S-1/A 1 forms-1a.htm

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 8, 2024

 

Registration No. 333-276998 

 

 

  

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

Amendment No. 2

to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

Prairie Operating Co.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Delaware   1311   98-0357690
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)   (Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)  

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

602 Sawyer Street, Suite 710

Houston, TX 77007

(713) 424-4247

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

Edward Kovalik

Chief Executive Officer

602 Sawyer Street, Suite 710

Houston, TX 77007

(713) 424-4247

(Name, Address Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

COPIES TO:

T. Mark Kelly

Joanna D. Enns

Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.

845 Texas Avenue, Suite 4700

Houston, TX 77002

(713) 758-2222

 

David J. Miller

Samuel D. Rettew

Latham & Watkins LLP

300 Colorado St., Suite 2400

Austin, TX 78701

(737) 910-7590

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☐

 

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐   Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒   Smaller reporting company ☒
    Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 8, 2024

 

The information contained in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. No securities may be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

Shares

 

 

Prairie Operating Co.

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

This is an offering by Prairie Operating Co. (the “Company”) of                shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Common Stock”). You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.

 

Our Common Stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “PROP.” On April 5, 2024, the closing price of our Common Stock was $11.00.

 

Investing in our shares of Common Stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

   Per Share   Total 
Public offering price  $   $ 
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)  $   $ 
Proceeds, before expenses to us  $   $ 

 

 

(1)See “Underwriting” beginning on page 134 of this prospectus for additional information regarding total underwriting compensation. For example, we have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain expenses.

 

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to an additional shares of our Common Stock from us at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Common Stock on or about             , 2024.

 

 

 

Truist Securities

KeyBanc Capital Markets Piper Sandler

Clear Street Johnson Rice & Company Pickering Energy Partners

 

               , 2024

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   ii
BASIS OF PRESENTATION   ii
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA   iv
NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES   iv
FREQUENTLY USED TERMS   v
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   x
SUMMARY   1
RISK FACTORS   14
USE OF PROCEEDS   45
DILUTION   46
MARKET INFORMATION FOR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY   47
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION   48
BUSINESS   58
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS   70
MANAGEMENT   79
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION   84
INFORMATION ABOUT NRO   89
CAPITALIZATION   102
REGULATION OF THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY   103
DESCRIPTION OF THE NRO ACQUISITION   113
DESCRIPTION OF THE CRYPTO SALE   115
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS   116
BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES   123
MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS   125
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES   129
RESTRICTIONS ON RESALE OF SECURITIES   133
UNDERWRITING   134
LEGAL MATTERS   141
EXPERTS   141
CHANGE IN AUDITOR   142
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   143
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE   144

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the underwriters will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the registration statement filed by us includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at the SEC’s website described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.” We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

 

Unless otherwise indicated, all references to “Prairie,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean Prairie Operating Co. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Capitalized terms used but not defined where used are defined under the section entitled “Frequently Used Terms.

 

BASIS OF PRESENTATION

 

Presentation of Financial Information

 

On May 3, 2023, the Company completed its Merger with Prairie LLC pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, pursuant to which, among other things, Merger Sub merged with and into Prairie LLC, with Prairie LLC surviving and continuing to exist as a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. In addition, in connection with the Merger Closing, the Company consummated the purchase of oil and gas leases from Exok pursuant to the Exok Agreement. The information contained herein pertaining to the Company after the Merger reflects the combined basis of the Company, Prairie LLC and the assets purchased from Exok.

 

On October 12, 2023, the Company filed a Certificate of Amendment to its Certificate of Incorporation with the Delaware Secretary of State to effect a reverse stock split of outstanding shares of the Company’s Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share at an exchange ratio of 1:28.5714286. The Reverse Stock Split became effective on October 16, 2023. Unless otherwise noted, all per share and share amounts presented herein have been retroactively adjusted for the effect of the Reverse Stock Split.

 

On January 11, 2024, we entered into the NRO Agreement to acquire the Central Weld Assets for total consideration of $94.5 million, subject to certain closing price adjustments and other customary closing conditions. The Company expects the NRO Acquisition to close in the first half of 2024, subject to customary closing conditions, with an economic effective date of February 1, 2024. The Company expects to fund the transaction with the proceeds from this offering, cash on hand and proceeds from exercises of Warrants, if any. References to “Prairie,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer only to Prairie Operating Co. and its consolidated subsidiaries and do not refer to NRO or its consolidated subsidiaries. For further description of the NRO Acquisition, see “Description of the NRO Acquisition” below.

 

On January 23, 2024, we entered into the Crypto Divestiture Agreement with the Crypto Purchaser, pursuant to which we sold the Mining Equipment to the Crypto Purchaser for total consideration of $2 million, including $1 million in cash and $1 million in deferred cash payments. All historical financial information presented and incorporated by reference herein reflects the financial information of the Company prior to the Crypto Sale unless otherwise indicated herein. For further description of the Crypto Sale, see “Description of the Crypto Sale” below.

 

ii

 

 

The Company is providing the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial and reserve information to aid in the analysis of the financial aspects of this offering, the NRO Acquisition, Crypto Sale, Merger, Series D PIPE and Exok Transaction (the “Transactions”). The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information presents the combination of historical financial information of the Company, Prairie LLC and NRO, adjusted to give effect to the Transactions and certain subsequent events thereto described in Note 3 of the “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” (the “Subsequent Events”). The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 reflects the historical balance sheet of the Company as of December 31, 2023 on a pro forma basis as if the Transactions and the Subsequent Events had been consummated on December 31, 2023. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 reflect the historical statements of operations of Prairie LLC, the historical statements of operations of the Company and the historical consolidated statements of operations of NRO, as applicable, for such periods on a pro forma basis as if the Transactions and Subsequent Events had been consummated on January 1, 2023.

 

Presentation of Reserve Information

 

The following reserve reports are incorporated by reference herein:

 

Reserve Report of the Company prepared by Cawley, Gillespie & Associates, Inc., an independent Petroleum Reserve Evaluation Firm (“CG&A”), effective as of December 31, 2023, utilizing SEC pricing as of December 31, 2023, with respect to the Initial Genesis Assets (the “December Prairie Report”);

 

Reserve Report of NRO prepared by CG&A, effective as of December 31, 2023, utilizing SEC pricing as of December 31, 2023, with respect to the Central Weld Assets (the “December NRO Report” and, together with the December Prairie Report, the “December Reports”);

 

Reserve Report of the Company prepared by CG&A, effective as of January 31, 2024, utilizing SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024, with respect to the Initial Genesis Assets (the “January Prairie Report”);

 

Reserve Report of the Company prepared by CG&A, effective as of January 31, 2024, utilizing SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024, with respect to the Central Weld Assets (the “January Central Weld Report”); and

 

Reserve Report of the Company prepared by CG&A, effective as of January 31, 2024, utilizing SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024, with respect to the Genesis Bolt-on Assets (the “January Bolt-on Report” and, together with the January Prairie Report and the January Central Weld Report, the “January Reports”).

 

In addition to the December Prairie Report, the Company commissioned the January Prairie Report, the January Central Weld Report and the January Bolt-on Report which presents reserves of the Initial Genesis Assets, the Central Weld Assets and the Genesis Bolt-on Assets, respectively, as of January 31, 2024. These reports reflect the Company’s planned drilling program for its assets following the consummation of the Transactions, including the Genesis Bolt-on Assets that were acquired effective as of January 31, 2024. See the section entitled “Summary”—“Our Development Plan.” With respect to the Central Weld Assets, the January Central Weld Report reflects the Company’s planned drilling program for the Central Weld Assets and the related capital expenditures and lease operating expenses, based on an economic effective date of February 1, 2024, in contrast to the December NRO Report, which reflects NRO’s planned drilling programs, capital expenditures and lease operating expenses with respect to those assets as of December 31, 2023 and before the acquisition. Production and reserve data as of January 31, 2024, included in this prospectus is derived from the January Reports. Pro forma production and reserve data as of January 31, 2024, presented in this section entitled “Summary Pro Forma Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data” is based on the January Reports. Historical production information and reserve data as of December 31, 2023 presented in the sections entitled “Summary Pro Forma Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data” and “Information about NRO” with respect to the Central Weld Assets is derived from the December NRO Report. The supplemental unaudited combined oil and natural gas reserves and the Standardized Measure information included in Note 8 of the “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” presents reserve information with respect to the Central Weld Assets based on the December NRO Report and NRO’s production as of December 31, 2023. The Company did not have any proved reserves as of December 31, 2023 or any production for the year then ended.

 

iii

 

 

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial and reserve information for the Company in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only, is based on certain assumptions, addresses a hypothetical situation and reflects limited historical financial data. Therefore, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial and reserve information are not necessarily indicative of what the Company’s actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the NRO Acquisition and other Subsequent Events been completed on the dates indicated, or of the future consolidated results of operations or financial position of the Company. Accordingly, the Company’s business, assets, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition may differ significantly from those indicated by the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial and reserve information included in this prospectus. See the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for more information.

 

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

The market data and certain other statistical information used throughout this prospectus are based on independent industry publications, government publications or other published independent sources. Although we believe these third-party sources are reliable as of their respective dates, neither we nor the underwriters have independently verified the accuracy or completeness of this information. Some data is also based on our good faith estimates. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in any third-party publications.

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

 

PV-10 is a non-GAAP financial measure, which is widely used by the industry to understand the present value of oil and gas companies. It represents the present value of estimated future cash inflows from proved oil and gas reserves, less future development and production costs, discounted at 10% per annum to reflect the timing of future cash flows and does not give effect to derivative transactions or estimated future income taxes. Management believes that PV-10 provides useful information to investors because it is widely used by analysts and investors in evaluating oil and natural gas companies. Because there are many unique factors that can impact an individual company when estimating the amount of future income taxes to be paid, management believes the use of a pre-tax measure is valuable for evaluating the Company. PV-10 should not be considered as an alternative to the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows as computed under GAAP. For a reconciliation of PV-10 to the Standardized Measure, see “Summary”—“Summary Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data.

 

iv

 

 

FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, the following terms have the following meanings when used in this prospectus:

 

Atlas” means Atlas Power Hosting, LLC.

 

Atlas MSA” means the Master Services Agreement, dated February 16, 2023, by and between Atlas and the Company.

 

Board” means the board of directors of the Company.

 

Boe/d” means barrel of oil equivalent, using the ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one barrel of crude oil or condensate, per day.

 

Bylaws” means the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws.

 

CDPHE” means the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

 

CECMC” means the Colorado Energy and Carbon Management Commission, formerly the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The CECMC is the State of Colorado agency authorized to regulate the development and production of oil and gas and issue required drilling permits.

 

Central Weld Assets” means the Oil and Gas Leases, Mineral Fee Interests, producing Wells and Units (each as defined in the NRO Agreement), in each case located in the DJ Basin in Weld County, Colorado, as well as appurtenant records and equipment and other properties, to be purchased from NRO pursuant to the NRO Agreement.

 

Charter” means the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

 

Closing” means the closing of the NRO Acquisition pursuant to the NRO Agreement.

 

Common Stock” means the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share.

 

Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” means Prairie Operating Co., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries following the Merger and Creek Road Miners, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the Merger.

 

Crypto Divestiture” means the sale of the Mining Equipment to the Crypto Purchaser for total consideration of $2 million, including $1 million in cash and $1 million in deferred cash payments pursuant to the Crypto Divestiture Agreement. 

 

Crypto Divestiture Agreement” means the asset purchase agreement, dated January 23, 2024, by and between the Company and the Crypto Purchaser.

 

Crypto Purchaser” means a private purchaser.

 

Crypto Sale” means the sale of the Mining Equipment and the assignment of all of the Company’s rights and obligations under the Atlas MSA, pursuant to the Crypto Divestiture Agreement.

 

developed acres” or “developed acreage” means the number of acres that are allocated or assignable to producing wells or wells capable of production.

 

developed reserves” means reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared with the cost of a new well.

 

development well” means a well drilled within the proved area of an oil or natural gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.

 

DGCL” means the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

 

DJ Basin” means the Denver-Julesburg Basin.

 

E&P” means exploration and production of oil, natural gas and NGLs.

 

v

 

 

E&P Assets” means the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Exok” means Exok, Inc., an Oklahoma corporation.

 

Exok Affiliates” means those certain affiliates of Exok that received equity consideration in connection with the Exok Option Purchase.

 

Exok Agreement” means the Amended and Restated Purchase and Sale Agreement, dated as of May 3, 2023, by and among the Company, Prairie LLC and Exok.

 

Exok Option Purchase” means the optional purchase of oil and gas leases, including all of Exok’s right, title and interest in, to and under certain undeveloped oil and gas leases in Weld County, Colorado, together with certain other associated assets, data and records.

 

Exok Transaction” means the purchase of oil and gas leases, including all of Exok’s right, title and interest in, to and under certain undeveloped oil and gas leases located in Weld County, Colorado, together with certain other associated assets, data and records from Exok for $3,000,000 by the Company pursuant to the Exok Agreement.

 

Exok Warrants” means the warrants to purchase 670,499 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share issued to the Exok Affiliates on August 14, 2023.

 

exploratory well” means a well drilled to find a new field or to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or natural gas in another reservoir.

 

extension well” means a well drilled to extend the limits of a known reservoir.

 

FERC” means Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

 

GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles, consistently applied, as in effect from time to time.

 

Genesis Assets” means the oil and gas leases located in the DJ Basin in Weld County, Colorado, purchased from Exok pursuant to the Exok Agreement and the Genesis Bolt-on Assets.

 

Genesis Bolt-on Acquisition” means the acquisition of the Genesis Bolt-on Assets from a private party on February 5, 2024, with an effective date of January 31, 2024.

 

Genesis Bolt-on Assets” means the oil and gas leases located in the DJ Basin in Weld County, Colorado, acquired from a private party effective as of January 31, 2024.

 

gross acres” or “gross wells” means the total acres or wells in which the Company owns a working interest.

 

Initial Genesis Assets” means the oil and gas leases located in the DJ Basin in Weld County, Colorado, acquired in connection with the Exok Transaction and the Exok Option Purchase.

 

IRS” means the Internal Revenue Service.

 

Mbbl” means one thousand barrels of oil.

 

Mboe” means one thousand barrels of oil equivalent.

 

Mcf” means one thousand cubic feet.

 

Merger” means the merger of Merger Sub with and into Prairie LLC, with Prairie LLC surviving and continuing to exist as a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company pursuant to the Merger Agreement.

 

vi

 

 

Merger Agreement” means the Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May 3, 2023, by and among the Company, Merger Sub and Prairie LLC.

 

Merger Closing” means the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement.

 

Merger Closing Date” means May 3, 2023.

 

Merger Effective Time” means the effective time of the Merger.

 

Merger Sub” means Creek Road Merger Sub, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

 

Mining Equipment” means all of the Company’s cryptocurrency miners sold pursuant to the Crypto Divestiture Agreement.

 

MMboe” means one million barrels of oil equivalent.

 

MMcf” means one million cubic feet.

 

Nasdaq” means the Nasdaq Capital Market securities exchange.

 

net acres” or “net wells” means the sum of the fractional working interests the Company owns in gross acres or gross wells.

 

NGA” means the Natural Gas Act of 1938 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

NGLs” means natural gas liquids.

 

NGPA” means the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

NRD” means Nickel Road Development LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.

 

NRO” means Nickel Road Operating LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.

 

NRO Acquisition” means the purchase of the Central Weld Assets by the Company, pursuant to the NRO Agreement.

 

NRO Agreement” means the Asset Purchase Agreement, dated January 11, 2024, by and among the Company, Prairie LLC, NRO and NRD.

 

OGDP” means Oil and Gas Development Plan submitted with the State of Colorado to permit the Company’s development plan.

 

O’Neill Trust” means Narrogal Nominees Pty Ltd ATF Gregory K O’Neill Family Trust.

 

possible reserves” means those additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than probable reserves. When deterministic methods are used, the total quantities ultimately recovered from a project have a low probability of exceeding proved plus probable plus possible reserves. When probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 10% probability that the total quantities ultimately recovered will equal or exceed the proved plus probable plus possible reserves estimates.

 

Prairie LLC” means Prairie Operating Co., LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.

 

Preferred Stock” means the Company’s preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, including the Series D Preferred Stock and Series E Preferred Stock.

 

present value discounted at ten percent” or “PV-10” is a non-GAAP financial measure and represents the present value of estimated future cash inflows from proved oil and gas reserves, less future development and production costs, discounted at 10% per annum to reflect the timing of future cash flows and using SEC-prescribed pricing assumptions for the period. While this measure does not include the effect of income taxes as it would in the use of the standardized measure calculation, it does provide an indicative representation of the relative value of the company on a comparative basis to other companies and from period to period.

 

vii

 

 

probable reserves” means those additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves but which, together with proved reserves, are as likely as not to be recovered. When deterministic methods are used, it is as likely as not that actual remaining quantities recovered will exceed the sum of estimated proved plus probable reserves. When probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 50% probability that the actual quantities recovered will equal or exceed the proved plus probable reserves estimates.

 

productive wells” means a well productive of oil or natural gas.

 

proved reserves” means those quantities of oil, natural gas and NGLs that, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible-from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced or we must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project within a reasonable time. For a complete definition of proved crude oil and natural gas reserves, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(22).

 

proved undeveloped reserves,” “PUD” or “PUD reserves” means proved reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion. Undrilled locations can be classified as having proved undeveloped reserves only if a development plan has been adopted indicating that such locations are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless specific circumstances justify a longer time.

 

reserves” means estimated remaining quantities of crude oil and natural gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in the production, installed means of delivering crude oil and natural gas or related substances to market and all permits and financing required to implement the project. Reserves should not be assigned to adjacent reservoirs isolated by major, potentially sealing, faults until those reservoirs are penetrated and evaluated as economically producible. Reserves should not be assigned to areas that are clearly separated from a known accumulation by a non-productive reservoir (i.e., absence of reservoir, structurally low reservoir or negative test results). Such areas may contain prospective resources (i.e., potentially recoverable resources from undiscovered accumulations).

 

Reverse Stock Split” means the reverse stock split of the Company’s Common Stock, effected on October 16, 2023, at a ratio of 1:28.5714286.

 

SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Series D A Warrants” means the Series A warrants to purchase 3,475,250 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share issued to Series D PIPE Investors in the Series D PIPE on May 3, 2023.

 

Series D B Warrants” means the Series B warrants to purchase 3,475,250 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share issued to Series D PIPE Investors in the Series D PIPE on May 3, 2023.

 

Series D PIPE” means the sale of an aggregate of approximately $17.38 million of Series D Preferred Stock and Series D PIPE Warrants in a private placement pursuant to the Series D Securities Purchase Agreements in connection with the Merger.

 

Series D PIPE Investors” means the investors in the Series D PIPE.

 

viii

 

 

Series D PIPE Preferred Stock” means the Series D Preferred Stock issued in the Series D PIPE.

 

Series D PIPE Warrants” means, collectively, the Series D A Warrants and the Series D B Warrants.

 

Series D Preferred Stock” means the 17,376.25 shares of Series D Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, with a conversion price of $5.00 per share, subject to certain adjustments, issued to the Series D PIPE Investors in the Series D PIPE on May 3, 2023.

 

Series D Securities Purchase Agreements” means the Securities Purchase Agreements, dated May 3, 2023, by and between the Company and each of the Series D PIPE Investors.

 

Series E A Warrants” means the Series A warrants to purchase 4,000,000 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share issued to the Series E PIPE Investor in the Series E PIPE on August 14, 2023.

 

Series E B Warrants” means the Series B warrants to purchase 4,000,000 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share issued to the Series E PIPE Investor in the Series E PIPE on August 14, 2023.

 

Series E PIPE” means the sale of an aggregate of approximately $20.0 million of Series E Preferred Stock and Series E PIPE Warrants in a private placement pursuant to a securities purchase agreement, dated as of August 15, 2023, by and between the Company and the O’Neill Trust.

 

Series E PIPE Investor” means O’Neill Trust, as the sole investor in the Series E PIPE.

 

Series E PIPE Warrants” means, collectively, the Series E A Warrants and the Series E B Warrants.

 

Series E Preferred Stock” means the 20,000 shares of Series E Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, with a conversion price of $5.00 per share, subject to certain adjustments, issued to the Series E PIPE Investor in the Series E PIPE on August 14, 2023.

 

Standardized Measure” means the present value of estimated future net revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, determined in accordance with the rules, regulations or standards established by the SEC and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (using prices and costs in effect as of the date of estimation), less future development, production and income tax expenses, and discounted at 10% per annum to reflect the timing of future net revenue.

 

undeveloped acres” or “undeveloped acreage” means lease acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of commercial quantities of oil and gas regardless of whether such acreage contains proved reserves.

