades. To meet these diverse needs, the Company maintains a high degree of product diversification and seeks opportunities to increase the proportion of its product mix consisting of higher value-added products.

Mining Value Chain: ArcelorMittal has a significant and growing portfolio of raw material and mining assets, as well as certain strategic long-term contracts with external suppliers. In 2012 (assuming full production of iron ore at ArcelorMittal Mines Canada, Serra Azul and full share of production at Peña Colorada for its own use), approximately 61% of ArcelorMittal’s iron-ore requirements and approximately 20% of its PCI and coal requirements were supplied from its own mines or from strategic contracts at many of its operating units. The Company currently has iron ore mining activities in Algeria, Brazil, Bosnia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Liberia (since September 2011), Mexico, Ukraine and the United States and has projects under development or prospective development in Liberia, Canada, Mauritania and India. The Company currently has coal mining activities in Kazakhstan, Russia and the United States. It has coal mining projects under prospective development in India. ArcelorMittal also has made strategic investments in order to secure access to other raw materials including manganese and ferro alloys.

In addition, ArcelorMittal produces substantial amounts of direct reduced iron, or DRI, which is a scrap substitute used in its mini-mill facilities to supplement external metallics purchases. ArcelorMittal is also a significant producer of coke, a critical raw material for steel-making produced from metallurgical coal, and it satisfies over 92% of its coke needs through its own production facilities. ArcelorMittal’s facilities have good access to shipping facilities, including through ArcelorMittal’s own 18 deep-water port facilities and linked railway sidings.

ArcelorMittal has its own downstream steel distribution business, primarily run through its Distribution Solutions segment. It also provides value-added and customized steel solutions through further processing to meet specific customer requirements.






ArcelorMittal is a successor to Mittal Steel, a business founded in 1989 by Mr. Lakshmi N. Mittal, the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of ArcelorMittal. It has experienced rapid and steady growth since then largely through the consistent and disciplined execution of a successful consolidation-based strategy. Mittal Steel made its first acquisition in 1989, leasing the Iron & Steel Company of Trinidad & Tobago. Some of its principal acquisitions since then include Sibalsa (Mexico) in 1992, Sidbec Dosco (Canada) in 1994, Hamberger Stahlwerk (Germany) and Karmet (Kazakhstan) in 1995, Thyssen Duisburg (Germany) in 1997, Inland Steel (USA) in 1998, Unimetal (France) in 1999, Sidex (Romania) and Annaba (Algeria) in 2001, Nova Hut (Czech Republic) in 2003, BH Steel (Bosnia), Balkan Steel (Macedonia), PHS (Poland) and Iscor (South Africa) in 2004, ISG (USA) and Kryvorizhstal (Ukraine) in 2005, three Stelco Inc. subsidiaries (Canada) and Arcelor in 2006.

Arcelor was created in February 2002 by the combination of three steel-making companies: Aceralia Corporación Siderúrgica (“Aceralia”), Arbed and Usinor. At the time of its acquisition by Mittal Steel in 2006, Arcelor was the second largest steel producer in the world in terms of production, with 2005 production of 46.7 million tonnes of steel and 2005 revenues of €32.6 billion. It operated in all key end markets: the automotive industry, construction, household appliances, packaging and general industry. Arcelor enjoyed leading positions in Western Europe and South America, in particular due to its Brazilian operations. The process of integrating Arcelor and Mittal Steel, including the realization of the targeted $1.6 billion in synergies from the merger, was completed on schedule by the end of 2008.

In 2007 and through the first half of 2008, ArcelorMittal continued to pursue a disciplined growth strategy, with transactions announced in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, China, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Uruguay, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Venezuela, a large part of which were successfully completed. ArcelorMittal also completed buy-out offers for non-controlling interests in certain of its subsidiaries in Argentina, Brazil and Poland. In addition, the Company announced and, in some cases, initiated development plans for greenfield steelmaking and mining projects in numerous countries.

During the latter part of 2008 and all of 2009, ArcelorMittal largely suspended mergers and acquisitions activity in light of the deteriorating economic and market environment, and sharply curtailed its investment activities. Merger and acquisition activity remained limited in 2010 but increased somewhat in 2011 with the acquisition (along with a partner) of Baffinland. Since September 2011, ArcelorMittal has been undergoing a deleveraging process to reduce its indebtedness including numerous divestments of non-core assets (sale of stakes in Macarthur Coal, Enovos, Paul Wurth and Erdemir; sale of Skyline Steel; agreed sale of stake in Kalagadi Manganese).

The steel-making and other assets acquired as described above (including the acquisitions of raw material producers or production sites) now constitute ArcelorMittal’s major operating subsidiaries.


Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects

In the strong market environment that prevailed in the 2005-2008 period, the Company announced a series of proposed greenfield and brownfield investment projects.  As a result of the severe market downturn in 2008-2009, the Company re-examined its investment projects involving significant capital expenditure and has continued subsequently to reassess the cost-benefit and feasibility calculations of these projects.  It has also in more recent years readjusted its investment priorities, with increasing focus on mining projects and less focus on steelmaking projects (above and beyond maintenance capital expenditures).  These trends and changes in focus are apparent from the capital expenditure numbers.  Capital expenditures in 2009 amounted to just to $2.7 billion, of which $2.1 billion was for maintenance. In 2010, capital expenditure remained modest at $3.3 billion, of which $2.7 billion was for maintenance. In 2011, capital expenditure increased to $4.8 billion, $3.5 billion of which was related to steelmaking facilities (including health and safety investments) and $1.3 billion dedicated to mining projects. In 2012, capital expenditure decreased slightly to $4.7 billion, $3.2 billion of which was related to maintenance (including health and safety investments) and $1.5 billion dedicated to growth projects mainly in mining. In 2013, capital expenditure is expected to amount to approximately $3.5 billion, $2.7 billion of which is expected to be maintenance-related (including health and safety investments) and $0.8 billion of which is expected to be dedicated to growth projects mainly in mining.  Accordingly, while the Company continues to study certain of the previously announced investment projects summarized below, no assurance can be given that they will proceed.


India Greenfield Projects. In 2005 and 2006, ArcelorMittal announced plans to build large-scale integrated steel plants in the Indian States of Jharkhand and Orissa at a cost estimated at the time as in excess of $10 billion. Implementation of these projects was delayed for various reasons, including because of challenges relating to securing necessary mining rights, land and construction permits and regulatory approvals, and the fact that, in the meantime, the Company had explored alternative investment opportunities. Concerning the proposed steel plant in Jharkhand, ArcelorMittal is currently working to set up a three-million tonne per annum module in the first stage for which adequate land is sought under the State Government Consent Award Scheme. Under this scheme, the State Government would facilitate the legal transfer of land for a project after an investor has secured the landowner’s consent to the sale of the land. Concerning the Orissa project, the Company is seeking to extend the memorandum of understanding with the





Orissa Government, which became eligible for renewal on December 31, 2011. The Orissa Government is still considering the Company’s application for renewal, which is likely to be decided in the next six to nine months.


While its proposed projects in Jharkhand and Orissa were delayed, the Company explored other investment opportunities in India and in June 2010, entered into a memorandum of understanding with authorities in the state of Karnataka in South India that envisages the construction of a six-million tonne steel plant with a captive 750 megawatt power plant, representing a potential aggregate investment of $6.5 billion. The Company has completed all of the necessary steps to acquire the land. ArcelorMittal India Limited received possession certificates for 2,659 acres of private land following the acquisition of 1,827 acres and 832 acres in December 2011 and October 2012, respectively. This leaves a balance of 136.33 acres of land owned by the Karnataka Government, which is being processed for allocation. The Karnataka Government has also approved the project’s use of water from the Tungabhadra River. The Company has applied for mining leases, although following a recent Supreme Court order relating to illegal mining activities in the State of Karnataka, and new mining legislation proposed by the Government of India, the allocation of new mining leases in Karnataka has been put on hold. A draft feasibility report for the contemplated steel plant is currently being prepared, and hydrological and environmental impact assessment studies have been initiated.


Kazakhstan. On June 10, 2008, ArcelorMittal announced plans to invest approximately $1.2 billion in improvements in health and safety and technological upgrades at its integrated steel plant and coal mines in Kazakhstan. This investment program is proceeding as announced. ArcelorMittal also announced possible investments to expand steelmaking capacity in Kazakhstan from five to ten million tonnes over a five to nine year period. The implementation of this expansion project has been postponed due, among other things, to the subsequent change in market conditions. As in other markets, any decision to increase investment in steelmaking capacity, while not currently envisaged, will depend on local market conditions and overall competitiveness considerations.

Brazil. On November 30, 2007, ArcelorMittal announced plans to expand capacity at its Monlevade integrated long products plant in the state of Minas Gerais with the construction of a second line of sinter plant, blast furnace, melting shop and rolling mill that would add approximately 1.2 million tonnes per annum of additional wire rod capacity. After having been delayed in late 2008-early 2009 due to market conditions, implementation of the project, estimated to entail an investment of $1.4 billion, was restarted in April 2010 with initial targeted completion in late 2012. In light of recent market uncertainty, however, the Monlevade project has been temporarily halted. ArcelorMittal plans to expand steel production in the Long Carbon Americas operating segment in Brazil although the timing and scope of these other investments remain under review. As in other markets, any decision to increase investment in steelmaking and wire drawing capacity will depend on market conditions and overall competitiveness considerations driven by market growth.

China. In 2008, ArcelorMittal announced the establishment of two joint venture projects in China with Hunan Valin Iron & Steel Group Co., Ltd. (“Valin Group”), one related to electrical steel in which each party holds 50%, and the other related to automotive steel, in which each party holds a 33% stake and Hunan Valin Steel Co., Ltd. holds 34% stake. The automotive steel joint venture, Valin ArcelorMittal Automotive Steel (“VAMA”), would build facilities with an annual production capacity of 1.5 million tonnes of products including cold rolled steel, galvanized steel and galvanealed steel, with an estimated investment amount of CNY 4.5 billion ($714 million). The electrical steel joint venture, Valin ArcelorMittal Electrical Steel Co., Ltd. (“VAME”), would build cold rolling and processing facilities with annual production capacity of 200,000 tonnes for non-grain oriented steel and 100,000 tonnes for grain oriented electrical steels, with an estimated investment amount of CNY 3.9 billion ($624 million). Approval from China’s National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce was received in 2010. In June 2012, ArcelorMittal and the Valin Group announced that ArcelorMittal would increase its shareholding in VAMA from 33% to 49%.  Pursuant to a new shareholding agreement, the Valin Group and ArcelorMittal intend to increase VAMA's planned capacity by 25% from 1.2 million tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, with capital investment to increase by 15% to CNY 5.2 billion (approximately $834 million). VAMA has signed purchase agreements totaling CNY 1.8 billion (approximately $289 million) for key equipment including cold rolling facilities, continuous annealing and galvanizing lines. The joint venture is expected to become operational in the first half of 2014. For further information, see “—Key Transactions and Events in 2012” in this annual report.

Saudi Arabia. In 2007, Mittal Steel signed a joint venture agreement with the Bin Jarallah Group of companies (“BJG”) for the design and construction of a seamless tube mill in Saudi Arabia to be located in Jubail Industrial City, north of Al Jubail on the Persian Gulf.  ArcelorMittal, through its subsidiary ArcelorMittal Tubular Products International B.V. (“AMTPI”), currently holds 51% and BJG’s transferee, Al-Tanmiah for Industrial & Commercial Investment Company, holds 49% of the joint venture company, which is managed under the joint control of both investors.  The project’s targeted completion date has been delayed until December 2013, mainly due to construction delays. There have been significant cost over-runs as well.

Liberia. In December 2006, the Government of Liberia and ArcelorMittal announced the finalization of agreements relating to an iron ore mining and infrastructure development project. The project consists of reopening mines in Nimba County, rehabilitating 260 kilometers of abandoned railway and developing the Buchanan port for shipping traffic, and includes a number of important social initiatives, including relating to providing training and health facilities for employees. Production of direct ship ore (“DSO”) commenced in the second half of 2011 which increased to a capacity of four million tonnes in 2012. An expansion of production to reach capacity of 15 million tonnes per annum of concentrate in 2015 that requires investments in a concentrator, sag mills, stacker-reclaimers and power plants has commenced.






Kalagadi Manganese (South Africa). In 2007, ArcelorMittal entered into a joint venture agreement with Kalahari Resources and the Industrial Development Corporation Limited to develop the Kalagadi manganese ore deposits in South Africa. Kalagadi Manganese’s project is situated in the Kuruman / Hotazel district of the Northern Cape Province. The project envisages the establishment of a manganese ore mine and sinter plant at Hotazel that would ultimately produce 2.4 million tonnes of sinter product per annum and the establishment of a 320,000 tonne per annum ferromanganese alloy production facility in the Coega Industrial Development Zone in Port Elizabeth. In November 2012, ArcelorMittal signed a share purchase agreement with Mrs. Mashile-Nkosi providing, subject to various conditions, for the acquisition by her or her nominee of ArcelorMittal’s 50% interest in Kalagadi Manganese. For further information, see “—Key Transactions and Events in 2012” in this annual report.

Mauritania. In late 2007, ArcelorMittal entered into an agreement with Société Nationale Industrielle et Minière (“SNIM”) of Mauritania, pursuant to which SNIM and ArcelorMittal would jointly develop a large iron ore mining project in the large El Agareb deposit. ArcelorMittal expects to complete exploratory works and a feasibility study by mid-2013.

Baffinland (Canada). In March 2011, the Company completed the acquisition of Baffinland Iron Mines Corp. (“Baffinland”), with ArcelorMittal holding 70% of the shares and Nunavut Iron Ore Inc. (“Nunavut Iron Ore”), a subsidiary of Iron Ore Holdings, L.P., owning the remaining 30%. Baffinland owns the Mary River project, which has direct shipped, high grade iron ore assets on Baffin Island in Nunavut. The Mary River property is located within the Arctic Circle and consists of nine high grade deposits. The current project envisages a phased development with a low-cost capital investment commencing in 2013 to result in production of 3.5 million tonnes per annum in 2015 with a road haulage option, and a larger phase 2 involving the expansion of mining facilities and construction of additional infrastructure so as to ship 18 million tonnes per annum of high grade, direct shipped lump and sinter ore when attractive financing terms are available. The feasibility study for the project was completed in 2012 and the phased project implementation is subject to permitting, which is in process. In December 2012, ArcelorMittal and Nunavut Iron Ore agreed that Nunavut Iron Ore will increase its shareholding in Baffinland from 30% to 50%. For further information, see “—Key Transactions and Events in 2012” in this annual report.


Key Transactions and Events in 2012

ArcelorMittal’s principal investments, acquisitions and disposals, and other key events that occurred during the year ended December 31, 2012 are summarized below.

·         On December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal entered into an agreement pursuant to which its wholly owned subsidiary, ArcelorMittal Mines Canada Inc. (“AMMC”), and a consortium led by POSCO and China Steel Corporation (“CSC”) will create joint venture partnerships to hold ArcelorMittal’s Labrador Trough iron ore mining and infrastructure assets. The consortium, which also includes certain financial investors, will acquire a 15% interest in the joint ventures for total consideration of $1.1 billion in cash, with AMMC and its affiliates retaining an 85% interest. As part of the transaction, POSCO and CSC will enter into long-term iron ore off-take agreements proportionate to their joint venture interests. The transaction is subject to various closing conditions, including regulatory clearance by the Taiwanese and Korean governments, and is expected to close in two steps in the first and second quarters of 2013.

·         On December 18, 2012, ArcelorMittal extended the conversion date of the mandatory convertible bonds (“MCB”) issued by one of its wholly-owned Luxembourg subsidiaries and convertible into preferred shares of such subsidiary from January 31, 2013 to January 31, 2014. The MCB was originally issued in December 2009 (and placed privately with a Luxembourg affiliate of Crédit Agricole Corporate and Investment Bank) in an amount of $750 million, which was increased to $1 billion in April 2011. In connection with the extension of the conversion date of the MCB, ArcelorMittal also extended the maturities of the equity-linked notes in which the proceeds of the MCB issuance are invested.

·         On December 13, 2012, ArcelorMittal announced an agreement with Nunavut Iron Ore, Inc. (“Nunavut”) to increase Nunavut’s interest in Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (“Baffinland”) from 30% to 50%. In consideration, Nunavut will correspondingly increase its share of funding for development of Baffinland’s Mary River iron ore project. ArcelorMittal will retain a 50% interest in the project as well as operator and marketing rights. The arrangements are subject to customary conditions precedent and are expected to be completed in early 2013.

