485BPOS 1 d117147d485bpos.htm 485BPOS 485BPOS
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 21, 2016

Registration Nos. 333-89822; 811-21114

 

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933   
Pre-Effective Amendment No.   
Post-Effective Amendment No. 167    x     

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940

Amendment No. 176    x     

 

 

ProShares Trust

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Trust Instrument)

 

 

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000

Bethesda, MD 20814

(Address of Principal Executive Office) (Zip Code)

(240) 497-6400

(Area Code and Telephone Number)

Michael L. Sapir, CEO

ProShare Advisors LLC

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000

Bethesda, MD 20814

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

with copies to:

John Loder, Esq.

Ropes & Gray LLP

Prudential Tower

800 Boylston Street

Boston, MA 02199-3600

 

Robert J. Borzone, Jr.

ProShare Advisors LLC

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000

Bethesda, MD 20814

 

 

Approximate date of Proposed Public Offering:

It is proposed that this filing will become effective:

 

  x immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  ¨ on ………. pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of Rule 485
  ¨ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  ¨ on        pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  ¨ 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  ¨ on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following:

 

  ¨ This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This post-effective amendment relates only to ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF, a series of ProShares Trust. No information relating to any other series or class of series of ProShares Trust is amended or superseded hereby.


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LOGO

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

JANUARY 21, 2016

 

 

 

EMDV   ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF
   

PROSHARES TRUST

   Distributor: SEI Investments Distribution Co.

The Fund is listed on BATS Exchange Inc. None of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission or any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

3   Summary Section
4   ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF
8   Investment Objective, Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks
14   Management of ProShares Trust
15   Determination of NAV
15   Distributions
15   Dividend Reinvestment Services
16   Taxes


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Summary Section


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Investment Objective

ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF (the “Fund”) seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, that track the performance of the MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Masters Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The table below describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy or hold shares of the Fund.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

  
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)   

Investment Advisory Fees

     0.60%   

Other Expenses*

     0.44%   
  

 

 

 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses Before Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements

     1.04%   

Fee Waiver/Reimbursement**

     0.44%   
  

 

 

 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements

     0.60%   
  

 

 

 

 

* “Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

 

** ProShare Advisors LLC (“ProShare Advisors”) has contractually agreed to waive Investment Advisory and Management Services Fees and to reimburse Other Expenses to the extent Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses Before Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements, as a percentage of average daily net assets, exceed 0.60% through September 30, 2017. After that date, the expense limitation may be terminated or revised by ProShare Advisors. Amounts waived or reimbursed in a particular contractual period may be recouped by ProShare Advisors within five years of the end of that contractual period to the extent that recoupment will not cause the Fund’s expenses to exceed any expense limitation in place at that time.

Example: This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of each period. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same, except that the fee waiver/expense reimbursement is assumed only to pertain to the first year. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your approximate costs would be:

 

1 Year   3 Years  

$61

    $287   

The Fund pays transaction and financing costs associated with the purchase and sale of securities. In addition, investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of the Fund’s shares. These costs are not reflected in the table or the example above.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when the Fund’s shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the example above, affect the Fund’s performance. The Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus. Thus, no portfolio turnover information is provided for this Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

By investing in securities that make up the Index, the Fund focuses on companies that may be able to deliver favorable long-term total returns as a result of their ability and willingness to increase dividends over time. The Index, constructed and maintained by MSCI, targets companies that are currently members of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index (“MSCI Emerging Markets”) and have increased dividend payments each year for at least 7 years. The Index contains a minimum of 40 stocks, which are equally weighted. No single sector is allowed to comprise more than 30% of the Index weight, and no single country is allowed to comprise more than 50% of the Index weight. If there are fewer than 40 stocks with at least 7 consecutive years of dividend growth, or if sector or country caps are breached, the Index will include companies with shorter dividend growth histories. The Index is rebalanced each February, May, August and November, with an annual reconstitution during the November rebalance. The Index is published under the Bloomberg ticker symbol “M1EMDMAR”.

In order to be included in the Index, companies must first qualify for inclusion in MSCI Emerging Markets. MSCI Emerging Markets covers approximately 85% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization in each country in the Emerging Markets. MSCI determines whether a country is an “emerging market” country based on three criteria: economic development within the country (based on gross national income), size and liquidity (i.e., number of companies meeting certain size and liquidity standards in a given market) and market accessibility criteria (reflecting institutional investors’ experiences in investing in a given market). As of November 30, 2015, MSCI Emerging Markets included companies from: Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. As of November 30, 2015, MSCI Emerging Markets included companies with capitalizations between approximately $$22.6 million and $122.5 billion. The average capitalization of the companies comprising MSCI Emerging Markets was approximately $4 billion.

The Fund invests in securities that ProShare Advisors believes, in combination, should track the performance of the Index. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its total assets in component securities (i.e., securities of the Index and comparable securities that have economic characteristics that are substantially identical to the economic characteristics of the securities of the Index).

 


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The securities that the Fund will principally invest in are set forth below.

 

 

Equity Securities — The Fund invests in the equity securities of companies domiciled in emerging market countries.

 

 

Depositary Receipts — The Fund may invest in depositary receipts, which principally include:

 

  ¡   

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), which represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or trust company.

 

  ¡   

Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs), which are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world.

ProShare Advisors follows a passive approach to investing that is designed to track the performance of the Index. The Fund attempts to track the performance of the Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in securities that make up the Index. While the Fund will generally seek to hold each security (or a related Depository Receipt) in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index, the existence of regulatory constraints, market structure issues and other challenges of investing in emerging market countries may result in the Fund gaining exposure to only a representative sample of the securities in its Index or overweighting or underweighting securities of the Index in relation to their composition in the Index or investing in securities not contained in the Index, with the intent of obtaining exposure with aggregate characteristics similar to the Index. ProShare Advisors does not invest the assets of the Fund in securities based on ProShare Advisors’ view of the investment merit of a particular security or company, nor does it conduct conventional investment research or analysis, or forecast market movement or trends, in managing the assets of the Fund. The Fund seeks to remain fully invested at all times in securities that, in combination, provide exposure to the Index without regard to market conditions, trends or direction.

The Fund will concentrate its investment in a particular industry or group of industries, country or region to approximately the same extent as the Index is so concentrated. As of the close of business on November 30, 2015, the Index was concentrated in the Financial Services industry group, in China and in Asia.

Please see “Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks” in the Fund’s Full Prospectus for additional details.

Principal Risks

You could lose money by investing in the Fund.

 

 

Correlation Risk — A number of factors may affect the Fund’s ability to achieve a high degree of correlation with the Index, and there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve a high degree of correlation. Failure to achieve a high degree of correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective. The factors that may adversely affect the Fund’s correlation with the Index include fees, expenses, transaction costs, income items, valuation methodology, accounting standards and disruptions or illiquidity in the markets for the securities

   

in which the Fund invests. The Fund may invest in Depository Receipts rather than directly in the security in the index, such investment typically occurring on a delayed basis as compared to investing directly in a security of the Index. Furthermore, the Fund may not have investment exposure to all securities in the Index, or its weighting of investment exposure to securities may be different from that of the Index. The Fund may take or refrain from taking positions in order to improve tax efficiency, or comply with regulatory restrictions, either of which may negatively affect the Fund’s correlation with the Index. The Fund may also be subject to large movements of assets into and out of the Fund, potentially resulting in the Fund being over- or underexposed to the Index and may be impacted by Index reconstitutions and Index rebalancing events. Additionally, the Fund’s underlying investments may trade on markets that may not be open on the same day as the Fund, which may cause a difference between the changes in the daily performance of the Fund and changes in the level of the Index. Furthermore, the Fund will need to execute currency trades that due to regulatory, legal and operational constraints will occur at a later date than the trading of the related security. Currency holdings may be valued at a different time than is used by the Index. Any of these factors could decrease correlation between the performance of the Fund and the Index and may hinder the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective.

 

 

Foreign Investments/Emerging Market Risk — Investments in securities of foreign issuers may provide the Fund with increased risk. Various factors related to foreign investments may negatively impact the Index’s performance, such as: i) fluctuations in the value of the applicable foreign currency; ii) differences in securities settlement practices; iii) uncertainty associated with evidence of ownership of investments in countries that lack centralized custodial services; iv) possible regulation of, or other limitations on, investments by U.S. investors in foreign investments; v) potentially higher brokerage commissions; vi) the possibility that a foreign government may withhold portions of interest and dividends at the source; vii) taxation of income earned in foreign countries or other foreign taxes imposed; viii) foreign exchange controls, which may include suspension of the ability to transfer currency from a foreign country; ix) less publicly available information about foreign issuers; x) changes in the denomination currency of a foreign investment; and xi) less certain legal systems in which the Fund might encounter difficulties or be unable to pursue legal remedies. Foreign investments also may be more susceptible to political, social, economic and regional factors than might be the case with U.S. securities. In addition, markets for foreign investments are usually less liquid, more volatile and significantly smaller than markets for U.S. securities, which may affect, among other things, the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign investments at appropriate times. Because of differences in settlement times and/or foreign market holidays, transactions in a foreign market may take place one or more days after the necessary exposure to these investments is determined. Until the transactions are effected, the Fund is exposed to increased foreign currency risk and market risk and, ultimately, increased correlation risk.

 


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   Because the Fund’s foreign investments will include issuers domiciled in developing or “emerging market” countries, all the aforementioned factors are heightened and foreign investments risk is higher. Economic, business, political, or social instability may adversely affect the value of emerging market securities more acutely than securities tied to developed foreign countries. Furthermore, any of these developments may result in a decline in the value of a country’s currency. Emerging markets are riskier than more developed markets because they may develop unevenly or may never fully develop. Investments in emerging markets are considered speculative.

 

 

Foreign Currency Risk — Certain of the Fund’s investments may be linked to or denominated in foreign currencies. Investments linked to or denominated in foreign currencies are exposed to additional risk factors versus those investments denominated in U.S. dollars or linked to U.S. investments. The value of an investment denominated in a foreign currency could change significantly as foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the U.S. dollar. Devaluations of a currency by a government or banking authority may also have significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. Risks related to foreign currencies also include those related to economic or political developments, market inefficiencies or a higher risk that essential investment information may be incomplete, unavailable, or inaccurate. A U.S. dollar investment in Depositary Receipts or ordinary shares of foreign issuers traded on U.S. exchanges or an investment denominated in a foreign currency, like certain of the investments included in the Index, is subject to foreign currency risk. Foreign currency losses could offset or exceed any potential gains, or add to losses, in the related investments. Currency markets are also generally not as regulated as securities markets. In addition, in order to transact in foreign investments, the Fund may exchange and hold foreign currencies. Regulatory fees or higher custody fees may be imposed on foreign currency holdings. In certain “restricted market” countries (which limit the ability of non-nationals to transact in those countries’ currencies), the Fund will be limited in its ability to use multiple dealers to obtain exchange rates. This may result in potentially higher costs for the Fund, and increased correlation risk. Further the limitation on dealers may cause delays in execution, which may also increase correlation risk. Foreign currency exposure related to emerging markets generally entails higher volatility and greater trading costs than developed market currency exposure.

 

 

Geographic Concentration Risk — Because the Fund focuses its investments in particular foreign countries or geographic regions and could invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, it may be more volatile than a more geographically diversified fund. The performance of the Fund will be affected by the political, social and economic conditions in those foreign countries and geographic regions and subject to the related risks.

 

   In particular, the Fund is exposed to risks associated with investments in Asia and China in particular, including, but not
  limited to: i) political, economic, or social instability in China and the region, ii) heightened risk of nationalization of companies or other forms of government interference; iii) exposure to less liquid and more volatile securities markets; iv) natural disasters more likely to occur in particular Asian countries; v) heightened exposure to foreign currency risks; vi) long running border disputes and other conflicts among Asian countries; and vii) a lack of publicly available information (as compared to many other countries).

 

 

Early Close/Late Close/Trading Halt Risk — An exchange or market may close early, close late or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities may be restricted, which may result in the Fund being unable to buy or sell certain securities. In these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and/or may incur substantial trading losses.

 

 

Equity and Market Risk — The equity markets are volatile, and the value of securities correlated with the equity markets may fluctuate dramatically from day-to-day. Equity markets are subject to corporate, political, regulatory, market and economic developments, as well as developments that impact specific economic sectors, industries or segments of the market. Further, stocks in the Index may underperform other equity investments. Volatility in the markets and/or adverse market developments may cause the value of an investment in the Fund to decrease.

 

 

Financial Services Industry Risk — The Fund is subject to risks faced by companies in the financial services economic sector to the same extent as the Index is so concentrated, including: extensive governmental regulation and/or nationalization that affects the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain; adverse effects from increases in interest rates; effects on profitability by loan losses, which usually increase in economic downturns; the severe competition to which banks, insurance, and financial services companies may be subject; and increased inter-industry consolidation and competition in the financial sector.

 

 

Liquidity Risk — In certain circumstances, such as the disruption of the orderly markets for the securities in which the Fund invests, the Fund might not be able to acquire or dispose of certain holdings quickly or at prices that represent true market value in the judgment of ProShare Advisors. Markets for the securities in which the Fund invests may be disrupted by a number of events, including but not limited to economic crises, natural disasters, new legislation, or regulatory changes inside or outside of the U.S. For example, regulation limiting the ability of certain financial institutions to invest in certain securities would likely reduce the liquidity of those securities. These situations may prevent the Fund from limiting losses, realizing gains or achieving a high correlation with the Index.

 

 

Market Price Variance Risk — The Fund’s shares are listed for trading on the BATS Exchange and can be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market price of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in the value of the Fund’s

 


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holdings, supply and demand for shares and other market factors. In addition, the securities held by the Fund may be traded in markets that close at a different time than the BATS Exchange. Because the Fund and the Index generally value such securities as of their local market closing time, the daily net asset value (“NAV”) and Index performance will vary from the market performance of the Fund as of the BATS Exchange close (typically at 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time). Furthermore, liquidity in such securities may be reduced after the applicable closing times. This may cause wider spreads and larger premium and discounts than would otherwise be the case if each market was open until the close of trading on the BATS Exchange. ProShare Advisors cannot predict whether shares will trade above, below or at a price equal to the value of the Fund’s holdings. Given the fact that shares can be created and redeemed in Creation Units, as defined below, ProShare Advisors believes that large discounts or premiums to the value of the Fund’s holdings should not be sustained. The Fund’s investment results are measured based upon the daily NAV of the Fund. Investors purchasing and selling shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by Authorized Participants creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

 

Portfolio Turnover Risk — The Fund’s strategy may involve high portfolio turnover to manage the Fund’s investment exposure. Additionally, active market trading of the Fund’s shares may cause more frequent creation or redemption activities that could, in certain circumstances, increase the number of portfolio transactions. High levels of transactions increase brokerage and other transaction costs and may result in increased taxable capital gains.

 

 

Large-Cap Company Investment Risk — The Index and, by extension, the Fund are exposed to stocks of large-cap companies. Although returns on investments in large-cap companies are often perceived as being less volatile than the returns of companies with smaller market capitalizations, the return on large-cap securities could trail the returns on investments in smaller and mid-sized companies for a number of reasons. For example, large-cap companies may be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology, and also may not be able to attain the high growth rate of successful smaller companies.

 

 

Small- and Mid-Cap Company Investment Risk — The Index and, by extension, the Fund are exposed to the risks posed by stocks of small- and mid-cap companies. The risk of equity investing may be particularly acute for securities of issuers with smaller market capitalizations. Small- and mid-cap company stocks may trade at greater spreads or lower trading volumes, and may be less liquid than the stocks of larger companies. Small- and mid-cap companies may have limited product lines or resources, may be dependent upon a particular market niche

   

and may have greater fluctuations in price than the stocks of larger companies. Further, stocks of small- and mid-sized companies could be more difficult to liquidate during market downturns compared to larger, more widely traded companies. In addition, small- and mid-cap companies may lack the financial and personnel resources to handle economic or industry-wide setbacks and, as a result, such setbacks could have a greater effect on small- and mid-cap security prices.

 

 

Valuation Risk — In certain circumstances, portfolio securities may be valued using techniques other than market quotations. The value established for a portfolio security may be different from what would be produced through the use of another methodology or if it had been priced using market quotations. Portfolio securities that are valued using techniques other than market quotations, including “fair valued” securities, may be subject to greater fluctuation in their value from one day to the next than would be the case if market quotations were used. In addition, there is no assurance that the Fund could sell a portfolio security for the value established for it at any time, and it is possible that the Fund would incur a loss because a portfolio security is sold at a discount to its established value.

Please see “Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks” in the Fund’s Full Prospectus for additional details.

Investment Results

Performance history will be available for the Fund after it has been in operation for a full calendar year. After the Fund has a full calendar year of performance information, performance information will be shown on an annual basis.

Management

The Fund is advised by ProShare Advisors. Alexander Ilyasov, Senior Portfolio Manager has managed the Fund since January 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem shares only to Authorized Participants (typically, broker-dealers) in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of assets (securities and/or cash) in large blocks, known as Creation Units, each of which is comprised of 25,000 shares. Retail investors may only purchase and sell Fund shares on a national securities exchange through a broker-dealer. Because the Fund’s shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (a premium) or less than NAV (a discount).

Tax Information

Income and capital gain distributions you receive from the Fund are subject to federal income taxes and may also be subject to state and local taxes. The Fund intends to distribute income, if any, quarterly and capital gains, if any, at least annually.

 


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Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings


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Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks

This section contains additional detail regarding the Fund’s investment objectives, principal investment strategies and related risks.

Investment Objectives

ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF (the “Fund”) seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, which track the performance of the MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Masters Index (the “Index”).

The Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental, meaning that it may be changed by the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of ProShares Trust, without the approval of Fund shareholders. The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index or security for the Fund’s index.

Principal Investment Strategies

In seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective, ProShare Advisors LLC (“ProShare Advisors”) follows a passive approach to investing that is designed to track the performance of the Fund’s Index. The Fund attempts to track the performance of its Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in securities that make up its Index.

The Fund employs investment techniques that ProShare Advisors believes should, in the aggregate, simulate the movement of its Index.

The investment techniques utilized to simulate the movement of the Fund’s Index are intended to enhance liquidity, maintain a tax-efficient portfolio and reduce transaction costs, while, at the same time, seeking to maintain high correlation with, and similar aggregate characteristics to, the Index. In addition, the Fund may overweight or underweight certain components contained in its Index or invest in investments not included in the Index but that are designed to provide the requisite exposure to the Index.

