10-K 1 form10k.htm 10-K

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K

☑ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to            

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-33865

Triple-S Management Corporation
 
Puerto Rico
66-0555678
 (STATE OF INCORPORATION)
 
 (I.R.S. ID)

1441 F.D. Roosevelt Avenue, San Juan, PR 00920
(787) 749-4949
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class B common stock, $1.00 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  Class A common stock, $1.00 par value

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
☐  Yes  ☑  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
☐  Yes  ☑  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

☑  Yes  ☐  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
☑  Yes  ☐  No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer  ☐
Accelerated filer  ☑
Non-accelerated filer  ☐
Smaller reporting company  ☐
Emerging growth company  ☐
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
  ☐  Yes  ☑  No
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2017 was $397,286,415 for the Class B common stock (the only stock of the registrant that trades in a public market) and $950,968 for the Class A common stock (valued at its par value of $1.00 since it is not publicly traded).

As of February 26, 2018, the registrant had 950,968 of its Class A common stock outstanding and 22,358,325 of its Class B common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 27, 2018 are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 


Triple-S Management Corporation

FORM 10-K

For The Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
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Part I

Item 1.
Business

General Description of Business and Recent Developments

Triple-S Management Corporation (“Triple-S”, “TSM”, the “Company”, the “Corporation”, “we”, “us” or “our”) is one of the most significant players in the managed care industry in Puerto Rico, serving approximately 978,000 members, with a 27% market share in terms of premiums written in Puerto Rico for the nine-month period ended September 30, 2017.  We have the exclusive right to use the Blue Cross and Blue Shield (“BCBS”) name and mark throughout Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, the British Virgin Islands and Anguilla and over 55 years of experience in the managed care industry.  We offer a broad portfolio of managed care and related products in the Commercial, Medicaid and Medicare markets. We market our managed care products through an extensive network of independent agents and brokers located throughout Puerto Rico as well as an internal salaried sales force. We provided administration services only or self-insured (“ASO”) managed care services to the Plan de Salud del Gobierno (similar to Medicaid) (“PSG” or “Medicaid”) island-wide until March 31, 2015.  Effective April 1, 2015, the government changed the Medicaid delivery model from an ASO to a risk-based model and we elected to participate in this sector as a fully-insured provider in only two of the eight regions of Puerto Rico.  PSG is funded by the Government of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Government.

We also offer complementary products and services, including life insurance, accident and disability insurance and property and casualty insurance.  We are one of the leading providers of life insurance policies in Puerto Rico.

A substantial majority of our premiums are from customers within Puerto Rico.  In addition, most of all of our long-lived assets, other than financial instruments, including deferred policy acquisition costs and value of business acquired, goodwill and other intangibles, and the deferred tax assets are related to Puerto Rico.

Operating revenues (with intersegment premiums/service revenues shown separately), operating income and total assets attributable to the reportable segments are set forth in note 26 of the audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

On October 2017, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) published the STAR Ratings for payment year 2018.  Our Health Maintenance Organization (“HMO”) contract, scored 4.0 overall on a 5.0 STAR rating system, and achieved 4.5 STARS in Part D. Our Preferred Provider Organization (“PPO”) contract, scored 3.5 overall, and achieved 5.0 STARS in Part D.  STAR ratings are calculated annually and are subject to change each year.
 
Our subsidiary Triple-S Salud, Inc. (“TSS”) was granted Utilization Review Accreditation Commission (“URAC”) effective March 1, 2017.  Reaccreditation is scheduled for 2020.  This is a requirement for the Federal Employees Program representing over $175 million in premiums. The accreditation is extensive to the whole Commercial and Medicaid lines of business since they are managed in the same operational platforms as the Federal Employees Program.  These achievements evidence the corporate commitment to quality in health services for our members and affiliates.
 
In August 2017, we announced the immediate commencement of a Class B $30.0 million share repurchase program, as authorized by our Board of Directors. In February 2018 the Board of Directors authorized a $25.0 million expansion to the existing $30.0 million Class B repurchase program. This program is conducted in accordance with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
On August 29, 2017, TSS and OptumInsight, Inc. (“Optum”) entered into a Master Services Agreement (the “Agreement”). Pursuant to the terms of the Agreement, Optum will provide healthcare technology and operations services, including information technology, claims processing and application development, to TSS and its affiliates.  The Agreement was effective August 31, 2017 (the “Effective Date”) and is expected to create further operating efficiencies, mostly in the Managed Care operations. The agreement has an initial term of ten (10) years but TSS has the right to extend the term of the Agreement for two (2) additional one (1) year terms.  Under the terms of the Agreement, Optum will: (i) continue providing services already provided to TSS and its affiliates, (ii) provide new services requested by TSS and (iii) provide services in support of any third party administrator arrangements entered into by TSS or its affiliates, in accordance with the terms of separate statements of work to be entered into by the parties. The different services being offered by Optum will be implemented in phases beginning in 2018. The Agreement is subject to the approval of the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration (“ASES” by its Spanish acronym).
 
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, references to “shares” or “common stock” refer collectively to our Class A and Class B common stock, unless the context indicates otherwise.
 
Industry Overview

Managed Care

In response to an increasing focus on health care costs by employers, the government and consumers, there has been an increase in alternatives to traditional indemnity health insurance, such as HMOs and PPOs.  Through the introduction of these alternatives the managed care industry has attempted to contain the cost of health care by negotiating contracts with hospitals, physicians and other providers to deliver health care to plan members at favorable rates.  These products usually feature medical management and other quality and cost optimization measures such as pre-admission review and approval for certain non-emergency services, pre-authorization of certain outpatient surgical procedures, network credentialing to determine that network doctors and hospitals have the required certifications and expertise, and various levels of care management programs to help members better understand and navigate the medical system.  In addition, providers may have incentives to achieve certain quality measures or may share medical cost risk.  Members generally pay co-payments, coinsurance and deductibles when they receive services.  While the distinctions between the various types of plans have lessened over recent years, PPO products generally provide reduced benefits for out-of-network services, while traditional HMO products generally provide little to no reimbursement for non-emergency out-of-network utilization.  An HMO plan may also require members to select one of the network primary care physicians (“PCPs”) to coordinate their care and approve any specialist or other services.

The government of the United States of America (the “U.S. government” or “federal government”) provides hospital and medical insurance benefits to eligible people aged 65 and over as well as certain other qualified persons through the Medicare program, including the Medicare Advantage program.  The federal government also offers prescription drug benefits to Medicare eligibles, both as part of the Medicare Advantage program and on a stand-alone basis, pursuant to Medicare Part D (also referred to as “PDP stand-alone product” or “PDP”).  In addition, the Government of Puerto Rico provides managed care coverage to the medically indigent population of Puerto Rico.

Economic factors and greater consumer awareness have resulted in (a) the increasing popularity of products that offer larger, more extensive networks, more member choice related to coverage, physicians and hospitals, greater access to preventive care and wellness programs, and a desire for greater flexibility for customers to assume larger deductibles and co-payments in return for lower premiums and (b) products with lower benefits and a narrower network in exchange for lower premiums.  We believe we are well positioned to respond to these market preferences due to the breadth and flexibility of our product offering and size of our provider networks.

Life Insurance

Total annual premiums in Puerto Rico for the year ended December 31, 2016 for the life insurance market approximated $1.5 billion.  The main products in this market are ordinary life, cancer and other dreaded diseases, term life, disability and annuities.  The main distribution channels are independent agents.  Banks have established general agencies to cross sell life insurance products, such as term life and credit life.

Property and Casualty Insurance

The total property and casualty market in Puerto Rico in terms of gross premiums written for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 was approximately $1.3 billion.  Property and casualty insurance companies compete for the same accounts through aggressive pricing, more favorable policy terms and better quality of services.  The main lines of business in Puerto Rico are personal and commercial auto, commercial multi-peril, fire and allied lines and other general liabilities.  Approximately 67% of the market is written by the top six insurance groups or companies in terms of market share, and approximately 87% of the market is written by companies incorporated under the laws of and which operate principally in Puerto Rico.

The Puerto Rican property and casualty insurance market is highly dependent on reinsurance.  In September 2017 Puerto Rico was hit by two hurricanes causing severe damages and losses to the insurance market. Moreover, the reinsurance market was impacted even more by other natural catastrophes in the second semester of 2017.  As a result, reinsurance costs are expected to increase significantly in 2018 and subsequent periods; which will also have an effect in the insurance market in Puerto Rico.
 
Puerto Rico’s Economy

The dominant sectors of the Puerto Rico economy in terms of production and income are manufacturing and services.  The current manufacturing sector now places increased emphasis on higher wages, high technology industries, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, computers, microprocessors, professional and scientific instruments, and certain high technology machinery and equipment with almost 90% of manufacturing generated by chemical and electronic products.  The services sector, which includes finance, insurance, real estate, wholesale and retail trade, transportation, communications and public utilities, and other services, plays a major role in the economy.  It ranks second to manufacturing in contribution to the gross domestic product and leads all sectors in providing employment.

The economy of Puerto Rico is affected by external factors determined by the U.S. economy and the policies and results of the U.S. Government.  These external factors include exports, direct investment, the amount of federal transfer payments, the level of interest rates, the rate of inflation, and revenues derived from tourism coming from the U.S.  Generally, the economy of Puerto Rico has followed the economic trends of the U.S. economy.  However, recently the economic growth in Puerto Rico has not been consistent with the performance of the U.S. economy.  The Government of Puerto Rico has faced a number of fiscal challenges, including an imbalance between its general fund revenues and expenditures, reaching its highest level in fiscal year 2009 with a deficit of $3.3 billion.  Recurrent budget deficits have substantially increased the amount of public sector debt.  The total outstanding public sector debt amounted to $68.7 billion as of July 31, 2016, the latest published information by the government.  In 2016, Puerto Rico defaulted on various types of debt, which included General Obligation bonds, after a local debt moratorium provision was evoked.

On June 30, 2016, the President of the United States signed the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (“PROMESA”), which grants the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (the “Government” or the “Commonwealth”) and its component units, access to an orderly mechanism to restructure their debts in exchange for significant federal oversight over the Commonwealth’s finances. In general, PROMESA seeks to provide Puerto Rico with fiscal and economic discipline through the creation of a control board, relief from creditor lawsuits through the enactment of a temporary stay on litigation, and two alternative methods to adjust unsustainable debt.

See “Item 1A.   Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business – Our business is geographically concentrated in Puerto Rico and weakness in the economy and the fiscal health of the government has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact us, particularly following Hurricanes Irma and Maria.’’

Products and Services

Managed Care

Through our subsidiaries TSS and Triple-S Advantage, Inc. (“TSA”), we offer a broad range of managed care products, including HMO plans, PPO plans, Medicare Supplement, Medicare Advantage, and Medicaid plans.  Managed care products represented approximately 92% of our consolidated premiums earned before elimination, net for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.  We design our products to meet the needs and objectives of a wide range of customers, including employers, professional and trade associations, individuals and government entities.  Our customers either contract with us to assume underwriting risk or they self-fund underwriting risk and rely on us for provider network access, medical cost management, claim processing, stop-loss insurance and other administrative services.  Our products vary with respect to the level of benefits provided, the costs paid by employers and members, including deductibles and co-payments, and the extent to which our members' access to providers is subject to referral or preauthorization requirements.

Managed care generally refers to a method of integrating the financing and delivery of health care within a system that manages the cost, accessibility and quality of care.  Managed care products can be further differentiated by the types of provider networks offered, the ability to use providers outside such networks and the scope of the medical management and quality assurance programs.  Our members receive medical care from our networks of providers in exchange for premiums paid by the individuals or their employers, including governmental entities, and, in some instances, a cost-sharing payment between the employer and the member.  We reimburse network providers according to pre-established fee arrangements and other contractual agreements.
 
We currently offer the following managed care plans:

Health Maintenance Organization (“HMO”).    We offer HMO plans that provide members with health care coverage for a fixed monthly premium in addition to applicable member co-payments.  Health care services can include emergency care, inpatient hospital and physician care, outpatient medical services and supplemental services such as dental, vision, behavioral and prescription drugs, among others.  Members must select a primary care physician within the network to provide and assist in managing care, including referrals to specialists.

Preferred Provider Organization (“PPO”).    We offer PPO managed care plans that provide our members and their dependent family members with health care coverage in exchange for a fixed monthly premium.  In addition, we provide our PPO members with access to a larger network of providers than our HMO.  In contrast to our HMO product, we do not require our PPO members to select a primary care physician or to obtain a referral to utilize in-network specialists.  We also provide coverage for PPO members who access providers outside of the network.  Out-of-network benefits are generally subject to a higher deductible and coinsurance.  We also offer national in-network coverage to our PPO members through the BlueCard program.

BlueCard.    For our members who purchase our PPO and selected members under ASO arrangements through our subsidiary TSS, we offer the BlueCard program.  The BlueCard program offers these members in-network benefits through the networks of the other BCBS plans in the United States and certain U.S. territories.  In addition, the BlueCard worldwide program provides our PPO members with coverage for medical assistance worldwide.  We believe that the national and international coverage provided through this program allows us to compete effectively with large national insurers.

Medicare Supplement.    We offer Medicare Supplement products, which provide supplemental coverage for many of the medical expenses that the Medicare Parts A and B programs do not cover, such as deductibles, coinsurance and specified losses that exceed these programs’ maximum benefits.

ASO.    In addition to our fully insured plans, we also offer our PPO products on a self-funded or ASO basis, under which we provide claims processing and other administrative services to employers.  Employers choosing to purchase our products on an ASO basis fund their own claims, but their employees are able to access our provider network at our negotiated discounted rates.  We administer the payment of claims to the providers but we do not bear any insurance risk in connection with claims costs because we are reimbursed in full by the employer, thus we are only subject to credit risk in this business.  For certain self-funded plans, we provide stop loss insurance pursuant to which we assume some of the medical risk for a premium.  The administrative fee charged to self-funded groups is generally based on the size of the group and the scope of services provided.

Life Insurance

We offer a wide variety of life, accident, disability and health and annuity products in Puerto Rico through our subsidiary Triple-S Vida, Inc. (“TSV”).  Life insurance premiums represented approximately 6% of our consolidated premiums earned, before elimination, for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.  TSV markets in-home service life and supplemental health products through a network of company-employed agents.  Ordinary life, cancer and dreaded diseases (“Cancer” line of business), and pre-need life products are marketed through independent agents.  TSV is the leading distributor of life products in Puerto Rico.  We are the only home service company in Puerto Rico and offer guaranteed issue, funeral and cancer policies to the lower and middle income market segments directly to people in their homes.  We also market our group life and disability coverage through our independent producers.

Property and Casualty Insurance

We offer a wide range of property and casualty insurance products through our subsidiary Triple-S Propiedad, Inc. (“TSP”).  Property and casualty insurance net premiums earned represented approximately 3% of our consolidated premiums earned, net before elimination for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.  Our predominant insurance products are commercial multi-peril package, personal package, commercial auto, hospital malpractice, commercial liability, and commercial property.  This segment’s commercial products target small to medium size accounts.
 
Due to our geographical location, property and casualty insurance operations in Puerto Rico are subject to natural catastrophic activity, in particular hurricanes, tropical storms and earthquakes.  As a result, local insurers, including ourselves, rely on the international reinsurance market.  The property and casualty insurance market is affected by the cost of reinsurance, which varies with the catastrophic experience.

We maintain a comprehensive reinsurance program as a means of protecting our surplus in the event of a catastrophe.  Our policy is to enter into reinsurance agreements with reinsurers considered to be financially sound.  Practically all our reinsurers have an A.M. Best rating of ‘‘A-’’ or better, or an equivalent rating from other rating agencies.  During the year ended December 31, 2017, 43.3% of the premiums written in the property and casualty insurance segment were ceded to reinsurers.  Although these reinsurance arrangements do not relieve us of our direct obligations to our insured, we believe that the risk of our reinsurers not paying balances due to us is low.

Marketing and Distribution

Our marketing activities are focused on promoting our strong brands, quality care, customer service efforts, size and quality of provider networks, flexibility of plan designs, financial strength and breadth of product offerings.  We distribute and market our products through several channels, including our salaried and commission-based internal sales force, direct mail, independent brokers and agents, telemarketing staff, traditional media (TV, Press, Billboards, Radio and Cinema) and Digital Media.  We recently added e-commerce as part of our distribution channels.

Branding and Marketing

Our branding and marketing efforts include “brand advertising”, which focuses on the Triple-S name and the BCBS brand for our managed care products and services, “acquisition marketing”, which focuses on attracting new customers, and “institutional advertising” which focuses on our overall corporate image. We believe that the strongest element of our brand identity is the Triple-S name.  We seek to leverage what we believe to be the strong name recognition and comfort level that many existing and potential customers associate with this brand.  Acquisition marketing consists of business-to-business marketing efforts to generate leads for brokers and our sales force as well as direct-to-consumer marketing efforts which are used to add new customers to our direct pay businesses.  Institutional advertising is used to promote key corporate interests and overall company image as well as communicating our company purpose.  We believe these efforts support and further our competitive brand advantage.  We will continue to utilize the Triple-S name and the BCBS brand for all managed care products and services in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, the British Virgin Islands and Anguilla.

Sales and Marketing

We employ a wide variety of sales and marketing activities.  Such activities are closely regulated by CMS and the Office of Personnel Management (“OPM”), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), Puerto Rico Office of the Insurance Commissioner (“Commissioner of Insurance”), Superintendencia General de Seguros de Costa Rica (“ Costa Rica Insurance Superintendence”) and other government of Puerto Rico agencies.  For example, our sales and marketing materials must be approved in advance by the applicable regulatory authorities, and they often impose other regulatory restrictions on our marketing activities.

Distribution

Managed Care Segment.   We rely principally on our internal sales force and a network of independent brokers and agents to market our products.  Individual policies are sold entirely through independent agents who exclusively sell our individual products, and Medicare Advantage and group products are sold through our 370 person internal sales force (promotors and sales representatives) as well through over 200 independent brokers and agents.  We believe that each of these marketing methods is optimally suited to address the specific needs of the customer base to which it is assigned.
 
Strong competition exists among managed care companies for brokers and agents with proven ability to secure new business and maintain existing accounts.  The basis of competition for the services of such brokers and agents are commission structure, support services, reputation and prior relationships, the ability to retain clients and the quality of products.  We pay commissions on a monthly basis based on premiums paid.  We believe that we have good relationships with our brokers and agents, and that our products, support services and commission structure are highly competitive in the marketplace.

Life Insurance Segment    In our life insurance segment, we offer our insurance products through our own network of both company-employed and independent agents.  The majority of our premiums (61.5% in 2017 and 64.0% in 2016) were placed through our home service distribution channel selling directly to customers in their homes.  TSV employs approximately 630 full-time active agents and managers and utilizes approximately 400 independent agents and brokers.  For individual policies, we advance first year commissions upon issuance and for group policies, we pay commissions on a monthly basis based on premiums received.

Property and Casualty Insurance Segment.   In our property and casualty insurance segment, business is primarily subscribed through approximately 15 general agencies, including our insurance agency, Triple-S Insurance Agency, Inc. (“TSIA”), where business is placed by independent insurance agents and brokers.  During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 TSIA placed approximately 69%, 73% and 73% of TSP’s total premium volume, respectively.  General agencies contracted by TSP remit premiums net of their respective commission.
 
Customers

Managed Care

We offer our products in the managed care segment to three distinct market sectors in Puerto Rico.  The following table sets forth enrollment information with respect to each sector:
 
Market Sector
 
Enrollment at
December 31, 2017
   
Percentage of
Total Enrollment
 
Commercial
   
475,026
     
48.6
%
Medicare
   
118,451
     
12.1
%
Medicaid
   
384,462
     
39.3
%
Total
   
977,939
     
100.0
%
 
Commercial Sector

The commercial accounts sector includes corporate accounts, federal government employees, individual accounts, local government employees, and Medicare Supplement.

Corporate Accounts.    Corporate accounts consist of small (2 to 50 employees) and large employers (over 50 employees).  Employer groups may choose various funding options ranging from fully-insured to self-funded financial arrangements or a combination of both.  While self-funded clients participate in our managed care networks, the clients bear the insurance risk, except to the extent they maintain stop loss coverage.  This sector also includes professional and trade associations.

Federal Government Employees.    For over 40 years, we have maintained our leadership in providing managed care services to federal government employees in Puerto Rico.  We provide our services to these employees under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program pursuant to a direct contract with OPM and through the Federal Employee Program of the BCBSA.  We are one of two companies in Puerto Rico that has such a contract with OPM.  Every year, OPM allows other insurance companies to compete for this business, provided such companies comply with the applicable requirements for service providers.  This contract is subject to termination in the event of a non-compliance that is not corrected to the satisfaction of OPM.
 
Individual Accounts.    We provide managed care services to individuals and their dependent family members who contract these services directly with us through our network of independent brokers.  We provide individual and family contracts.

Local Government Employees.    We provide full risk managed care services to the local government of Puerto Rico employees through a government-sponsored program.  Annually, the government qualifies the managed care companies that participate in this program and sets the coverage, including benefits, co-payments and amount to be contributed by the government.  Employees then select from one of the authorized companies and pays for the difference between the premium of the selected carrier and the amount contributed by the government.

Medicare Supplement.    We offer Medicare Supplement products, which provide supplemental coverage for many of the medical expenses that the Medicare Parts A and B programs do not cover, such as deductibles, coinsurance and specified losses that exceed the federal program’s maximum benefits.

Medicare Advantage Sector

Medicare is a federal program administered by CMS that provides a variety of hospital and medical insurance benefits to eligible persons aged 65 and over as well as to certain other qualified persons.  Medicare, with the approval of the Medicare Modernization Act, started promoting a managed care organizations (“MCO”) sponsored Medicare product that offers benefits similar to or better than the traditional Medicare product, but where the risk is assumed by the MCOs.  This program is called Medicare Advantage.  We have contracts with CMS to provide extended Medicare coverage to Medicare beneficiaries under our Dual and Non-Dual products.  Under these annual contracts, CMS pays us a set premium rate based on membership that is risk adjusted for health status.  Depending on the total benefits offered, for certain of our Medicare Advantage products the member will also be required to pay a premium.

Our Dual products target the sector of the population eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid, or dual-eligible beneficiaries.  The government of Puerto Rico has implemented a plan to allow dual-eligibles enrolled in Medicaid to move to a Medicare Advantage plan under which the government, rather than the insured, will assume all of the premiums for additional benefits not included in the Medicare Advantage programs, such as deductibles and co-payments of prescription drug benefits.

Medicaid

The government of Puerto Rico has privatized the delivery of services to the medically indigent population in Puerto Rico, as defined by the government, by contracting with private managed care companies instead of providing health services directly to such population.  The government divided Puerto Rico into eight geographical areas.  Each of the eight geographical areas is awarded to a managed care company doing business in Puerto Rico through a competitive bid process.  We currently provide healthcare services in the Metro-North and West regions to approximately 384,000 members.  As of December 31, 2017, this program provided healthcare coverage to over 1.2 million people.

This program is based on the Medicaid program, a joint federal and state health insurance program for medically indigent residents of the state.  The Medicaid program is structured to provide states the flexibility to establish eligibility requirements, benefits provided, payment rates, and program administration rules, subject to general federal guidelines.

Our agreement with the government of Puerto Rico is subject to termination in the event of a non-compliance event that is not corrected or cured to the satisfaction of the government entity overseeing Medicaid, or in the event that the government determines that there is an insufficiency of funds to finance the program.  See “Item 1A – Risks Factors – Risks Related to our Business – We are dependent on a small number of government contracts to generate a significant amount of the revenues of our managed care business”.
 
Life Insurance

Our life insurance customers consist primarily of individuals, who hold approximately 607,400 policies.  We also insure approximately 1,560 groups.
 
Property and Casualty Insurance

Our property and casualty insurance segment targets small to medium size accounts with low to average exposures to catastrophic losses.  The auto physical damage and auto liability customer bases are primarily of commercial accounts.  Personal business are primarily generated with sales of our personal package product, ProPack, that includes coverage for residences, personal property, and automobile.  Also, professional liability coverage is offered with hospital and medical malpractice products.

Underwriting and Pricing

Managed Care

We strive to maintain our market leadership by trying to provide all of our managed care members with the best health care coverage at a reasonable cost.  We believe that disciplined underwriting and appropriate pricing are core strengths of our business and important competitive advantages.  We continually review our underwriting and pricing guidelines on a product-by-product and customer group-by-group basis to maintain competitive rates in terms of both price and scope of benefits.  Pricing is based on the overall risk level and the estimated administrative expenses attributable to each particular segment.

Our claims database enables us to establish rates based on each renewing group claims experience, which provides us with important insights about the risks in our service areas.  We tightly manage the overall rating process and have processes in place to ensure that underwriting decisions are made by properly qualified personnel.  In addition, we have developed and implemented a utilization review and fraud and abuse prevention program.

We have been able to maintain relatively high retention rates, which is the percentage of existing clients retained in the renewal process, in the corporate accounts sector of our managed care business.  For 2017 and 2016 our corporate accounts retention factor was 92% and 88%, respectively.

Our managed care rates are set prospectively, meaning that a fixed premium rate is determined at the beginning of each contract year and revised at renewal.  We renegotiate the premiums of different groups in the corporate accounts as their existing annual contracts become due.  We set rates for individual contracts based on the most recent semi-annual claims data.  We consider the actual claims trend of each group when determining the premium rates for the following contract year.  Rates in the Medicare sector and for federal and local government employees are generally set on an annual basis through negotiations with the U.S. Federal and Puerto Rico Governments, as applicable.

Life Insurance

Our individual life insurance business has been priced using mortality, morbidity, lapses and expense assumptions which approximate actual experience for each line of business.  We review pricing assumptions on a regular basis.  Individual insurance applications are reviewed by utilizing common underwriting standards in use in the United States, and only those applications that meet these commonly-used underwriting requirements are approved for policy issuance.  Our group life insurance business is written on a group-by-group basis.  We develop the pricing for our group life business based on mortality and morbidity experience and estimated expenses attributable to each particular line of business.