 

undeveloped reserves” are reserves of any category that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion. Reserves on undrilled acreage shall be limited to those directly offsetting development spacing areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, unless evidence using reliable technology exists that establishes reasonable certainty of economic producibility at greater distances. Undrilled locations can be classified as having undeveloped reserves only if a development plan has been adopted indicating that they are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless the specific circumstances, justify a longer time. Under no circumstances shall estimates for undeveloped reserves be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual projects in the same reservoir or an analogous reservoir or by other evidence using reliable technology establishing reasonable certainty.

 

unproved properties” means properties with no proved reserves.

 

Warrants” means, collectively, the Series D PIPE Warrants, the Series E PIPE Warrants and the Exok Warrants.

 

WOGLA application” means an application with the Weld County Oil and Gas Location Assessment to permit the construction upon a given property within Weld County, Colorado and drilling upon such property.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein contain statements that are forward-looking and as such are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements regarding future financial performance, business strategies, expansion plans, future results of operations, estimated revenues, losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management. These forward-looking statements are based on our management’s current expectations, estimates, projections and beliefs, as well as a number of assumptions concerning future events, and are not guarantees of performance. Such statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. When used in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference, words such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” “project” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus and in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

 

our ability to successfully finance and consummate the NRO Acquisition;

 

this offering, the timing thereof and the use of proceeds therefrom;

 

estimates of oil and natural gas reserves of the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets;

 

estimates of the future oil and natural gas production of the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets, including estimates of any increases or decreases in production;

 

the receipt of the deferred purchase price pursuant to the Crypto Sale;

 

the availability and adequacy of cash flow to meet our requirements;

 

the availability of additional capital for our operations;

 

changes in our business and growth strategy, including our ability to successfully operate and expand our business;

 

changes or developments in applicable laws or regulations, including with respect to taxes;

 

actions taken or not taken by third-parties, including our contractors and competitors; and

 

our future financial performance following the NRO Acquisition and Crypto Sale.

 

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference herein are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:

 

our and NRO’s ability to satisfy the conditions to the NRO Acquisition in a timely manner or at all, including our ability to successfully finance the NRO Acquisition;

 

our ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Crypto Sale and NRO Acquisition, which may be affected by, among other things, competition and our ability to grow and manage growth profitably following the Crypto Sale and NRO Acquisition;

 

our ability to fund our development and drilling plan using generated free cash flow without utilizing leverage;

 

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the possibility that the Company may be unable to achieve expected free cash flow accretion, production levels, drilling, operational efficiencies and other anticipated benefits within the expected time-frames, or at all, and to successfully integrate NRO’s operations with those of the Company;

 

our integration of NRO’s operations with those of the Company may be more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected;

 

our operating costs, customer loss and business disruption may be greater than expected following the proposed transaction or the public announcement of the proposed transaction;

 

our ability to integrate the Central Weld Assets and any other businesses we acquire;

 

our ability to grow our operations, and to fund such operations, on the anticipated timeline or at all;

 

uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of oil, natural gas and NGL reserves and projecting future rates of production and the amount and timing of development expenditures;

 

commodity price and cost volatility and inflation;

 

the ability to obtain and maintain necessary permits and approvals to develop our assets;

 

safety and environmental requirements that may subject us to unanticipated liabilities;

 

changes in the regulations governing our business, the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets, including, but not limited to, those pertaining to the environment, our drilling program and the pricing of our future production;

 

our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;

 

general economic, financial, legal, political, and business conditions and changes in domestic and foreign markets;

 

the risks related to the growth of the Company’s business;

 

the effects of competition on the Company’s future business; and

 

other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in our periodic filings with the SEC.

 

Additionally, our discussions of certain environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters and issues herein are informed by various standards and frameworks (including standards for the measurement of underlying data), and the interests of various stakeholders. As such, the discussions may not necessarily be “material” under the federal securities laws for SEC reporting purposes. Furthermore, much of this information is subject to methodological considerations or information, including from third parties, that is still evolving and subject to change. For example, our disclosures based on any standards may change due to revisions in framework requirements, availability of information, changes in our business or applicable government policies, or other factors, some of which may be beyond our control.

 

Our SEC filings are available publicly on the SEC website at www.sec.gov. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Accordingly, forward-looking statements in this prospectus and in any document incorporated herein by reference should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

 

All forward-looking statements, expressed or implied, included in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. This cautionary statement should also be considered in connection with any subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements that we or persons acting on our behalf may issue.

 

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SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights information included elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our Common Stock. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Information Incorporated by Reference,” before investing in our Common Stock.

 

The Company

 

We are an independent oil and gas company focused on the acquisition and development of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. We currently hold attractive acreage in the DJ Basin of Colorado that our experienced management team intends to develop, deploying next-generation technology and techniques in an environmentally efficient manner. In addition to growing production through our drilling operations, we also seek to grow our business through accretive acquisitions, focusing on assets with the following criteria: (i) producing reserves, with associated undeveloped bolt-on acreage; (ii) ample, high rate-of-return inventory of drilling locations that can be developed with cash flow reinvestment; (iii) strong well-level economics; (iv) liquids-rich assets; and (v) accretive valuation.

 

Our Assets

 

In 2023, in connection with the Merger, we acquired oil and gas leases covering approximately 3,158 net mineral acres in, on and under 4,494 gross acres from Exok for $3.0 million and subsequently exercised our contractual option to acquire approximately an additional 20,328 net mineral acres in, on and under 32,536 gross acres in a separate transaction for approximately $23.0 million. We funded these acquisitions through private placements of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, and warrants. The acquisition for the additional 20,328 mineral acres closed on August 15, 2023. We also recently acquired a 1,280 acre drillable spacing unit (“DSU”) and eight PUDs in the Genesis Bolt-on Acquisition offsetting our existing assets. We refer to the assets acquired in these transactions in 2023 as the “Initial Genesis Assets” and, together with the Genesis Bolt-on Assets acquired in February 2024, the “Genesis Assets.” In all, the total Genesis Assets include 24,351 net mineral acres in, on and under 37,985 gross acres. In addition, and as described further below, we recently entered into a definitive agreement with NRO to acquire producing acreage and PUDs that are complementary to our existing acreage, which we refer to as the “Central Weld Assets.”

 

Our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets we expect to acquire in the NRO Acquisition are located in Weld County, Colorado, within the DJ Basin, which has produced oil, natural gas and NGLs for over fifty years and is known for its substantial liquids-rich reserves, extensive production history, high recovery rates in relation to drilling and completion costs, and multiple productive horizons. Our existing assets are prospective for, and the Central Weld Assets produce primarily from, the Niobrara and Codell formations, where we focus on utilizing unconventional horizontal drilling.

 

 

As of the date of this prospectus, our assets consist of the Genesis Assets, which includes approximately 24,351 net mineral acres in, on and under approximately 37,985 gross undeveloped acres and situated in a rural area of northern Weld County, Colorado. In addition, on January 11, 2024, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the Central Weld Assets from NRO for total consideration of $94.5 million. We expect the Central Weld Assets to strategically expand our core operating area, increase our inventory of high rate-of-return drilling locations, and provide additional optionality to our 2024 drill schedule. Upon consummation of the NRO Acquisition, our assets will include, in addition to the Genesis Assets described above, the Central Weld Assets, which include over 5,500 net mineral acres in, on and under approximately 5,938 gross acres of proved developed and proved undeveloped acreage situated in a rural area of central Weld County, Colorado. The table below summarizes the gross and net developed and undeveloped acreage with respect to the Initial Genesis Assets, the Genesis Bolt-on Assets and the Central Weld Assets. All of the acreage presented in the table below is located in the DJ Basin in Weld County, Colorado.

 

 

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   As of January 31, 2024 
   Developed Acres   Undeveloped Acres   Total Acres 
   Gross   Net   Gross   Net   Gross   Net 
Initial Genesis Assets           37,030    23,485    37,030    23,485 
Genesis Bolt-on Assets           955    866    955    866 
Central Weld Assets   5,035    4,707    903    844    5,938    5,551 
Total   5,035    4,707    38,888    25,195    43,923    29,902 

 

We believe that the location of both our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets will allow for efficient development of our acreage in accordance with Colorado’s stringent regulatory requirements. We intend to employ leading-edge technologies and techniques to efficiently develop our oil and natural gas assets in the DJ Basin while minimizing environmental and community impacts of our activities.

 

Our independent reserve engineer has used the activity of large operators on adjacent or nearby drilling locations in the same horizontal formations, geologic data, type logs and core samples to assess the quality of both our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets. We believe this analysis of our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets will help reduce the uncertainty often associated with efficiently and effectively developing assets in new areas. Furthermore, the production associated with the Central Weld Assets provides a roadmap for future development thereof. We believe using state-of-the-art drilling techniques in the DJ Basin and deploying the latest in next-generation drilling technology and completion techniques will lead to competitive well-level economics when compared to other U.S. onshore conventional basins. A modern horizontal well in the DJ Basin can be drilled in as few as four days.

 

Our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets are characterized by crude oil and natural gas leases that have varying expiration dates, some with options to extend ranging from one to four years. Approximately 70% of the net leasehold of our Genesis Assets are leased from private landowners, with the remaining 30% under State of Colorado leases. None of the Genesis Assets are subject to federal leases. All of the net leasehold of the Central Weld Assets is leased from private landowners.

 

The NRO Acquisition will add over 5,500 net mineral acres in, on and under approximately 5,938 gross acres and 62 fully permitted proven undeveloped drilling locations. The Central Weld Assets are 81% liquids weighted and produced approximately 2,973 net Boe/d for the month ended December 31, 2023. Upon the Closing of the NRO Acquisition, the Company expects to have production of approximately 3,000-3,500 Boe/d as of April 1, 2024 and proved reserves as shown in the tables below:

 

Central Weld Assets:(1)

 

   As of January 31, 2024 
Reserve Category  Well Count   Net Oil
(Mbbl)
   Net Gas
(MMcf)
   Net NGL
(Mbbl)
   Net Equiv.
(Mboe)
   PV-10
($000s)(2)
 
Proved Developed   26    2,653    7,866    1,347    5,311   $102,350 
Proved Undeveloped   62    8,847    23,891    4,112    16,941   $144,451 
Total Proved   88    11,500    31,757    5,460    22,252   $246,800 

 

 

(1)Based on the January Central Weld Report. See the section entitled “Basis of Presentation”—“Presentation of Reserve Information.

 

(2)PV-10 is a non-GAAP financial measure for which the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is the Standardized Measure. See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” “—Summary Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data.”

 

 

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Genesis Assets:

 

   As of January 31, 2024 
Reserve Category  Well Count   Net Oil
(Mbbl)
   Net Gas
(MMcf)
   Net NGL
(Mbbl)
   Net Equiv.
(Mboe)
   PV-10

($000s)(1)

 
Proved Undeveloped(2)   8    1,471    3,527    579    2,638   $38,776 
Possible Undeveloped(3)   420    92,686    181,420    28,815    151,737   $1,980,699 

 

 

(1)PV-10 is a non-GAAP financial measure for which the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is the Standardized Measure. See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” and “—Summary Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data.”

 

(2)Consists of Genesis Bolt-on Assets only. Based on January Bolt-On Report. See the section entitled “Basis of Presentation”—“Presentation of Reserve Information.

 

(3)Consists of the Initial Genesis Assets only. Based on January Prairie Report. Estimates of possible reserves, and the future cash flows related to such estimates, are inherently imprecise and are more uncertain than estimates of proved and probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates, but have not been adjusted for risk due to that uncertainty. Because of such uncertainty, estimates of possible reserves, and the future cash flows related to such estimates, may not be comparable to estimates of proved and probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates, and should not be summed arithmetically with estimates of either proved or probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates. See the section entitledRisk Factors”—“Our estimated oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves are based on many assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate. Any material inaccuracies in the reserve estimates or the underlying assumptions will materially affect the quantities and present value of our reserves.”

 

Being in the early stages of development, we currently have no oil and gas production or revenue. However we intend to grow production rapidly following the NRO Acquisition. In the months immediately following the Closing of the NRO Acquisition, we intend to swiftly develop the inventory of 62 PUD locations in the Central Weld Assets. All 62 PUD locations in the Central Weld Assets have approved permits, and we are seeking 72 permits for the development of possible locations in our Genesis Assets. Our plan is to drill up to 30 wells in 2024 and up to 45 wells in 2025, which we expect will rapidly grow our production and free cash flow, allowing us to increase our activity in 2025 and beyond. Of the undeveloped permitted locations in the Central Weld Assets, 19% are in Niobrara A, 29% are in Niobrara B, 23% are in Niobrara C and 29% are in the Codell.

 

Our Development Plan

 

We believe that we are ideally positioned to execute on our development plan of our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets after the Closing of the NRO Acquisition. Our current development plan contemplates drilling up to 30 wells in 2024 and up to 45 wells in 2025, which assumes consummation of the NRO Acquisition in the second quarter of 2024. The Board has authorized and approved the Company to drill up to 30 wells in 2024 and 45 wells in 2025 with all proved undeveloped reserves scheduled to be converted to developed status within five years. Our drilling plan is based on current commodity prices, and an increase or decrease in commodity prices could impact the number of wells we actually drill.

 

There is no guarantee that our development plan will result in the successful production of economic quantities of oil and gas. The Company has no operating history related to the exploration and production of oil and gas assets or drilling producing oil and gas wells. Our development plan is based on assumptions from management’s prior experience and such experience may not be indicative of the success of the Company’s development plans. We have historically incurred significant losses and experienced negative cash flow and have not generated any revenue related to the exploration and production of oil and gas assets to date. Further, we may be unable to consummate the NRO Acquisition and therefore be unable to acquire the Central Weld Assets in connection therewith, for which we are dependent on for generating initial revenue. A failure to successfully develop and produce our assets or the failure to consummate the NRO Acquisition, may result in the loss of our investment in the Genesis Assets and affect our ability to execute our development plan. Critical to our development plan is an effective approach to ensuring well permits are received in a timely manner. For further information on our permitting process, see “Regulation of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry” and “—Our Permitting Process.”

 

Our Permitting Process

 

With respect to our Initial Genesis Assets, on November 27, 2023, we announced that we had submitted a WOGLA application for sites within the OGDP of the Genesis Assets (“Genesis I”) and had begun the application process for our second OGDP (“Genesis II”). On February 1, 2024, the Burnett and Oasis locations within Genesis I were approved by the Weld County hearings officer for the Genesis I WOGLA permits. Genesis I and Genesis II encompass up to 72 wells and 42 wells, respectively, from two pads each, with each pad developing nine-square miles of subsurface minerals. The two pads in Genesis I are designed to develop up to 18 three-mile lateral wells and 54 two-mile lateral wells, respectively. In Genesis II, the two pads are designed to develop up to 42 three-mile lateral wells. Following the September 15, 2023 submission of Genesis I with the CECMC for the Burnett and Oasis locations, a hearing before the CECMC was held on March 13, 2024, in which the Genesis I OGDP received unanimous approval of the commissioners. The Company expects to obtain the permits related to the Genesis I OGDP within 30-70 days of the approval of the CECMC on March 13, 2024.

 

 

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With respect to the Central Weld Assets, 62 wells on four pads have been fully permitted across seven operated DSUs and there are 18 wells that can be permitted from an additional location. The Company expects to begin its application process for the additional permits in the first quarter of 2024.

 

With respect to our identified well locations across both of our Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets, the following table summarizes current permitting status:

 

   As of April 5, 2024 
   Genesis Assets   Central Weld Assets 
   Expected Three Mile Lateral Count   Expected Two Mile Lateral Count   Expected Two Mile Lateral Count   Expected One Mile Lateral Count 
WOGLA Approved(1)   18     62          
CECMC Approved(1)   18    54         
CECMC Fully Permitted       8    58    4 

 

 

(1)Excludes fully permitted wells.

 

The following table sets forth the undeveloped acreage, as of December 31, 2023, that will expire in the years indicated unless production is established within the spacing units covering the acreage or the lease is renewed or extended under continuous drilling provisions prior to the primary term expiration dates:

 

   Expiring 2024   Expiring 2025   Expiring 2026   Expiring 2027 and Beyond 
   Gross   Net   Gross   Net   Gross   Net   Gross   Net 
Initial Genesis Assets   8,313    6,598    4,023    2,567    15,649    8,254    9,045    6,067 
Genesis Bolt-on Assets   160    80    315    315                 
Central Weld Assets   180    180    80    80    373    304    268    255 

 

There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the requisite permits within the timing as contemplated within our development plan or as described herein, or at all. Our ability to obtain the requisite permits is subject to risks outside the control of management. If we are unable to secure the requisite permits upon the timing consistent with our development plan, the future development of our assets and potential related cash flows may be significantly delayed or fail to occur at all. If we are unable to secure the requisite permits, we may lose a portion or all of our investments in our current and future assets.

 

Our Business Strategy

 

Our primary objective is to deliver stockholder value by executing the following business strategies:

 

Deliver growth and generate long-term production, reserves and cash flow through the development of our extensive drilling inventory and acreage. We intend to develop our acreage base initially by selecting drilling locations which we believe are lower risk and will offer competitive returns. Based on the production history of adjacent properties, geologic data and industry activity in the area, and ready access to midstream takeaway capacity, we believe the Central Weld Assets are an ideal addition to our portfolio. Through the conversion of our resource base to both producing and undeveloped proved reserves, we seek to increase our long-term production, reserves and cash flow while generating favorable returns on invested capital. For the month ended December 31, 2023, the Central Weld Assets produced an average of 2,973 net Boe/d (84%) liquids. For the year ended December 31, 2023, these assets produced net income of $19.7 million. Upon consummation of the NRO Acquisition, we intend to utilize the cash flow from these producing assets to support the rapid development of the existing inventory of 62 PUD locations included in the Central Weld Assets and the eight PUD locations included in the Genesis Bolt-on Assets. We are also seeking an additional 72 permits for the development of possible locations in our Genesis Assets. Our current development plan contemplates drilling up to 30 wells in 2024 and up to 45 wells in 2025, which we believe will rapidly grow our production and free cash flow, further allowing us to increase our activity in 2025 and beyond. Our development plan and permitting process are subject to the assumptions set forth in “—Our Development Plan” and “—Our Permitting Process” above.

 

 

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Fund our drilling operations utilizing internally generated cash flows and limit the use of leverage to other short-term working capital obligations. We seek to maintain our existing conservative financial position and intend to fund our initial development activity using proceeds from this offering and the exercise of outstanding warrants, if any. Once we have acquired or developed producing assets, we intend to develop our position primarily through available cash flow from operations, supplemented by proceeds of the exercise of outstanding warrants, if any. We intend to establish a reserve-based, revolving credit facility primarily to support our hedging program. We aim to allocate capital in a disciplined manner and proactively manage our cost structure to achieve our business objectives. Consistent with our disciplined approach to financial management, we expect to maintain an active hedging program that seeks to reduce our exposure to the impact of downside commodity price volatility, to protect our cash flows and allow us to be able to execute our annual development program, while still maintaining flexibility.

 

Maximize our returns and capital efficiency by employing the latest technology and best operating practices. Our senior management team has extensive experience in deploying the latest horizontal drilling and completion methodologies to drive increased well and field-level returns and intends to implement such methodologies in our development program. We also intend to utilize the latest technology in three-dimensional (“3-D”) seismic mapping and geo-steering to reduce unplanned departures from the drilling zone to decrease drilling times and potentially improve well results. On the surface, we expect industry best practices such as “twinning,” where two rigs and frac crews are deployed on adjacent wells, to reduce pad occupancy time, the amount of support equipment required, and the overall surface impact of our operations. Additionally, through applying industry best practices, we expect to substantially improve our drilling techniques on the Central Weld Assets, which we expect will yield a substantial increase in the overall estimated ultimate recovery compared to the prior generation of wells on this acreage. Our management team believes these techniques will drive operational improvements and result in a substantial reduction of time from spud to well completion. We expect these approaches will allow us to increase our drilling efficiency and maximize our cash flows and returns. As described in “—Our Development Plan,” the Company has no history of drilling producing oil and gas wells and our plans are based on management’s prior experience in the industry and may not be indicative of the success of the Company’s plans.

 

Strategically pursue reserves that are accretive to our existing assets and leasehold acquisitions with economics comparable to our existing inventory. We intend to leverage the extensive experience of our management team in acquiring assets to supplement our development and existing properties with accretive acquisitions. We actively review acquisition opportunities on an ongoing basis to grow our acreage position through opportunistic acquisitions. Our management team has a demonstrated track record of identifying and cost-effectively executing on attractive resource development opportunities. Our management and technical teams have successfully sourced, evaluated and executed numerous acquisitions prior to and since joining the Company, and we expect to continue to identify and opportunistically lease or acquire additional acreage and producing assets to add to our multi-year drilling inventory. We have pursued a strategy driven by geological data to establish large, contiguous leasehold positions and plan to strategically expand those positions through bolt-on acquisitions over time.

