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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to .
Commission file number 000-49728
jblogoa08.jpg
JETBLUE AIRWAYS CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
87-0617894
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
27-01 Queens Plaza North
Long Island City
New York
11101
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (718) 286-7900
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
JBLU
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of ''large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer'', “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $5.4 billion (based on the last reported sale price on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date). The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of January 31, 2020 was 282,201,849 shares.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Designated portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is to be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or the Report, to the extent described therein.


Table of Contents

Table of Contents
PART I.
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II.
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 7A.
Item 8.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III.
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV.
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.

1

Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

Statements in this Report (or otherwise made by JetBlue or on JetBlue’s behalf) contain various forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which represent our management’s beliefs and assumptions concerning future events. When used in this document and in documents incorporated herein by reference, the words “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “indicates,” “believes,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “targets” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and are based on information currently available to us. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to many factors, including, without limitation, our extremely competitive industry; volatility in financial and credit markets which could affect our ability to obtain debt and/or lease financing or to raise funds through debt or equity issuances; our significant fixed obligations and substantial indebtedness; volatility in fuel prices, maintenance costs and interest rates; our reliance on high daily aircraft utilization; our ability to implement our growth strategy; our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and maintain our culture as we grow; our reliance on a limited number of suppliers, including for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts and vulnerability to delays by those suppliers; our dependence on the New York and Boston metropolitan markets and the effect of increased congestion in these markets; our reliance on automated systems and technology; our being subject to potential unionization, work stoppages, slowdowns or increased labor costs; our presence in some international emerging markets that may experience political or economic instability or may subject us to legal risk; reputational and business risk from information security breaches or cyber-attacks; changes in or additional domestic or foreign government regulation, including new or increased tariffs; changes in our industry due to other airlines' financial condition; acts of war or terrorism; global economic conditions or an economic downturn leading to a continuing or accelerated decrease in demand for air travel; the spread of infectious diseases; adverse weather conditions or natural disasters; and external geopolitical events and conditions. It is routine for our internal projections and expectations to change as the year or each quarter in the year progresses, and therefore it should be clearly understood that the internal projections, beliefs and assumptions upon which we base our expectations may change prior to the end of each quarter or year.
Given the risks and uncertainties surrounding forward-looking statements, you should not place undue reliance on these statements. You should understand that many important factors, in addition to those discussed or incorporated by reference in this Report, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. Potential factors that could affect our results include, in addition to others not described in this Report, those described in Item 1A of this Report under “Risks Related to JetBlue” and “Risks Associated with the Airline Industry.” In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events discussed in this Report might not occur. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Report. Other than as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.


2

Table of Contents

PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

OVERVIEW
General
JetBlue Airways Corporation, or JetBlue, is New York's Hometown Airline®. In 2019, JetBlue carried over 42 million customers with an average of more than 1,000 daily flights and served 99 destinations in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America.
JetBlue was incorporated in Delaware in August 1998 and commenced service on February 11, 2000. As of the end of 2019, we were the sixth largest passenger carrier in the U.S. based on available seat miles, or ASMs. We believe our differentiated product and culture combined with our competitive cost structure enables us to compete effectively in the high-value geographies we serve. Looking to the future, we plan to continue to grow in our high-value geographies, invest in industry leading products and provide award-winning service by our more than 22,000 dedicated employees, whom we refer to as crewmembers. Going forward, we believe we will continue to differentiate ourselves from other airlines, enabling us to continue to attract a greater mix of customers, and to drive further profitable growth. We are focused on delivering solid results for our shareholders, our customers, and our crewmembers.
As used in this Report, the terms “JetBlue,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to JetBlue Airways Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise. Our principal executive offices are located at 27-01 Queens Plaza North, Long Island City, New York 11101 and our telephone number is (718) 286-7900.
Our Industry and Competition
The U.S. airline industry is extremely competitive and challenging, and results are often volatile. It is uniquely susceptible to external factors such as fuel costs, downturns in domestic and international economic conditions, weather-related disruptions, the spread of infectious diseases, the impact of airline restructurings or consolidations, and military actions or acts of terrorism. We operate in a capital and energy intensive industry that has high fixed costs, as well as heavy taxation and fees. Airline returns are sensitive to slight changes in fuel prices, average fare levels, and passenger demand. The industry's principal competitive factors include fares, brand and customer service, route networks, flight schedules, aircraft types, safety records, codesharing and interline relationships, inflight entertainment and connectivity systems, and frequent flyer programs.
Price competition is intense in our industry. Our ability to operate successfully and grow in this environment depends on, among other things, our ability to operate at costs equal to or lower than our competitors.
Since 2001, the majority of traditional network airlines have undergone significant financial restructuring including bankruptcies, mergers and consolidations. These types of restructurings typically result in a lower cost structure through a reduction of labor costs, restructuring of commitments including debt terms, leases and aircraft, modification or termination of pension plans, increased workforce flexibility, and innovative offerings. These actions also have provided the restructured airlines significant opportunities for realignment of route networks, alliances, and frequent flyer programs. Each factor has had a significant influence on the industry's improved profitability.

2019 OPERATIONAL HIGHLIGHTS
We believe our differentiated product and culture, and high-value geography relative to other airlines contributed to our continued success in 2019. Our 2019 operational highlights include:
Product enhancements - Throughout 2019, we continued to invest in industry-leading products which we believe will continue to differentiate our offerings from the other airlines.
Cabin Restyle - We made significant progress on our cabin restyle program which includes two iterations. Phase 1 of the program introduced our popular Airbus A321 interior to our Airbus A320 aircraft. Phase 2, which began in early 2019, includes enhancements to provide our customers with a cabin experience of the future. It features a new seat design with memory foam cushion comfort and adjustable headrests, a next generation inflight entertainment system with an expanded collection of on demand movies, television shows including full seasons and video content, plus new gaming features, and expanded Fly-Fi® coverage over water to support our growing network.
Mobile Application - We updated our mobile application to include an in-app chat functionality. With the added in-app functionality, customers will have even more options for connecting with our customer support crewmembers.

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Fare Options 2.0 - Since launching our first fare options platform in 2015, we have gained deep insights into what customers want when they select a fare. In November 2019, we launched fare options 2.0 to offer the choices that today's customers want, including a new low fare for price sensitive travelers which we call Blue Basic, and an updated option for customers who value additional benefits like flexibility and speed, which we refer to as Blue Extra. Blue Basic is designed to help customers save while still offering the full JetBlue experience. Customers choosing the Blue Basic option will enjoy the same great experience with the most legroom in coach, free brand-name snacks and drinks, free high-speed wi-fi, DIRECTV® and movies at every seat, and our award-winning customer service. Blue Extra offers customers full change flexibility, early boarding, and Even More® Speed at a significant discount over the cost of purchasing these services as add-ons.
Network - We continued to gain relevance in our high-value geography by building out our focus cities to establish a position of strength. Our network growth in 2019 was primarily aimed at adding more connect-the-dot routes in Boston and Fort Lauderdale. In Boston, we added more flights on 12 of our most popular routes and adjusted schedules to offer up to 18 and 14 hourly flights per day to New York and Washington D.C., respectively. In Fort Lauderdale, we launched daily flights to St. Maarten and Phoenix. In addition to strengthening our transcon market, the new Fort Lauderdale - Phoenix flights will not only give Arizona customers a direct link to South Florida, but also onward connections to the Caribbean and Latin America.
In February 2019, we began daily round trip service from Fort Lauderdale to Guayaquil, Ecuador. Guayaquil joined Quito as our second BlueCity in Ecuador, highlighting our success in this South American country.
In April 2019, we announced plans to launch multiple daily flights from Boston and JFK to London beginning in 2021. London will be our first BlueCity in Europe.
In June 2019, we announced plans to start winter seasonal service between JFK and Guadeloupe with three times weekly service which launched in February 2020. The new service grows our already expansive footprint in the Caribbean and Latin America, and caters to leisure travelers in the Northeast looking to experience a unique island getaway during the cold winter months.
In September 2019, we announced plans to launch daily nonstop service between JFK and Georgetown, Guyana beginning in April 2020.
In October 2019, we relocated our operations in Houston from William P. Hobby Airport to George Bush Intercontinental Airport to better serve our customers.
In December 2019, we launched daily nonstop services between JFK and Guayaquil, our first route enabled by the capabilities of the Airbus A321 new engine option ("neo") aircraft. This route is the longest in our network, stretching beyond our previous longest route by more than 200 nautical miles.
We continued to examine our network to ensure we are making the best use of our aircraft and in 2019 we announced our plans to discontinue operations in Anchorage, La Romana in the Dominican Republic, and Mexico City. We believe these adjustments will promote healthy growth and improve the profitability of our network.
As a result of the decision by the U.S. Government to no longer permit air carriers to operate scheduled services to Cuban cities except for Havana, we ended our operations in Camagüey, Holguín and Santa Clara in December 2019.
Fleet - During 2019, we took delivery of six Airbus A321neo aircraft and bought out the lease of one of our aircraft.
In connection with our plans to launch flights to London in 2021, we amended our purchase agreement with Airbus in April 2019 to convert 13 Airbus A321neo deliveries into A321 Long Range ("A321LR") deliveries. The A321LR aircraft offers higher fuel capacity with a range of about 4,000 nautical miles.
In June 2019, we further amended our purchase agreement with Airbus to convert an additional 13 Airbus A321neo deliveries into the A321 Xtra Long Range ("A321XLR") deliveries. We believe the range of the Airbus A321XLR will allow us to expand our relevance in Boston and New York by adding more destinations into Europe. In addition, we also converted 10 of our options for the Airbus A220-300 aircraft into firm orders.
We anticipate that we will take delivery of a maximum of eleven Airbus A321neo aircraft and our first Airbus A220 aircraft in 2020.
Customer Service - JetBlue and our crewmembers were recognized in 2019 for industry leading customer service.
J.D. Power and Associates named JetBlue its Top Low Cost Airline for Customer Satisfaction for 2019. Within the J.D. Power study, we led in four of the seven categories: aircraft, inflight services, flight crew, and reservations. This is our 13th J.D. Power and Associates award.

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Airline Ratings awarded JetBlue 7 out of 7 stars for safety, and 5 out of 5 stars for our product offerings. It also named us the Best Low Cost Airline in the Americas.
We were recognized in the 2019 TripAdvisor Travelers' Choice® Awards for the Best Regional Business Class and Best in Passenger Comfort in North America.
At The Points Guy Awards, JetBlue took top honors in both Best Domestic Business Class Product and Best Domestic Economy Product for a second year in a row. We were also recognized by The Points Guy as the Best Airline for Families.
We are the number one domestic airline in Travel + Leisure's World's Best Awards 2019.
Our crewmembers - During 2019, our crewmembers recognized JetBlue as one of America's "Best Large Employers" by Forbes. JetBlue ranked #11 through a survey that asked individuals how likely they would be to recommend their employer to someone else. We were also ranked #15 in the list of Top 50 Top-Rated Workplaces by Indeed. Indeed compiled this list by including companies that are members of the Fortune 500 Index with at least 100 reviews between June 2017 and June 2019. These companies are the most highly rated on overall employee experience.