Property and Casualty Insurance

The property and casualty insurance sector has experienced a soft market in Puerto Rico, principally as a result of economic conditions and reinsurance capacity, which is now changing due to the losses generated by the hurricanes in the current year.  Notwithstanding these conditions, our property and casualty segment has maintained its leadership position in the property insurance sector by following prudent underwriting and pricing practices.
 
Our core business is comprised of small and medium-sized accounts.  The volume of business is subject to attentive risk assessment and strict adherence to underwriting guidelines, combined with maintenance of competitive rates on above-par risks designed to maintain a relatively high retention ratio.  Underwriting strategies and practices are closely monitored by senior management and constantly updated based on market trends, risk assessment results and loss experience.  Commercial risks in particular are fully reviewed by our underwriters.

Quality Initiatives and Medical Management

We utilize a broad range of focused traditional cost containment and advanced care management processes across various product lines.  We continue to enhance our management strategies, which seek to control claims costs while striving to fulfill the needs of highly informed and demanding managed care consumers.  One of these strategies is the reinforcement of population and case management programs, which empower consumers by educating them and engaging them in actively maintaining or improving their own health.  Early identification of patients and inter-program referrals are the focus of these programs, which allow us to provide integrated services to our customers based on their specific conditions.  The population management programs include programs that target asthma, congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, and a prenatal program that focuses on preventing prenatal complications and promoting adequate nutrition.  We developed a medication therapy management program aimed at plan members who are identified as having high drug utilization and unrelated diagnostics.  In addition, TSS, through a third party supplier, provides to our members a 24-hour telephone-based triage program and health information services.  TSS also provides utilization management services for our Medicare sector.  We intend to maximize utilization of population and case management programs among our insured populations.  Other strategies include innovative partnerships and business alliances with other entities to provide new products and services such as an employee assistance program and the promotion of evidence-based protocols and patient safety programs among our providers.  We also employ registered nurses and social workers to manage individual cases and coordinate healthcare services.  We have enhanced our hospital concurrent review program, the goal of which is to monitor the appropriateness of high admission rate diagnoses and unnecessary stays.  To expand the scope of the revision, we established a phone based review for low admissions hospitals, which freed resources to cover the biggest hospitals and allowed the onsite nurses to participate in the patient discharge planning, referral to programs, the quality of the services, including the occurrence of never events.  As part of the cost containment measures we have preauthorization services for certain procedures and the mandatory validation of member eligibility prior to accessing services.  In addition, we provide a variety of services and programs for the acute, chronic and complex populations.  These services and programs seek to enhance quality at physicians’ premises, thus reducing emergency care and hospitalizations.  We promote the use of a formulary for accessing medications, encouraging the use of generic drugs in the three-tier formulary, which offers three co-payment levels.

We have also established an exclusive pharmacy network with higher discounted rates than our broader network.  In addition, through arrangements with our pharmacy benefits manager, we are able to obtain discounts and rebates on certain medications based on formulary listing and market share.

We have designed a comprehensive Quality Improvement Program (“QIP”).  This program is designed with a strong emphasis on continuous improvement of clinical and service indicators, such as Health Employment Data Information Set (“HEDIS”) and Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (“CAHPS”) measures.  Our QIP also includes a Physician Incentive Program (“PIP”) and a Hospital Quality Incentive Program (“HQIP”), which are directed to support corporate quality initiatives, utilizing clinical and benchmark criteria developed by governmental agencies and nationally recognized professional organizations.  The PIP encourages the participation of members in chronic care improvement programs and the achievement of specific clinical outcomes.  The HQIP encourages participating hospitals to achieve the national benchmarks related to the five core measures established by CMS and the Joint Commission.
 
Provider Arrangements

Approximately 99% of member services are provided through one of our contracted provider networks and the remainder is provided by out-of-network providers.  Our relationships with managed care providers, physicians, hospitals, other facilities and ancillary managed care providers are guided by standards established by applicable regulatory authorities for network development, reimbursement and contract methodologies.

We contract with our managed care providers in different forms, including capitation-based reimbursement.  For certain ancillary services, such as behavioral health services and primary care services in certain of our products, we generally enter into capitation arrangements with entities that offer broad based services through their own contracts with providers.  We attempt to provide market-based reimbursement along industry standards.  We seek to ensure that providers in our networks are paid in a timely manner, and we provide means and procedures for claims adjustments and dispute resolution.  We also provide a dedicated service center for our providers.  We seek to maintain broad provider networks to ensure member choice while implementing effective management programs designed to improve the quality of care received by our members.

We promote the use of electronic claims billing by our providers.  Approximately 93% of claims are submitted electronically through our fully automated claims processing system, and our “first-pass rate”, or rate at which a claim is approved for payment when first processed by our system without human intervention, for provider claims has averaged 92% in 2017.

We believe that physicians and other providers primarily consider member volume, reimbursement rates, timeliness of reimbursement and administrative service capabilities along with the “non-hassle” factor, or reduction of non-value adding administrative tasks, when deciding whether to contract with a managed care plan.  As a result of our established position in the Puerto Rican market, the strength of the Triple-S name and our association with the BCBSA, we believe we have strong relationships with hospital and provider networks leading to a strong competitive position in terms of hospital count, number of providers and number of in-network specialists.

Hospitals.    We generally contract for hospital services to be paid on an all-inclusive per diem basis, which includes all services necessary during a hospital stay.  We also contract some hospital services to be paid on diagnosis-related groups which is an all-inclusive rate per admission.  Negotiated rates vary among hospitals based on the complexity of services provided.  We annually evaluate these rates and revise them, if appropriate.

Physicians.   Fee-for-service is our predominant reimbursement methodology for physicians in our PPO products and for services referred by the independent practice associations (“IPAs”) under capitation agreements.  Our physician rate schedules applicable to services provided by in-network physicians are pegged to a resource-based relative value system fee schedule and then adjusted for competitive rates in the market.  This structure is similar to reimbursement agreement methodologies developed and used by the Medicare program and other major payers.  Payments to physicians under the Medicare Advantage program are based on Medicare fees.  For certain of our Medicare products we contract with IPAs in the form of capitation-based reimbursement for certain risks.  We have a network of IPAs that provide managed care services to our members in exchange for a capitation fee.  The IPAs assume the costs of certain primary care services provided and referred by their PCPs, including procedures and in-patient services not related to risks assumed by us.

Services are provided to our members through our network providers with whom we contract directly.  Members seeking medical treatment outside of Puerto Rico are served by providers in these areas through the BlueCard program, which offers access to the provider networks of the other BCBS plans.

Subcontracting.    We subcontract our triage call center, certain utilization management, mental and substance abuse health services, and pharmacy benefits management services through contracts with third parties.

In addition, we contract with a number of other ancillary service providers, including laboratory service providers, home health agency providers and intermediate and long-term care providers, to provide access to a wide range of services.  These providers are normally paid on either a fee schedule or fixed per day or per case basis.
 
On August 29, 2017, we entered into a Master Services Agreement in which OptumInsight, Inc. will provide healthcare technology and operations services, including information technology, claims processing and application development, to TSS and its affiliates.
 
Competition

The insurance industry in Puerto Rico is highly competitive and is comprised of both local and national entities.  The approval of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, has opened the insurance market to new competition by allowing financial institutions such as banks to enter into the insurance business.  Several banks in Puerto Rico have established subsidiaries that operate as insurance agencies, brokers and reinsurers.

Managed Care

The managed care industry is highly competitive, both nationally and in Puerto Rico.  Competition continues to be intense due to aggressive marketing, business consolidations, a proliferation of new products and increased quality awareness and price sensitivity among customers.  Industry participants compete for customers based on the ability to provide a total value proposition which we believe includes quality of service and flexibility in benefit design, access to and quality of provider networks, brand recognition and reputation, price and financial stability.

Competitors in the managed care segment include national and local managed care plans.  At December 31, 2017, we had approximately 978,000 members enrolled in our managed care segment.  Our market share in terms of premiums written in Puerto Rico was estimated at approximately 27% for the nine-month period ended September 30, 2017.

We believe that our competitive strengths, including our leading presence in Puerto Rico, our BCBS license, the size and quality of our provider network, the broad range of our product offerings, our strong complementary businesses and our experienced management team, position us well to satisfy these competitive requirements.

Life Insurance

We are one of the leading providers of life insurance products in Puerto Rico.  In 2016, we were the second largest life insurance company in Puerto Rico, as measured by direct premiums, with a market share of approximately 10.5%.  We are the only life insurance company that distributes our products through home service.  However, we face competition in each of our product lines.  Excluding annuities, we are the largest company in the life insurance and cancer lines of business, with market shares of approximately to 19.8% and 20.6% respectively.

Property & Casualty Insurance

The property and casualty insurance market in Puerto Rico is extremely competitive.  In addition, soft market conditions have prevailed in Puerto Rico for a long period of time.  In the local market, such conditions mostly affected commercial risks, precluding rate increases and even provoking lower premiums on both renewals and new business.  After the hurricanes causing losses in Puerto Rico during September 2017, the commercial markets are experiencing increases in pricing and modifications on policy conditions, which is the typical reaction in the period following a natural catastrophic event.   Property and casualty insurance companies tend to compete for the same accounts through price, policy terms and quality of services.  We compete by reasonably pricing our products and providing efficient services to producers, agents and clients.

In the nine-month period ended September 30, 2017, we were the fourth largest property and casualty insurance company in Puerto Rico, as measured by direct premiums, with a market share approximating 8%.
 
Blue Cross and Blue Shield License

We have license agreements with BCBSA that permit us the exclusive use of the BCBS name and marks for the sale, marketing and administration of managed care plans and related services in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, the British Virgin Islands and Anguilla.  We believe that the BCBS name and marks are valuable brands of our products and services in the marketplace.  The license agreements, which have a perpetual term (but are subject to termination under circumstances described below), contain certain requirements and restrictions regarding our operations and our use of the BCBS name and marks.

Upon the occurrence of any event causing the termination of our license agreements, we would cease to have the right to use the BCBS name and marks.  We also would no longer have access to the networks of providers of the different plans that are members of the Association nor the BlueCard Program.  We would expect to lose a significant portion of our membership if we lose these licenses.  Loss of these licenses could significantly harm our ability to compete in our markets and could require payment of a significant fee to the BCBSA.  Furthermore, if our licenses were terminated, the BCBSA would be free to issue a new license to use the BCBS name and marks to another entity, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  See “Item 1A   Risk Factors–Risks Related to Our Business – The termination or modification of our license agreements to use the BCBS name and marks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

Events which could result in termination of our license agreements include, but are not limited to:

failure to maintain our total adjusted capital at or above 375% of Health Risk-Based Capital (“HRBC”) Authorized Control Level (“ACL”) as defined by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) for the for Primary Licensee (TSM) and Larger BCBS Controlled Affiliate (TSS) and 100% HRBC ACL for the Smaller BCBS Controlled Affiliate (TSA);

failure to maintain liquidity of greater than one month of underwritten claims and administrative expenses, as defined by the BCBSA, for two consecutive quarters;

failure to satisfy state-mandated statutory net worth requirements;

impending financial insolvency; and

a change of control not otherwise approved by the BCBSA or a violation of the BCBSA voting and ownership limitations on our capital stock.

The BCBSA license agreements and membership standards specifically permit a licensee to operate as a for-profit, publicly-traded stock company, subject to certain governance and ownership requirements.

Pursuant to our license agreements with BCBSA, at least 80% of the revenue that we earn from health care plans and related services in Puerto Rico, and at least 66.7% of the revenue that we earn from (or at least 66.7% of the enrollment for) health care plans and related services both in the United States and in Puerto Rico together, must be sold, marketed, administered, or underwritten through use of the BCBS name and marks.  This may limit the extent to which we will be able to expand our health care operations, whether through acquisitions of existing managed care providers or otherwise, in areas where a holder of an exclusive right to the BCBS name and marks is already present.  Currently, the BCBS name and marks are licensed to other entities in all markets of the continental United States, Hawaii, and Alaska.

As required by our BCBS license agreements, our articles of incorporation prohibit any institutional investor from owning 10% or more of our voting power, any person that is not an institutional investor from owning 5% or more of our voting power, and any person from beneficially owning shares of our common stock or other equity securities, or a combination thereof, representing a 20% or more ownership interest in us.  To the extent that a person, including an institutional investor, acquires shares in excess of these limits, our articles provide that we will have the power to take certain actions, including refusing to give effect to a transfer or instituting proceedings to enjoin or rescind a transfer, in order to avoid a violation of the ownership limitation in the articles.
 
Pursuant to the rules and license standards of the BCBSA, TSM guarantees TSS and Triple-S Blue, Inc. (“TSB”) contractual and financial obligations to their respective customers.  Also, TSS guarantees TSA’s contractual and financial obligations to their respective customers.  In addition, pursuant to the rules and license standards of the BCBSA, we have agreed to indemnify the BCBSA against any claims asserted against it resulting from our contractual and financial obligations.

Each license requires an annual fee to be paid to the BCBSA.  The fee is determined based on a per-contract charge from products using the BCBS name and marks.  The annual BCBSA fee for the year 2018 is $1,409,481.  During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we paid fees to the BCBSA in the amount of $1,444,069 and $2,395,808, respectively.  The BCBSA is a national trade association of 36 independent Primary Licensees (Plans), including TSM, the primary function of which is to promote and preserve the integrity of the BCBS name and marks, as well as to provide certain centralized services to entities licensed by the BCBSA (the “Member Plans”).  Each Member Plan is an independent legal organization and is not responsible for obligations of other BCBSA Member Plans.  With a few limited exceptions, we have no right to market products and services using the BCBS name and marks outside our BCBS licensed territory.

BlueCard.    Under the rules and license standards of the BCBSA, other Member Plans must make available their provider networks to members of the BlueCard Program in a manner and scope as consistent as possible to what such member would be entitled to in his or her home region.  Specifically, a plan (located where a member receives the service (each, a “Host Plan”) must pass on discounts to BlueCard members from other Member Plans that are at least as great as the discounts that the providers give to the Host Plan’s local members.  The BCBSA requires us to pay fees to any Host Plan whose providers submit claims for health care services rendered to our members who receive care in their service area.  Similarly, we are paid fees for submitting claims and providing other services to members of other Member Plans who receive care in our service area.

Trademarks

We consider our trademarks Triple-S and SSS to be very important and material to all segments in which we are engaged.  All of our trademarks, which we consider important, have been duly registered with the Department of State of Puerto Rico and the United States Patent and Trademark Office.  It is our policy to register all our important and material trademarks in order to protect our rights under applicable corporate and intellectual property laws.  In addition, we have the exclusive right to use the BCBS name and marks in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, and Anguilla.  See ‘‘—Blue Cross and Blue Shield License’’.

Regulation

Our business operations are subject to comprehensive and detailed regulation in all the jurisdictions we conduct business.  Regulatory agencies include the Commissioner of Insurance of  Puerto Rico (the “Commissioner of Insurance”), the Health Department of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration (“ASES” by its Spanish acronym), which administers Medicaid, including the Medicare dual-eligible beneficiaries program, the Division of Banking and Insurance of the Office of the Lieutenant Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the General Superintendence of Insurance of Costa Rica, the Insurance Division of the Financial Service Commission of British Virgin Islands and the Financial Services Commission of Anguilla.  Federal regulatory agencies that oversee our operations include the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”)—directly and through the Office of the Inspector General (“OIG”), the Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”)—, the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”), and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (“OPM”).  These government agencies have the right to:

grant, suspend and revoke licenses to transact business;

regulate many aspects of the products and services we offer, including the review and approval of health insurance rates in the individual and small group markets;

assess fines, penalties and/or sanctions;

monitor our solvency and the adequacy of our financial reserves; and

regulate our investment activities based on quality, diversification and other quantitative criteria, within the parameters of a list of permitted investments set forth in the insurance laws and regulations.
 
Our operations and accounts are subject to examination and audits at regular intervals by a number of these agencies.  In addition, the U.S federal and local governments continue to consider and enact many legislative and regulatory proposals that have impacted, or could materially impact, various aspects of the healthcare and insurance industries.  Some of the more significant current issues that may affect our business include:

initiatives to provide greater access to coverage for uninsured and under-insured populations without adequate funding to health plans or to be funded through taxes or other negative financial levies on health plans;

other efforts or specific legislative changes to the Medicare or Medicaid program, including changes in the bidding process or other means that materially reduce premiums;

local government regulatory changes;

increased government enforcement, or changes in interpretation or application of fraud and abuse laws; and

regulation that increase the operational burden on health plans or laws that increase a health plan’s exposure to liabilities, including efforts to expand the tort liability of health care plans.
 
The federal government and the government of Puerto Rico, including the Commissioner of Insurance, have adopted laws and regulations that govern our business activities in various ways.  These laws and regulations may restrict how we conduct our business and may result in additional burdens and costs to us.  Areas of governmental regulation include:
 
licensure;

policy forms, including plan design and disclosures;

premium rates and rating methodologies;

underwriting rules and procedures;

benefit mandates;

eligibility requirements;

security of electronically transmitted individually identifiable health information;

geographic service areas;

market conduct;

utilization review;

payment of claims, including timeliness and accuracy of payment;

special rules on contracts to administer government programs;

transactions with affiliated entities;

limitations on the ability to pay dividends;

payment rates to healthcare providers;
 
rate review and approval;
transactions resulting in a change of control;

member rights and responsibilities;

fraud and abuse;

sales and marketing activities;

quality assurance procedures;

privacy of medical and other information and permitted disclosures;

surcharges on payments to providers;

provider contract forms;

delegation of financial risk and other financial arrangements in rates paid to healthcare providers;

agent licensing;

financial condition (including reserves);

reinsurance;

issuance of new capital stock shares;

corporate governance;

permissible investments; and

guaranteed issue and renewability.
 
These laws and regulations are subject to amendments and changing interpretations in each jurisdiction.  Failure to comply with existing or future laws and regulations could materially and adversely affect our operations, financial condition and prospects.
 
Puerto Rico Insurance Laws

Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to the regulations and supervision of the Commissioner of Insurance.  The regulations and supervision of the Commissioner of Insurance consist primarily in the approval of certain policy forms, solvency standards, the nature of and limitations on investments, deposits of securities for the benefit of policyholders, methods of accounting, periodic examinations and the form and content of the financial reports, among others.  In general, such regulations are for the protection of policyholders rather than security holders.

Puerto Rico insurance laws prohibit any person from offering to purchase or sell voting stock of an insurance company with capital contributed by stockholders (a stock insurer) that constitutes 10% or more of the total issued and outstanding stock of such company or of the total issued and outstanding stock of a company that controls an insurance company, without the prior approval of the Commissioner of Insurance.  The proposed purchaser or seller must disclose any changes proposed to be made to the administration of the insurance company and provide the Commissioner of Insurance with any information reasonably requested.  The Commissioner of Insurance must make a determination within 30 days.  Such determination will be based on the evaluation of the transaction’s impact on the public interest, taking into account the experience, moral character and financial stability of the proposed purchaser; and whether the change of control could jeopardize the interests of insured, claimants or the Company’s other stockholders.

Puerto Rico insurance laws also require that stock insurers obtain the Commissioner of Insurance’s approval prior to any merger or consolidation.  The Commissioner of Insurance cannot approve any such transaction unless it determines that such transaction is fair, equitable, consistent with law, and that no reasonable objection exists.  The reinsurance of all or substantially all of the insurance of an insurance company by another insurance company is deemed to be a merger or consolidation.

Puerto Rico insurance laws further prohibit insurance companies and insurance holding companies, among other entities, from soliciting or receiving funds in exchange for any new issuance of its securities, other than through a stock dividend, unless the Commissioner of Insurance has granted a solicitation permit in respect of such transaction.  The Commissioner of Insurance will issue the permit unless it finds that the funds proposed to be secured are excessive for the purpose intended, the proposed securities and their distribution would be inequitable, or the issuance of the securities would jeopardize the interests of policyholders or security-holders.

In addition, Puerto Rico insurance laws limit insurance companies’ ability to reinsure risk.  Insurance companies can only accept reinsurance in respect of the types of insurance which they are authorized to transact directly.  Also, except for life and disability insurance, insurance companies cannot accept any reinsurance in respect of any risk resident, located, or to be performed in Puerto Rico, which was insured as direct insurance by an insurance company not then authorized to transact such insurance in Puerto Rico.  Insurance companies cannot reinsure 75% or more of their direct risk with respect to any type of insurance without first obtaining the approval of the Commissioner of Insurance.

Privacy of Financial and Health Information

Puerto Rico law requires that companies which manage individual financial, insurance and health information maintain the confidentiality of such information.  The Commissioner of Insurance has promulgated regulations relating to the privacy of such information.  As a result, our managed care subsidiaries must periodically inform our clients of our privacy policies, and in the case of our property and casualty and life insurance subsidiaries, allow our clients to opt-out if they do not want their financial information to be shared.  Also, Puerto Rico law requires that managed care providers provide patients with access to their health information within a specified time and that they not charge more than a predetermined amount for such access.  The law imposes various sanctions on managed care providers that fail to comply with these provisions.

Managed Care Provider Services

Participating managed care providers of the dual-eligible sector of the population, administered by ASES, are required to provide specific services to their subscribers.  Such services include access to a provider network that guarantees emergency and specialty services.  In addition, the Patient’s Solicitor Office (the “Solicitor”) is authorized to review and supervise the operations of entities contracted by the government of Puerto Rico to provide services to the dual-eligible sector of the population.  The Solicitor may investigate and adjudicate claims filed by Medicaid beneficiaries against the various service providers contracted by the government of Puerto Rico.  See “Business – Customers-Medicare Supplement and Medicare Advantage Sector” sections included in this Item for more information.
 
Capital and Reserve Requirements

Local insurers and health organizations are required by the Insurance Code to submit to the Puerto Rico Commissioner of Insurance Risk Based Capital (“RBC”) reports following the NAIC RBC Model Act, and accordingly are subject to certain regulatory actions if their capital levels do not meet minimum requirements.  Our minimum RBC requirement is currently 200% for the health maintenance organization and 300% for all TSS, TSV, TSB and TSP.

In addition, TSS, TSA, and TSB are subject to the capital and surplus licensure requirements of the BCBSA.  The capital and surplus requirements of the BCBSA are also based on the RBC Model Act and are intended to assess capital adequacy taking into account the risk characteristics of an insurer’s investments and products.  The RBC Model Act sets forth the formula for calculating the risk-based capital requirements, which are designed to take into account various risks, including insurance risks, interest rate risks and other relevant risks, with respect to an individual insurance company’s business.

The RBC Model Act requires increasing degrees of regulatory oversight and intervention as an insurance company’s risk-based capital declines.  The level of regulatory oversight ranges from requiring the insurance company to inform and obtain approval from the domiciliary insurance commissioner of a comprehensive financial plan for increasing its risk-based capital to mandatory regulatory intervention requiring an insurance company to be placed under regulatory control, in rehabilitation or liquidation proceeding.  The RBC Model Act provides for four different levels of regulatory attention depending on the ratio of the company’s total adjusted capital (defined as the total of its statutory capital, surplus, assets valuation reserve and dividend liability) to its risk-based capital.  At the “company action level”, occurring when a company’s total adjusted capital is less than 200% but greater than or equal to 150% of its risk-based capital, a company must submit a comprehensive plan to the regulatory authority which discusses proposed corrective actions to improve its capital position.  When a company’s adjusted capital is between 200% and 300% and it has a combined ratio greater than 150%, a “company action level” is triggered only if the Puerto Rico Commissioner of Insurance has implemented the health trend test.  As of December 31, 2017, the Commissioner of Insurance has not enacted the health trend test in its regulations.  The ‘‘regulatory action level’’ is triggered if a company’s total adjusted capital is less than 150% but greater than or equal to 100% of its risk-based capital.  At the regulatory action level, the regulatory authority will perform a special examination of the company and issue an order specifying corrective actions that must be followed.  The ‘‘authorized control level’’ is triggered if a company’s total adjusted capital is less than 100% but greater than or equal to 70% of its risk-based capital, at which level the regulatory authority may take any action it deems necessary, including placing the company under regulatory control.  The ‘‘mandatory control level’’ is triggered if a company’s total adjusted capital is less than 70% of its risk-based capital, at which level the regulatory authority must place the company under its control.

As of December 31, 2017, our insurance subsidiaries met and exceeded the minimum capital requirements established by the Commissioner of Insurance and the BCBSA, as applicable.

In addition to its catastrophic reinsurance coverage, TSP is required by local regulatory authorities to establish and maintain a reserve supported by a trust fund (the “Trust”) to protect policyholders against their dual exposure to hurricanes and earthquakes.  The funds in the Trust are solely to be used to pay catastrophic losses whenever qualifying catastrophic losses exceed 5% of catastrophe premiums or when authorized by the Commissioner of Insurance.  Contributions to the Trust, and accordingly additions to the reserve, are determined by a rate, imposed by the Commissioner of Insurance on the catastrophe premiums written in that year. As a result of the hurricanes affecting Puerto Rico in September 2017, TSP expects to withdraw $10.0 million from the Trust representing its net retention loss for the aforementioned event.

At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the reserve for catastrophes is $46.6 million and $44.7 million, respectively.  The supporting trust fund has assets of $48.4 million and $47.1 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.  Assets consist primarily of investment in securities available for sale, securities held for maturity, accrued investment income, cash and cash equivalents.  The income generated by investment securities deposited in the Trust becomes part of the Trust fund balance and are therefore considered an addition to the reserve.  For additional details see Note 16, Catastrophe Loss Reserve and Trust Fund, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Dividend Restrictions

We are subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Puerto Rico (“PRGCL”), which contains certain restrictions on the declaration and payment of dividends by corporations organized pursuant to the laws of Puerto Rico.  These provisions provide that Puerto Rico corporations may only declare dividends charged to their surplus or, in the absence of such surplus, net profits of the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year.  The PRGCL also contains provisions regarding the declaration and payment of dividends and directors’ liability for illegal payments.