·         On November 14, 2012, ArcelorMittal signed a share purchase agreement with Mrs. Mashile-Nkosi providing for acquisition by her or her nominee of ArcelorMittal’s 50% interest in Kalagadi Manganese. Under the agreement, ArcelorMittal will receive cash consideration of not less than ZAR 3.9 billion (approximately $460 million), on closing, which is subject to the arrangement of financing by the buyer. As of the date of this annual report, ArcelorMittal has not been notified of the satisfaction of this condition and therefore the investment was not classified as held for sale.  Closing is also subject to the waiver of preemptive rights of the other shareholders, customary corporate approvals and various regulatory approvals.





·         On October 1, 2012, ArcelorMittal Atlantique and Lorraine announced the intention to launch a project to close the liquid phase of the Florange plant in France, and concentrate efforts and investment on the high-quality finishing operation in Florange which employs more than 2,000 employees. The Company had accepted the French government’s request for the government to find a buyer for the liquid phase within 60 days of October 1, 2012, but no buyer was found. In December 2012, ArcelorMittal and the French government reached an agreement providing for the mothballing of the liquid phase without any dismantling for six years. ArcelorMittal expressed its commitment to the French government that it would (i) invest €180 million in the Florange site over the next five years, (ii) maintain the packaging activity in Florange for at least five years, (iii) reorganize the activity of the Florange site only by voluntary social measures for workers, and (iv) launch an R&D program to continue to develop the blast furnace top gas recycling technology.

·         On September 28, 2012, the Company completed the offering of $650 million of subordinated perpetual securities. The securities have no fixed maturity date, are subordinated and have a coupon of 8.75% per annum, subject to the right of the Company to defer the coupon payments. The initial coupon resets periodically over the life of the securities, with the first reset in year five and subsequently every five years thereafter. There is a step-up in the coupon of 25 basis points on the second reset date (year 10) and a subsequent step-up of 75 basis points 15 years later. The Company is entitled to call the securities in year five, in year 10, and on subsequent coupon payment dates. The Company also has the option to redeem the securities upon specific accounting, tax, rating agency or change of control events.

·         On July 25, 2012, ArcelorMittal announced the sale of its 48.1% stake in Paul Wurth, a Luxembourg-headquartered international engineering company that designs and supplies a full-range of technological solutions to the iron and steel industry and other metal sectors, to SMS Holding GmbH (Germany) for a total consideration of $388 million (cash outflow of $89 million net of cash disposed of). The transaction was completed on December 17, 2012

·         On July 17, 2012, ArcelorMittal completed the disposal of its 23.48% interest in Enovos International SA to a fund managed by AXA Private Equity (Luxembourg) for total consideration of €330 million, with €165 million paid on the same date and the remaining portion deferred for up to two years. Interest is accruing on the deferred portion.


·         On June 20, 2012, ArcelorMittal completed the sale of its steel foundation distribution business in NAFTA, Skyline Steel and Astralloy (“Skyline Steel”), to Nucor Corporation (United States) for a total cash consideration of $674 million, reflecting final working capital adjustments. The transaction comprised 100% of ArcelorMittal’s stake in Skyline Steel’s operations in the NAFTA countries and the Caribbean.


·         On June 6, 2012, ArcelorMittal and Valin Group announced that ArcelorMittal would increase its shareholding in the downstream automotive steel joint venture VAMA from 33% to 49%. VAMA, which is a joint venture currently owned by ArcelorMittal (33%), Valin Group (33%) and Hunan Valin Steel Tube and Wire Co., Ltd. (“Hunan Valin”) (34%), is focused on establishing itself as a premier supplier of high-strength steels and value-added products for China’s fast growing automotive market.  In line with a new shareholding agreement they have entered into, the Valin Group and ArcelorMittal intend to increase VAMA's planned capacity by 25% from 1.2 million tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, with capital investment to increase by 15% to CNY 5.2 billion (approximately $834 million). VAMA has signed purchase agreements totaling CNY 1.8 billion (approximately $289 million) for key equipment including cold rolling facilities, continuous annealing and galvanizing lines. The joint venture is expected to become operational in the first half of 2014. ArcelorMittal and the Valin Group also announced the possible recalibration by ArcelorMittal of its shareholding in Hunan Valin. The two companies have finalized a share swap arrangement based upon a Put Option mechanism, which enables ArcelorMittal to exercise, over the next two years, Put Options granted by the Valin Group with respect to Hunan Valin shares. Under this arrangement, ArcelorMittal (which currently holds approximately 30% of the shares of Hunan Valin) could sell up to 19.9% of the total equity (600 million shares) in Hunan Valin to the Valin Group. The exercise period of the Put Options is equally spaced with a gap of six months and linked to the key development milestones of VAMA. Following the exercise of the Put Options, ArcelorMittal would retain a 10.07% shareholding in Hunan Valin as part of a long-term strategic cooperation agreement.  ArcelorMittal's acquisition of the additional 16% shareholding in VAMA, which would be financed by the sale of shares in Hunan Valin using the Put Options, was approved by the Chinese authorities in December 2012. The put option exercise dates are February 6, 2013, August 6, 2013, February 6, 2014 and August 6, 2014. The exercise price per share is CNY 4 for the first two dates and CNY 4.4 for the last two dates. The Company exercised the first put option on February 6, 2013 and its stake in Hunan Valin decreased accordingly to 25%.


·         On May 8, 2012, the annual general meeting and extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held in Luxembourg approved all resolutions on their respective agendas by a large majority. A total of 1,021,492,703 shares, or 65.44% of the Company's share capital, were present or represented at the general meetings. The shareholders elected Mr. Tye Burt, the former President and Chief Executive Officer of Kinross Gold Corporation, a Toronto and New York Stock Exchange-listed gold mining company, as a new independent director of ArcelorMittal and re-elected Mr. Wilbur L. Ross and Mr. Narayanan Vaghul as independent directors for a term of three years each. In addition, the shareholders approved grants under the Restricted Share Unit Plan and the Performance Share Unit Plan in relation to 2012. The shareholders also approved a





number of changes to the Articles of Association, mainly to bring them in line with recent legal developments in Luxembourg, including the transposition into Luxembourg law of the European  Shareholders' Rights Directive. Finally, the shareholders approved an increase in the Company's authorized share capital by an amount equal to 10% of its pre-extraordinary general meeting issued share capital.

·         On April 26, 2012, ArcelorMittal announced that a scoping study had identified the potential to utilize ArcelorMittal Mines Canada’s existing infrastructure system to increase annual production of iron-ore concentrate to 30 million tonnes per annum. In May 2011, the Company had announced that it had launched an investment program to increase annual production at ArcelorMittal Mines Canada from 16 to 24 million tonnes per annum by 2013.  Several development options are currently being considered and further expansion beyond the current investment program is being investigated. Studies have been initiated for a production increase of up to 32 million tonnes per annum.


·         On March 29, 2012, ArcelorMittal issued €500 million 4.5% Notes due March 29, 2018. The notes were issued under the Company’s €3 billion wholesale Euro Medium Term Notes Programme and the proceeds were used to refinance existing indebtedness.


·         On March 28, 2012, ArcelorMittal announced that it had sold 134,317,503 shares and warrants for an additional 134,317,503 shares in Ereğli Demir ve Çelik Fabrikaları T.A.Ş. (“Erdemir”) by way of a single accelerated bookbuilt offering to institutional investors. Taking into account the acquisition cost net of dividends, the disposal was cash positive. ArcelorMittal agreed to a 365 day lock-up period on its remaining stake in Erdemir. The warrants subsequently expired without exercise. Accordingly, as a result of this transaction, ArcelorMittal’s shareholding in Erdemir decreased from 25.78% to approximately 18.7%.


·         On March 2, 2012, ArcelorMittal announced the results of its cash tender offer launched on February 23, 2012 to purchase its 5.375% notes due June 1, 2013. ArcelorMittal accepted for purchase $299 million principal amount of notes for a total aggregate purchase price (including accrued interest) of $314 million. Upon settlement for all of the notes accepted pursuant to the offer, the remaining outstanding principal amount of notes is $1.2 billion.


·         On February 28, 2012, ArcelorMittal completed the issuance of three series of U.S. dollar denominated notes: $500 million aggregate principal amount of 3.75% notes due 2015, $1.4 billion aggregate principal amount of 4.5% due 2017, and $1.1 billion aggregate principal amount of 6.25% notes due 2022. The proceeds were used to refinance existing indebtedness.


Recent Developments


·         On February 9, 2013, a fire occurred at the Vanderbijlpark plant in ArcelorMittal South Africa. It caused extensive damage to the steel making facilities resulting in an immediate shutdown of the facilities.  No injuries were reported as a result of the incident. Once detailed assessments of the damage and required repairs have been carried out, the potential loss of sales and estimate of the time to repair will be determined.


·         On January 24, 2013, ArcelorMittal Liège informed its local works council of its intention to permanently close a number of additional assets due to further weakening of the European economy and the resulting low demand for its products. Specifically, ArcelorMittal Liège has proposed to close (i) the hot strip mill in Chertal, (ii) one of the two cold rolling flows in Tilleur, (iii) galvanization lines 4 and 5 in Flemalle and (iv) electrogalvanizing lines HP3 and 4 in Marchin. The Company has also proposed to permanently close the ArcelorMittal Liège coke plant, which is no longer viable due to the excess supply of coke in Europe. ArcelorMittal Liège intends to discuss with trade union representatives all possible means of reducing the impact on employees, including the possibility of transfer to other sites within ArcelorMittal.


·         ArcelorMittal completed a combined offering of ordinary shares and mandatorily convertible subordinated notes (“MCNs”) on January 14, 2013 and January 16, 2013, respectively. The ordinary share offering represents an aggregate of approximately $1.75 billion, representing approximately 104 million ordinary shares at an offering price of $16.75 per ordinary share. The MCN offering represented an aggregate of approximately $2.25 billion. The notes have a maturity of three years, are issued at 100% of the principal amount and will be mandatorily converted into ordinary shares of ArcelorMittal at maturity unless earlier converted at the option of the holders or ArcelorMittal or upon specified events in accordance with the terms of the MCNs. The notes pay a coupon of 6.00% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. The minimum conversion price of the MCNs is equal to $16.75, corresponding to the placement price of shares in the concurrent ordinary share offering as described above, and the maximum conversion price was set at approximately 125% of the minimum conversion price (corresponding to $20.94).  The Mittal family purchased $300 million of MCNs and $300 million of ordinary shares in the offering. ArcelorMittal intends to use the net proceeds from the combined offering to reduce existing indebtedness.







Other Information

ArcelorMittal is a public limited liability company (société anonyme) that was incorporated under the laws of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on June 8, 2001. ArcelorMittal is registered at the R.C.S. Luxembourg under number B 82.454.

The mailing address and telephone number of ArcelorMittal’s registered office are:

19, Avenue de la Liberté
L-2930 Luxembourg
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Telephone: +352 4792-2484

ArcelorMittal’s agent for U.S. federal securities law purposes is:

ArcelorMittal USA LLC
1 South Dearborn Street, 19th floor
Chicago, Illinois 60603
United States of America
Telephone: + 1 312 899-3400

ArcelorMittal shares are listed and traded on the NYSE (symbol “MT”), ArcelorMittal’s principal United States trading market, are admitted to trading outside the United States on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange’s regulated market and listed on the Official List of the Luxembourg Stock Exchange (“MT”), and are listed and traded (on a single order book as from January 14, 2009) on the NYSE Euronext European markets (Paris and Amsterdam) (“MT”) and the stock exchanges of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia (the “Spanish Stock Exchanges”) (“MTS”).

Internet Site

ArcelorMittal maintains an Internet site at www.arcelormittal.com. Information contained in or otherwise accessible through this Internet site is not a part of this annual report. All references in this annual report to this Internet site are inactive textual references to this URL and are for your information only.


B.    Business Overview

Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following factors contribute to ArcelorMittal’s success in the global steel and mining industry:

Market leader in steel. ArcelorMittal is the world’s largest steel producer, with annual achievable production capacity of approximately 119 million tonnes of crude steel for the year ended December 31, 2012. Steel shipments for the year ended December 31, 2012 totaled approximately 83.8 million tonnes.

ArcelorMittal is the largest producer of steel in North and South America and Africa, the fourth largest steel producer in the CIS region, and has a growing presence in Asia, including investments in China and India. It is also the largest steel producer in the European Union, with significant operations in France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Luxembourg, Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania. In addition, many of ArcelorMittal’s operating units have access to developing markets that are expected to experience, over time, above-average growth in steel consumption (such as Central and Eastern Europe, South America, India, Africa, CIS and Southeast Asia).

ArcelorMittal has a diversified portfolio of steel products to meet a wide range of customer needs across all steel-consuming industries, including the automotive, appliance, engineering, construction, energy and machinery industries. The Company sells its products in local markets and through a centralized marketing organization to customers in over 170 countries. ArcelorMittal’s diversified product offering, together with its distribution network and research and development (“R&D”) programs, enable it to build strong relationships with customers, which include many of the world’s major automobile and appliance manufacturers. With approximately 17% of the worldwide market share of flat steel sheets for the automotive industry, ArcelorMittal is a strategic partner for the major original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), and has the capability to build long-term contractual relationships with them based on early vendor involvement, contributions to global OEM platforms and common value-creation programs.






A world-class mining business. ArcelorMittal has a global portfolio of 16 operating units with mines in operation and development and is among the largest iron ore producers in the world. In the year ended December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal mines and strategic contracts produced 68.1 million tonnes of iron ore and met 61% of the Company’s iron ore requirements, and produced 8.9 million tonnes of coking coal and PCI and met 20% of the Company’s PCI and coal requirements.  The Company currently has iron ore mining activities in Algeria, Brazil, Bosnia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Liberia, Mexico, Ukraine and the United States and has projects under development or prospective development in Canada, Mauritania and India. The Company currently has coal mining activities in Kazakhstan, Russia and the United States. ArcelorMittal’s main mining products include iron ore lump, fines, concentrate, pellets, sinter feed, coking coal, PCI and thermal coal. As of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal’s iron ore reserves are estimated at 4.3 billion tonnes run of mine and its total coking coal reserves are estimated at 318 million tonnes run of mine or 170 wet recoverable million tonnes.

The Company’s long-life iron ore and coal resources provide a measure of security of supply and an important natural hedge against raw material volatility and global supply constraints. Since January 1, 2011, the mining business has been reported as a separate reportable segment. This enhances the ability to optimize capital allocation and pursue growth plans, which include a material increase in production and sales to third parties at market prices.


Market-leading automotive steel business. The Company estimates its flat products share of the global automotive steel market at approximately 17% in 2012. In total, the automotive industry consumed approximately 16% of all the Company’s produced steel in 2012. Long-term contracts add to the stability of the business. ArcelorMittal has built close relationships with its customers, often working with them at the vehicle design stage. These relationships are founded on the Company’s continuing investment in R&D and its ability to provide highly engineered solutions that help make vehicles lighter, safer and more fuel-efficient.

ArcelorMittal has a leading market share in its core markets and is a leader in the fast-growing advanced high strength steels segment. Its S-in motionTM line of solutions is a unique offering to the C-segment automotive market that satisfies OEMs’ requirements for safety, fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions. By utilizing advanced high strength steels promoted in the S-in motionTM projects, OEMs can potentially achieve a 19% weight reduction over a period of time.

ArcelorMittal’s deliveries to the automotive industry are mainly in the natural geographic markets of its production facilities in Europe, North and South America and South Africa. The Company also exports certain specialty products to China, where it is developing its position in advance of production through its joint venture with Hunan Valin expected to begin during the first half of 2014 (see “Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects”). Its product mix is oriented towards higher value products and mainly to OEMs directly where the Company sells tailored solutions based on its products. With sales and service offices worldwide, production facilities in North and South America, South Africa and Europe and eventually, in China, ArcelorMittal believes it is uniquely positioned to supply global automotive customers with the same products worldwide. The Company has joint ventures and has also developed a global downstream network with partners through its Distribution Solutions segment. This provides the Company with a proximity advantage in virtually all regions where its global customers are present.


Research and Development. R&D supports ArcelorMittal’s business units in process and product improvement to produce the best quality steel at a low cost and with a limited impact on the environment. With 11 major research centers, ArcelorMittal possesses a leading R&D capability in the steel industry. The Company’s locations worldwide enable quick transfers of know-how to ArcelorMittal plants around the world. In addition, ArcelorMittal’s close relationship with its customers enables it to foster innovation and work with them to meet their evolving needs and develop new steel products and solutions. To improve its research efficiency and achieve a high level of scientific knowledge, ArcelorMittal maintains strong academic partnerships with world-class scientific and technical universities.