 

Proactively engage in matters relating to regulation, the environment, safety and community relations. We proactively engage with state, local and federal regulatory agencies, and local communities in an attempt to minimize our footprint and surface impact while maximizing the efficiency of the development of our assets. Our development approach prioritizes avoidance, minimization or mitigation of potential impacts on the environment, community and wildlife. We seek to minimize surface impacts through consolidation of drilling locations and use of drilling rigs that allow us to drill longer laterals and capture more acreage from a single location. When choosing a location, we conduct a thorough analysis to understand the potential impacts to both human and wildlife receptors, and we develop best management practices and measures to mitigate that impact. We also place an operational emphasis on minimizing impacts through utilizing technology and innovation, including utilizing an electric drilling rig powered by the grid, a low emitting and quiet frac fleet and fully electrified facilities. Our facility design does not include hydrocarbon storage tanks and will utilize flow meters to eliminate many pieces of equipment, further reducing our surface footprint and emissions profile. We are committed to maximizing the use of pipelines to transport hydrocarbons and water to and from our locations, limiting the use of trucks. We intend to equip our facilities with extensive emissions monitoring, robust leak detection and repair programs.

 

 

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Our Competitive Strengths

 

Attractive undeveloped acreage position in Weld County. Our Genesis Assets include approximately 24,351 net mineral acres in, on and under approximately 37,985 gross acres and the Central Weld Assets include over 5,500 additional net mineral acres in, on and under approximately 5,938 gross acres, all of which are located in Weld County, Colorado. We believe this acreage is highly prospective, derisked and should yield compelling well level economics relative to the greater DJ Basin based on existing offset and legacy vertical data and reserve reports. Northern and central Weld County is an ideal place to conduct development due to (i) its distance from major urban centers; (ii) its significant connection to midstream and electrical markets; (iii) its terrain, consisting of minimal elevation changes and numerous options for well sites; and (iv) a history of prolific hydrocarbon development.

 

Inventory of eight drill-ready PUD locations with 62 approved permitted PUD locations in Central Weld Assets. Upon the Closing of the NRO Acquisition, we expect to have access to 62 proved undeveloped locations with approved permits that will facilitate rapid development of the Central Weld Assets, with an additional eight permits related to the Genesis Bolt-on Assets for a total of 70 permitted, PUD locations. This inventory of development locations is already supported by nearby wells with existing production established from the Niobrara and Codell formations. The permits pertaining to the Central Weld Assets and Genesis Bolt-on Assets represent PUD reserves of 2,848 MMboe and 2,638 MMboe, respectively, as of January 31, 2024. We plan to develop approximately 16 of these locations in 2024 and 25 of these locations in 2025. See “—Our Development Plan.” We expect these newly drilled wells to add PUD reserves and locations to support our future development activities.

 

Recent consolidation in the U.S. onshore upstream market has created a unique growth opportunity for us as fewer companies are engaged in middle market M&A. In recent years, mergers and consolidations among large oil and gas companies have reduced the number of U.S. onshore upstream operators. We believe that the current operators are focused on large transactions rather than acquisitions of smaller, privately held oil and gas assets. Furthermore, larger companies may seek to selectively divest smaller, non-core asset packages. We consider this a substantial opportunity to make additional highly accretive and impactful acquisitions of production, reserves and leaseholds that larger operators will pass over because of their size and scale or that may not be near-term in their development programs.

 

Highly experienced and successful management team. With an average of 32 years of experience in the industry, our management team has a successful track record of taking companies from early growth stages to mature public companies. Having worked in multiple U.S. onshore and offshore oil and gas basins, our management and operational teams bring decades of engineering, finance, legal and regulatory experience in publicly traded E&P companies. The technical team brings experience managing drilling and operations in the DJ Basin, Permian Basin, Eagle Ford and Mid-Continent regions. Our team has also overseen the drilling of long lateral, high intensity completion horizontal wells in major unconventional oil and gas plays.

 

Balance sheet with ample liquidity and minimal leverage. Currently and at the completion of this offering, we will have no debt outstanding. We expect to enter into a revolving credit facility primarily to support our hedging program, but we do not intend to utilize such facility to fund our drilling program. We believe our approach to leverage will permit us to grow production while mitigating adverse impacts of commodity price volatility. We expect that limiting our use of leverage will provide flexibility to slow our development pace when commodity prices are not supportive and to accelerate when prices rise. In the near term, we intend to primarily deploy our cash flow towards development.

 

 

6
 

 

 

Access to substantial midstream takeaway capacity, service providers and electrification. There is ample takeaway infrastructure in place within several miles of our Genesis Assets, including multiple midstream operators. The Central Weld Assets are fully connected to natural gas gathering systems and we believe there is pipeline takeaway capacity to ensure we are able to sell our hydrocarbons to market. Additionally, our assets have access to electrification, which we believe plays a pivotal role in maintaining low operating costs, keeps field emissions to a minimum and supports highly efficient next-generation drilling and completion technologies. In addition, the Company has access to full field drilling and completion services and equipment in Weld County, including drilling rigs, completion crews and completion materials, necessary for a full scale development program.

 

Recent Developments

 

NRO Acquisition

 

On January 11, 2024, we entered into the NRO Agreement with NRO and NRD, to acquire the Central Weld Assets for total consideration of $94.5 million, subject to certain closing price adjustments and other customary closing conditions. The Purchase Price (as defined below) consists of $83.0 million in cash and $11.5 million in deferred cash payments. We deposited $9.0 million of the Purchase Price into an escrow account on January 11, 2024, which will be released to NRO upon the earlier of the date of the Closing and August 15, 2024. Portions of such deposit are subject to earlier release under certain circumstances if the Closing of the NRO Acquisition has not occurred on or prior to June 17, 2024. The Company expects the NRO Acquisition to close in the first half of 2024, subject to customary closing conditions, with an economic effective date of February 1, 2024. The Company expects to fund the transaction with the proceeds from this offering, cash on hand and proceeds from exercises of Warrants, if any. The Closing of the NRO Acquisition is dependent on the consummation of this offering or our ability to raise sufficient capital from another source. However, the consummation of this offering is not contingent on the Closing of the NRO Acquisition. For further description of the NRO Acquisition, see “Description of the NRO Acquisition” below. See “Risk Factors”—“We may not consummate the NRO Acquisition, and this offering is not conditioned on the consummation of the NRO Acquisition on the terms currently contemplated or at all.”

 

Crypto Sale

 

On January 23, 2024, we entered into the Crypto Divestiture Agreement with the Crypto Purchaser, pursuant to which we sold all of the Mining Equipment to the Crypto Purchaser for total consideration of $2 million, including $1 million in cash and $1 million in deferred cash payments (the “Deferred Purchase Price”), to be paid out of (i) 20% of the net monthly revenues received by the Crypto Purchaser associated with or otherwise attributable to the Mining Equipment until the aggregate amount of such payments equals $250,000 and (ii) thereafter, 50% of the net monthly revenues received by the Crypto Purchaser associated with or otherwise attributable to the Mining Equipment until the aggregate amount of such payments equals the Deferred Purchase Price, plus accrued interest. In addition to the sale of the Mining Equipment, we assigned, and the Crypto Purchaser assumed, all of our rights and obligations under the Atlas MSA. For further description of the Crypto Sale, see “Description of the Crypto Sale” below.

 

Genesis Bolt-on Acquisition

 

On February 5, 2024, the Company acquired the Genesis Bolt-on Assets, comprising a 1,280-acre DSU and eight PUD drilling locations in the DJ Basin, from a private seller for $900,000. The Genesis Bolt-on Assets offset the other Genesis Assets held by the Company in northern Weld County, Colorado.

 

Nasdaq Listing

 

On December 21, 2023, the Company received approval to list its Common Stock on Nasdaq. Trading of our shares of Common Stock on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “PROP” commenced at the opening of trading on Thursday, December 28, 2023.

 

 

7
 

 

 

Corporate Information

 

We were originally incorporated in the State of Delaware on May 2, 2001. On May 3, 2023, we consummated the Merger pursuant to the Merger Agreement and changed our name to Prairie Operating Co. In connection with the Merger, we effectuated a series of restructuring transactions to simplify our ownership structure and to raise capital to acquire the Initial Genesis Assets, and to support our future development of acquired assets. For a description of our legacy operations, see “Description of the Crypto Sale.” The mailing address of the Company’s principal executive office is 602 Sawyer Street, Suite 710, Houston, Texas 77007, and its phone number is (713) 424-4247. Our website address is www.prairieopco.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

Implications of a Smaller Reporting Company

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the Securities Act and Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company so long as either (i) the market value of shares of our Common Stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of shares of our Common Stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. As a smaller reporting company, we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A and have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation, and, if we are a smaller reporting company under the requirements of (ii) above, we would not be required to obtain an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

Summary Risk Factors

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

We may not consummate the NRO Acquisition, and this offering is not conditioned on the consummation of the NRO Acquisition on the terms currently contemplated or at all.

 

We do not currently have sufficient funds or committed financing necessary to consummate the NRO Acquisition and the NRO Agreement does not include a financing condition.

 

We may be unsuccessful in integrating the Central Weld Assets or in realizing all or any part of the anticipated benefits of the NRO Acquisition.

 

We cannot assure you that our diligence review of the NRO Acquisition has identified all material risks associated with the transaction.

 

We may not achieve the perceived benefits of the Crypto Sale and the NRO Acquisition and the market price of our Common Stock following these transactions may decline.

 

The NRO Acquisition may be completed on different terms from those contained in the NRO Agreement.

 

Certain of the E&P Assets are undeveloped properties and there is no assurance that we will be able to successfully drill producing wells. If undeveloped E&P Assets are not commercially productive of crude oil or natural gas, any funds spent on exploration and production may be lost.

 

The development of our estimated PUDs and estimated possible undeveloped reserves may take longer and may require higher levels of capital expenditures than we currently anticipate. Therefore, our estimated PUDs and estimated possible undeveloped reserves may not be ultimately developed or produced.

 

The Company has no history of drilling producing oil and gas wells and there can be no assurance that we will successfully establish oil and gas operations or profitably produce oil, natural gas or NGLs.

 

 

8
 

 

 

Oil, natural gas and NGLs prices are highly volatile. An extended decline in commodity prices may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and our ability to meet our capital expenditure obligations and financial commitments.

 

Our plan to develop and operate the E&P Assets will require substantial additional capital, which we may be unable to raise on acceptable terms in the future.

 

We intend to enter into hedging arrangements as we grow our production and therefore we will be exposed to fluctuations in the price of oil, natural gas and NGLs and will be affected by continuing and prolonged declines in such prices. Any future hedging activities that we may engage in may result in financial losses or could reduce our income.

 

Drilling locations that we decide to drill may not yield oil or natural gas in commercially viable quantities.

 

Certain of the undeveloped leasehold acreage of the Central Weld Assets is subject to leases that will expire over the next several years unless production is established on units containing the acreage.

 

Our estimated oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves are based on many assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate. Any material inaccuracies in the reserve estimates or the underlying assumptions will materially affect the quantities and present value of our reserves.

 

To market our oil and natural gas production, we are dependent upon obtaining access to midstream infrastructure. If we are unable to obtain such access on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we would be unable to market and sell our production and our business and financial position would be materially and adversely affected.

 

We will face strong competition from other oil and gas companies.

 

Government regulation and liability for oil and natural gas operations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

All of the E&P Assets are located in the DJ Basin, making us vulnerable to risks associated with operating primarily in a single geographic area.

 

Our operations will be subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations related to environmental and natural resources protection and occupational health and safety, which may expose us to significant costs and liabilities and result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.

 

Our oil and gas exploration, production, and development activities may be subject to a series of risks related to climate change and energy transition initiatives, including physical risks.

 

We have historically incurred significant losses, and may be unable to generate profitability. Our ability to successfully operate and expand our business is dependent on the consummation of the NRO Acquisition or our ability to raise additional capital to support our drilling program on our existing assets.

 

We need to manage growth in operations to maximize our potential growth and achieve our expected revenues. Our failure to manage growth can cause a disruption of our operations that may result in the failure to generate revenues at levels we expect.

 

We depend on the services of a small number of key personnel, and may not be able to operate and grow our business effectively if we lose their services or are unable to attract qualified personnel in the future.

 

Past performance by members of the Company’s management team may not be indicative of an ability to complete the NRO Acquisition or of future performance of the Company.

 

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and pro forma combined proved reserves and production data included in this prospectus may not be representative of our future results or operations.

 

There may be conflicts of interest between certain of our officers and directors and our non-management stockholders.

 

You will incur immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The conversion or exercise, as applicable, of the outstanding Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E PIPE Warrants, Non-Compensatory Options and Exok Warrants could substantially dilute your investment and adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.

 

Insiders have substantial control over the Company, and they could delay or prevent a change in our corporate control even if our other stockholders want it to occur.

 

 

9
 

 

 

The Offering

 

The summary below describes the principal terms of this offering. Certain of the terms and conditions described below are subject to important limitations and exceptions.

 

IssuerPrairie Operating Co.
  
Common Stock offered by us                shares (or                shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).
  
Common Stock outstanding immediately after this offering(i)                shares (or                          shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).
  
Use of proceedsWe expect to receive approximately $                of net proceeds from the sale of shares of our Common Stock offered by us, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to finance the NRO Acquisition and the remainder for general corporate purposes.
  
Listing and trading symbolShares of our Common Stock trade on Nasdaq under the symbol “PROP.”
  
Risk FactorsYou should carefully read and consider the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” and all other information set forth.

 

 

(i)The number of shares of our Common Stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering as shown above is based on shares outstanding as of , 2024, and excludes, in each case as of , 2024:

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance under the A&R LTIP;

 

shares of Common Stock represented by restricted stock units and performance-based restricted stock units that have been granted and are unvested pursuant to the A&R LTIP;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the Series D A Warrants;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the Series D B Warrants;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the Series E A Warrants;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the Series E B Warrants;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the Exok Warrants;

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon exercise of the pre-existing warrants remaining after the consummation of the Merger (the “Legacy Warrants”);

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon conversion of the Series D Preferred Stock; and

 

shares of Common Stock that are reserved for future issuance upon conversion of the Series E Preferred Stock.

 

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our Common Stock.

 

 

10
 

 

 

Summary Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information

 

The following summary unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet gives effect to the NRO Acquisition and other subsequent events as if they had occurred on December 31, 2023, while the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2023 are presented as if the Transactions and other subsequent events had occurred on January 1, 2023. The following summary unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Financial Information” beginning on page 11 and the related notes and the section in this prospectus entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Nickel Road Operating LLC” beginning on page 89, the Company’s audited historical consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2023, the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for the year ended December 31, 2023 beginning on page 70, and NRO’s audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023, all of which are included or incorporated by reference herein.

 

The summary unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what the Company’s financial position or results of operations actually would have been had such transactions and events occurred as of the dates indicated. In addition, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not purport to project the future financial position or operating results of the Company. Future results may vary significantly from the results reflected because of various factors, including those discussed in the Section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14. The unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated financial information does not reflect the impacts of any potential operational efficiencies, revenue enhancements, cost savings or economies of scale that the Company may achieve as a result of the transactions and events.

 

   As of December 31, 2023 
Selected Balance Sheet Data (at period end)  Prairie Operating Co.
(Historical)
   Nickel Road
(Historical)
  

Pro Forma Adjustments(1)

   Combined
Pro Forma
 
Assets                    
Cash and cash equivalents  $13,036,950   $336,115   $ 7,663,885    $ 21,036,950  
Total other current assets   494,141    7,253,167     (6,253,167 )    1,494,141  
Total property and equipment, net   31,887,711    98,535,960    (7,728,506)   122,695,165 
Other assets   264,209    325,933    (434,889)   155,253 
Total assets  $45,683,011   $106,451,175   $(6,752,677)  $145,381,509 
Liabilities, Members’ Capital, Mezzanine Equity and Stockholders’ Equity                    
Total current liabilities  $5,416,384   $18,087,477   $(14,897,900)  $8,605,961 
Total long-term liabilities   93,817    18,141,159    (10,449,931)   7,785,045 
Total liabilities   5,510,201    36,228,636    (25,347,831)   16,391,006 
Members’ capital       70,222,539    (70,222,539)    
Total stockholders’ equity   40,172,810        88,817,693    128,990,503 
Total liabilities, members’ capital, mezzanine equity and stockholders’ equity  $45,683,011   $106,451,175   $(6,752,677)  $145,381,509 

 

 

(1)Reflects adjustments for the Transactions and Subsequent Events, as further described in the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.”

 

   For the Year Ended December 31, 2023 
   Prairie Operating Co. (Historical)   Creek Road Miners, Inc. (Historical)   Nickel Road (Historical)   Pro Forma Adjustments(1)   Combined Pro Forma 
Selected Statements of Operations Data:                         
Total revenues  $1,545,792   $73,584   $48,169,114   $(2,518,728)  $47,269,762 
Income (loss) from continuing operations  $(79,078,860)  $(1,627,021)  $19,760,605   $21,466,049   $(39,479,227)
Income (loss) per share, basic  $(16.51)  $(4.02)            $(2.39)
Income (loss) per share, diluted  $(16.51)  $(4.02)            $(2.39)

 

 

(1)Reflects adjustments for the Transactions and Subsequent Events, as further described in the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.”

 

 

11
 

 

 

Summary Combined Proved Reserves and Production Data

 

The following table presents the combined net proved developed and undeveloped reserves, total proved reserves and possible reserves as of December 31, 2023 and January 31, 2024, respectively. The combined pro forma reserve information as of December 31, 2023 represents the respective reserve reports as of December 31, 2023 of the Company and NRO before the NRO Acquisition, as reflected in each of the December Reports. The combined reserve information as of January 31, 2024 represents the respective reserve reports as of January 31, 2024 by the Company to reflect the Company’s planned drilling program for its assets following the consummation of the Transactions, including the Genesis Bolt-on Assets that were acquired effective as of January 31, 2024, as reflected in each of the January Reports. The reserve information shown below for each of December 31, 2023 and January 31, 2024 was determined using the average first day of the month price for each of the preceding 12 months for oil and natural gas for the year ended December 31, 2023 and January 31, 2024, respectively. The following table presenting production data provides summary information with respect to historical and combined oil and natural gas production for the year ended December 31, 2023 for Prairie and NRO. The NRO oil and natural gas production data was derived from the supplemental oil and gas reserve information (unaudited) included in notes to the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 of NRO and information provided by NRO.

 

The following summary combined reserve and production information has been prepared for illustrative purposes only and is not intended to be a projection of future results of the Company. Future results may vary significantly from the results reflected because of various factors, including those discussed in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14. The summary combined reserve and production information should be read in conjunction with “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Financial Information” beginning on page 11 and the related notes.

 

  

As of December 31, 2023

  

As of January 31, 2024

 
  

Prairie(1)

  

Nickel Road(2)

  

Pro Forma Combined(3)

  

Prairie(4)

  

Nickel Road(5)

  

Genesis Bolt-on(6)

  

Combined(7)

 
Proved Developed Reserves:                                   
Oil (Bbl)       2,481,057    2,481,057        2,652,744        2,652,744 
Natural Gas (Mcf)       7,689,981    7,689,981        7,865,969        7,865,969 
Natural Gas Liquids (Bbl)       1,287,231    1,287,231        1,347,202        1,347,202 
Total (Boe)(8)       5,049,954    5,049,954        5,310,941        5,310,941 
PV-10 ($000s)(9)  $   $90,524   $90,524   $   $102,350   $   $102,350 
Proved Undeveloped Reserves:                                   
Oil (Bbl)       6,175,214    6,175,214        8,846,870    1,470,684    10,317,554 
Natural Gas (Mcf)       15,031,182    15,031,182        23,891,175    3,527,429    27,418,604 
Natural Gas Liquids (Bbl)       2,620,642    2,620,642        4,112,404    579,407    4,691,811 
Total (Boe)(8)       11,301,053    11,301,053        16,941,136    2,637,996    19,579,132 
PV-10 ($000s)(9)  $   $83,405   $83,405   $   $144,451   $38,776   $183,227 
Proved Reserves:                                   
Oil (Bbl)       8,656,272    8,656,272        11,499,614    1,470,684    12,970,298 
Natural Gas (Mcf)       22,721,163    22,721,163        31,757,144    3,527,429    35,284,573 
Natural Gas Liquids (Bbl)       3,907,873    3,907,873        5,459,606    579,407    6,039,013 
Total (Boe)(8)       16,351,006    16,351,006        22,252,077    2,637,996    24,890,073 
PV-10 ($000s)(9)  $   $173,929   $173,929   $   $246,800   $38,776   $285,577 
Possible Reserves:                                   
Oil (Bbl)   92,733,258        92,733,258    92,685,701            92,685,701 
Natural Gas (Mcf)   181,542,291        181,542,291    181,420,011            181,420,011 
Natural Gas Liquids (Bbl)   28,834,544        28,834,544    28,815,122            28,815,122 
Total (Boe)(8)   151,824,851        151,824,851    151,737,492            151,737,492 
PV-10 ($000s)(9)  $2,006,212   $   $2,006,212   $1,980,699   $   $   $1,980,699 

 

 

(1)Represents reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets. Based on the December Prairie Report, as of December 31, 2023 using SEC pricing as of December 31, 2023.