Our ability to pay dividends is dependent on cash dividends from our subsidiaries.  Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulatory surplus requirements and additional regulatory requirements, which may restrict their ability to declare and pay dividends or distributions to us.  In addition, our secured term loan restricts our ability to pay dividends if a default thereunder has occurred and is continuing.  Please refer to “Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Restrictions on Certain Payments by the Corporation’s Subsidiaries”.

Guaranty Fund Assessments

We are required by Puerto Rico law and by the BCBSA guidelines to participate in certain guarantee associations.  See “Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Other Contingencies—Guarantee Associations’’ for additional information.

Federal Regulation

Our business is subject to extensive federal law and regulation.  New laws, regulations or guidance or changes to existing laws, regulations or guidance or their enforcement, may materially impact our business financial condition and results of operations.

Medicare Generally

Medicare is the federal health insurance program created in 1965 for all people aged 65 and older (regardless of income or medical history), qualifying disabled persons, and persons suffering from end-stage renal disease.  Medicare is funded by the federal government and administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), with the day-to-day operations of the program (e.g., provider enrollment, claims payment) handled by private contractors under contract with CMS.  There are approximately 55 million Medicare beneficiaries.

Medicare is divided into 4 distinct parts:

Part A covers, among other things, inpatient hospital stays, skilled nursing facility stays, home health visits (also covered under Part B), and hospice care.

Part B covers physician visits, outpatient services, laboratory services, durable medical equipment, certain preventive services, and home health visits.  Enrollment in Part B is voluntary and subject to an annual deductible.

Part C, also known as Medicare Advantage, allows beneficiaries to enroll in private health plans and receive Medicare-covered benefits.  Currently, about 17 million Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in the United States in a Medicare Advantage plan.  Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub. L No. 111-148), as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. No. 111-152), on March 30, 2010 (referred to herein as “ACA”), payments to Medicare Advantage plans are generally being reduced over time, and bonus payments are available to certain plans based on quality ratings.  Medicare Advantage plans are required to maintain a medical loss ratio (“MLR”) of at least 85%, meaning, very basically, that if Medicare Advantage plans do not spend at least 85% of their revenue on patient care costs, may face various sanctions, including refunds, prohibition on enrolling new members, and contract termination. The Part C premium varies by plan.
 
Part D is the voluntary, subsidized outpatient prescription drug benefit created under the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (the “MMA”).  Part D includes subsidies for beneficiaries with low incomes that do not apply to Puerto Rico.  Part D is offered through private plans that contract with Medicare, including stand-alone prescription drug plans and Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans.  Part D plans are also subject to MLR requirements and their premium varies by plan.
 
There also exist Medicare supplement plans, commonly known as “Medigap”, to fill the gaps in traditional fee-for-service Medicare Part A and B coverage.  These Medigap policies are standardized by CMS, but funded and administered by private organizations.

Since the 1980’s, as an alternative to the traditional fee-for-service Medicare program, Medicare has also offered Medicare managed care benefits provided through contracted private health plans, currently known as Medicare Advantage plans.  Prior to 1997, CMS reimbursed health plans participating in the Medicare program primarily on the basis of the demographic data of the plans’ members.  Beginning in 1997, CMS gradually phased in a risk adjustment payment methodology that based its monthly premium payments to plans on various clinical and demographic factors.  This methodology uses two risk adjustment models: a Hierarchical Condition Category based model and an ESRD model, each applying to the corresponding population.  Beginning in 2003, Congress introduced a Medicare managed care approach, which itself has subsequently undergone several changes, and beginning in 2006, Congress introduced the Medicare Part D program, which offered a voluntary outpatient prescription drug benefit to fee-for-service as well as Medicare Advantage beneficiaries.  An Rx Hierarchical Condition Category Model is used in the determination of the Part D premium, and a Low Income Subsidy (LIS) is applied to Part D premiums for members that qualify.

Among other things, the ACA mandated several changes, implemented by CMS, to the Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D programs, including strengthening CMS’ ability to remove poor performers from the Medicare Advantage and Part D programs beginning in 2015.  Beginning with Medicare contract year 2015, CMS has the authority to terminate its contract with any Medicare Advantage or Part D plan for substantial contract non-compliance, or refuse to renew such plan, if the plan fails to achieve an overall Star Rating of 3.0 stars (out of 5.0) for any consecutive three (3) year period.  Although CMS has issued annual Star Ratings for Part D plans since 2007 and for Medicare Advantage plans since 2008, CMS uses Star Ratings issued for Medicare contract years 2013 and beyond in implementing this provision. In April 2015, CMS announced that it would for the first time exercise its authority to terminate low performing Medicare Advantage and Part D plans beginning in 2016. CMS issues Star Ratings on a prospective basis, typically in the fall preceding the contract year.  CMS has the authority to use the lower Star Ratings as a means to invoke its existing authority under Section 1857(c)(2) of the Social Security Act to terminate a contract when CMS determines that the Medicare Advantage or Part D plan has failed to substantially carry out the contract or is carrying out the contract in a manner that is inconsistent with the efficient or effective administration of the Medicare Advantage or Part D program.

In addition, under the ACA, Medicare Advantage plan payment rates were subject to transitionally phased-in reductions intended to bring Medicare Advantage rates more in line with Medicare fee-for-service rates. The transition began in 2012 and was completed in 2017.
 
Payments to Medicare Advantage Participating Plans

Since 2006, Medicare Advantage has used a bidding system by which plans submit bids based on costs per enrollee for Part A and Part B covered services.  Medicare Advantage also pays plans for providing prescription drug benefits under Part D.   Bids are based on estimated costs per enrollee for the Medicare-covered services.  The bids are then analyzed against a benchmark established by federal statute, and which vary by county or region.  A Medicare Advantage plan’s actual payment rate is based on a complex statutory formula that takes into account a number of factors, including the relationship between the plan’s bid and the applicable benchmark. When a bid is higher than the benchmark, enrollees generally pay the difference (through an additional premium) between the benchmark and the bid, in addition to any other Medicare premiums.  If the bid is lower than the benchmark, the plan and Medicare generally share the difference, and the plan must use its share (known as a “rebate”) to provide additional benefits to enrollees.  For plans obtaining up to 3.0 STARS, the rebate share to the plan is 50%.  When the plan reaches 3.5 or 4.0 STARS, that rebate share rises to 65%, and when the plan reaches 4.5 or 5.0 STARS it rises to 70%.
 
Plans reaching 4.0 STARS or higher, also receive a 5% quality bonus payment (QBP), which could be doubled for certain qualifying counties.  The resulting benchmark plus QBP amount can be reduced to a cap determined for each county, so the effective bonus payment for such qualifying counties could be between 5% and 10%.  Rebates and QBPs only apply to Part C premium payments.

STARS Ratings for plans are calculated based on the results achieved by the plan on a contract in tens of measures (47 in the 2019 draft call letter) spanning four categories: Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) and Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) measures, Administrative measures and Part D measures.  CMS assigns from one to five stars for each numeric measure score by applying one of two methods: relative distribution with significance testing (CAHPS) or clustering (all other measures).  Case-mix adjustments are applied to the survey results as part of the scoring.  CMS has recognized that socio-economic factors create significant variations in results for some metrics.  CMS’ interim response to address the within-contract disparity in performance associated with a contract’s percentages of beneficiaries with low income subsidy and dual eligible (LIS/DE) and disability status revealed in our comprehensive research conducted over multiple years culminated in the creation of the Categorical Adjustment Index (CAI).  Each measure is also assigned a relative weight used in the calculation of the Part C, Part D and overall STAR Rating.

Medicaid Generally

Medicaid is a public insurance program intended for low-income individuals and families.  Medicaid, as of November 2017, provides coverage to over 74 million Americans, including children, pregnant women, and individuals with disabilities. To participate in Medicaid, states must cover certain groups but have the flexibility to cover other population groups.  States may apply to CMS for waivers to provide coverage to populations beyond what is normally covered under the program.  States are able to establish eligibility criteria within federal minimum standards. States are allowed to set Medicaid provider payment rates, and may reimburse providers through fee-for-service or managed care.  They also have the flexibility to determine the type, amount, duration, and scope of services of their respective Medicaid programs, so long as within federal guidelines, although states are required to cover certain mandatory benefits.  In Puerto Rico, the Medicaid program is administered locally by ASES.

Medicaid is jointly funded by the federal government.  States receive a percentage of their Medicaid program expenditures from the federal government, through a formula known as the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (“FMAP”). The FMAP varies by state based on factors such as per capita income.  The FMAP for Puerto Rico is 55%. FMAPs are adjusted based on a 3 year cycle.  Generally, during economic recessions such as the one that began in 2008, state revenues fall while Medicaid enrollment and spending rise.  To help alleviate the shortfall, the federal government temporarily increased its share of Medicaid costs through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.  However, that temporary fix ended in 2012, and while many states have enacted cost containment initiatives to help control costs, states continue to wrestle with falling revenue while Medicaid enrollment and spending increase.

The ACA expands Medicaid to an eligibility floor of 138% of the federal poverty level (“FPL”) beginning in 2014.  A 2012 U.S. Supreme Court decision regarding health care reform limited the federal government’s ability to enforce Medicaid expansion—meaning that the issue of Medicaid expansion is effectively left to each individual state.  Puerto Rico and the other U.S. territories were not included in the Medicaid expansion, instead Congress approved one billion in federal funding for Puerto Rico and the other U.S. territories to establish local affordable insurance exchanges or expand their Medicaid programs, at their option.  Puerto Rico elected to use the approximately $925 million made available by Congress to Puerto Rico for expanding its Medicaid program.   The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2017 (P.L. 115-31) provided Puerto Rico with an additional $295.9 million.  Although these funds are available until December 2019, the government has estimated that, given the current burn rate of the approved funding, funds would be fully utilized in fiscal year 2018.  However, in February 2018, as part of the emergency supplemental legislation passed by Congress, Puerto Rico’s Medicaid spending cliff has been addressed for at least the next two years, because of the approval of $4.8 billion in Medicaid Funding.  This action will bring financial stability to Puerto Rico’s Medicaid program, and funding conditions related to compliance with program management standards will further promote stability and predictability.
 
Dual-Eligible Beneficiaries

A “dual-eligible” beneficiary is a person who is eligible for both Medicare, because of age or other qualifying status, and Medicaid, because of economic status.  Dual-eligibles are a high cost population that account for a disproportionate share of government health care expenditures.  As of August 2017, there are approximately 11 million dual-eligibles, receiving both Medicare and Medicaid benefits nationwide. Given the disproportionately high cost of treating dual-eligibles, there has been a spate of initiatives designed to address the issue.  The government of Puerto Rico established a model that wraps-around benefits included in Medicaid that were not included in Medicare Advantage benefits.  Dual-eligible beneficiaries in Puerto Rico have the option to participate in this model called Platino.  Health plans that offer Platino products receive premiums from CMS and the government of Puerto Rico.  In this plan the government, rather than the insured, will assume all of the premiums for additional benefits not included in traditional Medicare programs, such as prescription drug benefits.  By managing utilization and implementing disease management programs, many Medicare Advantage plans can profitably care for dual-eligible members.  The MMA established subsidies and reduced or eliminated deductibles for certain low-income beneficiaries, including dual-eligible individuals.  Pursuant to the MMA, dual-eligible individuals receive their drug coverage from the Medicare program rather than the Medicaid program.  Companies offering Medicare Part D stand-alone prescription drug plans with bids at or below the regional weighted average bid resulting from the annual bidding process received a pro-rata allocation and auto-enrollment of the dual-eligible beneficiaries within the applicable region.

Additionally, ACA created the Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office to better integrate Medicare and Medicaid benefits and improve coordination between federal and state governments, which has, among other things implemented initiatives such as demonstration projects and limited coordinated care contracts, intended to improve quality and lower costs with respect to dual eligible beneficiaries. Under authority of the ACA, a number of states (not including Puerto Rico) have been awarded contracts to support the design of demonstration projects that aim to improve the coordination of care for people with Medicare and Medicaid coverage.

Special Needs Plans

Special Needs Plans are intended to address Medicare beneficiaries with special care needs, particularly those with chronic conditions.  In addition, the ACA created Fully Integrated Dual Eligible (FIDE) special needs plans, designed to promote the full integration and coordination of Medicare and Medicaid benefits for dual eligible beneficiaries by a single managed care organization, Essentially, Medicare Advantage Special Needs Plans (“SNPs”) are a type of Medicare Advantage Plan for people with certain chronic diseases and conditions or who have specialized needs (such as people who have both Medicare and Medicaid or people who live in certain institutions).  SNPs limit membership to people with specific diseases or characteristics, and tailor their benefits, provider choices, and drug formularies (list of covered drugs) to best meet the specific needs of the groups they serve.

Sales and Marketing.    Our sales and marketing activities are closely regulated by CMS, ASES, the Puerto Rico Office of the Commissioner of Insurance and the Solicitor General.  CMS regulations in this area preempt local law.

Fraud and Abuse Laws.    Insurance providers in Puerto Rico are subject to local and federal laws that prohibit fraud and abuse, and are required to have anti-fraud units in place.  In addition, entities, such as TSS and TSA, that receive federal funds from government health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, are subject to a wide variety of federal fraud and abuse laws and enforcement activities.  Such laws include, among others, the federal anti-kickback laws and the False Claims Act.
 
Anti-kickback Laws.     Insurance providers in Puerto Rico are subject to local and federal anti-kickback laws.  These anti-kickback laws prohibit the payment, solicitation, offering or receipt of any form of remuneration (including kickbacks, bribes, and rebates) in exchange for business, and under federal law, the referral of federal healthcare program patients or any item or service that is reimbursed by any federal health care program.  In addition, the federal regulations include certain safe harbors that describe relationships that have been determined by CMS not to violate the federal Anti-Kickback Statute.  Relationships that do not fall within one of the enumerated safe harbors are not a per se violation of the federal law, but will be subject to enhanced scrutiny by regulatory authorities.  The ACA amended the intent requirement of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, and other healthcare criminal fraud statutes, so that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and other healthcare criminal fraud statutes, or the specific intent to violate them, to have committed a violation. The ACA also provided that a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute is grounds for the government or a whistleblower to assert that a claim for payment of items or services resulting from such violation constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act. Failure to comply with the anti-kickback provisions, and other healthcare criminal fraud statuses, may result in civil damages and penalties, criminal sanctions, and administrative remedies, such as exclusion from the applicable federal health care program, and additional reporting requirements and oversight if subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance.
 
Federal False Claims Act.    Federal regulations also strictly prohibit the presentation of false claims or the submission of false information to the federal government.  Under the federal False Claims Act, any person or entity that has knowingly presented or caused to be presented a false or fraudulent request for payment from the federal government or who has made a false statement or used a false record in the submission of a claim may be subject to treble damages and penalties of up to $21,916 per claim.  The ACA codified federal government’s prior position that claims presented in relationships that violate the federal Anti-Kickback Statute may also be considered to be violations of the federal False Claims Act.  Furthermore, the federal False Claims Act permits private citizen “whistleblowers” to bring actions on behalf of the federal government for violations of the False Claims Act and to share in the settlement or judgment that may result from the lawsuit.  Financial recoveries from civil health care matters brought under the False Claims Act are significant.

HIPAA, HITECH, and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Health care entities, such as TSS and TSA, are subject to laws, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”), and their respective implementing regulations, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, that require the protection of certain health and other information.  HIPAA authorized HHS to issue standards for administrative simplification, as well as privacy and security of medical records and other individually identifiable health information.  The regulations pursuant to the HIPAA Administrative Simplification provisions and HITECH impose a number of additional obligations on issuers of health insurance coverage and health benefit plan sponsors.  These requirements apply to self-funded group plans, health insurers and HMOs, health care clearinghouses and health care providers who transmit health information electronically (collectively, “covered entities”) and their business associates that access, maintain, create, and/or receive individually identifiable health information (collectively “business associates”).  These regulations also establish significant criminal penalties and civil sanctions for non-compliance.

HHS also sets standards relating to the privacy of individually identifiable health information.  In general, these regulations restrict how covered entities and business associates may use and disclose medical records and other individually identifiable health information in any form, whether communicated electronically, on paper or orally, subject only to limited exceptions.  In addition, the regulations provide patients’ rights to understand and control how their health information is used.  HHS has also published security regulations designed to protect member health information from unauthorized use or disclosure and require notification to members, the Secretary of HHS, and in certain cases the media, in the event of a breach of unsecured individually identifiable health information.

In 2015 we entered into two agreements with federal and Puerto Rican regulators to resolve investigations in connection with privacy incidents at our Managed Care segment. The agreements include the payment of a combined amount of $5 million and the adoption of a three year corrective action plan. See, “Item 3. Legal Proceedings–Unauthorized Disclosure of Protected Health Information” for more information.
 
HHS has released rules mandating the use of standard formats in electronic health care transactions (for example, health care claims submission and payment, plan eligibility, precertification, claims status, plan enrollment and disenrollment, payment and remittance advice, plan premium payments and coordination of benefits). HHS also has published rules mandating the use of standardized code sets and unique identifiers for employers and providers.  Our managed care subsidiary believes that it is in material compliance with these requirements.  In addition,  the federal government required healthcare organizations, including health insurers, upgrade to updated and expanded standardized code sets used for describing health conditions by converting from the ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure code set to the ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code by October 1, 2015.  Our conversion from the ICD-9 code set to the ICD-10 code set, which required a substantial investment, was successfully completed.

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act applies to financial institutions in the United States, including those domiciled in Puerto Rico, such as TSV and TSP.  The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act generally placed restrictions on the disclosure of non-public information to non-affiliated third parties, and required financial institutions including insurers, to provide customers with notice regarding how their non-public personal information is used, including an opportunity to “opt out” of certain disclosures.  The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act also gives banks and other financial institutions the ability to affiliate with insurance companies, which has led to new competitors in the insurance and health benefits fields in Puerto Rico.

Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974

The services we provide to certain employee welfare benefit plans maintained by private sector employers are subject to regulation under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), a complex set of laws and regulations subject to interpretation and enforcement by the Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, and federal courts.  ERISA regulates certain aspects of the relationships between us, private sector employers who maintain employee welfare benefit plans subject to ERISA, and the participants and beneficiaries in such plans.  Some of our administrative services and other activities may also be subject to regulation under ERISA and its regulations.  In addition, certain states require licensure or registration of companies providing third-party claims administration services for benefit plans.  We provide a variety of products and services to employee welfare benefit plans that are covered by ERISA and its regulations.  Plans subject to ERISA can also be subject to state laws and the question of whether ERISA preempts a state law has been, and will continue to be, interpreted by federal and state courts.

Dodd-Frank Act

In 2010, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall-Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) which provides for a number of reforms and regulations in the corporate governance, financial reporting and disclosure, investments, tax and enforcement areas that affect our subsidiaries.    Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury with powers that include information-gathering and subpoena authority. In 2013, as part of its initial task to study the state of the insurance industry, the FIO issued a report recommending that Congress consider direct federal involvement should the states fail to accomplish necessary modernization reforms in the near term. The FIO continues to support the current state-based regulatory regime, but may consider federal regulation should the states fail to take steps to greater uniformity.

In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act gives the Federal Reserve supervisory authority over a number of financial services companies, including insurance companies, if they are designated by the Financial Stability Oversight Council as “systemically important.” In such a case, the Federal Reserve’s supervisory authority could include the ability to impose heightened financial regulation upon that insurance company and could impact its capital, liquidity and leverage requirements as well as its business and investment conduct. We have not been designed as “systemically important” by the Financial Stability Oversight Council.
 
Although the FIO authorities do not extend to health insurance they extend to other parts of the business, primarily life and property and casualty insurance.  The FIO, however, does not have supervisory or regulatory authority over the insurance business.

Legislative and Regulatory Initiatives

Puerto Rico Initiatives

The Commissioner of Insurance adopted Rule No. 83, titled ‘‘Standards and Procedures to Regulate the Insurance Holding Company Systems and Criteria for Evaluating Changes in Control’’.  Rule No. 83 requires insurers and health services organizations authorized to do business in Puerto Rico and which are members of an insurance holding company system to register and file with the Commissioner of Insurance certain reports describing capital structure, ownership, financial condition, enterprise risks and general business operations.  In addition, Rule No. 83 establishes the criteria to be used to approve or refuse to approve any transaction that may constitute a change in control of a domestic insurer or health services organization.  Rule No. 83 also requires prior notice and approval of certain intercompany transactions, as well as payments of extraordinary dividends or distributions.

Federal Initiatives

On March 23, 2010, the federal health reform legislation, known as the Affordable Care Act, was enacted.  Most of the provisions of ACA with more significant effects on the health insurance marketplace went into effect on or before January 1, 2014, including a requirement that insurers guarantee the issuance of coverage to all individuals regardless of health status, strict rules on how health insurance is rated, and the assessment of new taxes and fees, including annual Health Insurance Providers Fee (“HIP Fee”), on health insurers that write certain types of health insurance on U.S. risks. The annual HIP Fee is allocated to health insurers based on the ratio of the amount of an insurer's net premium revenues written during the preceding calendar year to an adjusted amount of health insurance for all U.S. health risk for those certain lines of business written during the preceding calendar year.  The total HIP fee levied on the health insurance industry was $11.3 billion for 2016 and 2015, with increasing annual amounts thereafter, growing to $14.3 billion by 2018. The HIP Fee has been waived for 2017.  After 2018, the HIP Fee increases according to an index based on net premium growth. The assessment is being levied on certain health insurers that provide insurance in the assessment year, and is allocated to health insurers based on each health insurer's share of net premiums for all U.S health insurers in the year preceding the assessment.  We incurred $44.2 million, $34.6 million, and $27.7 million for the HIP fee in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Over the past few months, Congress has passed a number of new laws that will have a significant effect on health insurers. In December 2017, Congress passed tax reform legislation that repealed the individual mandate requiring the purchase of health insurance coverage. Additionally, Congress passed a continuing resolution in January 2018 that will suspend the Health Insurance Tax for 2019. Finally, in February 2018, Congress passed emergency supplemental legislation that includes significant financial relief for Puerto Rico's Medicaid program.

On July 16, 2014, HHS notified the Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico that the guarantee issue, community rating, single risk pool, rate review, MLR, and essential health benefits provisions under the ACA do not apply to U.S. territories, however they continue to apply to Puerto Rico by virtue of an amendment to the Health Insurance Code of Puerto Rico passed on July 22, 2013 to enact similar provisions in Puerto Rico. ACA affects all aspects of the health care delivery and reimbursement system in the United States, including health insurers, managed care organizations, healthcare providers, employers, and U.S. states and territories.

We do not anticipate significant debate regarding the repeal and replacement of the ACA in Washington this year.  However, various federal agencies, including, but not limited to, HHS, DOL, and the U.S. Department of the Treasury have issued and continue to issue Executive Orders and regulations related to the stabilization of the individual insurance market as well as their intentions to repeal the ACA in whole or in part.  Additionally, Congress continues to consider possible action related to insurance market stabilization, with action possible this spring.
 
As a result of the complexity of ACA, its impacts on health care in the United States and the uncertainty of its future, we cannot currently estimate the ultimate impact of ACA on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.  We will continue to assess ACA’s impact on us as additional regulations and guidance are issued.

As we think about the future of the ACA, or what may replace it, some of the more significant ACA issues that currently affect our managed care business, or may in the future, include:

Provisions requiring greater access to coverage for certain uninsured and under-insured populations and the elimination of certain underwriting practices without adequate funding to health plans or with negative financial levies on health plans such as restrictions in the ability to charge additional premium for additional risk. These include, among others, (i) extending dependent coverage for unmarried individuals until age 26 under their parents’ health coverage, (ii) limiting a health plan’s ability to rescind coverage and restricting the plan’s ability to establish annual and lifetime financial caps, (iii) eliminating the use of gender as a ratings factor, and (iv) limiting a health plan’s ability to deny or limit coverage on grounds of a person’s pre-existing medical condition;

Provisions restricting medical loss ratios and requiring premium refunds for non-compliance;

Provisions requiring health plans to report to their members and HHS certain quality performance measures and their wellness promotion activities;

Provisions that reduce premium payments to Medicare Advantage health plans and that tie such premium to the local Medicare fee for service costs.  The adjustment began in 2012 and is being phased in over 5 to 7 years;

Provisions that tie Medicare Advantage premiums to achievement of certain quality performance measures;

Other efforts or specific legislative changes to the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including changes in the bidding process, authority of CMS to deny bids, or other means of materially reducing premiums such as through further adjustments to the risk adjustment methodology;

Increased federal funding to the Medicaid program;

Funding provided to the government of Puerto Rico to enable it to fund the expansion of its Medicaid program, rather than establish a health insurance exchange;

Provisions that impose annual fees on health insurers;

Increased government funding to enforcement agencies and/or changes in interpretation or application of fraud and abuse laws;

Expanded scope of authority and/or funding to audit Medicare Advantage health plans and recoup premiums or other funds by the government or its representatives; and the increase in persons eligible for coverage under the Medicaid program in Puerto Rico, which may result in some persons currently insured by us in our commercial programs becoming eligible for, and thus moving to, the Medicaid program.

