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        2020
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
Or
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission file number 1-16811
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United States Steel Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware25-1897152
(State of Incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
600 Grant Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15219-2800
(Address of principal executive offices)
Tel. No. (412433-1121
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Exchange on which Registered
United States Steel Corporation Common Stock, par value $1.00XNew York Stock Exchange
United States Steel Corporation Common Stock, par value $1.00XChicago Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No    
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes        No         
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for at least the past 90 days.  Yes          No             
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes          No             
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer," “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes      No    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  No
Aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter): $1.6 billion. The amount shown is based on the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange composite tape on that date. Shares of Common Stock held by executive officers and directors of the registrant are not included in the computation. However, the registrant has made no determination that such individuals are “affiliates” within the meaning of Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933.
There were 262,471,855 shares of United States Steel Corporation Common Stock outstanding as of February 8, 2021.
Documents Incorporated By Reference:
    Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated into Part III.



INDEX
Item 1.
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A
Item 9B
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES162 


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains information that may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We intend the forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements in those sections. Generally, we have identified such forward-looking statements by using the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “target,” “forecast,” “aim,” “should,” “will,” "may" and similar expressions or by using future dates in connection with any discussion of, among other things, operating performance, trends, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future, statements relating to volume changes, share of sales and earnings per share changes, anticipated cost savings, potential capital and operational cash improvements, anticipated disruptions to our operations and industry due to the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in global supply and demand conditions and prices for our products, international trade duties and other aspects of international trade policy, the integration of Big River Steel in our existing business, business strategies related to the combined business and statements expressing general views about future operating results. However, the absence of these words or similar expressions does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts, but instead represent only the Company’s beliefs regarding future events, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and outside of the Company’s control. It is possible that the Company’s actual results and financial condition may differ, possibly materially, from the anticipated results and financial condition indicated in these forward-looking statements. Management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the time made. However, caution should be taken not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements because such statements speak only as of the date when made. Our Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. In addition, forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from our Company's historical experience and our present expectations or projections. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to the risks and uncertainties described in this report in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and those described from time to time in our future reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "U. S. Steel," "the Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to United States Steel Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise indicated by the context.

Non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (non-GAAP) Financial Measures

This report contains certain non-GAAP financial measures such as earnings (loss) before interest, income taxes, depreciation, depletion and amortization (EBITDA), adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share, free cash flow, net debt and cash conversion cycle.

We believe that EBITDA, considered along with the net earnings (loss), is a relevant indicator of trends relating to cash generating activity and provides management and investors with additional information for comparison of our operating results to the operating results of other companies.

Adjusted net earnings (loss) and adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share are non-GAAP measures that exclude the effects of items that include: the asset impairment charge, restructuring and other charges, the Fairless property sale, the Big River Steel options and forward adjustments, the December 24, 2018 Clairton coke making facility fire, the tax valuation allowance, loss on extinguishment of debt and other related costs, the USW labor agreement signing bonus and related costs, Granite City Works restart and related costs and gain on equity investee transactions that are not part of the Company's core operations (Adjustment Items). Adjusted EBITDA is also a non-GAAP measure that excludes the effects of certain Adjustment Items. We present adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share and adjusted EBITDA to enhance the understanding of our ongoing operating performance and established trends affecting our core operations, by excluding the effects of events that can obscure underlying trends. U. S. Steel's management considers adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share and adjusted EBITDA as alternative measures of operating performance and not alternative measures of the Company's liquidity. U. S. Steel’s management considers adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share and adjusted EBITDA useful to investors by facilitating a comparison of our operating performance to the operating performance of our competitors. Additionally, the presentation of adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share and adjusted EBITDA provides insight into management’s view and assessment of the Company’s ongoing operating performance, because management does not consider the adjusting items when evaluating the Company’s financial performance. Adjusted net earnings (loss), adjusted net earnings (loss) per diluted share and adjusted EBITDA should not be considered a substitute for net earnings (loss), earnings (loss) per diluted share or other financial measures as computed in accordance with U.S. GAAP and is not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.

Net debt is a non-GAAP measure calculated as total debt less cash and cash equivalents. We believe net debt is a useful measure in calculating enterprise value. Both EBITDA and net debt are used by analysts to refine and improve the accuracy of their financial models which utilize enterprise value.

Free cash flow is a measure of cash generated from operations, after any investing activity and dividends paid to stockholders. We believe that free cash flow provides further insight into the Company's overall utilization of cash.

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We believe the cash conversion cycle is a useful measure in providing investors with information regarding our cash management performance and is a widely accepted measure of working capital management efficiency. The cash conversion cycle should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to other GAAP metrics as an indicator of performance.

10-K SUMMARY

This section provides an overview of U. S. Steel's business, strategy and financial performance for 2020. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to a reader. Please read the entire Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our vision is for U. S. Steel to be a solutions provider to our customers through a unique offering of product and process innovation that is unmatched in the industry. Underlying our efforts is our belief that we must operate as a principled company committed to a code of conduct that is rooted in our Gary Principles and our core values. Our core values are articulated in our S.T.E.E.L. Principles - Safety First, Trust and Respect, Environmentally Friendly Activities, Ethical Behavior, and Lawful Business Conduct. These core values guide U. S. Steel and help support the economic and societal benefits associated with strong domestic manufacturing capabilities, of which steel is a foundational industry.

We are executing on our customer-centric strategy to transform U. S. Steel into a world-competitive, Best of BothSM, steelmaker by combining the best of the integrated steelmaking model with the best of the mini mill steelmaking model. Our strategy will deliver product and process innovation to create unmatched value for our customers while enhancing our earnings profile and delivering long-term cash flow through industry cycles. By offering unparalleled product capabilities, including the “green” steels (steels made with low greenhouse gas emissions intensity) our customers are increasingly demanding, we can achieve world-competitive positioning in strategic, high-margin end markets, and deliver high-quality, sustainable, value-added products and innovative solutions. To get to our Best of Both future, we are investing to create distinct cost and capability advantages, enhancing our focus on operational and commercial excellence and promoting technological innovation, so we can deliver an unmatched value proposition to our customers while creating a more variable cost structure, and lowering the capital intensity of the business.