ProShare Advisors does not invest the assets of the Fund in securities based on ProShare Advisors’ view of the investment merit of a particular security or company, other than for cash management purposes, nor does it conduct conventional investment research or analysis (other than in determining counterparty creditworthiness), or forecast market movement or trends, in managing the assets of the Fund. The Fund generally seeks to remain fully invested in a combination of equity securities that ProShare Advisors believes should have similar return characteristics to its Index without regard to market conditions, trends or direction. The Fund does not take temporary defensive positions.

The Fund will, under normal circumstances, invest at least 80% of its total assets in component securities (i.e., securities of the Fund’s current Index and comparable securities that have economic characteristics that are substantially identical to the economic characteristics of the securities of the Index). The securities that the Fund will principally invest in are set forth below.

 

 

Equity Securities — The Fund invests principally in the equity securities of companies domiciled in emerging market countries.

 

Depositary Receipts — The Fund may invest in depositary receipts, which principally include:

 

  ¡   

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), which represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or trust company.

 

  ¡   

Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs), which are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world.

The Fund is subject to the SEC’s “names rule” and commits to invest at least 80% of its assets (i.e., net assets plus borrowings for investment purposes), under normal market conditions, in the types of securities suggested by its name and/or investments with similar economic characteristics.

Principal Risks

You could lose money by investing in the Fund.

Like all investments, investing in the Fund entails risks. The factors most likely to have a significant impact on the Fund’s portfolio are called “principal risks.” The principal risks for the Fund are described in the Fund’s Summary Prospectus and additional information regarding certain of these risks, as well as information related to other potential risks to which the Fund may be subjected, is provided below.

In addition to the risks noted in the Fund’s Summary Prospectus, many other factors may also affect the value of an investment in the Fund. The Fund’s NAV should change daily relative to the performance of its Index, which in turn is affected by variations in market conditions, interest rates and other economic, political or financial developments. The impact of these developments on the Fund will depend upon the types of securities in which the Fund invests, the Fund’s level of investment in particular issuers and other factors, including the financial condition, industry, economic sector and location of such issuers.

The Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) contains additional information about the Fund’s investment strategies and related risks. The Fund may be subject to other risks in addition to those identified as principal risks.

 

 

Correlation Risk — There is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve a high degree of correlation with its Index. Failure to achieve a high degree of correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective, and the percentage change of the Fund’s NAV each day may differ, perhaps significantly, from the percentage change of its Index on such day. This may be due, among other reasons, to the impact of a limited trading market in the underlying component securities on the calculation of the Index. A number of other factors may also adversely affect the Fund’s correlation with the Index, including material over- or underexposure, fees, expenses, transaction costs, income items, valuation methodology, infrequent trading in the securities underlying the Index, accounting standards and disruptions or illiquidity in the markets for the securities in which the Fund invests. While the Fund attempts to track the performance of its Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the types of securities that make

 


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up the Index in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index, at times the Fund may not have investment exposure to all securities in its Index, or its weighting of investment exposure to such securities or industries may be different from that of the Index. In addition, the Fund may invest in securities not included in the Fund’s Index. The Fund may take or refrain from taking positions in order to improve tax efficiency or comply with regulatory restrictions, either of which may negatively affect the Fund’s correlation with its Index. A Fund may also be subject to large movements of assets into and out of the Fund, potentially resulting in the Fund being over- or underexposed to its Index and may be impacted by Index reconstitutions and Index rebalancing events. Additionally, the Fund’s underlying investments may trade on markets that may not be open on the same day as the Fund. Any of these factors could decrease correlation between the performance of the Fund and the Index and may hinder the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective on that day.

 

 

Foreign Investments Risk — The Fund invests in securities of foreign issuers or other investments that provide the Fund with exposure to foreign issuers (collectively, “foreign investments”). Certain factors related to foreign investments may prevent the Fund from achieving its goals. These factors may include the effects of: (i) fluctuations in the value of the local currency versus the U.S. dollar and the uncertainty associated with the cost of converting between various currencies, even if the Fund attempts to hedge against its currency exposure; (ii) differences in settlement practices, as compared to U.S. investments, or delayed settlements in some foreign markets; (iii) the uncertainty associated with evidence of ownership of investments in many foreign countries, which may lack the centralized custodial services and rigorous proofs of ownership required by many U.S. investments; (iv) possible regulation of, or other limitations on, investments by U.S. investors in foreign investments; (v) brokerage commissions and fees and other investment related costs that may be higher than those applicable to U.S. investments; (vi) the possibility that a foreign government may withhold portions of interest and dividends at the source; (vii) taxation of income earned in foreign nations or other taxes imposed with respect to investments in foreign nations; (viii) changes in the denomination currency of a foreign investment; and (ix) foreign exchange controls, which may include suspension of the ability to transfer currency from a given country. In addition, markets for foreign investments are usually less liquid, more volatile and significantly smaller than markets for U.S. securities, which may affect, among other things, the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign investments at appropriate times.

 

   The Fund’s performance also may be affected by factors related to its ability to obtain information about foreign investments. In many foreign countries, there is less publicly available information about issuers than is available in reports about U.S. issuers. Markets for foreign investments are usually not subject to the degree of government supervision and regulation
  that exists for U.S. investments. Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, and auditing practices and requirements may not be comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. Furthermore, the issuers of foreign investments may be closely controlled by a small number of families, institutional investors or foreign governments whose investment decisions might be difficult to predict. To the extent the Fund’s assets are exposed to contractual and other legal obligations in a foreign country, (e.g., swap agreements with foreign counterparties), these factors may affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The Fund may encounter difficulties or be unable to pursue legal remedies and obtain judgments in foreign courts. In some countries, information about decisions of the judiciary, other government branches, regulatory agencies and tax authorities may be less transparent than decisions by comparable institutions in the U.S., particularly in countries that are politically dominated by a single party or individual. Moreover, enforcement of such decisions maybe inconsistent or uncertain.

 

   Foreign investments also may be more susceptible to political, social, economic and regional factors than might be the case for U.S. securities. These factors include the effect of: (i) expropriation, nationalization or confiscatory taxation of foreign investments; (ii) changes in credit conditions related to foreign counterparties, including foreign governments and foreign financial institutions; (iii) trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures; and (iv) issues related to multinational currency arrangements; and (v) increased correlation between the value of foreign investments and changes in the commodities markets. To the extent the Fund focuses its investments on a particular country or region, the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objectives may be especially subject to factors and developments related to such country or region.

 

 

Special Considerations About Emerging Market Countries — Because the Fund’s foreign investments may include issuers domiciled in developing or “emerging market” countries, the aforementioned factors are heightened and foreign investments risk is higher. Economic, business, political or social instability may adversely affect the value of emerging market securities more acutely than securities tied to developed foreign market countries. Emerging markets are riskier than more developed markets because they may develop unevenly or may never fully develop. Investments in emerging market countries are considered speculative.

 

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Political and Social Risk — Some governments in emerging markets countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, and some governments have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging market countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Also, investing in

 


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emerging market countries involves a great risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and repatriation of capital invested by certain emerging market countries.

 

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Economic Risk — Some emerging market countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation, while others have experienced economic recessions causing a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of such emerging countries. Further, economies in emerging market countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, may be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates.

 

 

Geographic Concentration Risk — Funds that focus their investments in companies economically tied to particular foreign countries or geographic regions may be particularly susceptible to economic, political or regulatory events affecting those countries or regions. In addition, currency devaluations could occur in foreign countries that have not yet experienced currency devaluation to date, or could continue to occur in foreign countries that have already experienced such devaluations. As a result, funds that focus their investments in companies economically tied to a particular foreign geographic region or country may be more volatile than a more geographically diversified fund.

 

   Recent events in the Russian Federation may have an adverse impact on the Fund. In response to related political and military actions by Russia, the United States and the European Union have instituted numerous sanctions against certain Russian officials and Bank Rossiya. These sanctions, and other intergovernmental actions that may be undertaken against Russia in the future, may cause a decline in the value and liquidity of securities offered by Russian issuers. Future sanctions could, among other actions, directly target transactions in Russian securities, impairing the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, receive, deliver, or obtain exposure to, those securities. Such events could have an adverse impact on the economies and securities issued in other emerging market counties as well. Because the Fund has exposure to investments in Russia and other emerging market countries, these events could have a negative effect on the performance of the Fund, and could interfere with the ability of the Fund to track its Index.

 

 

Market Price Variance Risk — Individual shares of the Fund will be listed for trading on the BATS Exchange and can be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market price of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in the value of the Fund’s holdings, supply and demand for shares, and other market factors. ProShare Advisors cannot predict whether the Fund’s shares will trade above, below or at a price equal to the value of the Fund’s holdings. Differences between secondary market prices and NAV, the value of the Fund’s holdings, may be due largely to supply and demand forces in

   

the secondary market, which may not be the same forces as those influencing prices for securities held by the Fund at a particular time. Given the fact that shares can be created and redeemed in Creation Units, as defined below, ProShare Advisors believes that large discounts or premiums to the value of the Fund’s holdings should not be sustained.

 

 

In addition, there may be times when the market price and the value of the Fund’s holdings vary significantly and you may pay more than the value of the Fund’s holdings when buying the Fund’s shares on the secondary market, and you may receive less than the value of the Fund’s holdings when you sell those shares. While the creation/ redemption feature is designed to make it likely that shares normally will trade close to the value of the Fund’s holdings, disruptions to creations and redemptions may result in trading prices that differ significantly from the value of the Fund’s holdings. The market price of shares, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread often increases significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount to the value of the Fund’s holdings, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your shares. A Fund’s investment results are measured based upon the daily NAV of the Fund. Investors purchasing and selling shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by Authorized Participants creating and redeeming shares directly with the Fund.

 

 

Trading Risks — Although shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the BATS Exchange, and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than such exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Fund’s shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in shares on an exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of an exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares on an exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to exchange “circuit breaker” rules. Short selling of shares is also limited pursuant to SEC rules if the trading price of shares varies by more than 10% from the previous day’s closing price on the exchange. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange.

Additional Securities, Instruments and Strategies

This section describes additional securities, instruments and strategies that may be utilized by the Fund that are not principal investment strategies of thee may make is set forth in the SAI.

 

 

Depositary Receipts include American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs).

 

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ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or trust company. ADRs are an

 


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alternative to purchasing the underlying securities in their national markets and currencies. Investment in ADRs has certain advantages over direct investment in the underlying foreign securities because: (i) ADRs are U.S. dollar denominated investments that are easily transferable and for which market quotations are readily available; and (ii) issuers whose securities are represented by ADRs are generally subject to auditing, accounting and financial reporting standards similar to those applied to domestic issuers.

 

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GDRs are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world. While ADRs permit foreign corporations to offer shares to American citizens, GDRs allow companies in Europe, Asia, the United States and Latin America to offer shares in many markets around the world.

Precautionary Notes

A Precautionary Note to Retail Investors — The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), a limited trust company and securities depositary that serves as a national clearinghouse for the settlement of trades for its participating banks and broker-dealers, or its nominee will be the registered owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund. Your ownership of shares will be shown on the records of DTC and the DTC Participant broker through whom you hold the shares. PROSHARES TRUST WILL NOT HAVE ANY RECORD OF YOUR OWNERSHIP. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, who will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for furnishing certain cost basis information and ensuring that you receive shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund. Typically, you will receive other services only if your broker offers these services.

A Precautionary Note to Purchasers of Creation Units — You should be aware of certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the Fund. Because new shares from the Fund may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of the Fund’s shares could be occurring at any time. As a dealer, certain activities on your part could, depending on the circumstances, result in your being deemed a participant in the distribution, in a manner that could render you a statutory underwriter and subject you to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). For example, you could be deemed a statutory underwriter if you purchase Creation Units from the Fund, break them down into the constituent Fund shares, and sell those shares directly to customers, or if you choose to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter. Dealers who are not “underwriters,” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions), and thus dealing with the Fund’s shares as

part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act.

A Precautionary Note to Investment Companies — For purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund is a registered investment company, and the acquisition of Fund shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) thereof.

The Trust and the Fund have obtained an exemptive order from the SEC allowing a registered investment company to invest in the Fund’s shares beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain conditions, including that a registered investment company enters into a Participation Agreement with the Trust regarding the terms of the investment. Any investment company considering purchasing shares of the Fund in amounts that would cause it to exceed the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) should contact the Trust.

A Precautionary Note Regarding Unusual Circumstances — ProShares Trust can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for any period during which (1) the BATS Exchange is closed other than customary weekend and holiday closings, (2) trading on the BATS Exchange is restricted, (3) any emergency circumstances exist, as determined by the SEC, and (4) the SEC by order permits for the protection of shareholders of the Fund, as further described in the SAI.

A Precautionary Note Regarding Regulatory Initiatives — There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategy.

Information About the Index Licensor

The Fund operates pursuant to licensing agreements for the use of the indexes. Market capitalizations for such indexes that appear in the Summary Prospectuses have been compiled by ProShare Advisors using third party sources. A brief description of the Fund’s current index is included in its Summary Prospectus, as supplemented below:

ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF (the “MSCI Fund”) is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”), any of its affiliates, any of its information providers or any other third party involved in, or related to, compiling, computing or creating any MSCI index (collectively, the “MSCI Parties”). The MSCI index is the exclusive property of MSCI. MSCI and the MSCI index names are service marks of MSCI or its affiliates and have been licensed for use for certain purposes by the Trust. None of the MSCI Parties makes any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the issuer or shareholders of the MSCI Fund or any other person or entity regarding the advisability of investing in the MSCI Fund generally or in the MSCI Fund particularly or the ability of any MSCI index to track corresponding stock market performance. MSCI or its affiliates are the licensors of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names and of the MSCI index which are determined, composed and calculated by MSCI without regard to the MSCI Fund or the issuer or shareholders of the MSCI Fund or

 


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any other person or entity into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the MSCI index. None of the MSCI Parties is responsible for or has participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the MSCI Fund to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by or the consideration into which the MSCI Fund are redeemable. Further, none of the MSCI Parties has any obligation or liability to the issuer or owners of the MSCI Fund or any other person or entity in connection with the administration, marketing or offering of the MSCI Fund.

ALTHOUGH MSCI SHALL OBTAIN INFORMATION FOR INCLUSION IN OR FOR USE IN THE CALCULATION OF THE MSCI INDEX FROM SOURCES THAT MSCI CONSIDERS RELIABLE, NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ORIGINALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY THE ISSUER OF THE MSCI FUND, SHAREHOLDERS OF THE MSCI FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY, FROM THE USE OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA

INCLUDED THEREIN. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR INTERRUPTIONS OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. FURTHER, NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, AND THE MSCI PARTIES HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO EACH MSCI INDEX AND ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FORE-GOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY OF THE MSCI PARTIES HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS) EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Portfolio Holdings Information

A description of the Trust’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI. The holdings of the Fund are posted on a daily basis to the Trust’s website at ProShares.com.

 


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Management of ProShares Trust


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Board of Trustees and Officers

The Board is responsible for the general supervision of the Fund. The officers of the Trust are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Fund.

Investment Adviser

ProShare Advisors, located at 7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and provides investment advice and management services to the Fund. ProShare Advisors oversees the investment and reinvestment of the assets in the Fund. For its investment advisory services, ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF pays ProShare Advisors a fee at an annualized rate based on its average daily net assets of 0.60% of average daily net assets of the Fund. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board approving the investment advisory agreement for the Fund will be included in the Trust’s semi-annual or annual report to shareholders that covers the period during which the approval occurred. To the extent the Fund invests in exchange-traded funds (ETFs) sponsored by ProShare Advisors and/or common units of beneficial interest of one or more separate series of a trust sponsored by an affiliate of ProShare Advisors, ProShare Advisors has agreed to waive its investment advisory fees in an amount equal to the investment advisory fees and management services fees applicable to Fund assets invested in such ETFs and/or trust securities.

Portfolio Management

The following individual has responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund as set forth in the Fund’s Summary Prospectus. The Portfolio Manager’s business experience for the past five years is listed below. The SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Manager and the Portfolio Manager’s ownership of securities in the Fund.

Alexander Ilyasov, ProShare Advisors: Senior Portfolio Manager since October 2013 and Portfolio Manager from November 2009 through September 2013. ProFund Advisors LLC: Senior Portfolio Manager since October 2013 and Portfolio Manager from November 2009 through September 2013.

Determination of NAV

The NAV per share of the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of such Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by its total number of Fund shares outstanding. Expenses and fees are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV of the Fund is calculated by JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association. The NAV of the Fund is generally determined each business day at the close of regular trading of the BATS Exchange (ordinarily 4:00 p.m. Eastern time).

The Fund’s investments are generally valued at their market value using information provided by a pricing service or market quotations. Certain short-term securities are valued on the basis of amortized cost. In addition, routine valuation of certain other derivatives is performed using procedures approved by the Board.

When a market price is not readily available, the Fund’s investments are valued at fair value in good faith under procedures established by, and under the general supervision and responsibility of, the Board. The use of a fair valuation method may be appropriate if, for example: (i) market quotations do not accurately reflect fair value of an investment; (ii) an investment’s value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of the exchange or market on which the investment is principally traded (for example, a foreign exchange or market); (iii) a trading halt closes an exchange or market early; or (iv) other events result in an exchange or market delaying its normal close. This procedure incurs the unavoidable risk that the valuation may be higher or lower than the securities might actually command if the Fund sold them. See the SAI for more details.

To the extent the Fund’s portfolio investments trade in foreign markets on days when the Fund is not open for business or when the primary exchange for the shares is not open, the value of the Fund’s assets may vary, shareholders may not be able to purchase or sell Fund shares and Authorized Participants may not be able to create or redeem Creation Units. Also, certain portfolio investments may not be traded on days the Fund is open for business.

The BATS Exchange is open every week, Monday through Friday, except when the following holidays are celebrated: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (the third Monday in January), Presidents’ Day (the third Monday in February), Good Friday, Memorial Day (the last Monday in May), Independence Day, Labor Day (the first Monday in September), Thanksgiving Day (the fourth Thursday in November) and Christmas Day. An Exchange may close early on the business day before each of these holidays and on the day after Thanksgiving Day. Exchange holiday schedules are subject to change without notice. If the exchange or market on which the Fund’s investments are primarily traded closes early, the NAV may be calculated prior to its normal calculation time. Creation/ redemption transaction order time cutoffs would also be accelerated.

Distributions

As a shareholder, you will earn a share of the investment income and net realized capital gains, if any, derived from the Fund’s direct security holdings and derivative instruments. You will receive such earnings as either an income dividend or a capital gains distribution. The Fund intends to declare and distribute to its shareholders at least annually its net investment income, if any, as well as net realized capital gains, if any. Subject to Board approval, some or all of any net realized capital gains distribution may be declared payable in either additional shares of the Fund or in cash.