While all aspects of the ACA are expected to undergo significant changes throughout the repeal and replace process, some of the specific provisions we will be tracking include the following:  The ACA mandates significant changes to the rules regarding private health insurance to facilitate competition for market efficiency, promote prevention and wellness, increase pooling of risk, and prohibit discrimination for pre-existing conditions and/or health statues.  For example, HHS has issued rules specifically related to health insurance market reforms, essential benefits, and standards for wellness programs by employers who sponsor group health plans.  The market reform rules concerns the sale, pricing, and renewability of health insurance.  These rules apply to the individual and small group health insurance markets (whether or not in the health insurance exchanges).  The rules do not generally apply to grandfathered health plans.  The essential benefits rule establishes the standards for covered benefits under private health insurance coverage.  Under the rule, states have the ability to select a benchmark plan from ten popular private health plans.  Popularity is based on enrollment figures for the plans.  Should a state not select a plan, the default becomes the largest small group health plan.  A covered benefit under the benchmark plan will be considered an essential health benefit.  The Government of Puerto Rico selected one of our Medicare Advantage products, supplemented with additional benefits currently provided under the federal employee health plan, as the benchmark plan.  Under the ACA, health plans that are not grandfathered in the individual and small group market are required to cover essential health benefits.  While essential benefits are not specifically defined, the ACA outlines 10 categories of benefits that are required to be covered by plans, including: a) emergency services; b) ambulatory patient services; c) hospitalization; and d) preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management.  The wellness rule amends an earlier regulation regarding the design and implementation of wellness programs offered by employers in group health plans.  See Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors―The health care reform law and the implementation of the law could have a material effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations” for more information.
 
Budget Control Act

The Budget Control Act of 2011 was enacted to reduce the deficit and avoid default on the national debt.  When a joint committee of Congress established to develop debt reduction legislation failed to cut at least $1.5 trillion over the coming 10 years, an automatic process of across-the-board cuts (“sequestration”) split equally between defense and non-defense programs was triggered.  Under the sequestration, automatic spending cuts became effective beginning April 1, 2013, and these cuts have been extended through at least 2024 unless additional Congressional action is taken.  This resulted in cuts of 2% to Medicare funding.  Medicaid programs are not subject to automatic spending cuts.

Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we had 3,420 full-time employees and 193 temporary employees.  TSS has a collective bargaining agreement with the “Unión General de Trabajadores”, which represents approximately 28.3% of two of our managed care subsidiaries’ approximately 1,992 regular employees.  The collective bargaining agreement expires on November 30, 2019.  The Corporation considers its relations with employees to be good.

Available Information

We are an accelerated filer (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) and are required, pursuant to Item 101 of Regulation S-K, to provide certain information regarding our website and the availability of certain documents filed with or furnished to the SEC.  Our internet website is www.triplesmanagement.com.  We make available free of charge, or through our internet website (http://triplesmanagement.com), our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with or furnish it to the SEC.  We also include on our internet website our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the charter of each standing committee of our Board of Directors.  In addition, we intend to disclose on our Internet website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”).  The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.  The website addresses listed above are provided for the information of the reader and are not intended to be an active link.  We will provide free of charge copies of our filings to any shareholder that requests them at the following address: Triple-S Management Corporation; Office of the Secretary; PO Box 363628; San Juan, P.R. 00936-3628.

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents we incorporated by reference in this report contains forward-looking statements, as such term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  Forward-looking statements are statements that include information about possible or assumed future sales, results of operations, developments, regulatory approvals or other circumstances and may be found in the Items of this Annual Report on Form 10-K entitled “Item 1.   Business”, “Item 1A.   Risk Factors”, “Item 7   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Statements that use the terms ‘‘believe’’, ‘‘expect’’, ‘‘plan’’, ‘‘intend’’, ‘‘estimate’’, ‘‘anticipate’’, ‘‘project’’, ‘‘may’’, ‘‘will’’, ‘‘shall’’, ‘‘should’’ and similar expressions, whether in the positive or negative, are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
 
All forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect our current views about future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties.  Consequently, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including all the risks discussed in “Item 1A.   Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

In addition, we operate in a highly competitive, constantly changing environment that is significantly influenced by very large organizations that have resulted from business combinations, aggressive marketing and pricing practices of competitors and regulatory oversight.  The following list is a summary of factors, the results of which, either individually or in combination, if markedly different from our planning assumptions, could cause our business results of operations, financial condition, cash flow, or prospect, to be materially adversely affected from those expressed in any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

trends in health care costs and utilization rates;

ability to secure sufficient premium rate increases;

competitor pricing below market trends of increasing costs;

re-estimates of our policy and contract liabilities;

changes in government regulation of managed care, life insurance or property and casualty insurance;

significant acquisitions or divestitures by major competitors;

introduction and use of new prescription drugs and technologies;

a downgrade in our financial strength ratings;

litigation or legislation targeted at managed care, life insurance or property and casualty insurance companies;

ability to contract with providers and government agencies consistent with past practice;

ability to successfully implement our disease management and utilization management programs;

volatility in the securities markets and investment losses and defaults; and

general economic downturns, major disasters and epidemics.

The foregoing list should not be construed to be exhaustive.  We believe the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are reasonable; however, there is no assurance that the actions, events or results anticipated by the forward-looking statements will occur or, if any of them do, what impact they will have on our results of operations or financial condition.  In view of these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on our current expectations at the time the statements are made.  Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and, other than as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, we do not intend to update or revise any of them in light of new information or future events.

Item 1A.
Risk Factors

We must deal with several risk factors during the normal course of business.  You should carefully consider the following risks and all other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face.  Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that are currently deemed insignificant may also impair our business operations.  The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.
 
While we consider the foregoing to be the overarching risks we face in 2018, they are not the only material risks we face. We face a numerous other challenges, as described elsewhere in this Annual Report, including below in this “Risk Factors” discussion, and other unanticipated risks may develop.
 
Risks Relating to our Capital Stock

Certain of our current and former providers may bring materially dilutive claims against us.

Beginning with our founding in 1959 and until 1994, we encouraged, and at times required, the doctors and dentists that comprised our provider network to acquire our shares.  Between approximately 1985 and 1994, our predecessor managed care subsidiary, Seguros de Servicios de Salud de Puerto Rico, Inc. (“SSS”), generally entered into an agreement with each new physician or dentist who joined our provider network to sell the provider shares of SSS at a future date (each agreement, a “share acquisition agreement”).  These share acquisition agreements were necessary because there were not enough authorized shares of SSS available during this period and afterwards for issuance to all new providers.  Each share acquisition agreement committed SSS to sell, and each new provider to purchase, five $40-par-value shares of SSS at $40 per share after SSS had increased its authorized share capital in compliance with the Puerto Rico Insurance Code and was in a position to issue new shares.  Despite repeated efforts in the 1990s, SSS was not successful in obtaining shareholder approval to increase its share capital, other than in connection with our reorganization in 1999, when SSS was merged into a newly-formed entity having authorized capital of 25,000 $40-par-value shares, or twice the number of authorized shares of SSS.  SSS’s shareholders did not, however, authorize the issuance of the newly formed entity’s shares to providers or any other third party.  In addition, subsequent to the reorganization, our shareholders did not approve attempts to increase our share capital in 2002 and 2003.

Notwithstanding the fact that TSS and its predecessor, SSS, were never in a position to issue new shares to providers as contemplated by the share acquisition agreements because shareholder approval for such issuance was never obtained, and the fact that SSS on several occasions in the 1990s offered providers the opportunity to purchase shares of its treasury stock and such offers were accepted by very few providers, providers who entered into share acquisition agreements may claim that the share acquisition agreements entitled them to acquire our or TSS’s shares at a subscription price equivalent to that provided for in the share acquisition agreements.  SSS entered into share acquisition agreements with approximately 3,000 providers, the substantial majority of whom never came to own shares of SSS.  Such share acquisition agreements provide for the purchase and sale of approximately 15,000 shares of SSS.  If we or TSS were required to issue a significant number of shares in respect of these agreements, the interest of our existing shareholders would be substantially dilutedAs of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, only one judicial claim to enforce any of these agreements has been brought against the Company.  The case was settled by the parties and, on August 2013, dismissed by the court with prejudice. Additionally, we have received several inquiries with respect to share acquisition agreements.  Those agreements do not include anti-dilution protections and we do not believe that the amounts of any claims under the agreements with SSS should be multiplied to reflect the 3,000-for-one stock split effected by us on May 1, 2007.  However, we cannot provide assurances that claimants will not successfully seek to increase the size of their claims by reference to the stock split.

We have been advised by our counsel that, on the basis of a reasoned analysis, while the matter is not free from doubt and there are no applicable controlling precedents, we should prevail in any litigation of these claims because, among other defenses, the condition precedent to SSS’s obligations under the share acquisition agreements never occurred, and any obligation it may, or we may be deemed to, have had under the share acquisition agreements should be understood to have expired prior to our corporate reorganization, which took effect in 1999, although the share acquisition agreements do not expressly provide for any expiration.

We believe that we should prevail in any litigation with respect to these matters; however, we cannot predict the outcome of any such litigation, including with respect to the magnitude of any claims that may be asserted by any plaintiff, and the interests of our shareholders could be materially diluted to the extent that claims under the share acquisition agreements are successful.
 
Heirs of certain of our former shareholders may bring materially dilutive claims against us.

For much of our history, we and our predecessor entity have restricted the ownership or transferability of our shares, including by reserving to us or our predecessor a redemption right with respect to share transfers and by limiting ownership of such shares to physicians and dentists.  In addition, we and our predecessor, consistent with the requirements of our and our predecessor’s bylaws, have sought to repurchase shares of deceased shareholders at the amount originally paid for such shares by those shareholders.  Nonetheless, former shareholders’ heirs who were not eligible to own or be transferred shares because they were not physicians or dentists at the time of their purported inheritance (“non-medical heirs”), may claim an entitlement to our shares or to damages with respect to the repurchased shares notwithstanding applicable transfer and ownership restrictions.  Our records indicate that there may be as many as approximately 450 former shareholders whose non-medical heirs may claim to have inherited up to 10,500,000 shares after giving effect to the 3,000-for-one stock split.  As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are defending various judicial claims by non-medical heirs of former shareholders whose shares were repurchased upon their death seeking the return of such shares or compensation.  See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings – Claims by Heirs of Former Shareholders.”  In addition, from time to time, we receive inquiries from non-medical heirs with respect to shares we have redeemed.

We believe that we should prevail in litigation with respect to these matters; however, we cannot predict the outcome of any such litigation regarding these non-medical heirs.  The interests of our existing shareholders could be materially diluted to the extent that any such claims are successful.

The dual class structure may not successfully protect against significant dilution of your shares of Class B common stock.

We designed our dual class structure of capital stock to offset the potential impact on the value of our Class B common stock attributable to any issuance of shares of common stock for less than market value in respect of a successful claim against us under any share acquisition agreement or by a non-medical heir.  We believe that this mechanism will effectively protect investors in our shares of Class B common stock against any potential dilution attributable to the issuance of any shares in respect of such claims at below market prices.  We cannot, however, provide any assurances that this mechanism will be effective under all circumstances.

While we expect to prevail against any such claims brought against us and, to the extent that we do not prevail, would expect to issue Class A common stock in respect of any such claim, there can be no assurance that the claimants in any such lawsuit will not seek to acquire Class B common stock.  The issuance of a significant number of shares of Class B common stock, if followed by a material further issuance of shares of common stock to separate claimants could impair the effectiveness of the anti-dilution protections of the Class B common stock.  In addition, we cannot provide any assurances that the anti-dilution protections afforded our Class B common stock will not be challenged by share acquisition providers and/or non-medical heir claimants to the extent that these protections limit the percentage ownership of us that may be acquired by such claimants. We believe that such a challenge should not prevail, but cannot provide any assurances of the outcome.

In the event that claimants acquire shares of our managed care subsidiary, TSS, at less than fair value, we will not be able to prevent dilution of the value of the Class B shareholders’ ownership interest in us to the extent that the net value received by such claimants exceeds the value of our outstanding shares of Class A common stock.  Finally, the anti-dilution protection afforded by the dual class structure may cease to be of further effect at any time because all remaining shares of Class A common stock may, at the sole discretion of our board of directors and after considering relevant factors, including market conditions at the time, be converted into shares of Class B common stock.  On November 12, 2015, the Company converted 1,426,721 shares of Class A common stock to Class B common stock.

Future sales of our Class B common stock, or the perception that such future sales may occur, may have an adverse impact on its market price.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that large sales could occur, could cause the market price of our Class B common stock to decline.  Either of these limits our future ability to raise capital through an offering of equity securities. As of December 31, 2017 there were 22,627,077 shares of Class B common stock and 950,968 shares of Class A common stock.  Our Class A common stock is no longer subject to contractual lockup; thus, such shares are freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act by persons other than our ‘‘affiliates’’ within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, although such shares will continue not to be listed on the NYSE and will not be fungible with our listed shares of Class B common stock.  All or any portion of our shares of Class A common stock may at the sole discretion of our board of directors and after considering relevant factors, including market conditions at the time, be converted to shares of Class B common stock.
 
Risks Related to Our Business

Our inability to contain managed care costs may adversely affect our business and profitability.

A substantial portion of our managed care revenue is generated by premiums consisting of monthly payments per member that are established by contracts with our commercial customers, ASES or CMS (for our Medicare Advantage plans), all of which are typically renewable on an annual basis.  If our medical expenses exceed our estimates, except in very limited circumstances or as a result of risk score adjustments for member acuity in the case of the Medicare Advantage products, we will be unable to increase the premiums we receive under these contracts during the then-current terms.  As a result, our profitability in any year depends, to a significant degree, on our ability to adequately predict and effectively manage our medical expenses related to the provision of managed care services through underwriting criteria, medical management, product design and negotiation of favorable provider contracts with hospitals, physicians and other health care providers.  The aging of the population and other demographic characteristics and advances in medical technology continue to contribute to rising health care costs.  Government-imposed limitations on Medicare reimbursement have also caused the private sector to bear a greater share of increasing health care costs.  Also, we have in the past and may in the future enter into new lines of business in which it may be difficult to estimate anticipated costs.  Numerous factors affecting the cost of managed care, including changes in health care practices, inflation, new technologies such as genetic laboratory screening for diseases including breast cancer, electronic recordkeeping, the cost of prescription drugs, clusters of high cost cases, changes in the regulatory environment including the implementation of ACA, may adversely affect our ability to predict and manage managed care costs, as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Introduction of new high cost specialty drugs and sudden costs spikes for existing drugs increase the risk that the pharmacy cost assumptions used to develop our rates are not adequate to cover the actual pharmacy costs, which jeopardizes the overall actuarial soundness of our rates. Bearing the high costs of new specialty drugs or the high cost inflation of generic drugs without an appropriate rate adjustment or other reimbursement mechanism adversely impacts our financial conditional and operational results.  In addition, evolving state and federal regulation may impact the ability of our health plans to continue to receive existing price discounts on pharmaceutical products for our members. Other factors affecting our pharmaceutical costs include, but are not limited to, geographic variation in utilization of new and existing pharmaceuticals, and changes in discounts. Although we will continue to work with state agencies in an effort to ensure that we receive appropriate and actuarially sound reimbursement for all new drug therapies and pharmaceuticals trends, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful.
 
Our profitability may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain our current provider agreements and to enter into other appropriate agreements.

Our profitability is dependent upon our ability to contract on favorable terms with hospitals, physicians and other managed care providers. In recent years some groups of providers have been pressing for legislation that would allow them to collectively negotiate certain contract terms through cooperatives.  As a result, Puerto Rico enacted legislation authorizing providers to collectively negotiate the services fees through cooperatives, on a voluntary basis, with health insurance companies and other healthcare-related organizations. This legislation requires that the Public Corporation for the Supervision and Insurance of Cooperatives adopt regulation that may have a material adverse effect in our business. If collective negotiations with providers become mandatory or we are otherwise required to enter into collective negotiations with providers, it could become more difficult to maintain cost-effective managed care provider contracts, which could adversely affect our business.
 
We are dependent on a small number of government contracts to generate a significant amount of the revenues of our managed care business.

Our managed care business participates in government contracts that generate a significant amount of our consolidated operating revenues, including:

Commercial:    One of our managed care subsidiaries is a qualified contractor to provide managed care coverage to federal government employees within Puerto Rico.  Such coverage is provided pursuant to a contract with the OPM that is subject to termination in the event of non-compliance not corrected to the satisfaction of the OPM.  During each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 premiums generated under this contract represented 5.7%, 5.8% and 5.6% of our consolidated premiums earned, net, respectively.

Medicare:    We provide services through our Medicare Advantage products pursuant to a limited number of contracts with CMS.  These contracts generally have terms of one year and must be renewed each year.  Each of our contracts with CMS is cancellable for cause if we breach a material provision of the contract or violate relevant laws or regulations. If we are unable to renew, or to successfully re-bid or compete for any of these contracts, or if the process for bidding materially changes or if any of these contracts are terminated, our business could be materially impaired.  During each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, contracts with CMS represented 36.6%, 35.4% and 39.4% of our consolidated premiums earned, net, respectively.

Under the commercial business, we also provide health coverage to certain employees of the Government of Puerto Rico and its instrumentalities. Earned premium revenue related to such health plans represented 3.4%, 3.1% and 3.3% of our consolidated premiums earned, net, respectively.
 
Medicaid:    We participate in the government of Puerto Rico Health Reform Program (similar to Medicaid) to provide health coverage to medically indigent citizens in Puerto Rico.  Under the current agreement, TSS offers healthcare services on a fully-insured basis to Medicaid subscribers in the Metro North and West regions.  TSS is also responsible for providing medical, mental, pharmacy and dental healthcare services to Medicaid subscribers in these service regions on an at-risk basis. The current agreement ends on June 30, 2018.  The current agreement with ASES contains certain termination rights for both TSS and ASES, including ASES’s right to terminate the agreement as a result of insufficient government funds to pay ASES’s obligations under the contract and TSS’s right to terminate the agreement within 45 days before the end of each fiscal year if TSS and ASES have not agreed to the per member per month rate. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, premiums generated under our current agreement represented 26.6%, 27.1% and 21.8% of our consolidated premiums earned, net, respectively.  In early February 2018, the Government of Puerto Rico issued a Request for Proposal (“RFP”) for the administration of its Medicaid program that will introduce significant changes to the model, including the elimination of geographical areas and allowing participants to select insurance carriers. The Company is thoroughly evaluating the RFP and all aspects of the new model, including financial, clinical, operational and systems requirements and risks.

If any of these contracts is terminated for any reason, including by reason of any non-compliance by us, or not renewed or replaced by a comparable contract, our consolidated premiums and profitability earned could be materially adversely affected.  See also “Risks Relating to the Regulation of our Industry—As a Medicare Advantage program participant, we are subject to complex regulations.”
 
A change in our managed care commercial product mix may impact our profitability.

Our managed care products that involve greater potential risk, such as fully insured arrangements, generally tend to be more profitable than ASO products and those managed care products where employer groups retain the risk, such as self-funded financial arrangements.  There has been a trend in recent years among our Commercial customers of moving from fully-insured plans to ASO, or self-funded arrangements.  As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, 68% and 66% of our managed care commercial customers, respectively, had fully insured arrangements and 32% and 34%, respectively, had ASO arrangements.  Unfavorable changes in the relative profitability or customer participation among our various products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our failure to accurately estimate incurred but not reported claims would affect our reported financial results.

A portion of the claim liabilities recorded by our insurance segments represents an estimate of amounts needed to pay and adjust anticipated claims with respect to insured events that have occurred, including events that have not yet been reported to us.  These amounts are based on estimates of the ultimate expected cost of claims and on actuarial estimation techniques.  Judgment is required in actuarial estimation to ascertain the relevance of historical payment and claim settlement patterns under each segment’s current facts and circumstances.  Accordingly, the ultimate liability may be in excess of or less than the amount provided.  We regularly compare prior period liabilities to re-estimate claim liabilities based on subsequent claims development; any difference between these amounts is adjusted in the operations of the period determined.  Additional information on how each reportable segment determines its claim liabilities, and the variables considered in the development of this amount, is included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations―Critical Accounting Estimates”.  Actual experience will likely differ from assumed experience, and to the extent the actual claims experience is less favorable than estimated based on our underlying assumptions, our incurred losses would increase and future earnings could be adversely affected.

The termination or modification of our license agreements to use the BCBS name and mark could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are a party to license agreements with the BCBSA that entitle us to the exclusive use of the BCBS name and mark in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, the British Virgin Islands and Anguilla.  These license agreements contain certain standards, requirements and restrictions regarding our operations and our use of the BCBS name and mark which may be modified in certain instances by the BCBSA. Changes to the terms of our license agreements may restrict various potential business activities.  Failure to comply with the standards, requirements and restrictions established could result in the termination of a license agreement.  Events that could cause the termination of a license agreement with the BCBSA include failure to comply with minimum capital requirements imposed by the BCBSA, a change of control or violation of the BCBSA ownership limitations on our capital stock, impending financial insolvency and the appointment of a trustee or receiver or the commencement of any action against a licensee seeking its dissolution.  Upon termination of a license agreement, the BCBSA would impose a re-establishment fee upon us, which would allow the BCBSA to entitle another managed care company to use the BCBS name and marks in the service areas we currently serve.  This re-establishment fee is currently $98.33 per licensed enrollee.  If the re-establishment fee were applied to our total BCBS enrollees as of December 31, 2017, we would be assessed approximately $96.2 million by the BCBSA.

We believe that the BCBS name and mark are valuable identifiers of our products and services in the marketplace.  Termination of these license agreements, including modifications to the current term and conditions, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 1.   Business―Blue Cross and Blue Shield License” for more information.
 
Our ability to manage our exposure to underwriting risks in our life insurance and property and casualty insurance businesses depends on the availability and cost of reinsurance coverage.

Reinsurance is the practice of transferring part of an insurance company’s liability and premium under an insurance policy to another insurance company.  We use reinsurance arrangements to limit and manage the amount of risk we retain, to stabilize our underwriting results and to increase our underwriting capacity.  During 2017, 43.3%, or $62.3 million, of the premiums written in the property and casualty insurance segment and 5.3%, or $8.8 million, of the premiums written in the life insurance segment were ceded to reinsurers.  Total premiums ceded, on a consolidated basis, represent 2.5%, or $71.1 million of our premiums.  The premiums ceded and the availability and cost of reinsurance is subject to changing market conditions and may vary significantly over time.  Any decrease in the amount of our reinsurance coverage will increase our risk of loss.  We may be unable to maintain our desired reinsurance coverage or obtain other reinsurance coverage in adequate amounts and at favorable rates.  If we are unable to renew our expiring coverage or obtain new coverage, it will be difficult for us to manage our underwriting risks and operate our business profitably.

It is also possible that the losses we experience on insured risks for which we have obtained reinsurance will exceed the coverage limits of the reinsurance.  See “Risks Related to Our Business-Large scale natural disasters may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”  If the amount of our reinsurance coverage is insufficient, our insurance losses could increase substantially.

If our reinsurers do not pay our claims or do not pay them in a timely manner, we may incur losses.

We are subject to loss and credit risk with respect to the reinsurers with whom we deal.  In accordance with general industry practices, our property and casualty and life insurance subsidiaries annually purchase reinsurance to lessen the impact of large unforeseen losses and mitigate sudden and unpredictable changes in our net income and shareholders’ equity.  Reinsurance contracts do not relieve us from our obligations to policyholders.  In the event that all or any of the reinsurance companies are unable to meet their obligations under existing reinsurance agreements or pay on a timely basis, we will continue to be liable to our policyholders notwithstanding such defaults or delays.  If our reinsurers are not capable of fulfilling their financial obligations to us, our insurance losses would increase, which would negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

A downgrade in our A.M. Best rating could affect our ability to write new business or renew our existing business in our property and casualty segment.

Ratings assigned by A.M. Best are an important factor influencing the competitive position of the property and casualty insurance companies in Puerto Rico.  In 2017, A.M. Best classified our property and casualty insurance subsidiary’s rating as “A-” (the fourth highest of A.M. Best’s 16 financial strength ratings).  On October 13, 2017, A.M. Best released the updated Best’s Credit Rating Methodology (BCRM).  The BCRM is a reorganization of the core credit rating methodology.  Our property and casualty business was identified as being potentially affected by the implementation of the updated BCRM.  A.M. Best is assessing the effect that the updates to the BCRM have on our current rating and will complete a corresponding rating update in the near term.  Moreover, we expect that due consideration will be placed on the effects of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in the business.

A.M. Best ratings represent independent opinions of financial strength and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and are not directed toward the protection of investors.  Financial strength ratings are used by brokers and customers as a means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers.  A.M. Best reviews its ratings periodically and we may not be able to maintain our current ratings in the future.  A downgrade of our property and casualty segments rating could limit or prevent us from writing  and renewing certain types of business or accounts that requires insurers with stronger ratings.  Since the lines of business that this segment writes and the market in which it operates are particularly sensitive to changes in A.M. Best financial strength ratings.
 
We are dependent on the success of our relationships with third parties for various services and functions, including PBM services.
 
We contract with various third parties to perform certain functions and services and provide us with certain information technology systems. Certain of these third parties provide us with significant portions of our business infrastructure and operating requirements, and we could become overly dependent on key vendors, which could cause us to lose core competencies. A termination of our agreements with, or disruption in the performance of, one or more of these service providers could result in service disruptions or unavailability, reduced service quality and effectiveness, increased or duplicative costs or an inability to meet our obligations to our customers. In addition, we may also have to seek alternative service providers, which may be unavailable or only available on less favorable contract terms. Any of these outcomes could adversely affect our business, reputation, cash flows, financial condition and operating results.

TSS entered into a Master Services Agreement (“MSA”) with OptumInsight, Inc. (“Optum”), pursuant to which Optum will provide healthcare technology and operations services, including information technology, claims processing and application development, to Triple-S and its affiliates. As a result, we are now dependent on Optum for the provision of essential services to our business, and there can be no assurances that the quality of the services will be appropriate or that Optum will be able to continue to provide us with the necessary claims processing and technology services. Potential breakdowns or failures of Optum could harm our business by disrupting our delivery of services, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. The aforementioned contract is included as Exhibit 10.29 filed with this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Significant competition and market conditions in Puerto Rico could negatively affect our ability to maintain or increase our profitability.