The diagram below illustrates our world-competitive, Best of Both strategic framework and highlights the key actions to transform our business.

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Over the past several years, we have proactively re-shaped our footprint and transformed our balance sheet. We used the strength and foundation of our business to align our balance sheet with the investment horizon to execute our strategy.

Our strategy is informed by our critical success factors, which are the bedrock of the Best of Both strategy: (1) Move Down the Cost Curve; (2) Win in Strategic Markets; and (3) Move Up the Talent Curve. Several of the strategic projects we are undertaking
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are expected to result in operational improvements. Additionally, the enhanced operating model and organizational structure we implemented beginning in 2020 will also position U. S. Steel to lower its structural fixed costs. We are also investing in new technologies to improve our cost position and increase our capabilities, including our acquisition of Big River Steel in January 2021, the completed electric arc furnace (EAF) at Fairfield Tubular Operations and the commissioning of a new Continuous Galvanizing Line for AHSS substrates at our Pro-Tec Coating Company joint venture that incorporates proprietary U. S. Steel technology. We will focus on strategic markets, where there is the greatest opportunity to provide differentiated, innovative and value-added solutions that will help our customers succeed. We know that to accomplish our objectives, we also need to move up the talent curve. We are investing in our employees and providing the training and resources they need to succeed. This will help us reinforce a culture where accountability, fairness and respect are foundational, and high performance and inclusion in all its forms are valued and celebrated. In addition, we are bringing Big River Steel’s focused, innovative, and entrepreneurial mindset into the way we do business. By bringing these two world-class workforces together, with a shared values-based culture, we can create significant value across the enterprise.

2020 was another strategically transformational year despite the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. On December 8, 2020, we exercised our call option to acquire the remaining equity of Big River Steel. The purchase of Big River Steel closed on January 15, 2021 for $723 million in cash and the assumption of approximately $50 million in liabilities. The successful completion of the acquisition marked a major milestone in our Best of Both strategy. By fully acquiring Big River Steel we have created North America’s only Best of Both steel technology company. Our Best of Both steel technology company combines leading advanced high-strength steel intellectual property with a technologically advanced and low-greenhouse gas emissions mini mill.

On October 26, 2020, we announced the successful start-up of our new, technologically advanced EAF steelmaking facility at our Fairfield, Alabama operations. The EAF is used to produce rounds as substrate for our seamless pipe facility. By insourcing rounds production we expect to structurally improve the Tubular segment's cost position by approximately $90 per seamless ton.

We also announced two significant steps towards the Company’s strategic objective to monetize its iron ore assets. First, on April 30, 2020, we granted Stelco Inc. (Stelco) at a purchase price of $100 million the option to acquire a 25 percent interest in the Company’s Minntac iron ore mining operations for an aggregate purchase price of $600 million. The option can be exercised any time before January 31, 2027 and, upon exercise, Stelco will make an additional payment of $500 million to acquire its 25 percent interest in the new cost-sharing joint venture. This agreement ensures U. S. Steel will continue to be the operator and majority owner of the Minntac mine. We also entered into a seven year agreement to sell significant volumes of iron ore pellets to Stelco. Second, on May 18, 2020, we announced a four-year agreement to sell substantial volumes of quality iron ore pellets to Ontario, Canada based Algoma Steel Inc. The purchase agreement, which runs from 2021 through 2024, provides incremental volume and a new long-term iron ore customer for U. S. Steel’s Minnesota mines.

We also made considerable progress on our commitment to reduce fixed costs by $200 million. We are on-track to achieve this goal by 2022.

Ultimately, we intend to center our North American Flat-Rolled operations to offer customers differentiated products and to deliver highly competitive long-term cash flow generation through higher earnings and lower maintenance capital expenditures.

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KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

This section provides an overview of select key performance indicators for U. S. Steel which management and investors use to assess the Company's financial performance. It does not contain all of the information you should consider. Fluctuations for year to year changes are explained in Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."


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The net loss in 2020 reflects a significant decline in demand related to the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, disruption in the Tubular market that led to oversupply during a time of declining demand and continued high-levels of imports. The decline in demand in the Tubular market was considered a triggering event that led to an impairment of $263 million for our welded tubular asset group. In addition, the Company recognized $138 million of restructuring charges during 2020 to better align its operations with customer demand and reduce fixed costs. See Notes 1 and 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
Our 2019 net loss includes unfavorable restructuring impacts of $275 million for the indefinite idling of certain of our Flat-Rolled facilities, headcount reductions and plant exit costs at USSE and Company-wide headcount reductions. Our financial results were also negatively impacted by lower average realized prices across all of our business segments, significant market challenges in our USSE segment and a $334 million non-cash charge to tax expense that increased the valuation allowance related to our net domestic deferred tax asset.
Our 2018 net earnings include a favorable impact of $374 million due to the reversal of a portion of our deferred tax asset valuation allowance.








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These amounts are derived starting from net (loss) earnings as shown on page 6. For a full reconciliation of adjusted net (loss) earnings see page 17.
The earnings decrease from 2019 to 2020 was primarily due to a significant decline in demand related to the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, disruption in the Tubular market that led to oversupply during a time of declining demand and continued high-levels of imports.
Earnings decreased from 2018 to 2019 as market conditions in the U.S. weakened in the latter half of 2019 and our USSE segment faced significant market challenges from weakening economic conditions, primarily in the manufacturing sector.