If such a distribution is declared payable in that fashion, holders of shares will receive additional shares of the Fund unless they elect to receive cash. Distributions may be declared and paid more frequently to comply with the distribution requirements of the Internal Revenue Code or for other reasons.

Dividend Reinvestment Services

As noted above under “Distributions”, the Fund may declare a distribution from net realized capital gains to be payable in additional

 


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Fund shares or cash. Even if the Fund does not declare a distribution to be payable in Fund shares, brokers may make available to their customers who own shares the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and capital gains will automatically be reinvested in additional whole shares of the Fund. Without this service, investors would have to take their distributions in cash. To determine whether the dividend reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, please consult your broker.

Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares

The Board has not adopted a policy of monitoring for frequent purchases and redemptions of shares that appear to attempt to take advantage of potential arbitrage opportunities. The Board believes this is appropriate because ETFs, such as the Fund, are intended to be attractive to arbitrageurs, as trading activity is critical to ensuring that the market price of Fund shares remains at or close to NAV.

Taxes

The following is certain general information about taxation of the Fund:

 

 

The Fund intends to qualify for treatment as a “regulated investment company” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order to so qualify, the Fund must meet certain tests with respect to the sources and types of its income, the nature and diversification of its assets, and the timing and amount of its distributions.

 

 

If the Fund qualifies for treatment as a regulated investment company, it is not subject to federal income tax on net investment income and net realized capital gains that the Fund timely distributes to its shareholders. If the Fund were to fail to so qualify, and were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure, its taxable income and gains would be subject to tax at the Fund level, and distributions from earnings and profits would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income.

 

 

Investments by the Fund in options, futures, forward contracts, swap agreements and other derivative financial instruments are subject to numerous special and complex tax rules. These rules could affect the amount, timing or character of the distributions to shareholders by the Fund. In addition, because the application of these rules may be uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future Internal Revenue Service guidance with respect to these rules may affect whether the Fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid fund-level tax.

 

 

Investments by the Fund in debt obligations issued or purchased at a discount and certain derivative instruments could cause the Fund to recognize taxable income in excess of the cash generated by such investments, potentially requiring the Fund to dispose of investments (including when otherwise disadvantageous to do so) in order to meet its distribution

   

requirements, and such investments could affect the amount, timing or character of the income distributed to shareholders by the Fund. Investments by the Fund in shares of other investment companies could affect the amount, timing or character of the Fund’s distributions to shareholders relative to the Fund’s distributions had it invested directly in the securities held by the other investment companies.

Taxable investors should be aware of the following basic tax points:

 

 

Distributions are taxable to you for federal income tax purposes whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares.

 

 

Distributions declared in October, November or December of one year payable to shareholders of record in such month and paid by the end of January of the following year—are taxable for federal income tax purposes as if received on December 31 of the calendar year in which the distributions were declared.

 

 

Any distributions from income or short-term capital gains that you receive generally are taxable to you as ordinary dividends for federal income tax purposes. Ordinary dividends you receive that the Fund reports as “qualified dividend income” may be taxed at the same rates as long-term capital gains, but will not be considered long-term capital gain for other federal income tax purposes, including the calculation of net capital losses. Any distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you for federal income tax purposes as long-term capital gains includible in net capital gain and taxable to individuals at reduced rates, no matter how long you have owned your shares.

 

 

Distributions from net realized capital gains may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund’s normal investment activities and cash flows.

 

 

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the “net investment income” of certain individuals, trusts and estates to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. For these purposes, “net investment income” generally includes, among other things, (i) distributions paid by the Fund of ordinary dividends and capital gain dividends, and (ii) any net gain from the sale, redemption or exchange of Fund shares. Shareholders are advised to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this additional tax on their investment in the Fund.

 

 

A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your federal income tax return.

 

 

Dividend and capital gain distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

 

 

If you are not a citizen or permanent resident of the United States, or if you are a foreign entity, any dividends and short-term capital gain distributions that you receive will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate or a statutory exemption applies.

 


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A Fund’s income from or the proceeds of dispositions of its non-U.S. investments may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries, which will reduce the Fund’s return on and taxable distributions in respect of its non-U.S. investments. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate these taxes. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of a taxable year consists of securities of foreign corporations, the Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to you foreign income taxes that it has paid. If this election is made, you will be required to include your share of those taxes in gross income as a distribution from the Fund and you generally will be allowed to claim a credit (or a deduction, if you itemize deductions) for these amounts on your federal U.S. income tax return, subject to certain limitations.

 

 

By law, a percentage of your distributions and proceeds will generally be withheld if you have not provided a taxpayer identification number or social security number, have under-reported dividend or interest income or have failed to certify to the Fund or its agent that you are not subject to this withholding. The backup withholding rate is 28%.

In addition, taxable investors who purchase or redeem Creation Units should be aware of the following:

 

 

A person who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any cash amount paid.

 

 

A person who exchanges Creation Units for securities generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any cash received. However, all or a portion of any loss a person realizes

   

upon an exchange of Creation Units for securities will be disallowed by the Internal Revenue Service if such person purchases other substantially identical shares of the Fund within 30 days before or after the exchange. In such case, the basis of the newly purchased shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

Note: This Prospectus provides general U.S. federal income tax information only. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account , special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about the Fund’s tax consequences for you. See ‘Taxation” in the SAI for more information.

Premium/Discount Information

The Trust’s website has information about the premiums and discounts for the Fund. Premiums or discounts are the differences between the NAV and market price of the Fund on a given day, generally at the time NAV is calculated. A premium is the amount that the Fund is trading above the NAV. A discount is the amount that the Fund is trading below the NAV.

Distribution (12b-1) Plan

Under a Rule 12b-1 Distribution Plan (the “Plan”) adopted by the Board, the Fund may pay its distributor and financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisors, up to 0.25% on an annualized basis of the average daily net assets of the Fund as reimbursement or compensation for distribution related activities with respect to the Fund. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an on-going basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges. For the prior fiscal year, no payments were made by the Fund under the Plan.

 


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Investment Company Act file number 811-21114

ProShares Trust

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000 Bethesda, MD 20814

866.PRO.5125 866.776.5125

ProShares.com

 

 

 

You can find additional information about the Fund in the current Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), dated October 1, 2015, as may be amended from time to time, which has been filed electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and is incorporated by reference into, and is legally a part of, this Prospectus. A copy of the SAI is available, free of charge, online at ProShares.com. You may also receive a free copy of the SAI or make inquiries to ProShares by writing us at the address set forth above or calling us toll-free at the telephone number set forth above.

You can find other information about ProShares on the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov) or you can get copies of this information after payment of a duplicating fee by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov or by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC, Washington, D.C. 20549-0102. Information about ProShares, including their SAI, can be reviewed and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. For information on the Public Reference Room, call the SEC at (202) 551-8090.

 

© 2016 ProShare Advisors LLC. All rights reserved.    January 2016


Table of Contents

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

October 1, 2015, as amended January 21, 2016

ProShares Trust

7501 WISCONSIN AVENUE, SUITE 1000—EAST TOWER

BETHESDA, MD 20814

866.PRO.5125     866.776.5125

 

ALTS    Morningstar Alternatives Solution ETF
TOLZ    DJ Brookfield Global Infrastructure ETF
PEX    Global Listed Private Equity ETF
CSM    Large Cap Core Plus
NOBL    S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF
REGL    S&P MidCap 400 Dividend Aristocrats ETF
SMDV    Russell 2000 Dividend Growers ETF
EFAD    MSCI EAFE Dividend Growers ETF
EUDV    MSCI Europe Dividend Growers ETF
EMDV    MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF
SPXE    S&P 500 Ex-Energy ETF
SPXN    S&P 500 Ex-Financials ETF
SPXV    S&P 500 Ex-Health Care ETF
SPXT    S&P 500 Ex-Technology ETF
HGEU    Hedged FTSE Europe ETF
HGJP    Hedged FTSE Japan ETF
HYHG    High Yield—Interest Rate Hedged
IGHG    Investment Grade—Interest Rate Hedged
COBO    USD Covered Bond
GGOV    German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF
EMSH    Short Term USD Emerging Markets Bond ETF
HDG    Hedge Replication ETF
MRGR    Merger ETF
RALS    RAFI® Long/Short
RINF    30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread
TYTE    CDS North American HY Credit ETF
WYDE    CDS Short North American HY Credit ETF
Geared   
Short MarketCap
SH    Short S&P500®
PSQ    Short QQQ®
DOG    Short Dow30SM
MYY    Short MidCap400
RWM    Short Russell2000
SBB    Short SmallCap600
SDS    UltraShort S&P500®
QID    UltraShort QQQ®
DXD    UltraShort Dow30SM
MZZ    UltraShort MidCap400
TWM    UltraShort Russell2000
SDD    UltraShort SmallCap600
SPXU    UltraPro Short S&P500®
SQQQ    UltraPro Short QQQ®
SDOW    UltraPro Short Dow30SM
SMDD    UltraPro Short MidCap400
SRTY    UltraPro Short Russell2000
Short Sector
SBM    Short Basic Materials
SEF    Short Financials
DDG    Short Oil & Gas
REK    Short Real Estate
KRS    Short S&P Regional Banking
SMN    UltraShort Basic Materials
BIS    UltraShort Nasdaq Biotechnology
SZK    UltraShort Consumer Goods
SCC    UltraShort Consumer Services
SKF    UltraShort Financials
GDXS    UltraShort Gold Miners
GDJS    UltraShort Junior Miners
RXD    UltraShort Health Care
HBZ    UltraShort Homebuilders & Supplies
SIJ    UltraShort Industrials
DUG    UltraShort Oil & Gas
SOP    UltraShort Oil & Gas Exploration & Production
SRS    UltraShort Real Estate
SSG    UltraShort Semiconductors
REW    UltraShort Technology
SDP    UltraShort Utilities
ZBIO    UltraPro Short Nasdaq Biotechnology
FINZ    UltraPro Short Financial Select Sector
Short International
EFZ    Short MSCI EAFE
EUM    Short MSCI Emerging Markets
YXI    Short FTSE China 50
EFU    UltraShort MSCI EAFE
EEV    UltraShort MSCI Emerging Markets
EPV    UltraShort FTSE Europe
JPX    UltraShort MSCI Pacific ex-Japan
BZQ    UltraShort MSCI Brazil Capped
FXP    UltraShort FTSE China 50
EWV    UltraShort MSCI Japan
SMK    UltraShort MSCI Mexico Capped IMI
Short Fixed Income
TBX    Short 7-10 Year Treasury
TBF    Short 20+ Year Treasury
SJB    Short High Yield
IGS    Short Investment Grade Corporate
TBZ    UltraShort 3-7 Year Treasury
PST    UltraShort 7-10 Year Treasury
TBT    UltraShort 20+ Year Treasury
TPS    UltraShort TIPS
TTT    UltraPro Short 20+ Year Treasury
Ultra MarketCap
SSO    Ultra S&P500®
QLD    Ultra QQQ®
DDM    Ultra Dow30SM
MVV    Ultra MidCap400
UWM    Ultra Russell2000
SAA    Ultra SmallCap600
UPRO    UltraPro S&P500®
TQQQ    UltraPro QQQ®
UDOW    UltraPro Dow30SM
UMDD    UltraPro MidCap400
URTY    UltraPro Russell2000
Ultra Sector
UYM    Ultra Basic Materials
BIB    Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology
UGE    Ultra Consumer Goods
UCC    Ultra Consumer Services
UYG    Ultra Financials
GDXX    Ultra Gold Miners
GDJJ    Ultra Junior Miners
RXL    Ultra Health Care
HBU    Ultra Homebuilders & Supplies
UXI    Ultra Industrials
DIG    Ultra Oil & Gas
UOP    Ultra Oil & Gas Exploration & Production
URE    Ultra Real Estate
KRU    Ultra S&P Regional Banking
USD    Ultra Semiconductors
ROM    Ultra Technology
LTL    Ultra Telecommunications
UPW    Ultra Utilities
UBIO    UltraPro Nasdaq Biotechnology
FINU    UltraPro Financial Select Sector
Ultra International
EFO    Ultra MSCI EAFE
EET    Ultra MSCI Emerging Markets
UPV    Ultra FTSE Europe
UXJ    Ultra MSCI Pacific ex-Japan
UBR    Ultra MSCI Brazil Capped
XPP    Ultra FTSE China 50
EZJ    Ultra MSCI Japan
UMX    Ultra MSCI Mexico Capped IMI
Ultra Fixed Income
UST    Ultra 7-10 Year Treasury
UBT    Ultra 20+ Year Treasury
UJB    Ultra High Yield
IGU    Ultra Investment Grade Corporate
 

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of ProShares Trust (the “Trust”), dated October 1, 2015, the Prospectus dated September 8, 2015 for the MSCI Europe Dividend Growers ETF, the Prospectus dated September 17, 2015 for the S&P 500 Ex-Energy ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Financials ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Health Care ETF and the S&P 500 Ex-Technology ETF, the Prospectus dated November 4, 2015 for the UltraPro Short Financial Select Sector and the UltraPro Financial Select Sector, and the Prospectus dated January 21, 2016 for ProShares MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF, each as may be amended or supplemented, which incorporate this SAI by reference. A copy of the Prospectuses and a copy of the Annual Report to shareholders for the Funds that have completed a fiscal year are available, without charge, upon request to the address above, by telephone at the number above, or on the Trust’s website at www.ProShares.com. The Financial Statements and Notes contained in the Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2015 are incorporated by reference into and are deemed part of this SAI. The principal U.S. national stock exchange on which all Funds (except those noted below) identified in this SAI are listed is NYSE Arca. The Morningstar Alternatives Solution ETF, Global Listed Private Equity ETF, the Large Cap Core Plus, the S&P MidCap 400 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, the Russell 2000 Dividend Growers ETF, the High Yield—Interest Rate Hedged, the Investment Grade—Interest Rate Hedged, the Short Term USD Emerging Markets Bond ETF, the Merger ETF, the CDS North American HY Credit ETF and the CDS Short North American HY Credit ETF are listed on the BATS Exchange. The UltraPro Short QQQ®, the UltraShort Nasdaq Biotechnology, the UltraPro Short Nasdaq Biotechnology, the UltraPro QQQ®, the Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology and the UltraPro Nasdaq Biotechnology are listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

      Page  

PROSHARES TRUST

     1   

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RELATED RISKS

     3   

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

     21   

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     29   

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     30   

MANAGEMENT OF PROSHARES TRUST

     35   

INVESTMENT ADVISOR

     41   

PROXY VOTING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

     57   

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS POLICY

     58   

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

     59   

COSTS AND EXPENSES

     66   

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING SHARES

     66   

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

     68   

TAXATION

     77   

OTHER INFORMATION

     94   

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     100   

APPENDIX A

     A-1   

APPENDIX B

     B-1   

 


Table of Contents

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

For ease of use, certain terms or names that are used in this SAI have been shortened or abbreviated. A list of many of these terms and their corresponding full names or definitions can be found below. An investor may find it helpful to review the terms and names before reading the SAI.

 

Term

  

Definition

1933 Act    Securities Act of 1933
1934 Act    Securities Exchange Act of 1934
1940 Act    Investment Company Act of 1940
The Advisor or ProShare Advisors    ProShare Advisors LLC
Board of Trustees or Board    Board of Trustees of ProShares Trust
CFTC    U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Code or Internal Revenue Code    Internal Revenue Code of 1986
Distributor or SEI    SEI Investments Distribution Co.
Exchange    NYSE Arca, The NASDAQ Stock Market or the BATS Exchange
Fund(s)    One or more of the series of the Trust identified on the front cover of this SAI
Independent Trustee(s)    Trustees who are not “Interested Persons” of the Advisor or Trust as defined under Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act
New Funds    The MSCI Europe Dividend Growers ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Energy ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Financials ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Health Care ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Technology ETF, the MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF, the Hedged FTSE Europe ETF, the Hedged FTSE Japan ETF, the UltraShort Homebuilders & Supplies, the UltraShort Oil & Gas Exploration & Production, the UltraPro Short Nasdaq Biotechnology, the Ultra Homebuilders & Supplies, the Ultra Oil & Gas Exploration & Production and the UltraPro Nasdaq Biotechnology
SAI    The Trust’s Statement of Additional Information dated October 1, 2015, as amended January 21, 2016
SEC    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Shares    The shares of the Funds
Trust    ProShares Trust
Trustee(s)    One or more of the trustees of the Trust

PROSHARES TRUST

ProShares Trust (the Trust) is a Delaware statutory trust and is registered with the SEC as an open-end management investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). The Trust was organized on May 29, 2002 and consists of multiple series, including the 130 Funds listed on the front cover of this SAI.

Each Fund, except for the Morningstar Alternatives Solution ETF, the DJ Brookfield Global Infrastructure ETF, the Global Listed Private Equity ETF, the Hedged FTSE Europe ETF, the Hedged FTSE Japan ETF the Large Cap Core Plus, the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, the S&P MidCap 400 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, the Russell 2000 Dividend Growers ETF, the MSCI EAFE Dividend Growers ETF, the MSCI Europe Dividend Growers ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Energy ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Financials ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Health Care ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Technology ETF, the MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF, the High Yield–Interest Rate Hedged, the Investment Grade—Interest Rate Hedged, the USD Covered Bond, the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF, the Short Term USD Emerging Markets Bond ETF, the Hedge Replication ETF, the Merger ETF, the RAFI® Long/Short, and the 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread (each, a “Matching ProShares Fund” and collectively, the “Matching ProShares Funds”) and the CDS North American HY Credit ETF and the CDS Short North American HY Credit ETF (each, a “CDS Fund” and together, the “CDS Funds”), is “Geared” in the sense that each is designed to seek daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to the performance of a daily benchmark such as the inverse (-1x), multiple (i.e., 2x or 3x), or inverse multiple (i.e., -2x or -3x) of the daily performance of an index for a single day, not for any other period (for purposes of this SAI, the term “index” includes the Merrill Lynch Factor Model – Exchange Series benchmark). The Short ProShares Funds (i.e., the Geared ProShares Funds that have the prefix “Short”, “UltraShort” or “UltraPro Short” in their names) are designed to correspond to the inverse of the daily performance or an inverse multiple of the daily performance of an index. The Ultra ProShares Funds (i.e., the Geared ProShares Funds that have the prefix “Ultra” or UltraPro” in their names) are designed to correspond to a multiple of the daily performance of an index. The

 

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Funds, except the Matching ProShares Funds and the CDS Funds, do not seek to achieve their stated investment objective over a period of time greater than a single day. A “single day” is measured from the time the Fund calculates its net asset value (“NAV”) to the time of the Fund’s next NAV calculation. Each Matching ProShares Fund and CDS Fund seeks to achieve its stated investment objective both on a single day and over time. Each CDS Fund is actively managed and seeks to provide long or short exposure to the credit of debt issuers.

