EX-4.5 3 xpo202310-kexx45.htm EX-4.5 Document

Exhibit 4.5

The following is a description of the material terms of the common stock of XPO, Inc. (the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”), as well as other material terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Company Certificate”), the Company’s 4th Amended and Restated Bylaws, as amended (the “Bylaws”) and other relevant documents. This description is only a summary. You should read it together with the Company Certificate and Bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 and incorporated by reference herein.


We currently have 300,000,000 authorized shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Common Stock”), of which 116,087,137 shares were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, 3,827,977 shares of Common Stock were reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding equity awards.

Other than as described herein, no stockholder has any preemptive right or other similar right to purchase or subscribe for any additional securities issued by the Company, and no stockholder has any right to convert Common Stock into other securities. No shares of Common Stock are subject to redemption or any sinking fund provisions. All of the outstanding shares of Common Stock are fully paid and non-assessable. Subject to the rights of the holders of the Preferred Stock, the holders of Common Stock are entitled to dividends when, as and if declared by the Board of Directors from funds legally available therefor and, upon liquidation, to a pro rata share in any distribution to stockholders.

Pursuant to Delaware law and the Company Certificate, our Board of Directors by resolution may establish one or more series of Preferred Stock and fix the number of shares constituting such series, the designation of such series, the voting powers (if any) of the shares of such series and the preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, if any, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of the shares of such series, such rights and preferences being senior to the rights of holders of Common Stock. As of December 31, 2023, no shares of Preferred Stock are currently outstanding.

Voting and Other Rights

Each share of Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters upon which stockholders are permitted to vote. Except as otherwise required by law, whenever any corporate action other than the election of directors is to be taken, it shall be authorized by a majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholder by the stockholders entitled to vote thereon.

The election of directors in an uncontested election requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted "for" a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted "against" such nominee) by holders of shares of our Common Stock at the meeting at which a quorum is present. If any incumbent director standing for re-election receives a greater number of votes "against" his or her election than votes "for" such election, the Bylaws require that such person must promptly tender his or her resignation to our Board of Directors. Once an election is determined to be a contested election, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at the meeting at which a quorum is present.

Provisions of Delaware Law, the Company Certificate, Bylaws and Other Relevant Documents

Provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), the Company Certificate, the Bylaws and other relevant documents described below could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise, or to remove incumbent officers and directors. These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage types of coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with us. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover or acquisition proposals because, among other things, negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute. We have elected to be subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, an anti-takeover statute. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the time the person became an interested stockholder, unless (with certain exceptions) the business combination or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder is approved in a prescribed manner. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a

financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own) 15 percent or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The existence of this provision would be expected to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the Board of Directors, including discouraging attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of Common Stock.

No Cumulative Voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are denied the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. The Company Certificate prohibits cumulative voting.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors. The DGCL authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate the personal liability of directors to corporations and their stockholders for monetary damages for breaches of directors’ fiduciary duties as directors. The Company Certificate and Bylaws include provisions that indemnify, to the fullest extent allowable under the DGCL, the personal liability of directors or officers for monetary damages for actions taken as a director or officer of the Company, or for serving at our request as a director or officer or in another position at another corporation or enterprise, as the case may be. The Company Certificate and Bylaws also provide that we must indemnify and advance expenses to our directors and officers, subject to our receipt of an undertaking from the indemnitee as may be required under the DGCL. We are also expressly authorized to carry directors’ and officers’ insurance to protect the Company and our directors, officers, employees and agents from certain liabilities.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in the Company Certificate and the Bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duties. These provisions may also have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. We may be adversely affected to the extent that, in a class action or direct suit, we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions. Except as set forth in the Company’s periodic reports as incorporated herein by reference, there is currently no pending material litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors, officers, employees or agents for which indemnification is sought.

Authorized but Unissued Shares of Common Stock. Our authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock will be available for future issuance without approval by the holders of Common Stock. We may use additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, employee benefit plans and as consideration for or to finance future acquisitions, investments or other purposes. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

Undesignated Preferred Stock. Our Company Certificate and Bylaws authorize 10,000,000 shares of undesignated Preferred Stock. As a result, our Board of Directors may, without the approval of holders of Common Stock, issue shares of Preferred Stock with super voting, special approval, dividend or other rights or preferences on a discriminatory basis that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring, delaying or discouraging hostile takeovers or changes in control or management of the Company. As of December 31, 2023, no shares of Preferred Stock are currently outstanding, and we had 9,925,000 shares of undesignated Preferred Stock available for future issuance.

Investment Agreement. Under the terms of an Investment Agreement, dated June 13, 2011 (the “Investment Agreement”), by and among Jacobs Private Equity, LLC (“JPE”), the other investors party thereto (collectively with JPE, the “Investors”), and the Company, JPE has the right to designate certain percentages of the nominees for our Board of Directors so long as JPE owns securities (including preferred stock convertible into, or warrants exercisable for, securities) representing specified percentages of the total voting power of our capital stock on a fully-diluted basis. JPE does not currently own securities representing the required voting power to qualify for the right to designate nominees for our Board of Directors. The foregoing rights of JPE under the Investment Agreement are in addition to, and not in limitation of, JPE’s voting rights as a holder of capital stock of the Company. JPE is controlled by Bradley S. Jacobs, our chairman and chief executive officer. The Investment Agreement and the terms contemplated therein were approved by our stockholders at a special meeting on September 1, 2011.

Exclusive Forum. Unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim for or based on a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director or officer or other employee or agent of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, including a claim alleging the aiding and abetting of such a breach of fiduciary duty, (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Company or any current or former director or officer or other employee or agent of the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws (as either may be amended, restated, modified, supplemented or waived from time to time), (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Company's Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time), (v) any action asserting a claim

related to or involving the Company or any current or former director or officer or other employee or agent of the Company that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, or (vi) any action asserting an “internal corporate claim” as the term is defined in Section 115 of the DGCL shall be a state court located within the State of Delaware (or if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction over any such action or proceeding, the sole and exclusive forum for such action or proceeding shall be the federal court for the District of Delaware). Section 27 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, provides for exclusive federal jurisdiction over suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and as such the exclusive jurisdiction clauses set forth above would not apply to such suits. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, provides for concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and as such the exclusive jurisdiction clauses set forth above would not apply to such suits.

Amendments to Organizational Documents

The DGCL provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws.


Our Common Stock is listed on the NYSE under the trading symbol “XPO.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A., whose principal executive office is located at 250 Royall Street, Canton, MA 02021.