JETBLUE EXPERIENCE
We offer our customers a distinctive flying experience which we refer to as the "JetBlue Experience''. We believe we deliver award-winning service that focuses on the entire customer experience, from booking an itinerary to arrival at the final destination. Typically, our customers are neither high-traffic business travelers nor ultra-price sensitive travelers. Rather, we believe we are the carrier of choice for the majority of travelers who have been underserved by other airlines as we offer a differentiated product and award winning customer service.
Differentiated Product and Culture   
Delivering the JetBlue Experience to our customers through our differentiated product and culture is core to our mission to inspire humanity. We look to attract new customers to our brand and provide current customers with a reason to come back by continuing to innovate and evolve the JetBlue Experience. We believe we can adapt to the changing needs of our customers and a key element of our success is the belief that competitive fares and quality air travel need not be mutually exclusive.
Our award winning service begins from the moment our customers purchase a ticket through one of our distribution channels such as www.jetblue.com, our mobile applications, or our reservations centers. Customers can purchase tickets under our Fare Options 2.0 pricing model, at one of four branded fares: Blue Basic, Blue, Blue Extra, and in select markets, Blue Plus. Each fare includes different offerings such as priority boarding, advance seat selections, free checked bags, reduced change fees, and additional TrueBlue® points, with all fares including our core offering of free inflight entertainment, free brand name snacks, and free non-alcoholic beverages. Customers can choose to “buy up” to an option with additional offerings. These different fares allow customers to select the products or services they need or value when they travel, without having to pay for the things they do not need or value.
Upon arrival at the airport, our customers are welcomed by our dedicated crewmembers and can choose to purchase one or more of our ancillary options such as Even More® Speed, allowing them to enjoy an expedited security experience in most domestic JetBlue locations. Customers who select our Blue Extra option or purchase a Mint® seat receive Even More® Speed as part of their fare. We additionally have mobile applications for both Apple and Android devices which have robust features including real-time flight information updates and mobile check-in for certain routes. Our applications are designed to enhance our customers' travel experience and are in keeping with the JetBlue Experience.
Our self-service initiative in select BlueCities redesigned the physical layout of the airport lobby and the way our customers travel through it. Our new user-friendly kiosks are the first point of contact for each customer traveling through the airport lobby. While all customers are encouraged to use the kiosks, our new lobby layout allows them to choose the check-in experience they prefer. Customers who choose to use our kiosk receive a virtually queue-less experience. For customers who prefer a more traditional experience, our Help Desk offers full-service check-in. The self-service model allows crewmembers to get out from behind the ticket counter and move through the lobby to guide our customers through the check-in process. The self-service lobby opens up the opportunity for our crewmembers to make personal connections with our customers, to assist with bag tagging, to answer customer questions and to direct them to their next step in the travel experience.
Once onboard our aircraft, customers enjoy seats in a comfortable layout with the most legroom in the main cabin of all U.S. airlines, based on average fleet-wide seat pitch. Our Even More® Space seats are available for purchase across our fleet, giving customers the opportunity to enjoy additional legroom. Customers on certain transcontinental or Caribbean flights have the option to purchase our premium service, Mint®, which has 16 fully lie-flat seats, including four suites with privacy doors.

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Our inflight entertainment system onboard the majority of our Airbus A320 and Embraer E190 aircraft includes 36 channels of free DIRECTV®, 100+ channels of free SiriusXM Radio® and premium movie channel offerings from JetBlue Features. Customers on our Airbus A321 aircraft and certain restyled Airbus A320 aircraft have access to 100+ channels of DIRECTV®, 100+ channels of SiriusXM Radio® and premium movie channel offerings from JetBlue Features. Our Mint® customers enjoy 15-inch flat screen televisions to experience our inflight entertainment offerings. Our entire fleet is equipped with Fly-Fi®, a broadband product that allows gate-to-gate wi-fi at every seat, with connectivity that we believe is significantly faster than airlines featuring KU-band satellites and older ground to air technology. Customers also have access to the Fly-Fi® Hub, a content portal where customers can access a wide range of movies, television shows, and additional content from their own personal devices.
All customers may enjoy an assortment of free and unlimited brand name snacks and non-alcoholic beverages and have the option to purchase additional products such as blankets, pillows, headphones, premium beverages and premium food selections. Our Mint® customers have access to an assortment of complimentary food, beverages and products including a small-plates menu, artisanal snacks, alcoholic beverages, a blanket, pillows, and headphones.
Our Airbus A321 aircraft in a single cabin layout have 200 seats and those with our Mint® offering have 159 seats. Our Airbus A320 aircraft generally have 150 seats while our Embraer E190 aircraft have 100 seats. As part of our cabin restyling program we are increasing the seat density on our Airbus A320 fleet to 162 seats. We believe this multi-year restyling program will allow us to increase capacity in a capital-efficient and customer-focused way. Our first restyled Airbus A320 aircraft entered into revenue service in April 2018. As of December 31, 2019, we had 51 restyled Airbus A320 aircraft in service.  
Because of our network strength in leisure destinations, we also sell vacation packages through our wholly owned subsidiary, JBTP, LLC, or JetBlue Travel Products, a one-stop, value-priced vacation service for self-directed packaged travel planning. These packages offer competitive fares for air travel on JetBlue along with a selection of JetBlue-recommended hotels and resorts, car rentals, and local attractions.
We work to provide a superior air travel experience, including communicating openly and honestly with customers about delays and service disruptions. We have a Customer Bill of Rights which was introduced in 2007 to provide compensation to customers who experience inconveniences. This Customer Bill of Rights commits us to high service standards and holds us accountable if we fall short.
In 2019, we completed 98.8% of our scheduled flights. Unlike most other airlines, we have a policy of not overbooking flights.
Our customers have repeatedly indicated the distinctive JetBlue Experience is an important reason why they select us over other carriers. We measure and monitor customer feedback regularly which helps us to continuously improve customer satisfaction. One way we do so is by measuring our net promoter score, or NPS. This metric is used by companies in a broad range of industries to measure and monitor the customer experience. Many of the leading consumer brands that are recognized for great customer service receive high NPS scores. We believe a higher NPS score has positive effects on customer loyalty and ultimately leads to increased revenue.
Network/ High-Value Geography
We are a predominately point-to-point system carrier, with the majority of our routes touching at least one of our six focus cities: New York, Boston, Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood, Orlando, Long Beach, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. During 2019, over 85% of our customers flew on nonstop itineraries.
Leisure traveler focused airlines are often faced with high seasonality. As a result, we continually work to manage our mix of customers to include both business travelers and travelers visiting friends and relatives, or VFR. VFR travelers tend to be slightly less seasonal and less susceptible to economic downturns than traditional leisure destination travelers. Understanding the purpose of our customers' travel helps us optimize destinations, strengthen our network, and increase unit revenues. All six of our focus cities are in regions with a diverse mix of traffic.
As of December 31, 2019, our network served 99 BlueCities in 30 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 21 countries in the Caribbean and Latin America.
We also made changes across our network by announcing new routes and frequencies between existing BlueCities. We group our capacity distribution based upon geographical regions rather than on a mileage or a length-of-haul basis. The historic distribution of ASMs, or capacity, by region for the years ending December 31 was:

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Capacity Distribution
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Transcontinental
 
32.0
%
 
31.3
%
 
28.6
%
Caribbean & Latin America (1)
 
31.2

 
28.7

 
28.3

Florida
 
25.2

 
27.3

 
30.1

East
 
6.0

 
6.5

 
6.4

Central
 
4.0

 
4.0

 
3.8

West
 
1.6

 
2.2

 
2.8

Total
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
(1) Domestic operations as defined by the U.S. Department of Transport, or DOT, include Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, but for the purposes of the capacity distribution table above, we have included these locations in the Caribbean and Latin America region.
During the past decade we invested in our network, which had been dominated by the New York metropolitan area with approximately one-half of our ASMs. Our network growth over the past few years has been focused on the business traveler in Boston as well as travelers to the Caribbean and Latin America region. We expect to continue increasing our presence in Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood where we believe there is an opportunity to increase our operations to destinations throughout the Caribbean and Latin America. Our plan is supported by significant investment from the Broward County Aviation Department in the airport and surrounding facilities. We believe our increased focus on Boston and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood makes our ASMs more balanced and strengthens the overall network.
On February 1, 2020, we began scheduled service to Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe. We anticipate further expanding our network and have previously announced service to the following new destinations in 2020:
Destination
  
Service Scheduled to Commence
Georgetown, Guyana(*)
 
April 2, 2020
Guatemala City, Guatemala(*)
 
June 1, 2020
(*) Subject to receipt of government operating authority.
Airline Commercial Partnerships    
Airlines frequently participate in commercial partnerships with other carriers in order to increase customer convenience by providing interline-connectivity, codesharing, complementary flight schedules, frequent flyer program reciprocity, and other joint marketing activities. As of December 31, 2019, we had 50 airline commercial partnerships. Our commercial partnerships typically begin as an interline agreement allowing a customer to book one itinerary with tickets on multiple airlines. During 2019, we entered into an interline agreement with Interjet (legally known as ABC Aerolíneas, S.A. de C.V.). Interjet joins our growing list of interline agreements that help us connect customers to destinations around the world, bringing the JetBlue Experience to even more customers, while strengthening our growing network and profitability. Interline agreements allow customers to use a single itinerary that combines flights on multiple carriers. On their day of travel, they enjoy a simplified airport experience with single check-in and bag drop. In 2020, we expect to continue to seek additional strategic opportunities through new commercial partners as well as assess ways to deepen existing airline partnerships. We plan to do this by expanding codeshare relationships and other areas of cooperation such as frequent flyer programs. We believe these commercial partnerships allow us to better leverage our strong network and drive incremental traffic and revenue while improving off-peak travel.
Marketing
JetBlue is a widely recognized and respected global brand. JetBlue created a new category in air travel and our brand stands for high service quality at a reasonable cost. We believe this brand has evolved into an important and valuable asset which identifies us as a safe, reliable, high value airline. Similarly, we believe customer awareness of our brand has contributed to the success of our marketing efforts. It enables us to promote ourselves as a preferred marketing partner with companies across many different industries.
We market our services through advertising and promotions in various media forms including popular social media outlets. We engage in large multi-market programs, local events and sponsorships across our route network as well as mobile marketing programs. Our targeted public and community relations efforts reflect our commitment to the communities we serve, promote brand awareness, and complement our strong reputation.

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Distribution
Our primary and preferred distribution channel to customers is through our website, www.jetblue.com, our lowest cost channel. Our website allows us to more closely control and deliver the JetBlue Experience while also offering the full suite of JetBlue Fare Options, Even More® Space and Speed, and other ancillary services.
Our participation in global distribution systems, or GDS, supports our profitable growth, particularly in the business market. We find business customers are more likely to book through a travel agency or a booking product which relies on a GDS platform. Although the cost of sales through this channel is higher than through our website, the average fare purchased through a GDS is generally higher and often covers the increased distribution costs. We currently participate in several major GDS and online travel agents, or OTA. Due to the majority of our customers booking travel on our website, we maintain relatively low distribution costs despite our increased participation in GDS and OTA in recent years.
Customer Loyalty Program
TrueBlue® is our customer loyalty program designed to reward and recognize loyal customers. Members earn points based upon the amount paid for JetBlue flights and services from certain commercial partners. Our points do not expire, the program has no black-out dates or seat restrictions, and any JetBlue destination can be booked if the TrueBlue® member has enough points to exchange for the value of an open seat. Mosaic® is an additional level for our most loyal customers who either (1) fly a minimum of 30 times with JetBlue and acquire at least 12,000 base flight points within a calendar year or (2) accumulate 15,000 base flight points within a calendar year. Nearly 3 million TrueBlue® one-way redemption awards were flown during 2019, representing approximately 6% of our total revenue passenger miles.
We currently have co-branded loyalty credit cards available to eligible U.S. residents, as well as co-brand agreements in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic to allow cardholders to earn TrueBlue® points. Our current co-branded credit card partnership with Barclaycard® on the MasterCard® network exceeded expectations for conversion rates and new member enrollments. We also have co-branded loyalty credit cards issued by Banco Santander Puerto Rico and MasterCard® in Puerto Rico as well as Banco Popular Dominicano and MasterCard® in the Dominican Republic. These credit cards allow customers in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic to take full advantage of our TrueBlue® loyalty program.
We have a separate agreement with American Express® that allows any American Express® cardmember to convert Membership Rewards® points into TrueBlue® points. In 2016, we added a partnership agreement with Citibank® to convert Citi ThankYou® Rewards points into TrueBlue® points. We became a Chase Ultimate Rewards® point transfer partner in 2018, allowing eligible Chase® cardmembers to transfer Ultimate Rewards points to TrueBlue® points. We have various agreements with other loyalty partners, including hotels and car rental companies, that allow their customers to earn TrueBlue® points through participation in our partners’ programs. We intend to continue to develop the footprint of our co-branded credit cards and pursue other loyalty partnerships in the future.