We are subject to strong competition in each line of business in which we operate.  Competition in the insurance industry is based on many factors, including premiums charged, services provided, speed of claim payments and reputation.  This competitive environment has produced and will likely continue to produce significant pressures in our profitability. The industry in which we operate has unique characteristics that, if we are unable to manage adequately, may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.  Some of the trends and characteristics related to the competition we face in our different lines of business include the following:

      The managed care market in Puerto Rico is mature.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Puerto Rico’s population decreased by 2.2% between 2000 and 2010; however, the national population rate grew 9.7% during the same period.  According to the US Census Bureau, the older population is an important and growing segment of the United States population.  Between 2000 and 2010, the population 65 years and older increased at a faster rate (15.1%) than the total U.S. population.  In Puerto Rico, for the same period, the population 65 years and older increased by 27.5 %. As a result, in order to increase our profitability we believe that we must increase our membership in the Medicare Advantage program, increase market share in the commercial sector, improve our operating profit margins, make acquisitions or expand geographically.

      Local economy is in a downturn.  A challenging economy and a shrinking population in Puerto Rico continue to produce conditions that are adverse to the generation of new sources of business in this segment.  As a result, insurance companies compete for the same customers through pricing, policy terms and quality of services.  Also, our industry is also subject to aggressive marketing and sales practices that target our current and prospective customers. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining our customers.

      Our industry is highly regulated.  Future legislation at the federal and local levels may also result in increased competition, especially in the managed care segment.  While we do not anticipate that any of the current legislative proposals of which we are aware would increase the competition we face, future legislative proposals, if enacted, might do so.

      Market concentration. Concentration in our industry has created an increasingly competitive environment, both for customers and for potential acquisition targets, which may make it difficult for us to grow our business.  The parent companies of some of our competitors are larger and have greater financial and other resources than we do.  We may have difficulty competing with larger companies, which can create downward price pressures on premium rates.
 
We believe these trends will continue.  There can be no assurance that these competitive pressures will not adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

As a holding company, we are largely dependent on rental payments, dividends and other payments from our subsidiaries, although the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments to us is subject to the regulations of the Commissioner of Insurance, including maintenance of minimum levels of capital, as well as covenant restrictions in their indebtedness.

We are a holding company whose assets include, among other things, all of the outstanding shares of common stock of our subsidiaries, including our regulated insurance subsidiaries.  We principally rely on rental income and dividends from our subsidiaries to fund our debt service, dividend payments and operating expenses, although our subsidiaries may not declare dividends every year.  We also benefit to a lesser extent from income on our investment portfolio.

Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to the regulations of the Commissioner of Insurance requiring, among other things, to maintain certain levels of capital, thereby restricting the amount of earnings that can be distributed.  See “Risks Related to Our Business―Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital requirements.  Our failure to meet these standards could subject us to regulatory actions.”  Our subsidiaries’ ability to make any payments to us will also depend on their earnings, the terms of their indebtedness, if any, and other business and legal restrictions.  Furthermore, our subsidiaries are not obligated to make funds available to us, and creditors of our subsidiaries have a superior claim to such subsidiaries’ assets.  Our subsidiaries may not be able to pay dividends or otherwise contribute or distribute funds to us in an amount sufficient for us to meet our financial obligations.  In addition, from time to time, we may find it necessary to provide financial assistance, either through subordinated loans or capital infusions to our subsidiaries that may adversely affect our financial condition.

Our results may fluctuate as a result of many factors, including cyclical changes in the insurance industry.

Results of companies in the insurance industry, and particularly the property and casualty insurance industry, historically have been subject to significant fluctuations and uncertainties.  The industry’s profitability can be affected significantly by:

rising levels of actual costs that are not known by companies at the time they price their products;

volatile and unpredictable developments, including man-made and natural catastrophes;

changes in reserves resulting from the general claims and legal environments as different types of claims arise and judicial interpretations relating to the scope of insurers’ liability develop; and

fluctuations in interest rates, inflationary pressures and other changes in the investment environment, which affect returns on invested capital.

Historically, the financial performance of the insurance industry has fluctuated in cyclical periods of low premium rates and excess underwriting capacity resulting from increased competition, followed by periods of high premium rates and a shortage of underwriting capacity resulting from decreased competition.  Fluctuations in underwriting capacity, demand and competition, and the impact on us of the other factors identified above, could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.  We believe that underwriting capacity and price competition in the current market is increasing.  This additional underwriting capacity may result in increased competition from other insurers seeking to expand the kinds or amounts of business they write or cause some insurers to seek to maintain market share at the expense of underwriting discipline.  We may not be able to retain or attract customers in the future at prices we consider adequate.
 
Our investment portfolios are subject to varying economic and market conditions.

We have exposure to market risk and credit risk in our investment activities.  The fair values of our investments vary from time to time depending on economic and market conditions.  Fixed maturity securities expose us to interest rate risk as well as credit risk.  Equity securities expose us to equity price risk.  Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies and domestic and international economic and political conditions.  These and other factors also affect the equity securities owned by us.  The outlook of our investment portfolio depends on the future direction of interest rates, fluctuations in the equity markets and the amount of cash flows available for investment.  For additional information, see “Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for an analysis of our exposure to interest and equity price risks and the procedures in place to manage these risks.  Our investment portfolios may lose money in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

In addition, our insurance subsidiaries are subject to local laws and regulations that require diversification of our investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain riskier investment categories, such as below-investment-grade fixed income securities, mortgage loans, and real estate and equity investments, among others, which could generate higher returns on our investments.  If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, any investments exceeding regulatory limitations would be treated as non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring statutory surplus and risk-based capital.

The securities and credit markets could experience extreme volatility and disruption.

Adverse conditions in the U.S. and global capital markets could significantly and adversely affect the value of our investments in debt and equity securities, other investments, our profitability and our financial position.

As an insurer, we have a substantial investment portfolio that is comprised particularly of debt securities of issuers located in the U.S.  As a result, the income we earn from our investment portfolio is largely driven by the level of interest rates in the U.S. financial markets, volatility, uncertainty and/or disruptions in the global capital markets, particularly the U.S. credit markets, and governments’ monetary policy.  These factors can significantly and adversely affect the value of our investment portfolio, our profitability and/or our financial position by:

Significantly reducing the value of the debt securities we hold in our investment portfolio, and creating net realized capital losses that reduce our operating results and/or net unrealized capital losses that reduce our shareholders’ equity.

Lowering interest rates on high quality short-term debt securities and thereby materially reducing our net investment income and operating results.

Making it more difficult to value certain of our investment securities, for example if trading becomes less frequent, which could lead to significant period-to-period changes in our estimates of the fair values of those securities and cause period-to-period volatility in our operating results and shareholders’ equity.

Reducing our ability to issue other securities.

We evaluate our investment securities for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis.  This review is subjective and requires a high degree of judgment.  It also requires us to make certain assessments about the potential recovery of the assets we hold.  For the purpose of determining gross realized gains and losses, the cost of investment securities is based upon specific identification.

We believe our cash balances, investment securities, operating cash flows, and funds available under credit agreement, taken together, provide adequate resources to fund ongoing operating and regulatory requirements.  However, continuing adverse securities and credit market conditions could significantly affect the availability of credit.

For additional information, see “Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for an analysis of our exposure to interest and equity price risks and the procedures in place to manage these risks.  Our investment portfolios may lose money in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
 
In addition, our insurance subsidiaries are subject to local laws and regulations that require diversification of our investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain riskier investment categories, such as below-investment-grade fixed income securities, mortgage loans, and real estate and equity investments, among others, which could generate higher returns on our investments. Notwithstanding, the Insurance Code of Puerto Rico requires insurers to invest an amount equal to no less than half of the insurer’s required capital in Puerto Rico Securities. Since February 2014, the credit ratings of bonds issued by the Government of Puerto Rico and most of Puerto Rico public corporations have been downgraded to below-investment grade. As a result, on March 2014, the Puerto Rico Legislative Assembly enacted legislation allowing insurance companies to hold investments that were acquired at an investment grade rating but subsequently downgraded below-investment grades for period not exceeding three years from the date of acquisition. This legislation also authorizes the Commissioner of Insurance, upon an insurer’s request, to provide a three-year extension of the holding period, or an exemption to dispose of the downgraded investment.  The Insurance Code requirement that insurers invest in Puerto Rico securities may affect our ability to invest in other securities with a higher investment credit rating, the overall value of our investment portfolio and our financial condition. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, any investments exceeding regulatory limitations would be treated as non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring statutory surplus and risk-based capital and may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our business is geographically concentrated in Puerto Rico and weakness in the economy and the fiscal health of the government has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact us, particularly following Hurricanes Irma and Maria.

Our principal lines of business are concentrated in Puerto Rico, which is currently in the midst of a severe fiscal and economic crisis resulting primarily from a continuing economic recession, significant and recurrent budget deficits, accelerated out-migration, a high debt-to-revenue ratio, unfunded pension liabilities and the loss of access to the capital markets, among other factors. Such fiscal and economic crisis has been recently exacerbated as a result of the impact of hurricanes Irma and María in September 2017. The hurricanes have had an adverse impact on economic activity, have accelerated out-migration trends, and have required the government to incur substantial extraordinary expenditures while experiencing a significant decrease in tax and other revenues.
 
Even before the hurricanes, Puerto Rico was facing an enduring economic crisis. It’s gross national product (“GNP”) had contracted in real terms since fiscal year 2006. According to the latest Puerto Rico Planning Board estimates, released in April 2017 (before the impact of the hurricanes), GNP was projected to decrease by 1.7% and 1.5% in constant dollars for fiscal years 2017 and 2018, respectively. Following the hurricanes, however, the government projects an 11% contraction in real GNP during fiscal year 2018, followed by five fiscal years of economic growth (due primarily to the positive impact of Federal emergency assistance and significant recovery spending), according to the latest draft of the government’s proposed fiscal plan (further discussed below).
 
The weakness of Puerto Rico’s economy has also adversely affected employment.  Total employment in Puerto Rico decreased approximately 20% from fiscal year 2007 to fiscal year 2016.  The reduction in total employment began in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2007 and continued consistently through the first half of fiscal year 2015 due to the current recession and the fiscal adjustment measures implemented by the government. According to the Household Survey, during fiscal year 2016, total employment increased by 1.8% when compared to the prior fiscal year, and the unemployment rate averaged 11.7%, compared to 13.0% for the prior fiscal year.  For the first five months of fiscal year 2017, total employment decreased by 0.4% with respect the first five months of fiscal year 2016. It is still too early to fully assess the impact of the hurricanes on employment levels. However, total employment may decrease, and total unemployment may increase, at least in the short-term, as a result of the hurricanes. Subsequently, Puerto Rico is expected to see some increased economic activity due to Island’s hurricane recovery efforts, reflecting expected funds from insurance payouts and federal aid.
 
Despite the implementation a number of extraordinary expense reduction, revenue increase and liquidity management measures, the Government’s structural deficit, coupled with the continuing recession, decreasing employment, lack of capital market access, and the insolvency of Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico, eventually resulted in the government being unable to make scheduled debt service payments while continuing to provide essential services in 2016. A moratorium on most debt service payments has been in place since then and the Commonwealth and certain of its instrumentalities are currently in the process of restructuring their debts pursuant to the debt restructuring mechanisms established by the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act (“PROMESA”), which was enacted by the U.S. Congress in June 2016.
 
Pursuant to PROMESA, the Financial Oversight and Management Board for Puerto Rico (the “Oversight Board”), an oversight board for Puerto Rico created by the statute, certified fiscal plans for the Commonwealth and certain of its instrumentalities between June and August 2017.  In December 2017, however, the Oversight Board requested that the government submit revised fiscal plans, taking into account the impact of the hurricanes. The government has submitted various drafts of such fiscal plans to the Oversight Board, which are currently under its review. The Oversight Board has stated that it expects to certify revised fiscal plans for the Commonwealth, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (“PREPA”) and the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (“PRASA”) by March 30, 2018. The fiscal plans (the ones certified by the Oversight Board last year and the most recent drafts of the revised fiscal plans) reflect that the government and its instrumentalities will not have sufficient revenues to pay their debts service obligations in full while continuing to provide essential services, implying a need for significant debt relief. Furthermore, the Commonwealth’s proposed fiscal plan states that it will need to access financing from the Federal government this fiscal year in order to cover its operating expenses and those of PREPA and PRASA.
 
The Commonwealth’s proposed fiscal plan also includes a number of measures intended to be implemented by the government to address its many fiscal and economic challenges.  As part of such measures, the Puerto Rico government proposes to make significant changes to the Government Health Plan, which the government expects will result in savings of approximately $795 million by fiscal year 2023. The changes being contemplated include the expansion of the current regional system to a single region, allowing members to choose their managed care organizations, and establishing limits to benefits based on the actual needs of the beneficiaries, among others.
 
We have significant direct exposure to the government through our contract with the Puerto Rico Health Services Administration, which administers the government health plan, and certain other business relationships with the Government of Puerto Rico and its instrumentalities. As a result, we may be adversely affected by the liquidity problems of such entities. Moreover, it is uncertain if any of the proposed reforms to the Government’s health insurance system will be implemented and, if implemented, what effect, if any, such reforms will have our business and results of operations. On the other hand, as part of the emergency supplemental legislation passed by Congress, Puerto Rico’s Medicaid spending cliff has been addressed for at least the next two years, because of the approval of $4.8 billion in Medicaid Funding.  This action will bring financial stability to Puerto Rico’s Medicaid program, and funding conditions related to compliance with program management standards will further promote stability and predictability.
 
Furthermore, our insureds’ financial capacity is affected by, among other things, the general economic conditions in Puerto Rico and other adverse conditions affecting Puerto Rico consumers and businesses.  The effects of the prolonged recession are reflected in a decrease in insured customers in our commercial lines of business and premiums earned, net. The amount of insured customers and premiums earned could also be further adversely impacted following the hurricanes. Moreover, the measures taken to address the fiscal crisis and those that may have to be taken in the near future, coupled with the effects of hurricanes Irma and María, will likely affect many of our insureds, which could result in a lower amount of insureds, insureds moving to lower premium plans, among others.  The foregoing could also result in decreased demand for our insurance products or migration to less profitable products.
 
If global or local economic conditions worsen or the Government of Puerto Rico is unable to manage its fiscal and economic challenges, including consummating an orderly restructuring of its debt obligations while continuing to provide essential services, the conditions described above could continue or worsen in ways that are unpredictable and outside of our control.  While PROMESA provides the Commonwealth with tools to restructure the debt obligations of the Commonwealth and its instrumentalities, these restructuring tools are new and untested.  Furthermore, the Commonwealth’s projections indicate the possibility of significant creditor losses. Both of these factors may make any debt restructuring process a lengthy and highly adversarial process. These factors could have a material adverse impact on our earnings and financial condition.
 
The success of our business depends on developing and maintaining effective information systems.

Our business and operations may be affected if we do not maintain and upgrade our information systems and the integrity of our proprietary information.  We are materially dependent on our information systems, including Internet-enabled products and information, for all aspects of our business operations.  Monitoring utilization and other factors, supporting our managed care management techniques, processing provider claims and providing data to our regulators, and our ability to compete depends on adopting technology on a timely and cost-effective basis.  Malfunctions in our information systems, fraud, error, communication and energy disruptions, security breaches or the failure to maintain effective and up-to-date information systems could disrupt our business operations, alienate customers, contribute to customer and provider disputes, result in regulatory violations and possible liability, increase administrative expenses or lead to other adverse consequences.  The use of member data by all of our businesses is regulated at federal and local levels.  These laws and rules change frequently and developments require adjustments or modifications to our technology infrastructure.

Our information systems and applications require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, upgrade and enhance existing systems and develop new systems in order to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving industry and regulatory standards, compliance with legal requirements (such as a new set of standardized diagnostic codes, known as ICD-10), and changing operational needs. In addition, we may from time to time obtain significant portions of our systems-related or other services or facilities from independent third parties, which may make our operations vulnerable to such third parties' failure to perform adequately.  If we are unable to comply with ICD-10 requirements, or to maintain effective and efficient information systems, or our failure to efficiently and effectively consolidate our information systems to eliminate redundant or obsolete applications, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  If the information we rely upon to run our business were found to be inaccurate or unreliable or if we fail to maintain our information systems and data integrity effectively we could suffer from, among other things, operational disruptions, such as the inability to pay claims or to make claims payments on a timely basis, have problems in determining medical cost estimates and establishing appropriate pricing and reserves, loss of members, and difficulty in attracting new members, regulatory problems, increases in operating expenses or suffer other adverse consequences.

Our business requires the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks.  Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other events or developments could result in compromises or breaches of our security system and patient data stored in our information systems.  Anyone who circumvents our security measures could misappropriate our confidential information or cause interruptions in services or operations.  The internet is a public network and data is sent over this network from many sources.  In the past, computer viruses or software programs that disable or impair computers have been distributed and have rapidly spread over the internet.  Computer viruses could be introduced into our systems, or those of our providers or regulators, which could disrupt our operations, or make our systems inaccessible to our providers or regulators.

We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by breaches.  Because of the confidential health information we store and transmit, security breaches could expose us to a risk of regulatory action, litigation, possible liability and loss.  We are taking all needed security measures to prevent security breaches, and ensure our business operations won’t be adversely affected by potential security breaches.
 
We face risks related to litigation.

We are subject to a variety of legal actions that affect any business, such as employment and employment discrimination-related suits, employee benefit claims, breach of contract actions, tort claims and intellectual property-related litigation.  In addition, because of the nature of our business, we are subject to a variety of legal actions relating to our business operations, including the design, management and offering of our products and services, claims relating to the denial of benefits or coverage, medical malpractice actions, allegations of anti-competitive and unfair business activities, provider disputes, broker and agent disputes, and claims by regulatory actions by agencies for non-compliance, among others.  Legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and we cannot ascertain their outcome. We have insurance to cover liabilities relating to litigation; however, insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover any such liability or our insurers could deny or dispute coverage.  Results of regulatory actions could require us to change our business practices and may affect our profitability. Substantial liability relating to legal or regulatory actions could adversely affect our cash flow, results of operations, and financial conditions.  See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”

Large-scale natural disasters may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Puerto Rico has historically been at a relatively high risk of natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.  If Puerto Rico were to experience a large-scale natural disaster, claims incurred by our managed care, property and casualty and life insurance segments would likely increase and our properties may incur substantial damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, unforeseen major public health issues following these catastrophic events, such as pandemics and epidemics, like mosquito-borne epidemics (Dengue, Zika, etc.), conditions for which vaccines may not exist, are not effective, or have not been widely administered, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Claims in our property and casualty business increased in 2017 after the landing of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Insurance Code requires the Company to resolve claims within a period of 90 days.  Due to the substantial increase in the volume of claims following a catastrophic event, there is a business risk that not all claims will be resolved within the timeframe stipulated in the Puerto Rico Insurance Code, which may result in penalties imposed by the Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico.

Present and future covenants in our secured term loans and note purchase agreements may restrict our operations and adversely affect our ability to pursue desirable business opportunities.

The secured term loan and the note purchase agreements governing the notes contain financial and non-financial covenants that restrict, among other things, the granting of certain liens, limitations on acquisitions and limitations on changes in control.  These non-financial covenants could restrict our operations.  In addition, if we fail to make any required payment under our secured term loans or note purchase agreements governing the notes or to comply with any of the non-financial covenants included therein, we would be in default and the lenders or holders of our debt, as the case may be, could cause all of our outstanding debt obligations under our secured term loans or note purchase agreements to become immediately due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest and, in the case of the secured term loans, cease to make further extensions of credit.  If the indebtedness under our secured term loans or note purchase agreements is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or re-finance the amounts due and our business may be materially adversely affected.

We may incur additional indebtedness in the future.  Our debt service obligations may require us to use a portion of our cash flow to pay interest and principal on debt instead of for other corporate purposes, including funding future expansion.  If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to service our debt obligations, we may be forced to seek extraordinary dividends from our subsidiaries, sell assets, seek additional equity or debt capital or restructure our debt.  However, these measures might be prohibited by applicable regulatory requirements, unsuccessful or inadequate in permitting us to meet scheduled debt service obligations. We may also incur future debt obligations that might subject us to restrictive covenants that could affect our financial and operational flexibility.
 
Our breach or failure to comply with any of these covenants could result in a default under our secured term loan and note purchase agreements and the acceleration of amounts due thereunder.  Indebtedness could also limit our ability to pursue desirable business opportunities, and may affect our ability to maintain an investment grade rating for our indebtedness.

If we do not effectively manage the growth of our operations and our acquisitions, we may not be able to achieve our profitability targets.

Our growth strategy includes enhancing our market share in Puerto Rico, entering new geographic markets, introducing new insurance products and programs, further developing our relationships with independent agencies or brokers and pursuing acquisition opportunities.  Our growth strategy exposes us to additional risks, including our ability to:

identify profitable growth opportunities in current and additional markets;

transact successful acquisitions, capital investments and other growth initiatives;

determine the correct value of assets and investments;

implement adequate pricing and operational structure, including underwriting and claim management processes;

design attractive and profitable insurance and health products and services;

recruit required personnel for expanded operations, including officers, agents, brokers, medical providers, and other key personnel;

obtain regulatory permission required to operate in other jurisdictions or lines of business;

comply with regulatory requirements;

integrate acquired business to our operations, including integration of information technology, management and personnel, and administrative systems;

create the expected return over time; and

Implement new, or modify existing internal monitoring and control systems.
 
Additionally, our management and other key personnel may expend considerable time and effort which may distract them from their core activities. We may face risk associated to unknown or unidentified liabilities resulting from our investments or acquisitions. We may also be subject to changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, and other regulatory requirements affecting our business, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and laws prohibiting corrupt payments. Deterioration of social, political, labor or economic conditions in a specific country or region and difficulties in managing foreign operations may also adversely affect our operations or financial results.  Also, fluctuations in foreign currency rates could affect our financial results.

If our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired, it may adversely affect our financial condition and future results of operations.

As of December 31, 2017 we had approximately $25.4 million and $3.6 million of goodwill and intangible assets recorded on our balance sheet, primarily related to the TSA acquisition, that represent 0.9% of our total consolidated assets and 3.2% of our consolidated stockholders’ equity.  If we make additional acquisitions it is likely that we will record additional goodwill and intangible assets on our consolidated balance sheet.

In accordance with applicable accounting standards, we periodically evaluate our goodwill and other intangible assets to determine the recoverability of their carrying values.  Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment at least annually.  Impairment testing requires us to make assumptions and judgments regarding the estimated fair value of our reporting units, including goodwill and other intangible assets (with indefinite lives).  Estimated fair values developed based on our assumptions and judgments might be significantly different if other reasonable assumptions and estimates were to be used.  If estimated fair values are less than the carrying values of the equity and other intangible assets with indefinite lives in future impairment tests, or if significant impairment indicators are noted relative to other intangible assets subject to amortization, we may be required to record significant impairment losses against future income.  Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of the goodwill or amortizable intangible assets may not be recoverable, include reduced future cash flow estimates and slower growth rates in the industry.
 
Any future evaluations requiring an impairment of our goodwill and other intangible assets could adversely affect our results of operations and stockholders' equity in the period in which the impairment occurs.  A material decrease in stockholders' equity could, in turn, negatively impact our debt ratings or potentially impact our compliance with existing debt covenants.

In addition, the estimated value of our reporting units may be impacted as a result of the implementation of various Health Care Reform regulations.  Such regulations could have significant effects on our future operations, which in turn could unfavorably affect our ability to support the carrying value of certain goodwill and other intangible assets and result in significant impairment charges in future periods.  See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsCritical Accounting EstimatesGoodwill and Other Intangible Assets”.

The effectiveness of our Company’s strategy, talent management and alignment of talent to our business needs and risks to our brand and reputation present overarching risks our Company.

We expect to face significant business challenges and uncertainties in 2018. Effectiveness of our enterprise strategy, talent management and alignment of talent to our business needs and risks to our brand and reputation present overarching risks to our enterprise in 2018. There can be no assurance regarding the effectiveness of our enterprise strategy, our ability to manage and align our talent to our business needs or our ability to avoid harm to our brand and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that U.S. government fiscal policy, the implementation of the ACA, repeal or other changes to the ACA or additional changes to the U.S. health care system will not require us to revise the ways in which we conduct business, put us at risk of loss of business or materially adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial position or operating results.
 
Risks Relating to Taxation

If we are considered to be a controlled foreign corporation under the related person insurance income rules or a passive foreign investment company for United States federal income tax purposes, U.S. persons that own our shares of Class B common stock could be subject to adverse tax consequences.

We do not expect that we will be considered a controlled foreign corporation under the related person insurance income rules (a “RPII CFC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  However, because RPII CFC status depends in part upon the correlation between an insurance company’s shareholders and such company’s insurance customers and the extent of such company’s insurance business outside its country of incorporation, there can be no assurance that we will not be a RPII CFC in any taxable year.  We do not intend to monitor whether we generate RPII or becomes a RPII CFC.

Based on our current business assets and operations, we do not expect that we will be considered a ‘‘passive foreign investment company’’ (a “PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  However, because PFIC status depends upon the composition of our income and assets and the market value of our assets (including, among others, less than 25 percent owned equity investments) in each year, which may be uncertain and may vary substantially over time, there can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year.  Our belief that it is not a PFIC is based, in part, on the fact that the PFIC rules include provisions intended to provide an exception for bona fide insurance companies predominately engaged in an insurance business.  However, the scope of this exception is not entirely clear and there are no administrative pronouncements, judicial decisions or Treasury regulations that provide guidance as to the application of the PFIC rules to insurance companies.
 
If we were a RPII CFC in any taxable year or if the Company was treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, certain adverse consequences could apply to certain U.S. persons that own our shares of Class B common stock.