The main focuses of ArcelorMittal’s R&D are:

·         In process research, ArcelorMittal places significant emphasis on cost-effective processes (related to energy savings and raw materials selection), quality, environmental improvements and efficiently deploying process improvements throughout its plants worldwide.

·         In the automotive sector, ArcelorMittal’s engineering teams resident at customers’ plants work with OEMs from the design stage of new product launches, helping to create vehicles that are lighter, stronger, safer and more attractive to end-users. ArcelorMittal continues to lead the way with advanced high-strength steels and high formability steels in conjunction with a quick deployment at all worldwide customers’ locations.





·         In construction and civil engineering, ArcelorMittal works to develop new products and solutions addressing safety, health, cost-efficiency, affordability, durability, energy-efficiency, environmental impact, comfort and transportability.

·         In other industry markets such as appliances, packaging and metal processing, ArcelorMittal develops cost-effective products, solutions and new coatings, while anticipating new legal and regulatory environmental requirements.

·         In the energy market, ArcelorMittal is increasing its efforts to develop new steel grades for energy pipes, and a larger and cost-effective product range for tubular products.

·         ArcelorMittal takes part in the development of new energy-saving technologies with the production of new, fully processed grades of electrical steel and has a growing presence in the wind energy sector. Proceeds from the sale of carbon dioxide credits are reinvested in energy savings projects.

For the year ended December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal’s R&D expense was $285 million.


Diversified and efficient producer. As a vertically-integrated global steel manufacturer with a leading position in many markets, ArcelorMittal benefits from scale and production cost efficiencies in various markets and a measure of protection against the cyclicality of the steel industry and raw materials prices

·         Diversified production process. In 2012, approximately 64.6 million tonnes of crude steel were produced through the basic oxygen furnace route, approximately 20.6 million tonnes through the electric arc furnace route and approximately 3.0 million tonnes of crude steel through the open hearth furnace route. This provides ArcelorMittal with greater flexibility in raw material and energy use, and increased ability to meet varying customer requirements in the markets it serves.

·         Product and geographic diversification. By operating a portfolio of assets that is diversified across product segments and geographic areas, ArcelorMittal benefits from a number of natural hedges.

·         Upstream integration. ArcelorMittal believes that its own raw material production provides a competitive advantage over time. Additionally, ArcelorMittal benefits from the ability to optimize the efficient use of raw materials in its steel-making facilities, a global procurement strategy and the implementation of overall company-wide knowledge management practices with respect to raw materials. Certain of the Company’s operating units also have access to infrastructure, such as deep-water port facilities, railway sidings and engineering workshops that lower transportation and logistics costs.

·         Downstream integration. ArcelorMittal’s downstream integration through its Distribution Solutions segment enables it to provide customized steel solutions to its customers more directly. The Company’s downstream assets have cut-to-length, slitting and other processing facilities, which provide value additions and help it to maximize operational efficiencies.

Business improvement through company-wide Knowledge Management Program. Knowledge sharing and implementation of best practices are an integral part of ArcelorMittal’s management philosophy. Through its global Knowledge Management Program (“KMP”), ArcelorMittal shares, develops and utilizes its knowledge and experience across its facilities to accelerate improvement in business performance. The KMP covers all key functional areas, such as procurement, finance, marketing, logistics and health and safety, as well as the main steps in steel production and processing. The KMP includes ongoing detailed benchmarking, regular technical meetings and information-sharing at the corporate, regional and operating levels and inter-plant expert and operational support to drive performance improvement. The KMP enables each business unit to benefit from the scale and reach of ArcelorMittal’s global presence and access the best practices and experience within the Company. ArcelorMittal believes that the KMP provides a differentiating advantage to ArcelorMittal’s business performance by continuously contributing to reduced procurement and conversion costs and enhancing safety, quality, productivity and profitability.


Dynamic responses to market challenges and opportunities. ArcelorMittal’s management team has a strong track record and extensive experience in the steel and mining industries. Management had the vision to recognize and take full advantage of the strong steel market trend from 2004 to mid-2008 and by responding quickly and decisively to opportunities, succeeded in building the world’s largest steel company. Even as ArcelorMittal grew in recent years (in large part due to its expertise in acquisitions and turnarounds as described below), it put itself on stronger footing to weather the market downturn in late 2008 and early 2009. Management’s flexibility and agility allowed ArcelorMittal to shift quickly from the growth-oriented approach that prevailed in early 2008 to a crisis response that focused on prudent deployment of cash and reduction of costs, while continuing to provide customers with superior value-added steel products and solutions. In 2010, management continued to carefully adjust its production to changing market conditions and the slow and uncertain economic recovery, while also broadening the Company’s strategic focus on developing its mining activities and securing long-term stable supplies of raw materials.  In response to the worsening Euro-zone sovereign debt crisis starting in the summer of 2011 and subsequent recession in certain of its key markets, ArcelorMittal accelerated its operating





results improvement plans in order to maintain its leadership position in the steel industry and to continue to be competitive on costs.  In this respect, during the third quarter of 2012, the Company achieved its target to reach management gains of $4.8 billion from sustainable SG&A, fixed and variable cost reductions, ahead of its initial schedule. The Company is currently developing plans to announce further management gain plans in the near-term. In September 2011, the Company launched an asset optimization initiative aimed at maximizing steel production at its lowest cost facilities. This process is advancing as planned and the Company expects to generate $1 billion of savings on an annualized basis during the course of 2013. The Company has closed the liquid phase at the Liège site of ArcelorMittal Belgium and mothballed the liquid phase at the Florange site of ArcelorMittal Atlantique et Lorraine, France. It also announced its intention to permanently close the coke plant and six finishing lines in Liège. The Company continues to temporarily suspend steel growth capital expenditure while maintaining a focus on core growth capital expenditure in mining.

Despite the uncertain business environment since the market downturn in 2008, ArcelorMittal management has successfully continued to access the equity and bond markets to adapt its balance sheet structure and extend debt maturity dates.


Proven expertise in acquisitions and turnarounds. ArcelorMittal’s management team has proven expertise in successfully acquiring and subsequently integrating operations, as well as turning around underperforming assets within tight timeframes. The Company takes a disciplined approach to investing and uses teams with diverse expertise from different business units across the Company to evaluate  new assets, conduct due diligence and monitor integration and post-acquisition performance. Since the inception of ArcelorMittal’s predecessor company Mittal Steel in 1989, the Company has grown through a series of acquisitions and by improving the operating performance and financial management at the facilities that it has acquired. In particular, ArcelorMittal seeks to improve acquired businesses by eliminating operational bottlenecks, addressing any historical under-investments and increasing acquired facilities’ capability to produce higher quality steel. The Company introduces focused capital expenditure programs, implements company-wide best practices, balances working capital, ensures adequate management resources and introduces safety and environmental improvements at acquired facilities. ArcelorMittal believes that these operating and financial measures have improved the operating performance and quality of steel produced at these facilities.


Employees. Recognizing them as the Company’s most valuable assets, ArcelorMittal’s management devotes considerable effort towards securing the right people and enhancing their productivity in four key ways: (1) organizational effectiveness, which aligns the organizational structure and size with the Company’s goals and operations; (2) resourcing, workforce planning, skill gaps identification and training which ensure that the right people are in the right roles; (3) succession planning and development; and (4) performance management through measures such as management review and incentive programs.


Corporate responsibility. ArcelorMittal’s commitment to corporate responsibility (CR) is an important value driver of long-term shareholder value. By acting in a responsible and transparent manner, and by maintaining good relationships with stakeholders, the Group can better manage social and environmental risk, mitigate the impact of its operations on society, meet local expectations, and foster local economic development. ArcelorMittal’s CR approach is structured around four areas, which reflect the key priorities of our business and our stakeholders: investing in our people, making steel more sustainable, enriching our communities and transparent governance.  In 2012, ArcelorMittal achieved its target lost time injury rate of 1.0 (the Company’s best to date), shared the top position as the world’s most admired metals company in Fortune Magazine’s corporate reputation survey and maintained membership in two major sustainability and corporate responsibility indices: the FTSE4Good Index Series and the Dow Jones Sustainability Index World, the latter of which recognized the Company as the steel sector leader.


Business Strategy

ArcelorMittal’s success has been built upon a consistent strategy that emphasizes size and scale, increased production of and access to raw materials, product diversity, continuous growth in higher value products and a strong customer focus. We intend to continue to be the global leader in the steel industry and a leader in iron ore and coal mining, in particular through the following:

Three-dimensional strategy for sustainability and growth. ArcelorMittal has pursued for a number of years a consistent, three-dimensional business strategy focused on its unique geographical and product diversification, coupled with upstream and downstream integration that reduces exposure to risk and cyclicality. This strategy can be broken down into its three major elements:

Geography: ArcelorMittal is the largest producer of steel in Europe, North and South America, Africa, the fourth largest steel producer in the CIS region. ArcelorMittal has steel-making operations in 20 countries on four continents, including 58 integrated, mini-mill and integrated mini-mill steel-making facilities which provide a high degree of geographic diversification. In 2012, approximately 39% of its steel was produced in the Americas, approximately 44% was produced in Europe and approximately 17% was produced in other countries, such as Kazakhstan, South Africa and Ukraine.





Worldwide steel demand in recent years has been driven by growth in developing economies, in particular in the BRICET countries. The Company’s pre-global financial crisis expansion strategy gave it a leading position in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, South America and Central Asia.

Products: As a global steel producer of a broad range of high-quality finished and semi-finished steel products, ArcelorMittal is able to meet the needs of diverse markets. Steel consumption and product requirements are different in mature economy markets and developing economy markets. Steel consumption in mature economies is weighted towards flat products and a higher value-added mix, while developing markets utilize a higher proportion of long products and commodity grades. As these economies develop, local customers will require increasingly advanced steel products as market needs evolve. To meet these diverse needs, ArcelorMittal maintains a high degree of product diversification and seeks opportunities to increase the proportion of its product mix consisting of higher value-added products.

Mining and value chain: ArcelorMittal has access to high-quality and low-cost raw materials through its own mines and strategic contracts with key suppliers, and plans to continue to develop its upstream integration in the medium-term. Iron ore and coal mining projects have been a key focus of ArcelorMittal in recent years, and this focus is only expected to intensify in the medium-term, as the Company has a goal to secure 84 million tonnes of iron ore production capacity by 2015. As part of this strategy, in March 2011, the Company completed the acquisition of Baffinland, which holds a substantial undeveloped iron ore deposit in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, although the Company has since announced its intention to reduce its stake in Baffinland to 50%. For additional information, see “Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects” and Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Key Transactions and Events in 2012”.

Downstream integration is also a key element of ArcelorMittal’s strategy to build a global customer franchise. In high-value products, downstream integration allows steel companies to be closer to the customer and capture a greater share of value-added activities. As its key customers globalize, ArcelorMittal intends to invest in value-added downstream operations, such as steel service centers and building and construction support services for the construction industry. In addition, the Company intends to continue to develop its distribution network in selected geographic regions. ArcelorMittal believes that these downstream and distribution activities will allow it to be closer to end-user customers, which in turn will allow it to benefit from better market intelligence and better manage inventories in the supply chain to reduce volatility and improve working capital management. Furthermore ArcelorMittal will continue to expand its production of value-added products in developing markets, leveraging off its experience in developed markets.

Growth Prospects. Mergers and acquisitions have historically been a key pillar of ArcelorMittal’s strategy. Due to difficult economic and market conditions prevailing in late 2008 and early 2009, ArcelorMittal sharply curtailed M&A and greenfield investment activity. Due to continuing weaker demand, as well as uncertainties arising from the Euro-zone sovereign debt crisis, M&A activity also remained subdued for most of 2010, 2011 (with the exception of Baffinland) and 2012, as the Company focused on targeted cost improvement through its management gain program, non-core asset disposals and resizing its operational footprint through asset optimization. As global market conditions gradually improve and signs of stability emerge in Europe, the Company may consider taking advantage of selected growth opportunities, including in the mining and steel sectors and in emerging markets.


Business Overview

ArcelorMittal reports its operations in six reportable segments representing continuing operations: Flat Carbon Americas, Flat Carbon Europe, Long Carbon Americas and Europe, Asia, Africa and CIS (“AACIS”), Distribution Solutions and Mining. The following table sets forth selected financial data by segment.




Flat Carbon Americas


Flat Carbon Europe


Long Carbon Americas & Europe




Distribution Solutions










Year ended December 31, 2010



















Sales to external customers



















Intersegment sales**



















Operating income (loss)

























































Capital expenditures



















Year ended December 31, 2011



















Sales to external customers



















Intersegment sales**



















Operating income (loss)

























































Capital expenditures



















Year ended December 31, 2012



















Sales to external customers



















Intersegment sales**



















Operating income (loss)

























































Capital expenditures

























































Others include all other operational and non-operational items which are not segmented. As of December 31, 2012, the presentation of the others and eliminations has been changed to present the other operational and non-operational items separately from eliminations.


Transactions between segments are reported on the same basis of accounting as transactions with third parties except for certain mining products shipped internally and reported on a cost plus basis.








ArcelorMittal has a high degree of product diversification relative to other steel companies. Its plants manufacture a broad range of finished and semi-finished steel products of different specifications, including many difficult and technically sophisticated products that it sells to demanding customers for use in high-end applications.

ArcelorMittal’s principal steel products include:

·         semi-finished flat products such as slabs;

·         finished flat products such as plates, hot- and cold-rolled coils and sheets, hot-dipped and electro-galvanized coils and sheets, tinplate and color coated coils and sheets;

·         semi-finished long products such as blooms and billets;

·         finished long products such as bars, wire-rods, structural sections, rails, sheet piles and wire-products; and

·         seamless and welded pipes and tubes.

ArcelorMittal’s main mining products include:

·         iron ore lump, fines, concentrate, pellets and sinter feed; and

·         coking, PCI and thermal coal.

Steel-Making Process

Historically, primary steel producers have been divided into “integrated” and “mini-mill” producers. Over the past few decades, a third type of steel producer has emerged that combines the strengths of both the integrated and the mini-mill processes. These producers are referred to as “integrated mini-mill producers”.

Integrated Steel-Making

In integrated steel production, coal is converted to coke in a coke oven, and then combined in a blast furnace with iron ore and limestone to produce pig iron, which is subsequently combined with scrap in a converter, which is generally a basic oxygen or tandem furnace, to produce raw or liquid steel. Once produced, the liquid steel is metallurgically refined and then transported to a continuous caster for casting into a slab, bloom or billet, which is then further shaped or rolled into its final form. Various finishing or coating processes may follow this casting and rolling. Recent modernization efforts by integrated steel producers have focused on cutting costs through eliminating unnecessary production steps, reducing manning levels through automation, and decreasing waste generated by the process. Integrated mills are substantially dependent upon iron ore and coking coal which, due to supply and demand imbalances, shortening of contract durations and linkage of contract prices to spot prices, have been characterized by price volatility in recent years.






A mini-mill employs an electric arc furnace to directly melt scrap and/or scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron, thus entirely replacing all of the steps up to and including the energy-intensive blast furnace. A mini-mill incorporates the melt shop, ladle metallurgical station, casting, and rolling into a unified continuous flow. Mini-mills are generally characterized by lower costs of production and higher productivity than integrated steel-makers. These attributes are due in part to the lower capital costs and lower operating costs resulting from the streamlined melting process and more efficient plant layouts of mini-mills. The quality of steel produced by mini-mills is primarily limited by the quality of the metallic raw materials used in liquid steel-making, which in turn is affected by the limited availability of high-quality scrap or virgin ore-based metallics for use in the electric arc furnaces. Mini-mills are substantially dependent on scrap, which has been characterized by price volatility, generally rising prices and limited availability in recent years.

Integrated Mini-Mills

Integrated mini-mills are mini-mills that produce their own metallic raw materials consisting of high-quality scrap substitutes, such as direct reduced iron. Unlike most mini-mills, integrated mini-mills are able to produce steel with the quality of an integrated producer, since scrap substitutes, such as direct reduced iron, are derived from virgin iron ore, which has fewer impurities. The internal production of scrap substitutes as the primary metallic feedstock provides integrated mini-mills with a competitive advantage over traditional scrap-based mini-mills by insulating the integrated mini-mills from their dependence on scrap, which has been subject to price volatility, generally rising prices and limited availability. The internal production of metallic feedstock also enables integrated mini-mills to reduce handling and transportation costs. The high percentage use of scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron also allows the integrated mini-mills to take advantage of periods of low scrap prices by procuring a wide variety of lower-cost scrap grades, which can be blended with the higher-purity direct reduced iron charge. Because the production of direct reduced iron involves the use of significant amounts of natural gas, integrated mini-mills are more sensitive to the price of natural gas than are mini-mills using scrap.