OPERATIONS AND COST STRUCTURE
Historically, our cost structure has allowed us to price fares lower than many of our competitors and is a principal reason for our profitable growth. Our current cost advantage relative to some of our competitors is due to, among other factors, high aircraft utilization, new and efficient aircraft, relatively low distribution costs, and a productive workforce. Because our network initiatives and growth plans require a low cost platform, we strive to stay focused on our competitive costs, operational excellence, efficiency improvements, and enhancing critical elements of the JetBlue Experience.
During 2016, we introduced an initiative to reduce our structural cost with the goal of saving $250 to $300 million by 2020. The program covers all cost categories including our technical operations, corporate services, airports, and our distribution network. Through a combination of strategic sourcing, planning, automation, and a review of our distribution channel strategy, we anticipate delivering structural cost savings which will continue to allow us to deliver the JetBlue Experience to our customers while maintaining a competitive cost structure. We have made significant progress in the past three years. For example, we have executed agreements to upgrade our Customer Sales and Service ("CSS") system and signed several long-term engine maintenance agreements for our fleet. Our efforts enabled us to exceed our target by securing approximately $314 million of savings through renegotiated contracts, process optimization, and other structural cost initiatives.
Route Structure
Our point-to-point system is the foundation of our operational structure, with the majority of our routes touching at least one of our six focus cities. This structure allows us to optimize costs as well as accommodate customers' preference for nonstop itineraries. A vast majority of our operations are centered in and around the heavily populated northeast corridor of the U.S., which includes the New York and Boston metropolitan areas. This airspace is some of the world's most congested and drives certain operational constraints.

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Our peak levels of traffic over the course of the year vary by route; the East Coast to Florida/Caribbean routes peak from October through April and the West Coast routes peak in the summer months. Many of our areas of operations in the Northeast experience poor winter weather conditions, resulting in increased costs associated with de-icing aircraft, canceled flights, and accommodating displaced customers. Many of our Florida and Caribbean routes experience bad weather conditions in the summer and fall due to thunderstorms and hurricanes. As we enter new markets we could be subject to additional seasonal variations along with competitive responses by other airlines.
New York metropolitan area - We are New York's Hometown Airline®. Approximately one-half of our flights originate from or are destined for the New York metropolitan area, the nation's largest travel market. JFK is New York's largest airport, and we are the second largest airline at JFK as measured by domestic seats. Our 2019 operations accounted for 36% of seats offered on domestic routes from JFK. As JFK is a slot controlled airport, we have been able to continue to grow our operations by adding more seats per departure with the delivery of the Airbus A321 aircraft, restyling of the Airbus A320 aircraft, as well as continuing to optimize routes based upon load factor and costs. We operate from Terminal 5, or T5, which includes an international arrivals facility within our current T5 footprint. We believe T5 enables us to increase operational efficiencies, provide savings, streamline our operations and improve the overall travel experience for our customers arriving from international destinations. We also serve New Jersey's Newark Liberty International Airport, or Newark, New York City's LaGuardia Airport, or LaGuardia, New York's Stewart International Airport, or Newburgh, and New York's Westchester County Airport, or White Plains. We are the leading carrier in the average number of flights flown per day between the New York metropolitan area and Florida.
Boston - We are the largest carrier at Boston's Logan International Airport, or Boston. At the end of 2019 we flew to 68 nonstop destinations from Boston and our operations accounted for 29% of all seats offered in Boston. We continue to capitalize on opportunities in the changing competitive landscape by adding routes, frequencies and increasing our relevance to local travelers. Our plan is to grow Boston with a general target of 200 flights per day. In 2019, we added more flights on 12 of our most popular routes and adjusted schedules to offer up to 18 and 14 hourly flights per day to New York and Washington D.C., respectively.
Caribbean and Latin America - At the end of 2019, we had 35 BlueCities in the Caribbean and Latin America and we expect our presence to continue to grow. San Juan, Puerto Rico is our only focus city outside of the Continental U.S. We are the largest airline in Puerto Rico serving more nonstop destinations than any other carrier. We are also the largest airline in the Dominican Republic, serving five airports. While the Caribbean and Latin American region is a growing part of our network, operating in this region can present challenges, including working with less developed airport infrastructure, political instability, and vulnerability to corruption. Political unrest in Puerto Rico and recent earthquakes have led to a substantial reduction in traffic to the island. In addition, reports of illnesses, increased crime, and civil unrest in the Dominican Republic and Port-au-Prince, Haiti have also led to reduced traffic to these BlueCities.
Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood - We are the largest carrier at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, or Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood, with approximately 24% of all seats offered in 2019. We expect Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood to continue to be our fastest growing focus city. Flying out of Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood instead of nearby Miami International Airport helps preserve our competitive cost advantage through lower enplanement costs. In 2012, Broward County authorities commenced a multi-year refurbishment effort at the airport and surrounding facilities including the construction of a new south runway. We operate primarily out of Terminal 3 which is now connected to the upgraded and expanded international terminal. Terminal 3 allows for easy access to the expanded and enhanced airfield and the connection of these terminals has streamlined operations for both crewmembers and customers. Due to these factors, we believe Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood is an ideal location between the U.S. and Latin America as well as South Florida's high-value geography. During 2019, we launched nonstop service from Fort Lauderdale to Phoenix, St. Maarten, and Guayaquil, Ecuador. These new routes allow us to continue to grow our presence in Fort Lauderdale.
Orlando - We are the second largest carrier measured by seats at Orlando International Airport, or Orlando, with 12% of all seats offered in 2019. Orlando is JetBlue's fourth largest focus city with 31 nonstop destinations and a growing mix of traffic including leisure, VFR, and business travelers. Our centralized training center, known as JetBlue University, is based in Orlando. In 2015, we opened the Lodge at OSC which is adjacent to our training center and is used for lodging our crewmembers when they attend training. In May 2018, the Board of the Greater Orlando Airport Authority ("GOAA") approved a non-binding memorandum of understanding ("MOU") for us to be the leading airline to operate out of the new South Terminal that is set to open in 2021. With the move to the South Terminal in 2021, we anticipate having priority use of 14 gates that are capable of both domestic and international operations, compared to 10 domestic gates today. Under the terms of the MOU, we would also have priority rights to access more gates as we grow in the years to come.
Los Angeles area - We are the sixth largest carrier in the Los Angeles area measured by seats, operating from Long Beach Airport, or Long Beach, Los Angeles International Airport, or LAX, Burbank's Bob Hope Airport, or Burbank, and Ontario International Airport, or Ontario. We are the largest carrier in Long Beach, with 54% of all seats offered in 2019 operated by JetBlue.

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As part of our West Coast strategy, we made a series of network enhancements in 2018 that were designed to better meet the needs of coast-to-coast travelers. We launched new nonstop services in Ontario, California, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, and Bozeman, Montana, further growing our presence in the western U.S. We refined our schedule in Long Beach to better meet the needs of the market by reducing intra-west flying and also increased frequencies on several popular transcontinental routes.
As announced in January 2020, we plan to end services at Oakland International Airport effective April 29, 2020. In addition, we also expect to reduce or eliminate flights on a half dozen short-haul flights in Long Beach. The redeployed capacity will enable new city, multi-route expansions, and frequency additions within our network.
Fleet Structure
We currently operate Airbus A321, Airbus A320 and Embraer E190 aircraft types. In 2019, our fleet had an average age of 10.6 years and operated an average of 11.9 hours per day. By scheduling and operating our aircraft more efficiently we are able to spread related fixed costs over a greater number of ASMs.
The reliability of our fleet is essential to ensuring our operations run efficiently and we are continually working with our aircraft and engine manufacturers to enhance our performance.
We are working with the Federal Aviation Administration, or FAA, in efforts towards implementing the Next Generation Air Transportation System, or NextGen. NextGen technology is expected to improve operational efficiency in the congested airspaces in which we operate. As part of NextGen, our aircraft will be outfitted with the following:
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Out ("ADSB-Out"): ADSB-Out is a global positioning system ("GPS") surveillance technology that give air traffic controllers the precise location of aircraft every second. The goal of this technology is to safely boost the capacity of our airspace.
Satellite-based Communications: We are putting satellite-based voice and data communications ("SATCOM") on our Airbus fleet. As planned, every aircraft will be assigned a unique phone number, similar to a cell network, aimed at giving us positive contact with our aircraft anywhere in the world.
Data Comm: Data Comm makes departures more efficient by dramatically speeding up the process of aircraft pilots obtaining clearance from air traffic controllers. With Data Comm, controllers can simply push clearance details to the aircraft and dispatcher, which the pilot can confirm and automatically input into the flight computer with the push of a button.
Fleet Maintenance
Consistent with our core value of safety, our FAA-approved maintenance programs are administered by our technical operations department. We use qualified maintenance personnel and ensure they have comprehensive training. We maintain our aircraft and associated maintenance records in accordance with, if not exceeding, FAA regulations. Fleet maintenance work is divided into three categories: line maintenance, heavy maintenance, and component maintenance.
The bulk of our line maintenance is handled by JetBlue technicians and inspectors. It consists of daily checks, overnight and weekly checks, or "A" checks, diagnostics, and routine repairs.
Heavy maintenance checks, or "C" checks, consist of a series of more complex tasks taking from one to four weeks to complete and are typically performed once every 15 months. All of our aircraft heavy maintenance work is performed by third party FAA-approved facilities such as AAR Corp., Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited ("HAECO"), Aeromantenimiento S.A., and Lufthansa Technik AG, and are subject to direct oversight by JetBlue personnel. We outsource heavy maintenance as the costs are lower than if we performed the tasks internally.
Component maintenance on equipment such as engines, auxiliary power units, landing gears, pumps, and avionic computers are all performed by a number of different FAA-approved third party repair stations. We have time and materials agreements with Lufthansa Technik AG and International Aero Engines AG for the repair, overhaul, modification, and logistics of our Airbus aircraft engines. We also have a maintenance agreement with GE Engine Services, LLC for our Embraer E190 aircraft engines. Many of our maintenance service agreements are based on a fixed cost per flight hour. These fixed costs vary based upon the age of the aircraft and other operating factors impacting the related component. Required maintenance not otherwise covered by these agreements is performed on a time and materials basis. All other maintenance activities are sub-contracted to qualified maintenance, repair and overhaul facilities.