 

(2)Represents reserves associated with the Central Weld Assets. Based on the December NRO Report, as of December 31, 2023 using SEC pricing as of December 31, 2023.

 

(3)Represents pro forma combined reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets.

 

(4)Represents reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets. Based on the January Prairie Report, as of January 31, 2024 using SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024.

 

(5)Represents reserves associated with the Central Weld Assets. Based on the January Central Weld Report, as of January 31, 2024 using SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024.

 

(6)Represents reserves associated with the Genesis Bolt-on Assets. Based on the January Bolt-on Report, as of January 31, 2024 using SEC pricing as of January 31, 2024.

 

(7)Represents combined reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets, the Genesis Bolt-on Assets and the Central Weld Assets.

 

(8)Assumes a ratio of 6 Mcf of natural gas per Boe.

 

(9)PV-10 is a non-GAAP financial measure for which the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is the Standardized Measure. See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

 

12
 

 

 

Pro Forma Combined Production for the Year Ended December 31, 2023:

 

   Prairie   Nickel Road (Total)   NRO (Unacquired)  

NRO Acquired(1)

   Pro Forma Combined 
Oil (Bbl)       616,616    (10,720)   605,896    605,896 
Natural Gas (Mcf)       887,881    (21,807)   866,074    866,074 
Natural Gas Liquids (Bbl)       149,000    (3,847)   145,153    145,153 
Total (Boe)(2)       913,596    (18,201)   895,395    895,395 

 

(1) Represents production data associated with the Central Weld Assets and excludes production data with respect to assets that NRO divested during the year ended December 31, 2023 and are not included in the assets to be acquired by Prairie.
   
(2) Assumes a ratio of 6 Mcf of natural gas per Boe.

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets as of December 31, 2023, based on the December Prairie Report:

 

As of December 31, 2023

($ - 000s)

  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped (1)  
Standardized Measure  $          —   $        —   $          —   $

1,466,013

 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%               

540,199

 
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $   $   $   $2,006,212 

 

(1) Reconciliations of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of possible reserves are provided for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the requirements of FASB ASC 932 for proved reserves.

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the reserves associated with the Central Weld Assets as of December 31, 2023, based on the December NRO Report:

 

As of December 31, 2023

($ - 000s)

  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible

Undeveloped

 
Standardized Measure  $

90,524

   $

83,405

   $

173,929

   $        — 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%(1)    

    

    

     
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $90,524   $83,405   $173,929   $ 

 

(1) Income taxes are not reflected in the standardized measure disclosure of the Central Weld Assets as of December 31, 2023 because the tax impacts of NRO’s financial results were passed through to its owners as a result of its status as a limited liability company.

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the pro forma combined reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets as of December 31, 2023, based on the December Reports:

 

As of December 31, 2023

($ - 000s)

  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped(1)  
Standardized Measure  $

90,524

   $

83,405

   $

173,929

   $

1,466,013

 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%(2)    

    

    

    

540,199

 
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $90,524   $83,405   $173,929   $2,006,212 

 

(1)

Reconciliations of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of possible reserves are provided for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the requirements of FASB ASC 932 for proved reserves.  

   
(2) Income taxes are not reflected in the standardized measure disclosure of the Central Weld Assets as of December 31, 2023 because the tax impacts of NRO’s financial results were passed through to its owners as a result of its status as a limited liability company.

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets as of January 31, 2024, based on the January Prairie Report:

 

As of January 31, 2024

($ - 000s)

  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped(1)  
Standardized Measure  $         —   $                —   $           —   $

1,447,010

 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%               533,689 
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $   $   $   $1,980,699 

 

(1) Reconciliations of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of possible reserves are provided for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the requirements of FASB ASC 932 for proved reserves.  

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the reserves associated with the Central Weld Assets as of January 31, 2024, based on the January Central Weld Report:

 

As of January 31, 2024
($ - 000s)
  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped 
Standardized Measure  $

92,951

   $

99,182

   $

192,133

   $        — 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%   

9,399

    

45,269

    

54,668

     
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $102,350   $144,451   $246,800   $ 

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the reserves associated with the Genesis Bolt-on Assets as of January 31, 2024, based on the January Bolt-on Report:

 

As of January 31, 2024
($ - 000s)
  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped 
Standardized Measure  $           —   $

28,305

   $

28,305

   $            — 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%       

10,471

    

10,471

     
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $   $38,776   $38,776   $ 

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of the combined reserves associated with the Initial Genesis Assets, the Central Weld Assets and the Genesis Bolt-on Assets as of January 31, 2024, based on the January Reports:

 

As of January 31, 2024
($ - 000s)
  Proved Developed Reserves   Proved Undeveloped Reserves   Proved Reserves   Possible Undeveloped (1) 
Standardized Measure  $

92,951

   $

127,487

   $

220,438

   $

1,447,010

 
Present value of future income taxes discounted at 10%   

9,399

    

55,740

    

65,139

    

533,689

 
PV-10 (Non-GAAP)  $102,350   $183,227   $285,577   $1,980,699 

 

(1)

Reconciliations of the standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows to PV-10 of possible reserves are provided for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the requirements of FASB ASC 932 for proved reserves.  

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein, the risks set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, filed with the SEC on March 20, 2024 under the heading “Risk Factors” and the risks set forth in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC from time to time, which are incorporated by reference herein, together with other information in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and any document incorporated by reference are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.

 

Risks Related to the NRO Acquisition

 

We may not consummate the NRO Acquisition, and this offering is not conditioned on the consummation of the NRO Acquisition on the terms currently contemplated or at all.

 

We expect the NRO Acquisition to close in the first half of 2024, but such acquisition is subject to a number of closing conditions. Satisfaction of some of these conditions is beyond our control. If these conditions are not satisfied or waived, the NRO Acquisition will not be completed. Certain of the conditions that remain to be satisfied include, but are not limited to:

 

the accuracy of the representations and warranties of each party (subject to specified materiality standards);

 

the compliance by each party in all material respects with their respective covenants; and

 

that no event of Force Majeure or Material Adverse Effect (in each case as defined in the NRO Agreement) shall have occurred, in each case the result of which is that we are unable to secure satisfactory financing with respect to the NRO Acquisition.

 

As a result, the NRO Acquisition may not close as scheduled, or at all. The closing of this offering is not conditioned on, and is expected to be consummated before, the Closing of the NRO Acquisition. Accordingly, if you decide to purchase Common Stock in this offering, you should be willing to do so whether or not we complete the NRO Acquisition. If we fail to complete the NRO Acquisition, our management will have broad discretion in the use of proceeds from this offering, and may use such proceeds in ways in which you do not approve.

 

Failure to complete the NRO Acquisition or any delays in completing the NRO Acquisition, including as a result of a failure to complete this offering, could have significant adverse impacts on our business, including the following

 

we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including a negative impact on our stock price;

 

we may experience negative reactions from our current or future customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors, landlords, employees, joint venture partners and other business partners;

 

we will still be required to pay certain significant costs relating to the NRO Acquisition, such as legal, accounting, advisor and printing fees;

 

we may be unable to recover the Deposit (as defined below) depending on the circumstances of the failure to complete the NRO Acquisition;

 

we may have foregone certain business opportunities, including other acquisitions and other aspects of our development plan, that, absent the NRO Agreement, may have been pursued;

 

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matters relating to the NRO Acquisition required and continue to require substantial commitments of time and resources by the Company’s management, which may have resulted in the distraction of the Company’s management from other aspects of our development plan, the beginning of the Company’s operations and the pursuit of other business opportunities that could have been beneficial to the Company; and

 

litigation that may arise as a result of any termination or delay in completion of the NRO Acquisition for failure to perform the Company’s obligations under the NRO Agreement.

 

If the NRO Acquisition is not completed, the risks described above may materialize and they may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, financial position and stock price.

 

We do not currently have sufficient funds or committed financing necessary to consummate the NRO Acquisition and the NRO Agreement does not include a financing condition.

 

Pursuant to the NRO Agreement, we deposited $9.0 million of the Purchase Price (the “Deposit”) into an escrow account on January 11, 2024. At Closing, the Deposit will be released to NRO with a corresponding credit to the Purchase Price. In the event the Closing has not occurred in accordance with the terms of the NRO Agreement prior to June 17, 2024, and (i) such delay has not occurred as a result of the failure of NRO to materially perform, when required, any of NRO’s covenants or obligations pursuant to the NRO Agreement, (ii) all conditions precedent to the obligations of NRO, as set forth in the NRO Agreement, have been satisfied or have been waived by NRO, and (iii) in our reasonable discretion, there has been no event of Force Majeure or Material Adverse Effect (each as defined below), such that we are, or will be, unable to secure satisfactory financing with respect to the NRO Acquisition, then the Deposit is subject to release to NRO, for so long as such foregoing conditions continue on such dates, in $3,000,000 installments on each of June 17, 2024, July 15, 2024 and August 12, 2024. In the event Closing has not occurred prior to August 15, 2024 as a result of the failure by us to materially perform any of our covenants or obligations under the NRO Agreement, NRO shall receive the entirety of the Deposit, which shall be the sole and exclusive remedy available to NRO for any such failure to consummate the Closing.

 

The NRO Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and agreements. As a condition to Closing, we represented that we will have, by the date of the Closing, sufficient cash in immediately available funds with which to pay the cash component of the Purchase Price and otherwise will be able to consummate the NRO Acquisition and perform our obligations under the NRO Agreement. We may terminate the NRO Agreement at any time prior to the Closing upon the occurrence of an event of Force Majeure or Material Adverse Effect, in each case the result of which that we determine, in our reasonable discretion, that we are, or will be, unable to secure satisfactory financing with respect to the NRO Acquisition.

 

For an impediment to our ability to secure satisfactory financing with respect to the NRO Acquisition to constitute an event of “Force Majeure,” the impediment must be an unforeseeable circumstance which is beyond the control of us or NRO, or any unavoidable event, even if foreseeable, as a result of which we or NRO are unable to perform our obligations, in whole or in part, under the NRO Agreement. Such circumstances include, but are not limited to: (i) acts of God; (ii) flood, fire, earthquake or explosion; (iii) current or future war, invasion, hostilities (whether war is declared or not), terrorist threats or acts, riots, or other civil unrest; (iv) actions, embargoes, or blockades in effect on or after the date of the NRO Agreement; (v) declared national or regional emergency; or (vi) epidemic, pandemic or other similar outbreak or infection. For such an impediment to constitute a “Material Adverse Effect,” such impediment must be a change, development, or effect (individually or in the aggregate), whether foreseeable or unforeseeable, which, when taken as a whole is, or is reasonably likely to be, materially adverse (a) to the business, assets, value, results of operations or conditions (financial or otherwise) of us or NRO, the Central Weld Assets, or the assets or properties of us or NRO, or (b) to the ability of us or NRO to perform on a timely basis any material obligation under the NRO Agreement or any agreement, instrument or document entered into or delivered in connection therewith. Changes, developments or effects relating to: (x) the economy in general (including any effects on the economy arising as a result of acts of terrorism), (y) changes in commodity prices for hydrocarbons or other changes affecting the U.S. oil and gas industry generally, or (z) the announcement of the NRO Acquisition, shall not be deemed to constitute a Material Adverse Effect and shall not be considered in determining whether a Material Adverse Effect has occurred. Neither any delay in the effectiveness of the Registration Statement of which this prospectus forms a part, nor our inability, in and of itself, to satisfy our obligations to secure financing for the NRO Acquisition, will constitute an event constituting a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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We intend to fund the NRO Acquisition with a portion of the proceeds from this offering. Accordingly, if this offering is not completed, the consummation of the NRO Acquisition may be delayed or may not occur. If this offering is not completed, we may be required to seek alternative financing arrangements to fund the NRO Acquisition, and such financing may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. If we are unable to secure financing and an event of Force Majeure or Material Adverse Effect has not occurred, we will be in breach of the NRO Agreement, will not receive the benefits of the Central Weld Assets and the Deposit will be released to NRO.

 

We may be unsuccessful in integrating the Central Weld Assets or in realizing all or any part of the anticipated benefits of the NRO Acquisition.

 

We believe that the NRO Acquisition will complement our growth strategy by providing operational and financial scale and increasing free cash flow. However, achieving these goals requires, among other things, realization of the targeted synergies expected from the acquisition, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully integrate the Central Weld Assets or otherwise realize the expected benefits of the NRO Acquisition. This growth and the anticipated benefits of the NRO Acquisition may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. Difficulties in integrating the Central Weld Assets may result in the Company performing differently than expected, or in operational challenges or failures to realize anticipated efficiencies. Potential difficulties in realizing the anticipated benefits of the NRO Acquisition includes, but is not limited to, the following:

 

disruptions of relationships with customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors, landlords, joint venture partners and other business partners as a result of uncertainty associated with the NRO Acquisition;

 

difficulties integrating our existing business with the Central Weld Assets in a manner that permits us to achieve the full revenue and cost savings anticipated from the NRO Acquisition;

 

the potential for unexpected costs, delays or challenges that may arise in integrating the Central Weld Assets into our existing business;

 

limitations on our ability to realize any expected cost savings and operating synergies from the NRO Acquisition;

 

difficulties integrating vendors and business partners;

 

discovery of previously unknown liabilities following the NRO Acquisition for which we cannot receive reimbursement under any applicable indemnification provisions;

 

performance shortfalls at the Company as a result of the diversion of management’s attention to integration efforts; and

 

disruption of, or the loss of momentum in, the Company’s ongoing business.

 

We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, a number of costs associated with completing the NRO Acquisition and this offering. The elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the Central Weld Assets, may not initially offset integration-related costs or achieve a net benefit in the near term, or at all.

 

We cannot assure you that our diligence review of the NRO Acquisition has identified all material risks associated with the transaction. Additionally, following the consummation of the NRO Acquisition, if certain risks arise, the Company may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on its financial condition, results of operations and stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.

 

Before entering into the NRO Agreement, we performed a due diligence review of NRO and its business and operations, including an inspection of the Central Weld Assets, which we believe to be generally consistent with industry practices; however, we cannot assure you that our due diligence review identified all material issues and our assessments of the Central Weld Assets and our estimates are inherently uncertain. As a result, we may be forced to later write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even if our due diligence successfully identified certain risks, unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis. These risks that may not have arisen in the scope of our due diligence review of NRO, include, but are not limited to, title, production, environmental or other problems. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and may not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about the Company following the completion of the NRO Acquisition or its securities. In addition, charges of this nature may impair our ability to obtain future financing on favorable terms or at all. Moreover, the Company may have limited recourse against NRO for certain risks or liabilities incurred after the consummation of the NRO Acquisition. Accordingly, any of our stockholders who choose to remain stockholders of the Company following the NRO Acquisition could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares. Such stockholders are unlikely to have a remedy for such reduction in value.

 

16
 

 

We may not achieve the perceived benefits of the Crypto Sale and the NRO Acquisition and the market price of our Common Stock following these transactions may decline.

 

The market price of our Common Stock may decline as a result of the Crypto Sale or the NRO Acquisition for a number of reasons, including if investors react negatively to the prospects of the Company’s business; the effect of the Crypto Sale or the NRO Acquisition on the Company’s business and prospects is not consistent with the expectations of our management or of financial or industry analysts; or the Company does not achieve the perceived benefits of the Crypto Sale or the NRO Acquisition as rapidly or to the extent anticipated by our management or financial or industry analysts.

 

We expect to incur significant transaction costs in connection with the NRO Acquisition, which may be in excess of those currently anticipated.

 

We have incurred and are expecting to continue to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with negotiating and completing the NRO Acquisition, integrating the Central Weld Assets and achieving desired synergies. These costs have been, and will continue to be, substantial and, in many cases, will be borne by us whether or not the NRO Acquisition is consummated. A substantial majority of non-recurring expenses will consist of transaction costs and include, among others, fees paid to financial, legal, accounting and other advisors. We will also incur costs related to formulating and implementing integration plans, including facilities and systems consolidation costs. We will continue to assess the magnitude of these costs, and additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in connection with the NRO Acquisition and the integration of the Central Weld Assets. While we have assumed that a certain level of expenses would be incurred, there are many factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount or the timing of the expenses. The elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the Central Weld Assets, may not offset integration-related costs and achieve a net benefit in the near term, or at all. The costs described above and any unanticipated costs and expenses, many of which will be borne by us even if the NRO Acquisition is not consummated, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

 

The NRO Acquisition may be completed on different terms from those contained in the NRO Agreement.

 

Prior to the completion of the NRO Acquisition, we and NRO may, by mutual agreement, amend or alter the terms of the NRO Agreement, including with respect to, among other things, the consideration payable by us to NRO or any covenants and agreements with respect to NRO’s operations during the pendency thereof. Any such amendments or alterations may have negative consequences to us.

 

The market price for our Common Stock following the NRO Acquisition, if consummated, may be affected by factors different from those that historically have affected or currently affect our Common Stock.

 

If the NRO Acquisition is consummated, our financial position may differ from our financial position before the completion of the NRO Acquisition, and our results of operations may be affected by some factors that are different from those currently affecting our results of operations or those currently affecting the results of operations of NRO. Accordingly, the market price and performance our Common Stock is likely to be different from the performance of our Common Stock in the absence of the NRO Acquisition. For a discussion of the business of NRO and important factors to consider in connection with the business, see “Information About NRO.”

 

17
 

 

Securities class action and derivative lawsuits may be brought against us in connection with the NRO Acquisition, which could result in substantial costs.

 

Securities class action lawsuits and derivative lawsuits are often brought against public companies that have entered into acquisition, merger or other business combination agreements. Even if such a lawsuit is without merit, defending against these claims can result in substantial costs and divert management time and resources. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on our liquidity and financial condition.

 

Risks Related to the E&P Assets

 

The Genesis Assets currently have no producing properties and there is no assurance that we will be able to successfully drill producing wells. If the Genesis Assets are not commercially productive of crude oil or natural gas, any funds spent on exploration and production may be lost.

 

All of the Genesis Assets are in the pre-production stage and there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the requisite permits to begin drilling or successfully drill producing wells. The Genesis Assets are not currently connected to the electrical grid or transportation, nor have we engaged service providers or contractors, necessary for the productive development of the assets and there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the electrification, transportation or services necessary at economic costs, if at all. We are dependent on establishing sufficient reserves at the Genesis Assets for additional cash flow and a return of our investment. If the Genesis Assets are not economic, all of the funds that we have invested, or will invest, will be lost. In addition, the failure of the Genesis Assets to produce commercially may make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds in the form of additional sale of our equity securities or working interests in other property in which we may acquire an interest.

 

The Central Weld Assets currently have both producing and undeveloped properties and there is no assurance that we will be able to further develop and exploit the producing properties or successfully drill producing wells after closing the NRO Acquisition. If we are unable to further develop and exploit the producing properties or drill producing wells, any funds spent on the NRO Acquisition or in the exploration, development and production of the Central Weld Assets may be lost.

 

Certain of the Central Weld Assets are producing, permitted properties and certain of the Central Weld Assets are undeveloped. Even if we are able to successfully close the NRO Acquisition, there is no assurance that we will be able to further develop and exploit the producing properties, or successfully drill producing wells of the undeveloped properties, and we will be dependent on further developing, exploiting and establishing sufficient reserves at the Central Weld Assets for additional cash flow and a return of our investment. If we are unable to further develop or exploit the Central Weld Assets or if the Central Weld Assets are not economic, all of the funds that we have invested, or will invest, will be lost. In addition, the failure of the Central Weld Assets to further produce commercially may make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds in the form of additional sale of our equity securities or working interests in other property in which we may acquire an interest.

 

The development of our estimated PUDs and estimated possible undeveloped reserves may take longer and may require higher levels of capital expenditures than we currently anticipate. Therefore, our estimated PUDs and estimated possible undeveloped reserves may not be ultimately developed or produced.

 

All of the reserves attributable to the Genesis Assets are undeveloped and all reserves associated therewith, other than in respect of the Genesis Bolt-on Assets, are classified as possible reserves. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 76% of the total estimated proved reserves of the Central Weld Assets were classified as proved undeveloped. Development of proved undeveloped reserves and possible undeveloped reserves may take longer and require higher levels of capital expenditures than we currently anticipate. Delays in the development of our reserves and those that we may ultimately acquire in the NRO Acquisition, increases in costs to drill and develop such reserves, or decreases in commodity prices will reduce the value of our estimated PUDs and possible undeveloped reserves and future net revenues estimated for such reserves and may result in some projects becoming uneconomic. In addition, delays in the development of reserves could require us to reclassify our PUDs as unproved reserves.

 

18
 

 

The Company has no history of drilling producing oil and gas wells and there can be no assurance that we will successfully establish oil and gas operations or profitably produce oil, natural gas or NGLs.