Key Steel Products

Steel-makers primarily produce three types of steel products; flat products, long products and stainless steel. Flat products, such as sheet or plate, are produced from slabs. Long products, such as bars, rods and structural shapes, are rolled from blooms and/or billets. Stainless steel products include austenitic stainless, ferritic stainless and martensitic stainless.

Flat Products

Slab. A slab is a semi-finished steel product obtained by the continuous casting of steel or rolling ingots on a rolling mill and cutting them into various lengths. A slab has a rectangular cross-section and is used as a starting material in the production process of other flat products (e.g., hot-rolled sheet, plates).

Hot-Rolled Sheet. Hot-rolled sheet is minimally processed steel that is used in the manufacture of various non-surface critical applications, such as automobile suspension arms, frames, wheels, and other unexposed parts in auto and truck bodies, agricultural equipment, construction products, machinery, tubing, pipe and guard rails. All flat-rolled steel sheet is initially hot-rolled, a process that consists of passing a cast slab through a multi-stand rolling mill to reduce its thickness to less than 12 millimeters. Flat-rolled steel sheet that has been wound is referred to as “coiled”.

Cold-Rolled Sheet. Cold-rolled sheet is hot-rolled sheet that has been further processed through a pickle line, which is an acid bath that removes scaling from steel’s surface, and then successively passed through a rolling mill without reheating until the desired gauge, or thickness, and other physical properties have been achieved. Cold-rolling reduces gauge and hardens the steel and, when further processed through an annealing furnace and a temper mill, improves uniformity, ductility and formability. Cold-rolling can also impart various surface finishes and textures. Cold-rolled steel is used in applications that demand higher surface quality or finish, such as exposed automobile and appliance panels. As a result, the prices of cold-rolled sheet are higher than the prices of hot-rolled sheet. Typically, cold-rolled sheet is coated or painted prior to sale to an end-user.

Coated Sheet. Coated sheet is generally cold-rolled steel that has been coated with zinc, aluminum or a combination thereof to render it corrosion-resistant and to improve its paintability. Hot-dipped galvanized, electro-galvanized and aluminized products are types of coated sheet. These are also the highest value-added sheet products because they require the greatest degree of processing and tend to have the strictest quality requirements. Coated sheet is used for many applications, often where exposed to the elements, such as automobile exteriors, major household appliances, roofing and siding, heating and air conditioning equipment, air ducts and switch boxes, as well as in certain packaging applications, such as food containers.

Plates. Plates are produced by hot-rolling either reheated slabs or ingots. The principal end uses for plates include various structural products such as for bridge construction, storage vessels, tanks, shipbuilding, line pipe, industrial machinery and equipment.





Tinplate. Tinplate is a light-gauge, cold-rolled, low-carbon steel usually coated with a micro-thin layer of tin. Tinplate is usually between 0.14 millimeters and 0.84 millimeters thick and offers particular advantages for packaging, such as strength, workability, corrosion resistance, weldability and ease in decoration. Food and general line steel containers are made from tinplate.

Long Products

Billets/Blooms. Billets and blooms are semi-finished steel products. Billets generally have square cross-sections up to 180 millimeters by 180 millimeters, and blooms generally have square or rectangular cross-sections greater than 180 millimeters by 180 millimeters. These products are either continuously cast or rolled from ingots and are used for further processing by rolling to produce finished products like bars, wire rod and sections.

Bars. Bars are long steel products that are rolled from billets. Merchant bar and reinforcing bar (rebar) are two common categories of bars. Merchant bars include rounds, flats, angles, squares, and channels that are used by fabricators to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings, and farm equipment. Rebar is used to strengthen concrete in highways, bridges and buildings.

Special Bar Quality (SBQ) Steel. SBQ steel is the highest quality steel long product and is typically used in safety-critical applications by manufacturers of engineered products. SBQ steel must meet specific applications’ needs for strength, toughness, fatigue life and other engineering parameters. SBQ steel is the only bar product that typically requires customer qualification and is generally sold under contract to long-term customers. End-markets are principally the automotive, heavy truck and agricultural sectors, and products made with SBQ steel include axles, crankshafts, transmission gears, bearings and seamless tubes.

Wire Rods. Wire rod is ring-shaped coiled steel with diameters ranging from 5.5 to 42 millimeters. Wire rod is used in the automotive, construction, welding and engineering sectors.

Wire Products. Wire products include a broad range of products produced by cold reducing wire rod through a series of dies to improve surface finish, dimensional accuracy and physical properties. Wire products are used in a variety of applications such as fasteners, springs, concrete wire, electrical conductors and structural cables.

Structural Sections. Structural sections or shapes is the general term for rolled flanged shapes with at least one dimension of their cross-section of 80 millimeters or greater. They are produced in a rolling mill from reheated blooms or billets. Structural sections include wide-flange beams, bearing piles, channels, angles and tees. They are used mainly in the construction industry and in many other structural applications.

Rails. Rails are hot-rolled from a reheated bloom. They are used mainly for railway rails but they also have many industrial applications, including rails for construction cranes.

Seamless Tube: Seamless tubes have outer dimensions of approximately 25 millimeters to 508 millimeters. They are produced by piercing solid steel cylinders in a forging operation in which the metal is worked from both the inside and outside. The final product is a tube with uniform properties from the surface through the wall and from one end to the other.

Steel sheet piles. Steel sheet piles are hot rolled products used in civil engineering for permanent and temporary retaining structures. Main applications are the construction of quay walls, jetties, breakwaters, locks and dams, river reinforcement and channel embankments, as well as bridge abutments and underpasses. Temporary structures like cofferdams in the river are made with steel sheet piles. A special combination of H beams and steel sheet piles are sometimes used for the construction of large container terminals and similar port structures.  

Welded Pipes and Tubes: Welded pipes and tubes are manufactured from steel sheet that is bent into a cylinder and welded either longitudinally or helically.

Stainless Steel

In January 2011, ArcelorMittal completed the spin-off of its stainless steel operations to a separately-focused company, Aperam.

Electrical Steels

There are three principal types of electrical steel: grain-oriented steels, non-grain oriented fully processed steels and non-grain oriented semi-processed steels:

·         Grain-oriented steels are 3% silicon-iron alloys developed with a grain orientation to provide very low power loss and high permeability in the rolling direction, for high efficiency transformers. These materials are sold under the Unisil trademark. Unisil H is a high permeability grade that offers extremely low power loss.





·         Non-grain oriented fully processed steels are iron-silicon alloys with varying silicon contents and have similar magnetic properties in all directions in the plane of the sheet. They are principally used for motors, generators, alternators, ballasts, small transformers and a variety of other electromagnetic applications. A wide range of products, including a newly developed thin gauge material for high frequency applications, are available.

·         Non-grain oriented semi-processed steels are largely non-silicon alloys sold in the not finally annealed condition to enhance punchability. Low power loss and good permeability properties are developed after final annealing of the laminations. These materials are sold under the Newcor and Polycor trademarks.

Direct Reduced Iron

Direct reduced iron, also known as DRI, is produced by removing the oxygen from iron ore without melting it. DRI is used as feedstock for electric arc furnaces and is a high-quality substitute for scrap. In 2012, ArcelorMittal produced 8.2 million tonnes of DRI. Direct reduced iron enables ArcelorMittal to control the quality and consistency of its metallic input, which is essential to ensure uniform high quality of the finished products. Direct reduced iron has historically given ArcelorMittal a cost advantage compared to scrap.


Mining Products

ArcelorMittal’s principal mining products and raw material input items for steel operations include iron ore, solid fuels (coking coal, PCI coal and coke), metallics, alloys, base metals, energy and industrial gases.

ArcelorMittal’s mining and raw materials supply strategy consists of:

·         Acquiring and expanding production of certain raw materials, in particular iron ore, coal and manufacturing refractory products and developing diverse third-party customer relationships;

·         With respect to purchasing, pursuing the lowest unit price available based on the principles of total cost of ownership and value-in-use through aggregated purchasing, supply chain and consumption optimization;

·         Exploiting its global purchasing reach; and

·         Leveraging local and low cost advantages on a global scale.

Faced with rising and more volatile raw materials prices in recent years and in light of the concentrated nature of the mining industry (in particular iron ore), ArcelorMittal has pursued a strategy of selectively acquiring mining assets that are complementary to its steel producing activities and making substantial investments in the development of its own production base. These acquisitions and investments have focused mainly on iron ore and coking coal, which are the two most important inputs in the steel-making process. ArcelorMittal has exploration and evaluation mining projects in India and Africa that have not yet reached the development and production stages, and whose advancement was delayed in late 2008 and 2009 due to the global economic crisis. ArcelorMittal also holds stakes in a few joint ventures and other entities with substantial mining assets. As the global economic crisis continued in 2010, ArcelorMittal focused on optimizing output and production from its existing sources rather than on further expanding its portfolio of mining assets. In early 2011, the Company’s expansion of its own raw materials base resumed with its acquisition of Baffinland, owner of an undeveloped iron ore deposit in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. In late 2012, the Company secured additional shareholder support for Baffinland with ArcelorMittal and Nunavut Iron Ore becoming equal partners in the joint venture. Also, in order to forge strategic relationships with key customers, in December 2012, the Company entered into an agreement with a consortium led by POSCO and CSC pursuant to which ArcelorMittal Mines Canada and the consortium will enter into a joint venture partnership in which the consortium will hold a 15% interest and POSCO and CSC will enter into long-term iron ore off-take agreements with ArcelorMittal Mines Canada. See “Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects” and “Item 4A—History and Development of the Company—Key Transactions and Events in 2012”.


ArcelorMittal is a party to contracts with other mining companies that provide long-term, stable sources of raw materials. The Company’s largest iron ore supply contracts are agreements with Vale that were entered into in 2008 and amended in 2009 in response to changed market conditions in order to reduce and introduce a greater level of flexibility with respect to ArcelorMittal’s purchasing requirements and Vale’s supply requirements. ArcelorMittal’s other principal international iron ore suppliers include Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. in the United States, Metalloinvest in Russia, Metinvest in Ukraine, Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB in Sweden, Samarco in Brazil, IOC (Rio Tinto Ltd.) in Canada and Sishen (South Africa). ArcelorMittal’s principal coal suppliers include the BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance in Australia, Alpha Natural Resources in the United States, Anglo Coal in Australia, Xstrata Coal in Australia, Walter Energy Inc. in the United States, Teck Coal in Canada and Peabody in Australia. ArcelorMittal classifies certain of these long-term contracts as “strategic”, such as one of the contracts with Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. and the contract with Sishen, due to their pricing arrangements and includes them in its assessment of its raw material self-sufficiency.





ArcelorMittal believes that its portfolio of long-term supply contracts can play an important role in preventing disruptions in the production process. In 2012, ArcelorMittal sourced nearly all of its iron ore requirements and the majority of its coking coal requirements, beyond that provided by its own mines and strategic long-term contracts, under other long-term contracts, the majority of which are now on a quarterly pricing arrangement (see “Item 5—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Raw Materials”). 

The table below sets forth information regarding ArcelorMittal’s raw material production and consumption in 2012.



Millions of metric tonnes  




Sourced from own mines and strategic long-term contracts


Other sources


Self-sufficiency %


Iron Ore1










PCI & Coal2




















Scrap & DRI  






























Assuming full production of iron ore at ArcelorMittal Mines Canada, Serra Azul and full share of production at Peña Colorada for own use.


Includes coal only for the steelmaking process and excludes steam coal for power generation. Assumes all production of coal at Kuzbass and Princeton mines for own use.



Iron Ore

ArcelorMittal sources significant portions of its iron ore needs from its own mines in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Bosnia, Algeria, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Liberia and Brazil. ArcelorMittal is also expanding capacity of existing mines in Canada, and the expansion in Brazil was completed in the fourth quarter of 2012. In addition, the Company has announced prospective mining developments in India, Africa, South America and North America. See “Item 4A—Updates on Previously Announced Investment Projects”. Several of ArcelorMittal’s steel plants also have in place off-take arrangements with mineral suppliers located near its production facilities, some of which supply the relevant plant’s iron ore requirements on a cost-plus basis and are considered strategic long-term contracts.

The following table sets forth information on ArcelorMittal’s principal iron ore mining operations and production (own mines and strategic long-term contracts) in 2012:









2012 Production (in millions of metric tonnes)1


Own mines  








North America2


Open pit


Concentrate, lump, fines and pellets




South America  


Open pit


Lump and fines






Open pit


Concentrate and lump






Open pit /underground






Asia, CIS & Other  


Open pit /underground


Concentrate, lump, fines and sinter feed




Total own iron ore production of own mines  








Strategic long-term contracts– iron ore  








North America3


Open pit








Open pit


Lump and fines




Total strategic long-term contracts – iron ore  
































Total of all finished production of fines, concentrate, pellets and lumps (includes ArcelorMittal’s shares of production of less than wholly-owned mines and strategic long-term contracts).  


Includes ArcelorMittal’s share of production from Hibbing (United States, 62.30%) and Peña Colorada (Mexico, 50%).  


Consists of long-term supply contracts with Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. for purchases made at a previously set price, adjusted for changes in certain steel prices and inflation factors.  


Includes purchases under a strategic agreement with Sishen/Thabazambi (South Africa). Since 2010, the parties have reached a series of interim agreements providing for the sale of iron ore on a fixed-cost basis. Following an agreement reached on December 13, 2012, Sishen/Thabazambi supplies a maximum annual volume of 4.8 million tonnes of iron ore at a weighted average price of $65 per tonne with effect from January 1, 2013. See “Item 8A—Consolidated Financial Statement and Other Financial Information – Legal Proceedings – Other Legal Claims – South Africa”.  







For further information on each of ArcelorMittal’s principal iron ore mining operations, see “Item 4D—Property, Plant and Equipment”.

Solid Fuels

Coking Coal

As with iron ore, ArcelorMittal sources a percentage of its coking coal from its own coal mines in Kazakhstan, Russia and the United States. The Company’s mines in Kazakhstan supply substantially all the requirements for its steelmaking operations at ArcelorMittal Temirtau, while the mines in Russia and the United States supply other steel plants within the ArcelorMittal group together with external customers.

 The following table sets forth information on ArcelorMittal’s principal coking coal mining operations and production (own mines and strategic long-term contracts) in 2012:





2012 Production (millions of metric tonnes)


Own mines  




North America  




Asia, CIS & Other  




Total own coal production  




Coal - strategic contracts  




North America1








Total strategic contracts – coal  
















Strategic agreement - prices on a fixed-price basis.  




Long term lease - prices on a cost-plus basis.  





ArcelorMittal has its own coke-making facilities at most of its integrated mill sites, including in Bosnia, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Spain, France, Germany, Belgium, Poland, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, South Africa and Ukraine. While ArcelorMittal meets most of its own coke requirements, certain of ArcelorMittal’s operating subsidiaries buy coke from mostly domestic or regional sources to optimize cost savings from transport efficiencies, and certain of its subsidiaries also sell excess coke at market prices to third parties. The remainder of the spot purchases of coke is made from China, Japan and the United States.

In the United States, ArcelorMittal USA produces part of its coke requirement in its own batteries, with the bulk procured under long-term contracts from dedicated coke batteries owned by third parties. These contracts have formula-based pricing arrangements.


Other Raw Materials and Energy

Metallics (Scrap)

ArcelorMittal procures the majority of its scrap requirements locally and regionally to optimize transport costs, or under short-term contracts. Typically scrap purchases tend to be made in the spot market on a monthly basis. In Europe, ArcelorMittal has entered into certain contracts for scrap recycling.


ArcelorMittal purchases its requirements of bulk and noble alloys from a number of global, regional and local suppliers on contracts that are linked to generally-accepted indices or negotiated on a quarterly basis.





Base Metals

The majority of the Company’s base metal needs, including zinc, tin and aluminum for coating, are purchased under annual volume contracts. Pricing is based on the market-accepted indices. Material is sourced from both local and global producers.


ArcelorMittal generally procures its electricity through tariff-based systems in regulated areas such as parts of the United States and South Africa, or through bilateral contracts. The duration of these contracts varies significantly depending on the various areas and types of arrangements.