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Aircraft Fuel
Aircraft fuel continues to be one of our largest expenses. Its price and availability has been extremely volatile due to global economic and geopolitical factors which we can neither control nor accurately predict. We use a third party to assist with fuel management service and to procure most of our fuel. Our historical fuel consumption and costs for the years ended December 31 were:
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Gallons consumed (millions)
 
885

 
849

 
792

Total cost (millions)(1)
 
$
1,847

 
$
1,899

 
$
1,363

Average price per gallon(1)
 
$
2.09

 
$
2.24

 
$
1.72

Percent of operating expenses
 
25.3
%
 
25.7
%
 
22.6
%
(1) Total cost and average price per gallon each include related fuel taxes as well as effective fuel hedging gains and losses.
We attempt to protect ourselves against the volatility of fuel prices by entering into a variety of derivative instruments. These include swaps, caps, collars, and basis swaps with underlyings of jet fuel, crude and heating oil.
Financial Health
We strive to maintain financial strength and a cost structure that enables us to grow profitably and sustainably. In the first years of our history, we relied on financing activities to fund much of our growth. Starting in 2007, our growth has largely been funded through internally generated cash from operations. Since 2015, while we have invested approximately $5.4 billion in capital assets, we have also generated approximately $7.2 billion in cash from operations, resulting in approximately $1.8 billion in free cash flow. Our improved financial results have resulted in better credit ratings, which in turn allows for more attractive financing terms.
JetBlue Technology Ventures
JetBlue Technology Ventures, LLC, or JTV, is a wholly owned subsidiary of JetBlue. JTV incubates, invests in and partners with early stage startups at the intersection of technology, travel and hospitality. The investment focus of JTV is as follows:
Seamless Customer Journey: Technologies to provide a seamless travel experience from the moment customers think about traveling until they return from the journey.
Technology Powered Magnificent Service: Technologies that make it easier for our crewmembers and business partners to deliver magnificent customer service at every point of the journey.
Future of Maintenance and Operations: Technologies and tools for technical, flight, system and airport operations that enhance safety, reduce maintenance downtime, and increase operational efficiency.
Innovation in Distribution, Revenue and Loyalty: Innovations in loyalty, e-commerce, distribution, payments, and revenue management to enhance revenue, simplify commerce, and provide additional options for customers.
Evolving Regional Travel: Innovations in new modes of transportation, new market places and technologies including electric propulsion, robotics, drones, and other disruptions in the regional travel ecosystem for traveling distances under 1,000 miles.
JetBlue Travel Products
In 2018, we launched JBTP, LLC, or JetBlue Travel Products, which includes our JetBlue Vacations® brand and other non-air travel products such as travel insurance, cruises, and car rental. With its Inspiration Center headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, we believe JetBlue Travel Products will play an important role in delivering our vision of inspiring humanity, extending our reach further across the travel ribbon to offer customers an even more seamless travel experience.
TWA Flight Center Hotel
In 2015, the Board of Commissioners of the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, or the PANYNJ approved a construction plan to redevelop the TWA Flight Center at JFK on its nearly six-acre site into a hotel with over 500 rooms, meeting spaces, restaurants, a spa and an observation deck. As part of the plan, a 75-year lease agreement was entered into between the PANYNJ and the Flight Center Hotel, LLC, a partnership of MCR Development, LLC and JetBlue. The TWA Flight Center Hotel was open for business in 2019. We have an approximate 10% ownership interest in the hotel.

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CULTURE
Our People
Our success depends on our crewmembers delivering a terrific JetBlue Experience in the sky and on the ground. One of our competitive strengths is a service oriented culture grounded in our five key values: safety, caring, integrity, passion and fun. We believe a highly productive and engaged workforce enhances customer loyalty. Our goal is to hire, train, and retain a diverse workforce of caring, passionate, fun and friendly people who share our mission to inspire humanity.
Our culture is first introduced to new crewmembers during the screening process and then at an extensive new hire orientation program at JetBlue University, our training center in Orlando. Orientation focuses on the JetBlue strategy and emphasizes the importance of customer service, productivity, and cost control. We provide continuous training for our crewmembers including technical training, a specialized captain leadership training program unique in the industry, a leadership program for current company managers, an emerging managers program, regular training focused on the safety value and front line training for our customer service teams.
Our growth plans necessitate and facilitate opportunities for talent development. In 2016, we launched Gateway Select, a program for prospective pilots to join us for a rigorous, approximately four-year training program that incorporates classroom learning, extensive real-world flying experience and instruction in full flight simulators.
We believe a direct relationship between crewmembers and our leadership is in the best interests of our crewmembers, our customers, and our shareholders. Except for our pilots and inflight crewmembers, our crewmembers do not have third-party representation. In April 2014, the Air Line Pilots Association, or ALPA, was certified by the National Mediation Board, or NMB, as the representative body for JetBlue pilots after winning a representation election. We reached a final agreement for our first collective bargaining agreement which was ratified by the pilots in July 2018. The agreement is a four-year renewable contract effective August 1, 2018 which included changes to compensation, benefits, work rules, and other policies. In April 2018, JetBlue inflight crewmembers elected to be solely represented by the Transport Workers Union of America, or TWU. The NMB certified the TWU as the representative body for JetBlue inflight crewmembers and we are working with the TWU to reach a collective bargaining agreement. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 47 percent of our full-time equivalent crewmembers were represented by unions. The following table sets forth our crewmember groups and the status of their respective collective bargaining agreements.
Crewmember Group
 
Representative
 
Crewmembers(1)
 
Amendable Date(2)
Pilots
 
Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)
 
3,661
 
August 1, 2022
Inflight
 
Transport Workers Union (TWU)
 
5,055
 
In negotiations
(1) Approximate number of active full-time equivalent crewmembers as of December 31, 2019.
(2) Our relations with our labor organizations are governed by Title II of the Railway Labor Act of 1926, pursuant to which the collective bargaining agreements between us and these organizations do not expire but instead become amendable as of a certain date if either party wishes to modify the terms of the agreement.
We have individual employment agreements with each of our non-unionized FAA licensed crewmembers which consist of dispatchers, technicians, inspectors, and air traffic controllers. Each employment agreement is for a term of five years and renews for an additional five-year term, unless the crewmember is terminated for cause or the crewmember elects not to renew. Pursuant to these employment agreements, crewmembers can only be terminated for cause. In the event of a downturn in our business, resulting in a reduction of flying and related work hours, we are obligated to pay these crewmembers a guaranteed level of income and to continue their benefits. We believe that through these agreements we provide what we believe to be industry-leading job protection. We believe these agreements provide JetBlue and crewmembers flexibility and allow us to react to crewmember needs more efficiently than collective bargaining agreements.
A key feature of the direct relationship with our crewmembers is our Values Committees which are made up of peer-elected frontline crewmembers from each of our major work groups, other than pilots and inflight crewmembers. They represent the interests of our workgroups and help us run our business in a productive and efficient manner. We believe this direct relationship with crewmembers drives higher levels of engagement and alignment with JetBlue’s strategy, culture, and overall goals.
We believe the efficiency and engagement of our crewmembers is a result of our flexible and productive work rules. We are cognizant of the competition for productive labor in key industry positions and new government rules requiring higher qualifications as well as more restricted hours that may result in potential labor shortages in the upcoming years.

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Our leadership team communicates on a regular basis with all crewmembers in order to maintain a direct relationship and to keep them informed about news, strategy updates, and challenges affecting the airline and the industry. Effective and frequent communication throughout the organization is fostered through various means including email messages from our CEO and other senior leaders at least weekly, weekday news updates to all crewmembers, crewmember engagement surveys, a quarterly crewmember magazine, and active leadership participation in new hire orientations. Leadership is also heavily involved in periodic open forum meetings across our network, called “pocket sessions” which are often videotaped and posted on our intranet. By soliciting feedback for ways to improve our service, teamwork and work environment, our leadership team works to keep crewmembers engaged and makes our business decisions transparent. Additionally, we believe cost and revenue improvements are best recognized by crewmembers on the job.
Our average number of full-time equivalent crewmembers for the year ended December 31, 2019 consisted of 3,590 pilots, 4,887 inflight (whom other airlines may refer to as flight attendants), 4,644 airport operations personnel, 690 technicians (whom other airlines may refer to as mechanics), 1,278 reservation agents, and 3,446 management and other personnel. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we employed an average of 16,495 full-time and 5,074 part-time crewmembers.
Crewmember Programs
We are committed to supporting our crewmembers through a number of programs including:
Crewmember Resource Groups (CRGs) - These are groups formed by and consisting of crewmembers to act as a resource for both the group members as well as JetBlue. The groups serve as an avenue to embrace and encourage different perspectives, thoughts and ideas. At the end of 2019, we had six CRGs in place: JetPride, Women in Flight, Vets in Blue, Blue Conexión, the JetBlue African Diaspora Experience (JADE) and Blue Aviasian. All CRGs are committed to supporting the following pillars: professional development, JetBlue success, and recruitment and retention.
JetBlue Crewmember Crisis Fund (JCCF) - This organization, originally formed in 2002, is a non-profit corporation independent from JetBlue and recognized by the IRS as of that date as a tax-exempt entity. JCCF was created to assist JetBlue crewmembers and their immediate family members (IRS Dependents) in times of crisis. Funds for JCCF grants come directly from crewmember donations via a tax-deductible payroll deduction. During 2017 we witnessed several unprecedented weather challenges including various hurricanes. JCCF helped provide over $2 million in relief to crewmembers impacted by Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. The assistance process is confidential with only the fund administrator and coordinator knowing the identity of the crewmembers in need.
JetBlue Scholars - Developed in 2015, this program offers a new and innovative model to our crewmembers wishing to further their education. Crewmembers enrolled in the program can earn an undergraduate degree through self-directed online college courses facilitated by JetBlue. Since its inception, more than 1,000 crewmembers have participated in the program with nearly 700 currently enrolled. In November 2019, we celebrated the graduation of 52 of our crewmembers who took the initiative and successfully completed their undergraduate college degrees. Over 200 degrees have been earned by our crewmembers since the launch of JetBlue Scholars. This reemphasizes our continuous effort to help provide assistance to our most valued asset, our people. To build on the program, we introduced the Master's Pathway program in 2019 which is designed to help crewmembers who would like to advance their education even further by pursuing a master's degree. The Master's Pathway program partners with five reputable institutions to provide a variety of benefits to crewmembers including tuition discounts, scholarships, and access to specialized support services.
Lift Recognition Program - Formed in 2012, this crewmember recognition program encourages crewmembers to celebrate their peers for living JetBlue's values by sending e-thanks through an on-line platform. Our leadership team periodically hosts an event for the crewmembers who receive the highest number of Lift award recognitions in each quarter of the year. In 2019, we saw more than 200,000 Lift awards.
Community Programs
JetBlue is strongly committed to supporting the communities and BlueCities we serve through a variety of community programs including:
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) - The CSR team supports not-for-profit organizations focusing on youth and education, environment, and community in the BlueCities we serve. The team organizes and supports community service projects, charitable giving and non-profit partnerships such as KaBOOM!, which builds, opens and improves playgrounds to benefit millions of young children, and Soar with Reading, which works to get books into the hands of children who need them most, including via free book vending machines.