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See reconciliation from diluted net (loss) earnings per share to adjusted diluted net earnings per share on page 18.
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These amounts are derived starting from net (loss) earnings as shown on page 6. For a full reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA see page 19.
In 2020, Flat-Rolled and Tubular EBITDA declined. Flat-Rolled shipments declined due to customer operating restrictions and lower demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. North American steel demand declined dramatically with capacity utilization rates dropping to almost 50% in the second quarter accompanied by significant spot price erosion. In Tubular, the continued disruption in the oil and gas industry, as well as pandemic-related impacts, reduced demand for oil and gas and severely impacted energy prices, creating significant reductions of drilling activity in the U.S.
EBITDA decreased from 2018 to 2019 primarily in our Flat-Rolled and USSE segments. The primary driver of decreased EBITDA in our Flat-Rolled segment was lower average realized prices related to weakening demand in the latter half of 2019. Our USSE segment temporarily idled one blast furnace as it experienced reduced shipment levels and lower average realized prices as a result of significant market challenges from weakening economic conditions, primarily in the manufacturing sector, and continued high levels of imports, coupled with domestic CO2 cost disadvantages compared to imports. Tubular results continued to be negatively impacted by high levels of imports which resulted in lower selling prices.
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The decrease in net sales in 2020 as compared to 2019 was primarily due to lower shipments and lower average realized prices in all of our reportable segments primarily caused by the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the disruption in the oil and gas industry.
The decrease in net sales in 2019 as compared to 2018 was primarily due to lower average realized prices in all of our reportable segments and significantly reduced shipments in our USSE segment. Lower average realized prices in our Flat-Rolled and Tubular segments reflect weakening market conditions in the latter half of 2019. Reduced shipment levels and lower average realized prices in our USSE segment were the result of significant market challenges from weakening economic conditions, primarily in the manufacturing sector, and continued high levels of imports, coupled with domestic CO2 cost disadvantages compared to imports.

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In 2020, the positive cash flow from operations was primarily due to the efficient use of working capital partially offset by declining financial performance.
In 2019, the positive cash flow from operations was primarily due to efficient use of working capital.
In 2018, improved financial performance more than offset the investment in working capital.
Our cash conversion cycle was 28, 37 and 24 days for 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources” for the calculation of our cash conversion cycle.




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The free cash flow shown above was derived starting from cash flow from operations as shown on page 11. For a full reconciliation of free cash flow see page 20.
In 2020, the Company was faced with significant market challenges that resulted in decreased profitability and reduced capital spending to preserve liquidity.
A portion of our cash from operations in 2019 was spent on strategic projects in furtherance of our world-competitive, Best of Both strategy.
Capital expenditures totaled $1.0 billion in 2018 including $335 million on asset revitalization projects that were focused on delivering improvements in safety, quality, delivery and cost for critical assets in our Flat-Rolled segment.

















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Maintaining cash and liquidity to support and enable execution of our Best of Both strategy is an important priority. Despite the economic challenges we faced in 2020, we maintained strong liquidity which enabled the January 2021 purchase of the remaining interest in Big River Steel primarily with cash.
Our liquidity was also strong in 2018 and 2019 and supported our ability to satisfy short-term obligations, fund working capital requirements, and enable execution of key strategic priorities.


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The increase in debt in 2020 was primarily related to the issuance of our 2025 Senior Secured Notes and the Export-Import Credit Agreement and Export Credit Agreement borrowings. These borrowings strengthened our balance sheet and increased liquidity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The increase in debt in 2019 was primarily related to net drawings that totaled approximately $760 million on our credit facilities, the $350 million issuance of senior convertible notes and the net increase in environmental revenue bonds of $220 million.
Net debt was derived starting from total debt as shown in the full reconciliation on page 20.
The increase in net debt in 2019 was primarily related to the increase in debt described above and the use of funds to purchase our 49.9% interest in Big River Steel, fund the electric arc furnace construction at Fairfield Tubular Operations and finance other capital expenditures.
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The decrease in 2020 net periodic benefit cost from 2019 was primarily due to better than expected 2019 asset performance, lower amortization of prior service costs, lower future healthcare costs and reduced participation in our retiree healthcare plans.
The increase in 2019 net periodic benefit cost from 2018 was mainly due to increased contributions to the Steelworkers' Pension Trust (SPT) in 2019 in accordance with the increase in the contribution rate per hour required under the 2018 Labor Agreements.
For further details, see Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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The funded status of our pension plan improved by $265 million in 2020 primarily due to favorable 2020 asset performance partially offset by a decrease in the discount rate. The funded status of our other post-employment benefits (OPEB) plan improved by $121 million in 2020 primarily due to a decrease in expected future healthcare costs and favorable 2020 asset performance.
At the end of 2020, on a U.S. GAAP basis the funded status was 98% and 115% for our pension and OPEB obligations as compared to a funded status of 93% and 108% at the end of 2019, respectively.
No required contributions to the pension plan are projected within the next 5 years.
For further details, see Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.