Legislative and other measures that may be taken by Puerto Rico governmental authorities could materially increase our tax burden.

In July 2015, Puerto Rico enacted legislation increasing the aggregate sales and use tax rate from 7% to 11.5% (10.5% payable to the Puerto Rico Department of the Treasury (the “Central Government SUT”) and 1% payable to the municipality (the “Municipal SUT”)) and imposing a 4% sales and use tax payable to the Puerto Rico Department of the Treasury on certain services previously covered by the business to business exemption and designated professional services. The increase from 7% to 11.5% became effective in July 1, 2015 and the 4% tax became effective October 1, 2015. Under the approved legislation the sales and use tax does not apply to Medicare and Medicaid services. Moreover, in light of Puerto Rico’s current fiscal and economic challenges, it is uncertain whether further tax-related legislation affecting the heath care or insurance industry may be enacted in an effort to increase Puerto Rico’s tax revenues.  Any increase in the amount of taxes we pay and the taxation of the customers we serve may have a material adverse effect to our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Relating to the Regulation of Our Industry

Changes in governmental regulations, or the application thereof, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to substantial federal and local regulation and frequent changes to the applicable legislative and regulatory schemes, including general business regulations and laws relating to taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, insurance, Medicare and health care fraud and abuse laws.  Please refer to “Item 1.   Business – Regulation”.  Changes in these laws, enactment of new laws or regulations, changes in interpretation of these laws or changes in enforcement of these laws and regulations may materially impact our business.  Such changes include without limitation:

initiatives to provide greater access to coverage for uninsured and under-insured populations without adequate funding to health plan or to be funded through taxes or other negative financial levy on health plans;

payments to health plans that are tied to achievement of certain quality performance measures and by health plans that do not satisfy applicable medical loss ratio requirements;

other efforts or specific legislative changes to the Medicare or Medicaid programs, including changes in the bidding process or other means of materially reducing premiums;

local government regulatory changes;

increased government enforcement, or changes in interpretation or application, of fraud and abuse and health information privacy laws; and

regulations that increase the operational burden on health plans that increase a health plan’s exposure to liabilities, including efforts to expand the tort liability of health plans.

Regulations promulgated by the Commissioner of Insurance, among other things, influence how our insurance subsidiaries conduct business and solicit subscriptions for shares of capital stock, and place limitations on investments and dividends.  Possible penalties for violations of such regulations include fines, orders to cease or change practices or behavior and possible suspension or termination of licenses.  The regulatory powers of the Commissioner of Insurance are designed to protect policyholders, not shareholders.  While we cannot predict the terms of future regulation, the enactment of new legislation could affect the cost or demand of insurance policies, limit our ability to obtain rate increases in those cases where rates are regulated, otherwise restrict our operations, limit the expansion of our business, expose us to expanded liability or impose additional compliance requirements.  In addition, we may incur additional operating expenses in order to comply with new legislation and may be required to revise the ways in which we conduct our business.
 
Future regulatory actions by the Commissioner of Insurance or other governmental agencies, including federal regulations, could have a material adverse effect on the profitability or marketability of our business, financial condition and results of operations, which in turn could impact the value of our business model and result in potential impairments of our goodwill and other intangible assets.

The health care reform law and the implementation of that law could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations.

The ACA provides comprehensive changes to the U.S. health care system.  One key piece of the legislation imposes an annual insurance industry assessment, with increasing annual amounts based on premium growth, set to be $14.3 billion for 2018.  Such assessment may not be deductible for income tax purposes.  If the cost of the federal premium tax is not included in the calculation of our rates, or if we are unable to otherwise adjust our business model to address this new tax, our results of operations, financial position and liquidity may be materially adversely affected.

Also, health plans serving the individual market are subject to the guaranteed issue provisions under which the plans are required to issue coverage to individuals without regard to their health status of pre-existing conditions, which could lead to adverse selection by consumers.  On July 16, 2014, the Department of Health and Human Services sent a letter or the Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico notifying that guarantee issue provisions under ACA are not applicable to U.S. territories. However, on July 22, 2013, similar guarantee issue and other market reforms provisions were enacted in Puerto Rico as part of amendments made to the Health Insurance Code of Puerto Rico. Although the Puerto Rico legislature is considering additional legislation to provide insurance companies more flexibility to comply with the additional requirements enacted in 2013, it is uncertain whether such legislation will in fact be enacted or the effect of any such additional legislation may have on our business. If we are unable to adapt our premium structure to address the guaranteed issue requirement, our results of operations, financial position and liquidity may be materially adversely affected.

In the years since its enactment, there have been, and continue to be, significant developments in, and continued legislative activity around, attempts to repeal or repeal and replace the ACA. For example, on October 12, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order requiring the implementation of regulations that would exempt certain association plans from complying with ACA requirements, easing restrictions on certain short-term health plans and health reimbursement arrangements and limiting hospital and insurance company consolidation while promoting competition and choice. Additionally, on January 22, 2018, President Trump signed a continuing resolution on appropriations for fiscal year 2018 that suspends the  implementation of the annual insurance industry assessment for tax year 2019. In February 2018 the Administration revealed a notice of proposed rulemaking to support short term, limited duration scope policies, and additional activity related to the individual market is anticipated through state waivers.  While Congress is no longer actively seeking to repeal and replace the ACA, additional changes are expected this year, largely through Administrative Actions.
 
As part of the emergency supplemental legislation passed by Congress, Puerto Rico’s Medicaid spending cliff has been addressed for at least the next two years, because of the approval of $4.8 billion in Medicaid Funding.  This action will bring financial stability to Puerto Rico’s Medicaid program, and funding conditions related to compliance with program management standards will further promote stability and predictability. Although we believe this legislation, together with the ACA, may provide us with significant opportunities to grow our business, the  implementation of enacted reforms, such as the continued cuts in the effective Medicare Advantage rates applicable to our plans, as well as future regulations and legislative changes, may in fact have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.  If we fail to effectively implement our operational and strategic initiatives with respect to the implementation of health care reform, or do not do so as effectively as our competitors, our business may be materially adversely affected.
 
As a Medicare Advantage program participant, we are subject to complex regulations.  If we fail to comply with these regulations, we may be exposed to criminal sanctions and significant civil penalties, and our Medicare Advantage contracts may be terminated or our operations may be required to change in a manner that has a material impact on our business.

The laws and regulations governing Medicare Advantage program participants are complex, subject to interpretation and frequent change and can expose us to penalties for non-compliance.  If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be subject to criminal fines, civil penalties or other sanctions, including the termination of our Medicare Advantage contracts.  In addition, maintaining compliance with such laws and regulations as they change may, in some cases, entail substantial direct costs.

Under CMS regulations to implement certain ACA requirements that became effective on June 1, 2012, CMS has the authority not to renew our contracts beginning in 2015 based solely on the Star Ratings of our Medicare Advantage plans if their respective ratings do not achieve three or more stars (out of 5.0 stars) for three consecutive contract years.  See the subcaption “Federal Regulation” in Item 1 of this annual report on Form 10-K for detailed information of the Stars Ratings. In the final call letter to Medicare Advantage organizations dated April 6, 2015, CMS stated that it would not delay contract terminations based on a plan’s Star Ratings.

Historically, the TSA plans have received annual Star Ratings of three or more stars.  CMS provides a quality bonus to plans with Star Ratings of 3.5 or more. As of December 31, 2017, TSA’s HMO plan achieved 4.0 overall on a 5.0 star rating system, and achieved 4.5 stars in Part D and TSA’s PPO plan maintained its 3.5 stars and achieved 5.0 stars in Part D.

The Company is subject, and will likely continue to be subject, to audits from CMS in connection with the Medicare Advantage contracts. CMS audit may review the effectiveness of multiple matters, including the performance of the benefit administration, coverage determinations, process of appeals and grievances, dismissals, oversight of agents and brokers, and enrollment process.  CMS may impose civil monetary penalties as a result of their findings or require changes to our business practices that may adversely affect our profitability. CMS may also terminate any of our Medicare Advantage contracts if it determines that any of these plans have failed to substantially carry out the contract or is carrying out the contract in a manner that is inconsistent with the efficient or effective administration of the Medicare Advantage program.  Compliance with CMS requirements may require us to divert resources that may affect the results of our operations and financial condition. Any termination or non-renewal of our Medicare Advantage plans would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

We may be subject to government audits, regulatory proceedings or investigative actions, which may find that our policies, procedures, practices or contracts are not compliant with, or are in violation of, applicable healthcare regulations.

Federal, Puerto Rico, and Costa Rica government authorities, including but not limited to the Commissioner of Insurance, ASES, CMS, the OIG, the Office of the Civil Rights of HHS, the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S. Department of Labor, and the OPM, regularly make inquiries and conduct audits concerning our compliance with applicable insurance and other laws and regulations.  In addition, beginning in Medicare contract year 2016, CMS will have the right to require Medicare Advantage plan sponsors such as us to hire an independent auditor, working in accordance with CMS specifications, to validate if the deficiencies that were found during a CMS full or partial program audit have been corrected and provide CMS with a copy of the audit findings.  If, in the future, we were required by CMS to hire an independent auditor, such audit would entail direct costs to us, in addition to potential penalties in the event of negative audit findings.  We may also become the subject of non-routine regulatory or other investigations or proceedings brought by these or other authorities, and our compliance with and interpretation of applicable laws and regulations may be challenged.  In addition, our regulatory compliance may also be challenged by private citizens under the “whistleblower provisions” of applicable laws.  The defense of any such challenge could result in substantial cost, diversion of resources, and a possible material adverse effect on our business.

An adverse action could result in one or more of the following:

recoupment of amounts we have been paid pursuant to our government contracts;
 
mandated changes in our business practices;

imposition of significant civil or criminal penalties, fines or other sanctions on us and/or our key employees;

additional reporting requirements and oversight and mandated corrective action or remediation plans;

loss or non-renewal of our government contracts or loss of our ability to participate in Medicare or other federal or local governmental payor programs; damage to our reputation;

increased difficulty in marketing our products and services;

inability to obtain approval for future services or geographic expansions; and

loss of one or more of our licenses to act as an insurance company, preferred provider or managed care organization or other licensed entity or to otherwise provide a service.

Our failure to maintain an effective corporate compliance program may increase our exposure to civil damages and penalties, criminal sanctions and administrative remedies, such as program exclusion, resulting from an adverse review.  Any adverse review, audit or investigation could reduce our revenue and profitability and otherwise adversely affect our operating results.

Effective prevention, detection and control systems are critical to maintain regulatory compliance and prevent fraud and failure of these systems could adversely affect the Company.

Failure to prevent, detect or control systems related to regulatory compliance or the failure of employees to comply with our internal policies, including data systems security or unethical conduct by managers and employees, could adversely affect our reputation and also expose it to litigation and other proceedings, fines and penalties.  Federal and state governments have made investigating and prosecuting health care and other insurance fraud and abuse a priority.  Fraud and abuse prohibitions encompass a wide range of activities, including kickbacks for referral of members, billing for unnecessary medical services, improper marketing, and violations of patient privacy rights.  The regulations and contractual requirements applicable to the Company are complex and subject to change.  In addition, ongoing vigorous law enforcement, a highly technical regulatory scheme and the Dodd-Frank legislation and related regulations being adopted that enhance regulators’ enforcement powers and whistleblower incentives and protections, mean that its compliance efforts in this area will continue to require significant resources.

In addition, provider or member fraud that is not prevented or detected could impact our medical costs or those of our self-insured customers.  Further, during an economic downturn, our segments, including our Life Insurance and Property and Casualty segments may see increased fraudulent claims volume which may lead to additional costs because of an increase in disputed claims and litigation.

If we fail to comply with applicable privacy and security laws, regulations and standards, including with respect to third-party service providers that utilize sensitive personal information on our behalf, or if we fail to address emerging security threats or detect and prevent privacy and security incidents, our business, reputation, results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

The collection, maintenance, protection, use, transmission, disclosure and disposal of sensitive personal information are regulated at the federal, state, international and industry levels and requirements are imposed on us by contracts with customers.  HIPAA regulations also provide access rights and other rights for health plan beneficiaries with respect to their health information.  These regulations include standards for certain electronic transactions, including encounter and claims information, health plan eligibility and payment information.  Health plans are also subject to beneficiary notification and remediation obligations in the event of an authorized use or disclosure of personal health information.  HIPAA also requires business associates as well as covered entities to comply with certain privacy and security requirements.  Even though we provide for appropriate protections through our contracts with our third-party service providers and in certain cases assess their security controls, we still have limited oversight or control over their actions and practices.

Our facilities and systems and those of our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to privacy and security incidents; security attacks and breaches; acts of vandalism or theft; computer viruses; coordinated attacks by activist entities; emerging cybersecurity risks; misplaced or lost data; programming and/or human errors; or other similar events. Emerging and advanced security threats, including coordinated attacks, require additional layers of security which may disrupt or impact efficiency of operations.
 
Compliance with new privacy and security laws, regulations and requirements may result in increased operating costs, and may constrain our ability to manage our business model. In addition, HHS has expanded its HIPAA audit program to assess compliance efforts not only by covered entities, but also business associates.  Although we are not aware of HHS plans to audit any of our covered entities or business associates, an audit resulting in findings or allegations of non-compliance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.  We are also subject to Puerto Rico Act No. 194 of August 25, 2000, also known as the Patient’s Rights and Responsibilities Act, including provisions more stringent than HIPAA.  There is uncertainty regarding many aspects of such state requirements which make compliance with applicable health information laws more difficult.  For these reasons, our total compliance costs may increase in the future.

We are subject, and will likely continue to be subject, to regulatory audits and investigations relating to our compliance with HIPAA and other related privacy requirements. On November 20, 2015, we entered into a resolution agreement with the HHS Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”), (the “Resolution Agreement”) to settle all incidents being investigated by OCR up to the date of execution of the Resolution Agreement.  As part of the Resolution Agreement, the Company agreed to pay $3.5 million, without admitting liability, implement a three year corrective action plan, and comply with other terms and conditions.  The foregoing summary of the terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by the full text of the Settlement Agreement included as Exhibit 10.24 filed with this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Also, on November 20, 2015, we entered into a settlement agreement with ASES (the “ASES Settlement Agreement”) in connection with privacy incidents relating to beneficiaries of the government health plan up to the execution of the ASES Settlement Agreement. As part of the ASES Settlement Agreement, the Company did not admit any liability and agreed to pay ASES $1.5 million in full accord and satisfaction and settlement of any and all reported incidents. The foregoing summary of the terms and conditions of the ASES Settlement Agreement is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by the full text of the ASES Settlement Agreement included as Exhibit 10.23 filed with this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Non-compliance or findings of non-compliance with applicable laws, regulations or requirements, or the occurrence of any privacy or security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of sensitive personal information, whether by us or by one of our third-party service providers, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business, including mandatory disclosure to the media, significant increases in the cost of managing and remediating privacy or security incidents and material fines, penalties and litigation awards, among other consequences, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
 
The revised rate calculation system for Medicare Advantage, the payment system for the Medicare Part D and changes in the methodology and payment policies used by CMS to establish rates could reduce our profitability and the benefits we offer our beneficiaries.
 
Medicare Advantage managed care plans are paid based off a CMS-calculated “benchmark” amount, and plans submit competitive bids that reflect the costs they expect to incur in providing the base Medicare benefits.  A Medicare Advantage plan’s actual payment rate is based on a complex statutory formula that takes into account a number of factors, including the relationship between the plan’s bid and the benchmark.  In addition, under the ACA, Medicare Advantage plan payment rates were subject to transitionally phased in reductions intended to bring Medicare Advantage rates more in line with Medicare fee-for-service rates, which was fully phased in 2017.  Medicare generally will rebate a portion of the amount by which the benchmark amount exceeded the accepted bid for certain plans. For plans achieving star rating of at least 3.5 stars, the portion of the savings retained by the plan is higher.  For plans achieving star ratings of at least 4 stars, the starting benchmark amount from which the savings is computed is also higher (a “quality bonus”).  If the bid is greater than the benchmark, the plan will be required to charge a premium to enrollees equal to the difference between the bid and the benchmark, which could affect our ability to attract enrollees.  CMS reviews the methodology and assumptions used in bidding with respect to medical and administrative costs, profitability and other factors.  CMS could challenge such methodology or assumptions or seek to cap or limit plan profitability.  CMS also could administratively seek to implement certain methodological changes to the Medicare Advantage rate calculations that could result in functionally lower payment rates, and may have a material adverse effect on our revenue, financial position, results of operations or cash flow.
 
We also face the risk of reduced or insufficient government funding and we may need to terminate our Medicare Advantage contracts with respect to unprofitable markets, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  In addition, as a result of the competitive bidding process, our ability to participate in the Medicare Advantage program is affected by the pricing and design of our competitors’ bids.  Moreover, we may in the future be required to reduce benefits or charge our members an additional premium in order to maintain our current level of profitability, either of which could make our health plans less attractive to members and adversely affect our membership.
 
In February 2018, CMS released its draft Advance Notice and Call Letter for Medicare Advantage reimbursement in 2019.  This draft notice contains a number of provisions that will have a significant effect on the operations of Puerto Rico’s MA program.  These proposals include provisions that may increase certain payments made to plans in Puerto Rico, but is also silent in key critical issues that if no action is taken could result in lower payments for Puerto Rico Medicare Advantage Organizations (MAO).  The draft call letter does not adequately address problems with the benchmark and payment disparity for Puerto Rico counties.  In addition, the draft letter does not commit to including the zero claims adjustment, embedded in the past two years, creating more uncertainty over actual payment rate changes for 2019.  The call letter will be finalized in early April.  Until then, it is uncertain whether any of CMS’s proposals will be implemented or, if implemented, the effect in our Medicare Advantage business.
 
CMS’s risk adjustment payment system and other Medicare Advantage funding pressures make our revenue and profitability difficult to predict and could result in material retroactive adjustments to our results of operations.
 
CMS has implemented a risk adjustment payment system for Medicare Advantage plans to improve the accuracy of payments and establish incentives for such plans to enroll and treat less healthy Medicare beneficiaries.  The risk adjusted premiums we receive are based on claims and encounter data that we submit to CMS within prescribed deadlines.  We develop our estimates for risk-adjusted premiums utilizing historical experience, or other data, and predictive models as sufficient member risk score data becomes available over the course of each CMS plan year. We recognize periodic changes to risk-adjusted premiums as revenue when the amounts are determinable and collection is reasonably assured, which are possible as additional diagnosis code information is reported to CMS, when the ultimate adjustment settlements are received from CMS, or we receive notification of such settlement amounts. CMS adjusts premiums on two separate occasions on a retrospective basis. The first retrospective adjustment for a given plan year generally occurs during the third quarter of that year. This initial settlement represents the update of risk scores for the current plan year based on the severity of claims incurred in the prior plan year. CMS then issues a final retrospective risk adjusted premium settlement for that plan year in the following year.  The data provided to CMS to determine members’ risk scores is subject to audit by CMS even after the annual settlements occur, which may result in the refund of premiums to CMS.  The result of these audits could materially reduce premium revenue in the year in which CMS determines a refund is required and could be material to our result of operations, financial position and cash flows.
 
CMS is making significant changes to the manner in which it determines risk adjustment payments, including introducing a new model for 2019 and continue to shift towards encounter based risk scores (ESD).  As a result of the risk adjustment process and CMS’s ability to modify the manner in which it applies such risk adjustments, it is difficult to predict with certainty our future revenue or profitability.  In addition, our own risk scores for any period may result in favorable or unfavorable adjustment to payment from CMS and our Medicare payment revenue.
 
Finally, we generally rely on providers, including certain network providers who are our employees, to appropriately document all medical data, including the diagnosis codes submitted with claims, as the basis for our risk scores under the program.  Thus, our ability to meet our premium revenue estimates depends largely on the success of third party efforts to collect and properly reflect medical data, including diagnosis codes that must be submitted with claims.  There is no assurance that our providers will be successful in accurately collecting such medical data and diagnosis codes and, to the extent their efforts are not successful, such failure may have a material adverse effect on our premium revenues.
 
If during the open enrollment season our Medicare Advantage members enroll in another Medicare Advantage plan, they will be automatically disenrolled from our plan, possibly without our immediate knowledge.

Pursuant to the MMA, members enrolled in one insurer’s Medicare Advantage program will be automatically disenrolled from that program if they enroll in another insurer’s Medicare Advantage program.  If our members enroll in another insurer’s Medicare Advantage program we may not discover that such member has been disenrolled from our program until such time as we fail to receive reimbursement from CMS in respect of such member, which may occur sometime after the disenrollment.  As a result, we may discover that a member has disenrolled from our program after we have already provided services to such individual.  Our profitability would be reduced as a result of such failure to receive payment from CMS if we had made related payments to providers and were unable to recoup such payments from them.
 
Medicare and Medicaid spending by the federal government could be decreased as part of the spending cuts associated with the debt ceiling.
 
The Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-155) requires the President of the United States to submit to Congress a report on the potential sequestration triggered by the failure of the Joint Selective Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose, and Congress to enact, a plan to reduce the deficit by $1.2 trillion, as required by the Budget Control Act of 2011. Under the sequestration, automatic spending cuts became effective beginning April 1, 2013, and, following passage of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, these cuts have been extended through at least 2025 unless additional Congressional action is taken.  This resulted in cuts of 2% to Medicare funding.  Medicaid programs are not subject to automatic spending cuts. In addition, in January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several categories of healthcare providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
 
We cannot predict whether Congress will take any action to change the automatic spending cuts.  Further, we cannot predict how states will react to any changes that occur at the federal level.
 
If we are deemed to have violated the insurance company change of control statutes in Puerto Rico, we may suffer adverse consequences.

We are subject to change of control statutes applicable to insurance companies.  These statutes regulate, among other things, the acquisition of control of an insurance company or a holding company of an insurance company.  Under these statutes, no person may make an offer to acquire or to sell the issued and outstanding voting stock of an insurance company, which constitutes 10% or more of the issued and outstanding stock of an insurance company, or of the total stock issued and outstanding of a holding company of an insurance company, or solicit or receive funds in exchange for the issuance of new shares of the holding company’s or its insurance subsidiaries’ capital stock, without the prior approval of the Commissioner of Insurance.  Our amended and restated articles of incorporation (the articles) prohibit any institutional investor from owning 10% or more of our voting power and any person that is not an institutional investor from owning 5% or more of our voting power.  We cannot, however, assure you that ownership of our securities will remain below these thresholds.  To the extent that a person, including an institutional investor, acquires shares in excess of these limits, our articles provide for the Company to take certain actions, including refusing to give effect to a transfer or instituting proceedings to enjoin or rescind a transfer, in order to avoid a violation of the ownership limitation in the articles.  If the Commissioner of Insurance determines that a change of control has occurred, we could be subject to fines and penalties, and in some instances the Commissioner of Insurance would have the discretion to revoke our operating licenses.

We are also subject to change of control limitations pursuant to our BCBSA license agreements.  The BCBSA ownership limits restrict beneficial ownership of our voting capital stock to less than 10% for an institutional investor and less than 5% for a non-institutional investor, both as defined in our articles.  In addition, no person may beneficially own shares of our common stock or other equity securities, or a combination thereof, representing a 20% or more ownership interest, whether voting or non-voting, in our company.  This provision in our articles cannot be changed without the prior approval of the BCBSA and the vote of holders of at least 75% of our common stock.

Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital requirements.  Our failure to meet these standards could subject us to regulatory actions.

Puerto Rico insurance laws and the regulations promulgated by the Commissioner of Insurance, among other things, require insurance companies to maintain certain levels of capital, thereby restricting the amount of earnings that can be distributed by our insurance subsidiaries to us.  Although we are currently in compliance with these requirements, there can be no assurance that we will continue to comply in the future.  Failure to maintain required levels of capital or to otherwise comply with the reporting requirements of the Commissioner of Insurance could subject our insurance subsidiaries to corrective action, including government supervision or liquidation, or require us to provide financial assistance, either through subordinated loans or capital infusions, to our subsidiaries to ensure they maintain their minimum statutory capital requirements.

We are also subject to minimum capital requirements pursuant to our BCBSA license agreements.  See “Risks Related to Our BusinessThe termination or modification of our license agreements to use the BCBS name and mark could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”
 
Puerto Rico insurance laws and regulations and provisions of our articles and bylaws could delay, deter or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider to be in their best interests and may make it more difficult to replace members of our board of directors and have the effect of entrenching management.

Puerto Rico insurance laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder, and our articles and bylaws may delay, defer, prevent or render more difficult a takeover attempt that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests.  For instance, they may prevent our shareholders from receiving the benefit from any premium to the market price of our common stock offered by a bidder in a takeover context.  Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock if they are viewed as discouraging takeover attempts in the future.

Our license agreements with the BCBSA require that our articles contain certain provisions, including ownership limitations. See “Risks Relating to the Regulation of Our IndustryIf we are deemed to have violated the insurance company change of control statutes in Puerto Rico, we may suffer adverse consequences.”

Our articles and bylaws have anti-takeover effects and may delay, defer or prevent a takeover attempt that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests.  In particular, our articles and bylaws:

permit our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;

divide our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms;

limit the ability of shareholders to remove directors;

impose restrictions on shareholders’ ability to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

impose advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and nominations of directors to be considered at meetings of shareholders; and

impose restrictions on shareholders’ ability to amend our articles and bylaws.

See also “Risks Relating to the Regulation of Our IndustryIf we are deemed to have violated the insurance company change of control statutes in Puerto Rico, we may suffer adverse consequences.”

Puerto Rico insurance laws and the regulations promulgated by the Commissioner of Insurance may also delay, defer, prevent or render more difficult a takeover attempt that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests.  For instance, the Commissioner of Insurance must review any merger, consolidation or new issue of shares of capital stock of an insurer or its parent company and make a determination as to the fairness of the transaction.  Also, a director of an insurer must meet certain requirements imposed by Puerto Rico insurance laws.