Each Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental, meaning it may be changed by the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of the Trust, without the approval of Fund shareholders. Each Fund (excluding the CDS Funds, which are actively managed) reserves the right to substitute a different index or security for its index, without the approval of that Fund’s shareholders. Other funds may be added in the future. Each Fund, except for the DJ Brookfield Global Infrastructure ETF, the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, the S&P MidCap 400 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, the Russell 2000 Dividend Growers ETF, the MSCI EAFE Dividend Growers ETF, the MSCI Europe Dividend Growers ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Energy ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Financials ETF, the S&P 500 Ex-Health Care ETF, the MSCI Emerging Markets Dividend Growers ETF, the ProShares S&P 500 Dynamic Treasury Hedge ETF, the High Yield–Interest Rate Hedged, the Investment Grade—Interest Rate Hedged and the Short Term USD Emerging Markets Bond ETF, is a non-diversified management investment company.

The Morningstar Alternatives Solution ETF is a fund of exchange-traded funds and seeks its investment objective by investing primarily in the securities of other exchange-traded funds that seek investment results corresponding to their own underlying indexes or strategies. (One of the other exchange-traded funds is a publicly traded commodity pool that is sponsored by ProShare Capital Management LLC, an affiliate of ProShare Advisors. The commodity pool is not a mutual fund or any other type of investment company as defined in the 1940 Act, and is not subject to regulation thereunder.)

The Funds are exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and the shares of each Fund (“Shares”) are listed on NYSE Arca, The NASDAQ Stock Market or the BATS Exchange (each, an “Exchange”). The Shares trade on the relevant Exchange at market prices that may differ to some degree from the Shares’ NAVs. Each Fund issues and redeems Shares on a continuous basis at NAV in large, specified numbers of Shares called “Creation Units.” Creation Units of the Funds are issued and redeemed in-kind for securities and an amount of cash or entirely in cash, in each case at the discretion of ProShare Advisors LLC (the “Advisor” or “ProShare Advisors”). Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares cannot be purchased from and are not redeemable securities of the Funds. Retail investors, therefore, generally will not be able to purchase or redeem the Shares directly. Rather, most retail investors will purchase and sell Shares in the secondary market with the assistance of a broker. Reference is made to the Prospectus for a discussion of the investment objectives and policies of each of the Funds. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus. Portfolio management is provided to the Funds by ProShare Advisors, a Maryland limited liability company with offices at 7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

The investment restrictions of the Funds specifically identified as fundamental policies may not be changed without the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the outstanding voting securities of that Fund, as defined in the 1940 Act. The investment objectives and all other investment policies of the Funds not specified as fundamental (including the index of a Fund) may be changed by the Board without the approval of shareholders.

It is the policy of the Funds that seek investment results that correspond to the investment results of an index (“Index Funds”) to pursue their investment objectives of correlating with their indices regardless of market conditions, to attempt to remain nearly fully invested and not to take defensive positions.

The investment techniques and strategies discussed below may be used by a Fund if, in the opinion of the Advisor, the techniques or strategies may be advantageous to the Fund. A Fund may reduce or eliminate its use of any of these techniques or strategies without changing the Fund’s fundamental policies. There is no assurance that any of the techniques or strategies listed below, or any of the other methods of investment available to a Fund, will result in the achievement of the Fund’s objectives. Also, there can be no assurance that any Fund will grow to, or maintain, an economically viable size, and management may determine to liquidate a Fund at a time that may not be opportune for shareholders.

As a general matter, the Short ProShares Funds and the CDS Short North American HY Credit ETF (the “Short CDS Fund”) respond differently in response to market conditions than the Matching ProShares, the Ultra ProShares Funds or the CDS North American HY Credit ETF (the “Long CDS Fund”). The terms “favorable market conditions” and “adverse market conditions,” as used in this SAI, are Fund-specific. Market conditions should be considered favorable to a Fund when such conditions make it more likely that the value of an investment in that Fund will increase. Market conditions should be considered adverse to a Fund when such conditions make it more likely that the value of an investment in that Fund will decrease. For example, market conditions that cause the level of the S&P 500® to rise are considered “favorable” to the Ultra S&P500® and are considered “adverse” to the Short S&P500®.

 

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Fund Name Changes

Over the past five years, certain Funds have undergone name changes as follows:

 

Prior Fund Name

  

Current Fund Name

  

Effective Date of Name
Change

ProShares Short KBW Regional Banking    ProShares Short S&P Regional Banking    April 16, 2015
ProShares Ultra KBW Regional Banking    ProShares Ultra S&P Regional Banking    April 16, 2015
ProShares S&P 500 Aristocrats ETF    ProShares S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF    October 1, 2014
ProShares Short FTSE China 25    ProShares Short FTSE China 50    September 22, 2014
ProShares UltraShort FTSE China 25    ProShares UltraShort FTSE China 50    September 22, 2014
ProShares Ultra FTSE China 25    ProShares Ultra FTSE China 50    September 22, 2014
ProShares UltraShort MSCI Europe    ProShares UltraShort FTSE Europe    April 23, 2013
ProShares Ultra MSCI Europe    ProShares Ultra FTSE Europe    April 23, 2013
ProShares UltraShort MSCI Brazil    ProShares UltraShort MSCI Brazil Capped    February 11, 2013
ProShares UltraShort MSCI Mexico Investable Market    ProShares UltraShort MSCI Mexico Capped IMI    February 11, 2013
ProShares Ultra MSCI Brazil    ProShares Ultra MSCI Brazil Capped    February 11, 2013
ProShares Ultra MSCI Mexico Investable Market    ProShares Ultra MSCI Mexico Capped IMI    February 11, 2013
ProShares Credit Suisse 130/30    ProShares Large Cap Core Plus    February 7, 2013

Exchange Listing and Trading

There can be no assurance that the requirements of an Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares of any Fund will continue to be met. An Exchange may remove a Fund from listing under certain circumstances.

As in the case of all equities traded on an Exchange, the brokers’ commission on transactions in the Funds will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels for retail customers.

In order to provide current Share pricing information, an Exchange disseminates an updated Indicative Optimized Portfolio Value (“IOPV”) for each Fund. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IOPVs and makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPVs. IOPVs are expected to be disseminated on a per Fund basis every 15 seconds during regular trading hours of an Exchange.

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RELATED RISKS

General

An Index Fund may consider changing its index at any time, including if, for example: the current index becomes unavailable; the Board believes that the current index no longer serves the investment needs of a majority of shareholders or that another index may better serve their needs; or the financial or economic environment makes it difficult for the Index Fund’s investment results to correspond sufficiently to its current index. If believed appropriate, an Index Fund may specify an index for itself that is “leveraged” or proprietary. There can be no assurance that a Fund will achieve its objective.

Fundamental securities analysis is not used by ProShare Advisors in seeking to correlate an Index Fund’s investment returns with its index. Rather, ProShare Advisors primarily uses a passive or mathematical approach to determine the investments an Index Fund makes and techniques it employs. While ProShare Advisors attempts to minimize any “tracking error,” certain factors tend to cause an Index Fund’s investment results to vary from a perfect correlation to its index, as applicable. See “Special Considerations” below for additional details.

For purposes of this SAI, the word “invest” refers to a Fund directly and indirectly investing in securities or other instruments. Similarly, when used in this SAI, the word “investment” refers to a Fund’s direct and indirect investments in securities and other instruments. For example, the Funds typically invest indirectly in securities or instruments by using financial instruments with economic exposure similar to those securities or instruments.

Additional information concerning the Funds, their investment policies and techniques, and the securities and financial instruments in which they may invest is set forth below.

Name Policies

The Funds subject to the SEC “names rule” (Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act) have adopted non-fundamental investment policies obligating them to commit, under normal market conditions, at least 80% of their assets exposed to the types of securities suggested by their name and/or investments with similar economic characteristics. Such direct or inverse exposure may be obtained through direct investments/short positions in the securities and/or through investments with similar economic characteristics. For purposes of each such investment policy, “assets” includes a Fund’s net assets,

 

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as well as amounts borrowed for investment purposes, if any. In addition, for purposes of such an investment policy, “assets” includes not only the amount of a Fund’s net assets attributable to investments providing direct investment exposure to the type of investments suggested by its name (e.g., the value of stocks, or the value of derivative instruments such as futures, options or options on futures), but also cash and cash equivalents that are segregated on the Fund’s books and records or being used as collateral, as required by applicable regulatory guidance, or otherwise available to cover such investment exposure. The Board has adopted a policy to provide investors with at least 60 days’ notice prior to changes in a Fund’s name policy.

While the DJ Brookfield Global Infrastructure ETF and the Global Listed Private Equity ETF anticipate that, under normal market conditions, each Fund will invest primarily (i.e., at least 40% of its “assets” as defined above) in securities issued by issuers organized or located outside the United States (“foreign issuers”), to the extent that foreign issuers ever comprise less than 40% of such Fund’s assets for an extended period of time (i.e., six months), the Fund will take steps to: (i) either change its name; or (ii) change its benchmark.

Equity Securities (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond, the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF, the 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread or the Short Fixed Income ProShares Funds)

The Funds may invest in equity securities. The market price of securities owned by a Fund may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. Securities may decline in value due to factors affecting securities markets generally or particular industries represented in the securities markets. The value of a security may decline due to general market conditions not specifically related to a particular company, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates, or adverse investor sentiment generally. A security’s value may also decline due to factors that affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. The value of a security may also decline for a number of reasons that directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services. Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than fixed income securities, and the Funds are particularly sensitive to these market risks.

Foreign Securities (not applicable to the 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread)

The Funds may invest in foreign issuers, securities traded principally in securities markets outside the United States, U.S.-traded securities of foreign issuers and/or securities denominated in foreign currencies (together “foreign securities”). Also, each Fund may seek exposure to foreign securities by investing in Depositary Receipts (discussed below). Foreign securities may involve special risks due to foreign economic, political and legal developments, including unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates, exchange control regulation (including currency blockage), expropriation or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, taxation of income earned in foreign nations, withholding of portions of interest and dividends in certain countries and the possible difficulty of obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities. Default in foreign government securities, political or social instability or diplomatic developments could affect investments in securities of issuers in foreign nations. In addition, in many countries there is less publicly available information about issuers than is available in reports about issuers in the United States. Foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, and auditing practices and requirements may differ from those applicable to U.S. companies. Further, the growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the possibilities that conditions in any one country or region could have an adverse impact on issuers of securities in a different country or region.

In addition, the securities of some foreign governments, companies and markets are less liquid, and may be more volatile, than comparable securities of domestic governments, companies and markets. Some foreign investments may be subject to brokerage commissions and fees that are higher than those applicable to U.S. investments. A Fund also may be affected by different settlement practices or delayed settlements in some foreign markets. Moreover, some foreign jurisdictions regulate and limit U.S. investments in the securities of certain issuers.

A Fund’s foreign investments that are related to developing (or “emerging market”) countries may be particularly volatile due to the aforementioned factors.

A Fund may value its financial instruments based upon foreign securities by using market prices of domestically-traded financial instruments with comparable foreign securities market exposure.

Exposure to Securities or Issuers in Specific Foreign Countries or Regions

Some Funds focus their investments in particular foreign geographical regions or countries. In addition to the risks of investing in foreign securities discussed above, the investments of such Funds may be exposed to special risks that are specific to the country or region in which the investments are focused. Furthermore, Funds with such a focus may be

 

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subject to additional risks associated with events in nearby countries or regions or those of a country’s principal trading partners. Additionally, some Funds have an investment focus in a foreign country or region that is an emerging market and, therefore, are subject to heightened risks relative to Funds that focus their investments in more developed countries or regions.

Exposure to Foreign Currencies

Each Fund may invest directly in foreign currencies or hold financial instruments that provide exposure to foreign currencies, including “hard currencies,” or may invest in securities that trade in, or receive revenues in, foreign currencies. “Hard currencies” are currencies in which investors have confidence and are typically currencies of economically and politically stable industrialized nations. To the extent that a Fund invests in such currencies, that Fund will be subject to the risk that those currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Fund assets that are denominated in foreign currencies may be devalued against the U.S. dollar, resulting in a loss. Additionally, recent issues associated with the euro may have adverse effects on non-U.S. investments generally and on currency markets. A U.S. dollar investment in Depositary Receipts or ordinary shares of foreign issuers traded on U.S. exchanges may be affected differently by currency fluctuations than would an investment made in a foreign currency on a foreign exchange in shares of the same issuer. Foreign currencies are also subject to risks caused by inflation, interest rates, budget deficits and low savings rates, political factors and government control.

Depositary Receipts

The Funds may invest in depositary receipts. Depositary receipts are receipts, typically issued by a financial institution, which evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a non-U.S. issuer. Types of depositary receipts include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and New York Shares (“NYSs”).

ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are an alternative to purchasing the underlying securities in their national markets and currencies. For many foreign securities, U.S. dollar-denominated ADRs, which are traded in the United States on exchanges or over-the-counter (“OTC”), are issued by domestic banks. In general, there is a large, liquid market in the United States for many ADRs. Investments in ADRs have certain advantages over direct investment in the underlying foreign securities because: (i) ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated investments that are easily transferable and for which market quotations are readily available, and (ii) issuers whose securities are represented by ADRs are generally subject to auditing, accounting and financial reporting standards similar to those applied to domestic issuers. ADRs do not eliminate all risk inherent in investing in the securities of foreign issuers. By investing in ADRs rather than directly in the stock of foreign issuers outside the U.S., however, the Funds may avoid certain risks related to investing in foreign securities on non-U.S. markets.

GDRs are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world. While ADRs permit foreign corporations to offer shares to American citizens, GDRs allow companies in Europe, Asia, the United States and Latin America to offer shares in many markets around the world.

NYSs (or “direct shares”) are foreign stocks denominated in U.S. dollars and traded on American exchanges without being converted into ADRs. These stocks come from countries that do not restrict the trading of their stocks on other nations’ exchanges. Each Fund may also invest in ordinary shares of foreign issuers traded directly on U.S. exchanges

The Funds may invest in both sponsored and unsponsored depositary receipts. Certain depositary receipts, typically those designated as “unsponsored,” require the holders thereof to bear most of the costs of such facilities, while issuers of “sponsored” facilities normally pay more of the costs thereof. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the issuer of the deposited securities or to pass through the voting rights to facility holders with respect to the deposited securities, whereas the depository of a sponsored facility typically distributes shareholder communications and passes through the voting rights.

Unsponsored ADR programs are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. As a result, available information concerning the issuers may not be as current for unsponsored ADRs, and the price of unsponsored depositary receipts may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer and/or there may be no correlation between available information and the market value.

 

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Futures Contracts and Related Options (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

Each Fund may purchase or sell futures contracts and options thereon as a substitute for a comparable market position in the underlying securities or to satisfy regulatory requirements. A physical-settlement futures contract generally obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take delivery of) a specified asset on the expiration date of the contract. A cash-settled futures contract obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to accept) an amount of cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the final settlement price of a specific futures contract and the price at which the agreement is made. No physical delivery of the underlying asset is made.

Each Fund generally engages in closing or offsetting transactions before final settlement of a futures contract wherein a second identical futures contract is sold to offset a long position (or bought to offset a short position). In such cases, the obligation is to deliver (or take delivery of) cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the price of the offsetting transaction and the price at which the original contract was entered into. If the original position entered into is a long position (futures contract purchased), there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting sell transaction is carried out at a higher (lower) price, inclusive of commissions. If the original position entered into is a short position (futures contract sold) there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting buy transaction is carried out at a lower (higher) price, inclusive of commissions.

When a Fund purchases a put or call option on a futures contract, the Fund pays a premium for the right to sell or purchase the underlying futures contract for a specified price upon exercise at any time during the option period. By writing (selling) a put or call option on a futures contract, a Fund receives a premium in return for granting to the purchaser of the option the right to sell to or buy from the Fund the underlying futures contract for a specified price upon exercise at any time during the option period.

Whether a Fund realizes a gain or loss from futures activities depends generally upon movements in the underlying currency, commodity, security or index. The extent of a Fund’s loss from an unhedged short position in futures contracts or from writing options on futures contracts is potentially unlimited, and investors may lose the amount that they invest plus any profits recognized on their investment. The Funds may engage in related closing transactions with respect to options on futures contracts. The Funds will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options that are traded on a U.S. exchange or board of trade or that have been approved for sale in the U.S. by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”).

Upon entering into a futures contract, each Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents in the range of approximately 5% to 10% of the contract amount for equity index futures and in the range of approximately 1% to 3% of the contract amount for treasury futures (these amounts are subject to change by the exchange on which the contract is traded). This amount, known as “initial margin,” is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract and is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin,” to and from the broker will be made daily as the price of the index underlying the futures contract fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking-to-market.” At any time prior to expiration of a futures contract, a Fund may elect to close its position by taking an opposite position, which will operate to terminate the Fund’s existing position in the contract.

When a Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, or buys or sells an option thereon, the Fund “covers” its position. To cover its position, a Fund may enter into an offsetting position, earmark or segregate with its custodian bank or on the official books and records of the Fund cash or liquid instruments (marked-to-market on a daily basis) that, when added to any amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract or otherwise “cover” its position. When required by law, a Fund will segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of such futures contracts. Obligations under futures contracts so covered will not be considered senior securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities.

For example, a Fund may cover its long position in a futures contract by purchasing a put option on the same futures contract with a strike price (i.e., an exercise price) as high or higher than the price of the futures contract, or, if the strike price of the put is less than the price of the futures contract, the Fund will earmark/segregate cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the put and the price of the future. A Fund may also “cover” its long position in a futures contract by taking a short position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments whose prices are expected to move relatively consistently, with a short position in the futures contract. A Fund may “cover” its short position in a futures contract by purchasing a call option on the same futures contract with a strike price (i.e., an exercise price) as low or lower than the price of the futures contract, or, if the strike price of the call is greater than the price of the futures contract, the Fund will earmark /segregate cash or liquid instruments

 

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equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the future. A Fund may also “cover” its short position in a futures contract by taking a long position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments whose prices are expected to move relatively consistently with a long position in the futures contract.

A Fund may cover its sale of a call option on a futures contract by taking a long position in the underlying futures contract at a price less than or equal to the strike price of the call option, or, if the long position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price greater than the strike price of the written (sold) call, the Fund will earmark/segregate liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the future. A Fund may also cover its sale of a call option by taking positions in instruments whose prices are expected to move relatively consistently with the call option. A Fund may cover its sale of a put option on a futures contract by taking a short position in the underlying futures contract at a price greater than or equal to the strike price of the put option, or, if the short position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price less than the strike price of the written put, the Fund will segregate cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the put and the price of the future. A Fund may also cover its sale of a put option by taking positions in instruments whose prices are expected to move relatively consistently to the put option.