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NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
Throughout this report, we present EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net (loss) earnings and adjusted net (loss) earnings per diluted share, free cash flow and net debt which are non-GAAP measures, as additional measurements to enhance the understanding of our operating performance, cash flow and financial position and to facilitate comparison with our competitors. See page 3 for an explanation of our use of certain non-GAAP financial measures.
RECONCILIATION TO ADJUSTED NET (LOSS) EARNINGS (a)
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)202020192018
Reconciliation to adjusted net (loss) earnings attributable to United States Steel Corporation
Net (loss) earnings attributable to United States Steel Corporation, as reported$(1,165)$(630)$1,115 
Asset impairment charge263 — — 
Restructuring and other charges131 263 — 
Tubular inventory impairment24 — — 
Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges (b)
18 — — 
Uncertain tax positions13 — — 
Big River Steel financing costs8 — — 
Big River Steel transaction and other related costs3 — — 
Fairless property sale(145)— — 
Big River Steel options and forward adjustments (c)
(39)— 
Gain on previously held investment in UPI(25)— — 
December 24, 2018 Clairton coke making facility fire(6)41 — 
Tax valuation allowance 334 (374)
Loss on extinguishment of debt and other related costs — 101 
USW labor agreement signing bonus and related costs — 81 
Granite City Works restart and related costs — 80 
Gain on equity investee transactions — (38)
Granite City Works temporary idling charges — (8)
     Total Adjustments245 645 (158)
Adjusted net (loss) earnings attributable to United States Steel Corporation$(920)$15 $957 
(a) The 2020 adjustments included in this table have been tax effected for our European operations and not tax effected for our U.S. operations due to the full valuation allowance on our domestic deferred tax assets. The 2019 adjustments included in this table have been tax effected through the third quarter of 2019 as a valuation allowance was not applied to our deferred tax assets until the fourth quarter of 2019. The 2018 adjustments included in this table have not been tax effected due to the full valuation allowance on our domestic deferred tax assets.
(b) The Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges were related to Big River Steel refinancing activity that was recognized by U. S. Steel in Loss (earnings) from investees in its Consolidated Statement of Operations.
(c) The Big River Steel options and forward adjustments represent the earnings impact of the change in fair value of options related to our investment in a 49.9% ownership interest in Big River Steel and the recognition of the contingent forward for the exercise of the call option to purchase the remaining interest in Big River Steel. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
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RECONCILIATION TO ADJUSTED NET (LOSS) EARNINGS PER SHARE (a)
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Reconciliation to adjusted diluted net (loss) earnings per share
Diluted net (loss) earnings per share, as reported$(5.92)(3.67)6.25 
Asset impairment charge1.34 — — 
Restructuring and other charges0.67 1.53 — 
Tubular inventory impairment0.12 — — 
Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges (b)
0.09 — — 
Uncertain tax positions0.07 
Big River Steel financing costs0.04 — — 
Big River Steel transaction and other related costs0.02 — — 
Fairless property sale(0.74)— — 
Big River Steel options and forward adjustments (c)
(0.20)0.04 — 
Gain on previously held investment in UPI(0.13)— — 
December 24, 2018 Clairton coke making facility fire(0.03)0.23 — 
Tax valuation allowance 1.96 (2.11)
Loss on extinguishment of debt and other related costs — 0.57 
USW labor agreement signing bonus and related costs — 0.45 
Granite City Works restart and related costs — 0.45 
Gain on equity investee transactions — (0.21)
Granite City Works temporary idling charges — (0.04)
     Total adjustments1.25 3.76 (0.89)
Adjusted diluted net (loss) earnings per share$(4.67)$0.09 $5.36 
(a) The 2020 adjustments included in this table have been tax effected for our European operations and not tax effected for our U.S. operations due to the full valuation allowance on our domestic deferred tax assets. The 2019 adjustments included in this table have been tax effected through the third quarter of 2019 as a valuation allowance was not applied to our deferred tax assets until the fourth quarter of 2019. The 2018 adjustments included in this table have not been tax effected due to the full valuation allowance on our domestic deferred tax assets.
(b) The Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges were related to Big River Steel refinancing activity that was recognized by U. S. Steel in Loss (earnings) from investees in its Consolidated Statement of Operations.
(c) The Big River Steel options and forward adjustments represents the earnings impact of the change in fair value of options related to our investment in a 49.9% ownership interest in Big River Steel and the recognition of the contingent forward for the exercise of the call option to purchase the remaining interest in Big River Steel. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.





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RECONCILIATION TO EBITDA AND ADJUSTED EBITDA
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)202020192018
Reconciliation to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
Net (loss) earnings attributable to United States Steel Corporation$(1,165)$(630)$1,115 
Income tax (benefit) provision(142)178 (303)
Net interest and other financial costs232 222 312 
Depreciation, depletion and amortization expense643 616 521 
EBITDA(432)386 1,645 
Asset impairment charge263 — — 
Restructuring and other charges138 275 — 
Tubular inventory impairment24 — — 
Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges (a)
18 — — 
Big River Steel transaction and other related costs3 — — 
Fairless property sale(145)— — 
Gain on previously held investment in UPI(25)— — 
December 24, 2018 Clairton coke making facility fire(6)50 — 
USW labor agreement signing bonus and related costs — 81 
Granite City Works restart and related costs — 80 
Gain on equity investee transactions — (38)
Granite City Works temporary idling charges — (8)
Adjusted EBITDA$(162)$711 $1,760 
(a) The Big River Steel debt extinguishment charges were related to Big River Steel refinancing activity that was recognized by U. S. Steel in Loss (earnings) from investees in its Consolidated Statement of Operations.
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RECONCILIATION TO FREE CASH FLOW
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)202020192018
Reconciliation to Free Cash Flow
Net cash provided by operating activities$138 $682 $938 
Capital expenditures(725)(1,252)(1,001)
Dividends paid(8)(35)(36)
Free Cash Flow$(595)$(605)$(99)

RECONCILIATION TO TOTAL DEBT AND NET DEBT
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)202020192018
Reconciliation to Total Debt and Net Debt
Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt$192 $14 $65 
Long-term debt, less unamortized discount and debt issuance costs4,695 3,627 2,316 
Total Debt4,887 3,641 2,381 
Less: Cash and cash equivalents$1,985 $749 $1,000 
Net Debt$2,902 $2,892 $1,381 



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PART I

Item 1. BUSINESS

United States Steel Corporation (U. S. Steel), with operations in the U.S. and Central Europe, is transforming itself into a customer-centric, world-competitive, Best of BothSM steelmaker. By combining the best of the integrated and mini mill steelmaking models, U. S. Steel will deliver unmatched process and product innovation for our customers. Our Best of Both strategy is creating a value proposition that only U. S. Steel is uniquely positioned to offer at scale. We are executing on our strategy by investing where we have distinct cost and capability advantages to be a steel solutions provider for our customers. By offering unparalleled product capabilities and process innovation, including the green steels that our customers are increasingly demanding, we can achieve world-competitive positioning in strategic, high-margin end markets, and deliver high-quality, sustainable, value-added products and innovative solutions.

As a mini mill steelmaker, we can utilize the sustainable and flexible EAF steelmaking process to meet our customers’ needs while creating a more variable cost structure and reducing our overall capital intensity. As an integrated steel producer we can create the virgin steel to meet some of our customers’ most demanding applications while utilizing the competitive advantage of our fully-integrated iron ore mines.