 

The Company has not successfully drilled a producing oil and gas well nor successfully produced hydrocarbons, and we have no ongoing drilling operations or revenues from drilling operations. Oil and gas exploration and production has a high degree of risk. The future development of a significant portion of our properties will require obtaining permits and financing. As a result, we are subject to all of the risks associated with establishing new drilling operations and business enterprises, including, among others:

 

  the need to obtain necessary environmental and other governmental approvals and permits, the timing and conditions of those approvals and permits, and litigation concerning those approvals and permits;
     
  the availability and cost of funds to finance the drilling and development of our properties;
     
  the timing and cost, which can be considerable, of the supporting infrastructure to our oil and gas drilling operations;
     
  the ability to obtain midstream offtake capacity for our future oil and gas production;
     
  drainage resulting from the development of offsetting properties from other operators in the area;
     
  commodity prices and our ability to find suitable customers for our future production;
     
  inflation and potential increases in costs of labor, power, supplies, services and other support; and
     
  the availability of skilled labor and equipment to support our drilling operations.

 

There is no assurance that our drilling activities will result in the successful production of oil, natural gas or NGLs. Moreover, there is no assurance that even if we are able to successfully produce oil, natural gas or NGLs that such production would be economical for commercial production. Oil and gas production is dependent upon a number of factors and significantly influenced by the technical skill of our operations personnel involved. The commercial viability of our possible future production is also dependent upon a number of factors which are beyond our control, including the quality of our oil, natural gas and NGLs, commodity prices, government policies and regulation, and environmental protection requirements. There is no certainty that the expenditures that have been made and may be made in the future by the Company related to the acquisition and development of our properties will result in commercially viable production and the Company’s past and future expenditures may be partially or entirely lost.

 

Since we have no operating history related to the exploration and production of oil and gas assets, investors have no basis to evaluate our ability to operate profitably as an E&P business.

 

We have not generated any revenue in the exploration and production of oil and gas assets to date which, following the Crypto Sale, is our sole business segment. We face many of the risks commonly encountered by other new businesses, including the lack of an established operating history, need for additional capital and personnel, and competition. There is no assurance that our business will be successful or that we can ever operate profitably. We may not be able to effectively manage the demands required of a new business, such that we may be unable to implement our business plan or achieve profitability.

 

19
 

 

Oil, natural gas and NGLs prices are highly volatile. An extended decline in commodity prices may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and our ability to meet our capital expenditure obligations and financial commitments.

 

Following the acquisition and development of the E&P Assets, our revenues, profitability and cash flows will depend upon the prices for oil, natural gas and NGLs. The prices we may receive for oil, natural gas and NGLs production are volatile and a decrease in prices can materially and adversely affect our financial results and impede our growth, including our ability to maintain or increase our borrowing capacity, to repay current or future indebtedness and to obtain additional capital on attractive terms. Changes in oil, natural gas and NGLs prices have a significant impact on the amount of oil, natural gas and NGLs that we can produce economically, the value of our reserves and on our cash flows. Historically, world-wide oil, natural gas and NGLs prices and markets have been subject to significant change and may continue to change in the future. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the average West Texas Intermediate (“WTI”) spot price was $77.58, as compared to an average price of $94.90 for the year ended December 31, 2022 and $68.16 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The average Henry Hub natural gas spot price during the year ended December 31, 2023, was $2.54 as compared to an average of $6.42 for the year ended December 31, 2022 and $3.60 for the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Prices for oil, natural gas and NGLs may fluctuate widely in response to relatively minor changes in supply and demand, market uncertainty and a variety of additional factors that are beyond our control, such as:

 

  the domestic and foreign supply of and demand for oil, natural gas and NGLs;
     
  the price and quantity of foreign imports of oil, natural gas and NGLs;
     
  the ability of and actions taken by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and Russia (together with OPEC and other allied producing countries, “OPEC+”) and other oil-producing nations in connection with their arrangements to maintain oil prices and production controls;
     
  political and economic conditions and events in foreign oil and natural gas producing countries, including embargoes, continued hostilities in the Middle East and other sustained military campaigns, the armed conflict in Ukraine and associated economic sanctions on Russia, conditions in South America, Central America, China and Russia, and acts of terrorism or sabotage;
     
  the proximity of our production to and capacity of oil, natural gas and NGLs pipelines and other transportation and storage facilities;
     
  the level of consumer product demand;
     
  the value of the dollar relative to the currencies of other countries;
     
  the impact of energy consumption, supply, and conservation policies and activities by governmental authorities, international agreements, and non-governmental organizations to limit, restrict, suspend or prohibit the performance or financing of oil, natural gas and NGLs exploration, production, development or marketing activities;
     
  U.S. and non-U.S. governmental regulations, including environmental initiatives and taxation;
     
  overall domestic and global economic conditions;
     
  the impact on worldwide economic activity of an epidemic, outbreak or other public health events;
     
  the price and availability of alternative fuels;
     
  technological advances affecting energy consumption, energy conservation and energy supply;
     
  stockholder activism or activities by non-governmental organizations to restrict the exploration, development and production of oil, natural gas and NGLs to minimize emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas; and
     
  weather conditions.

 

Our plan to develop and operate the E&P Assets will require substantial additional capital, which we may be unable to raise on acceptable terms or at all in the future.

 

While we currently expect to develop and operate the E&P Assets utilizing cash flow from operations, we may be unable to do so. Obtaining permits and approvals, seismic data, as well as exploration, development and production activities entail considerable costs, and, to the extent we are unable to fund such costs utilizing cash flow from operations, we may need to raise substantial additional capital, through future private or public equity offerings, strategic alliances or other alternative arrangements.

 

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

the scope, rate of progress and cost of our exploration, appraisal, development and production activities;

 

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oil and natural gas prices;
   
our ability to obtain the requisite permits and approvals to begin drilling, and potential litigation related to obtaining such permits and approvals;
   
our ability to locate and acquire hydrocarbon reserves;
   
our ability to produce oil or natural gas from those reserves;
   
the terms and timing of any drilling and other production-related arrangements that we may enter into;
   
the cost and timing of governmental approvals and/or concessions; and
   
the effects of competition by larger companies operating in the oil and gas industry.

 

If we raise additional capital through equity financing, the ownership percentage of our existing stockholders would be diluted, and new investors may demand rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders. While we do not intend to finance our operations by relying on debt financing, if we were to raise additional capital through debt financing, the financing may involve covenants that restrict our business activities. If we are not successful in raising additional capital, we may be unable to continue our future exploration, development and production activities.

 

We intend to enter into hedging arrangements as we grow our production and therefore we will be exposed to fluctuations in the price of oil, natural gas and NGLs and will be affected by continuing and prolonged declines in such prices. Any future hedging activities we may engage in may result in financial losses or could reduce our income.

 

Oil, natural gas, and NGL prices are volatile. We intend, in the future, to hedge a significant portion of oil and natural gas production to reduce our exposure to adverse fluctuations in these prices. We are currently not hedged and therefore are exposed to price volatility once we have oil, natural gas and NGL production and may be subject to significant reduction in prices, which would have a material negative impact on our results of operations. In the future, we intend to enter into derivative arrangements for a portion of our oil, natural gas, and NGL production, including swaps, collars and other instruments. Derivative arrangements would expose us to the risk of financial loss in some circumstances, including when: (i) production is less than the volume covered by the derivative instruments; (ii) the counterparty to the derivative instrument defaults on its contract obligations; or (iii) there is an increase in the differential between the underlying price in the derivative instrument and actual prices received. These types of derivative arrangements may limit the benefit we would receive from increases in the prices for oil and natural gas and may expose us to cash margin requirements. If oil, natural gas and NGL prices upon settlement of derivative swap contracts exceed the price at which commodities have been hedged, we will be obligated to make cash payments to counterparties, which could, in certain circumstances, be significant.

 

Drilling for and producing oil and gas wells is a high-risk activity with many uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

Drilling oil and gas wells, including development wells, involves numerous risks, including the risk that we may not encounter commercially productive oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves (including “dry holes”). We must incur significant expenditures to drill and complete wells, the costs of which are often uncertain. It is possible that we will make substantial expenditures on drilling and not discover reserves in commercially viable quantities. Specifically, we often are uncertain as to the future cost or timing of drilling, completing and operating wells, and our drilling operations and those of our third-party operators may be curtailed, delayed or canceled. The cost of our drilling, completing and operating wells may increase and our results of operations and cash flows from such operations may be impacted, as a result of a variety of factors, including:

 

unexpected drilling conditions;

 

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title problems;
   
pressure or irregularities in formations;
   
worker protection and workplace safety, including equipment failures or accidents;
   
adverse weather conditions, such as winter storms and flooding, and changes in weather patterns including due to climate change;
   
compliance with, or changes in, environmental laws and regulations relating to climate change, air emissions, hydraulic fracturing and disposal of produced water, drilling fluids and other wastes, laws and regulations imposing conditions and restrictions on drilling and completion operations, including as related to induced seismicity, and other laws and regulations, such as tax laws and regulations;
   
the availability and timely issuance of required governmental permits, approvals and licenses, or litigation concerning such permits, approvals and licenses;
   
the availability of, costs associated with and terms of contractual arrangements for properties, including mineral licenses and leases, pipelines, rail cars, crude oil hauling trucks and qualified drivers and related services, facilities and equipment to gather, process, compress, store, transport and market crude oil, natural gas and related commodities;
   
compliance with environmental and other regulatory requirements; and
   
environmental hazards, such as natural gas leaks, oil and produced water spills, pipeline or tank ruptures, encountering naturally occurring radioactive materials, and unauthorized discharges of brine, well stimulation and completion fluids, toxic gases or other pollutants into the air, surface and subsurface environment.

 

A failure to recover our investment in the E&P Assets, increases in the costs of our drilling operations or those of third-party operators, and/or curtailments, delays or cancellations of our drilling operations or those of our third-party operators in each case due to any of the above factors or other factors, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We intend to pursue the development of our properties in the DJ Basin through horizontal drilling and completion. Horizontal development operations can be more operationally challenging and costly relative to vertical drilling operations.

 

Horizontal drilling is generally more complex and more expensive on a per well basis than vertical drilling. As a result, there is greater risk associated with a horizontal well program. Risks associated with our horizontal drilling program include, but are not limited to, the following, any of which could materially and adversely impact the success of our horizontal drilling program and, thus, our cash flows and results of operations:

 

successfully drilling and maintaining the wellbore to planned total depth;
   
landing our wellbore in the desired hydrocarbon reservoir;
   
effectively controlling the level of pressure flowing from particular wells;
   
staying in the desired hydrocarbon reservoir while drilling horizontally through the formation;
   
running our casing through the entire length of the wellbore;
   
running tools and equipment consistently through the horizontal wellbore;

 

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successful design and execution of the fracture stimulation process;
   
preventing downhole communications with other wells, or, in the alternative, disruption from non-simultaneous operations;
   
successfully cleaning out the wellbore after completion of the final fracture stimulation stage; and
   
designing and maintaining efficient forms of artificial lift throughout the life of the well.

 

Ultimately, the success of these drilling and completion techniques can only be evaluated over time as more wells are drilled and production profiles are established over a sufficiently long time period. If our drilling results are less than anticipated or we are unable to execute our drilling program because of capital constraints, lease expirations, access to gathering systems, limited takeaway capacity, or depressed natural gas and oil prices, the return on our investment in these areas may not be as attractive as anticipated. Further, as a result of any of these developments, we could incur material impairments of our oil and gas properties and the value of our undeveloped acreage could decline in the future.

 

Multi-well pad drilling and project development may result in volatility in our operating results.

 

We intend to utilize, and NRO has historically utilized, multi-well pad drilling and project development where practical. Project development may involve more than one multi-well pad being drilled and completed at one time in a relatively confined area. Wells drilled on a pad or in a project may not be brought into production until all wells on the pad or project are drilled and completed. Problems affecting one pad or a single well could adversely affect production from all of the wells on the pad or in the entire project. As a result, multi-well pad drilling and project development can cause delays in the scheduled commencement of production, or interruptions in ongoing production. These delays or interruptions may cause declines or volatility in our operating results due to timing as well as declines in oil and natural gas prices. Further, any delay, reduction or curtailment of our development and producing operations, due to operational delays caused by multi-well pad drilling or project development, or otherwise, could result in the loss of acreage through lease expirations.

 

Additionally, infrastructure expansion, including more complex facilities and takeaway capacity, could become challenging in project development areas. Managing capital expenditures for infrastructure expansion could cause economic constraints when considering design capacity.

 

Drilling locations that we decide to drill may not yield oil or natural gas in commercially viable quantities.

 

Our potential drilling locations are in various stages of evaluation, ranging from a location that is ready to drill to a location that will require substantial additional evaluation. There is no way to predict in advance of drilling and testing whether any particular location will yield oil or natural gas in sufficient quantities to recover drilling or completion costs or to be economically viable. Prior to drilling, the use of 2-D and 3-D seismic technologies, various other technologies, and the study of producing fields in the same area will still not enable us to know conclusively whether oil or natural gas will be present or, if present, whether oil or natural gas will be present in sufficient quantities to be economically viable. In addition, the use of 2-D or 3-D seismic data and other technologies requires greater pre-drilling expenditures than traditional drilling strategies, and we could incur greater drilling and testing expenses as a result of such expenditures which may result in reduction in our returns or increase our losses. Even if sufficient amounts of oil or natural gas exist, we may damage the potentially productive hydrocarbon bearing formation or experience mechanical difficulties while drilling or completing the well, resulting in a reduction in production from the well or abandonment of the well. If we drill any dry holes in our current or future drilling locations, our profitability and the value of our properties will likely be reduced. We cannot assure you that the analogies we draw from available data from other wells, more fully explored locations, or producing fields will be applicable to our drilling locations. Further initial production rates reported by us or other operators may not be indicative of future or long-term production rates. In sum, the cost of drilling, completing, and operating any well is often uncertain, and new wells may not be productive.

 

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Certain of the undeveloped leasehold acreage is subject to leases that will expire over the next several years unless production is established on units containing the acreage.

 

The terms of our oil and gas leases often stipulate that the lease will terminate if not held by production, rentals, or otherwise some form of an extension payment to extend the term of the lease. For our non-producing oil and gas leases, including the undeveloped acreage included in the Genesis Assets and Central Weld Assets, if production in paying quantities is not established on units containing leases during an applicable year, then approximately 6,598 net acres of our Genesis Assets and 180 net acres of the Central Weld Assets will expire in 2024, approximately 2,567 net acres of our Genesis Assets and 80 net acres of the Central Weld Assets will expire in 2025, approximately 8,254 net acres of our Genesis Assets and 304 net acres of the Central Weld Assets will expire in 2026, and approximately 6,067 net acres of our Genesis Assets and 255 net acres of our Central Weld Assets will expire in 2027 and thereafter. While some expiring leases may contain predetermined extension payments, other expiring leases will require us to negotiate new leases at the time of lease expiration. Further, existing leases which are currently held by production may unexpectedly encounter operational, political, regulatory, or litigation challenges which could result in their termination. It is possible that market conditions at the time of negotiation could require us to agree to new leases on less favorable terms to us than the terms of the expired leases or cause us to lose the leases entirely. If our leases expire, we will lose our right to develop the related properties.

 

Our future results of operations are highly dependent on our ability to find, develop or acquire additional reserves.

 

Producing oil and natural gas reservoirs generally are characterized by declining production rates that vary depending upon reservoir characteristics and other factors. Unless we conduct successful ongoing exploration and development activities or continually acquire properties containing proved reserves, our proved reserves will decline as those reserves are produced. Our future reserves and production, and therefore our future cash flow and results of operations, are highly dependent on our success in efficiently developing our current reserves and economically finding or acquiring additional recoverable reserves. We may not be able to develop, find, or acquire sufficient additional reserves to replace our current and future production. If we are unable to replace our current and future production, the value of our reserves will decrease, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our estimated oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves are based on many assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate. Any material inaccuracies in the reserve estimates or the underlying assumptions will materially affect the quantities and present value of our reserves.

 

Numerous uncertainties are inherent in estimating quantities of oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves. The process of estimating oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves is complex, requiring significant decisions and assumptions in the evaluation of available geological, engineering and economic data for each reservoir, including assumptions regarding future oil, natural gas and NGLs prices, subsurface characterization, production levels and operating and development costs. Our estimates of reserves and related projections for the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2023 and January 31, 2024 were prepared by CG&A. CG&A conducted a detailed review of the Genesis Assets and the Central Weld Assets for the period covered by its reserve reports using information provided by us and, with respect to the December NRO Report, by NRO.

 

Over time, we may make material changes to reserve estimates taking into account the results of actual drilling, testing and production. As a result of the uncertainties, estimated quantities of oil, natural gas and NGLs reserves and projections of future production rates and the timing of development expenditures may prove to be inaccurate. Any significant variance in our assumptions and actual results could greatly affect our estimates of reserves, the economically recoverable quantities of oil, natural gas and NGLs attributable to any particular group of properties, the classifications of reserves based on risk of non-recovery and estimates of future net cash flows.

 

A portion of our reported reserves and associated future cash flows are classified as “proved reserves,” which is defined as the estimated quantities of oil, NGLs and natural gas that geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty are recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions and that relate to specific locations for which the extraction of hydrocarbons must have commenced or we must be reasonably certain will commence within a five-year period.

 

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The estimation process relies on interpretations of available geological, geophysical, engineering and production data. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved reserves and in projecting future rates of production and timing of developmental expenditures, including more rapid production declines than previously expected and many other factors beyond our control. Further, initial production rates reported by us may not be indicative of future or long-term production rates. Production declines may be rapid and irregular when compared to a well’s initial production or initial estimates. In addition, the estimates of future net cash flows from our proved reserves and the present value of such estimates are based upon certain assumptions about future production levels, prices and costs that may not prove to be correct.

 

Negative revisions in the estimated quantities of proved reserves have the effect of increasing the rates of depletion on the affected properties, which decrease earnings or result in losses through higher depletion expense. These revisions, as well as revisions in the assumptions of future cash flows of these reserves, may also trigger impairment losses on certain properties, which would result in a non-cash charge to earnings.

 

A significant portion of our reported reserves and associated future cash flows are deemed possible. Estimates of possible reserves, and the future cash flows related to such estimates, are also inherently imprecise and are more uncertain than estimates of proved and probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates, but have not been adjusted for risk due to that uncertainty. Because of such uncertainty, estimates of possible reserves, and the future cash flows related to such estimates, may not be comparable to estimates of proved and probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates, and should not be summed arithmetically with estimates of either proved or probable reserves, respectively, and the respective future cash flows related to such estimates.

 

When producing an estimate of the amount of oil, natural gas and NGLs that is recoverable from a particular reservoir, an estimated quantity of possible reserves is an estimate that might be achieved, but only under more favorable circumstances than are likely. Estimates of possible reserves are also continually subject to revisions based on production history, results of additional exploration and development, price changes and other factors. When deterministic methods are used, the total quantities ultimately recovered from a project have a low probability of exceeding proved plus probable plus possible reserves. Possible reserves may be assigned to areas of a reservoir adjacent to probable reserve where data control and interpretations of available data are progressively less certain. Frequently, this will be in areas where geoscience and engineering data are unable to define clearly the area and vertical limits of commercial production from the reservoir. Possible reserves also include incremental quantities associated with a greater percentage of recovery of the hydrocarbons in place than the recovery quantities assumed for probable reserves. Possible reserves may be assigned where geoscience and engineering data identify directly adjacent portions of a reservoir within the same accumulation that may be separated from proved areas by faults with displacement less than formation thickness or other geological discontinuities and that have not been penetrated by a wellbore, and we believe that such adjacent portions are in communication with the known (proved) reservoir. Possible reserves may be assigned to areas that are structurally higher or lower than the proved area if these areas are in communication with the proved reservoir.

 

The Standardized Measure of our estimated reserves contained in this prospectus and in the footnotes to our financial statements may not be an accurate estimate of the current fair value of our estimated reserves.

 

Standardized Measure is a reporting convention that provides a common basis for comparing oil and natural gas companies subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC. Standardized Measure requires the use of specific pricing as specified by the SEC, as well as prevailing operating and development costs as of the date of computation. Consequently, it may not reflect the prices ordinarily received or that will be received for oil, natural gas or NGL production because of varying market conditions, nor may it reflect the actual costs we will incur to develop and produce from the E&P Assets. Accordingly, estimates included herein of future net cash flow may be materially different from the future net cash flows that are ultimately received. Therefore, the Standardized Measure of estimated reserves included in this prospectus should not be construed as necessarily accurate estimates of the current fair value of our proved reserves.

 

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To market our oil and natural gas production, we are dependent upon obtaining access to midstream infrastructure, including truck transportation, pipelines, transmission and/or storage and processing facilities. If we are unable to obtain such access on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we would be unable to market and sell our production and our business and financial position would be materially and adversely affected.