For integrated steel mills, plant off-gases from various process steps are utilized to generate a significant portion of the plant’s electricity requirements and lower the purchase volumes from the grid. This is either produced by the plant itself or with a partner in the form of a co-generation contract.

Natural Gas

ArcelorMittal procures much of its natural gas requirements for its U.S., Canadian and Mexican operations from the natural gas spot market or through short-term contracts entered into with local suppliers, with prices fixed either by contract or tariff-based spot market prices. For its European operations, ArcelorMittal sources its natural gas requirements under prevailing oil-based pricing systems, with an increasing share of European spot-indexed supply contracts. The remainder of ArcelorMittal’s natural gas consumption represents less than 20% of ArcelorMittal’s total consumption and is generally sourced from regulated markets.

Industrial Gases

Most of ArcelorMittal’s industrial gas requirements are produced under long-term contracts with various suppliers in different geographical regions.


ArcelorMittal Shipping Limited (“AM Shipping”) provides ocean transportation solutions to ArcelorMittal’s manufacturing subsidiaries and affiliates. AM Shipping determines cost-efficient and timely approaches for the transport of raw materials, such as iron ore, coal, coke and scrap, and semi-finished and finished products. AM Shipping is also responsible for providing shipping services to the Company’s sales organizations. This includes forwarding services and complete logistics services through ArcelorMittal Logistics. It provides complete logistics solutions from plants to customer locations using various modes of transport.

In 2012, AM Shipping arranged transportation for approximately 61.2  million tonnes of raw materials and about 12.5 million tonnes of finished products. The key objectives of AM Shipping are to ensure cost-effective and timely shipping services to all units. AM Shipping acts as an agent for a Mauritius-based shipping company, Global Chartering Ltd. (“GC”) and ArcelorMittal Sourcing. GC handles shipping of approximately 33% of the Company’s raw materials, which are transported by sea by chartering vessels on a short- to long-term basis. In its fleet are several Capesize, Panamax, Supramax and Handymax vessels, either owned or on a medium-to-long-term charter. AM Shipping’s strategy is to cover 50-65% of the cargo requirements of the Group on a medium to long-term basis, and to arrange remaining transportation requirements on a spot basis.


ArcelorMittal has implemented a global purchasing process for its major procurement requirements, including raw materials, industrial services, industrial equipment, spares and maintenance, as well as capital expenditure items, energy and shipping. ArcelorMittal’s centralized purchasing teams also provide services such as optimization of contracts and the supply base, logistics and optimizing different qualities of materials suitable for different plants and low cost sourcing.

In doing so, ArcelorMittal seeks to benefit from economies of scale in a number of ways, including by establishing long-term relationships with suppliers that sometimes allow for advantageous input pricing, pooling its knowledge of the market fundamentals and drivers for inputs and deploying specialized technical knowledge especially for the acquisition of industrial services and plant equipment and facilities. This enables ArcelorMittal to achieve a balanced supply portfolio in terms of diversification of sourcing risk in conjunction with the ability to benefit from a number of its own raw materials sources.

ArcelorMittal has institutionalized the “total cost of ownership” methodology as its way of conducting the purchasing activities across the group. This methodology focuses on the total cost of ownership for decision making, with the goal of lowering the total cost of production through minimization of waste, improved input material recovery rates and higher rates of recycling.






Sales and Marketing

In 2012, ArcelorMittal sold approximately 83.8 million tonnes of steel products.


The majority of steel sales from ArcelorMittal are destined for domestic markets. For these domestic markets, sales are usually approached as a decentralized activity that is managed either at the business unit or at the production unit level. For some specific markets, such as automotive, there is a global approach offering similar products manufactured in different production units around the world. In instances where production facilities are in relatively close proximity to one another, and where the market requirements are similar, the sales function is aggregated to serve a number of production units. Sales are conducted principally with the customer. In the E.U. region and in South America, ArcelorMittal owns a large number of service and distribution centers. Depending on the level of complexity of the product, or the level of service required by the customer, the service center operations form an integral part of the supply chain to our customers. Distribution centers provide access to our products to smaller customers that cannot or do not want to buy directly from the operating facility.

The Group prefers to sell exports through its international network of sales agencies to ensure that all ArcelorMittal products are presented to the market in a cost-efficient and coordinated manner.

Sales are executed at the local level, but are conducted in accordance with the Group’s sales and marketing and code of conduct policies.

For some global industries with customers in more than one of the geographical areas that ArcelorMittal serves, the Company has established customized sales and service functions. This is particularly the case for the automotive and packaging industries. Sales through these channels are coordinated at the Group level with respect to contract, price and payment conditions.


Marketing follows the sales activity very closely and is by preference executed at the local level. In practice, this leads to a focus on regional marketing competencies, particularly where there are similarities among regional markets in close geographical proximity. Local marketing provides guidance to sales on forecasting and pricing. At the global level, the objective is to share marketing intelligence with a view towards identifying new opportunities, either in new products or applications, new product requirements or new geographical demand. Where a new product application is involved, the in-house research and development unit of ArcelorMittal is involved in developing the appropriate products.

An important part of the marketing function at ArcelorMittal is to develop short-range outlooks that provide future perspectives on the state of market demand and supply. These outlooks are shared with the sales team in the process of finalizing the sales strategy for the immediate future and with senior management when market conditions call for production adjustments.

Globally, sales and marketing activities are coordinated to ensure a harmonized approach to the market. The objective is to provide similar service experiences to all customers of ArcelorMittal in every market.



ArcelorMittal maintains insurance on property and equipment in amounts believed to be consistent with industry practices. ArcelorMittal insurance policies cover physical loss or damage to its property and equipment on a reinstatement basis arising from a number of specified risks and certain consequential losses, including business interruption arising from the occurrence of an insured event under these policies.

ArcelorMittal also maintains various other types of insurance, such as comprehensive construction and contractor insurance for its greenfield and major capital expenditures projects, public and products liability, directors and officers liability, credit, commercial crime, transport, and charterers’ liability, as well as other customary policies such as car insurance, travel assistance and medical insurance.

Each of the operating subsidiaries of ArcelorMittal also maintains various local insurance policies that are mandatory at the local level, such as employer liability, workers compensation and auto liability, as well as specific insurance such as public liability to comply with local regulations.






Intellectual Property

ArcelorMittal owns and maintains a patent portfolio covering processes and steel products, including uses and applications that it creates, develops and implements in territories throughout the world. Such patents and inventions primarily relate to steel solutions with new or enhanced properties, as well as new technologies that generate greater cost-efficiencies.

ArcelorMittal also owns trademarks, both registered and unregistered, relating to the names and logos of its companies and the brands of its products. ArcelorMittal has policies and systems in place to monitor and protect the confidentiality of its know-how and proprietary information. The Company applies a general policy for patenting selected new inventions, and its committees organize an annual patent portfolio screening by individuals from the Company’s R&D and business sectors in order to optimize the global efficiency of the Company’s patent portfolio. The Company’s patent portfolio includes more than 5,500 patents and patent applications, mostly recent and middle-aged, for more than 500 patent families, with 25 inventions newly-protected in 2012. Because of this constant innovation, the Company does not expect the lapse of patents that protect older technology to materially affect current revenue.

In addition to its patent portfolio, technical know-how and other unpatented proprietary information, ArcelorMittal has also been granted licenses for technologies developed by third parties in order to allow it to propose comprehensive steel solutions to customers. ArcelorMittal is not aware of any pending lawsuits alleging infringement of others’ intellectual property rights that could materially harm its business.


Government Regulations

See “Item 3D—Key Information—Risk Factors” and “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings”.

ArcelorMittal’s operations are subject to various regulatory regimes in the regions in which it conducts its operations. The following is a discussion of the principal features of selected regulatory regimes, as of December 31, 2012, that affect or are likely to affect its operations.

Environmental Laws and Regulations

ArcelorMittal’s operations are subject to a broad range of laws and regulations relating to air emissions, wastewater storage, treatment and discharges, the use and handling of hazardous or toxic materials, waste disposal practices, the remediation of environmental contamination, the protection of soil, biodiversity and ecosystems in general and other aspects of the protection of the environment at its multiple locations and operating subsidiaries. As these laws and regulations in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions continue to become more stringent, ArcelorMittal expects to expend substantial amounts to achieve or maintain ongoing compliance. Furthermore, as an owner and operator of a significant number of mining assets, these operations will require rehabilitation expenditure upon closure. Further details regarding specific environmental proceedings involving ArcelorMittal, including provisions to cover environmental remedial activities and liabilities, decommissioning and asset retirement obligations are described in “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Environmental Liabilities” and Note 25 to ArcelorMittal’s consolidated financial statements.

Some of ArcelorMittal’s most important environmental compliance initiatives are described below, as well as the main environmental laws and regulations that apply to ArcelorMittal in its principal countries of operation. It is difficult to anticipate whether additional operating or capital expenditures will be required to comply with pending or recently-enacted amendments to environmental laws and regulations or what effect they will have on our business, financial results or cash flow from operations. In 2012, ArcelorMittal approved a number of multi-year capital expenditures totaling more than $210 million in order to facilitate compliance with these environmental laws and regulations.

Industrial Emissions Regulation: Climate Change

ArcelorMittal’s activities in the 27 member states of the European Union (“EU”) are subject to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (“ETS”), and it is likely that requirements relating to greenhouse gas emissions will become more stringent and will expand to other jurisdictions in the future. In 2012, Australia decided to link its ETS with the EU ETS on a step-by-step basis, with a full linkage to be completed by July 2018. In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) has taken the first steps towards implementing a comprehensive greenhouse gas policy. In South Africa, bill to tax carbon dioxide emissions is under discussion. In Mexico, Brazil and Kazakhstan new regulatory initiatives are being discussed by the different government authorities. In the United Kingdom, ArcelorMittal’s activities are subject to the Carbon Reduction Energy Efficiency Scheme (“CRC”).

On December 11, 2011, the 17th Conference of Parties (“COP 17”) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”) adopted a new agreement relating to greenhouse gases, the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. The Durban





Platform for Enhanced Action essentially extends the emissions reduction obligations for the EU, aligning with the obligations of the existing EU ETS without requiring additional reductions. A limited number of developing countries also secured a compromise to extend the Kyoto Protocol’s greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action also included an agreement to embark upon negotiations to forge a new international framework by 2015 that would take effect by 2020 and would include emissions obligations for all emitting countries—both developed and developing.  In December 2012, the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha (“COP 18”) made further progress toward the 2015 goal and, in the interim, reached agreement to further extend the Kyoto Protocol’s greenhouse gas emissions reductions through 2020. A binding reduction target of 20% compared to 1990 was confirmed for the EU, aligning with the obligations of the existing EU ETS without requiring additional reductions. Canada, Japan, New Zealand and the Russian Federation did not sign up to a second commitment period. As a non-Kyoto participant, the United States will not be subject to mandatory cuts under the extension.

The post-2012 carbon market remains uncertain, and ArcelorMittal is closely monitoring national and international negotiations, regulatory and legislative developments and is endeavoring to reduce its own emissions where appropriate.

United States

Our operating subsidiaries in the United States are subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations including at the federal level the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, also known as “Superfund”, the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act, as well as applicable state and local environmental requirements.

In October 2009, the EPA published a Greenhouse Gas (“GHG”) Reporting Rule that required data collection, and reporting, commencing January 1, 2010. ArcelorMittal USA has implemented appropriate programs and compliance plans in response to these annual monitoring and reporting obligations.

During 2010, the EPA issued a series of additional regulations and guidance documents, which both establish permitting obligations for significant stationary sources of GHG emissions including iron and steel facilities. The permitting obligations created by these rules became effective on January 2, 2011 and apply to both significant new sources of GHGs and existing sources that seek to modify their operations in ways that result in a significant increase in GHG emissions. Sources triggering GHG permit obligations are obligated to install Best Available Control Technology to reduce GHG emissions. As a result, ArcelorMittal USA may incur substantial expenses to assess, identify and install GHG emission control technologies for new or modified sources that result in a significant increase in GHG emissions.

Following the recent US presidential election, the EPA is expected to pursue the establishment of lower emissions limitations and/or imposition of other requirements that will cause large industrial sources (including power plants, cement facilities and iron and steel facilities) to minimize emissions. As these potential developments could have significant financial implications, ArcelorMittal USA continues to carefully monitor all developments in this area and to proactively engage with regulators as appropriate to define its regulatory obligations.

On June 2, 2010, the EPA promulgated a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulfur dioxide.  The EPA’s new sulfur dioxide standard is unprecedented because it requires states to model facility emissions to demonstrate attainment through modeling rather than rely on actual state air monitoring networks.  Under the new standard, if the EPA’s model indicates an area is in nonattainment, even though a local monitor near a facility shows that the ambient air meets the standard, the area will be considered in nonattainment. Facilities in these areas shown to contribute to the nonattainment will be required to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions.  The EPA’s model indicates that ArcelorMittal USA LLC (Indiana Harbor East and Indiana Harbor Long Carbon), ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor LLC (Indiana Harbor West), ArcelorMittal Cleveland Inc., and ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor LLC may have to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions significantly in order to demonstrate attainment through modeling even though the actual air monitoring networks near these facilities show the ambient air to be in attainment.  States are in the process of modeling counties with significant sulfur dioxide sources that will be used by EPA to designate areas under the rule by June 2013. After designations are made, states will be required to develop implementation plans with enforceable emissions reductions for facilities shown through modeling to contribute to the standard being exceeded. While ArcelorMittal USA is engaged in planning for possible emission reductions that the new standard may require, it is part of a broad industry coalition in discussions with the EPA to effect changes in the new standard.

On April 20, 2011, the EPA issued a proposed rule to regulate cooling water intake structures that draw at least 25% of their water for cooling purposes and with intake design flows of more than 2 million gallons per day.  Affected facilities would be subject to case-by-case technology determinations to limit the number of fish killed due to impingement on intake systems or reduce intake.  Facilities withdrawing at least 125 million gallons per day would have to conduct studies to aid permitting authorities in determining site-specific controls, and new facilities could be required to install closed-cycle cooling systems or the equivalent.  Pursuant to a modified settlement agreement with environmental groups, the EPA is scheduled to issue a final rule by June 2013. ArcelorMittal USA is part of a broad industry coalition in discussions with the EPA to limit the scope of the rule.





On December 2, 2011, the EPA re-proposed a series of rules that regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (“HAPs”) from industrial boilers, process heaters and solid waste incinerators. The EPA expects to issue a final rule in 2013, with a compliance deadline of three to five years thereafter. While ArcelorMittal USA continues its active participation in the rulemaking process, it also engaged in extensive strategic planning to ensure maximum operational flexibility under the impending requirements.


On January 15, 2013, the EPA published a final rule revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter. Notably, for fine particulates (PM2.5) the EPA lowered the annual numeric standard from 15 ug/m3 to 12 ug/m3.  Based on existing monitoring data, the new standard could impact several ArcelorMittal facilities as being in designated nonattainment areas.  Facilities shown to contribute to nonattainment could be required to reduce emissions to bring an area into attainment.  EPA anticipates making non-attainment designations effective early 2015; states would then have until 2020 to meet the revised standard with a possible extension to 2025.  ArcelorMittal is actively following the rule and will be engaging states on initial designations and the development of implementation plans.


The EPA is evaluating mercury emissions data from Area Source electric arc furnaces (“EAFs”) throughout the United States to develop new numeric emissions standards for mercury.  The EPA has indicated that it expects to issue a proposed rule in 2013.  EPA also launched an information request during 2012 as part of the process of developing a regulation for major source EAFs such as the EAF located at Indiana Harbor Long Carbon, which is currently not subject to the existing HAP control standards for EAFs.


ArcelorMittal USA does not presently expect to incur significant capital expenditures relating to these regulatory developments or other environmental matters in 2013. Post-2013 expenses to install additional controls technologies and otherwise address new regulations applicable to the U.S. facilities could be substantial


European Union

Significant EU Directives and regulations are applicable to our production units in the European Union, including the following:

·         Directive 2010/75/EU of November 24, 2010 on Industrial Emissions (the “IED directive”), which applies common rules for permitting and controlling industrial installations. To receive a permit, installations covered by the IED directive must ensure that their Emissions Limit Values (ELV) do not exceed those associated with the best available techniques (“BATs”), as adopted in the decision (February 28, 2012) of the European Commission establishing the BAT conclusions for iron and steel production under the IED (C(2012)903). Air, soil or water, energy emissions, waste generation, as well as noise, hazards and site closure, are all considered. One of the significant changes compared to the previous rules is that it will be more difficult for operators to obtain derogations related to the implementation of BAT and the associated emissions limits values. Member States must transpose the rules into national legislation by January 7, 2013. The implementation of the IED directive will materially impact ArcelorMittal activities in the European Union at a time and in an amount not yet determined since many issues that ultimately will determine this impact need to be further elaborated in implementing decisions and reconsideration of permits. This directive is complemented by European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) Regulation (EC) no. 166/2006 of January 18, 2006, implementing the yearly report on release of pollutants and off-site transfer of waste.