U. S. Steel has annual raw steel production capability of 22.9 million net tons (17.9 million tons in the United States and 5.0 million tons in Europe). With the acquisition of Big River Steel raw steel production will increase by 3.3 million net tons to a total U. S. Steel and United States capability of 26.2 million and 21.2 million net tons, respectively. U. S. Steel performs a wide range of applied research, development and technical support functions at facilities in Pennsylvania, Michigan, Texas and Slovakia. U. S. Steel supplies customers throughout the world primarily in the automotive, construction, consumer (packaging and appliance), electrical, industrial equipment, service center/distribution, structural tubing and energy (oil country tubular goods (OCTG) and line pipe) markets. According to the worldsteel Association’s latest published statistics, in 2019 U. S. Steel was the third largest steel producer in the United States and the twenty-seventh largest steel producer in the world. U. S. Steel is also engaged in other business activities consisting primarily of railroad services and real estate operations. U. S. Steel is a Delaware corporation established in 1901.

Acquisitions

On December 8, 2020, the Company exercised its option to acquire the remaining equity of Big River Steel. The acquisition closed on January 15, 2021.

Segments

U. S. Steel has three reportable segments: North American Flat-Rolled (Flat-Rolled), U. S. Steel Europe (USSE) and Tubular Products (Tubular). The results of our 49.9% ownership interest in Big River Steel and our railroad and real estate businesses that do not constitute reportable segments are combined and disclosed in the Other Businesses category. Beginning in 2021, we will report the results of Big River Steel in a separate “Mini Mill” segment.

Flat-Rolled

The Flat-Rolled segment includes the operating results of U. S. Steel’s integrated steel plants and equity investees in North America (except for Big River Steel, which is included in Other Businesses) involved in the production of slabs, strip mill plates, sheets and tin mill products, as well as all iron ore and coke production facilities in the United States. These operations primarily serve North American customers in the automotive, appliance, construction, container, transportation and service center markets.

Flat-Rolled has aggregate annual raw steel production capability of 17.0 million tons produced at our Gary Works, Mon Valley Works, Great Lakes Works and Granite City Works facilities. Raw steel production was 9.3 million tons in 2020, 11.4 million tons in 2019 and 11.9 million tons in 2018. Raw steel production averaged 55 percent of capability in 2020, 67 percent of capability in 2019 and 70 percent of capability in 2018.

European Operations

The USSE segment includes the operating results of U. S. Steel Košice (USSK), U. S. Steel’s integrated steel plant and coke production facilities in Slovakia, and its subsidiaries. USSE conducts its business mainly in Central and Western Europe and primarily serves customers in the European transportation (including automotive), construction, container, appliance, electrical, service center, conversion and oil, gas and petrochemical markets. USSE produces and sells slabs, strip mill plate, sheet, tin mill products and spiral welded pipe, as well as refractory ceramic materials.

USSE has annual raw steel production capability of 5.0 million tons. USSE’s raw steel production was 3.4 million tons in 2020, 3.9 million tons in 2019, and 5.0 million tons in 2018. USSE’s raw steel production averaged 67 percent of capability in 2020, 78 percent of capability in 2019 and 100 percent of capability in 2018.

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Tubular

The Tubular segment includes the operating results of U. S. Steel’s tubular production facilities and an equity investee in the United States. These operations produce and sell seamless and electric resistance welded (ERW) steel casing and tubing (commonly known as OCTG), and standard and line pipe and mechanical tubing and primarily serve customers in the oil, gas and petrochemical markets. The start-up of the new 1.6 million ton electric arc furnace at Fairfield, Alabama in October 2020 is currently used to feed our 0.9 million ton rounds caster. As a result, the Tubular segment now has annual raw steel production capability of 0.9 million tons. In 2020 raw steel production was 16 thousand tons and averaged 7 percent of capability. Tubular has total production capability of 1.9 million tons. In 2020, Tubular indefinitely idled the Lone Star Tubular Operations and Lorain Tubular Operations thereby effectively reducing on-line tubular production capacity by 790 and 380 thousand tons, respectively. U. S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc. (USSTP), a wholly owned subsidiary of U. S. Steel, continues to design and develop a range of premium and semi-premium connections to address the growing needs for technical solutions for our end users' well site production challenges.

For further information, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Steel Shipments by Market and Segment

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The following table except where noted in Footnote 1 (1) below does not include shipments to end customers by joint ventures and other equity investees of U. S. Steel. Shipments of materials to these entities are included in the “Further Conversion – Joint Ventures” market classification. No single customer accounted for more than 10 percent of gross annual revenue.
(Thousands of Tons)Flat-RolledUSSETubularTotal
Major Market – 2020
Steel Service Centers1,450 690  2,140 
Further Conversion – Trade Customers2,063 202  2,265 
 – Joint Ventures (1)
415   415 
Transportation and Automotive (1)
2,012 517  2,529 
Construction and Construction Products1,261 775 34 2,070 
Containers and Packaging913 435  1,348 
Appliances and Electrical Equipment497 194  691 
Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals 5 430 435 
All Other100 223  323 
TOTAL8,711 3,041 464 12,216 
Major Market – 2019
Steel Service Centers1,902 740 — 2,642 
Further Conversion – Trade Customers2,823 214 — 3,037 
 – Joint Ventures (1)
819 — — 819 
Transportation & Automotive (1)
2,620 676 — 3,296 
Construction and Construction Products1,076 1,048 44 2,168 
Containers and Packaging652 440 — 1,092 
Appliances and Electrical Equipment570 220 — 790 
Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals— — 725 725 
All Other238 252 — 490 
TOTAL10,700 3,590 769 15,059 
Major Market – 2018 (2)
Steel Service Centers1,904 799 — 2,703 
Further Conversion – Trade Customers2,273 287 — 2,560 
 – Joint Ventures (1)
810 — — 810 
Transportation and Automotive (1)
2,874 728 — 3,602 
Construction and Construction Products953 1,637 38 2,628 
Containers and Packaging768 439 — 1,207 
Appliances and Electrical Equipment599 261 — 860 
Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals— 11 742 753 
All Other329 295 — 624 
TOTAL10,510 4,457 780 15,747 
(1) PRO-TEC automotive substrate shipments are included in the Transportation and Automotive category.
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Steel Industry Background and Competition

The global steel industry is cyclical, highly competitive and has historically been characterized by overcapacity.