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JetBlue Foundation - Organized in 2013 as a non-profit corporation, the JetBlue Foundation is a JetBlue-sponsored organization to advance aviation-related education and to continue our efforts to promote aviation as a career choice for students. The foundation intends to do this by igniting interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The foundation is legally independent from JetBlue and has a Board of Directors as well as an Advisory Committee, both of which are made up of crewmembers. The foundation is recognized by the IRS as a tax-exempt entity.
USO Center T5/JFK - Continuing our tradition of proudly supporting the men, women and families of the U.S. military, in September 2014 we opened a USO Center in T5 at JFK. The USO Center is open seven days a week, 365 days per year for military members and their families traveling on any airline at JFK, not just JetBlue. This USO Center is fully stocked with computers, televisions, gaming devices/stations, furniture, iPads, food, beverages and much more. In conjunction with leading airport design firm Gensler, Turner Construction Company, the PANYNJ and more than 28 contractors and individual donors, 100% of the space, services, labor and materials were donated to ensure the USO Center would be free of any financial burden. Crewmembers donate time throughout the year to help run the USO Center.
T5 Farm - Creating a healthier airport environment is a core pillar of JetBlue's sustainability philosophy. Through a partnership with TERRA brand and support from GrowNYC and the PANYNJ, we created the T5 Farm, a blue potato farm and produce garden on the roof of T5. The T5 Farm aims to serve as an agricultural and educational resource for the community, as well as a mechanism to absorb rainwater and runoff, reducing the possibility of flooding in the adjacent areas. Produce from the T5 Farm is donated to local food pantries.

REGULATION
Airlines are heavily regulated, with rules and regulations set by various federal, state and local agencies. We also operate under specific regulations due to our operations within the high density airspace of the northeast U.S. Most of our airline operations are regulated by U.S. governmental agencies including:
DOT - The DOT primarily regulates economic issues affecting air service including, but not limited to, certification and fitness, insurance, consumer protection and competitive practices. They set the requirement that carriers cannot permit domestic flights to remain on the tarmac for more than three hours. The DOT also requires that the advertised price for an airfare or a tour package including airfare (such as a hotel/air vacation package) has to be the total price to be paid by the customer, including all government taxes and fees. It has the authority to investigate and institute proceedings to enforce its economic regulations and may assess civil penalties, revoke operating authority and seek criminal sanctions.
FAA - The FAA primarily regulates flight operations, in particular, matters affecting air safety. This includes but is not limited to airworthiness requirements for aircraft, the licensing of pilots, mechanics and dispatchers, and the certification of flight attendants. It requires each airline to obtain an operating certificate authorizing the airline to operate at specific airports using specified equipment. Like all U.S. certified carriers, JetBlue cannot fly to new destinations without the prior authorization of the FAA. After providing notice and a hearing, the FAA has the authority to modify, suspend temporarily or revoke permanently our authority to provide air transportation or that of our licensed personnel for failure to comply with FAA regulations. It can additionally assess civil penalties for such failures as well as institute proceedings for the imposition and collection of monetary fines for the violation of certain FAA regulations. When significant safety issues are involved, it can revoke a U.S. carrier's authority to provide air transportation on an emergency basis, without providing notice and a hearing. It monitors our compliance with maintenance as well as flight operations and safety regulations. It maintains on-site representatives and performs frequent spot inspections of our aircraft, crewmembers and records. The FAA also has the authority to issue airworthiness directives and other mandatory orders. This includes the inspection of aircraft and engines, fire retardant and smoke detection devices, collision and windshear avoidance systems, noise abatement, and the mandatory removal and replacement of aircraft parts that have failed or may fail in the future. We have and maintain FAA certificates of airworthiness for all of our aircraft and have the necessary FAA authority to fly to all of the destinations we currently serve.
Transportation Security Administration and U.S. Customs and Border Protection - The Transportation Security Administration, or TSA, and the U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection, or CBP, operate under the Department of Homeland Security and are responsible for all civil aviation security. This includes passenger and baggage screening; cargo security measures; airport security; assessment and distribution of intelligence; security research and development; international passenger screening; customs; and agriculture. It also has law enforcement powers and the authority to issue regulations, including in cases of national emergency, without a notice or comment period. It can also assess civil penalties for such failures as well as institute proceedings for the imposition and collection of monetary fines for the violation of certain regulations.  

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Taxes & Fees - The airline industry is one of the most heavily taxed in the U.S., with taxes and fees accounting for approximately 17% of the total fare charged to a customer. Airlines are obligated to fund all of these taxes and fees regardless of their ability to pass these charges on to the customer. The September 11 Security Fee which is set by the TSA and is passed through to the customer, is currently $5.60 per enplanement, regardless of the number of connecting flights and a round trip fee is limited to a maximum of $11.20. Effective December 28, 2015, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Aircraft Inspection fee increased from $70.75 to $225 per international aircraft arriving in the U.S.
State and Local - We are subject to state and local laws and regulations in a number of states in which we operate and the regulations of various local authorities operating the airports we serve.
Airport Access - JFK, LaGuardia, and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, or Reagan National, are slot-controlled airports subject to the "High Density Rule" and successor rules issued by the FAA, or Slots. These rules were implemented due to the high volume of traffic at these popular airports located in the northeast corridor airspace. The rules limit the air traffic in and out of these airports during specific times; however, even with the rules in place, delays remain among the highest in the nation due to continuing airspace congestion. Additionally, we have Slots at other Slot-controlled airports governed by unique local ordinances not subject to the High Density Rule, including Westchester County Airport in White Plains, NY and Long Beach (California) Municipal Airport. Gate access is another common issue at certain airports. As an example, we started flying to Atlanta in the first half of 2017 and were not granted the agreed upon number of gates.
Foreign Operations - International air transportation is subject to extensive government regulation. The availability of international routes to U.S. airlines is regulated by treaties and related agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments. We currently operate international service to Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, the Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, Saint Lucia, St. Maarten, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. We anticipate further expanding our network to Guatemala and Guyana in 2020. In 2021, we intend to begin service to London, our first destination in Europe. To the extent we seek to provide air transportation to additional international markets in the future, we would be required to obtain necessary authority from the DOT and the applicable foreign government.
We believe we are operating in material compliance with DOT, FAA, TSA, CBP and applicable international regulations as well as hold all necessary operating and airworthiness authorizations and certificates. Should any of these authorizations or certificates be modified, suspended, or revoked, our business could be materially adversely affected.
Other
Environmental - We are subject to various federal, state and local laws relating to the protection of the environment. This includes the regulation of greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions, the discharge or disposal of materials and chemicals, as well as the regulation of aircraft noise administered by numerous state and federal agencies.
The Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990 recognizes the right of airport operators with special noise problems to implement local noise abatement procedures as long as those procedures do not interfere unreasonably with the interstate and foreign commerce of the national air transportation system. Certain airports, including San Diego and Long Beach airports in California, have established restrictions to limit noise which can include limits on the number of hourly or daily operations and the time of such operations. These limitations are intended to protect the local noise-sensitive communities surrounding the airport. Our scheduled flights at Long Beach and San Diego are in compliance with the noise curfew limits, but on occasion when we experience irregular operations, we may violate these curfews. In 2017, we entered into an agreement with the Long Beach City Prosecutor which requires us to pay a $6,000 fine per violation. The payments resulting from curfew violations go to support the Long Beach Public Library Foundation. This local ordinance has not had, and we believe it will not have, a significant effect on our operations.
Concern over climate change, including the impact of global warming, has led to significant U.S. and international legislative and regulatory efforts to limit GHG emissions, including our aircraft and ground operations emissions. In October 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (“ICAO”) passed a resolution adopting the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (“CORSIA”), which is a global, market-based emissions offset program intended to promote carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020. CORSIA is scheduled to take effect by 2021. ICAO continues to develop details regarding implementation, but we believe compliance with CORSIA will increase our operating costs.
As part of our sustainability and environmental strategy, we are embracing new technologies and making changes that will ultimately benefit our crewmembers, customers, and shareholders. Some of our sustainability initiatives include:
Reducing and Managing Carbon Dioxide ("CO2") Emissions - We have been purchasing CO2 offsets since 2008. In 2019, we offset the CO2 emissions for all customers traveling in the month of June which allowed us to reduce our flying impact by an estimated 700,000 metric tons of CO2. In January 2020, we announced plans to offset CO2 emissions from jet fuel for all domestic flights beginning in July 2020, making us the first major U.S. airline to take this critical step toward reducing the impact of our GHG emissions.

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Operating a More Sustainable Fleet - We are working closely with the FAA towards implementing NextGen. NextGen will allow us to fly more direct routes and reduce fuel by optimizing trip durations and improving descent patterns. In addition, our Airbus A321neo aircraft will help reduce CO2 emissions with improved fuel economy through newly designed engine technology and cabin changes.
Electric Ground Support Equipment - In 2018, we began replacing our gas-powered Ground Service Equipment ("GSE") at JFK with electric-powered versions, known as eGSE, to reduce fuel consumption, noise, and GHG emissions. Another large-scale conversion to eGSE is planned for Boston, our second busiest city.
Sustainable Aviation Fuel - As announced in January 2020, we have agreed to purchase sustainable aviation fuel produced entirely from waste and residue raw materials. We plan to start flying with sustainable aviation fuel in mid-2020 on flights from San Francisco International Airport. We believe making the switch will help us significantly reduce CO2 emissions and our environmental footprint, with no impact on performance or safety.
Reporting - We report annually on environmental, social, governance ("ESG") issues using the Sustainable Accounting Standards Board and Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures frameworks. The report can be found on our Investor Relations website at http://investor.jetblue.com.
Foreign Ownership - Under federal law and DOT regulations, JetBlue must be controlled by U.S. citizens. In this regard, our chief executive officer and at least two-thirds of our board of directors must be U.S. citizens. Further, no more than 24.99% of our outstanding common stock may be voted by non-U.S. citizens. We believe we are currently in compliance with these ownership provisions.
Other Regulations - All airlines are subject to certain provisions of the Communications Act of 1934 due to their extensive use of radio and other communication facilities. They are also required to obtain an aeronautical radio license from the Federal Communications Commission, or FCC. To the extent we are subject to FCC requirements, we take all necessary steps to comply with those requirements.
Our labor relations are covered under Title II of the Railway Labor Act of 1926 and are subject to the jurisdiction of the NMB.
In addition, during periods of fuel scarcity, access to aircraft fuel may be subject to federal allocation regulations.
Civil Reserve Air Fleet - We are a participant in the Civil Reserve Air Fleet Program, which permits the U.S. Department of Defense to utilize our aircraft during national emergencies when the need for military airlift exceeds the capability of military aircraft. By participating in this program, we are eligible to bid on and be awarded peacetime airlift contracts with the U.S. military.
Insurance
We carry various types of insurance customary in the airline industry and at amounts deemed adequate to protect us and our property as well as comply with both federal regulations and certain credit and lease agreements.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND OTHER INFORMATION
Our website is www.jetblue.com. Information contained on our website is not part of this Report. Information we furnish or file with the SEC, including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to or exhibits included in these reports are available for download, free of charge, on our website soon after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our SEC filings, including exhibits filed therewith, are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