 

The marketing of oil and natural gas production depends in large part on the availability, proximity and capacity of pipelines and storage facilities, gathering systems and other transportation, processing, fractionation, refining and export facilities, as well as the existence of adequate markets. Transportation space on the gathering systems and pipelines we utilize is occasionally limited or unavailable due to repairs or improvements to facilities or due to space being utilized by other companies that have priority transportation agreements. Additionally, new fields may require the construction of gathering systems and other transportation facilities. These facilities may require us to spend significant capital that would otherwise be spent on drilling. We rely, and expect to rely in the future, on facilities developed and owned by third parties in order to store, process, transmit and sell our production. Our plans to develop and sell our reserves could be materially and adversely affected by the inability or unwillingness of third parties to provide sufficient facilities and services to us on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise. If these facilities are unavailable to us on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise, we could be forced to shut in some production or delay or discontinue drilling plans and commercial production following a discovery of hydrocarbons. The availability of markets is beyond our control. If market factors dramatically change, the impact on our revenues could be substantial and could materially and adversely affect our ability to produce and market oil and natural gas.

 

Our access to transportation options can also be affected by U.S. federal and state regulation of oil and natural gas production and transportation, general economic conditions and changes in supply and demand. The interstate transportation and sale for resale of natural gas are subject to federal regulation, including regulation of the terms, conditions and rates for interstate transportation, storage and various other matters, primarily by FERC. Federal and state regulations govern the price and terms for access to natural gas pipeline transportation. FERC’s regulations for interstate natural gas transmission in some circumstances may also affect the intrastate transportation of natural gas. FERC regulates the rates, terms and conditions applicable to the interstate transportation of natural gas by pipelines under the NGA as well as under Section 311 of the NGPA. Since 1985, FERC has implemented regulations intended to increase competition within the natural gas industry by making natural gas transportation more accessible to natural gas buyers and sellers on an open-access, nondiscriminatory basis.

 

Our sales of oil and NGLs are also affected by the availability, terms and costs of transportation. The rates, terms, and conditions applicable to the interstate transportation of oil and NGLs by pipelines are regulated by FERC under the Interstate Commerce Act. FERC has implemented a simplified and generally applicable ratemaking methodology for interstate oil and NGL pipelines to fulfill the requirements of Title XVIII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 comprised of an indexing system to establish ceilings on interstate oil and NGL pipeline rates. Intrastate oil pipeline transportation rates are subject to regulation by state regulatory commissions. The basis for intrastate oil pipeline regulation, and the degree of regulatory oversight and scrutiny given to intrastate oil pipeline rates, varies from state to state. Insofar as effective interstate and intrastate rates are equally applicable to all comparable shippers, we believe that the regulation of oil transportation rates will not affect our operations in any materially different way than such regulation will affect the operations of our competitors.

 

Further, interstate and intrastate common carrier oil pipelines must provide service on a non-discriminatory basis. Under this open access standard, common carriers must offer service to all shippers requesting service on the same terms and under the same rates. When oil pipelines operate at full capacity, access is governed by prorationing provisions set forth in the pipelines’ published tariffs. Accordingly, we believe that access to oil pipeline transportation services generally will be available to us to the same extent as to our competitors.

 

As an alternative to pipeline transportation, any transportation of our crude oil and NGLs by rail will also be subject to regulation by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (“PHMSA”) and the Federal Railroad Administration (“FRA”) of the Department of Transportation (“DOT”) under the Hazardous Materials Regulations at 49 CFR Parts 171-180, including Emergency Orders by the FRA and new regulations being proposed by the PHMSA, arising due to the consequences of train accidents and the increase in the rail transportation of flammable liquids.

 

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We will face strong competition from other oil and gas companies.

 

We will encounter competition from other oil and gas companies in all areas of our operations, including the acquisition of exploratory prospects and proven properties. Our competitors include major integrated oil and gas companies and numerous independent oil and gas companies, individuals and drilling and income programs. Many of our competitors are large, well-established companies that have been engaged in the oil and gas business much longer than we have and possess substantially larger operating staffs and greater capital resources than we do. These companies may be able to pay more for exploratory projects and productive oil and gas properties and may be able to define, evaluate, bid for and purchase a greater number of properties and prospects than our financial or human resources permit. In addition, these companies may be able to expend greater resources on the existing and changing technologies that we believe are and will be increasingly important to attaining success in the industry. Such competitors may also be in a better position to secure oilfield services and equipment on a timely basis or on favorable terms. These companies may also have a greater ability to continue drilling activities during periods of low oil and gas prices, such as the current commodity price environment, and to absorb the burden of current and future governmental regulations and taxation. We may not be able to conduct our operations, evaluate and select suitable properties and consummate transactions successfully in this highly competitive environment.

 

Government regulation and liability for oil and natural gas operations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Our exploration, production and development activities are subject to extensive federal, state, and local government regulations, which may change from time to time. Matters subject to regulation include discharge permits for drilling operations, drilling bonds and other financial assurance, reports concerning operations, the spacing of wells, unitization and pooling of properties, and taxation. From time to time, regulatory agencies have imposed price controls and limitations on production by restricting the rate of flow of oil and natural gas from wells below actual production capacity in order to conserve supplies of oil and natural gas. These laws and regulations may affect the costs, manner, and feasibility of our operations by, among other things, requiring us to make significant expenditures in order to comply and restricting the areas available for oil and gas production. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in substantial liabilities to third-parties or governmental entities. We are also subject to changing and extensive tax laws, the effects of which cannot be predicted. The implementation of new, or the modification of existing, laws or regulations, could have a material adverse effect on us, such as by imposing, penalties, fines and/or fees, taxes and tariffs on carbon that could have the effect of raising prices to the end user and thereby reducing the demand for our products.

 

All of the E&P Assets are located in the DJ Basin, making us vulnerable to risks associated with operating primarily in a single geographic area.

 

All of the current E&P Assets are located in the DJ Basin in Colorado. Because our assets are not as diversified geographically as many of our competitors, the success of our operations and our profitability may be disproportionately exposed to the effect of any regional events, including natural disasters, government regulations and midstream interruptions. For example, bottlenecks in processing and transportation have occurred in some recent periods in the Wattenberg Field in the DJ Basin and these adverse effects may be disproportionately severe to us compared to our more geographically diverse competitors. Similarly, the concentration of our assets within a small number of formations exposes us to risks, such as changes in field-wide rules that could adversely affect development activities or production relating to those formations. Such an event could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the demand for, and cost of, drilling rigs, equipment, supplies, chemicals, personnel and oilfield services often increase as a result of numerous factors including increases in exploration and production activity, supply chain problems, and labor shortages. Any shortages or increased costs could delay or adversely affect our development and exploration operations or cause us to incur significant expenditures that are not provided for in our capital forecast, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. All of the producing properties and reserves included in the Central Weld Assets are located in the DJ Basin. As a result, the transaction increases the risks we face with respect to the geographic concentration of our properties.

 

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In addition, seasonal weather conditions and natural disasters could severely disrupt normal operations and harm our business. During periods of heavy snow, ice, wind or rain, we may be unable to move our equipment between locations, thereby reducing our ability to provide services and generate revenues, or we could suffer weather-related damage to our facilities and equipment, resulting in delays in operations. Our exploration activities may also be affected during such periods of adverse weather conditions. Additionally, extended drought conditions in our operating regions could impact our ability or our customers’ ability to source sufficient water or increase the cost for such water. As a result, a natural disaster or inclement weather conditions could severely disrupt the normal operation of our business and adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Moreover, climate change may result in various physical risks, such as the increased frequency or intensity of extreme weather events or changes in meteorological and hydrological patterns, that could adversely impact our operations. Such physical risks may result in damage to our facilities or otherwise adversely impact our operations, such as if facilities are subject to water use curtailments in response to drought, or demand for our products, such as to the extent warmer winters reduce the demand for energy for heating purposes, which may ultimately reduce demand for the products we provide. Such physical risks may also impact our suppliers, which may adversely affect our ability to provide our products. Extreme weather conditions can interfere with our operations and increase our costs, and damage resulting from extreme weather may not be fully insured.

 

Our operations will be subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations related to environmental and natural resources protection and occupational health and safety, which may expose us to significant costs and liabilities and result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.

 

Our oil, natural gas and NGLs exploration, production and development operations will be subject to stringent federal, state, local and other applicable laws and regulations governing worker health and safety, the release or disposal of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. Numerous governmental entities, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”), the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and analogous state agencies, including the CDPHE and the CECMC, have the power to enforce compliance with these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations may, among other things, require the acquisition of permits to conduct drilling; govern the amounts and types of substances that may be released into the environment; limit or prohibit construction or drilling activities in environmentally-sensitive areas such as wetlands, wilderness areas or areas inhabited by endangered or threatened species; require investigatory and remedial actions to mitigate pollution conditions; impose obligations to reclaim and abandon well sites and pits; impose seasonal limitations on our ability to conduct operations due to wildlife migration patterns or other similar concerns; and impose specific criteria addressing worker protection. Compliance with such laws and regulations may impact our operations and production, require us to install new or modified emission controls on equipment or processes, incur longer permitting timelines, restrict the areas in which some or all operational activities may be conducted, and incur significantly increased capital or operating expenditures, which costs may be significant. The regulatory burden on the oil and gas industry increases the cost of doing business in the industry and consequently affects profitability.

 

Additionally, certain environmental laws impose strict, joint and several liability for costs required to remediate and restore sites where hydrocarbons, materials or wastes have been stored or released. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may also result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of investigatory, remedial and corrective action obligations or the incurrence of capital expenditures, the occurrence of restrictions, delays or cancellations in the permitting, development or expansion of projects and the issuance of orders enjoining some or all of our operations in affected areas. Moreover, accidental spills or other releases may occur in the course of our operations, and we cannot assure you that we will not incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of such spills or releases, including any third-party claims for damage to property, natural resources or persons. We may not be able to fully recover such costs from insurance. One or more of these developments that impact us, our service providers or our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and reduce demand for our products.

 

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Certain interest groups generally opposed to the development of oil and gas, and hydraulic fracturing in particular, have from time to time advanced various options for ballot initiatives aimed at significantly limiting or preventing the development of oil and gas. For example, following the failure of several ballot initiatives to restrict oil and gas development, Colorado passed a law in April 2019 (Senate Bill 19-181) that, among other things, changes the mission of the CECMC from fostering oil and gas development to instead focus on environmental protection, directs the CECMC and various state agencies to consider new rules imposing stricter environmental controls on the oil and gas industry, and provides local governments with the authority to promulgate their own regulations on oil and gas development. Pursuant to this statutory change, the CECMC has issued new rules relating to the agency’s new mission—formerly “fostering” oil and gas development, now “regulating” it—including, among other things, increasing oil and gas setbacks to a minimum of 2,000 feet from schools and childcare facilities, prohibiting routine venting and flaring, and increasing wildlife protections. Additional rules will also address cumulative impacts through a new state regulatory program and will completely revise state permitting procedures. In May 2023, Colorado passed a law (House Bill 1294) that requires the CECMC to promulgate rules addressing cumulative impacts of oil and gas operations by April 28, 2024. CECMC is currently assessing draft rules pursuant to this law, which, if finalized as proposed, would require regulators to consider cumulative impacts of oil and gas operations in permitting decisions and increase scrutiny on the project’s proximity to other industrial sites, residential areas and school areas, disproportionately impacted (“DI”) communities, and “cumulatively impacted communities.” The draft rules would also set GHG emissions intensity targets for oil and gas operators and require regulators to consider such targets in their cumulative impacts analysis, as well as the potential to restrict operations during the summer in Ozone Nonattainment Areas. While the ultimate impact of the new Colorado laws and related rules is currently unknown, these laws or passage or enactment of other similar legislation could have a material adverse effect on our operations in Colorado.

 

The general trend in environmental regulation is to place more restrictions and limitations on activities that may affect the environment. There can be no assurance as to the amount or timing of future expenditures for environmental compliance or remediation, and actual future expenditures may be materially different from the amounts we currently anticipate. Revised or additional regulations that result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, particularly if those costs are not fully recoverable from our customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our oil and gas exploration, production, and development activities may be subject to a series of risks related to climate change and energy transition initiatives.

 

The threat of climate change continues to attract considerable attention in the United States and around the world. Numerous proposals have been made and could continue to be made at the international, national, regional and state levels of government to monitor and limit emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”). These efforts have included consideration of cap-and-trade programs, carbon taxes, GHG disclosure obligations and regulations that directly limit GHG emissions from certain sources. President Biden has identified addressing climate change as a priority under his administration and has issued, and may continue to issue, executive orders related to that goal. For example, in January 2024, the Biden administration announced a temporary pause on the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) review of pending applications for authorization to export LNG to countries that have not entered into free trade agreements (“FTAs”) with the United States (so-called non-FTA countries) until the DOE updates its underlying analyses for such authorizations using more current data to account for considerations like potential energy cost increases for consumers and manufacturers or the latest assessment of the impact of GHG emissions. While this pause may not directly impact our exploration, production and development activities, it may affect the demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial position.

 

Also at the federal level, the EPA has adopted rules that, among other things, establish construction and operating permit reviews for GHG emissions from certain large stationary sources, require the monitoring and annual reporting of GHG emissions from certain petroleum and natural gas system sources, and impose new standards reducing methane emissions from oil and gas operations through limitations on venting and flaring and the implementation of enhanced emission leak detection and repair requirements. In December 2023, the EPA finalized more stringent methane rules for new, modified, and reconstructed facilities, known as OOOOb, as well as standards for existing sources for the first time ever, known as OOOOc. Under the final rules, states have two years to prepare and submit their plans to impose methane emission controls on existing sources. The presumptive standards established under the final rules are generally the same for both new and existing sources and include enhanced leak detection survey requirements using optical gas imaging and other advanced monitoring to encourage the deployment of innovative technologies to detect and reduce methane emissions, reduction of emissions by 95% through capture and control systems, zero-emission requirements for certain devices, and the establishment of a “super emitter” response program that would allow third parties to make reports to the EPA of large methane emission events, triggering certain investigation and repair requirements. Fines and penalties for violations of these rules can be substantial.

 

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In addition, the U.S. Congress may continue to consider and pass legislation related to the reduction of GHG emissions, including methane and carbon dioxide. For example, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”), which appropriates significant federal funding for renewable energy initiatives and, for the first time ever, imposes a fee on GHG emissions from certain facilities, was signed into law in August 2022. The methane emissions charge would start in calendar year 2024 at $900 per ton of methane, increase to $1,200 in 2025, and be set at $1,500 for 2026 and each year after. Calculation of the fee is based on certain thresholds established in the IRA. In January 2024, the EPA issued a proposed rule to implement the waste emissions charge with a proposed effective date in 2025 for reporting year 2024 emissions. The methane charge and the incentives for renewable energy infrastructure development could impose additional costs on our operations and further accelerate the transition of the economy away from the use of oil and natural gas towards lower- or zero-carbon emissions alternatives. Furthermore, on March 6, 2024, the SEC finalized a rule requiring the reporting of climate-related risks and financial impacts, as well as GHG emissions for larger companies. Compliance dates under the final rule are phased in by registrant category. Smaller reporting companies will be required to incorporate climate-related disclosures into their filings beginning in fiscal year 2027. Accelerated filers will be required to incorporate the disclosures in fiscal year 2026, as well as disclosure of Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions, if material, in fiscal year 2028, and limited assurance attestation reports related to the same by fiscal year 2031. Large accelerated filers will be required to incorporate the disclosures in fiscal year 2025, with Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions disclosures, if material, in fiscal year 2026, and attestation reports by fiscal year 2029. While we are still assessing our obligations under the rule, complying with such obligations may result in increased costs.

 

States have also implemented or are considering implementing laws and regulations that would require climate-related disclosures, which could result in additional costs to comply with disclosure requirements as well as increase costs of and restrictions on access to capital. Separately, enhanced climate related disclosure requirements could lead to reputational or other harm with customers, regulators, investors or other stakeholders and could also increase our litigation risks relating to alleged climate-related damages resulting from our operations, statements alleged to have been made by us or others in our industry regarding climate change risks, or in connection with any future disclosures we may make regarding reported emissions, particularly given the inherent uncertainties and estimations with respect to calculating and reporting GHG emissions. From time to time, the SEC has also focused additional scrutiny on existing climate-change related disclosures in public filings, increasing the potential for enforcement if the SEC were to allege an issuer’s existing climate disclosures were misleading or deficient. These ongoing regulatory actions and the emissions fee and funding provisions of the IRA could increase operating costs within the oil and gas industry and accelerate the transition away from fossil fuels, which could in turn adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

At the international level, the United Nations-sponsored Paris Agreement, though non-binding, calls for signatory nations to limit their GHG emissions through individually-determined reduction goals every five years after 2020. In February 2021, President Biden recommitted the United States to long-term international goals to reduce emissions, including those under the Paris Agreement. President Biden announced in April 2021 a new, more rigorous nationally determined emissions reduction level of 50 to 52 percent from 2005 levels in economy-wide net GHG emissions by 2030. Moreover, the international community convenes annually at the Conference of the Parties to negotiate further pledges and initiatives, such as the Global Methane Pledge (a collective goal to reduce global methane emissions by 30 percent from 2020 levels by 2030). The impacts of these orders, pledges, agreements and any legislation or regulation promulgated to fulfill the United States’ commitments under the Paris Agreement or other international agreements cannot be predicted at this time. In December 2023, at the 28th Conference of the Parties, the parties signed onto an agreement to transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems and increase renewable energy capacity, though no timeline for doing so was set. While non-binding, the agreements coming out of these conferences could result in increased pressure among financial institutions and various stakeholders to reduce or otherwise impose more stringent limitations on funding for, and increase potential opposition to, the exploration and production of fossil fuels.

 

Litigation risks are also increasing, as a number of states, municipalities, environmental organizations and other plaintiffs have sought to bring suits against oil and natural gas exploration and production companies in state or federal court, alleging, among other things, that such energy companies created public nuisances by producing fuels that contributed to global warming effects, such as rising sea levels, and therefore, are responsible for roadway and infrastructure damages as a result, or alleging that the companies have been aware of the adverse effects of climate change for some time but defrauded their investors by failing to adequately disclose those impacts. Involvement in such a case, regardless of the substance of the allegations, could have adverse reputational and financial impacts and an unfavorable ruling in any such case could significantly impact our operations and could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or operations.

 

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There are also increasing financial risks for oil and gas producers as certain shareholders, bondholders and lenders may elect in the future to shift some or all of their investments into non-fossil fuel energy related sectors. Certain institutional lenders who provide financing to fossil-fuel energy companies have shifted their investment practices to those that favor “clean” power sources, such as wind and solar, making those sources more attractive, and some of them may elect not to provide funding for fossil fuel energy companies in the short or long term. Many of the largest U.S. banks have made “net zero” carbon emission commitments and have announced that they will be assessing financed emissions across their portfolios and taking steps to quantify and reduce those emissions. Additionally, there is also the possibility that financial institutions will be pressured or required to adopt policies that limit funding for fossil fuel energy companies. For example, in 2021 the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (“GFANZ”) announced that commitments from over 450 firms across 45 countries had resulted in over $130 trillion in capital committed to net zero goals. The various sub-alliances of GFANZ generally require participants to set short-term, sector-specific targets to transition their financing, investing, and/or underwriting activities to net zero by 2050. Additionally, there is the possibility that financial institutions will be required to adopt policies that limit funding for fossil fuel energy companies. In late 2020, the Federal Reserve joined the Network for Greening the Financial System, a consortium of financial regulators focused on addressing climate-related risks in the financial sector. More recently, in November 2021, the Federal Reserve issued a statement in support of the efforts of the Network for Greening the Financial System to identify key issues and potential solutions for the climate-related challenges most relevant to central banks and supervisory authorities. In September 2022, the Federal Reserve announced that six of the largest U.S. largest banks will participate in a pilot climate scenario analysis exercise, which took place throughout 2023, to enhance the ability of firms and supervisors to measure and manage climate-related financial risk. While we cannot predict what policies may result from these developments, such efforts could make it more difficult to secure funding for exploration and production business activities on favorable terms, or at all. Although there has been recent political support to counteract these initiatives, these and other developments in the financial sector could lead to some lenders restricting access to capital for or divesting from certain industries or companies, including the oil and gas sector, or requiring that borrowers take additional steps to reduce their GHG emissions. Any material reduction in the capital available to us or our fossil fuel-related customers could make it more difficult to secure funding for exploration, development, production, transportation, and processing activities, which could reduce the demand for our products and services.

 

Our oil and gas exploration, production, and development activities may be subject to physical risks related to potential climate change impacts.

 

Increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that could have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, wildfires, and floods and other climatic events, as well as chronic shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns. These climatic developments have the potential to cause physical damage to our assets or those of our vendors and suppliers and could disrupt our supply chains, and thus could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position, operations and prospects.