U. S. Steel's competitive position may be affected by, among other things, differences among U. S. Steel's and its competitors' cost structure, labor costs, environmental remediation and compliance costs, global capacity and the existence and magnitude of government subsidies provided to competitors.

U. S. Steel competes with many North American and international steel producers. Competitors include 1) integrated producers, which, like U. S. Steel, use iron ore and coke as the primary raw materials for steel production, 2) EAF producers, which primarily use steel scrap and other iron-bearing feedstocks as raw materials and 3) slab re-rollers, who purchase mostly imported, but some domestic, semi-finished products and convert them into sheet products. Global steel production increased by 55 million metric tons in 2019 to 1.869 billion metric tons. Furthermore, capacity has continued to increase, with notable changes in 2019 Chinese crude steel production of 996 million metric tons, a 8.3% increase from 2018, and estimated to be more than 76 million metric tons above the apparent crude steel demand in China (source: worldsteel). In addition, other materials, such as aluminum, plastics and composites, compete with steel in several applications.

EAF producers typically require lower capital expenditures for construction of facilities and may have lower total employment costs; however, these competitive advantages may be minimized or eliminated by the cost of scrap when scrap prices are high. Some EAF producers utilize thin slab casting technology to produce flat-rolled products and are increasingly able to compete directly with integrated producers in many flat-rolled product applications previously produced only by integrated steelmakers. Slab re-rollers do not incur the cost of melting steel, their input costs are driven by the market price of slabs.

U. S. Steel provides defined benefit pension and/or other post-employment benefits to approximately 80,000 current employees, retirees and their beneficiaries. Many of our competitors do not have comparable retiree obligations. Participation in U. S. Steel's main defined benefit pension plan was closed to new entrants on July 1, 2003 and benefit accruals for all non-represented participants were frozen effective December 31, 2015. Participation in U. S. Steel’s retiree medical and life insurance programs for United Steelworkers (USW)-represented employees were closed to employees hired or rehired (except in limited circumstances) on or after January 1, 2016. Retiree medical and life insurance benefits for non-represented employees were eliminated for those who retired after December 31, 2017.

We believe that our major North American and many European integrated steel competitors are confronted with substantially similar environmental regulatory conditions and therefore do not believe that our relative position with regard to such competitors will be materially affected by the impact of environmental laws and regulations. However, if future regulations do not recognize the fact that the integrated steel process involves a series of chemical reactions involving carbon that create carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions without linking these emissions to steel scrap as well, our competitive position relative to mini-mills will be adversely impacted. Our competitive position compared to producers in developing nations such as China, Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Brazil and India, will be harmed unless such nations require commensurate reductions in CO2 emissions or there are border adjustment tariffs for CO2. Competing materials such as plastics may not be similarly impacted. The specific impact on each competitor will vary depending on a number of factors, including the age and location of its operating facilities and its production methods. U. S. Steel is also responsible for remediation costs related to former and present operating locations and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials. Many of our competitors, including North American producers, or their successors, that have been the subject of bankruptcy relief have no or substantially lower liabilities for such environmental remediation matters.

In 2021, additional steelmaking capacity is expected to enter the domestic steel market as competitors' growth projects come on-line throughout the year.

Business Strategy

We are executing on our customer-centric strategy to transform U. S. Steel into a world-competitive, Best of Both, steelmaker by combining the best of the integrated steelmaking model with the best of the mini mill steelmaking model. Our strategy will deliver product and process innovation to create unmatched value for our customers while enhancing our earnings profile and delivering long-term cash flow through industry cycles. By offering unparalleled product capabilities, including the green steels our customers are increasingly demanding, we can achieve world-competitive positioning in strategic, high-margin end markets, and deliver high-quality, sustainable, value-added products and innovative solutions. To get to our Best of Both future, we are investing to create distinct cost and capability advantages, enhancing our focus on operational and commercial excellence and promoting technological innovation, so we can deliver an unmatched value proposition to our customers while creating a more variable cost structure, and lowering the capital intensity of the business.

Foundational to our efforts is our belief that we must operate as a principled company committed to our S.T.E.E.L. Principles, outlined in our Code of Ethical Business Conduct. Our core value of safety - the safety of our employees, our environment, our communities and our facilities and equipment - has served us well for much of our history and our commitment to it remains as strong as the products we make every day.

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Our strategy is informed by our critical success factors, which are the bedrock of the Best of Both strategy: (1) Move Down the Cost Curve, (2) Win in Strategic Markets, and (3) Move Up the Talent Curve.

We continuously aim to move down the cost curve. We made considerable progress on this critical success factor in 2020. The successful acquisition of Big River Steel is expected to improve our cost position by making our cost structure more variable and reducing the capital intensity of the business. We also successfully completed the construction of the EAF at our Tubular Operations in Fairfield, Alabama and became self-sufficient in our rounds supply. We also made considerable progress and remain on track towards our stated goal of reducing fixed costs by $200 million.

We are focused on winning in strategic markets through a customer-focused business model with an emphasis on creating differentiated, innovative and value-added solutions that will help our customers succeed. As part of this effort, in 2020 we implemented an enhanced operating model and organizational structure to accelerate the company’s strategic transformation and better serve its customers. The realignment of U. S. Steel’s leadership team around more nimble and efficient executive functions, notably to sharpen focus on operational and commercial excellence and promote technological innovation, will enable the company to establish a more competitive cost structure with enhanced capabilities to serve customers in strategic markets.

Core to our strategy is moving up the talent curve. The success of our business is driven by the efforts of our hard-working employees. We know that we must work to identify, attract and retain best-in-class diverse talent. Our goal is to build a pipeline mapping the right people to the right value-driving roles. This includes providing the training and resources they need to succeed and fostering a culture where accountability, fairness and respect are foundational, and high performance and diversity in all its forms are valued and celebrated. This type of environment incentivizes the right behavior and allows for a best talent wins environment to help us achieve our Best of Both strategy.