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Risks Related to JetBlue
We operate in an extremely competitive industry.
The domestic airline industry is characterized by low profit margins, high fixed costs and significant price competition in an increasingly concentrated competitive field. We currently compete with other airlines on all of our routes. Most of our competitors are larger and have greater financial resources and name recognition than we do. Following our entry into new markets or expansion of existing markets, some of our competitors have chosen to add service or engage in extensive price competition. Unanticipated shortfalls in expected revenues as a result of price competition or in the number of passengers carried would negatively impact our financial results and harm our business. The extremely competitive nature of the airline industry could prevent us from attaining the level of passenger traffic or maintaining the level of fares required to maintain profitable operations in new and existing markets and could impede our profitable growth strategy, which would harm our business.
Furthermore, there have been numerous mergers and acquisitions within the airline industry in recent years. The industry may continue to change. Any business combination could significantly alter industry conditions and competition within the airline industry and could cause fares of our competitors to be reduced. Additionally, if a traditional network airline were to fully develop a low cost structure, or if we were to experience increased competition from low cost carriers or new entrants, our business could be materially adversely affected.
Our business is highly dependent on the availability of fuel and fuel is subject to price volatility.
Our results of operations are heavily impacted by the price and availability of fuel. Fuel costs comprise a substantial portion of our total operating expenses. Historically, fuel costs have been subject to wide price fluctuations based on geopolitical factors as well as supply and demand. The availability of fuel is not only dependent on crude oil but also on refining capacity. When even a small amount of the domestic or global oil refining capacity becomes unavailable, supply shortages can result for extended periods of time. The availability of fuel is also affected by demand for home heating oil, gasoline and other petroleum products, as well as crude oil reserves, dependence on foreign imports of crude oil and potential hostilities in oil producing areas of the world. Because of the effects of these factors on the price and availability of fuel, the cost and future availability of fuel cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty.
Our aircraft fuel purchase agreements do not protect us against price increases or guarantee the availability of fuel. Additionally, some of our competitors may have more leverage than we do in obtaining fuel. We have and may continue to enter into a variety of option contracts and swap agreements for crude oil, heating oil, and jet fuel to partially protect against significant increases in fuel prices. However, such contracts and agreements do not completely protect us against price volatility, are limited in volume and duration in the respective contract, and can be less effective during volatile market conditions and may carry counterparty risk. Under the fuel hedge contracts we may enter from time to time, counterparties to those contracts may require us to fund the margin associated with any loss position on the contracts. Meeting our obligations to fund these margin calls could adversely affect our liquidity.
Due to the competitive nature of the domestic airline industry, at times we have not been able to adequately increase our fares to offset the increases in fuel prices nor may we be able to do so in the future. Future fuel price increases, continued high fuel price volatility or fuel supply shortages may result in a curtailment of scheduled services and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We have a significant amount of fixed obligations and we will incur significantly more fixed obligations which could harm our ability to service our current obligations or satisfy future fixed obligations.
As of December 31, 2019, our debt of $2.3 billion accounted for 34% of our total capitalization. In addition to long-term debt, we have a significant amount of other fixed obligations under operating leases related to our aircraft, airport terminal space, airport hangars, other facilities and office space. As of December 31, 2019, future minimum payments under noncancelable leases and other financing obligations were approximately $2.4 billion for 2020 through 2024 and an aggregate of $1.7 billion for the years thereafter. T5 at JFK is under a lease with the PANYNJ that ends on the 28th anniversary of the date of beneficial occupancy of T5i. The minimum payments under this lease are being accounted for as a financing obligation and have been included in the future minimum payment totals above.

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As of December 31, 2019, we had commitments of approximately $8.2 billion to purchase 149 additional aircraft and related flight equipment through 2026, including estimated amounts for contractual price escalations and predelivery deposits. We may incur additional debt and other fixed obligations as we take delivery of new aircraft or finance unencumbered aircraft in our fleet and other equipment and continue to expand into new or existing markets. In an effort to limit the incurrence of significant additional debt, we may seek to defer some of our scheduled deliveries, sell or lease aircraft to others, or pay cash for new aircraft, to the extent necessary or possible. The amount of our existing debt, and other fixed obligations, and potential increases in the amount of our debt and other fixed obligations could have important consequences to investors and could require a substantial portion of cash flows from operations for debt service payments, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes.
Our level of debt and other fixed obligations could:
impact our ability to obtain additional financing to support capital expansion plans and for working capital and other purposes on acceptable terms or at all;
divert substantial cash flow from our operations, execution of our commercial initiatives and expansion plans in order to service our fixed obligations;
require us to incur significantly more interest expense than we currently do if rates were to increase, since approximately 10% of our debt has floating interest rates; and
place us at a possible competitive disadvantage compared to less leveraged competitors and competitors with better access to capital resources or more favorable financing terms.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt and other fixed obligations will depend on our future operating performance and cash flows, which in turn will depend on prevailing economic and political conditions and financial, competitive, regulatory, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We are principally dependent upon our operating cash flows and access to the capital markets to fund our operations and to make scheduled payments on debt and other fixed obligations. We cannot assure that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations or from capital market activities to pay our debt and other fixed obligations as they become due. If we fail to do so our business could be harmed. If we are unable to make payments on our debt and other fixed obligations, we could be forced to renegotiate those obligations or seek to obtain additional equity or other forms of additional financing.
Our level of indebtedness may limit our ability to incur additional debt to meet future financing needs.
We typically finance our aircraft through either secured debt, lease financing, or through cash from operations. The impact on financial institutions from global economic conditions may adversely affect the availability and cost of credit to JetBlue as well as to prospective purchasers of our aircraft should we undertake to sell in the future, including financing commitments we have already obtained for purchases of new aircraft or financing or refinancing of existing aircraft. To the extent we finance our activities with additional debt, we may become subject to financial and other covenants that may restrict our ability to pursue our strategy or otherwise constrain our operations.
Our maintenance costs will increase as our fleet ages.
Our maintenance costs will increase as our fleet ages. In the past, we have incurred lower maintenance expenses because most of the parts on our aircraft were under multi-year warranties, but many of these warranties have expired. If any maintenance provider with whom we have a flight hour agreement fails to perform or honor such agreements, we could incur higher interim maintenance costs until we negotiate new agreements.
Furthermore we expect to implement various fleet modifications over the next several years to ensure our aircraft's continued efficiency, modernization, brand consistency and safety. Our plans to restyle our Airbus aircraft with new cabins, for example, require significant modification time. These fleet modifications require significant investment over several years, including taking aircraft out of service for several weeks at a time.
Our salaries, wages and benefits costs will increase as our workforce ages.
As our crewmembers' tenure with JetBlue matures, our salaries, wages and benefits costs increase. As our overall workforce ages, we expect our medical and related benefits to increase as well, despite an increased corporate focus on crewmember wellness.

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We may be subject to unionization, work stoppages, slowdowns or increased labor costs and the unionization of the Company’s pilots and inflight crewmembers could result in increased labor costs.
Our business is labor intensive and the unionization of any of our crewmembers could result in demands that may increase our operating expenses and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Any of the different crafts or classes of our crewmembers could unionize at any time, which would require us to negotiate in good faith with the crewmember group’s certified representative concerning a collective bargaining agreement. In addition, we may be subject to disruptions by unions protesting the non-union status of our other crewmembers. Any of these events would be disruptive to our operations and could harm our business.
In general, unionization has increased costs in the airline industry. On April 22, 2014, approximately 74% of our pilots voted to be represented by the Airlines Pilot Association, or ALPA. In July 2018, we reached a final agreement for our first collective bargaining agreement which was ratified by the pilots and became effective on August 1, 2018. In April 2018, JetBlue inflight crewmembers elected to be solely represented by the Transport Workers Union of America, or TWU. The NMB certified the TWU as the representative body for JetBlue inflight crewmembers and we are working with the TWU to reach a collective bargaining agreement. If we are unable to reach agreement on the terms of a collective bargaining agreement, or we experience widespread crewmember dissatisfaction, we could be subject to adverse actions.
There are risks associated with our presence in some of our international emerging markets, including political or economic instability and failure to adequately comply with existing legal and regulatory requirements.
Expansion into new international emerging markets may have risks due to factors specific to those markets. Emerging markets are countries which have less developed economies and may be vulnerable to economic and political instability, such as significant fluctuations in gross domestic product, interest and currency exchange rates, civil disturbances, government instability, nationalization and expropriation of private assets, trafficking and the imposition of taxes or other charges by governments. The occurrence of any of these events in markets served by us and the resulting instability may adversely affect our business.
We have expanded and expect to continue to expand our service to countries in the Caribbean and Latin America, some of which have less developed legal systems, financial markets, and business and political environments than the United States, and therefore present greater political, legal, regulatory, economic and operational risks. We emphasize legal compliance and have implemented and continue to implement and refresh policies, procedures and certain ongoing training of crewmembers with regard to business ethics and compliance, anti-corruption policies and many key legal requirements; however, there can be no assurance our crewmembers or third party service providers in such locations will adhere to our code of business conduct, anti-corruption policies, other Company policies, or other legal requirements. If we fail to enforce our policies and procedures properly or maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately record our transactions, we may be subject to sanctions. In the event we believe or have reason to believe our crewmembers have or may have violated applicable laws or regulations, we may be subject to investigation costs, potential penalties and other related costs which in turn could negatively affect our reputation, and our results of operations and cash flow.
In addition, to the extent we continue to grow our business both domestically and internationally, opening new markets requires us to commit a substantial amount of resources even before the new services commence. Expansion is also dependent upon our ability to maintain a safe and secure operation and requires additional personnel, equipment, and facilities.
Our high aircraft utilization rate helps us keep our costs low, but also makes us vulnerable to delays and cancellations; such delays and cancellations could reduce our profitability.
We maintain a high daily aircraft utilization rate which is the amount of time our aircraft spend in the air carrying passengers. High daily aircraft utilization is achieved in part by reducing turnaround times at airports so we can fly more hours on average in a day. Aircraft utilization is reduced by delays and cancellations from various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including adverse weather conditions, security requirements, air traffic congestion, and unscheduled maintenance events. The majority of our operations are concentrated in the Northeast and Florida, which are particularly vulnerable to weather and congestion delays. Reduced aircraft utilization may limit our ability to achieve and maintain profitability as well as lead to customer dissatisfaction.

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Our business is highly dependent on the New York metropolitan market and increases in competition or congestion or a reduction in demand for air travel in this market, or governmental reduction of our operating capacity at JFK, would harm our business.
We are highly dependent on the New York metropolitan market where we maintain a large presence with approximately one-half of our daily flights having JFK, LaGuardia, Newark, Westchester County Airport, or Newburgh’s Stewart International Airport as either their origin or destination. We have experienced an increase in flight delays and cancellations at these airports due to airport congestion which has adversely affected our operating performance and results of operations. Our business could be further harmed by an increase in the amount of direct competition we face in the New York metropolitan market or by continued or increased congestion, delays or cancellations. Our business would also be harmed by any circumstances causing a reduction in demand for air transportation in the New York metropolitan area, such as adverse changes in local economic conditions, health concerns, negative public perception of New York City, acts of terrorism, or significant price or tax increases linked to increases in airport access costs and fees imposed on passengers.
Extended interruptions or disruptions in service at one or more of our focus cities could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
Our business is heavily dependent on our operations in the New York Metropolitan area, particularly at JFK, and at our other focus cities in Boston, Orlando, Fort Lauderdale, the Los Angeles basin, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Each of these operations includes flights that gather and distribute traffic to other major cities. A significant interruption or disruption in service at one or more of our focus cities could have a serious impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely heavily on automated systems to operate our business; any failure of these systems could harm our business.
We are dependent on automated systems and technology to operate our business, enhance the JetBlue Experience, and achieve low operating costs. The performance and reliability of our automated systems and data centers is critical to our ability to operate our business and compete effectively. These systems include our computerized airline reservation system, flight operations system, telecommunications systems, website, maintenance systems, check-in kiosks, and our primary and redundant data centers. Our website and reservation system must be able to securely accommodate a high volume of traffic and deliver important flight information. These systems require upgrades or replacement periodically, which involve implementation and other operational risks. Our business may be harmed if we fail to operate, replace or upgrade our systems or data center infrastructure successfully.
We rely on third party providers of our current automated systems and data center infrastructure for technical support. If our current providers were to fail to adequately provide technical support for any one of our key existing systems or if new or updated components were not integrated smoothly, we could experience service disruptions, which could result in the loss of important data, increase our expenses, decrease our revenues and generally harm our business, reputation and brand. Furthermore, our automated systems cannot be completely protected against events beyond our control, including natural disasters, computer viruses, cyberattacks, other security breaches, or telecommunications failures. Substantial or sustained system failures could impact customer service and result in our customers purchasing tickets from other airlines. We have implemented security measures and change control procedures and have disaster recovery plans. We also require our third party providers to have disaster recovery plans; however, we cannot assure you these measures are adequate to prevent disruptions, which, if they were to occur, could result in the loss of important data, increase our expenses, decrease our revenues, and generally harm our business, reputation, and brand.
We may be impacted by increases in airport expenses relating to infrastructure and facilities.
In order to operate within our current markets as well as continue to grow in new markets, we must be able to obtain adequate infrastructure and facilities within the airports we serve. This includes gates, check-in facilities, operations facilities, and landing slots, where applicable. The costs associated with these airports are often negotiated on a short-term basis with the airport authority and we could be subject to increases in costs on a regular basis with or without our approval.
In addition, our operations concentrated in older airports may be harmed if the infrastructure at those older airports fails to operate as expected due to age, overuse, or significant unexpected weather events.