 

Additionally, changing meteorological conditions, particularly temperature, may result in changes to the amount, timing, or location of demand for energy or its production. While our operational consideration of changing climatic conditions and inclusion of safety factors in design is intended to reduce the uncertainties that climate change and other events may potentially introduce, our ability to mitigate the adverse impacts of these events depends in part on the effectiveness of our facilities and disaster preparedness and response and business continuity planning, which may not have considered or be prepared for every eventuality.

 

Our business and ability to secure financing may be adversely impacted by increasing stakeholder and market attention to ESG matters.

 

Businesses across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny from stakeholders related to their ESG practices. Businesses that are perceived to be operating in contrast to investor or stakeholder expectations and standards, which are continuing to evolve, or businesses that are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such business entity could be materially and adversely affected. Increasing attention to climate change, societal expectations on companies to address climate change, investor and societal expectations regarding voluntary ESG-related disclosures, increasing mandatory ESG disclosures, and consumer demand for alternative forms of energy may result in increased operating and compliance costs, reduced demand for our products, reduced profits, increased legislative and judicial scrutiny, investigations and litigation, reputational damage, and negative impacts on our access to capital markets. To the extent that societal pressures or political or other factors are involved, it is possible that we could be subject to additional governmental investigations, private litigation or activist campaigns as stockholders may attempt to effect changes to our business or governance practices.

 

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While we may elect to seek out various voluntary ESG targets in the future, such targets are aspirational. We may not be able to meet such targets in the manner or on such a timeline as initially contemplated, including as a result of unforeseen costs or technical difficulties associated with achieving such results. Similarly, while we may decide to participate in various voluntary ESG frameworks and certification programs, such participation may not have the intended results on our ESG profile. In addition, voluntary disclosures regarding ESG matters, as well as any ESG disclosures currently required or required in the future, could result in private litigation or government investigation or enforcement action regarding the sufficiency or validity of such disclosures. Moreover, failure or a perception of failure to implement ESG strategies or achieve ESG goals or commitments, including any GHG emission reduction or carbon intensity goals or commitments, could result in private litigation and damage our reputation, cause investors or consumers to lose confidence in us, and negatively impact our operations and goodwill. Notwithstanding our election to pursue aspirational ESG-related targets in the future, we may receive pressure from investors, lenders or other groups to adopt more aggressive climate or other ESG-related goals, but we cannot guarantee that we will be able to implement such goals because of potential costs, technical or operational obstacles or other market or technological developments beyond our control.

 

Restrictions and regulations regarding hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs, delays and cancellations in our planned oil, natural gas and NGLs exploration, production and development activities.

 

Our operations will include hydraulic fracturing activities. Hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions, but the practice continues to attract considerable public, scientific and governmental attention in certain parts of the country, resulting in increased scrutiny and regulation, including by federal agencies. Many states have adopted rules that impose new or more stringent permitting, public disclosure or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing activities. For example, Colorado requires the disclosure of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and recently extended setback requirements for drilling activities. Local governments may also impose, or attempt to impose, restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which hydraulic fracturing activities may occur. Some state and local authorities have considered or imposed new laws and rules related to hydraulic fracturing, including temporary or permanent bans, additional permit requirements, operational restrictions, and chemical disclosure obligations on hydraulic fracturing in certain jurisdictions or in environmentally sensitive areas. The EPA has also asserted federal regulatory authority over certain aspects of hydraulic fracturing. For example, in December 2023, the EPA issued final rules that update new source performance standard requirements and that will impose more stringent controls on methane and volatile organic compounds emissions from oil and gas development and production operations, including hydraulic fracturing and other well completion activity. Additionally, certain federal and state agencies have evaluated or are evaluating potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water sources or seismic events. These ongoing studies could spur initiatives to further regulate hydraulic fracturing or otherwise make it more difficult and costly to perform hydraulic fracturing activities. Any new or more stringent federal, state, local or other applicable legal requirements such as presidential executive orders or state or local ballot initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing that impose restrictions, delays or cancellations in areas where we plan to operate could cause us to incur potentially significant added costs to comply with such requirements or experience delays, curtailment, or preclusion from the pursuit of exploration, development or production activities.

 

Our planned oil, natural gas and NGLs exploration and production activities could be adversely impacted by restrictions on our ability to obtain water or dispose of produced water.

 

Our operations will require water for our planned oil and natural gas exploration during drilling and completion activities. Our access to water may be limited due to reasons such as prolonged drought, private third party competition for water in localized areas or our inability to acquire or maintain water sourcing permits or other rights as well as governmental regulations or restrictions adopted in the future. For example, the Governor of Colorado recently signed into law HB 1242 which places restrictions on the use of fresh water for oil and gas operations and requires oil and gas operators to report their water use. Any difficulty or restriction on locating or contractually acquiring sufficient amounts of water in an economical manner could adversely impact our planned operations.

 

Additionally, we must dispose of the fluids produced during oil and natural gas production, including produced water. We may choose to dispose of produced water into deep wells by means of injection, either directly ourselves or through third party contractors. While we may seek to reuse or recycle produced water instead of disposing of such water, our costs for disposing of produced water could increase significantly as a result of increased regulation or if reusing and recycling water becomes impractical. Disposal wells are regulated pursuant to the Underground Injection Control (“UIC”) program established under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act and analogous state laws. The UIC program requires permits from the EPA or an analogous state agency for construction and operation of such disposal wells, establishes minimum standards for disposal well operations, and restricts the types and quantities of fluids that may be disposed.

 

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In recent years, wells used for the disposal by injection of flowback water or certain other oilfield fluids below ground into non-producing formations have been associated with an increased number of seismic events, with research suggesting that the link between seismic events and wastewater disposal may vary by region and local geology. The U.S. geological survey has recently identified Colorado as one of six states with the most significant hazards from induced seismicity. Concerns by the public and governmental authorities have prompted several state agencies to require operators to take certain prescriptive actions or limit disposal volumes following unusual seismic activity. The CECMC requires operators to monitor and evaluate for seismicity risks in certain situations. Other states have from time to time suspended disposal well permits or otherwise restricted activity in certain areas in response to seismic activity. For example, in both New Mexico and Texas, state regulatory agencies have implemented seismicity response programs that have resulted in state regulators suspending or curtailing disposal well injection operations and imposing additional seismic monitoring and reporting requirements on disposal well operators. Restrictions on produced water disposal well injection activities or suspensions of such activities, whether due to the occurrence of seismic events or other regulatory actions could increase our costs to dispose of produced water and adversely impact our results of operations.

 

Laws and regulations pertaining to the protection of threatened and endangered species and their habitats could delay, restrict or prohibit our planned oil, natural gas and NGLs exploration and production operations and adversely affect the development and production of our reserves.

 

The Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) and comparable state laws protect endangered and threatened species and their habitats. Under the ESA, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service may designate critical habitat areas that it believes are necessary for survival of species listed as threatened or endangered. Similar protections are offered to migratory birds under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. Such designations could require us to develop mitigation plans to avoid potential adverse effects to protected species and their habitats, and our oil and gas operations may be delayed, restricted or prohibited in certain locations or during certain seasons, such as breeding and nesting seasons, when those operations could have an adverse effect on the species. Moreover, the future listing of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered in areas where we are operating in the future could cause us to incur increased costs arising from species protection measures or could result in delays, restrictions or prohibitions on our planned development and production activities.

 

Certain U.S. federal income tax deductions currently available with respect to natural gas and oil exploration and development may be eliminated as a result of future legislation.

 

From time to time, legislation has been proposed that would, if enacted into law, make significant changes to U.S. tax laws, including certain key U.S. federal income tax provisions currently available to oil and gas companies. Such legislative changes have included, but have not been limited to, (i) the repeal of the percentage depletion allowance for natural gas and oil properties, (ii) the elimination of current deductions for intangible drilling and development costs and (iii) an extension of the amortization period for certain geological and geophysical expenditures. Although these provisions were largely unchanged with the enactment of the IRA, Congress could consider, and could include, some or all of these proposals as part of future tax reform legislation. Moreover, other more general features of any additional tax reform legislation, including changes to cost recovery rules, may be developed that also would change the taxation of oil and gas companies. It is unclear whether these or similar changes will be enacted in future legislation and, if enacted, how soon any such changes could take effect. The passage of any legislation as a result of these proposals or any similar changes in U.S. federal income tax laws could eliminate or postpone certain tax deductions that currently are available with respect to oil and gas development or increase costs, and any such changes could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We may not be able to use a portion of our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce our future U.S. federal and state income tax obligations, which could adversely affect our cash flows.

 

We currently have U.S. federal and state net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards. Our ability to use these tax attributes to reduce our future U.S. federal and state income tax obligations depends on many factors, including our future taxable income, which cannot be assured. In addition, our ability to use NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes may be subject to significant limitations under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Under those sections of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (as defined in the Code), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes may be substantially limited.

 

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Determining the limitations under Section 382 of the Code is technical and complex. A corporation generally will experience an ownership change if one or more stockholders (or groups of stockholders) who are each deemed to own at least 5% of the corporation’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. We may in the future undergo an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. If an ownership change occurs, our ability to use our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce our future U.S. federal and state income tax obligations may be materially limited, which could adversely affect our cash flows.

 

Risks Related to the Company

 

We have historically incurred significant losses, and may be unable to generate profitability. Our ability to successfully operate and expand our business is dependent on the consummation of the NRO Acquisition or our ability to raise additional capital to support our drilling program on our existing assets.

 

Historically, we have relied upon cash from financing activities to fund substantially all of the cash requirements of our activities and have incurred significant losses and experienced negative cash flow. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred a net loss of $79.1 million, and for the year ended December 31, 2022, we incurred a net loss of $0.5 million. We had stockholders’ equity of $40.2 million and members’ deficit of $0.4 million as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, we sold all of our revenue-generating assets in the Crypto Sale. We do not currently have sufficient capital to consummate the NRO Acquisition or to begin development activities on any of our existing assets. As a result, until we are able to raise additional capital to consummate the NRO Acquisition or enable us to drill wells on our existing properties, we will be unable to generate any revenue. We cannot predict if we will be able to raise the necessary capital and, even if we are able to raise sufficient funds to complete the NRO Acquisition or commence drilling operations and production on our assets, whether such production will be profitable. We may continue to incur losses for an indeterminate period of time and may be unable to sustain profitability. An extended period of losses and negative cash flow may prevent us from successfully operating and expanding our business. We may be unable to sustain or increase our profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

 

We will require significant additional capital to fund our growing operations; we may not be able to obtain sufficient capital and may be forced to limit the scope of our operations.

 

We may not have sufficient capital to fund our future operations without significant additional capital investments, including the planned drilling of oil and gas wells. If adequate additional financing is not available on reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to carry out our corporate strategy and we would be forced to modify our business plans (e.g., limit our growth, and/or decrease or eliminate capital expenditures), any of which may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. Such reduction could materially adversely affect our business and our ability to compete. There can be no assurance that financing will be available in a timely manner or in amounts or on terms acceptable to the Company, or at all.

 

The Company’s ability to obtain external financing in the future may be subject to a variety of uncertainties, including its future financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the liquidity of international capital and lending markets. We may need to undertake equity, equity-linked or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our Common Stock. Any debt financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, including the ability to pay dividends. This may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. A large amount of bank borrowings and other debt may result in a significant increase in interest expense while at the same time exposing the Company to increased interest rate risks.

 

We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business may be adversely affected. Our capital needs will depend on numerous factors, including, without limitation, our profitability, and the amount of our capital expenditures, including acquisitions. Moreover, the costs involved may exceed those originally contemplated. Failure to obtain intended economic benefits could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating performances.

 

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We need to manage growth in operations to maximize our potential growth and achieve our expected revenues. Our failure to manage growth can cause a disruption of our operations that may result in the failure to generate revenues at levels we expect.

 

In order to maximize potential growth, we may have to expand our operations. Such expansion will place a significant strain on our management and our operations. Our failure to manage our growth could disrupt our operations and ultimately prevent us from generating the revenues we expect.

 

We depend on the services of a small number of key personnel, and may not be able to operate and grow our business effectively if we lose their services or are unable to attract qualified personnel in the future.

 

Our success depends in part upon the continued service of a small number of key personnel. They are critical to the overall management of the Company, and our strategic direction. We rely heavily on them because they have substantial experience with the Company and our business strategies. Our ability to retain them is therefore very important to our future success. We have employment agreements with our key personnel, but these employment agreements do not ensure that they will not voluntarily terminate their employment with us. The loss of any key personnel would require the remaining key personnel to divert immediate attention to seeking a replacement. Competition for senior management personnel is intense, and our inability to find a suitable replacement for any departing key personnel in a timely basis could adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business.

 

Past performance by members of the Company’s management team may not be indicative of an ability to complete the NRO Acquisition or of future performance of the Company.

 

Past performance and operational experience of our management team and their affiliates is not a guarantee of the Company’s ability to complete the NRO Acquisition nor, if consummated, a guarantee that the intended benefits of the NRO Acquisition will be achieved or that we will be able to successfully develop and operate the Genesis Assets. You should not rely on the historical record of our management team or their affiliates’ performance as indicative of the future performance of the Company or of an investment in our Common Stock.

 

We will rely on key contracts and business relationships, and if our current or future business partners or contracting counterparties fail to perform or terminate any of their contractual arrangements with us for any reason or cease operations, or should we fail to adequately identify key business relationships, our business could be disrupted and our reputation may be harmed.

 

If any of our current or future business partners or contracting counterparties fails to perform or terminates their agreement(s) with us for any reason, or if our current or future business partners or contracting counterparties with which we have short-term agreements refuse to extend or renew the agreement or enter into a similar agreement, our ability to carry on operations may be impaired. In addition, we will depend on the continued operation of long-term business partners and contracting counterparties and on maintaining good relations with them. If one of our future long-term partners or counterparties is unable (including as a result of bankruptcy or a liquidation proceeding) or unwilling to continue operating in the line of business that is the subject of our contract, we may not be able to obtain similar relationships and agreements on terms acceptable to us or at all. If a current or future partner or counterparty fails to perform or terminates any of the agreements with us or discontinues operations, and we are unable to obtain similar relationships or agreements, such events could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

 

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Terrorist attacks, cyberattacks and threats could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Terrorist attacks or cyberattacks may significantly affect the energy industry, including our operations and those of our suppliers and customers, as well as general economic conditions, consumer confidence and spending and market liquidity. Cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks, have increased in frequency globally. Strategic targets, such as energy related assets, may be at greater risk of future attacks than other targets in the United States. We depend on digital technology in many areas of our business and operations, including recording financial and operating data, oversight and analysis of our operations and communications with the employees supporting our operations and our customers or service providers. We also collect and store sensitive data in the ordinary course of our business, including personally identifiable information as well as our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers, investors and other stakeholders. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of information is critical to our operations, and we monitor our key information technology systems in an effort to detect and prevent cyberattacks, security breaches or unauthorized access. Despite our security measures, our information technology systems may undergo cyberattacks or security breaches including as a result of employee error, malfeasance or other threat vectors, which could lead to the corruption, loss, or disclosure of proprietary and sensitive data, misdirected wire transfers, and an inability to: perform services for our customers; complete or settle transactions; maintain our books and records; prevent environmental damage; and maintain communications or operations. Significant liability to the Company or third parties may result. We are not able to anticipate, detect or prevent all cyberattacks, particularly because the methodologies used by attackers change frequently or may not be recognized until an attack is already underway or significantly thereafter, and because attackers are increasingly using technologies specifically designed to circumvent cybersecurity measures and avoid detection. Cybersecurity attacks are also becoming more sophisticated and include, but are not limited to, ransomware, credential stuffing, spear phishing, social engineering, use of deepfakes (i.e., highly realistic synthetic media generated by artificial intelligence) and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to data for purposes of extortion or other malfeasance.

 

Our information and operational technologies, systems and networks, and those of our vendors, suppliers, customers and other business partners, may become the target of cyberattacks or information security breaches that result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, or adversely disrupt our business operations. Advances in computer capabilities, discoveries in the field of artificial intelligence, cryptography, or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to safeguard confidential, personal, or otherwise protected information. As cyberattacks continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerabilities to cyberattacks. In particular, our implementation of various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate security threats and to increase security for our personnel, information, facilities and infrastructure may result in increased capital and operating costs. A cyberattack or security breach could result in liability resulting from data privacy or cybersecurity claims, liability under data privacy laws, regulatory penalties, damage to our reputation, long-lasting loss of confidence in us, or additional costs for remediation and modification or enhancement of our information systems to prevent future occurrences, all of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. To date, we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyberattacks; however, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such losses in the future. No security measure is infallible. Consequently, it is possible that any of these occurrences, or a combination of them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The terms of indebtedness we may incur in the future, including our anticipated revolving credit facility, may restrict our future business and operations.

 

While we currently do not have any long-term debt obligations and our goal is to operate with limited leverage, we intend to enter into a revolving credit facility primarily to support our hedging activities in connection with the consummation of this offering and the NRO Acquisition, and may incur other indebtedness in the future. The revolving credit facility may contain covenants limiting our ability to pay dividends, incur indebtedness, grant liens, make acquisitions, make investments or dispositions, engage in transactions with affiliates and enter into hedging and derivative arrangements, as well as covenants requiring us to maintain certain financial ratios and tests. In addition, the borrowing base under a credit facility may be subject to periodic review by our lenders. Difficulties in the credit markets may cause the banks to be more restrictive when redetermining the borrowing base. We can make no assurances that we will be able to enter into a credit facility.

 

Our ability to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness and to satisfy our other obligations will depend on our future operating performance, our financial condition and the availability of refinancing indebtedness, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows to pay the interest on our debt and future working capital, and borrowings or equity financing may not be available to pay or refinance such debt. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations or contractual commitments, or to refinance our debt on commercially reasonable terms, our business and financial condition could materially and adversely be affected.

 

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Acquisitions, joint ventures or similar strategic relationships may disrupt or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

 

As part of our strategy, we may explore strategic acquisitions and combinations, or enter into joint ventures or similar strategic relationships. These transactions are subject to the following risks:

 

Acquisitions, joint ventures or similar relationships may cause a disruption in our ongoing business, distract our management and make it difficult to maintain our standards, controls and procedures;
   
We may not be able to integrate successfully the services, products, and personnel of any such transaction into our operations;
   
We may not derive the revenue improvements, cost savings and other intended benefits of any such transaction; and
   
There may be risks, exposures and liabilities of acquired entities or other third parties with whom we undertake a transaction, which may arise from such third parties’ activities prior to undertaking a transaction with us.

 

Acquisitions may result in significant impairment charges and may operate at losses. We can provide no assurance that future acquisitions, joint ventures or strategic relationships will be accretive to our business overall or will result in profitable operations.

 

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and pro forma combined proved reserves and production data included in this prospectus may not be representative of our future results or operations.

 

The unaudited pro forma information included in this prospectus is constructed from our consolidated historical financial statements and operating results and the financial statements and operating results of the Company and NRO and adjusted to reflect the impact of the Merger, the Exok Transaction, the Crypto Sale and certain other Subsequent Events, as well as the anticipated impact of this offering. Such unaudited pro forma information does not purport to be indicative of our future results of operations following the NRO Acquisition and this offering. Therefore, such unaudited pro forma information may not be representative of our future results or operations. The unaudited pro forma information included in this prospectus is also based in part on certain assumptions that we believe are reasonable. We cannot assure you, however, that our assumptions will prove to be accurate. Accordingly, the pro forma information included in this prospectus may not be indicative of what our results of operations and financial condition would have been had the applicable events occurred during the periods presented, or what our results of operations and financial conditions will be in the future.

 

We may not realize the full benefit of the Crypto Sale for a variety of reasons, including the inability of the Crypto Purchaser to pay the Deferred Purchase Price due to a decrease in the price of Bitcoin or the actions of third parties.

 

On January 23, 2024, pursuant to the Crypto Divestiture Agreement, we sold all of our Mining Equipment and related assets for total consideration of $2 million, including $1 million in cash and $1 million in deferred cash payments, to be paid out of (i) 20% of the net monthly revenues received by the Crypto Purchaser associated with or otherwise attributable to the Mining Equipment until the aggregate amount of such payments equals $250,000 and (ii) thereafter, 50% of the net monthly revenues received by the Crypto Purchaser associated with or otherwise attributable to the Mining Equipment until the aggregate amount of such payments equals $1 million, plus accrued interest. In addition to the Mining Equipment, we assigned all our rights and obligations under the Atlas MSA to the Crypto Purchaser.

 

Since payment of the Deferred Purchase Price is dependent on the revenue generated by the Mining Equipment, we cannot predict the timing of when we will receive the Deferred Purchase Price, if at all. Our receipt of the Deferred Purchase Price is subject to numerous risks outside of our control, including:

 

The market price and liquidity of Bitcoin;

 

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The cost of energy;
   
The global Bitcoin network processing hashrate;
   
Laws and regulations that may adversely affect the use of Bitcoin as a crypto-currency; and
   
The actions of third parties, including Atlas.