U. S. Steel will continue to evaluate potential strategic and organizational opportunities, which may include the acquisition, divestiture or consolidation of assets. Given the cyclicality of our industry, we are focused on strategically maintaining and spending cash, in order to invest in areas consistent with the execution of our Best of Both strategy, such as sustainable steel technologies, and are considering various possibilities, including exiting lines of business and the sale of certain assets, that we believe would ultimately result in greater stockholder value. The Company will pursue opportunities based on its long-term strategy, and what the Board of Directors determines to be in the best interests of the Company's stockholders at the time. In addition, we are bringing Big River Steel’s focused, innovative, and entrepreneurial mindset into the way we do business. By bringing these two world-class workforces together, with a shared values-based culture, we believe we can create significant value across the enterprise.

Strategic Projects and Technology Investments
In October 2019, the Company completed the first step in acquiring Big River Steel in Osceola, Arkansas through the purchase of a 49.9% ownership interest at a purchase price of approximately $700 million in cash, with a call option to acquire the remaining 50.1% within the next four years at an agreed-upon price formula. With the completion of its Phase II expansion in November 2020, Big River Steel operates two technologically advanced EAFs with approximately 3.3 million tons of steel making capacity. On December 8, 2020 the Company announced it exercised its call option to acquire the remaining equity of Big River Steel. The purchase of the remaining interest in Big River Steel closed on January 15, 2021 for approximately $723 million in cash and the assumption of liabilities of approximately $50 million. The successful completion of the acquisition marked a major milestone in our Best of Both strategy. Full ownership of Big River Steel creates North America’s only Best of Both steel technology company by combining leading advanced high-strength steel intellectual property with a technologically advanced and low-greenhouse gas emissions mini mill.

In May 2019, U. S. Steel announced that it plans to construct a new endless casting and rolling facility at its Edgar Thomson Plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania, and a cogeneration facility at its Clairton Plant in Clairton, Pennsylvania, both part of the Company's Mon Valley Works. This investment in state-of-the-art sustainable steel technology is expected to significantly upgrade the production capability of our lowest liquid steel cost mill in the U.S., while further reducing conversion costs through improved process efficiencies, yield and energy consumption. Since announcement, the Company identified the potential need for additional equipment at the Edgar Thomson steel shop. The Company has amended the environmental permit applications to include a new ladle metallurgy facility (LMF). In addition, the expected capital costs of achieving the Company’s ambitious environmental targets from its future cogeneration facility have increased. The Company expects the total investment for the new endless casting and rolling facility at its Edgar Thomson Plant and cogeneration facility at its Clairton Plant to be at least $1.5 billion, with the expected incremental run-rate EBITDA benefits of approximately $275 million unchanged. The Company purchased certain equipment for this project before delaying groundbreaking in March 2020 in response to COVID-19. In 2021, the Company plans to resume equipment purchases for the project, which will be partially funded from our Export Credit Agreement.

The installation of endless casting and rolling technology will allow differentiated product capabilities to serve strategic markets. In 2020 we announced a delay in the construction of our endless casting and rolling line at Mon Valley Works, but plan to resume equipment purchases in 2021 as we monitor the right time to fully resume the project. With this technology the Mon Valley Works should become the principal source of substrate for the production of the Company's industry-leading XG3TM advanced high strength steel (AHSS), a market leading solution for our customers to improve fuel efficiency. The cogeneration facility, equipped with state-of-the-art emissions control systems at the Company's Clairton Plant, will convert a portion of the coke oven gas
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generated at its Clairton Plant into electricity to power the steelmaking and finishing facilities throughout U. S. Steel's Mon Valley operations. This project, in addition to producing sustainable AHSS, is expected to improve environmental performance, energy conservation and reduce our carbon footprint associated with Mon Valley Works.

In February 2019, U. S. Steel restarted construction of the EAF steelmaking facility at its Tubular Operations in Fairfield, Alabama. The EAF is expected to structurally improve the Company's competitive position and reduce rounds cost by $90 per seamless ton as the Company becomes self-sufficient in its rounds supply. Construction of the EAF was completed in October 2020. Utilization of the EAF will be subject to overall demand in the Tubular business.

The Company expects to invest approximately $550 million, of which approximately 50 percent has already been spent, to upgrade the Gary Works hot strip mill through a series of projects focused on expanding the line's competitive advantages. The Gary Works hot strip mill will further differentiate itself as a leader in heavy-gauge products in strategic markets. The Company has resumed certain capability upgrades in conjunction with planned outages after having delayed upgrades as part of the Company's comprehensive response to impacts from COVID-19. The Company will continue to evaluate the pace and timeline for completing the remaining investments in the Gary Works hot strip mill.

In January 2019, U. S. Steel announced the construction of a new Dynamo line at USSE. The new line, a $130 million investment, has an annual capacity of approximately 100,000 metric tons. Construction on the Dynamo line began in mid-2019 but due to challenging market conditions, has been paused. Upon its completion, the new line would enable production of sophisticated silicon grades of non-grain oriented (NGO) electrical steels to support increased demand in vehicles and generators.

Commercial Strategy

Beginning January 1, 2020, the Company implemented an enhanced operating model and organizational structure to accelerate its strategic transformation and better serve its customers. The new operating model is centered around manufacturing, commercial, and technological excellence. Our former “commercial entity” structure was put into place to deepen understanding of business ownership and our relationships with customers and allowed the Company to identify the technology that would differentiate our products and processes on the basis of cost and/or capabilities. The new enhanced operating model enables us to implement our Best of Both strategy faster by making us a more nimble and technologically superior customer driven company positioned to deliver the benefits of our strategy through the business cycle.

We have successfully produced several grades of green steel using Big River Steel substrate, including our Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) and XG3TM advanced high strength steel (AHSS) grades that our customers are increasingly demanding.

Our commercial strategy is focused on providing customer focused solutions with differentiated and value-added steel products, which includes advanced high strength steels such as our newly developed grades of GEN3 steel, coated sheets for the automotive and appliance industries, electrical steel sheets for the manufacture of motors and electrical equipment, both bare and prepainted galvanized and Galvalume® sheets for construction, heavy gauge hot rolled coils used in the production of American Petroleum Institute (API) line pipe used for energy transmission line pipe, tin mill products for the packaging industry and pipe, connections, accessories and rig site services for use in drilling for oil and gas.