These voting and other restrictions may operate to make it more difficult to replace members of our board of directors and may have the effect of entrenching management regardless of their performance.
 
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.
Properties

We own a seven story building located at 1441 F.D. Roosevelt Avenue, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and two adjacent buildings, as well as the adjoining parking lot, which is mainly used by the Managed Care segment.  In addition, we own five floors of a fifteen-story building located at 1510 F.D. Roosevelt Avenue, in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico, which is mainly used by the Property and Casualty segment.  We also own land and a multi-segment customer service center in the municipalities of Mayagüez and Ponce, Puerto Rico.  In addition to the properties described above, we or our subsidiaries are parties to operating leases that are entered into in the ordinary course of business.  Through a health clinic in which we have a controlling interest, we own land and a two-story medical facility in the municipality of Bayamón, Puerto Rico.  These properties are subject to liens under our credit facilities. In connection with our entrance to the Costa Rican market, we acquired a two-story building located in the city of San José, Costa Rica, which is used by the Life Insurance segment. See “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation – Liquidity and Capital Resources”.

We believe that our facilities are in good condition and that the facilities, together with capital improvements and additions currently underway, are adequate to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future.  The need for expansion, upgrading and refurbishment of facilities is continually evaluated in order to keep facilities aligned with planned business growth and corporate strategy.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings

Our business is subject to numerous laws and regulations promulgated by Federal, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, British Virgin Islands, and Anguilla governmental authorities. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be subject to government review and interpretation, as well as regulatory actions unknown and unasserted at this time. The Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico, as well as other Federal, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, British Virgin Islands, and Anguilla government authorities, regularly make inquiries and conduct audits concerning the Company's compliance with such laws and regulations. Penalties associated with violations of these laws and regulations may include significant fines and exclusion from participating in certain publicly funded programs and may require the Company to comply with corrective action plans or changes in our practices.  For a description of our legal proceedings, see Note 23, Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

None.
 
Part II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our Class B common stock is listed and began trading on the NYSE on December 7, 2007 under the trading symbol “GTS”.  Prior to this date our Class B common stock had no established public trading market.  There is no established public trading market for our Class A common stock.

The following table presents high and low closing prices of our Class B common stock for each quarter of the years ended December 31:
 
   
High
   
Low
 
2017
           
First quarter
 
$
21.47
   
$
16.60
 
Second quarter
   
18.62
     
16.09
 
Third quarter
   
24.71
     
15.16
 
Fourth quarter
   
28.87
     
23.37
 
2016
               
First quarter
 
$
26.83
   
$
19.99
 
Second quarter
   
27.50
     
21.60
 
Third quarter
   
26.55
     
21.51
 
Fourth quarter
   
23.68
     
19.00
 
 
On February 26, 2018 the closing price of our Class B common stock on the NYSE was $25.29.

Holders

As of February 26, 2018, there were 950,968 and 22,358,325 shares of Class A and Class B common Stock outstanding, respectively.  The number of our holders of Class A common stock as of February 26, 2018 was approximately 772.  The number of our holders of Class B common stock as of February 26, 2018 was approximately 4,200.

Dividends

Subject to the limitations under Puerto Rico corporation law and any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock, of which there is currently none outstanding, holders of common stock are entitled to receive their pro rata share of such dividends or other distributions as may be declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefore.

Our ability to pay dividends is dependent on cash dividends from our subsidiaries.  Our subsidiaries are subject to regulatory surplus requirements and additional regulatory requirements, which may restrict their ability to declare and pay dividends or distributions to us.  In addition, our secured term loan restricts our ability to pay dividends if a default thereunder has occurred and is continuing.  Please refer to “Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Restriction on Certain Payments by the Corporation’s Subsidiaries”.  Also, see Note 17, Stockholders’ Equity, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
We did not declare any dividends during the two most recent fiscal years and do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the near future.  We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance operations and expand our business.  The ultimate decision to pay a dividend, however, remains within the discretion of our board of directors and may be affected by various factors, including our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, statutory and contractual limitations and other considerations our board of directors deems relevant.
 
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plan

See Note 20, Share-Based Compensation, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Performance Graph

The following graph compares the price performance of our Class B common stock for the period from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2017, with the price performance over such period of (i) the Standard and Poor’s 500 Stock Index (the “S&P 500 Index”) and (ii) the Standard & Poor’s 500 Managed Health Care Index (the “S&P MHC Index”).  The comparison assumes an investment of $100 on January 1, 2012 in each of our Class B common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P MHC Index.  The performance graph is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

The comparisons shown in the graph are based on historical data and the Corporation cautions that the stock price in the graph below is not indicative of, and is not intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our Class B common stock.  Information used in the preparation of the graph was obtained from Bloomberg; a source we believe to be reliable, however, the Corporation is not responsible for any errors or omissions in such information.

 
Ticker
Name
 
1/2/2013
   
12/31/2013
   
12/31/2014
   
12/31/2015
   
12/31/2016
   
12/31/2017
 
GTS US Equity
TRIPLE-S MANAGEMENT CORP
   
100.00
     
100.31
     
123.37
     
123.37
     
106.81
     
128.22
 
SPX Index
S&P 500 INDEX
   
100.00
     
126.39
     
140.79
     
139.76
     
153.09
     
182.82
 
S5MANH Index
S&P MHC Index
   
100.00
     
144.98
     
191.26
     
230.34
     
271.88
     
387.22
 
 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

Not applicable.
 
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

The following table presents information related to our repurchases of common stock for the period indicated:
 
(Dollar amounts in millions, except per share data)
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
   
Average
Price
Paid per
Share
   
Total Number of
Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Programs ¹
   
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the
Programs
 
October 1, 2017 to October 31, 2017
   
310,481
   
$
23.79
     
310,481
   
$
10.0
 
November 1, 2017 to November 30, 2017
   
11,900
     
23.95
     
11,900
     
9.8
 
December 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
9.8
 
 
¹  In August 2017 the Company's Board of Directors authorized a $30.0 million Share Repurchase Program of its Class B common stock.
 
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data

Statement of Earnings Data
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
(Dollar amounts in millions, except per share data)
                             
                               
Years ended December 31,
                             
Premiums earned, net
 
$
2,826.9
   
$
2,890.6
   
$
2,783.2
   
$
2,128.6
   
$
2,203.0
 
Administrative service fees
   
16.5
     
17.9
     
44.7
     
119.3
     
108.7
 
Net investment income
   
51.6
     
48.9
     
45.2
     
47.5
     
47.3
 
Other operating revenues
   
3.7
     
3.5
     
3.7
     
4.2
     
4.8
 
Total operating revenues
   
2,898.7
     
2,960.9
     
2,876.8
     
2,299.6
     
2,363.8
 
Net realized investments gains
   
10.8
     
17.4
     
18.9
     
18.2
     
2.6
 
Other income, net
   
6.6
     
6.5
     
7.0
     
2.3
     
15.3
 
Total revenues
   
2,916.1
     
2,984.8
     
2,902.7
     
2,320.1
     
2,381.7
 
Benefits and expenses:
                                       
Claims incurred
   
2,353.1
     
2,472.2
     
2,318.7
     
1,747.6
     
1,836.2
 
Operating expenses
   
477.2
     
493.9
     
518.7
     
497.2
     
478.2
 
Total operating costs
   
2,830.3
     
2,966.1
     
2,837.4
     
2,244.8
     
2,314.4
 
Interest expense
   
6.8
     
7.6
     
8.2
     
9.3
     
9.5
 
Total benefits and expenses
   
2,837.1
     
2,973.7
     
2,845.6
     
2,254.1
     
2,323.9
 
Income before taxes
   
79.0
     
11.1
     
57.1
     
66.0
     
57.8
 
Income tax expense (benefit)
   
24.5
     
(6.3
)
   
5.1
     
0.7
     
2.3
 
Net income
   
54.5
     
17.4
     
52.0
     
65.3
     
55.5
 
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
   
-
     
-
     
(0.1
)
   
(0.4
)
   
(0.4
)
Net income attributable to TSM
 
$
54.5
   
$
17.4
   
$
52.1
   
$
65.7
   
$
55.9
 
Basic net income per share (1):
 
$
2.27
   
$
0.71
   
$
2.03
   
$
2.42
   
$
2.02
 
                                         
Diluted net income per share:
 
$
2.26
   
$
0.71
   
$
2.02
   
$
2.41
   
$
2.01
 
 
Balance Sheet Data
 
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
                               
Years ended December 31,
                             
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
198.9
   
$
103.4
   
$
197.8
   
$
110.0
   
$
74.4
 
                                         
Total assets
 
$
3,116.8
   
$
2,219.0
   
$
2,206.1
   
$
2,145.7
   
$
2,047.6
 
                                         
Long-term borrowings
 
$
32.1
   
$
35.1
   
$
36.8
   
$
74.5
   
$
89.3
 
                                         
Total stockholders' equity
 
$
913.4
   
$
863.2
   
$
847.5
   
$
858.6
   
$
785.4
 
 
Additional Managed Care Data (2)
 
 
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
   
2013
 
                               
Years ended December 31,
                             
Medical loss ratio
   
85.6
%
   
88.6
%
   
86.2
%
   
85.9
%
   
86.7
%
                                         
Operating expense ratio
   
13.6
%
   
14.0
%
   
15.1
%
   
18.5
%
   
17.0
%
                                         
Medical membership (period end)
   
977,939
     
1,017,372
     
1,094,444
     
2,139,484
     
2,187,939
 
 
(1)
Further details of the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share are set forth in Notes 2 and 21 of the audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

(2)
Does not reflect inter-segment eliminations.

Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This financial discussion contains an analysis of our consolidated financial position and financial performance as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and consolidated results of operations for 2017, 2016 and 2015.  References to the terms "we", "our" or "us" used throughout this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”), refer to TSM and unless the context otherwise requires, its direct and indirect subsidiaries.  This analysis should be read in its entirety and in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, notes and tables included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The structure of our MD&A is as follows:
 
I. Overview
59
   
II. Membership
62
   
III. Results of Operations
63
   
Consolidated Operating Results
63
   
Managed Care Operating Results
66
   
Life Insurance Operating Results
69
   
Property and Casualty Insurance Operating Results
70
   
IV. Liquidity and Capital Resources
72
   
V. Critical Accounting Estimates
76
   
VI. Recently Issued Accounting Standards
85
 
I. Overview

We are one of the most significant players in the managed care industry in Puerto Rico and have over 55 years of experience in this industry.  We offer a broad portfolio of managed care and related products in the Commercial, Medicaid and Medicare Advantage markets.  In the Commercial market we offer products to corporate accounts, U.S. federal government employees, local government employees, individual accounts and Medicare Supplement.  We also participate in the Government of Puerto Rico Health Reform (a managed care program for the medically indigent funded by the Puerto Rico and U.S. federal governments that is similar to the Medicaid program in the U.S.) (Medicaid).  The Island is divided in eight regions and we served all of them on an administrative service only basis (ASO) until March 31, 2015.  Effective April 1, 2015, the government changed the Medicaid delivery model from an ASO to a risk-based model and we elected to participate as a fully-insured provider in only two regions of Puerto Rico.

We have the exclusive right to use the BCBS name and mark throughout Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, the British Virgin Islands and Anguilla.  As of December 31, 2017 we serve approximately 978,000 members across all regions of Puerto Rico.  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 respectively, our managed care segment represented approximately 92% of our total consolidated premiums earned, net.  We also participate in the life insurance and property and casualty insurance markets in Puerto Rico.

We participate in the managed care market through our subsidiaries, TSS, TSB and TSA.  TSS, TSA and TSB are BCBSA licensees.

We participate in the life insurance market through our subsidiary, TSV, and in the property and casualty insurance market through our subsidiary, TSP.

The Commissioner of Insurance of the Government of Puerto Rico (“Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico”) recognizes only statutory accounting practices for determining and reporting the financial condition and results of operations of an insurance company, for determining its solvency under the Puerto Rico insurance laws, and for determining whether its financial condition warrants the payment of a dividend to its stockholders.  No consideration is given by the Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico to financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in making such determinations.  See Note 24, Statutory Accounting, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

2017 Consolidated Highlights

Key developments in our business during 2017 are described below:

·
Consolidated premiums earned, net decreased 2.2% year over year, to $2.8 billion, primarily reflecting lower Managed Care and Property and Casualty premiums.

·
The lower Managed Care premiums reflect lower membership in the segment’s Medicaid and Commercial businesses, the impact of the suspension of the HIP fee pass through in 2017, and lower Medicare additional risk score revenue.  These decreases were partially offset by higher average premium rates in the Commercial and Medicaid businesses, as well as by higher Medicare membership.

·
Consolidated claims for the year were $2.4 billion, down 4.8% over last year, primarily reflecting lower Managed Care membership, the ongoing improvement in our managed care operations, and the estimated decrease in the utilization of Managed Care services caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017.  These decreases were offset in part by the estimated $14.8 million net retained losses incurred by the Property and Casualty segment caused by the aforementioned Hurricanes.  The consolidated loss ratio was down 230 basis points, to 83.2%, and the Medical Loss Ratio (“MLR”) decreased 300 basis points, to 85.6%.

·
Consolidated operating expenses for the year were $477.2 million and the operating expense ratio was 16.8%.
 
·
Net income for the year was $54.5 million, an increase from a net income of $17.4 million in the prior year, primarily reflecting improvements in the Managed Care segment’s MLR.
 
Overview details

Intersegment revenues and expenses are reported on a gross basis in each of the operating segments but eliminated in the consolidated results.  Except as otherwise indicated, the numbers presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K do not reflect intersegment eliminations.  These intersegment revenues and expenses affect the amounts reported on the financial statement line items for each segment, but are eliminated in consolidation and do not change net income.  The following table shows premiums earned, net and net fee revenue and operating income for each segment, as well as the intersegment premiums earned, service revenues and other intersegment transactions, which are eliminated in the consolidated results:
 
    Years ended December 31,
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Premiums earned, net:
                 
Managed care
 
$
2,590.0
   
$
2,648.5
   
$
2,549.5
 
Life insurance
   
161.8
     
156.9
     
148.1
 
Property and casualty insurance
   
77.2
     
87.9
     
87.6
 
Intersegment premiums earned
   
(2.1
)
   
(2.7
)
   
(2.0
)
Consolidated premiums earned, net
 
$
2,826.9
   
$
2,890.6
   
$
2,783.2
 
                         
Administrative service fees:
                       
Managed care
 
$
21.6
   
$
22.4
   
$
49.3
 
Intersegment administrative service fees
   
(5.1
)
   
(4.5
)
   
(4.6
)
Consolidated administrative service fees
 
$
16.5
   
$
17.9
   
$
44.7
 
                         
Operating income (loss):
                       
Managed care
 
$
55.0
   
$
(36.8
)
 
$
20.5
 
Life insurance
   
19.4
     
21.5
     
20.0
 
Property and casualty insurance
   
(6.0
)
   
12.1
     
8.3
 
Intersegment and other
   
-
     
(2.0
)
   
(9.4
)
Consolidated operating income (loss)
 
$
68.4
   
$
(5.2
)
 
$
39.4
 
 
Revenue

General.    Our revenue consists primarily of (i) premium revenue generated from our managed care business, (ii) administrative service fees received for services provided to self-insured employers, (iii) premiums we generate from our life insurance and property and casualty insurance businesses and (iv) investment income.

Premium Revenue.    Our revenue primarily consists of premiums earned from the sale of managed care products to the Commercial, Medicare Advantage and Medicaid sectors.  We receive a monthly payment from or on behalf of each member enrolled in our managed care plans (excluding ASO).  We recognize all premium revenue in our managed care business during the month in which we are obligated to provide services to an enrolled member.  Premiums we receive in advance of that date are recorded as unearned premiums.

Premiums are set prospectively, meaning that a fixed premium rate is determined at the beginning of each contract year and revised at renewal.  We renegotiate the premiums of different groups as their existing annual contracts become due.  Our Medicare Advantage contracts entitle us to premium payments from CMS on behalf of each Medicare beneficiary enrolled in our plans, generally on a per member per month (“PMPM”) basis.  We submit rate proposals to CMS in June for each Medicare Advantage product that will be offered beginning January 1 of the subsequent year in accordance with the competitive bidding process under the MMA.  Retroactive rate adjustments are made periodically with respect to our Medicare Advantage plans based on the aggregate health status and risk scores of our plan participants.  Premium rates for the Medicaid business are based on a bid contract with ASES and are revised each year to be effective each July 1, at which time rates are fixed for the plan year.
 
Premiums on traditional life insurance policies are reported as earned when due.  Premiums on accident and health and other short-term contracts are recognized as earned, primarily on a pro rata basis over the contract period.  Premiums on credit life policies are recognized as earned in proportion to the amounts of insurance in force.  Group insurance premiums are billed one month in advance and a grace period of one month is provided for premium payment.  If the insured fails to pay within the one-month grace period, we may cancel the policy.  We recognize premiums on property and casualty contracts as earned on a pro rata basis over the policy term.  Property and casualty policies are subscribed through general agencies, which bill policy premiums to their clients in advance or, in the case of new business, at the inception date and remit collections to us, net of commissions.  The portion of premiums related to the period prior to the end of coverage is recorded in the consolidated balance sheet as unearned premiums and is transferred to premium revenue as earned.

Administrative Service Fees.    Administrative service fees include amounts paid to us for administrative services provided to self-insured contracts.  We provide a range of customer services pursuant to our administrative services only (“ASO”) contracts, including claims administration, billing, access to our provider networks and membership services.  Administrative service fees are recognized in the month in which services are provided.

Investment Income.    Investment income consists of interest and dividend income from investment securities. See Note 4, Net Investment Income, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Expenses

Claims Incurred.    Our largest expense is medical claims incurred, or the cost of medical services we arrange for our members.  Medical claims incurred include the payment of benefits and losses, mostly to physicians, hospitals, pharmacies, and other service providers, and to policyholders.  We generally pay our providers on one of three forms: (1) fee-for-service contracts based on negotiated fee schedules; (2) capitation arrangements, generally on a fixed PMPM payment basis, whereby the provider generally assumes some of the medical expense risk; and (3) risk-sharing arrangements, whereby we advance a PMPM payment and share the risk of certain medical costs of our members with the provider based on actual experience as measured against pre-determined sharing ratios.  Claims incurred also include claims incurred in our life insurance and property and casualty insurance businesses.  Each segment’s results of operations depend to a significant extent on our ability to accurately predict and effectively manage claims and losses.  A portion of the claims incurred for each period consists of claims reported but not paid during the period, as well as a management and actuarial estimate of claims incurred but not reported during the period.

The MLR, which is calculated by dividing managed care claims incurred by managed care premiums earned, net is one of our primary management tools for measuring these costs and their impact on our profitability.  The MLR is affected by the cost and utilization of services.  The cost of services is affected by many factors, in particular our ability to negotiate competitive rates with our providers.  The cost of services is also influenced by inflation and new medical discoveries, including new prescription drugs, therapies and diagnostic procedures.  Utilization rates, which reflect the extent to which beneficiaries utilize healthcare services, significantly influence our medical costs.  The level of utilization of services depends in large part on the age, health and lifestyle of our members, among other factors.  As the MLR is the ratio of claims incurred to premiums earned, net, it is affected not only by our ability to contain cost trends but also by our ability to increase premium rates to levels consistent with or above medical cost trends.  We use MLRs both to monitor our management of healthcare costs and to make various business decisions, including what plans or benefits to offer and our selection of healthcare providers.
 
Operating Expenses.    Operating expenses include commissions to external brokers, general and administrative expenses, cost containment expenses such as case and disease management programs, and depreciation and amortization.  The operating expense ratio is calculated by dividing operating expenses by premiums earned, net plus administrative service fees.  A significant portion of our operating expenses are fixed costs.  Accordingly, it is important that we maintain certain level of volume of business in order to compensate for the fixed costs.  Significant changes in our volume of business will affect our operating expense ratio and results of operations.  We also have variable costs, which vary in proportion to changes in volume of business.

II. Membership

Our results of operations depend in large part on our ability to maintain or grow our membership.  In addition to driving revenues, membership growth is necessary to successfully introduce new products, maintain an extensive network of providers and achieve economies of scale.  Our ability to maintain or grow our membership is affected principally by the competitive environment, the economy, and general market conditions.

The following table sets forth selected membership data as of the dates set forth below:
 
    As of December 31,
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Commercial (1)
   
475,026
     
509,157
     
547,634
 
Medicare
   
118,451
     
110,297
     
123,888
 
Medicaid
   
384,462
     
397,918
     
422,922
 
Total
   
977,939
     
1,017,372
     
1,094,444
 
 
(1)
Commercial membership includes corporate accounts, self-funded employers, individual accounts, Medicare Supplement, federal government employees and local government employees.
 
III. Results of Operations

Consolidated Operating Results

The following table sets forth our consolidated operating results for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. Further details of the results of operations of each reportable segment are included in the analysis of operating results for the respective segments.
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Years ended December 31,
                 
Revenues:
                 
Premiums earned, net
 
$
2,826.9
   
$
2,890.6
   
$
2,783.2
 
Administrative service fees
   
16.5
     
17.9
     
44.7
 
Net investment income
   
51.6
     
48.9
     
45.2
 
Other operating revenues
   
3.7
     
3.5
     
3.7
 
Total operating revenues
   
2,898.7
     
2,960.9
     
2,876.8
 
Net realized investment gains
   
10.8
     
17.4
     
18.9
 
Other income, net
   
6.6
     
6.5
     
7.0
 
Total revenues
   
2,916.1
     
2,984.8
     
2,902.7
 
Benefits and expenses:
                       
Claims incurred
   
2,353.1
     
2,472.2
     
2,318.7
 
Operating expenses
   
477.2
     
493.9
     
518.7
 
Total operating costs
   
2,830.3
     
2,966.1
     
2,837.4
 
Interest expense
   
6.8
     
7.6
     
8.2
 
Total benefits and expenses
   
2,837.1
     
2,973.7
     
2,845.6
 
Income before taxes
   
79.0
     
11.1
     
57.1
 
Income (benefit) tax expense
   
24.5
     
(6.3
)
   
5.1
 
Net income
   
54.5
     
17.4
     
52.0
 
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
   
-
     
-
     
(0.1
)
Net income attributable to TSM
 
$
54.5
   
$
17.4
   
$
52.1
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016

Operating Revenues

Premiums earned, net decreased by $63.7 million, or 2.2%, to $2.8 billion.  This decrease primarily reflects lower premiums in the Managed Care segment by $58.5 million mainly due to lower membership in the segment’s Medicaid and Commercial businesses, the impact of the suspension of the HIP fee pass through, and lower Medicare additional risk score revenue. These decreases were partially offset by higher average premium rates in the Commercial and Medicaid businesses as well as by higher Medicare membership.  Property and Casualty premiums decreased by $10.7 million year over year, mostly reflecting the $9.2 million estimated catastrophe reinsurance reinstatement costs following the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017.

Administrative service fees decreased $1.4 million, or 7.8%, mainly due to lower membership enrolled in this business.

Net investment income increased $2.7 million, or 5.5%, to $51.6 million mostly as a result of higher invested balances.
 
Claims Incurred

Consolidated claims incurred decreased by $119.1 million, or 4.8%, to $2.4 billion, mostly due to lower claims in the Managed Care segment offset by an increase in claims in the Property and Casualty segment.  The decrease in Managed Care claims primarily reflects lower claims incurred across all businesses in the segment driven by the estimated decrease in utilization as a consequence of the aforementioned Hurricanes, lower enrollment in the Commercial and Medicaid enrollment, and favorable fluctuations in the prior period reserve developments in the Commercial and Medicare businesses. The Property and Casualty segment’s estimated net retained losses related to Hurricanes Irma and Maria were approximately $14.8 million after the application of reinsurance.  The consolidated loss ratio decreased by 230 basis points to 83.2%.  Excluding the impact of prior-period reserve developments, and moving the Medicare risk score revenue and other revenue adjustments to the corresponding period, the Managed Care MLR for the year was 83.7%, 100 basis points lower than the same metric from the prior year.

Operating Expenses

Consolidated operating expenses decreased by $16.7 million, or 3.4%, to $477.2 million.  The lower operating expenses are mostly the result of the decrease in the HIP Fee of $44.2 million due to the 2017 moratorium offset by increase in personnel costs, professional services, and business promotion expenses totaling approximately $30.4 million.

Income taxes

Consolidated income taxes increased by $30.8 million, to a net expense of $24.5 million.   The year over year change in income taxes primarily results from an increase in the taxable income from the Managed Care segment, which has a higher effective tax rate than our other segments.

Year ended December 31, 2016 compared with the year ended December 31, 2015

Operating Revenues

Premiums earned, net increased by $107.4 million, or 3.9%, to $2.9 billion.  This increase primarily reflects higher premiums in the Managed Care segment by $99.0 million as a result of the change in the Medicaid service model effective April 1, 2015, from an ASO agreement to a fully insured model, and higher premium rates in the Commercial business.   This increase was offset by lower member month enrollment in the Medicare and Commercial businesses and a decrease in the Medicare average premiums rates.

Administrative service fees decreased $26.8 million, or 60.0%, mostly as a result of the previously mentioned change in the Medicaid contract model.  Total administrative fees related to the previous Medicaid ASO agreement during the 2015 period amounted to $24.3 million.

Net investment income increased $3.7 million, or 8.2%, to $48.9 million mostly as a result of higher invested balances.

Claims Incurred

Consolidated claims incurred increased by $153.5 million, or 6.6%, to $2.5 billion, mostly due to higher claims in the Managed Care segment.  This increase primarily reflects higher claims incurred in the segment’s Medicaid business by $150.7 million after the contract changed to a fully insured model and the impact of Managed Care prior period reserve developments.  The consolidated loss ratio increased by 220 basis points to 85.5%.  Excluding the impact of prior period development, as well as moving the 2015 risk score revenue adjustments to its corresponding period, consolidated loss ratio was 84.1%, 70 basis points higher than last year.