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Our reputation and business may be harmed and we may be subject to legal claims if there is loss, unlawful disclosure or misappropriation of, or unsanctioned access to, our customers’, crewmembers’, business partners’ or our own information or other breaches of our information security.
In the current environment, there are numerous and evolving risks to cybersecurity and privacy, including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored intrusions, industrial espionage, employee malfeasance, and human or technological error. High-profile security breaches at other companies and in government agencies have increased in recent years, and security industry experts and government officials have warned about the risks of hackers and cyberattacks targeting businesses such as ours. Computer hackers routinely attempt to breach our networks. When the Company learns of security incidents, we investigate the incident, which includes making reports to law enforcement, as appropriate.
We also are aware that hackers may attempt to fraudulently induce crewmembers, customers, or others to disclose information or unwittingly provide access to systems or data. We make extensive use of online services and centralized data processing, including through third party service providers or business providers. The secure maintenance and transmission of customer and crewmember information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems and those of service providers or business partners, that maintain and transmit customer information, may be compromised by a malicious third party penetration of our network security, or of a business partner, or impacted by deliberate or inadvertent actions or inactions by our crewmembers, or those of a business partner. The risk of cyberattacks to our Company also includes attempted breaches of contractors, business partners, vendors, and other third parties. As a result, personal information may be lost, disclosed, accessed, or taken without consent. We transmit confidential credit card information by way of secure private retail networks and rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties to provide the security and authentication necessary to effect secure transmission and storage of confidential information.
While the Company makes significant efforts to ensure the security of its computer network, we cannot provide any assurances that our efforts will defend against all cyberattacks. Any compromises to our security or computer network could have a material adverse effect on the reputation, business, operating results, and financial condition of the Company, and could result in a loss of customers. Additionally, any material failure by the Company to achieve or maintain compliance with the Payment Card Industry, or PCI, security requirements or rectify a security issue may result in fines and the imposition of restrictions on the Company's ability to accept credit cards as a form of payment. Any such loss, disclosure or misappropriation of, or access to, customers’, crewmembers’ or business partners’ information or other breach of our information security can result in legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, may have a negative impact on our reputation, may lead to regulatory enforcement actions against us, and may materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Furthermore, the loss, disclosure or misappropriation of our business information may materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. The regulations in this area continue to develop and evolve. International regulation adds complexity as we expand our service and include more passengers from other countries.
Data security compliance requirements could increase our costs, and any significant data breach could disrupt our operations and harm our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company is subject to increasing legislative, regulator, and customer focus on privacy issues and data security. Our business requires the appropriate and secure utilization of customer, crewmember, business partner, and other sensitive information. We cannot be certain that advances in criminal capabilities (including cyberattacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, and the like), discovery of new vulnerabilities or attempts to exploit existing vulnerabilities in our systems, other data thefts, physical system or network break-ins or inappropriate access, or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting the networks that access and store sensitive information. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyberattack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has increased as the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased.
Furthermore, there has been heightened legislative and regulatory focus on data security in the U.S. and abroad, including requirements for varying levels of customer notification in the event of a data breach. Many of our commercial business partners, including credit card companies, have imposed data security standards that we must meet. In particular, we are required by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council, founded by the credit card companies, to comply with their highest level of data security standards. The Company will continue its efforts to meet its privacy and data security obligations; however, it is possible that certain new obligations may be difficult to meet and could increase the Company's costs.

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A significant data security breach or our failure to comply with applicable U.S. or foreign data security regulations or other data security standards may expose us to litigation, claims for contract breach, fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could disrupt our operations, harm our reputation, and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. The costs to remediate breaches and similar system compromises that do occur could be material. In addition, as cyber criminals become more frequent, intense, and sophisticated, the costs of proactive defensive measures may increase. Failure to address these issues appropriately could also give rise to additional legal risks, which, in turn, could increase the size and number of litigation claims and damages asserted or subject us to enforcement actions, fines and penalties, and cause us to incur further related costs and expenses.
Our liquidity could be adversely impacted in the event one or more of our credit card processors were to impose material reserve requirements for payments due to us from credit card transactions.
We currently have agreements with organizations that process credit card transactions arising from purchases of air travel tickets by our customers. Credit card processors have financial risk associated with tickets purchased for travel which can occur several weeks after the purchase. Our credit card processing agreements provide for reserves to be deposited with the processor in certain circumstances. We do not currently have reserves posted for our credit card processors. If circumstances were to occur requiring us to deposit reserves, the negative impact on our liquidity could be significant which could materially adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel or fail to maintain our company culture, our business could be harmed.
We compete against other major U.S. airlines for pilots, mechanics, and other skilled labor; some of them offer wage and benefit packages exceeding ours. As more pilots in the industry approach mandatory retirement age, the U.S. airline industry may be affected by a pilot shortage. We may be required to increase wages and/or benefits in order to attract and retain qualified personnel or risk considerable crewmember turnover. If we are unable to hire, train, and retain qualified crewmembers, our business could be harmed and we may be unable to implement our growth plans.
In addition, as we hire more people and grow, we believe it may be increasingly challenging to continue to hire people who will maintain our company culture. We believe one of our competitive strengths is our service-oriented company culture which emphasizes friendly, helpful, team-oriented, and customer-focused crewmembers. Our company culture is important to providing high quality customer service and having a productive workforce in order to help keep our costs low. As we continue to grow, we may be unable to identify, hire, or retain enough people who meet the above criteria, including those in management or other key positions. Our company culture could otherwise be adversely affected by our growing operations and broader geographic diversity. If we fail to maintain the strength of our company culture, our competitive ability and our business may be harmed.
Our results of operations fluctuate due to seasonality, weather, and other factors.
We expect our quarterly operating results to fluctuate due to seasonality including high vacation and leisure demand occurring on our Florida routes between October and April and on our western routes during the summer. Actions of our competitors may also contribute to fluctuations in our results. We are more susceptible to adverse weather conditions, including snow storms and hurricanes, as a result of our operations being concentrated on the East Coast, than some of our competitors. Our Florida and Caribbean operations are subject to hurricanes. As we enter new markets we could be subject to additional seasonal variations along with any competitive responses to our entry by other airlines. Price changes in aircraft fuel as well as the timing and amount of maintenance and advertising expenditures also impact our operations. As a result of these factors, quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results may not be a good indicator of our future performance. In addition, it is possible in any future period our operating results could be below the expectations of investors and any published reports or analysis regarding JetBlue. In such an event, the price of our common stock could decline, perhaps substantially.
We are subject to the risks of having a limited number of suppliers for our aircraft, engines, and our Fly-Fi® product.
Our current dependence on four types of aircraft and engines for all of our flights makes us vulnerable to significant problems associated with the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan Engines, or PW1133G-JM engine on our A321neo fleet, International Aero Engines, or IAE V2533-A5 engine on our Airbus A321 fleet, the International Aero Engines, or IAE V2527-A5 engine on our Airbus A320 fleet, and the General Electric Engines CF34-10 engine on our Embraer E190 fleet. This could include design defects, mechanical problems, contractual performance by the manufacturers, or adverse perception by the public which would result in customer avoidance or in actions by the FAA resulting in an inability to operate our aircraft. Carriers operating a more diversified fleet are better positioned than we are to manage such events.

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Our Fly-Fi® service uses technology and satellite access through our agreement with Thales Avionics, Inc., or Thales. An integral component of the Fly-Fi® system is the antenna, which is supplied to us by Thales. If Thales were to stop supplying us with its antennas for any reason, we would have to incur significant costs to procure an alternate supplier. Additionally, if the satellites Fly-Fi® uses were to become inoperable for any reason, we would have to incur significant costs to replace the service.
Tariffs imposed on commercial aircraft and related parts imported from outside the United States, or tariffs that may be escalated over time, may have a material adverse effect on our fleet, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Certain of the products and services that we purchase, including aircraft and related parts, are sourced from suppliers located outside the United States, and the imposition of new tariffs, or any increase in existing tariffs, by the U.S. government on the importation of such products or services could materially increase the amounts we pay for them. On October 2, 2019, the World Trade Organization ruled that the United States could impose up to $7.5 billion in retaliatory tariffs in response to European Union subsidies to Airbus. On October 18, 2019, the United States imposed these tariffs on certain imports from the European Union, including an ad valorem duty of 10% on commercial aircraft and related parts. On February 14, 2020, the United States announced it would increase the tariff to 15% with an effective date of March 18, 2020. These tariffs apply to aircraft and other parts that we are already contractually obligated to purchase. The imposition of these tariffs could substantially increase the cost of, among other things, new Airbus aircraft and parts, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our fleet, business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also seek to postpone or cancel delivery of certain aircraft currently scheduled for delivery, and we may choose not to purchase in the future as many aircraft as we intended. In addition, should additional or different retaliatory tariffs be imposed, our business could be harmed. Any such action could have a material adverse effect on the size of our fleet, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our reputation and financial results could be harmed in the event of an accident or incident involving our aircraft.
An accident or incident involving one of our aircraft could involve significant potential claims of injured passengers or others in addition to repair or replacement of a damaged aircraft and its consequential temporary or permanent loss from service. We are required by the DOT to carry liability insurance. Although we believe we currently maintain liability insurance in amounts and of the type generally consistent with industry practice, the amount of such coverage may not be adequate and we may be forced to bear substantial losses from an accident or incident. Substantial claims resulting from an accident or incident in excess of our related insurance coverage would harm our business and financial results. Moreover, any aircraft accident or incident, even if fully insured, could cause a public perception we are less safe or reliable than other airlines which would harm our business.
Our business depends on our strong reputation and the value of the JetBlue brand.
The JetBlue brand name symbolizes high-quality friendly customer service, innovation, fun, and a pleasant travel experience. JetBlue is a widely recognized and respected global brand; the JetBlue brand is one of our most important and valuable assets. The JetBlue brand name and our corporate reputation are powerful sales and marketing tools and we devote significant resources to promoting and protecting them. Adverse publicity, whether or not justified, relating to activities by our crewmembers, contractors, or agents could tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brand. Damage to our reputation and loss of brand equity could reduce demand for our services and thus have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations, as well as require additional resources to rebuild our reputation and restore the value of our brand.
We may be subject to competitive risks due to the long-term nature of our fleet order book.
At present, we have existing aircraft commitments through 2026. As technological evolution occurs in our industry, through the use of composites and other innovations, we may be competitively disadvantaged because we have existing extensive fleet commitments that would prohibit us from adopting new technologies on an expedited basis.