We are responsive to our customers' changing needs by developing new steel products and uses for steel that meet the evolving market and regulatory demands imposed upon them. In connection with this commitment, we have research centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Košice, Slovakia, and Houston, Texas, as well as an automotive center in Troy, Michigan. The focus of these centers is to develop new products and to collaborate with our customers to better provide innovative solutions to serve their needs.

For automotive markets, we commissioned a first of its kind GEN3 hot dipped galvanize line at our PRO-TEC Coating Company (PRO-TEC) joint venture in 2020, and have embedded application engineers at original equipment manufacturers to demonstrate how to best utilize the highly formable, cost effective material in body design to meet automobile passenger safety requirements while significantly reducing weight to meet future vehicle fuel efficiency standards.

In our tubular markets, we continue development of premium and semi-premium tubular connections designed for our customers that operate in challenging drilling environments. These connections optimize well construction activities and provide outstanding sealing capabilities for onshore and offshore oil and gas drilling in North America. An example is the USS-TALON HTQ™, which was introduced in 2020 for customers that are constructing onshore natural gas and oil wells with long laterals requiring best-in-class torque capacity and optimized well-bore clearances. Please refer to Item I. Business Strategy for further details of related strategies.

Human Capital Management

At U. S. Steel, we are focused on attracting and retaining the top talent needed to support our strategic transformation and meet our customers’ evolving needs as a sustainable steel solutions provider. The support and development of our people is foundational to achieving our Best of Both strategy. We refer to this strategic talent pillar as “Moving Up the Talent Curve.”
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Our focus on people extends to our current and future employees. We aim to have an engaged and diverse workforce to promote new ideas and innovation, reflect the communities where we operate, and deliver exceptional customer service. We seek to build an inclusive environment where people feel free to bring their whole selves to work. To achieve the Best of Both strategy, we must have the “Best from All.” More about our focus on people and human capital management can be found in our 2019 Sustainability Report.

Approximate Active Employees as of December 31, 2020
North America13,975
Slovakia9,375
Total23,350

Ethics & Compliance

Our culture is based on our S.T.E.E.L. Principles: Safety First; Trust and Respect; Environmentally Friendly Activities; Ethical Behavior; and Lawful Business Conduct. We expect our employees and members of our board of directors to take personal responsibility to “do what’s right,” and our Code of Ethical Business Conduct serves as the foundation for the actions of our employees and directors. To further ensure that employees understand the Company’s expectations and all applicable rules, we provide formal ethics and compliance training to our employees and have frequent communication with information about key compliance topics, which include messages from senior management underscoring the importance of doing business with integrity. Employees also receive summaries of current events that demonstrate the need to do business lawfully that include reminders of the company’s expectations for all employees. In addition, through our annual policy certification process, employees and directors certify their ongoing compliance with our Code of Ethical Business Conduct.

Employee Health & Safety

At U. S. Steel, we have a long-standing commitment to the safety and health of the men and women who work in our facilities. Every employee deserves to return home safely at the end of every day, and we are working to eliminate all injuries and incidents. In addition, the psychological safety of all employees is important to us. We have combined physical safety and psychological safety into the construct of 360° safety. Ensuring a safe workplace also improves productivity, quality, reliability and financial performance. By making safety and health a personal responsibility, our employees are making a daily commitment to follow safe work practices, look out for the safety of co-workers and ensure safe working conditions for everyone. A “Safety First” mindset is as essential to our success as the tools and technologies we rely on to do business. This past year, we relied on our strong safety culture to ensure the health and safety of our employees during the COVID-19 pandemic, as described below.

Our objective is to attain a sustainable zero harm culture supported by leadership and owned by an engaged and highly skilled workforce, empowered with the capabilities and resources needed to assess, reduce, and eliminate workplace risks and hazards. In support of these objectives, we have developed an enhanced Safety Management System, initiated new safety communication methods and enhanced contractor safety processes. One of our most important safety protocols is our fatality prevention audit program. These proactive assessments of the processes and protocols we have in place, and adherence to them, to avoid fatalities and severe injuries are conducted annually at the enterprise level and more frequently at each of our facilities. We assess our safety performance through a variety of lagging and leading indicators, including OSHA Days Away From Work (DAFW). This measurement allows us to evaluate the frequency of injuries sustained at our facilities requiring an employee to stay at home for more than one day. U. S. Steel has achieved record-safety performance in this measurement in the last several years, routinely achieving performance better than industry benchmarks.

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For 2020, we had a corporate DAFW rate of 0.07, which is 0.53 better than the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Iron and Steel benchmark DAFW rate of 0.60.

Inclusion & Diversity

Attracting, developing, and retaining a workforce of talented, diverse people is essential to having high-performing teams that drive results for our Company’s stakeholders. As part of our commitment to cultivating a culture of caring, we have inclusive benefits available for our U.S. non-represented workforce, including expanded parental leave, back-up dependent care, infertility coverage, gender reassignment coverage and healthcare continuation for the families of employees who suffered work-related or military service fatalities. In 2020, U. S. Steel earned a 100 percent score on the Human Rights Campaign’s annual Corporate Equality Index in recognition of our comprehensive and inclusive benefits. We also support several employee resource groups (ERGs) to enhance employee engagement, promote a culture of acceptance, foster diversity in the workplace, and raise awareness related to issues of identity and intersectionality. Our ERGs also provide leadership development, mentorship and networking opportunities for their members.

Talent Development and Retention

We believe that development and retention of talent is essential to our success, and we seek to provide opportunities for continuous learning and development. All of our employees at a director-level and above have a formal professional development plan that is assessed at least annually. In addition, we proactively measure our attrition rates, and take targeted actions to ensure our highest potential and performing employees are incentivized to remain with the Company. Over the past five years, our regrettable voluntary turnover rate has been at or below 5 percent.

Labor Relations

Approximately 80 percent of our employees in North America and Slovakia are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We work closely with union representatives to provide safe and productive workplaces that enable our employees to deliver high-quality