The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts are imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the futures and the market value of the underlying assets, and the possibility of an illiquid market for a futures contract. Although each Fund intends to sell futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, no assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular contract at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading may be suspended for specified periods during the day. Futures contract prices could move to the limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and potentially subjecting a Fund to substantial losses. If trading is not possible, or if a Fund determines not to close a futures position in anticipation of adverse price movements, the Fund will be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin. The risk that the Fund will be unable to close out a futures position will be minimized by entering into such transactions on a national exchange with an active and liquid secondary market. In addition, although the counterparty to a futures contract is often a clearing organization, backed by a group of financial institutions, there may be instances in which the counterparty could fail to perform its obligations, causing significant losses to a Fund.

In connection with its management of certain series of the Trust (the UltraShort S&P500®, the UltraShort QQQ®, the UltraShort Dow 30SM, the UltraShort MidCap400, the UltraShort SmallCap600, the UltraPro Short S&P500®, the UltraPro Short QQQ®, the UltraShort Basic Materials, the UltraShort Financials, the UltraShort Utilities, the UltraPro Short Nasdaq Biotechnology, the UltraPro S&P 500®, the UltraPro QQQ®, the UltraPro Dow 30SM, the UltraPro Russell 2000, the UltraPro Nasdaq Biotechnology and the UltraPro Financial Select Sector (the “Commodity Pools”)) the Advisor has registered as a commodity pool operator (a “CPO”) and the Commodity Pools are commodity pools under the Commodity Exchange Act (the “CEA”). Accordingly, the Advisor is subject to registration and regulation as a CPO under the CEA, and must comply with various regulatory requirements under the CEA and the rules and regulations of the CFTC and the National Futures Association (“NFA”), including investor protection requirements, antifraud provisions, disclosure requirements and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Advisor is also subject to periodic inspections and audits by the CFTC and NFA. Compliance with these regulatory requirements could adversely affect the Commodity Pools’ total return. In this regard, any further amendment to the CEA or its related regulations that subject the Advisor or the Commodity Pools to additional regulation may have adverse impacts on the Commodity Pools’ operations and expenses.

Forward Contracts (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

The Funds may enter into forward contracts to attempt to gain exposure to an index or asset without actually purchasing such asset, or to hedge a position. Forward contracts are two-party contracts pursuant to which one party agrees to pay the counterparty a fixed price for an agreed-upon amount of an underlying asset or the cash value of the underlying asset at an agreed-upon date. When required by law, a Fund will segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of such forward contracts. Obligations under forward contracts so covered will not be considered senior securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities. Forward contracts that cannot be terminated in the ordinary course of business within seven days at approximately the amount a Fund has valued the asset may be considered to be illiquid for purposes of the Fund’s illiquid investment limitations. A Fund will not enter into a forward contract unless the Advisor believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. The counterparty to any forward contract will typically be a major, global financial institution. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a forward contract in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a counterparty. If such a default occurs, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the forward contract, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor.

 

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Forward Currency Contracts (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

The Funds may invest in forward currency contracts for investment or risk management purposes. A forward currency contract is an obligation to buy or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are entered into on the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Forward currency contracts may be structured for cash settlement, rather than physical delivery.

The Funds may invest in a combination of forward currency contracts and U.S. dollar-denominated market instruments in an attempt to obtain an investment result that is substantially the same as a direct investment in a foreign currency-denominated instrument. This investment technique creates a “synthetic” position in the particular foreign currency instrument whose performance the manager is trying to duplicate. For example, investing in a combination of U.S. dollar-denominated instruments with “long” forward currency exchange contracts creates a position economically equivalent to investing in a money market instrument denominated in the foreign currency itself. Such combined positions are sometimes necessary when the money market in a particular foreign currency is small or relatively illiquid.

For hedging purposes, the Funds may invest in forward currency contracts to hedge either specific transactions (transaction hedging) or portfolio positions (position hedging). Transaction hedging is the purchase or sale of forward currency contracts with respect to specific receivables or payables of the Funds in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities. Position hedging is the sale of a forward currency contract on a particular currency with respect to portfolio positions denominated or quoted in that currency.

The Funds are not required to enter into forward currency contracts for hedging purposes. It is possible, under certain circumstances, that the Fund may have to limit its currency transactions to qualify as a “regulated investment company” (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code. The Funds do not intend to enter into a forward currency contract with a term of more than one year, or to engage in position hedging with respect to the currency of a particular country to more than the aggregate market value (at the time the hedging transaction is entered into) of their portfolio securities denominated in (or quoted in or currently convertible into or directly related through the use of forward currency contracts in conjunction with money market instruments to) that particular currency.

At or before the maturity of a forward currency contract, the Funds may either sell a portfolio security and make delivery of the currency, or retain the security and terminate its contractual obligation to deliver the currency by buying an “offsetting” contract obligating them to buy, on the same maturity date, the same amount of the currency. If the Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, it may later enter into a new forward currency contract to sell the currency.

If the Funds engage in offsetting transactions, the Funds will incur a gain or loss, to the extent that there has been movement in forward currency contract prices. If forward prices go down during the period between the date a Fund enters into a forward currency contract for the sale of a currency and the date it enters into an offsetting contract for the purchase of the currency, the Fund will realize a gain to the extent that the price of the currency it has agreed to sell exceeds the price of the currency it has agreed to buy. If forward prices go up, the Fund will suffer a loss to the extent the price of the currency it has agreed to buy exceeds the price of the currency it has agreed to sell.

Because a Fund invests in cash instruments denominated in foreign currencies, it may hold foreign currencies pending investment or conversion into U.S. dollars. Although the Fund values its assets daily in U.S. dollars, it does not convert its holdings of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. The Fund will convert its holdings from time to time, however, and incur the costs of currency conversion. Foreign exchange dealers may realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they buy and sell various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, and offer to buy the currency at a lower rate if the Fund tries to resell the currency to the dealer.

Although forward currency contracts may be used by the Funds to try to manage currency exchange risks, unanticipated changes in currency exchange rates could result in poorer performance than if a Fund had not entered into these transactions. Even if the Advisor correctly predicts currency exchange rate movements, a hedge could be unsuccessful if changes in the value of a Fund’s position do not correspond to changes in the value of the currency in which its investments are denominated. This lack of correlation between a Fund’s forwards and currency positions may be caused by differences between the futures and currency markets.

 

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These transactions also involve the risk that a Fund may lose its margin deposits or collateral and may be unable to realize the positive value, if any, of its position if a bank or broker with whom the Fund has an open forward position defaults or becomes bankrupt.

Options (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

Each Fund may buy and write (sell) options for the purpose of realizing its investment objective. By buying a call option, a Fund has the right, in return for a premium paid during the term of the option, to buy the asset underlying the option at the exercise price. By writing a call option a Fund becomes obligated during the term of the option to sell the asset underlying the option at the exercise price if the option is exercised. By buying a put option, a Fund has the right, in return for a premium paid during the term of the option, to sell the asset underlying the option at the exercise price. By writing a put option, a Fund becomes obligated during the term of the option to purchase the asset underlying the option at the exercise price if the option is exercised. During the term of the option, the writer may be assigned an exercise notice by the broker-dealer through whom the option was sold. The exercise notice would require the writer to deliver, in the case of a call, or take delivery of, in the case of a put, the underlying asset against payment of the exercise price. This obligation terminates upon expiration of the option, or at such earlier time that the writer effects a closing purchase transaction by purchasing an option covering the same underlying asset and having the same exercise price and expiration date as the one previously sold. Once an option has been exercised, the writer may not execute a closing purchase transaction. To secure the obligation to deliver the underlying asset in the case of a call option, the writer of a call option is required to deposit in escrow the underlying asset or other assets in accordance with the rules of the Options Clearing Corporation (the “OCC”), an institution created to interpose itself between buyers and sellers of options. The OCC assumes the other side of every purchase and sale transaction on an exchange and, by doing so, gives its guarantee to the transaction. When writing call options on an asset, a Fund may cover its position by owning the underlying asset on which the option is written. Alternatively, the Fund may cover its position by owning a call option on the underlying asset, on a share-for-share basis, which is deliverable under the option contract at a price no higher than the exercise price of the call option written by the Fund or, if higher, by owning such call option and depositing and segregating cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the two exercise prices. In addition, a Fund may cover its position by segregating cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the exercise price of the call option written by the Fund. When a Fund writes a put option, the Fund will segregate with its custodian bank cash or liquid instruments having a value equal to the exercise value of the option. The principal reason for a Fund to write call options on assets held by the Fund is to attempt to realize, through the receipt of premiums, a greater return than would be realized on the underlying assets alone.

If a Fund that writes an option wishes to terminate the Fund’s obligation, the Fund may effect a “closing purchase transaction.” The Fund accomplishes this by buying an option of the same series as the option previously written by the Fund. The effect of the purchase is that the writer’s position will be canceled by the OCC. However, a writer may not effect a closing purchase transaction after the writer has been notified of the exercise of an option. Likewise, a Fund which is the holder of an option may liquidate its position by effecting a “closing sale transaction.” The Fund accomplishes this by selling an option of the same series as the option previously purchased by the Fund. There is no guarantee that either a closing purchase or a closing sale transaction can be effected. If any call or put option is not exercised or sold, the option will become worthless on its expiration date. A Fund will realize a gain (or a loss) on a closing purchase transaction with respect to a call or a put option previously written by the Fund if the premium, plus commission costs, paid by the Fund to purchase the call or put option to close the transaction is less (or greater) than the premium, less commission costs, received by the Fund on the sale of the call or the put option. The Fund also will realize a gain if a call or put option which the Fund has written lapses unexercised, because the Fund would retain the premium.

Although certain securities exchanges attempt to provide continuously liquid markets in which holders and writers of options can close out their positions at any time prior to the expiration of the option, no assurance can be given that a market will exist at all times for all outstanding options purchased or sold by a Fund. If an options market were to become unavailable, the Fund would be unable to realize its profits or limit its losses until the Fund could exercise options it holds, and the Fund would remain obligated until options it wrote were exercised or expired. Reasons for the absence of liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the OCC may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options) and those options would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the OCC as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

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Index Options (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

The Funds may purchase and write options on indexes to create investment exposure consistent with their investment objectives, to hedge or limit the exposure of their positions, or to create synthetic money market positions.

An index fluctuates with changes in the market values of the assets included in the index. Options on indexes give the holder the right to receive an amount of cash upon exercise of the option. Receipt of this cash amount will depend upon the closing level of the index upon which the option is based being greater than (in the case of a call) or less than (in the case of a put) the level at which the exercise price of the option is set. The amount of cash received, if any, will be the difference between the closing price level of the index and the exercise price of the option, multiplied by a specified dollar multiple. The writer (seller) of the option is obligated, in return for the premiums received from the purchaser of the option, to make delivery of this amount to the purchaser. All settlements of index options transactions are in cash.

Index options are subject to substantial risks, including the risk of imperfect correlation between the option price and the value of the underlying assets composing the index selected, the possibility of an illiquid market for the option or the inability of counterparties to perform. Because the value of an index option depends upon movements in the level of the index rather than the price of a particular asset, whether a Fund will realize a gain or loss from the purchase or writing (sale) of options on an index depends upon movements in the level of prices for specific underlying assets generally or, in the case of certain indexes, in an industry or market segment. A Fund will not enter into an option position that exposes the Fund to an obligation to another party, unless the Fund either (i) owns an offsetting position in the underlying securities or other options and/or (ii) earmarks or segregates with the Fund’s custodian bank cash or liquid instruments that, when added to the premiums deposited with respect to the option, are equal to the market value of the underlying assets not otherwise covered.

Each Fund may engage in transactions in index options listed on national securities exchanges or traded in the OTC market as an investment vehicle for the purpose of realizing the Fund’s investment objective. The exercising holder of an index option receives, instead of the asset, cash equal to the difference between the closing level of the index and the exercise price of the option. Some index options are based on a broad market index such as the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500® Index, the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) Composite Index or on a narrower index such as the Philadelphia Stock Exchange Over-the-Counter Index. Options currently are traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the NYSE Amex Options and other exchanges (collectively, “Exchanges”). Purchased OTC options and the cover for written OTC options will be subject to the relevant Fund’s 15% limitation on investment in illiquid securities. See “Illiquid Securities” below. When required by law, a Fund will segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of such options. Obligations under options so covered will not be considered senior securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities.

Each of the Exchanges has established limitations governing the maximum number of call or put options on the same index which may be bought or written (sold) by a single investor, whether acting alone or in concert with others (regardless of whether such options are written on the same or different Exchanges or are held or written on one or more accounts or through one or more brokers). Under these limitations, option positions of all investment companies advised by the same investment adviser are combined for purposes of these limits. Pursuant to these limitations, an Exchange may order the liquidation of positions and may impose other sanctions or restrictions. These position limits may restrict the number of listed options which a Fund may buy or sell; however, the Advisor intends to comply with all limitations.

Swap Agreements (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

The Funds may enter into swap agreements to gain exposure to an underlying asset without actually purchasing such asset, or to hedge a position including in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on a particular pre-determined investment or instrument. The gross return to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties is calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” e.g., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities or an ETF representing a particular index or group of securities.

Each Fund may enter into swap agreements to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities. On a typical long swap, the counterparty will generally agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular underlying assets (e.g., an ETF, or securities comprising a benchmark index), plus the dividends or interest that would have been received on those assets. The Fund will agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such assets plus, in certain instances, commissions or trading spreads on the notional amount. Therefore, the return to the Fund on such swap agreements should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends or interest

 

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on the assets less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. As a trading technique, the Advisor may substitute physical securities with a swap agreement having investment characteristics substantially similar to the underlying securities. Some Funds may also enter into swap agreements that provide the opposite return of their benchmark or a security. Their operations are similar to that of the swaps disclosed above except that the counterparty pays interest to each Fund on the notional amount outstanding and that dividends or interest on the underlying instruments reduce the value of the swap, plus, in certain instances, each Fund will agree to pay to the counterparty commissions or trading spreads on the notional amount. These amounts are often netted with any unrealized gain or loss to determine the value of the swap.

The Funds may enter into any of several types of swap agreements, including:

Total Return Swaps. Total return swaps are used either as substitutes for owning the physical securities that comprise a given market index or as a means of obtaining non-leveraged exposure in markets where securities are not available. Total return refers to the payment (or receipt) of an index’s total return, which is then exchanged for the receipt (or payment) of a floating interest rate. Total return swaps provide the Fund with the additional flexibility of gaining exposure to a market or sector index by using the most cost-effective vehicle available.

Equity/Index Swaps. In an equity swap, payments on one or both sides are linked to the performance of equities or an equity index. Equity swaps are normally used to (1) initiate and maintain long or short equity exposures either in an index or a specific stock portfolio; (2) temporarily eliminate exposure to an equity portfolio without disturbing the underlying equity position; or (3) increase, reduce, or eliminate market exposure to a single issue or a narrow stock portfolio or obtain greater diversification for a limited period of time without disturbing an underlying position.

Interest Rate Swaps. Interest rate swaps, in their most basic form, involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest. For example, a Fund might exchange its right to receive certain floating rate payments in exchange for another party’s right to receive fixed rate payments. Interest rate swaps can take a variety of other forms, such as agreements to pay the net differences between two different interest indexes or rates, even if the parties do not own the underlying instruments. Despite their differences in form, the function of interest rate swaps is generally the same: to increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates. For example, a Fund may enter into a swap transaction to preserve a return or spread on a particular investment or a portion of its portfolio or to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date.

Credit Default Swaps (“CDS”): In the case of a CDS, the agreement will reference one or more debt securities or reference entities. The protection “buyer” in a credit default contract is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract until a credit event, such as a default, on a reference entity has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer: a) the full notional value of the swap; or b) the difference between the notional value of the defaulted reference entity and the recovery price/rate for the defaulted reference entity. CDS are designed to reflect changes in credit quality, including events of default. The Long CDS Fund will normally be a “seller” of CDS (also referred to as a seller of protection or as a buyer of risk). The Short CDS Fund will normally be a “buyer” of CDS (also referred to as a buyer of protection or a seller of risk). The CDS Funds will primarily invest in centrally cleared, index-based CDS that provide credit exposure through a single trade to a basket of reference entities. Each CDS Fund may also invest in single-name CDS. Single-name CDS provide exposure to a single reference entity and are not centrally cleared.

Other forms of swap agreements that the Funds may enter into include: interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap”; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified level, or “floor”; and interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

Most swap agreements entered into by a Fund (but generally not CDS) calculate and settle the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis” with a single payment. Consequently, a Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). Other swap agreements, such as CDS, may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of the reference entity.

A Fund’s current obligations under most swap agreements (total return swaps, equity/index swaps, interest rate swaps) will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by segregating or earmarking cash or other assets determined to be liquid, but typically no payments will be made until the settlement date. In connection with CDS in which a Fund is a “buyer”, the

 

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Fund will segregate or earmark cash or assets determined to be liquid by the Advisor, with a value at least equal to the Fund’s maximum potential exposure under the swap (e.g., any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed by the Fund to any clearing house counterparty). In connection with CDS in which a Fund is a “seller”, however, the Fund will segregate or earmark cash or assets determined to be liquid by the Advisor, with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swap (minus any variation margin or amounts owed to the Fund under an offsetting cleared transaction). This segregation or earmarking is intended to ensure that a Fund has assets available to satisfy its potential obligations with respect to the transaction. Each Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future, including modifications to comply with any changes in the positions articulated by the SEC or its staff regarding asset segregation. Swap agreements that cannot be terminated of in the ordinary course of business within seven days at approximately the amount a Fund has valued the asset may be considered to be illiquid for purposes of the Fund’s illiquid investment limitations.

A Fund will not enter into any uncleared swap agreement unless the Advisor believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. The counterparty to an uncleared swap agreement will typically be a major global financial institution. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. If such a default occurs, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreements, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws that could affect the Fund’s right as a creditor. The counterparty risk for cleared swaps is generally lower than for uncleared over-the-counter swaps because generally a clearing organization becomes substituted for each counterparty to a cleared swap agreement and, in effect, guarantees the parties’ performance under the contract as each party to a trade looks only to the clearing organization for performance of financial obligations. However, there can be no assurance that the clearing organization, or its members, will satisfy its obligations to a Fund. Upon entering into a cleared swap, a Fund may be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents in the range of approximately 3% to 6% of the notional amount for CDS on high yield debt issuers and 1% to 5% for CDS on investment grade debt issuers (this amount is subject to change by the clearing organization that clears the trade). This amount, known as “initial margin,” is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the cleared swap and is returned to a Fund upon termination of the swap, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin” to and from the broker will be made daily as the price of the swap fluctuates, making the long and short position in the swap contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking-to-market.” The premium (discount) payments are built into the daily price of the swap and thus are amortized through the variation margin. The variation margin payment also includes the daily portion of the periodic payment stream.