·         Directive 2008/98/EC of November 19, 2008, which establishes the legislative framework for the handling and management of waste in the European Union, Regulation (EC) no. 1013/2006 of June 14, 2006, which regulates the shipment of waste from and to the European Union, Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal of March 22, 1989 and the decision of the Council of the OECD on the control of transboundary movements of waste destined for recovery operations, which govern exports and disposal of waste materials.

·         Directive 2008/98/EC, Council Regulation (EU) no. 333/2011 of March 31, 2011, which establishes criteria determining when certain types of scrap metal cease to be waste.

·         Directive 2008/105/EC of December 16, 2008, which establishes new water quality standards for priority pollutants in support of Directive 2000/60/EC of October 23, 2000, which established a framework for action in the field of water policy.

·         Directive 2012/27/EU of October 25, 2012, which repeals prior Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, and brings forward legally binding measures to step up Member States’ efforts to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain – from the transformation of energy and its distribution to its final consumption. Measures include the legal obligation to establish energy efficiency obligations schemes or policy measures in all Member States. These will drive energy efficiency improvements in households, industries and transport sectors. Other measures include an exemplary role to be played by the public sector and a right for consumers to know how much energy they consume. It is worth noting that most provisions of the texts do not apply to ETS industries and a lot of flexibility is given to the Member States to set up supportive schemes instead of obligatory ones. Member States must present their national programs for the implementation by April 2013.





·         The “CLP” Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008 of December 16, 2008 on the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures, which implements namely the “REACH” Regulation (EC) no. 1907/2006 for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals, adopted on December 18, 2006, which controls the chemical substances manufactured in or imported into the E.U. in volumes of over one tonne per year. Under these provisions, a manufacturer or importer of a subject chemical must (i) submit a registration file for the subject chemical in due time, (ii) submit a complete registration file and (iii) make any required payment in connection with the registration file. In June 2007, ArcelorMittal established a dedicated task force at the corporate level, responsible for coordinating the strategic aspects of implementation, as well as a platform addressing technical issues in order to achieve implementation of these regulations. The legal entities of the ArcelorMittal group have timely submitted the required documents and payments to the European Chemical Agency (“ECHA”). Groupwide, as of December 31, 2012, ArcelorMittal had submitted 756 pre-registration files to ECHA and 149 registration files concerning 21 substances. In 2012, ArcelorMittal made two additional filings to ensure access to essential raw materials for steel-making. In addition, the alignment of hazards criteria with the CLP regulation and the designation of additional chemicals of “high concern” under the REACH regulation could increase the costs of compliance with other EU Directives, including those relating to waste and water and the SEVESO directives

·         Directive 2003/87/EC of October 13, 2003 (which has been amended several times and especially by Directive 2009/29/EC) and related directives establishing the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) in three phases for achieving Kyoto Protocol commitments relating to greenhouse gases for Member States. The ETS works on the "cap and trade" principle. This means there is a "cap", or limit, on the total amount of certain greenhouse gases that can be emitted by the factories, power plants and other installations subject to the ETS. Within this cap, companies receive emission allowances which they can sell to or buy from one another as needed. The limit on the total number of allowances available ensures that they have a value. At the end of each year, each company must surrender enough allowances to cover all its emissions, otherwise heavy fines are imposed. If a company reduces its emissions, it can keep the spare allowances to cover its future needs or sell them.

Phase II of the ETS ended on December 31, 2012, and Phase III covers the period from 2013 to 2020.  In Phase III all CO2 allowances will be auctioned (as per Regulation (EC) no. 1031/2010 of November 12, 2010 on the timing, administration and other aspects of auctioning of emission allowances).

The Commission is implementing Phase III of the ETS in a manner that could increase costs for the Group to obtain sufficient emission allowances for its European operations depending on steel production level and the market price of emission allowances. Through Commission Decision 2010/2/EU of December 24, 2009, manufacturing of coke oven products, of basic iron and steel, of ferro-alloys and of cast iron tubes have been recognized as exposed to a significant risk of “carbon leakage”. In its decision of April 27, 2011, the Commission determined transitional EU-wide rules for the harmonized free allocation of emission allowances and the benchmark values for the steel industry. The values adopted will result in fewer free allocations than those sought by the European steel industry and will lead to additional cost for steel companies in Europe. Phase III of the ETS also will be impacted by a Commission proposal currently in the co-decision procedure to “backload” a certain number of emission allowances, due to the fact that the Commission consider the price of allowances has been lower than expected and does not incite operators to invest in low-carbon technologies. With this measure, the Commission will remove either definitively or temporarily a certain number of emission allowances from the market in order to increase their price.

The following EU Directives are also significant:

·         Directive 2008/50/EC of May 21, 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.

·         Directive 2004/107/EC of December 15, 2004 relating to limit values and target values for pollutants in ambient air, including thresholds on very fine particulates.

·         Directive 2001/81/EC of October 23, 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain pollutants.

·         The new Directive on the control of major accidents hazards involving dangerous substances, also known as SEVESO III 2012/18/UE (repeals Directive 96/82/EC of December 9, 1996), which was published in the EU’s official journal on July 24, 2012, will enter into force on August 13, 2013, and will apply from June 1, 2015. The new directive updates the existing legislation to take account of changes in the EU classification of dangerous substances, strengthens provisions on public access to safety information, and introduces stricter standards for inspections of installations.

·         Directive 2011/92/UE concerning the assessment of certain public and private projects on the environment. Projects that have significant impacts on the environment shall be subject to an authorization which determines precisely these impacts.

·         Directive 2009/31/EC of April 23, 2009 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.





·         Directive 2009/28/EC of April 23, 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

·         Directive 2008/68/EC of September 24, 2008 on the inland transport of dangerous goods, by rail, road, and inland waterway.

·         Directive 2004/35/EC of April 21, 2004, and Directive 2008/99/EC of November 19, 2008, establishing liability (including criminal liability) for violations of the E.U. environmental legislation.

·         Directive 2002/96/EC of January 27, 2003 relating to waste electrical and electronic equipment, Directive 2000/53/EC of September 18, 2000 relating to end-of-life vehicles, and Directive 2004/12/EC of February 11, 2004 relating to packaging and packaging waste.

EU Directives continue to become more stringent. A review of air quality norms is expected in 2013, with special focus on particulate matter. Based on the positions expressed by some Member States and non-governmental organizations, reductions in air quality limits are expected.

ArcelorMittal anticipates that its capital expenditure with respect to environmental matters in the EU over the next several years will relate primarily to installations of additional air emission controls and to requirements imposed in the course of renewal of permits and authorizations, including those pursuant to the IED Directive.

Other Jurisdictions

Increasingly stringent environmental laws and regulations also have been adopted in other jurisdictions. Set out below is a summary of the principal environmental legislation applicable to ArcelorMittal in key jurisdictions where it has substantial manufacturing or mining operations.


The Decree 06-138 of April 2006 for air emissions and the Decree 06-141 of April 2006 for water discharges define the limit values with which companies had to comply within five years. Moreover, a financial law introduced in July 2008 imposes additional taxes for air emissions and water discharge. These taxes are calculated according to the method described in Decree 07-299 of September 2007 for atmospheric emissions and the Decree 07-300 of September 2007 for liquid effluents. The date of application of these taxes is not defined. However, the Wilaya State environmental authorities, to whose authority ArcelorMittal Annaba is subject, have received from the Ministry of Environment an instruction pursuant to the Decree 06-141 with respect to the calculation and implementation of the tax relating to the liquid effluents. Since 2006, ArcelorMittal Annaba has been working to comply with the relevant limit values for air emissions and water discharges. However, ArcelorMittal Annaba could face penalties as full compliance has not been achieved pursuant to the applicable decrees. 

An Executive Decree dated June 21, 2009 requires authorization to discharge liquid effluents, other than sewage, from mining activities. In accordance with the provisions of the Decree 06-198 of May 31, 2006 on hazards, ArcelorMittal Annaba submitted in 2009 an environmental audit and a study relating to the authorization of its operations. This report is currently in the approval process. In 2010, the Decree 09-338 of October 20, 2009 on the multiplier of the tax (tax enacted in Finance Act 1999) on the polluting or dangerous activity on the environment was implemented. In September 2010, an application for authorization to operate waste and co-products disposal and storage with all the supporting documentation was submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The approval is pending.

In the context of a draft contract of performance between ArcelorMittal Annaba and the Ministry of Environment, in 2010, ArcelorMittal Annaba submitted a proposal which foresees a set of compliance actions until 2017 to the Ministry of Environment. ArcelorMittal Annaba is still waiting for a response from the Ministry of Environment on its proposal.


Environmental legislation in Argentina is based on the provisions of the federal, provincial and basin laws and their associated decrees, dispositions and resolutions.  For ArcelorMittal’s operations in Argentina, the regulations enacted in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe and in the basin of the Matanza-Riachuelo river are particularly relevant. The more important laws and regulations include the following:

·         Law 11.717 and Decree 101 for Santa Fe for environmental licenses and environmental requalification plans (such a plan was required for the Meltshop diffuse emissions).

·         Law 11.459 and Decree 1741 for Tablada and San Nicolas for environmental licenses.

·         Federal Laws 25.670 and 25.675, the first related to treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (“PCBs”) and the second one requiring environmental insurance. In 2012, Federal Law 25.675 was complemented by Resolution 1638/12 which provides





for two types of environmental insurance policies. Resolution 37160/12, which limits the definition of environmental damage, also is relevant.

·         Federal Law 26.168, which creates the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin Authority (MRBA), and Resolution 8/09 of MRBA that, defines industrial restructuring plans to companies with environmental parameters above the permitted limits (such plan was required to be submitted with respect to the Tablada plant, which had previously been deemed a polluting agent in the case of lead emissions in water). In 2012, Resolution 661 of establishing a requirement for environmental insurance.

·         For the Buenos Aires Province, environmental insurance is also required by Resolution 165/10 of Organism for Sustainable Development of Buenos Aires. In 2012, Resolution 186/12 of Organism for Sustainable Development of Buenos Aires defined which companies and plants have to maintain environmental insurance.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Environmental legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is essentially based on the provisions of a set of federal laws and regulations that have been effective since January 2008. The following practices are particularly relevant for ArcelorMittal Zenica: adopting best available techniques and complying with limit values that achieve environmental quality standards in air and water, preventing and controlling major accidents involving hazardous substances, procedures and measures for dealing with accidents on waters and coastal water land, fees on sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust emissions and discharge of pollutants in water, waste recovery, disposal and export and limitations on noise pollution.

In order to restart full production at ArcelorMittal Zenica’s plant in 2008 and to obtain all relevant permits, an environmental protection plan was submitted to federal and local authorities in 2007. In February 2009, the Federal Government approved all environmental protection plans; and ArcelorMittal Zenica subsequently obtained all required environmental permits. In 2012, ArcelorMittal Zenica obtained a new wastewater discharge permit, valid for five years.  Based on a signed Protocol between Zenica Municipality and ArcelorMittal Zenica, the municipality signed a contract with an external company for operation of the Rača landfill, and the federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism issued the environmental permit for the landfill to the municipality’s contractor for the Rača area. As a result, ArcelorMittal Zenica is no longer obliged to request the environmental permit from this Ministry. 


The Zenica plant will require capital expenditures, in an undetermined amount, to improve and complete existing pollution control equipment.



Our operating subsidiaries in Brazil are subject to federal and state environmental laws and resolutions issued by the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA). The Federal Constitution established the protection of the environment as a principle, while both the government and society are responsible for the achievement of such purpose. ArcelorMittal Brazil has implemented and conducts appropriate programs and compliance plans, reporting obligations and expects to continue to dedicate resources to comply with the rules.


The Federal Law 6938/1981 established the Guidelines for Environmental Protection and Environmental Permitting.


Federal Law 9605/1998 lists environmental crimes, with penalties that may consist of fines, restraints, community services, or even prison, while legal entities are subject to suspension of activities, embargo of works and activities and temporary closure, regardless of restriction of tax and financial incentives.


Federal Law 9.985/2000 established the National System of Protected Areas and represents the main statute on the subject.

National Decree no. 6848/2009, which implements Federal Law no. 9985/2000 concerning environmental compensation, establishes the percentage of total planned investments that must be devoted to greenfield projects in areas of conservation. Moreover, federal law places certain restrictions on the location of mining projects. The Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (“IBAMA”) controls licensing over certain types of land, including indigenous lands within 50 kilometers of the border of a neighboring country, environmentally protected areas (referred to locally as conservation units), or lands within or affecting more than one state, such as a railway. All other projects are licensed by the agencies of the state in which the project is located.

Federal Law no. 12305/2010 established the National Policy on Solid Waste, which sets out principles, objectives, instruments and guidelines for the management of solid residues and defined responsibilities for generators and government. The state policy on solid waste management and recovery in the area of Espirito Santo, where ArcelorMittal Tubarão is located, is outlined in Law no. 9264/2009.

National decree no. 7390/2010 regulates Articles 6, 11 and 12 of the National Policy on Climate Change (Law 12187 of December 29, 2009). For the steel sector, a reduction target of 5% by 2020 with 2012 as reference year has been established.





ArcelorMittal Brazil is engaged in a study with the Brazilian steel federation to see how and by whom actions need to be taken to reach this reduction. In particular, ArcelorMittal Brazil is participating in the Strategic Studies and Management working group created to encourage the use of sustainable charcoal in the Brazilian steel industry. On April 4, 2012, the Brazilian Institute on Steel and its associated companies launched the “Protocol for Sustainable Charcoal Production”. The Protocol’s objectives are to avoid charcoal production from illegal deforestation and to stimulate suppliers to produce charcoal from eucalyptus planted forests.

Espirito Santo State, issued the  Environmental State Law No. 9,685, of August 23, 2011 amended State Law No. 7,058/2002, significantly enlarging the list of conduct that constitutes an administrative environmental violation, as well as noncompliance with an Environmental Commitment (“TCA”,). The new law also establishes the requirements and procedures for execution and the minimum content of the TCA.

Federal Resolution no. 382/2006 published by CONAMA, imposes more stringent limitations on dust, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides for new sources in the steel industry. Administrative Order no. 259/2009 published by the Ministry of the Environment (“MMA”) and IBAMA requires that the environmental impact statement contain a specific chapter on alternative clean technologies that can reduce the impact on the health of workers and the environment.

Federal Resolution no. 436/2011 published by CONAMA, established maximum limits for air pollutants emissions from stationary sources installed or having requested its installation license before January 2, 2007. More restrictive limits can be determined by the licensing environmental agency, according to the local conditions of the area that is affected by the pollution source.

Federal Resolution no. 396/2008 published by CONAMA establishes classification guidelines and quality standards for groundwater.

Federal Resolution no. 420/2009 published by CONAMA addresses prevention of soil contamination.  It establishes guidelines for classification of soil quality, standards for the presence of chemicals in soils, and guidelines for management of contamination caused by human activities. This Federal Resolution is expected to have a major impact on the steel industry in Brazil. States have started to define soil criteria and establish required procedures. In particular, Minas Gerais state has already published its own regulation (DN 02/2010) and is looking into industry activities that may be sources of soil and groundwater contamination.


Law Nº 12.651, addressing the protection of native forests, was approved on May 25, 2012. The new code sets limits on use of property so as to protect existing vegetation. It largely reenacts old legislation first adopted in 1965.


Our operating subsidiaries in Canada are subject to federal environmental laws regulating matters of national interest (for example, the Wildlife Act, Water Act and Assessment Act) and provincial legislation regulating matters of more local importance such as land and resources uses, air quality, and noise.

The Government of Canada has indicated its intent to design and implement cap-and-trade regulations to limit GHG emissions, although it intends to harmonize the rules with the forthcoming U.S. regulations in this respect prior to implementation. Four Canadian provinces, including Ontario and Quebec, are members of the Western Climate Initiative (“WCI”), a sub-national North American GHG program intended to assist in implementation of cap-and-trade regimes at State and Provincial levels.  Company and industry representatives are actively working to encourage all levels of government to avoid duplicate GHG regulatory frameworks.