Operating Expenses

Consolidated operating expenses decreased by $24.8 million, or 4.8%, to $493.9 million.  The decrease reflects lower expenses following the change in the Medicaid membership after we elected to reduce the number of regions we serve, from eight regions under an ASO agreement to only two regions when the contract changed to a fully-insured model.  The lower operating expenses also reflect a decrease in the provision for doubtful accounts, mostly due to the strengthening of the allowance for doubtful receivables in the 2015 period, lower payroll and related expenses resulting from accruals related to management changes and retirements impacting the 2015 period, as well as a $4.4 million expense related to settlement agreements entered with governmental agencies in 2015.  These decreases were partially offset by a new business-to-business tax implemented in Puerto Rico at the end of the third quarter 2015 and an increase in the Health Insurance Providers Fee, reflecting the at-risk Medicaid enrollment after the model changed in 2015.  For the year ended December 31, 2016, the consolidated operating expense ratio decreased 130 basis points to 17.0%, as the result of the increase in premiums and lower expenses.
 
Income taxes

Consolidated income taxes resulted in a benefit of $6.3 million. The tax benefit primarily results from the net effect of the following:

For the 2016 period the Managed Care segment, which has a higher effective tax rate than our other segments, incurred in a loss before taxes, resulting in the recording of a tax benefit during the period.

During the 2015 period, the Company executed a Closing Agreement between TSM and its subsidiaries and the Puerto Rico Treasury Department in connection with a local law that provided a temporary preferential tax rate in capital asset transactions.  These events allowed the Company to record a $3.1 million benefit in the 2015 period resulting from the enacted lower taxable rate and the reassessment of the realizability of some of its deferred taxes.

The Property and Casualty segment reassessed the tax rate used to measure several temporary differences; as a consequence such rate was increased from 20% to 39%, resulting in an increase to its deferred tax expense of approximately $3.6 million in 2016
 
Managed Care Operating Results

We offer our products in the managed care segment to three distinct market sectors in Puerto Rico: Commercial, Medicare Advantage and Medicaid.  For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Commercial, Medicare and Medicaid sectors represented 28.4%, 36.6% and 26.6% of our consolidated premiums earned, net, respectively.
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Operating revenues:
                 
Medical premiums earned, net:
                 
Commercial
 
$
803.3
   
$
841.4
   
$
844.6
 
Medicare
   
1,035.3
     
1,023.9
     
1,097.7
 
Medicaid
   
751.4
     
783.2
     
607.2
 
Medical premiums earned, net
   
2,590.0
     
2,648.5
     
2,549.5
 
Administrative service fees
   
21.6
     
22.4
     
49.3
 
Net investment income
   
16.6
     
15.1
     
11.8
 
Total operating revenues
   
2,628.2
     
2,686.0
     
2,610.6
 
Medical operating costs:
                       
Medical claims incurred
   
2,218.3
     
2,347.5
     
2,196.7
 
Medical operating expenses
   
354.9
     
375.3
     
393.4
 
Total medical operating costs
   
2,573.2
     
2,722.8
     
2,590.1
 
Medical operating income (loss)
 
$
55.0
   
$
(36.8
)
 
$
20.5
 
Additional data:
                       
Member months enrollment:
                       
Commercial:
                       
Fully-insured
   
3,981,347
     
4,209,920
     
4,492,395
 
Self-funded
   
1,967,668
     
2,144,621
     
2,221,327
 
Total Commercial member months
   
5,949,015
     
6,354,541
     
6,713,722
 
Medicare member months
   
1,457,363
     
1,394,272
     
1,447,420
 
Medicaid:
                       
Fully-insured
   
4,631,316
     
4,829,729
     
3,855,945
 
Self-funded
   
-
     
-
     
4,229,082
 
Total Medicaid member months
   
4,631,316
     
4,829,729
     
8,085,027
 
Total member months
   
12,037,694
     
12,578,542
     
16,246,169
 
Medical loss ratio
   
85.6
%
   
88.6
%
   
86.2
%
Operating expense ratio
   
13.6
%
   
14.1
%
   
15.1
%
 
Year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016

Medical Operating Revenues

Medical premiums earned decreased by $58.5 million, or 2.2%, to $2.6 billion.  This decrease is principally the result of the following:

·
Medical premiums generated by the Commercial business decreased by $38.1 million, or 4.5%, to $803.3 million.  This fluctuation primarily reflects lower fully-insured enrollment during the year of approximately 228,600 member months and $14.5 million related to the suspension of the HIP fee pass-through; offset by an increase in average premium rates of approximately 5%.

·
Medical premiums generated by the Medicare business increased by $11.4 million, or 1.1%, to $1,035.3 million, primarily reflecting an increase in member months enrollment of approximately 63,100 lives.  This increase is partially offset by lower additional risk score revenue by $30.9 million as well as lower average premium rates due to a reduction in the 2017 Medicare reimbursement rates.
 
·
Medical premiums generated by the Medicaid business decreased by $31.8 million to $751.4 million.  This decrease primarily reflects lower fully-insured member months enrollment by approximately 198,400 lives, $10.8 million related to the suspension of the HIP fee pass-through as a result of the 2017 moratorium and, the impact of the 2.5% excess profit accrual that increased 2016 premiums by $10.9 million.  Decreases are partially offset by a $12.2 million increase in premium collections related to our compliance with the contract’s quality incentive metrics and the impact of the new premium rates that were effective July 1st 2017, which increased average premium rates by approximately 9%.

Medical Claims Incurred

Medical claims incurred decreased by $129.2 million, or 5.5%, to $2.2 billion.  The MLR of the segment decreased 300 basis points during the 2017 period, to 85.6%.  These fluctuations are primarily attributed to the net effect of the following:

·
The medical claims incurred of the Commercial business decreased by $94.5 million, or 13.2%, during the 2017 period and its MLR, at 77.5%, was 770 basis points lower than the same period last year.  Adjusting for the effect of prior period reserve developments, the Commercial MLR would have been 77.9%, 590 basis points lower than the adjusted MLR for last year, primarily reflecting the estimated decrease in utilization caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017 as well as the ongoing claim trends that are lower than our premium trends following the continuity of our underwriting discipline.  The estimated decrease in utilization related to the aforementioned hurricanes account for approximately 310 of the 590 basis-points decrease in the adjusted MLR.

·
The medical claims incurred of the Medicare business decreased by $16.6 million, or 1.8%, during the 2017 period and its MLR decreased by 260 basis points, to 87.7 %.  Adjusting for the effect of prior period reserve developments in 2017 and 2016 and moving the additional risk score revenue adjustments to their corresponding period, the Medicare MLR would have been approximately 88.4%, about 80 basis points lower than last year. The estimated decrease in utilization caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria mitigated the impact of the higher trends in Part B drugs and pharmacy benefits experienced by this business as well as the improvement of benefits in 2017 products taking advantage of the HIP fee moratorium.  The estimated decrease in utilization related to the aforementioned hurricanes lowered by approximately 270 basis points the adjusted MLR.

·
The medical claims incurred of the Medicaid business decreased by $18.2 million, or 2.6%, during the 2017 period and its MLR increased by 140 basis points, to 91.5%.  Adjusting for the effect of prior period reserve developments in 2017 and 2016, as well as for the impact of the 2.5% excess profit accrual and this year’s quality incentive premiums, the Medicaid MLR would have been approximately 91.8%, about 180 basis points higher than last year.  The higher MLR primarily reflects increased pharmacy and outpatient claim trends, partially offset by the estimated decrease in utilization caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which lowered the adjusted MLR by 30 basis points, and the impact of the higher premium rates that were effective July 1st 2017.

Medical Operating Expenses

Medical operating expenses decreased by $20.4 million, or 5.4%, to $354.9 million.  The operating expense ratio decreased by 50 basis points to 13.6% in 2017.  The lower operating expenses and expense ratio are mostly the result of the decrease in the HIP Fee of $44.2 million due to the 2017 moratorium offset by increase in personnel costs, professional services and business promotion expenses totaling approximately $28.1 million.
 
Year ended December 31, 2016 compared with the year ended December 31, 2015

Medical Operating Revenues

Medical premiums earned increased by $99.0 million, or 3.9%, to $2.6 billion.  This increase is principally the result of the following:

·
Medical premiums generated by the Commercial business decreased by $3.2 million, or 0.4%, to $841.4 million primarily resulting from a decrease in fully-insured member months enrollment, partially offset by an approximately 5% year over year increase in average premium rates.

·
Medical premiums generated by the Medicare business decreased by $73.8 million, or 6.7%, to $1,000 million.  This fluctuation primarily results from lower risk score revenue as compared with 2015, lower member months enrollment, and a reduction in 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates.

·
Medical premiums generated by the Medicaid business increased by $176.0 million to $783.2 million, primarily as the result of the change in the Medicaid service model, from an ASO agreement to a fully-insured model effective April 1, 2015.

Administrative service fees decreased by $26.9 million, or 54.6%, to $22.4 million mainly due to the previously mentioned change in the Medicaid contract effective April 1, 2015.

Medical Claims Incurred

Medical claims incurred increased by $150.8 million, or 6.9%, to $2.3 billion.  The MLR of the segment increased 240 basis points during the 2016 period, to 88.6%.  These fluctuations are primarily attributed to the net effect of the following:

·
The medical claims incurred of the Commercial business increased by $4.3 million, or 0.6%, during 2016, mostly reflecting the impact of prior period reserve developments, partially offset by lower member months enrollment.  The Commercial MLR was 85.2%, which is 100 basis points higher than the MLR for the prior year.  Excluding the effect of prior period reserve developments in 2016 and 2015, the MLR would have decreased by 270 basis points, reflecting the continuity of our underwriting discipline and premium trends higher than claims trends.

·
The medical claims incurred of the Medicare business decreased by $4.1 million, or 0.4%, during the 2016 period reflecting the previously mentioned decrease in membership and changes in benefit design included in 2016 products as the result of the decrease in reimbursement rates.  This decrease is offset by unfavorable prior period reserve developments.  The Medicare MLR was 90.3%, which is 570 basis points higher than the MLR for the prior year.  Adjusting for the effect of prior period reserve developments, and moving the 2015 final risk score revenue adjustments to its corresponding period, our Medicare MLR would have been 90.0%, about 530 basis points higher than last year.  The higher MLR primarily reflects higher Part B drug costs mainly related to cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, additional deterioration in the experience of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and the effect of the decrease in 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates.

·
The medical claims incurred of the Medicaid business increased by $150.7 million during the 2016 period reflecting the previously mentioned change in the Medicaid contract effective April 1, 2015.

Medical Operating Expenses

Medical operating expenses decreased by $18.1 million, or 4.6%, to $375.3 million.  The decrease mostly reflects lower expenses following the change in the Medicaid membership after we elected to decrease the number of regions we serve, from eight regions under an ASO agreement to only two regions when the contract was changed to a fully-insured model.  The lower operating expenses also includes the effect of a decrease in the provision for doubtful accounts, mostly due to the strengthening of the allowance for doubtful receivables in the 2015 period, lower payroll and related expenses resulting from accruals related to management changes and retirements impacting the 2015 period, as well as to a $4.4 million expense related to settlement agreements entered with governmental agencies in 2015.  These decreases were partially offset by a new business-to-business tax implemented in Puerto Rico at the end of the third quarter 2015 and an increase in the Health Insurance Providers Fee, reflecting the at-risk Medicaid enrollment after the model changed in 2015.  The operating expense ratio increased 110 basis points to 14.0% in 2016 as a result of the increase in premiums and lower expenses.
 
Life Insurance Operating Results
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Years ended December 31,
                 
Operating revenues:
                 
Premiums earned, net:
                 
Premiums earned
 
$
166.4
   
$
161.3
   
$
153.8
 
Assumed earned premiums
   
4.2
     
4.4
     
3.9
 
Ceded premiums earned
   
(8.8
)
   
(8.8
)
   
(9.6
)
Premiums earned, net
   
161.8
     
156.9
     
148.1
 
Net investment income
   
24.8
     
24.9
     
24.5
 
Total operating revenues
   
186.6
     
181.8
     
172.6
 
Operating costs:
                       
Policy benefits and claims incurred
   
87.3
     
86.9
     
82.6
 
Underwriting and other expenses
   
79.9
     
73.4
     
70.0
 
Total operating costs
   
167.2
     
160.3
     
152.6
 
Operating income
 
$
19.4
   
$
21.5
   
$
20.0
 
                         
Additional data:
                       
Loss ratio
   
54.0
%
   
55.4
%
   
55.8
%
Expense ratio
   
49.4
%
   
46.8
%
   
47.3
%
 
Year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016

Operating Revenues

Premiums earned, net increased by $4.9 million, or 3.1% to $161.8 million, as the result of premium growth in the segment’s Individual Life and Cancer lines of business, as well as growth in the Costa Rica operations.

Policy Benefits and Claims Incurred

Policy benefits and claims incurred increased by $0.4 million, or 0.5%, to $87.3 million, mostly reflecting a higher volume of business during the year, particularly in the Cancer and Individual Life lines of business, which claims increased by $2.7 million, offset by a decrease of $2.3 million in actuarial reserves.

Underwriting and Other Expenses

Increase in underwriting and other expenses of $6.5 million, or 8.9%, to $79.9 million mostly reflects higher commissions following the segment’s premium growth mentioned above.  In addition, the segment has incurred in higher development and marketing expenses related to the expansion of the Costa Rica operations.  As a result, the segment’s operating expense ratio increased to 49.4%, or 260 basis points.
 
Year ended December 31, 2016 compared with the year ended December 31, 2015

Operating Revenues

Premiums earned, net increased by $8.8 million, or 5.9% to $156.9 million, reflecting improved policy retention and higher sales in the segment’s Individual Life and Cancer lines of business of $4.0 million and $2.7 million, respectively, as well as growth in the Costa Rica operations.

Policy Benefits and Claims Incurred

Policy benefits and claims incurred increased by $4.3 million, or 5.2%, to $86.9 million, mostly reflecting a higher volume of business during the year, particularly in the Cancer line of business, which claims increased by $2.7 million, as well as to an increase of $2.6 million in actuarial reserves.

Underwriting and Other Expenses

Underwriting and other expenses increased by $3.4 million, or 4.9%, primarily reflecting an increase in commissions expense following the segment’s premium growth mentioned above.  In addition, the segment has incurred in higher development and marketing expenses related to the development of the Costa Rica operations.  The segment’s operating expense ratio decreased 50 basis points to 46.8% in 2016, reflecting the increase in premiums during the period.
 
Property and Casualty Insurance Operating Results
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
                   
Years ended December 31,
                 
Operating revenues:
                 
Premiums earned, net:
                 
Premiums written
 
$
143.8
   
$
133.1
   
$
134.4
 
Premiums ceded
   
(62.3
)
   
(46.0
)
   
(48.7
)
Change in unearned premiums
   
(4.3
)
   
0.8
     
1.9
 
Premiums earned, net
   
77.2
     
87.9
     
87.6
 
Net investment income
   
9.5
     
8.9
     
8.7
 
Total operating revenues
   
86.7
     
96.8
     
96.3
 
Operating costs:
                       
Claims incurred
   
50.8
     
40.8
     
42.6
 
Underwriting and other operating expenses
   
41.9
     
43.9
     
45.4
 
Total operating costs
   
92.7
     
84.7
     
88.0
 
Operating (loss) income
 
$
(6.0
)
 
$
12.1
   
$
8.3
 
                         
Additional data:
                       
Loss ratio
   
65.8
%
   
46.4
%
   
48.6
%
Expense ratio
   
54.3
%
   
49.9
%
   
51.8
%
 
Year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016

Operating Revenues

Total premiums written increased by $10.7 million, or 8.0%, to $143.8 million, driven by higher sales of Commercial property and Commercial liability products, mainly as a result of the acquisition of a large account, as well as to higher sales of Personal package products.
 
The premiums ceded to reinsurers increased by $16.3 million, or 35.4%, mostly reflecting higher premiums written in Commercial insurance products during 2017 as well as adjustments related to the catastrophe reinsurance, including $9.2 million for catastrophe reinsurance reinstatement costs.

The change in unearned premiums mostly reflects the segments higher premiums written in 2017.

Claims Incurred

Claims incurred increased by $10.0 million, or 24.5%, to $50.8 million mostly driven by $14.8 million of net losses related to Hurricanes Irma and Maria. As a result, the segment’s loss ratio increased by 1,940 basis points, to 65.8% during this period.  Estimated gross losses related to Hurricanes Irma and Maria were $6.4 million and $687.0 million, respectively.  While the segment’s ultimate losses cannot be determined with certainty at this time, management believes the catastrophe coverage for losses and allocated loss expenses is sufficient to cover anticipated gross losses.

Underwriting and Other Expenses

Underwriting and other operating expenses decreased by $2.0 million, or 4.6%, to $41.9 million mostly due to lower personnel costs and net commissionsThe operating expense ratio increased by 440 basis points, to 54.3% in 2017.

Year ended December 31, 2016 compared with the year ended December 31, 2015

Operating Revenues

Total premiums written decreased by $1.3 million, or 1.0%, to $133.1 million, mostly resulting from lower sales of Commercial Package, offset by higher sales in the Compulsory Vehicle Liability insurance products.

The premiums ceded to reinsurers decreased by $2.7 million, or 5.5%, mostly reflecting favorable pricing in the market for nonproportional reinsurance treaties.

Claims Incurred

Claims incurred decreased by $1.8 million, or 4.2%, to $40.8 million.  The loss ratio decreased 220 basis points, to 46.4%, during this period, primarily as a result of favorable loss experience in the Commercial Package insurance products.

Underwriting and Other Expenses

Underwriting and other operating expenses decreased by $1.5 million, or 3.3%, to $43.9 million mostly due to lower net commission expenses driven by a decrease in net premiums earned. The operating expense ratio decreased by 190 basis points, to 50.0% in 2016.
 
IV. Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Flows

A summary of our major sources and uses of cash for the periods indicated is presented in the following table:
 
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
2017
   
2016
   
2015
 
Sources (uses) of cash:
                 
Cash provided by operating activities
 
$
286.2
   
$
6.5
   
$
229.1
 
Net purchases of investment securities
   
(154.6
)
   
(80.9
)
   
(41.6
)
Net capital expenditures
   
(21.4
)
   
(4.8
)
   
(9.1
)
Proceeds from long-term borrowoings
   
24.3
     
-
     
-
 
Payments of long-term borrowings
   
(27.1
)
   
(1.7
)
   
(37.6
)
Proceeds from policyholder deposits
   
13.6
     
18.2
     
16.5
 
Surrenders of policyholder deposits
   
(22.1
)
   
(21.9
)
   
(18.8
)
Repurchase and retirement of common stock
   
(20.2
)
   
(21.4
)
   
(48.3
)
Other
   
12.2
     
11.6
     
(2.4
)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
 
$
90.9
   
$
(94.4
)
 
$
87.8
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2017 compared to year ended December 31, 2016

Cash flow from operating activities increased by $279.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2016, principally due to, lower claims paid by $134.8 million, a decrease in cash paid to suppliers and employees of $191.6 million; offset by a decrease in premium collections of $55.1 million.

Increase in net purchases of investments in securities are part of our asset/liability management strategy using cash on hand.

Net capital expenditures increased by $16.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 mostly related to information technology initiatives in the Managed Care segment.

During the year 2017, we received the remaining $24.3 million from a loan with a commercial bank related with a credit agreement entered into in December 2016. These proceeds were used to prepay the outstanding principal amount of $24.0 million of the 6.6% senior unsecured notes.

In August 2017 the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a $30.0 million repurchase program of its Class B common stock.  Repurchases were conducted through open-market purchases of Class B shares only, in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. During the year 2017, the Company repurchased and retired 861,415 shares of our Class B Common Stock shares at an average per share price of $23.38, for an aggregate cost of $20.2 million.

Year ended December 31, 2016 compared to year ended December 31, 2015

Cash flow from operating activities decreased by $222.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2015, principally as a result of higher claims paid by $257.4 million and an increase cash paid to suppliers and employees by $34.3 million, offset in part by an increase in premiums collections of $67.5 million.  The increase in claims paid and premiums collected is principally the result of the change in the Medicaid delivery model from an ASO agreement to a fully insured model effective April 1, 2015.

Increase in net purchases of investments in securities are part of our asset/liability management strategy using cash on hand.
 
Payments of long-term borrowings decreased by $35.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due to the payment of a repurchase agreement of $25.0 million that matured and a $11.0 million repayment of principal of certain senior unsecured notes during the 2015 period.

Repurchase and retirement of common stock amounted to $21.4 million reflecting the repurchase and retirement of 951,831 shares of common stock during the year ended December 31, 2016 under the Corporation’s Class B common stock repurchase programs.

The increase in other sources of cash for the year ended December 31, 2016 is attributed to changes in the amount of outstanding checks in excess of bank balances.

Stock Repurchase Program

The Company repurchases shares through open market transactions, in accordance with Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, under repurchase programs authorized by the Board of Directors.  Shares purchased under share repurchase programs are retired and returned to authorized and unissued status. See Note 18, Stock Repurchase Program, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

  Financing and Financing Capacity

We have several short-term facilities available to address timing differences between cash collections and disbursements.  These short-term facilities are mostly in the form of arrangements to sell securities under repurchase agreements.  As of December 31, 2017, we had $60.0 million of available credit under these facilities.  There are no outstanding short-term borrowings under these facilities as of December 31, 2017.

On December 28, 2016, TSM entered into a $35.5 million credit agreement with a commercial bank in Puerto Rico. The agreement consists of three term loans: (i) Term Loan A in the principal amount of $11.2 million, (ii) Term Loan B in the principal amount of $20.2 million and (iii) Term Loan C in the principal amount of $4.1 million. Term Loan A matures in October 2023 while the Term Loans B and C mature in January 2024.  Term Loan A was used to refinance a previous $41.0 million secured loan payable with the same commercial bank.  Pursuant to the credit agreement, interest is payable on the outstanding balance of the Loan at the following annual rate: (i) 1% over LIBOR for Term Loan A, (ii) 2.75% over LIBOR for Term Loan B, and (iii) 3.25% over LIBOR for Term Loan C.  The loan includes certain financial and non-financial covenants, which are customary for this type of facility, including but not limited to, restrictions on the granting of certain liens, limitations on acquisitions and limitations on changes in control and dividends.  Failure to meet these covenants may trigger the accelerated payment of the outstanding balance.  As of December 31, 2017 we are in compliance with these covenants.

On March 11, 2016 TSS entered into a $30.0 million revolving loan agreement with a commercial bank in Puerto Rico. This unused line of credit had an interest rate of LIBOR plus 220 basis points and contained certain financial and non-financial covenants that are customary for this type of facility. This revolving loan agreement matured on March 11, 2017, and was not renewed.

On April 18, 2017, TSA entered into a $10.0 million revolving loan agreement with a commercial bank in Puerto Rico. This line of credit has an interest rate of 30-day LIBOR plus 25 basis points, matures on April 17, 2018, and includes certain financial and non-financial covenants that are customary for this type of facility.  As of December 31, 2017, there were $2.0 million outstanding in this line of credit.

We anticipate that we will have sufficient liquidity to support our currently expected needs.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
Our contractual obligations impact our short and long-term liquidity and capital resource needs.  However, our future cash flow prospects cannot be reasonably assessed based solely on such obligations.  Future cash outflows, whether contractual or not, will vary based on our future needs.  While some cash outflows are completely fixed (such as commitments to repay principal and interest on borrowings), most are dependent on future events (such as the payout pattern of claim liabilities which have been incurred but not reported).
 
·
The table below describes the payments due under our contractual obligations, aggregated by type of contractual obligation, including the maturity profile of our debt, operating leases and other long-term liabilities, but excludes an estimate of the future cash outflows related to the following:
 
 
o
Alternative investments – The Company has $117.6 million of unfunded capital commitments related to alternative investments. These commitments were excluded from this disclosure due to the undeterminate nature of their cash flows.
 
o
Unearned premiums – This amount accounts for the premiums collected prior to the end of coverage period and does not represent a future cash outflow.  As of December 31, 2017, we had $86.3 million in unearned premiums.
 
o
Policyholder deposits – The cash outflows related to these instruments are not included because they do not have defined maturities, such that the timing of payments and withdrawals is uncertain.  There are currently no significant policyholder deposits in paying status.  As of December 31, 2017, our policyholder deposits had a carrying amount of $176.5 million.
 
o
Other long-term liabilities – Due to the indeterminate nature of their cash outflows, $107.9 million of other long-term liabilities are not reflected in the following table, including $33.7 million of liability for pension benefits, $21.9 million in deferred tax liabilities, and $52.3 million in liabilities to the Federal Employees’ Health Benefits Plan Program.

         
Contractual obligations by year
 
                                           
(Dollar amounts in millions)
 
Total
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
   
2021
   
2022
   
Thereafter
 
                                           
Long-term borrowings (1)
 
$
37.4
   
$
4.2
   
$
4.3
   
$
4.2
   
$
4.0
   
$
3.9
   
$
16.8
 
Operating leases
   
11.6
     
4.2
     
3.8
     
2.0
     
0.6
     
1.0
     
-
 
Purchase obligations (2)
   
297.9
     
236.2
     
42.0
     
5.4
     
4.5
     
2.3
     
7.5
 
Claim liabilities (3)
   
464.4
     
370.1
     
56.6
     
11.6
     
8.1
     
7.4
     
10.6
 
Estimated obligation for future     policy benefits (4)
   
657.9
     
133.1
     
116.6
     
108.6
     
102.0
     
96.2
     
101.4
 
   
$
1,469.2
   
$
747.8
   
$
223.3
   
$
131.8
   
$
119.2
   
$
110.8
   
$
136.3
 

(1)