As noted above, swap agreements typically are settled on a net basis, which means that the payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term. The timing and character of any income, gain or loss recognized by a Fund on the payment or payments made or received on a swap will vary depending upon the terms of the particular swap. Swap agreements do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to swap agreements is limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to a swap agreement defaults, a Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that such Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each swap will be accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or liquid assets, having an aggregate NAV at least equal to such accrued excess will be earmarked or segregated by a Fund’s custodian (though, as noted above, in connection with CDS in which a Fund is a “seller”, the Fund will segregate or earmark cash or assets determined to be liquid, with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swap (minus any variation margin or amounts owed to the Fund under an offsetting transaction)). Inasmuch as these transactions are entered into for hedging purposes or are offset by earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, the Funds and their Advisor believe that these transactions do not constitute senior securities within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to a Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

In the normal course of business, a Fund enters into standardized contracts created by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (“ISDA agreements”) with certain counterparties for derivative transactions. These agreements contain, among other conditions, events of default and termination events, and various covenants and representations. Certain of the Fund’s ISDA agreements contain provisions that require the Fund to maintain a pre-determined level of net assets, and/or provide limits regarding the decline of the Fund’s NAV over specific periods of time, which may or may not be exclusive of redemptions. If the Fund were to trigger such provisions and have open derivative positions, at that time counterparties to the ISDA agreements could elect to terminate such ISDA agreements and request immediate payment in an amount equal to the net liability positions, if any, under the relevant ISDA agreement. Pursuant to the terms of its ISDA agreements, the Fund will have already collateralized its liability under such agreements, in some cases only in excess of certain threshold amounts. With uncleared swaps, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. If such default occurs, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreements, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws that could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor. Thus, a Fund will typically

 

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only enter into uncleared swap agreements with major, global financial institutions that meet the Fund’s standard of creditworthiness. The Funds seek to mitigate risks by generally requiring that the counterparties for each Fund agree to post collateral for the benefit of the Fund, marked to market daily, in an amount approximately equal to what the counterparty owes the Fund subject to certain minimum thresholds, although the Funds may not always be successful. To the extent any such collateral is insufficient or there are delays in accessing the collateral, the Funds will be exposed to the risks described above, including possible delays in recovering amounts as a result of bankruptcy proceedings.

The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks in addition to, and in some cases different from, those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The primary risks associated with the use of swap agreements are mispricing or improper valuation, imperfect correlation between movements in the notional amount and the price of the underlying investments, and the inability of the counterparties or clearing organization to perform. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness for an over-the-counter swap declines, the value of the swap would likely decline. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a Fund could eliminate its exposure under an outstanding swap agreement by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same or another party. In addition, a Fund may use a combination of swaps on an underlying index, and swaps on an ETF that is designed to track the performance of that index. The performance of an ETF may not track the performance of its underlying index due to embedded costs and other factors. Thus, to the extent a Fund invests in swaps that use an ETF as the reference asset, that Fund may be subject to greater correlation risk and may not achieve as high a degree of correlation with its index as it would if the Fund used only swaps on the underlying index. The Advisor, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Funds’ transactions in swap agreements.

In connection with its management of certain series of the Trust (the Commodity Pools), the Advisor has registered as a CPO and the Commodity Pools are commodity pools under the CEA. Accordingly, the Advisor is subject to registration and regulation as a CPO under the CEA, and must comply with various regulatory requirements under the CEA and the rules and regulations of the CFTC and the NFA, including investor protection requirements, antifraud provisions, disclosure requirements and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Advisor is also subject to periodic inspections and audits by the CFTC and NFA. Compliance with these regulatory requirements could adversely affect the Commodity Pools’ total return. In this regard, any further amendment to the CEA or its related regulations that subject the Advisor or the Commodity Pools to additional regulation may have adverse impacts on the Commodity Pools’ operations and expenses. In addition, the CFTC, in conjunction with other federal regulators, also recently proposed stricter margin requirements for certain swap transactions. If adopted, the proposed requirements could increase the amount of margin necessary to conduct many swap transactions, limit the types of assets that can be used as collateral for such transactions, and impose other restrictions. The rule proposal may affect the ability of the Funds to use swap agreements (as well as futures contracts and options on futures contracts or commodities) and may substantially increase regulatory compliance costs for the Advisor and the Funds. As of the date of this SAI, the ultimate impact of the rule proposal on the Funds is uncertain. It is possible, however, that any adopted rule may adversely affect the Advisor’s ability to manage the Funds, may impair a Funds’ ability to achieve its investment objective and/or may result in reduced returns to Fund investors.

When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Securities

Each Fund, from time to time, in the ordinary course of business, may purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis (i.e., delivery and payment can take place between a month and 120 days after the date of the transaction). These securities are subject to market fluctuations and no interest accrues to the purchaser during this period. At the time a Fund makes the commitment to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, the Fund will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value of the securities, each day, in determining the Fund’s NAV. Each Fund will not purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis if, as a result, it determines that more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in illiquid securities. At the time of delivery of the securities, the value of the securities may be more or less than the purchase price.

The Trust will earmark or segregate with the Trust’s custodian bank cash or liquid instruments equal to or greater in value than the Fund’s purchase commitments for such when-issued or delayed-delivery securities, or when the Trust does not believe that a Fund’s NAV or income will be adversely affected by the Fund’s purchase of securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis. Because a Fund will identify cash or liquid securities to satisfy its purchase commitments in the manner described, a Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Advisor to manage a Fund might be affected in the event its commitments to purchase when-issued or delayed-delivery securities exceeds 40% of the value of its assets.

 

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Investments in Other Investment Companies (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond, the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF or the 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread)

The Funds may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and unit investment trusts (UITs), to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act or any exemptive order issued by the SEC. If a Fund invests in, and thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations.

Because most ETFs are investment companies, absent exemptive relief or reliance on an applicable exemptive statute or rule, a Fund’s investments in such investment companies generally would be limited under applicable federal statutory provisions. Those provisions typically restrict a Fund’s investment in the shares of another investment company to up to 5% of its assets (which may represent no more than 3% of the securities of such other investment company) and limit aggregate investments in all investment companies to 10% of assets. A Fund may invest in certain ETFs in excess of the statutory limit in reliance on an exemptive order issued by the SEC to those entities or pursuant to statutory or exemptive relief and pursuant to procedures approved by the Board provided that the Fund complies with the conditions of the exemptive relief, as they may be amended from time to time, and any other applicable investment limitations.

Master Limited Partnerships

Each Fund may invest in master limited partnerships (“MLPs”), which are commonly treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and publicly traded on national securities exchanges. Such MLPs are limited by the Internal Revenue Code to apply to enterprises that engage in certain businesses, mostly pertaining to the use of natural resources, such as natural gas extraction and transportation. Some real estate enterprises may also qualify as MLPs.

Investments in common units of MLPs involve risks that differ from investments in common stock. Holders of common units of MLPs have the rights typically provided to limited partners in limited partnerships and, thus, may have limited control and limited voting rights as compared to holders of a corporation’s common shares. Holders of common units may be subject to conflicts of interest with the MLP’s general partner, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. MLPs may also have limited financial resources and units may be subject to cash flow and dilution risk. In addition, investments held by MLPs may be relatively illiquid, limiting the MLPs’ ability to vary their portfolios promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. Accordingly, MLPs may be subject to more erratic price movements because of the underlying assets they hold. Further, a Fund’s investment in MLPs subjects the Fund to the risks associated with the specific industry or industries in which the MLPs invest.

There are also tax risks associated with investments in MLPs. While there are benefits to MLPs that are treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes, a change to current tax law or in the underlying business of a given MLP could result in the MLP being treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. If the MLP were treated as a corporation, the MLP would be required to pay federal income tax on its taxable income, which would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP. In addition, because MLPs generally conduct business in multiple states, the Fund may be subject to income or franchise tax in each of the states in which the partnership does business. The additional cost of preparing and filing the tax returns and paying related taxes may adversely impact the Fund’s return.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond, the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF or the 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread)

Each Fund may invest in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). Equity REITs invest primarily in real property while mortgage REITs invest in construction, development and long-term mortgage loans. Their value may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property of the REIT, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. REITs are dependent upon management skill, are not diversified and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Code and failing to maintain exempt status under the 1940 Act.

Illiquid Securities

Each Fund may purchase illiquid securities, including securities that are not readily marketable and securities that are not registered (“restricted securities”) under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act”), but which can be sold to qualified institutional buyers under Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. A Fund will not invest more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in

 

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illiquid securities. The term “illiquid securities” for this purpose means securities that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the amount at which the Fund has valued the securities. Under the current guidelines of the staff of the SEC, illiquid securities also are considered to include, among other securities, purchased OTC options, certain cover for OTC options, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days, and certain securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws. The Fund may not be able to sell illiquid securities when the Advisor considers it desirable to do so or may have to sell such securities at a price that is lower than the price that could be obtained if the securities were more liquid. In addition, the sale of illiquid securities also may require more time and may result in higher dealer discounts and other selling expenses than the sale of securities that are not illiquid. Illiquid securities may be more difficult to value due to the unavailability of reliable market quotations for such securities, and investments in illiquid securities may have an adverse impact on NAV.

Institutional markets for restricted securities have developed as a result of the promulgation of Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, which provides a safe harbor from 1933 Act registration requirements for qualifying sales to institutional investors. When Rule 144A securities present an attractive investment opportunity and otherwise meet selection criteria, a Fund may make such investments. Whether or not such securities are illiquid depends on the market that exists for the particular security. The staff of the SEC has taken the position that the liquidity of Rule 144A restricted securities is a question of fact for a board of trustees to determine, such determination to be based on a consideration of the readily-available trading markets and the review of any contractual restrictions. The SEC staff also has acknowledged that, while a board of trustees retains ultimate responsibility, trustees may delegate this function to an investment adviser. The Board of Trustees has delegated this responsibility for determining the liquidity of Rule 144A restricted securities that may be invested in by a Fund to the Advisor. It is not possible to predict with assurance exactly how the market for Rule 144A restricted securities or any other security will develop. A security that when purchased enjoyed a fair degree of marketability may subsequently become illiquid and, accordingly, a security that was deemed to be liquid at the time of acquisition may subsequently become illiquid. In such event, appropriate remedies will be considered to minimize the effect on the Fund’s liquidity.

Debt Instruments

Below is a description of various types of money market instruments and other debt instruments that a Fund may utilize for investment purposes, as “cover” for other investment techniques such Fund employs, or for liquidity purposes. Other types of money market instruments and debt instruments may become available that are similar to those described below and in which the Funds also may invest consistent with their investment goals and policies. Each Fund may also invest in pooled investment vehicles that invest in, and themselves qualify as, money market instruments.

Money Market Instruments

To seek its investment objective, as a cash reserve, for liquidity purposes, or as “cover” for positions it has taken, each Fund may invest all or part of its assets in cash or cash equivalents, which include, but are not limited to, short-term money market instruments, U.S. government securities floating and variable rate notes, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, time deposits, bankers acceptances or repurchase agreements and other short-term liquid instruments secured by U.S. government securities. Each Fund may invest in money market instruments issued by foreign and domestic governments, financial institutions, corporations and other entities in the U.S. or in any foreign country. Each Fund may also invest in pooled investment vehicles that invest in, and themselves qualify as, money market instruments.

U.S. Government Securities

The Funds may invest in U.S. government securities in pursuit of their investment objectives, as “cover” for the investment techniques these Funds employ, or for liquidity purposes.

U.S. government securities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance: U.S. Treasury bills, which have initial maturities of one year or less; U.S. Treasury notes, which have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds, which generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. In addition, U.S. government securities include Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”). TIPS are inflation protected public obligations of the U.S. Treasury. These securities are designed to provide inflation protection to investors. TIPS are income generating instruments whose interest and principal payments are adjusted for inflation – a sustained increase in prices that erodes the purchasing power of money. The inflation adjustment, which is typically applied monthly to the principal of the bond, follows a designated inflation index such as the Consumer Price Index. A fixed-coupon rate is applied to the inflation-adjusted principal so that as inflation rises, both the principal value and the interest payments increase. This can provide investors with a hedge against inflation, as it helps preserve the purchasing power of an investment. Because of the inflation-adjustment feature, inflation-protected bonds typically have lower yields than conventional fixed-rate bonds. In addition, TIPS decline in value when real interest rates rise. However, in certain interest rate environments, such as when real interest rates are rising faster than nominal interest rates, TIPS may experience greater losses than other fixed income securities with similar duration.

 

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Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae” or “FNMA”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae” or “GNMA”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, GNMA pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by FNMA, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. While the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies and instrumentalities described above, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity. All U.S. government securities are subject to credit risk.

Yields on U.S. government securities depend on a variety of factors, including the general conditions of the money and bond markets, the size of a particular offering, and the maturity of the obligation. Debt securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields and are generally subject to potentially greater capital appreciation and depreciation than obligations with shorter maturities and lower yields. The market value of U.S. government securities generally varies inversely with changes in market interest rates. An increase in interest rates, therefore, would generally reduce the market value of a Fund’s portfolio investments in U.S. government securities, while a decline in interest rates would generally increase the market value of a Fund’s portfolio investments in these securities.

Floating and Variable Rate Notes

Floating and variable rate notes generally are unsecured obligations issued by financial institutions and other entities. They typically have a stated maturity of more than one year and an interest rate that changes either at specific intervals or whenever a benchmark rate changes. The effective maturity of each floating or variable rate note in a Fund’s portfolio will be based on these periodic adjustments. The interest rate adjustments are designed to help stabilize the note’s price. While this feature helps protect against a decline in the note’s market price when interest rates rise, it lowers a Fund’s income when interest rates fall. Of course, a Fund’s income from its floating and variable rate investments also may increase if interest rates rise.

Commercial Paper

Commercial paper is a short-term, unsecured promissory note issued to finance short-term credit needs.

Financial Services Obligations

Under normal market conditions, each Fund may invest up to 25% of its net assets in obligations issued by companies in the financial services industry, including U.S. banks, foreign banks, foreign branches of U.S. banks and U.S. branches of foreign banks. These obligations may include:

Certificates of deposit (“CDs”) – CDs represent an obligation of a bank or a foreign branch of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time plus interest at a stated rate.

Time deposits – Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits held in a banking institution for a specified time at a stated interest rate.

 

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Mortgage-Backed Securities

A mortgage-backed security is a type of pass-through security, which is a security representing pooled debt obligations repackaged as interests that pass income through an intermediary to investors. Each Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities, as “cover” for the investment techniques these Funds employ. In the case of mortgage-backed securities, the ownership interest is in a pool of mortgage loans.

Mortgage-backed securities are most commonly issued or guaranteed by GNMA, FNMA or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”), but may also be issued or guaranteed by other private issuers. GNMA is a government- owned corporation that is an agency of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It guarantees, with the full faith and credit of the United States, full and timely payment of all monthly principal and interest on its mortgage-backed securities. FNMA is a publicly owned, government-sponsored corporation that mostly packages mortgages backed by the Federal Housing Administration, but also sells some non-governmentally backed mortgages. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest only by FNMA. The FHLMC is a publicly chartered agency that buys qualifying residential mortgages from lenders, re-packages them and provides certain guarantees. The corporation’s stock is owned by savings institutions across the United States and is held in trust by the Federal Home Loan Bank System. Pass-through securities issued by the FHLMC are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest only by the FHLMC.

Mortgage-backed securities issued by private issuers, whether or not such obligations are subject to guarantees by the private issuer, may entail greater risk than obligations directly or indirectly guaranteed by the U.S. government. The average life of a mortgage-backed security is likely to be substantially shorter than the original maturity of the mortgage pools underlying the securities. Prepayments of principal by mortgagors and mortgage foreclosures will usually result in the return of the greater part of principal invested far in advance of the maturity of the mortgages in the pool.

Collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) are debt obligations collateralized by mortgage loans or mortgage pass- through securities (collateral collectively hereinafter referred to as “Mortgage Assets”). Multi-class pass-through securities are interests in a trust composed of Mortgage Assets and all references in this section to CMOs include multi-class pass- through securities. Principal prepayments on the Mortgage Assets may cause the CMOs to be retired substantially earlier than their stated maturities or final distribution dates, resulting in a loss of all or part of the premium if any has been paid. Interest is paid or accrues on all classes of the CMOs on a monthly, quarterly or semiannual basis. The principal and interest payments on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the various classes of CMOs in several ways. Typically, payments of principal, including any prepayments, on the underlying mortgages are applied to the classes in the order of their respective stated maturities or final distribution dates, so that no payment of principal is made on CMOs of a class until all CMOs of other classes having earlier stated maturities or final distribution dates have been paid in full.

Stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”) are derivative multi-class mortgage securities. Each Fund will only invest in SMBS that are obligations backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. SMBS are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions from a pool of mortgage assets. The Funds will only invest in SMBS whose mortgage assets are U.S. government obligations. A common type of SMBS will be structured so that one class receives some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class receives most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, each Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. The market value of any class that consists primarily or entirely of principal payments generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates.

Investment in mortgage-backed securities poses several risks, including among others, prepayment, market and credit risk. Prepayment risk reflects the risk that borrowers may prepay their mortgages faster than expected, thereby affecting the investment’s average life and perhaps its yield. Whether or not a mortgage loan is prepaid is almost entirely controlled by the borrower. Borrowers are most likely to exercise prepayment options at the time when it is least advantageous to investors, generally prepaying mortgages as interest rates fall, and slowing payments as interest rates rise. Besides the effect of prevailing interest rates, the rate of prepayment and refinancing of mortgages may also be affected by home value appreciation, ease of the refinancing process and local economic conditions. Market risk reflects the risk that the price of a security may fluctuate over time. The price of mortgage-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to prevailing interest rates, the length of time the security is expected to be outstanding, and the liquidity of the issue. In a period of unstable interest rates, there may be decreased demand for certain types of mortgage-backed securities, and each Fund invested in such securities wishing to sell them may find it difficult to find a buyer, which may in turn decrease the price at which they may be sold. Credit risk reflects the risk that a Fund may not receive all or part of its principal because the issuer or credit enhancer has defaulted on its obligations. Obligations issued by U.S. government-related entities are guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest, but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The performance of private label mortgage-backed securities, issued by private institutions, is based on the financial health of those institutions. With respect to GNMA certificates, although GNMA guarantees timely payment even if homeowners delay or default, tracking the “pass-through” payments may, at times, be difficult.