Within its Air Quality Management System (“AQMS”) program, Environment Canada is in discussions with industries and non-governmental organizations to establish Base Level Industrial Emissions Requirements (“BLIERs”) to be reflected in new federal air emission limits expected to be implemented in 2015. For the iron and steel sector, pollutants expected to be subject to a BLIER are total particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.


ArcelorMittal Mines Canada and two other Canadian iron ore mining operations are also developing BLIERs for dust, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  To date, a consensus has been reached on sulfur content by weight, consistent with the new Quebec regulation adopted at the Provincial level. Discussions are continuing towards a BLIER limit for dust, with a proposed limit for existing and new plants.  To date, no limit has been agreed upon for nitrogen oxides.


Canadian steelmakers must file pollution prevention plans with Environment Canada addressing efforts to reduce mercury emissions on an annual basis. ArcelorMittal Dofasco, ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur, ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur West and other member companies of the Canadian Steel Producers Association meet this obligation by funding a national program to remove mercury-containing convenience switches from end-of-life vehicles before they enter the scrap stream and implementing mercury-free scrap purchasing policies.






The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) was amended on July 6, 2012. The main impact of this modification is that further expansion project will likely be subject to an impact assessment process. This will have to be taken in consideration in the planning process.  In the Province of Ontario, ArcelorMittal Dofasco is in compliance with conditions set out by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for site-specific air emissions standards under Ontario Regulation 419/05 approved in August 2010. ArcelorMittal Dofasco is on schedule in its implementation of a portfolio of environmental capital projects and operating programs between 2010 and 2014 to reduce emissions of certain parameters.


In the Province of Quebec, the metallurgical sector facilities are negotiating new environmental permits that will apply to the ArcelorMittal Mines Canada and ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur works. This program will require ArcelorMittal Mines Canada to invest in wastewater treatment at Port-Cartier and conduct studies on and monitor both the Port-Cartier and Mount Wright sites. The permit for Mount Wright was issued in March 2010, and the permit for Port-Cartier is expected in 2013.

In the last quarter of 2012, ArcelorMittal Mines Canada submitted new restoration plans for its facilities in Port-Cartier and Mount Wright to the Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources. Under the current mining regulations, financial insurance in the amount of CAD$17 million is required by 2020 for restoration of both sites.


ArcelorMittal Montreal expects the new permits for ArcelorMittal’s Contrecoeur and Contrecoeur West facilities to be issued in 2013 or mid-2014. Obtaining the new permits will require increasing monitoring frequencies as well as conducting certain studies.


A Quebec regulation required reporting monthly volume of water pumped from rivers beginning in the fourth quarter of 2009.  Beginning on January 1, 2011, a tax is charged on water withdrawal regardless of whether it is from a private pumping station or supplied by cities. Total additional costs to ArcelorMittal Montreal are expected to be approximately CAD$100,000 per year. Considering the actual rate the total additional costs to ArcelorMittal Mines Canada are also approximately CAD$100,000 per year.


In October 2007, a carbon tax was implemented in Quebec that applies to the purchase of fossil fuels. The tax is based on GHG emissions. Quebec is beginning to implement a cap-and-trade regime that will require third-party verified GHG emission reports for 2012. Starting in 2013, companies will be required to purchase carbon dioxide credits. According to the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l’Environnement de la Faune et des Parcs, credit purchases will be equivalent to the carbon tax, which will be eliminated. Beginning in 2013, free allocation will be reduced annually until 2020. The minimum price for carbon dioxide credits is CAD $10/tonne, while the maximum price is CAD$50/tonne. The Company does not expect to incur significant additional costs under the new cap and trade regime through 2014 (assuming pellet plant emission levels remain generally consistent with their average levels over the 2007 to 2010 period); after 2014, there is considerable uncertainty and the additional costs to the Company cannot yet be determined.


Quebec adopted Clean Air Regulation on June 30, 2011 that will require annual particulate matter (“PM”) testing for steel mills, and installation of broken bag detectors in baghouses. The intensity limit for PM in the steel sector has been increased.  ArcelorMittal Contrecoeur has proposed a project to ArcelorMittal’s Investment Allocation Committee to reduce dust emissions at its steel mill. The new regulation has also reduced the limit for PM concentration in dust controlling equipment. Tests will be done at some DRI plant scrubbers to validate compliance with the new limit.


This regulation will also reduce the limit for total PM from 120 to 75 grams per ton produced for existing pelletizing plants, including ArcelorMittal Mines Canada. The limit for a new plant will be 50 grams per ton produced. The immediate financial impact of this regulation is about $2.0 million related to the installation of continuous monitoring equipment. Also, the electrostatic precipitator refurbishment plan included in the five-year capital expenditure plan will contribute to ensure the conformity to the new emission limit. The preliminary evaluations performed so far indicated that the cost of this project could be in the order of magnitude of $100 million but further studies will have to be performed. 


An “Act to amend the Quebec Environmental Quality Act to reinforce compliance” was adopted on October 5, 2011. This act increases penalties and fines for environmental offences. Presumption of statutory liability of directors and administrators is included in the bill.


In 2011, ArcelorMittal acquired Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation, including a potential mining project, proposed on Baffin Island in the territory of Nunavut, which has recently completed its environmental assessment process and is currently proceeding through the permitting phase of regulatory approvals.  The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement establishes the requirement and expectations for development activities occurring in Nunavut. A number of regulatory processes apply to the project, including compliance with the North Baffin Regional Land Use Plan administered by the Nunavut Planning Commission. The project also has been subject to a Part 5 environmental review by the Nunavut Impact Review Board, which was completed and signed off by the Federal Minister for Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada in late 2012.

There are a number of permits, leases, and authorizations required for the project, including an archaeological and paleontological permit from the Government of Nunavut’s Department of Culture and Heritage.  Land tenure through long-term leases and shorter-





term land use permits will be required from the Qikiqtani Inuit Association to access Inuit-owned land that surrounds the proposed Mine Site and from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada for the port at Steensby Inlet and most of the proposed railway corridor. Other key environmental regulatory approvals include a Type A Water Licence from the Nunavut Water Board for water used, treated and discharged, Fisheries Act authorization from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, approvals or exemptions under the Navigable Waters Protection Act administered by Transport Canada Navigable Waters Protection Program and a license for explosives manufacture from Natural Resources Canada under the Explosives Act.


Costa Rica

ArcelorMittal’s operations in Costa Rica are subject to laws and regulations promulgated by the central government related to environmental areas such as air emissions, wastewater storage, treatment and discharges, the use and handling of hazardous or toxic materials, waste management, recovery and disposal practices and responsibilities and the remediation of environmental contamination.  These regulations are taken into account in ArcelorMittal’s day-to-day operations in Costa Rica, and are reinforced by an EMS ISO 14001 certification that is valid until 2014 with a verification process each year.


Kazakhstan’s Environmental Code no. 212-III dated January 9, 2007 and its amending law no. 164-IV dated June 23, 2009 specify the requirements for licensing, standardization, environmental audits, environmental permits, in-process controls and monitoring, and import of environmentally hazardous processes, techniques and equipment. They also establish the liabilities of users of natural resources in respect of design, development and operation of economic entities and other facilities; as well as the responsibilities regarding emissions, discharge of wastewater and the operation and maintenance of landfills and long-term waste storage.

New amendments to the Environmental Code have been in effect since December 2011.  These amendments relate to the conditions for the delivery of permits, to environmental action plans (to be discussed in public hearings) for the reduction of atmospheric emissions, reporting requirements for permit holders, waste management programs to reduce accumulated waste, and programs to phase out and dispose of PCB transformers.

The amendments also introduced a carbon dioxide emission trading scheme based on the scheme applied in the European Union, with a first national allocation plan of carbon dioxide allowances to be established in 2013.  It is expected that a state inventory of emission sources as well as a state registry of carbon units will be created based on the outcome of a GHG emissions and absorption inventory. Pursuant to a National Allocation Plan, GHG emission quotas will be allocated based on a plant’s certificate and GHG emission credits.  If a plant requiring additional allowances does not acquire them in the market, it is to be penalized at a rate of US $115 for each exceeded unit. At present both changes and amendments to the Environmental Code in terms of GHG emissions are being discussed in Kazakhstan.


The Act Adopting the Environment Protection and Management Law of the Republic of Liberia (2002) (“EPML”) is the principal piece of legislation covering environmental protection and management in Liberia. It provides the legal framework for the sustainable development, management and protection of the environment by the Liberian Environmental Protection Agency (“Liberian EPA”) in partnership with relevant ministries, autonomous agencies and organizations.

The Liberian system incorporates all social impact assessment within the Environmental Impact Assessment, otherwise referred to as “ESIA” by ArcelorMittal. The Liberian EPA’s Environmental Impact Assessment Procedural Guidelines provide an interpretation of the requirements of the EPML with respect to ESIA.

In the absence to date of any environmental management regulations, ArcelorMittal has devised an Environmental Standards Manual to cover its operations in Liberia. This was approved by the Liberian EPA for use as a guidance document for all site activities under the existing Liberia mining project and remains the only set of such guidelines in the country. . ArcelorMittal updates this Manual approximately three times per year, according to experience and operational needs.

The Act Adopting the National Forestry Reform Law (2006), together with the National Forestry Law (2000) and the Act Creating the Forestry Development Authority (2000) which it amended, cover all aspects of commercial and community use of forests. This law also has a primary role with respect to the wider environment, covering environmental protection, protected forests and protected areas for wildlife. The Act to Establish the Community Rights Law with respect to Forest Lands of 2009 with respect to forest lands gave communities far-reaching rights to areas of forest under claims of customary use.  Since it was enacted, there has been an expansion of the sector into community-managed forests. Some of these overlap the ArcelorMittal mining concession. Rules for the management of forests by communities are not yet properly established, but the company is supporting their development in co-ordination with NGOs, aid donors and the government. Once these have been agreed by the government, there will in effect be a new set of regulations relating to land access in certain areas.





As ArcelorMittal moves towards its expanded Project Phase 2, an ESIA for the 2015 to 2026 period is expected to be submitted in early 2013. This will necessarily commit ArcelorMittal to a significant environmental offset program and a comprehensive mine closure plan. While most of the costs of these initiatives will be incorporated in operational expenditure over the life of the mine, the implication is that the offsets may amount to at least $25 million and overall mine closure may amount to around $50 million (though costs have yet to be estimated in any detail). Associated with this phase of the project will be potential liabilities related to the operational and post-mining stability and safety of the tailings management facility. In the absence of national regulations regarding infrastructure of this nature, ArcelorMittal is endeavoring to ensure that it is designed and constructed to international standards as its main risk mitigation strategy.


Complementary to the framework laws on environment no. 53/05, 81/05, 24/07 and 159/08 which regulate environmental permits, environmental audits, prevention and control of major accidents involving hazardous substances and environmental liability, the following specific regulations are also applicable: no. 67/04, 92/07 on quality of ambient air and  no. 68/04, 71/04, 107/07, 102/08, 143/08 on management of waste and no. 161/2009 on packaging management and management of waste materials from packaging, no. 87/08, 06/09 on water protection, no. 145/10 on chemicals and no. 79/07 on noise. Official Register no. 17/2011 and no. 47/2011, which amend law no. 161/2009, regulate the tax rate applicable to each ton of waste resulting from packaging.

To comply with these laws and regulations, ArcelorMittal anticipates investments in an amount of $4.2 million to revamp the furnace of the hot dip galvanizing line for ArcelorMittal Skopje in addition to the $1.8 million already invested in 2008.


In Mexico, steel and mining activities are under federal jurisdiction. Permits to operate are subject to different environmental authorizations. Complementary to the framework law on the environment of January 28, 1988 (Ley general para el equilibrio ecologico y protección ambiente or “LGEEPA”), the following specific regulations apply: prevention and control of air pollution of November 25, 1988; environmental impact study of May 30, 2000; environmental audit of April 29, 2010; transfer of contaminants of June 3, 2004; water management of April 29, 2004; waste management of May 22, 2006; sustainable forestry development act of February 25, 2003; radioactivity control of March 2, 1985; wildlife management of July 3, 2000; and environmental noise pollution control of March 2, 1985.  On June 6, 2012, a new General Law for Climate Change was approved, and based on which, specific requirements for companies will be adopted.

Prior to beginning any new construction project, ArcelorMittal México conducts an environmental impact study to obtain authorization for certain activities, including mining activities.


ArcelorMittal’s Long Carbon subsidiary Sonasid is subject to numerous environmental regulations, including the following laws and their decrees of application:  Law no. 10-95 relating to water (August 16, 1995); Law  no. 11-03 relating to the protection of the environment and its enhancement (May 12, 2003); Law no. 12-03 relating to environmental impact studies (May 12, 2003); Law  no. 13-03 relating to air pollution abatement (May 12, 2003); and Law no. 28-00 relating to waste management and disposal (November 22, 2006). Decree N° 2-09-085 related to the collect, transport and treatment of used oils has been in effect since September 2011.

Sonasid complies with the limit values for water discharge in surface water and groundwater. Approval for the emission limit values of air pollutants for the steelmaking sector is pending.  In 2009, Sonasid received approval of the Ministry of Environment for the disposal of EAF dust in a landfill owned by the Company.


ArcelorMittal’s mining subsidiaries operating in the Kuzbass region of Russia are subject to several Russian Federation laws and regulations in the field of environmental protection, including: Law no. 7 “On Environmental Protection” dated January 10, 2002; Law “On Air Protection” dated May 4, 1992; Law no. 89-FZ “On Production and Consumption Wastes” dated June 24, 1998; Water Code no. 74/FZ dated June 3, 2006; Land Code no. 136-FZ dated October 25, 2001; and Forest Code no. 101/FZ dated August 10, 2008, among others.

In 2007, once the new Water Code dated March 30, 2007 went into effect, requirements to limit wastewater from mining activities increased considerably. As of December 31, 2008, the legislation monitors 19 pollutants in mine wastewater, with new standards and provisions for penalties in the case of non-compliance. The main pollutants are coal and rock dust suspended solids, ferrous sulphate, dissolved phenolic compounds and oils. The existing wastewater treatment facilities at the mines were commissioned in 1976 and are now obsolete.

In October 2011, an investment project in the amount of $24.4 million was approved in order to upgrade mine water utilities and waste water treatment facilities at the Berezovskaya and Pervomayskaya mines and to clean the settling pond of the Berezovskaya





mine. These activities will allow ArcelorMittal’s subsidiaries to achieve the required level of effluent treatment and avoid any penalties for damage to water bodies. Standard quality objectives will be achieved only upon completion of the project in 2014. For the period of project implementation, special measures on effluents cleaning were developed and agreed with the municipal authorities of the town of Berezovskiy, and the Kemerovo district. RosPrirodNadzor (the Federal Service for supervision of use of natural resources) issued a permit to increase the standards of the allowable discharge of pollutants in the surface water bodies. Meanwhile, ArcelorMittal’s Russian mining operations remain exposed to potential penalties until completion of the project.


In Senegal, the environmental regulations applicable to mining companies are set forth in the Mining Code, Act no. 2003-36 of November 24, 2003, its application decree no. 2004-647 of May 17, 2004, and the Code of the Environment, Act no. 2001-01 of January 15, 2001.

These laws outline the requirements that apply to the activities of mining companies, including the exploration phase, exploitation phase and the rehabilitation of a mining site at the end of a mining lease.

Concerning the site of Falémé, a preliminary environmental impact study has inventoried the issues that would need to be considered when implementing the mining project, the construction and operation of a railway, and the construction of a mineral port.

South Africa

The National Environmental Management Act (“NEMA”) of 1998 serves as the departure point for any project in South Africa and determines the Environmental Impact Assessment (“EIA”) procedure that needs to be followed in order to obtain the required authorization. NEMA is applicable to new infrastructure, capacity increases, changes to or upgrades of existing infrastructure and all water and air related activities. A General Authorization (“record of decision” or “ROD”) is issued in terms of this Act for any related projects. There is also a strong link between this Act and new legislation that was promulgated and this Act can be regarded as an “umbrella” for such legislation. The “duty of care” principle is also enshrined in NEMA and specifies that any harm caused to the environment is a criminal offence in terms of this Act.

To regulate water use, water abstraction, effluent discharges and potential pollution of water resources including ground water, Water Use Licenses (“WUL”) are issued under the National Water Act of 1998. Due to the scarcity of water in South Africa, the authorities are placing an emphasis on water recycling in permits; Zero Effluent Discharge (“ZED”) status is a condition many plants are required to achieve. Saldanha Works is currently a ZED plant. Newcastle Works is expected to achieve ZED status by early 2014.Vanderbijlpark achieved ZED status in July 2012.  