 

While we no longer have direct exposure to the fluctuation and volatility of Bitcoin prices, we will remain indirectly exposed to such volatility until the Deferred Purchase Price has been paid in full. If the market price of Bitcoin decreases to the point where the Crypto Purchaser does not find it economically feasible to operate the Mining Equipment or if Atlas suspends operations of the Mining Equipment under the terms of the Atlas MSA, the payment, if any, of the Deferred Purchase Price may be delayed. Although the Crypto Divestiture Agreement requires the Crypto Purchaser to operate the Mining Equipment in the ordinary course of business until the Deferred Purchase Price is paid in full, delays in payment or failure to pay the Deferred Purchase Price due to the economic feasibility of mining Bitcoin or malfeasance of a third party may result in costly litigation. In addition, while we have a security interest in the Mining Equipment as collateral security for the prompt and complete payment and performance in full of the Crypto Purchaser’s obligations under the Crypto Divestiture Agreement, there can be no assurances that the remedies available to us in respect of such security interest will be sufficient. These risks and uncertainties may have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our Charter provides for indemnification of officers and directors at our expense and limits their liability, which may result in a major cost to us and harm the interests of our stockholders because corporate resources may be expended for the benefit of officers and/or directors.

 

Our Charter and applicable Delaware law provide for the indemnification of our directors and officers against attorney’s fees and other expenses incurred by them in any action to which they become a party arising from their association with or activities on our behalf. This indemnification policy could result in substantial expenditures by us that we will be unable to recoup.

 

We have been advised that, in the opinion of the SEC, indemnification for liabilities arising under federal securities laws is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification for liabilities arising under federal securities laws, other than the payment by us of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding, is asserted by a director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, we will (unless in the opinion of our counsel, the matter has been settled by controlling precedent) submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, the question whether indemnification by us is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue. The legal process relating to this matter, if it were to occur, is likely to be very costly and may result in us receiving negative publicity, either of which factors is likely to materially reduce the market and price for our shares if such a market ever develops.

 

There may be conflicts of interest between certain of our officers and directors and our non-management stockholders.

 

Conflicts of interest create the risk that management may have an incentive to act adversely to the interests of other stockholders. A conflict of interest may arise between our officers and directors’ personal pecuniary interests and their fiduciary duty to our stockholders. Furthermore, our officers and directors’ own pecuniary interests may not align with their fiduciary duties to our stockholders. Edward Kovalik (Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board), Gary C. Hanna (President and Director) and Paul Kessler (Director) have certain overriding royalty interests in the Initial Genesis Assets. To avoid any potential conflict of interest with certain members of the Board and management owning certain overriding royalty interests under the Initial Genesis Assets, all of the Company’s drilling programs will be approved by an independent committee of the Board on a quarterly basis.

 

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Future litigation or governmental proceedings could result in material adverse consequences, including judgments or settlements.

 

From time to time, we may be involved in lawsuits, regulatory inquiries, governmental and other legal proceedings, such as title, royalty or contractual disputes, our oil and gas development activities, environmental liabilities, regulatory compliance matters, personal injury, property damage and employment litigation, in the ordinary course of our business. Many of these matters raise difficult and complicated factual and legal issues and are subject to uncertainties and complexities. The timing of the final resolutions to these types of matters is often uncertain. Additionally, the possible outcomes or resolutions to these matters could include adverse judgments or settlements, either of which could require substantial payments, adversely affecting our results of operations and liquidity. Irrespective of the outcome, legal proceedings or governmental investigations may adversely affect our business due to legal costs, diversion of resources and the attention of our management and employees, and other factors.

 

Due to the recent listing of our Common Stock on Nasdaq, we will incur materially increased costs and become subject to additional regulations and requirements.

 

Due to the recent listing of our Common Stock on Nasdaq, we will incur material legal, accounting and other expenses, including payment of annual exchange fees, to satisfy the continued listing standards for Nasdaq. In connection with the listing of our Common Stock on Nasdaq, we now must meet certain financial and liquidity criteria to maintain our listing, as well as standards of Board independence, committee composition and governance and Board diversity, only some of which criteria and standards include time periods to comply after listing. If we fail to meet any of Nasdaq’s listing standards, our Common Stock may be delisted. In addition, our Board may determine that the cost of maintaining our listing on a national securities exchange outweighs the benefits of such listing. A delisting of our Common Stock from Nasdaq may materially impair our stockholders’ ability to buy and sell our Common Stock and could have an adverse effect on the market price of, and the efficiency of the trading market for, our Common Stock. The delisting of our Common Stock could significantly impair our ability to raise capital and the value of your investment.

 

Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could result in a restatement of our financial statements, cause investors to lose confidence in our financial statements and our Company and have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.

 

We produce our financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports to help mitigate the risk of fraud and to operate successfully as a publicly traded company. As a public company, we are required to document and test our internal control procedures in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404. Further, Section 404 requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Testing and maintaining internal controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to our business. We may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. If we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and our company, which could result in a decline in the market price of our Common Stock, and cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations in the future, which in turn could impact our ability to raise additional financing if needed in the future.

 

The requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.

 

As a public company, we are required to comply with laws, regulations and requirements, certain corporate governance provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, related regulations of the SEC and the requirements of Nasdaq. Complying with these statutes, regulations and requirements occupy a significant amount of time of our board of directors and management and significantly increase our costs and expenses. We are required to:

 

institute a more comprehensive compliance function;
   
comply with rules promulgated by Nasdaq;

 

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continue to prepare and distribute periodic public reports in compliance with our obligations under the federal securities laws;
   
establish internal policies, such as those relating to insider trading; and
   
involve and retain outside counsel and accountants in the above activities.

 

Furthermore, we must comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 for our annual reports on Form 10-K, including the requirement to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls, unless we continue to be exempt from such requirement. Our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed. Compliance with these requirements may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management; and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies may make our Common Stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the Securities Act and Exchange Act and expect to remain a “smaller reporting company” for the foreseeable future. We are therefore entitled to rely on certain reduced disclosure requirements, such as the ability to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation. Additionally, as a “non-accelerated filer”, we currently are not required to obtain an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

We have utilized these exemptions and expect to continue to utilize these exemptions while we remain a smaller reporting company and non-accelerated filer. These exemptions and reduced disclosures in our SEC filings due to our status as a smaller reporting company mean our auditors do not review our internal control over financial reporting and may make it harder for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects. We cannot predict if investors will find our Common Stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Common Stock and our Common Stock prices may be more volatile.

 

Our Charter and Bylaws designate the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

 

Our Charter and Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the Superior Court of the State of Delaware, or, if the Superior Court of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, other employee or agent or stockholder of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or (iv) any action against the Company or any director, officer, other employee or agent of the Company asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, including, without limitation, any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Charter or the Bylaws, in each such case subject to such court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. Our Charter and Bylaws further provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action under the Securities Act. Our Charter and Bylaws provisions do not apply to complaints asserting a cause of action under the Exchange Act. A stockholder may not waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of the provisions of our Charter and Bylaws described in the preceding sentences. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and such persons. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our Charter and Bylaws inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to the Offering and Ownership of our Common Stock

 

You will incur immediate and substantial dilution.

 

Prior stockholders have paid substantially less per share of our Common Stock than the price in this offering. The offering price per share of our Common Stock will be substantially higher than the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of outstanding Common Stock prior to completion of this offering. Based on our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2023, and upon the issuance and sale of shares of our Common Stock by us at an offering price of $                  per share (which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range shown on the cover page of this prospectus), if you purchase our Common Stock in this offering, you will pay more for your shares than the amounts paid by our existing stockholders for their shares and you will suffer immediate dilution of approximately $                    per share. Dilution is the amount by which the offering price paid by purchasers of our Common Stock in this offering will exceed the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Common Stock upon completion of this offering. If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, you will experience additional dilution. You may experience additional dilution upon future equity issuances or upon the conversion or exercise, as applicable, of our outstanding Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E PIPE Warrants or Exok Warrants, shares of Common Stock reserved for future issuance under the A&R LTIP and shares of Common Stock represented by restricted stock units and performance-based restricted stock units that have been granted and are unvested pursuant to the A&R LTIP. See “Dilution.”

 

The conversion or exercise, as applicable, of the outstanding Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E PIPE Warrants, Non-Compensatory Options and Exok Warrants could substantially dilute your investment and adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.

 

As of March 13, 2024, the Series D Preferred Stock are convertible into an aggregate of 4,115,426 shares of Common Stock and the Series D PIPE Warrants are exercisable for an aggregate of 4,613,028 shares of Common Stock. The Series E Preferred Stock are convertible into an aggregate of 4,000,000 shares of Common Stock and the Series E PIPE Warrants are exercisable for an aggregate of 8,000,000 shares of Common Stock. The Exok Warrants are exercisable for an aggregate of 670,499 shares of Common Stock. In addition, there are outstanding non-compensatory options to purchase an aggregate of 8,000,000 shares of Common Stock for $7.14 per share (the “Non-Compensatory Options”) which are only exercisable if specific production hurdles are achieved, pursuant to amended and restated non-compensatory option agreements entered into at the Merger Effective Time (collectively, the “Option Agreements”).

 

In addition, sales of a substantial number of shares of Common Stock issued upon the conversion or exercise, as applicable, of the outstanding Series E Preferred Stock, Series E PIPE Warrants, Exok Warrants, Series D Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Non-Compensatory Options, or even the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. The conversion or exercise of such securities could result in dilution in the interests of our other stockholders and adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. For example, as a result of the Warrant Exercise, the Company issued an additional 2,000,000 shares of Common Stock to the O’Neill Trust, resulting in immediate dilution to existing stockholders of approximately 20%.

 

Upon the expiration of the lock-up agreements, a substantial number of shares of Common Stock will be eligible for resale into the public market. The underwriters of this offering may waive or release parties to the lock-up agreements entered into in connection with this offering, which could adversely affect the price of our Common Stock.

 

In connection with this offering, we, our directors and executive officers and holders of 5% or more of our Common Stock prior to this offering have each agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to dispose of or hedge any of our or their shares of Common Stock from the date hereof for a period of            days. Upon the expiration of the lock-up agreements,                       shares of Common Stock held by the stockholders and insiders will be eligible for resale, of which                 would be subject to volume, manner of sale and other limitations under Rule 144. The resale of these shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Common Stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also may make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price we deem appropriate.

 

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The underwriters may, at any time and without notice, release all or any portion of the shares of our Common Stock subject to the lock-up agreements entered into in connection with this offering. If the restrictions under the lock-up agreements are waived,                       shares of Common Stock will be available for resale into the public market, which could reduce the market value for our Common Stock.

 

Our Board has broad discretion to issue additional securities, and in order to raise sufficient funds to expand our operations, we may have to issue securities at prices which may result in substantial dilution to our stockholders.

 

We are entitled under our Charter to issue up to 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, although these amounts may change in the future subject to stockholder approval. Shares of our preferred stock provide our Board broad authority to determine voting, dividend, conversion and other rights. Any additional stock issuances could be made at a price that reflects a discount or premium to the then-current market price of our Common Stock. In addition, in order to raise capital, we may need to issue securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for a significant amount of our Common Stock. Our Board may generally issue those shares of Common Stock and preferred stock, or convertible securities to purchase those shares, without further approval by our stockholders. Any preferred stock we may issue could have such rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions as may be designated from time-to-time by our Board, including preferential dividend rights, voting rights, conversion rights, redemption rights and liquidation provisions. We may also issue additional securities to our directors, officers, employees and consultants as compensatory grants in connection with their services, both in the form of stand-alone grants or under our stock incentive plans. The issuance of additional securities may cause substantial dilution to our stockholders.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Common Stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

 

The trading market for our Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our Common Stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

 

Insiders have substantial control over the Company, and they could delay or prevent a change in our corporate control even if our other stockholders want it to occur.

 

As of March 13, 2024, our executive officers and directors, collectively beneficially own approximately 41.38% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock and the O’Neill Trust beneficially owns 25% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock. These stockholders are able to exercise significant control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. This could delay or prevent an outside party from acquiring or merging with our Company even if our other stockholders want it to occur. This may also limit your ability to influence the Company in other ways. In addition, certain investors own significant numbers of convertible securities, that if exercised or converted, could result in ownership of a significant portion of the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company. For example, assuming full exercise or conversion, as applicable, of their respective convertible securities and no exercise or conversion by other security holders, certain holders could acquire a controlling position in the Company’s Common Stock. The exercise or conversion, as applicable, of the Series D Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E Preferred Stock and Series E PIPE Warrants are subject to a beneficial ownership limitation of 4.99% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock, which may be increased by the holder upon written notice to the Company, to any specified percentage not in excess of 9.99%. The 9.99% beneficial ownership limitation may only be modified, amended or waived with the written consent of both the Company and the security holder. In November 2023, the O’Neill Trust entered into an agreement with the Company pursuant to which it amended the terms of each of its Series D PIPE Warrants and Series E PIPE Warrants to increase the beneficial ownership limitation from 9.99% to 25% and gave notice to the Company that it was increasing its beneficial ownership limitation to 25% with respect to each of its remaining warrants. The beneficial ownership limitation on the Series D Preferred Stock and Series E Preferred Stock remains at 4.99%, subject to increase to 9.99% by O’Neill Trust upon written notice to the Company. If such beneficial ownership limitation were to be amended or waived for the O’Neill Trust or other holders, certain holders would be able to convert their preferred shares or warrants for a significant portion of the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company, and such holders would be able to exercise significant control over all matters requiring stockholder approval. See the section entitled “Description of Securities” for more information regarding the beneficial ownership limitation provisions.

 

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The trading price of our Common Stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control.

 

The market price of our Common Stock has historically varied greatly, and is likely to continue to be volatile because of numerous factors, including:

 

further disagreements or price wars amongst OPEC+ members, including the effect thereof on global oil supply, oil storage capacity and oil prices;
   
a domestic or global economic slowdown that could affect our financial results and operations and the economic strength of our customers;
   
our ability to meet our working capital needs;
   
quarterly variations in operating results;
   
our ability to successfully finance and consummate the NRO Acquisition on the anticipated timeline, or at all;
   
changes in financial estimates by us or securities analysts who may cover our stock or by our failure to meet the estimates made by securities analysts;
   
changes in market valuations of other similar companies;
   
announcements by us or our competitors of new products or of significant technical innovations, contracts, acquisitions, divestitures, strategic relationships or joint ventures;
   
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our business;
   
additions or departures of key personnel;
   
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of debt or equity securities;
   
short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions involving our capital stock;
   
our limited public float and the relatively thin trading market for our Common Stock;
   
transactions in our common stock, by directors, officers, affiliates and other major investors; and
   
the other factors described under “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included in this prospectus.

 

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Furthermore, from time to time, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies.

 

These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes, international currency fluctuations or political unrest, may negatively impact the market price of our Common Stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. Any future securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, and harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

Future sales of our Common Stock, or the perception that such future sales may occur, may cause our stock price to decline.

 

Sales of substantial amounts of our Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline. In addition, the sale of such shares, or the perception that such sales may occur, could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional Common Stock or preferred stock. Except for any shares purchased by our affiliates, all of the shares of Common Stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable.

 

We have not paid cash dividends in the past and do not expect to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any return on your investment may be limited to increases in the market price of our Common Stock.

 

We have not paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $             million (or approximately $              million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Common Stock from us), assuming an initial public offering price of $              per share (which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range shown on the cover page of this prospectus).

 

We intend to use approximately $                         of the net proceeds to us from this offering to finance the NRO Acquisition and the remainder for general corporate purposes. In the event that the NRO Acquisition is not consummated, we intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include advancing our development and drilling program or financing other acquisitions. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in short-term marketable securities until they are used for their stated purpose.

 

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DILUTION

 

If you invest in our Common Stock in this offering, your ownership interest in us will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our Common Stock and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Common Stock after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per share offering price of the Common Stock is substantially in excess of the book value per share attributable to the shares of Common Stock held by existing stockholders.

 

Our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2023 was approximately $                    , or $                  per share of Common Stock, as adjusted to give effect to the Merger, the Reverse Stock Split, the Crypto Sale and certain other Subsequent Events. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our Common Stock that will be outstanding immediately prior to the closing of this offering. After giving effect to the sale of                 shares in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $                   , and after deducting estimated discounts, commissions and offering expenses, our adjusted pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2023 would have been approximately $                 , or $                 per share. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $                     per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution (i.e., the difference between the offering price and the adjusted pro forma net tangible book value after this offering) to new investors purchasing shares in this offering at a price of $                   per share. The following table illustrates the per share dilution to new investors purchasing shares in this offering:

 

Assumed public offering price per share      $ 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2023  $      
Increase per share attributable to new investors in this offering          
Adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share          
Dilution in adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering       $ 

 

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Common Stock from us, the as adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering and the use of proceeds therefrom would be $               per share. This represents an increase in as adjusted pro forma net tangible book value of $                per share to existing stockholders and results in dilution in as adjusted pro forma net tangible book value of $                  per share to investors purchasing shares in this offering at the public offering price.

 

The following table summarizes, on an adjusted pro forma basis as of December 31, 2023, the total number of shares of Common Stock owned by existing stockholders and to be owned by the new investors in this offering, the total consideration paid, and the average price per share paid by our existing stockholders and to be paid by the new investors in this offering at an assumed price of $                  , calculated before deducting discounts, commissions and offering expenses:

 

   Shares acquired   Total consideration   Average price  
   Number   Percent   Amount   Percent   per share 
Existing stockholders       %  $   %  $
New investors in this offering        %  $    %  $ 
Total             100%  $           100%  $         

 

If the underwriters were to fully exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our Common Stock, the percentage of shares of our Common Stock held by existing stockholders as of December 31, 2023 would be       % and the percentage of shares of our common stock held by new investors would be            %.

 

A $                   increase or decrease in the assumed public offering price of $                  per share would increase or decrease our adjusted pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2023 by approximately $                  , the adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering by $                   per share and the dilution in adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering by $                      per share, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.

 

The discussion and tables above are based on                    shares of our Common Stock outstanding as of December 31, 2023, and excludes                     million shares of Common Stock issuable upon the conversion or exercise, as applicable, of the Series D Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E Preferred Stock, Series E PIPE Warrants, Exok Warrants and Legacy Warrants,                      shares of Common Stock reserved for future issuance under the A&R LTIP and                    shares of Common Stock represented by restricted stock units and performance-based restricted stock units that have been granted and are unvested pursuant to the A&R LTIP.

 

To the extent that outstanding Series D Preferred Stock, Series D PIPE Warrants, Series E Preferred Stock, Series E PIPE Warrants, Exok Warrants and Legacy Warrants are converted or exercised, as applicable, or we issue shares of Common Stock or grant restricted stock units or performance-based restricted stock units under the A&R LTIP, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

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MARKET INFORMATION FOR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY

 

Market Information

 

Our Common Stock is currently listed on Nasdaq under the trading symbol “PROP.” On                     , 2024, the closing price of our Common Stock was $                  . As of                     , 2024, there were holders of record of our Common Stock.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We have not paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur.

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

 

In connection with the Merger and pursuant to the Merger Agreement, prior to the Merger Effective Time, the Board assumed Prairie LLC’s Long Term Incentive Plan and immediately following the Merger Effective Time, adopted the Amended and Restated Prairie Operating Co. Long Term Incentive Plan (the “A&R LTIP Plan”), which was an amendment and restatement of Prairie LLC’s Long Term Incentive Plan. Among other ministerial changes to reflect the Merger and conversion of all membership interests in Prairie LLC to shares of Common Stock, the A&R LTIP Plan provides for the assumption of shares remaining available for delivery as of immediately prior to the Merger Effective Time (as appropriately adjusted to reflect the Merger, resulting in 625,000 shares of Common Stock) such that such shares shall be available for awards under the A&R LTIP Plan to individuals who were employed by Prairie LLC or its affiliates prior to the Merger Effective Time. On August 25, 2023, in connection with the termination of the 2021 Incentive Stock Award Plan, a legacy Creek Road Miners, Inc. equity compensation plan that had previously been adopted in 2021, and the consolidation of the Company’s available equity incentive plans into one arrangement, the A&R LTIP was further amended and restated to provide for the delivery of up to 35 million shares of Common Stock pursuant to incentive awards granted thereunder. However, following the Reverse Stock Split, the number of shares available for delivery under the A&R LTIP has been adjusted to 1,225,000.

 

We intend to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register the shares of Common Stock issued or issuable under the A&R LTIP Plan. Any such Form S-8 registration statement will become effective automatically upon filing. We expect that the initial registration statement on Form S-8 will cover shares of Common Stock underlying the A&R LTIP Plan. Once these shares are registered, they can be sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to applicable restrictions.

 

The following table summarizes our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2023:

 

Plan category  Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights   Weighted average exercise price of outstanding o