 

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Repurchase Agreements

Each of the Funds may enter into repurchase agreements with financial institutions in pursuit of its investment objectives, as “cover” for the investment techniques it employs, or for liquidity purposes. Under a repurchase agreement, a Fund purchases a debt security and simultaneously agrees to sell the security back to the seller at a mutually agreed-upon future price and date, normally one day or a few days later. The resale price is greater than the purchase price, reflecting an agreed-upon market interest rate during the purchaser’s holding period. While the maturities of the underlying securities in repurchase transactions may be more than one year, the term of each repurchase agreement will always be less than one year. The Funds follow certain procedures designed to minimize the risks inherent in such agreements. These procedures include effecting repurchase transactions generally with major global financial institutions. The creditworthiness of each of the firms that is a party to a repurchase agreement with the Funds will be monitored by the Advisor. In addition, the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will always be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the repurchase agreement. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, a Fund will seek to liquidate such collateral which could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss. A Fund also may experience difficulties and incur certain costs in exercising its rights to the collateral and may lose the interest the Fund expected to receive under the repurchase agreement. Repurchase agreements usually are for short periods, such as one week or less, but may be longer. It is the current policy of the Funds not to invest in repurchase agreements that do not mature within seven days if any such investment, together with any other illiquid assets held by the Fund, amounts to more than 15% of the Fund’s total net assets. The investments of each of the Funds in repurchase agreements at times may be substantial when, in the view of the Advisor, liquidity, investment, regulatory, or other considerations so warrant.

Other Fixed Income Securities

Each Fund may invest in a wide range of fixed income securities, which may include foreign sovereign, sub-sovereign and supranational bonds, as well as any other obligations of any rating or maturity such as foreign and domestic investment grade corporate debt securities and lower-rated corporate debt securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”). Lower-rated or high yield debt securities include corporate high yield debt securities, zero-coupon securities, payment-in-kind securities, and STRIPS. Investment grade corporate bonds are those rated BBB or better by Standard & Poor’s Rating Group (“S&P”) or Baa or better by Moody’s Investor Services (“Moody’s”). Securities rated BBB by S&P are considered investment grade, but Moody’s considers securities rated Baa to have speculative characteristics. See Appendix A for a description of corporate bond ratings. The Funds may also invest in unrated securities.

FOREIGN SOVEREIGN, SUB-SOVEREIGN, QUASI SOVEREIGN AND SUPRANATIONAL SECURITIES (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond). The Funds may invest in fixed-rate debt securities issued by: non-U.S. governments (foreign sovereign bonds); local governments, entities or agencies of a non-U.S. country (foreign sub-sovereign bonds); corporations with significant government ownership (“Quasi-Sovereigns”); or two or more central governments or institutions (supranational bonds). These types of debt securities are typically general obligations of the issuer and are typically guaranteed by such issuer. Despite this guarantee, such debt securities are subject to default, restructuring or changes to the terms of the debt to the detriment of security holders. Such an event impacting a security held by a Fund would likely have an adverse impact on the Fund’s returns. Also, due to demand from other investors, certain types of these debt securities may be less accessible to the capital markets and may be difficult for a Fund to source. This may cause a Fund, at times, to pay a premium to obtain such securities for its own portfolio. For more information related to foreign sovereign, sub-sovereign and supranational securities, see “Foreign Securities” and “Exposure to Securities or Issuers in Specific Foreign Countries or Regions” above.

CORPORATE DEBT SECURITIES (not applicable to the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF). Corporate debt securities are fixed income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations, although corporate debt instruments may also include bank loans to companies. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities, with the primary difference being their maturities and secured or unsecured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade or below investment-grade and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.

Because of the wide range of types and maturities of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but carries relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.

 

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Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that a Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security is unable to pay interest or repay principal when it is due. Some corporate debt securities that are rated below investment-grade are generally considered speculative because they present a greater risk of loss, including default, than higher quality debt securities. The credit risk of a particular issuer’s debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.

JUNK BONDS. “Junk Bonds” generally offer a higher current yield than that available for higher-grade issues. However, lower-rated securities involve higher risks, in that they are especially subject to adverse changes in general economic conditions and in the industries in which the issuers are engaged, to changes in the financial condition of the issuers and to price fluctuations in response to changes in interest rates. During periods of economic downturn or rising interest rates, highly leveraged issuers may experience financial stress that could adversely affect their ability to make payments of interest and principal and increase the possibility of default. In addition, the market for lower-rated debt securities has expanded rapidly in recent years, and its growth paralleled a long economic expansion. At times in recent years, the prices of many lower-rated debt securities declined substantially, reflecting an expectation that many issuers of such securities might experience financial difficulties. As a result, the yields on lower-rated debt securities rose dramatically, but such higher yields did not reflect the value of the income stream that holders of such securities expected, but rather, the risk that holders of such securities could lose a substantial portion of their value as a result of the issuers’ financial restructuring or default. There can be no assurance that such declines will not recur. The market for lower-rated debt issues generally is thinner and less active than that for higher quality securities, which may limit each Fund’s ability to sell such securities at fair value in response to changes in the economy or financial markets. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may also decrease the values and liquidity of lower-rated securities, especially in a thinly traded market. Changes by recognized rating services in their rating of a fixed income security may affect the value of these investments. Each Fund will not necessarily dispose of a security when its rating is reduced below its rating at the time of purchase. However, the Advisor will monitor the investment to determine whether continued investment in the security will assist in meeting each Fund’s investment objective.

COVERED BONDS The Funds may invest in covered bonds, which are debt securities issued by banks or other credit institutions that are backed by both the issuing institution and underlying pool of assets that compose the bond (a “cover pool”). The cover pool for a covered bond is typically composed of residential or commercial mortgage loans or loans to public sector institutions. A covered bond may lose value if the credit rating of the issuing bank or credit institution is downgraded or the quality of the assets in the cover pool deteriorates.

UNRATED DEBT SECURITIES (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF). The Funds may also invest in unrated debt securities. Unrated debt, while not necessarily lower in quality than rated securities, may not have as broad a market. Because of the size and perceived demand for the issue, among other factors, certain issuers may decide not to pay the cost of getting a rating for their bonds. The creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the security, will be analyzed to determine whether to purchase unrated bonds.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements as part of its investment strategy, which may be viewed as a form of borrowing. Reverse repurchase agreements involve sales by a Fund of portfolio assets for cash concurrently with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the same assets at a later date at a fixed price. Generally, the effect of such a transaction is that a Fund can recover all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities involved during the term of the reverse repurchase agreement, while a Fund will be able to keep the interest income associated with those portfolio securities. Such transactions are advantageous only if the interest cost to a Fund of the reverse repurchase transaction is less than the cost of obtaining the cash otherwise. Opportunities to achieve this advantage may not always be available, and a Fund intends to use the reverse repurchase technique only when it will be to the Fund’s advantage to do so. A Fund will segregate with its custodian bank cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the Fund’s obligations in respect of reverse repurchase agreements.

 

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Short Sales (not applicable to the USD Covered Bond or the German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign ETF)

The Funds may engage in short sales transactions. A short sale is a transaction in which a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline. To complete such a transaction, a Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by borrowing the same security from another lender, purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the security. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends it receives, or interest which accrues, during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. A Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales.

The Funds may make short sales “against the box,” i.e., when a security identical to or convertible or exchangeable into one owned by a Fund is borrowed and sold short. Whenever a Fund engages in short sales, it earmarks or segregates liquid securities or cash in an amount that, when combined with the amount of collateral deposited with the broker in connection with the short sale, equals the current market value of the security sold short. The earmarked or segregated assets are marked-to-market daily.

A Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. A Fund will realize a gain if the price of the security declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest a Fund may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale.

The Short QQQ®, the UltraShort QQQ®, the UltraPro Short QQQ®, the Ultra QQQ® and the UltraPro QQQ® Funds will not sell short the equity securities of issuers contained in the NASDAQ-100 Index. The UltraShort and the Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology Funds will not sell short the securities of issues contained in the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index.

Cash Reserves

To seek its investment objective, as a cash reserve, for liquidity purposes, or as cover for positions it has taken, each Fund may invest all or part of its assets in cash or cash equivalents, which include, but are not limited to, short-term money market instruments, U.S. government securities, certificates of deposit, bankers acceptances, or repurchase agreements secured by U.S. government securities.

Borrowing

Each Fund may borrow money for cash management purposes or investment purposes. Borrowing for investment is a form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique which increases investment risk, but also increases investment opportunity. Because substantially all of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV per share of the Fund will fluctuate more when the Fund is leveraging its investments than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. Under adverse conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales.

Consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act, each Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If at any time the value of a Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, the Fund, within three days (not including weekends and holidays), will reduce the amount of the Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sale. In addition to the foregoing, the Funds are authorized to borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes in amounts not in excess of 5% of the value of each Fund’s total assets. This borrowing is not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. The Funds are authorized to pledge portfolio securities as ProShare Advisors deems appropriate in connection with any borrowings.

Notwithstanding the guidelines set forth above, S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, S&P Midcap 400 Dividend Aristocrats ETF, DJ Brookfield Global Infrastructure ETF, and Russell 2000 Dividend Growers ETF will not borrow money for investment purposes. Each of these Funds may borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including to meet redemption requests or to facilitate the settlement of securities or other transactions, in an amount up to 10% of its respective net assets.

 

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Each Fund may also enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which may be viewed as a form of borrowing, with financial institutions. However, under current pronouncements, to the extent a Fund “covers” its repurchase obligations, as described above in “Reverse Repurchase Agreements,” such agreement will not be considered to be a “senior security” and, therefore, will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by that Fund.

Obligations under futures contracts, forward contracts and swap agreements that are similarly covered will not be considered “senior securities” and, therefore, will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement.

Portfolio Turnover

Each Fund’s portfolio turnover rate, to a great extent, will depend on the purchase, redemption and exchange activity of the Fund ’s investors. A Fund’s portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year. The nature of the Funds may cause the Funds to experience substantial differences in brokerage commissions from year to year. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by the Advisor based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid by other institutional investors for comparable services. High portfolio turnover and correspondingly greater brokerage commissions, to a great extent, depend on the purchase, redemption, and exchange activity of a Fund’s investors, as well as each Fund’s investment objective and strategies. Consequently, it is difficult to estimate what each Fund’s actual portfolio turnover rate will be in the future. However, it is expected that the portfolio turnover experienced by the Funds from year to year, as well as within a year, may be substantial. A higher portfolio turnover rate would likely involve correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and transaction and other expenses that would be borne by the Funds. In addition, a Fund’s portfolio turnover level may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective. “Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the value of the securities purchased or securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at time of acquisition were one year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with remaining maturities of less than one year, including swap agreements, options and futures contracts in which the Funds invest, are excluded from the calculation of Portfolio Turnover Rate for each Fund. For those Funds that commenced operations prior to May 31, 2015, each such Fund’s turnover rate information is set forth in the annual report to shareholders. Annual Portfolio turnover rates are also shown in each Fund’s summary prospectus.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

To the extent discussed above and in the Prospectus, the Funds present certain risks, some of which are further described below.

Tracking and Correlation (All Funds, except the CDS Funds)

Several factors may affect a Fund’s ability to achieve a high degree of correlation with its benchmark. Among these factors are: (1) a Fund’s fees and expenses, including brokerage (which may be increased by high portfolio turnover) and the costs associated with the use of derivatives; (2) less than all of the securities underlying a Fund’s benchmark being held by the Fund and/or securities not included in its benchmark being held by a Fund; (3) an imperfect correlation between the performance of instruments held by a Fund, such as futures contracts, and the performance of the underlying securities in a benchmark; (4) bid-ask spreads (the effect of which may be increased by portfolio turnover); (5) holding instruments traded in a market that has become illiquid or disrupted; (6) a Fund’s share prices being rounded to the nearest cent; (7) changes to the benchmark that are not disseminated in advance; (8) the need to conform a Fund’s portfolio holdings to comply with investment restrictions or policies or regulatory or tax law requirements; (9) limit up or limit down trading halts on options or futures contracts which may prevent a Fund from purchasing or selling options or futures contracts; (10) early and unanticipated closings of the markets on which the holdings of a Fund trade, resulting in the inability of the Fund to execute intended portfolio transactions; and (11) fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Also, because Funds rebalance their benchmark exposure at the end of each trading day, disparities between estimated and actual purchases and redemptions of a Fund may cause the Fund to be over- or underexposed to its benchmark. This may result in greater tracking and correlation error.

Furthermore, each Fund, except the Matching ProShares Funds, has an investment objective to match the performance, a multiple (2x or 3x), the inverse (-1x) or a multiple of the inverse (-2x or -3x) of the performance of a benchmark on a single day. A “single day” is measured from the time the Fund calculates its NAV to the time of the Fund’s next NAV calculation. These Funds are subject to the correlation risks described above. In addition, while a close correlation of any Fund to its benchmark may be achieved on any single day, over time, the cumulative percentage increase or decrease in the NAV of the shares of a Fund may diverge, in some cases significantly, from the cumulative percentage decrease or increase in the benchmark due to a compounding effect as further described in the Prospectus and below.

 

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Leverage (All Funds, except the Matching ProShares Funds, the CDS Funds and the Short (-1x) ProShares Funds)

Each Fund intends to use, on a regular basis, leveraged investment techniques in pursuing its investment objective. Leverage exists when a Fund achieves the right to a return on a capital base that exceeds the Fund’s assets. Utilization of leverage involves special risks and should be considered to be speculative. Specifically, leverage creates the potential for greater gains to Fund shareholders during favorable market conditions and the risk of magnified losses during adverse market conditions. Leverage is likely to cause higher volatility of the NAVs of these Funds’ Shares. Leverage may also involve the creation of a liability that does not entail any interest costs or the creation of a liability that requires the Fund to pay interest which would decrease the Fund’s total return to shareholders. If these Funds achieve their investment objectives, during adverse market conditions, shareholders should experience a loss greater than they would have incurred had these Funds not been leveraged.

•Special Note Regarding the Correlation Risks of Geared Funds (All Funds, except the Matching ProShares Funds and the CDS Funds) As a result of compounding, for periods greater than one day, the use of leverage tends to cause the performance of a Fund to vary from its benchmark performance times the stated multiple or inverse multiple in the Fund’s investment objective, before accounting for fees and fund expenses. Compounding affects all investments, but has a more significant impact on geared funds. Four factors significantly affect how close daily compounded returns are to longer-term benchmark returns times the fund’s multiple: the length of the holding period, benchmark volatility, whether the multiple is positive or inverse, and its leverage level. Longer holding periods, higher benchmark volatility, inverse exposure and greater leverage each can lead to returns farther from the multiple times the benchmark return. As the tables below show, particularly during periods of higher benchmark volatility, compounding will cause longer term results to vary from the benchmark performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective. This effect becomes more pronounced as volatility increases.

A Geared ProShares Fund’s return for periods longer than one day is primarily a function of the following:

 

  a) benchmark performance;

 

  b) benchmark volatility;

 

  c) period of time;

 

  d) financing rates associated with leverage or inverse exposure;

 

  e) other Fund expenses; and

 

  f) dividends or interest paid with respect to securities included in the benchmark.

The fund performance for a Geared ProShares Fund can be estimated given any set of assumptions for the factors described above. The tables on the next five pages illustrate the impact of two factors, benchmark volatility and benchmark performance, on a geared fund. Benchmark volatility is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in the returns of an benchmark and is calculated as the standard deviation of the natural logarithms of one plus the benchmark return (calculated daily), multiplied by the square root of the number of trading days per year (assumed to be 252). The tables show estimated Fund returns for a number of combinations of benchmark performance and benchmark volatility over a one-year period. Assumptions used in the tables include: (a) no dividends paid with respect to securities included in the underlying benchmark; (b) no Fund expenses; and (c) borrowing/lending rates (to obtain leverage or inverse exposure) of zero percent. If Fund expenses and/or actual borrowing lending rates were reflected, the Fund’s performance would be different than shown.