On October 22, 2012, ArcelorMittal South Africa (“AMSA”) received a notice from the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (“GDARD”) instructing it to cease operation of certain units at its Vanderbijlpark plant. GDARD alleges that these units do not comply with certain conditions of the air emission license for the Vanderbijlpark plant. For further information, see “Item 8A—Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Environmental Liabilities—South Africa”.

A Waste Act, which came into effect on July 1, 2009, applies to all waste and by-product related activities and contaminated land and replaces older legislation in this regard. Waste Management Licenses are issued in terms of this Act after the EIA process (including public participation) is concluded as per NEMA. Existing disposal facilities are also included in this Act, although existing permits will remain valid until new Waste Management Licenses are issued. The most significant new issue pertaining to the Waste Act is that by-product related activities now require a Waste Management License in certain cases. The interpretation of the requirements of the Waste Act regarding by-products remains a challenge. The level of duplication that is introduced by this requirement is of concern as by-product related activities are also regulated in terms of other environmental laws. The interpretation of the definition of waste remains a contentious issue and negotiations with the authorities have not been concluded on this matter.

A new Air Quality Act, which took full effect on April 1, 2010, introduced strict emission standards for new and existing plants. Existing plants or processes are granted a period of between five and ten years to achieve standards set for new plants. Atmospheric Emission Licenses will be issued in terms of this legislation after a General Authorization is issued under NEMA. ArcelorMittal’s coke making operations, in particular, have been severely affected by the implementation of the new emission standards, and major capital expenditures are expected to be implemented over the next five years.

In December 2010, the Department of National Treasury launched a discussion document on the option to install a carbon tax in order to reduce GHG emissions. ArcelorMittal South Africa constructively engaged with the authorities to promote alternative taxation proposals that were not in the discussion document. The proposals in the discussion document would have significantly affected the feasibility of ArcelorMittal’s operations as taxation from the very first ton of carbon dioxide being emitted was envisaged. The National Treasury indicated that the publishing of the reviewed Carbon Tax Discussion Paper is delayed until early 2013.





Trinidad & Tobago

Various regulations have been enacted under the Environment Management Act of March 8, 2000, two of which include the Water Pollution Rules of October 24, 2001 and the Noise Pollution Rules of April 19, 2001. ArcelorMittal Point Lisas was registered under the Water Pollution Rules in 2008. In 2010, ArcelorMittal Point Lisas was re-registered under the Water Pollution Rules and in 2011 began the process for obtaining a permit to emit pollutants. The application in this regard has been filed and the relevant authorities are processing the application. In accordance with the requirements of the Pesticides and the Toxic Chemicals Act, ArcelorMittal Point Lisas has completed the registration process for the premises and chemicals used and/or stored on its site. Two other pieces of legislation are being proposed—the Air Pollution Rules of 2001 and the Waste Management Rules of 2008.


Air emission regulations in force include the following:


·         No. 309, published on June 27, 2006, significantly restricts the emission limits of 140 substances for all types of plants.

·         No. 507, published on September 29, 2009, approves technological standards of allowable pollutants emissions from coke-oven batteries.    


 Priority pollutants under the air emission regulations are particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides dioxides and carbon monoxide.


Unicon’s operations are subject to various environmental laws and regulations including: Environmental Frame Law and Environmental Penal Law, Decree 638 on Air Quality, Decree 1400 on Water Use; Decree 2216 on Solid Wastes; Decree 2.635 on Hazardous Recoverable Materials and Wastes; and Decree 3.219 on Water Quality for the basin of Valencia Lake.

To comply with the environmental requirements, Unicon has launched and will continue to launch different improvement projects at its water collection, drainage and treatment systems for the storage, handling and recovery or disposal of wastes and of hazardous materials, and for the control of emissions to the atmosphere. With regard to the restrictions established by the Venezuelan State, Unicon is closely monitoring and controlling its water and energy consumption.


Health and Safety Laws and Regulations

ArcelorMittal’s operations are subject to a broad range of laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety. As these laws and regulations in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions continue to become more stringent, ArcelorMittal expects to expend substantial amounts to achieve or maintain compliance. ArcelorMittal has established corporate health and safety guidelines requiring each of its business units and sites to comply with all applicable laws and regulations. Compliance with such laws and regulations and monitoring changes to them are addressed primarily at the business unit level. ArcelorMittal has a clear and strong health and safety policy aimed at reducing on a continuing basis the severity and frequency of accidents. The policy outlines the commitment ArcelorMittal has made to the health and safety of all employees and implements a common health and safety model across the entire organization which permits the Corporate Health and Safety department to define and track performance targets and monitor results from every business unit and site. Further, ArcelorMittal has implemented an injury tracking and reporting database to track all information on injuries, lost man-days and other significant events. At present, the database enables access to statistics for the ArcelorMittal group as a whole, and more detailed information on injuries for business units and sites. Additional information is available at the plant sites. The database incorporates a company-wide used return-of experience system for disseminating lessons learned from individual incidents. The aim is to achieve faster and more accurate feedback on the cause of accidents in order to prevent recurrence of accidents. A benchmarking component has been added, which was deployed in 2010; as with any database, contents and use will grow over time. To check compliance, an auditing system has been put in place to monitor compliance with internal standards and OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series implementation.

Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) each reporting operator of a coal or other mine is required to include certain mine safety information within its periodic reports filed with the SEC. Pursuant to Section 1503 of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Company presents information regarding certain mining safety and health matters for each of its U.S. mine locations in Item 16H in this annual report.






Foreign Trade

ArcelorMittal has manufacturing operations in many countries and sells its products worldwide. In 2012, certain countries and communities, such as Brazil, Canada, the European Union, the Customs Union of Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and the United States, have considered whether to impose/continue imposing trade remedies (usually antidumping or safeguard measures) against injury or the threat caused by steel imports originating from various steel producing countries.

Under international agreements and the domestic trade laws of many countries, trade remedies are available to domestic industries where imports are “dumped” or “subsidized” and such imports cause injury, or a threat thereof to a domestic industry. Although there are differences in how the trade remedies are assessed, such laws typically have common features established in accordance with World Trade Organization (“WTO”) standards. Dumping involves selling for export a product at a price lower than that at which the same or similar product is sold in the home market of the exporter, or where the export prices are lower than a value that typically must be at or above the full cost of production (including sales and marketing costs) and a reasonable amount for profit. Subsidies from governments (including, among other things, grants and loans at artificially low interest rates) under certain circumstances are similarly actionable. The trade remedy available is typically an antidumping duty order or suspension agreement where injurious dumping is found and a countervailing duty order or suspension agreement where injurious subsidization is found. A duty equal to the amount of dumping or subsidization is imposed on the importer of the product. Such orders and suspension agreements do not prevent the importation of product, but rather require either that the product be priced at a non-dumped level or without the benefit of subsidies, or that the importer pay the difference between such dumped or subsidized price and the actual price to the government as a duty.

Safeguard measures are addressed more generally to a particular product irrespective of its source to protect the domestic production against increased imports of the exported product. The remedies available under the safeguard investigations are commonly safeguard duties or allocation of quotas on the exported products between the exporting countries.

Each year there is typically a range of so-called “sunset” reviews affecting various countries of interest to ArcelorMittal. For example, in June 2011, the United States conducted a sunset review of orders on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan which was completed in June 2012.  Another sunset review was initiated in 2012 concerning imports of corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany and Japan All WTO members are required to review antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders and suspension agreements every five years to determine if they should be maintained, revised or revoked. This requires a review of whether the dumping or subsidization is likely to continue or recur if the order/suspension agreement is revoked and whether a domestic industry in the country is likely to suffer the continuation or recurrence of the injury within the reasonably foreseeable future if the orders are revoked. If the government finds both dumping or subsidization and the injury are likely to continue or recur, then the orders are continued. In case of safeguard measures for duration exceeding three years, all WTO members are required to review the imposed measures in the mid-term of the relevant measure. After a review, restrictions may be extended if they continue to be required, but the total period of relief provided may not exceed eight years.


In a number of markets in which ArcelorMittal has manufacturing operations, it may be a beneficiary of trade actions intended to address trade problems consistent with WTO regulations. In other situations, certain operations of ArcelorMittal may be a respondent in one or more trade cases and its products subject to duties or other trade restrictions.

In some developing countries in which ArcelorMittal is producing, state intervention impacts trade issues. For example, exports of steel mill products could require licenses from the local ministry of industry and trade or ArcelorMittal could be required to domicile, or submit for registration, export contracts with the local central bank.


Key Currency Regulations and Exchange Controls


The Algerian foreign currency market is regulated by the Central Bank of Algeria. Exchange control regulations do not permit capital account convertibility of the Algerian dinar (“DZD”), subject to certain exceptions involving Algerian companies investing in overseas projects. Currency outflows on current accounts, although freely permitted for the import of goods, are subject to controls for payments for service contracts. Overseas dividend repatriation is permitted subject to a 15% withholding tax. Algerian companies are restricted from investing their cash surplus overseas. All overseas remittances are required to be made through the Algerian Central Bank. Exporters are permitted to retain 50% of their proceeds in foreign currency accounts, 20% of which can be utilized freely and the rest of which can be used in accordance with certain restrictions. Hedging of currencies is tightly regulated and restricted. Overseas investment in and out of Algeria requires compliance with several fiscal regulations.

In September 2010, Algeria’s government unveiled a series of measures that confirm the shift towards greater economic regulation. The measures were included in a supplementary budget law, which states that any foreign firm bidding for a state contract must form a joint venture with an Algerian company.






The Argentine peso (“ARS”) has not been freely convertible since December 2001. It is mandatory to convert 100% of foreign exchange revenues from exports into local currency.

Since November 2011, the Argentine government has further restricted the ability of Argentine residents to transfer funds abroad.

As a result of these changes, the maximum term in which Argentine resident companies must repatriate their export proceeds has been shortened and outflows of foreign currency have been limited mainly to the payment of import charges, which are also restricted through new regulations requiring importers to obtain a prior import authorization.

According to new regulations by the Argentine Central Bank and Ministry of the Economy, 30% of certain inbound loans may be held as a legal reserve deposit in the Argentine Central Bank for one year, except for foreign direct investments and loans exceeding two years in term.

Dividends can be transferred abroad without any legal restriction, provided that they relate to audited annual financial statements and that the company has complied with its foreign debt disclosure regime and the foreign direct investment disclosure regime. However, from a practical standpoint, the Central Bank’s prior authorization is required before the transfer can be executed.

The payment of principal amounts and interest on outstanding debt to a non-resident is allowed. The loans must be previously registered with the Central Bank and the Argentine resident must be in full compliance with the Central Bank’s reporting regime applicable to financial debt.

Until July 5, 2012, the purchase of foreign currency by Argentine residents for up to $2 million per calendar month was permitted. However, on July 5, 2012 the Central Bank suspended this provision indefinitely.


In Brazil, all foreign exchange transactions are carried out on a single foreign exchange market. Foreign currencies may be purchased or sold only through Brazilian financial institutions authorized to operate in such market and are subject to registration with the Central Bank of Brazil’s electronic system. The Central Bank allows exchange rates between the Brazilian real (“BRL”) and foreign currencies (including the U.S. dollar) to float freely, although it has intervened occasionally to control volatility. Exchange controls on foreign capital and international reserves are administrated by the Central Bank. During periods of strong BRL appreciation, the Central Bank has implemented measures to discourage portfolio capital from entering the country. Foreign and local companies may borrow internationally subject to registration with an approval by the Central Bank. Local companies may maintain up to 100% of their export revenues abroad.


The Chinese yuan (“CNY”) is a managed float with reference to a basket of currencies and non-deliverable currency. The exchange rate of the Chinese yuan is determined by the interbank foreign exchange market, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (“CFETS”). The CNY is traded on the CFETS with the following five currency pairs: the U.S. dollar, the Hong Kong dollar, the Japanese Yen, the euro and the British Pound.

Since January 1, 2006, existing designated foreign exchange banks have been permitted to engage in bilateral trading, pursuant to which they trade directly with other member banks in the CNY foreign exchange spot market, as opposed to just trading with CFETS. The trading band within which such activity may take place increased in April 2012 to +/- 1.0 % against the U.S. dollar, as compared to the previous level of +/- 0.5%. China maintains strict controls on its currency. Non-residents and foreign investment enterprises must obtain a foreign exchange registration certificate to open a foreign currency account onshore. There are three types of foreign currency accounts for non-residents: capital accounts (for investment and repatriation), current accounts (for trade) and loan accounts (for receiving and repaying loans). Residents may hold foreign currency in onshore accounts.


In India, the exchange rate of the Indian rupee (“INR”) is determined in the interbank foreign exchange market. The Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) announces a daily reference rate for the rupee against the U.S. dollar, Japanese yen, British pound and euro. The RBI monitors the value of the rupee against a Real Effective Exchange Rate (“REER”). The REER consists of six currencies: U.S. dollar, euro, British pound, Japanese yen, Chinese yuan and Hong Kong dollar. The rupee rate has been known to deviate significantly from longer-term REER trends.

The RBI intervenes actively in the foreign exchange market in cases of excessive volatility. Exchange controls are established by both the government and the RBI. The Foreign Exchange Management Act of 2000 mandates that the government oversee current account transactions, while the RBI regulates capital accounts transactions. Restrictions on purchases and sales of INR have been





significantly relaxed since the early 1990s. Since 1995, the Indian rupee has had full current account convertibility, though exchange controls on capital account transactions remain in effect.


There are no requirements for foreign investors to invest in Kazakhstan; however, investors are required to obtain a tax registration number in order to open a cash account. Payments in “routine currency operations” may be made by Kazakh residents to non-residents through authorized banks without any restriction so long as information about the purpose of the transaction is provided.

Routine currency operations include:

·         import/export settlements with payment within 180 days;

·         short-term loans with terms of less than 180 days;

·         dividends, interest and other income from deposits, investments, loans and other operations; and

·         non-commercial transactions such as wages and pensions in Kazakh tenge (“KZT”).

Direct investment abroad by residents and non-residents of Kazakhstan (provided they hold 10% or more of a Kazakh company’s voting shares) are subject to registration with the Central Bank of Kazakhstan. The registration regime only applies if the amount of a currency transaction exceeds $300,000 (in the case of currency being invested in Kazakhstan) and $50,000 (in the case of currency being transferred out of Kazakhstan). The exceptions to registration are currency operations with derivatives between residents and non-residents. The Central Bank of Kazakhstan is only required to be notified if the payment amount exceeds $100,000 or the equivalent in KZT.

Operations involving the transfer of capital from residents to non-residents require a license from the Central Bank of Kazakhstan, and transactions involving the transfer of capital from non-residents to residents must be registered with the National Bank of Kazakhstan. Licenses are issued on a case-by-case basis and are valid for a single transaction only. These transactions include:

·         payments for exclusive rights to intellectual property;

·         payments for rights to immovable property;

·         settlements for import/export transactions;

·         loans with terms of more than 180 days;

·         international transfers of pension assets; and

·         insurance and re-insurance contracts of an accumulative nature.

The Central Bank of Kazakhstan is also required to be notified of certain transactions, including, among others, acquisitions of share capital, securities and investment funds, financial derivatives, transfers of real estate and the opening of bank accounts by certain legal entities.

South Africa

The South African rand (“ZAR”) is subject to exchange controls enforced by the South African Reserve Bank (“SARB”). Prior approval is required for foreign funding, hedging policies and offshore investments. Imports and export payments are monitored by the Central Bank. Although the ZAR has not been fully convertible since 1941, the SARB has taken steps to gradually relax exchange controls. To ease the burden of compliance for small and medium-sized businesses, the application process for approval from the Financial Surveillance Department before undertaking new foreign direct investment has been removed for corporate transactions from below ZAR 50 million to below ZAR 500 million per applicant company per calendar year. Such applications need only be approved by authorized dealers. Authorized dealers may also, subject to several conditions, allow companies to cover up to 75% of budgeted commitments or export accruals for the following financial year. Subject to additional conditions, forwards and options may be used to cover for foreign exchange exposures of tenors up to six months. Furthermore, the 180-day rule requiring export companies to convert their foreign exchange proceeds into ZAR has been removed and South African companies are permitted to open foreign bank accounts without prior approval. Offshore bank accounts may, however, only be used for permissible transactions. Qualifying international companies are allowed to raise and transfer capital offshore wit