 

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Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fund Fees and Expenses and Leverage Costs, that Correspond to Two Times (2x) the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index   Two Times
(2x)
One Year
Index
    Index Volatility   
Performance   Performance   0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   -120%     -84.0%        -84.0%        -84.2%        -84.4%        -84.6%        -85.0%        -85.4%        -85.8%        -86.4%        -86.9%        -87.5%        -88.2%        -88.8%   
-55%   -110%     -79.8%        -79.8%        -80.0%        -80.2%        -80.5%        -81.0%        -81.5%        -82.1%        -82.7%        -83.5%        -84.2%        -85.0%        -85.9%   
-50%   -100%     -75.0%        -75.1%        -75.2%        -75.6%        -76.0%        -76.5%        -77.2%        -77.9%        -78.7%        -79.6%        -80.5%        -81.5%        -82.6%   
-45%   -90%     -69.8%        -69.8%        -70.1%        -70.4%        -70.9%        -71.6%        -72.4%        -73.2%        -74.2%        -75.3%        -76.4%        -77.6%        -78.9%   
-40%   -80%     -64.0%        -64.1%        -64.4%        -64.8%        -65.4%        -66.2%        -67.1%        -68.2%        -69.3%        -70.6%        -72.0%        -73.4%        -74.9%   
-35%   -70%     -57.8%        -57.9%        -58.2%        -58.7%        -59.4%        -60.3%        -61.4%        -62.6%        -64.0%        -65.5%        -67.1%        -68.8%        -70.5%   
-30%   -60%     -51.0%        -51.1%        -51.5%        -52.1%        -52.9%        -54.0%        -55.2%        -56.6%        -58.2%        -60.0%        -61.8%        -63.8%        -65.8%   
-25%   -50%     -43.8%        -43.9%        -44.3%        -45.0%        -46.0%        -47.2%        -48.6%        -50.2%        -52.1%        -54.1%        -56.2%        -58.4%        -60.8%   
-20%   -40%     -36.0%        -36.2%        -36.6%        -37.4%        -38.5%        -39.9%        -41.5%        -43.4%        -45.5%        -47.7%        -50.2%        -52.7%        -55.3%   
-15%   -30%     -27.8%        -27.9%        -28.5%        -29.4%        -30.6%        -32.1%        -34.0%        -36.1%        -38.4%        -41.0%        -43.7%        -46.6%        -49.6%   
-10%   -20%     -19.0%        -19.2%        -19.8%        -20.8%        -22.2%        -23.9%        -26.0%        -28.3%        -31.0%        -33.8%        -36.9%        -40.1%        -43.5%   
-5%   -10%     -9.8%        -10.0%        -10.6%        -11.8%        -13.3%        -15.2%        -17.5%        -20.2%        -23.1%        -26.3%        -29.7%        -33.3%        -37.0%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.2%        -1.0%        -2.2%        -3.9%        -6.1%        -8.6%        -11.5%        -14.8%        -18.3%        -22.1%        -26.1%        -30.2%   
5%   10%     10.3%        10.0%        9.2%        7.8%        5.9%        3.6%        0.8%        -2.5%        -6.1%        -10.0%        -14.1%        -18.5%        -23.1%   
10%   20%     21.0%        20.7%        19.8%        18.3%        16.3%        13.7%        10.6%        7.0%        3.1%        -1.2%        -5.8%        -10.6%        -15.6%   
15%   30%     32.3%        31.9%        30.9%        29.3%        27.1%        24.2%        20.9%        17.0%        12.7%        8.0%        3.0%        -2.3%        -7.7%   
20%   40%     44.0%        43.6%        42.6%        40.8%        38.4%        35.3%        31.6%        27.4%        22.7%        17.6%        12.1%        6.4%        0.5%   
25%   50%     56.3%        55.9%        54.7%        52.8%        50.1%        46.8%        42.8%        38.2%        33.1%        27.6%        21.7%        15.5%        9.0%   
30%   60%     69.0%        68.6%        67.3%        65.2%        62.4%        58.8%        54.5%        49.5%        44.0%        38.0%        31.6%        24.9%        17.9%   
35%   70%     82.3%        81.8%        80.4%        78.2%        75.1%        71.2%        66.6%        61.2%        55.3%        48.8%        41.9%        34.7%        27.2%   
40%   80%     96.0%        95.5%        94.0%        91.6%        88.3%        84.1%        79.1%        73.4%        67.0%        60.1%        52.6%        44.8%        36.7%   
45%   90%     110.3%        109.7%        108.2%        105.6%        102.0%        97.5%        92.2%        86.0%        79.2%        71.7%        63.7%        55.4%        46.7%   
50%   100%     125.0%        124.4%        122.8%        120.0%        116.2%        111.4%        105.6%        99.1%        91.7%        83.8%        75.2%        66.3%        57.0%   
55%   110%     140.3%        139.7%        137.9%        134.9%        130.8%        125.7%        119.6%        112.6%        104.7%        96.2%        87.1%        77.5%        67.6%   
60%   120%     156.0%        155.4%        153.5%        150.3%        146.0%        140.5%        134.0%        126.5%        118.1%        109.1%        99.4%        89.2%        78.6%   

 

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The table below shows a performance example of a Short ProShares Fund that has an investment objective to correspond to the inverse (-1x) of the daily performance of an index. In the chart below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where a Short ProShares Fund will return the same or outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance; conversely areas shaded in red represent those scenarios where a Short ProShares Fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to the Inverse (-1x) of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index
  Inverse

(-1x) of

One Year
Index

    Index Volatility   
Performance   Performance   0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   60%     150.0%        149.4%        147.5%        144.4%        140.2%        134.9%        128.5%        121.2%        113.0%        104.2%        94.7%        84.7%        74.4%   
-55%   55%     122.2%        121.7%        120.0%        117.3%        113.5%        108.8%        103.1%        96.6%        89.4%        81.5%        73.1%        64.2%        55.0%   
-50%   50%     100.0%        99.5%        98.0%        95.6%        92.2%        87.9%        82.8%        76.9%        70.4%        63.3%        55.8%        47.8%        39.5%   
-45%   45%     81.8%        81.4%        80.0%        77.8%        74.7%        70.8%        66.2%        60.9%        54.9%        48.5%        41.6%        34.4%        26.9%   
-40%   40%     66.7%        66.3%        65.0%        63.0%        60.1%        56.6%        52.3%        47.5%        42.0%        36.1%        29.8%        23.2%        16.3%   
-35%   35%     53.8%        53.5%        52.3%        50.4%        47.8%        44.5%        40.6%        36.1%        31.1%        25.6%        19.8%        13.7%        7.3%   
-30%   30%     42.9%        42.5%        41.4%        39.7%        37.3%        34.2%        30.6%        26.4%        21.7%        16.7%        11.3%        5.6%        -0.3%   
-25%   25%     33.3%        33.0%        32.0%        30.4%        28.1%        25.3%        21.9%        18.0%        13.6%        8.9%        3.8%        -1.5%        -7.0%   
-20%   20%     25.0%        24.7%        23.8%        22.2%        20.1%        17.4%        14.2%        10.6%        6.5%        2.1%        -2.6%        -7.6%        -12.8%   
-15%   15%     17.6%        17.4%        16.5%        15.0%        13.0%        10.5%        7.5%        4.1%        0.3%        -3.9%        -8.4%        -13.1%        -17.9%   
-10%   10%     11.1%        10.8%        10.0%        8.6%        6.8%        4.4%        1.5%        -1.7%        -5.3%        -9.3%        -13.5%        -17.9%        -22.5%   
-5%   5%     5.3%        5.0%        4.2%        2.9%        1.1%        -1.1%        -3.8%        -6.9%        -10.3%        -14.0%        -18.0%        -22.2%        -26.6%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.2%        -1.0%        -2.2%        -3.9%        -6.1%        -8.6%        -11.5%        -14.8%        -18.3%        -22.1%        -26.1%        -30.2%   
5%   -5%     -4.8%        -5.0%        -5.7%        -6.9%        -8.5%        -10.5%        -13.0%        -15.7%        -18.8%        -22.2%        -25.8%        -29.6%        -33.6%   
10%   -10%     -9.1%        -9.3%        -10.0%        -11.1%        -12.7%        -14.6%        -16.9%        -19.6%        -22.5%        -25.8%        -29.2%        -32.8%        -36.6%   
15%   -15%     -13.0%        -13.3%        -13.9%        -15.0%        -16.5%        -18.3%        -20.5%        -23.1%        -25.9%        -29.0%        -32.3%        -35.7%        -39.3%   
20%   -20%     -16.7%        -16.9%        -17.5%        -18.5%        -19.9%        -21.7%        -23.8%        -26.3%        -29.0%        -31.9%        -35.1%        -38.4%        -41.9%   
25%   -25%     -20.0%        -20.2%        -20.8%        -21.8%        -23.1%        -24.8%        -26.9%        -29.2%        -31.8%        -34.7%        -37.7%        -40.9%        -44.2%   
30%   -30%     -23.1%        -23.3%        -23.8%        -24.8%        -26.1%        -27.7%        -29.7%        -31.9%        -34.5%        -37.2%        -40.1%        -43.2%        -46.3%   
35%   -35%     -25.9%        -26.1%        -26.7%        -27.6%        -28.8%        -30.4%        -32.3%        -34.5%        -36.9%        -39.5%        -42.3%        -45.3%        -48.3%   
40%   -40%     -28.6%        -28.7%        -29.3%        -30.2%        -31.4%        -32.9%        -34.7%        -36.8%        -39.1%        -41.7%        -44.4%        -47.2%        -50.2%   
45%   -45%     -31.0%        -31.2%        -31.7%        -32.6%        -33.7%        -35.2%        -37.0%        -39.0%        -41.2%        -43.7%        -46.3%        -49.0%        -51.9%   
50%   -50%     -33.3%        -33.5%        -34.0%        -34.8%        -35.9%        -37.4%        -39.1%        -41.0%        -43.2%        -45.6%        -48.1%        -50.7%        -53.5%   
55%   -55%     -35.5%        -35.6%        -36.1%        -36.9%        -38.0%        -39.4%        -41.0%        -42.9%        -45.0%        -47.3%        -49.8%        -52.3%        -55.0%   
60%   -60%     -37.5%        -37.7%        -38.1%        -38.9%        -40.0%        -41.3%        -42.9%        -44.7%        -46.7%        -49.0%        -51.3%        -53.8%        -56.4%   

 

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The table below shows a performance example of an UltraShort ProShares Fund that has an investment objective to correspond to two times the inverse (-2x) of the daily performance of an index. In the chart below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where an UltraShort ProShares Fund will return the same or outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance; conversely areas shaded in red represent those scenarios where an UltraShort ProShares Fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Two Times the Inverse (-2x) of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index
  Two Times

the Inverse

(-2x) of
One Year
Index

    Index Volatility   
Performance   Performance   0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   120%     525.0%        520.3%        506.5%        484.2%        454.3%        418.1%        377.1%        332.8%        286.7%        240.4%        195.2%        152.2%        112.2%   
-55%   110%     393.8%        390.1%        379.2%        361.6%        338.0%        309.4%        277.0%        242.0%        205.6%        169.0%        133.3%        99.3%        67.7%   
-50%   100%     300.0%        297.0%        288.2%        273.9%        254.8%        231.6%        205.4%        177.0%        147.5%        117.9%        88.9%        61.4%        35.8%   
-45%   90%     230.6%        228.1%        220.8%        209.0%        193.2%        174.1%        152.4%        128.9%        104.6%        80.1%        56.2%        33.4%        12.3%   
-40%   80%     177.8%        175.7%        169.6%        159.6%        146.4%        130.3%        112.0%        92.4%        71.9%        51.3%        31.2%        12.1%        -5.7%   
-35%   70%     136.7%        134.9%        129.7%        121.2%        109.9%        96.2%        80.7%        63.9%        46.5%        28.9%        11.8%        -4.5%        -19.6%   
-30%   60%     104.1%        102.6%        98.1%        90.8%        81.0%        69.2%        55.8%        41.3%        26.3%        11.2%        -3.6%        -17.6%        -30.7%   
-25%   50%     77.8%        76.4%        72.5%        66.2%        57.7%        47.4%        35.7%        23.1%        10.0%        -3.2%        -16.0%        -28.3%        -39.6%   
-20%   40%     56.3%        55.1%        51.6%        46.1%        38.6%        29.5%        19.3%        8.2%        -3.3%        -14.9%        -26.2%        -36.9%        -46.9%   
-15%   30%     38.4%        37.4%        34.3%        29.4%        22.8%        14.7%        5.7%        -4.2%        -14.4%        -24.6%        -34.6%        -44.1%        -53.0%   
-10%   20%     23.5%        22.5%        19.8%        15.4%        9.5%        2.3%        -5.8%        -14.5%        -23.6%        -32.8%        -41.7%        -50.2%        -58.1%   
-5%   10%     10.8%        10.0%        7.5%        3.6%        -1.7%        -8.1%        -15.4%        -23.3%        -31.4%        -39.6%        -47.7%        -55.3%        -62.4%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.7%        -3.0%        -6.5%        -11.3%        -17.1%        -23.7%        -30.8%        -38.1%        -45.5%        -52.8%        -59.6%        -66.0%   
5%   -10%     -9.3%        -10.0%        -12.0%        -15.2%        -19.6%        -24.8%        -30.8%        -37.2%        -43.9%        -50.6%        -57.2%        -63.4%        -69.2%   
10%   -20%     -17.4%        -18.0%        -19.8%        -22.7%        -26.7%        -31.5%        -36.9%        -42.8%        -48.9%        -55.0%        -61.0%        -66.7%        -71.9%   
15%   -30%     -24.4%        -25.0%        -26.6%        -29.3%        -32.9%        -37.3%        -42.3%        -47.6%        -53.2%        -58.8%        -64.3%        -69.5%        -74.3%   
20%   -40%     -30.6%        -31.1%        -32.6%        -35.1%        -38.4%        -42.4%        -47.0%        -51.9%        -57.0%        -62.2%        -67.2%        -72.0%        -76.4%   
25%   -50%     -36.0%        -36.5%        -37.9%        -40.2%        -43.2%        -46.9%        -51.1%        -55.7%        -60.4%        -65.1%        -69.8%        -74.2%        -78.3%   
30%   -60%     -40.8%        -41.3%        -42.6%        -44.7%        -47.5%        -50.9%        -54.8%        -59.0%        -63.4%        -67.8%        -72.0%        -76.1%        -79.9%   
35%   -70%     -45.1%        -45.5%        -46.8%        -48.7%        -51.3%        -54.5%        -58.1%        -62.0%        -66.0%        -70.1%        -74.1%        -77.9%        -81.4%   
40%   -80%     -49.0%        -49.4%        -50.5%        -52.3%        -54.7%        -57.7%        -61.1%        -64.7%        -68.4%        -72.2%        -75.9%        -79.4%        -82.7%   
45%   -90%     -52.4%        -52.8%        -53.8%        -55.5%        -57.8%        -60.6%        -63.7%        -67.1%        -70.6%        -74.1%        -77.5%        -80.8%        -83.8%   
50%   -100%     -55.6%        -55.9%        -56.9%        -58.5%        -60.6%        -63.2%        -66.1%        -69.2%        -72.5%        -75.8%        -79.0%        -82.1%        -84.9%   
55%   -110%     -58.4%        -58.7%        -59.6%        -61.1%        -63.1%        -65.5%        -68.2%        -71.2%        -74.2%        -77.3%        -80.3%        -83.2%        -85.9%   
60%   -120%     -60.9%        -61.2%        -62.1%        -63.5%        -65.4%        -67.6%        -70.2%        -73.0%        -75.8%        -78.7%        -81.5%        -84.2%        -86.7%   

 

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Table of Contents

The tables below show performance examples of an UltraPro and UltraPro Short ProShares Fund that have investment objectives to correspond to three times (3x) and three times the inverse of (-3x), respectively, the daily performance of an index. In the charts below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where a Fund will return the same as or outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective; conversely, areas shaded in red represent those scenarios where the Fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fund Fees and Expenses and Leverage Costs, that Correspond to Three Times (3x) the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index
  Three Times
(3x)
Index
    Index Volatility   
Performance   Performance   0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   -180%     -93.6%        -93.6%        -93.8%        -94.0%        -94.3%        -94.7%        -95.1%        -95.6%        -96.0%        -96.5%        -97.0%        -97.4%        -97.8%   
-55%   -165%     -90.9%        -91.0%        -91.2%        -91.5%        -91.9%        -92.4%        -93.0%        -93.7%        -94.4%        -95.0%        -95.7%        -96.3%        -96.9%   
-50%   -150%     -87.5%        -87.6%        -87.9%        -88.3%        -88.9%        -89.6%        -90.5%        -91.3%        -92.3%        -93.2%        -94.1%        -95.0%        -95.8%   
-45%   -135%     -83.4%        -83.5%        -83.9%        -84.4%        -85.2%        -86.2%        -87.3%        -88.5%        -89.7%        -90.9%        -92.1%        -93.3%        -94.3%   
-40%   -120%     -78.4%        -78.6%        -79.0%        -79.8%        -80.8%        -82.1%        -83.5%        -85.0%        -86.6%        -88.2%        -89.8%        -91.3%        -92.7%   
-35%   -105%     -72.5%        -72.7%        -73.3%        -74.3%        -75.6%        -77.2%        -79.0%        -81.0%        -83.0%        -85.0%        -87.0%        -88.9%        -90.7%   
-30%   -90%     -65.7%        -66.0%        -66.7%        -67.9%        -69.6%        -71.6%        -73.8%        -76.2%        -78.8%        -81.3%        -83.8%        -86.2%        -88.4%   
-25%   -75%     -57.8%        -58.1%        -59.1%        -60.6%        -62.6%        -65.0%        -67.8%        -70.8%        -73.9%        -77.0%        -80.1%        -83.0%        -85.7%   
-20%   -60%     -48.8%        -49.2%        -50.3%        -52.1%        -54.6%        -57.6%        -60.9%        -64.5%        -68.3%        -72.1%        -75.8%        -79.3%        -82.6%   
-15%   -45%     -38.6%        -39.0%        -40.4%        -42.6%        -45.5%        -49.1%        -53.1%        -57.5%        -62.0%        -66.5%        -71.0%        -75.2%        -79.1%   
-10%   -30%     -27.1%        -27.6%        -29.3%        -31.9%        -35.3%        -39.6%        -44.3%        -49.5%        -54.9%        -60.3%        -65.6%        -70.6%        -75.2%   
-5%   -15%     -14.3%        -14.9%        -16.8%        -19.9%        -24.0%        -28.9%        -34.5%        -40.6%        -46.9%        -53.3%        -59.5%        -65.4%        -70.9%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.7%        -3.0%        -6.5%        -11.3%        -17.1%        -23.7%        -30.8%        -38.1%        -45.5%        -52.8%        -59.6%        -66.0%   
5%   15%     15.8%        14.9%        12.3%        8.2%        2.7%        -4.0%        -11.6%        -19.8%        -28.4%        -36.9%        -45.3%        -53.3%        -60.7%   
10%   30%     33.1%        32.1%        29.2%        24.4%        18.0%        10.3%        1.6%        -7.8%        -17.6%        -27.5%        -37.1%        -46.3%        -54.8%   
15%   45%     52.1%        51.0%        47.6%        42.2%        34.9%        26.1%        16.1%        5.3%        -5.9%        -17.2%        -28.2%        -38.6%        -48.4%   
20%   60%     72.8%        71.5%        67.7%        61.5%        53.3%        43.3%        31.9%        19.7%        6.9%        -5.9%        -18.4%        -30.3%        -41.3%   
25%   75%     95.3%        93.9%        89.5%        82.6%        73.2%        61.9%        49.1%        35.2%        20.9%        6.4%        -7.7%        -21.2%        -33.7%   
30%   90%     119.7%        118.1%        113.2%        105.4%        94.9%        82.1%        67.7%        52.1%        35.9%        19.7%        3.8%        -11.3%        -25.4%   
35%   105%     146.0%        144.2%        138.8%        130.0%        118.2%        104.0%        87.8%        70.4%        52.2%        34.0%        16.2%        -0.7%        -16.4%   
40%   120%     174.4%        172.3%        166.3%        156.5%        143.4%        127.5%        109.5%        90.0%        69.8%        49.5%        29.6%        10.7%        -6.8%   
45%   135%     204.9%        202.6%        195.9%        185.0%        170.4%        152.7%        132.7%        111.1%        88.6%        66.1%        44.0%        23.0%        3.5%   
50%   150%     237.5%        235.0%        227.5%        215.5%        199.3%        179.8%        157.6%        133.7%        108.8%        83.8%        59.4%        36.2%        14.6%   
55%   165%     272.4%        269.6%        261.4%        248.1%        230.3%        208.7%        184.3%        157.9%        130.4%        102.8%        75.9%        50.3%        26.5%   
60%   180%     309.6%        306.5%        297.5%        282.9%        263.3%        239.6%        212.7%        183.6%        153.5%        123.1%        93.5%        65.3%        39.1%   

 

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Table of Contents

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Three Times the Inverse (-3x) of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index
  Three

Times the
Inverse

(-3x) of
One Year
Index

    Index Volatility   
Performance   Performance   0%     5%