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Risks Associated with the Airline Industry
The airline industry is particularly sensitive to changes in economic condition.
Fundamental and permanent changes in the domestic airline industry have occurred over time as a result of several years of repeated losses, among other reasons. These losses resulted in airlines renegotiating or attempting to renegotiate labor contracts, reconfiguring flight schedules, furloughing, or terminating crewmembers, as well as considering other efficiency and cost-cutting measures. Despite these actions, several airlines have reorganized under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code to permit them to reduce labor rates, restructure debt, terminate pension plans, and generally reduce their cost structure. Since 2005, the U.S. airline industry has experienced significant consolidation and liquidations. A global economic recession and related unfavorable general economic conditions, such as higher unemployment rates, a constrained credit market, housing-related pressures, and increased business operating costs can reduce spending for both leisure and business travel. Unfavorable economic conditions could also impact an airline’s ability to raise fares to counteract increased fuel, labor, and other costs. It is possible that further airline reorganizations, consolidation, bankruptcies, or liquidations may occur in the current global economic environment, the effects of which we are unable to predict. We cannot assure you the occurrence of these events, or potential changes resulting from these events, will not harm our business or the industry.
A future act of terrorism, the threat of such acts or escalation of U.S. military involvement overseas could adversely affect our industry.
Acts of terrorism, the threat of such acts or escalation of U.S. military involvement overseas could have an adverse effect on the airline industry. In the event of an act of terrorism, whether or not successful, the airline industry would likely experience increased security requirements and significantly reduced demand. We cannot assure you these actions, or consequences resulting from these actions, will not harm our business or the industry.
Changes in government regulations imposing additional requirements and restrictions on our operations could increase our operating costs and result in service delays and disruptions.
Airlines are subject to extensive regulatory and legal requirements, both domestically and internationally, involving significant compliance costs. In the last several years, Congress has passed laws, and the agencies of the federal government, including, but not limited to, the DOT, FAA, CBP, and the TSA have issued regulations relating to the operation of airlines that have required significant expenditures. We expect to continue to incur expenses in connection with complying with government regulations. Additional laws including executive orders, regulations, taxes, and airport rates and charges have been proposed from time to time that could significantly increase the cost of airline operations or reduce the demand for air travel. If adopted or materially amended, these measures could have the effect of raising ticket prices affecting the perception of the airline industry, reducing air travel demand and/or revenue, and increasing costs. We cannot assure you these and other laws including executive orders, regulations, or taxes enacted in the future will not harm our business.
In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, has proposed changes to underground storage tank regulations that could affect certain airport fuel hydrant systems. In addition to the proposed EPA and state regulations, several U.S. airport authorities are actively engaged in efforts to limit discharges of de-icing fluid to local groundwater, often by requiring airlines to participate in the building or reconfiguring of airport de-icing facilities.
Federal budget constraints or federally imposed furloughs due to budget negotiation deadlocks may adversely affect our industry, business, results of operations and financial position.
Many of our airline operations are regulated by governmental agencies, including, but not limited to, the DOT, FAA, CBP, and the TSA. If the federal government were to continue experiencing issues in reaching budgetary consensus in the future resulting in mandatory furloughs and/or other budget constraints, or if a government shutdown were to continue for an extended period of time, our operations and results of operations could be materially negatively impacted. The travel behaviors of the flying public could also be affected, which may materially adversely impact our industry and our business.
Compliance with future environmental regulations may harm our business.
Many aspects of airlines’ operations are subject to increasingly stringent environmental regulations, and growing concerns about climate change may result in the imposition of additional regulation. Since the domestic airline industry is increasingly price sensitive, we may not be able to recover the cost of compliance with new or more stringent environmental laws and regulations from our customers, which could adversely affect our business. Although it is not expected the costs of complying with current environmental regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows, no assurance can be made the costs of complying with environmental regulations in the future will not have such an effect.

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We may be affected by global climate change or by legal, regulatory or market responses to such change.
Concern over climate change, including the impact of global warming, has led to significant U.S. and international legislative and regulatory efforts to limit GHG emissions, including our aircraft and ground operations emissions. In October 2016, the ICAO passed a resolution adopting the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation ("CORSIA"), which is a global, market-based emissions offset program to encourage carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020. CORISA is scheduled to take effect by 2021. ICAO continues to develop details regarding implementation, but we believe compliance with CORSIA will increase our operating costs.
We could be adversely affected by an outbreak of a disease or an environmental disaster that significantly affects travel behavior.
Any outbreak of a disease affecting travel behavior could have a material adverse impact on airlines. In addition, outbreaks of disease could result in quarantines of our personnel, business partners and their suppliers, or an inability to access facilities or our aircraft, which could adversely affect our operations. Similarly, if an environmental disaster were to occur and adversely impact any of our destination cities, travel behavior could be affected and in turn, could materially adversely impact our business.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Aircraft
As of December 31, 2019, we operated a fleet consisting of 63 Airbus A321 aircraft, 6 Airbus A321neo aircraft, 130 Airbus A320 aircraft and 60 Embraer E190 aircraft as summarized below:
Aircraft
 
Seating Capacity
 
Owned
 
Finance Leased
 
Operating Leased
 
Total
 
Average Age in Years
Airbus A320
 
162/ 150

(1) (2) 
 
116

 
4

 
10

 
130

 
14.3

Airbus A321
 
200 / 159

(3) 
 
60

 
2

 
1

 
63

 
3.5

Airbus A321neo
 
200

 
 
6

 

 

 
6

 
0.2

Embraer E190
 
100

 
 
30

 

 
30

 
60

 
11.2

 
 
 
 
 
212

 
6

 
41

 
259

 
10.6

(1) During 2019, we completed the buyout of one of our aircraft leases.
(2) Our Airbus A320 with a restyled cabin configuration has a seating capacity of 162 seats. Our Airbus A320 with a classic cabin configuration has a seating capacity of 150 seats.
(3) Our Airbus A321 with a single cabin layout has a seating capacity of 200 seats. Our Airbus A321 with our Mint® premium service has a seating capacity of 159 seats.
As of December 31, 2019, our aircraft leases had an average remaining term of approximately 4 years, with expiration dates between 2020 and 2026. We have the option to extend most of these leases for additional periods or to purchase the aircraft at the end of the related lease term.
In connection with our plans to launch flights to London, we amended our purchase agreement with Airbus in April 2019 to convert 13 Airbus A321neo deliveries into A321LR deliveries scheduled between 2023 and 2024.
In June 2019, we further amended our purchase agreement with Airbus to convert an additional 13 Airbus A321neo deliveries into the A321XLR. We believe the range of the Airbus A321XLR will allow us to expand our relevance in Boston and New York, by adding more destinations in Europe. In addition, we also converted 10 of our options for the Airbus A220-300 aircraft into firm orders scheduled for delivery between 2025 and 2026.
As of December 31, 2019, options for 50 additional A220-300 aircraft deliveries remain available to us and we retain the flexibility to convert certain aircraft to the A220-100 model. Both members of the A220 family share commonality in more than 99 percent of their replaceable parts and utilize the same family of engines.

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As of December 31, 2019, we had 149 aircraft on order scheduled for delivery through 2026. Our future aircraft delivery schedule is as follows:
 
 
Contractual Order Book
Year
 
Airbus A321neo
 
Airbus A220
 
Total
2019
 
7
 
 
7
2020
 
14
 
1
 
15
2021
 
17
 
6
 
23
2022
 
15
 
8
 
23
2023
 
14
 
19
 
33
2024
 
12
 
22
 
34
2025
 
 
12
 
12
2026
 
 
2
 
2
Total
 
79
 
70
 
149
The table above represents the current delivery schedule set forth in our Airbus order book as of December 31, 2019. In October 2018 and May 2019, we received notice from Airbus of anticipated delivery delays of the A321neo aircraft. Due to these delays, we only took delivery of six A321neo aircraft in 2019 with the remaining seven to be delivered beyond their contractual delivery year. We expect to take delivery of a maximum of 11 A321neo aircraft in 2020.
Ground Facilities
Airports
All of our facilities at the airports we serve are under leases or other occupancy agreements. This space is leased directly or indirectly from the local airport authority on varying terms dependent on prevailing practices at each airport. Our passenger terminal service facilities consisting of ticket counters, gate space, operations support area, and baggage service offices generally have agreement terms ranging from less than one year to five years. They can contain provisions for periodic adjustments of rental rates, landing fees, and other charges applicable under the type of lease. Under some of these agreements, we are responsible for the maintenance, insurance, utilities, and certain other facility-related expenses and services.
A summary of our most significant lease agreements are:
JFK - We have a lease agreement with the PANYNJ for T5 and T5i. We have the option to terminate the agreement in 2033, five years prior to the end of the original scheduled lease term of October 2038. We also executed a supplement to this lease agreement for the T6 property, our original base of operations at JFK which afforded us the exclusive right to develop on the T6 property. T5i, our expansion of T5 that we use as an international arrivals facility opened to customers in November 2014. Another supplement of the original T5 lease was executed in 2013. The lease, as amended, now incorporates a total of approximately 19 acres of space for our T5 facilities.
Boston - We had an initial five year lease agreement with Massport for five gates in Terminal C that started on May 1, 2005 and allowed JetBlue to grow to 11 gates by 2008. The agreement included extension language which provided for 20 successive one-year automatic renewals after the initial five year term. With the continued growth of our operations in Boston, we have periodically amended our lease to add additional gates and support spaces, most recently in 2017 to have the rights to six additional gates. As of December 31, 2019, we leased 27 gates in Boston. 
We have entered into use arrangements at each of the airports we serve providing for the non-exclusive use of runways, taxiways, and other airport facilities. Landing fees under these agreements are typically based on the number of aircraft landings and the weight of the aircraft.
Other
We lease the following hangars and airport support facilities at our focus cities:
New York - At JFK we have a ground lease agreement which expires in 2030 for an aircraft maintenance hangar, an adjacent office, and warehouse facility, including a storage facility for aircraft parts. These facilities accommodate our technical support and catering operations. We also lease a building from the PANYNJ which is mainly used for ground equipment maintenance work.
Boston - We have a ground lease agreement which expires in 2022 for a building which includes an aircraft maintenance hangar and support space. We also have leases for facilities to accommodate our ground support equipment maintenance and catering operations.

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Orlando - We have a ground lease agreement for a hangar which expires in 2035. We also occupy a training center, JetBlue University, with a lease agreement expiring in 2035 which we use for the initial and recurrent training of our pilots and inflight crewmembers, as well as support training for our technical operations and airport crewmembers. This facility is equipped with seven full flight simulators, seven flight training devices, three cabin trainers, a training pool, classrooms, and support areas. We began the planned expansion of JetBlue University in April 2019. As we continue to grow, developing our crewmembers' technical, service, and hospitality skills that provide our JetBlue Experience is crucial to our continued success. The new learning space will include additional flight and cabin simulators, an auditorium that can accommodate six new classrooms, and a larger ditching pool.
In 2015, we opened the Lodge at OSC which is adjacent to JetBlue University and is used for lodging our crewmembers when they attend training.
Our primary corporate offices are located in Long Island City, New York with our lease expiring in 2023. Our offices in Salt Lake City, Utah contain a core team of crewmembers who are responsible for group sales, customer service, at-home reservation agent supervision, disbursements and certain other finance functions. The lease for our Salt Lake City facility expires in 2022. We also maintain other facilities that are necessary to support our operations in the cities we serve.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of our business, we are party to various legal proceedings and claims which we believe are incidental to the operation of our business. Other than as described under Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe the ultimate outcome of these proceedings to which we are currently a party will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


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PART II

 ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY; RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information and Stockholder Matters
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol JBLU. As of January 31, 2020, there were approximately 400 holders of record of our common stock.
We have not paid cash dividends on our common stock and have no current intention to do so. Any future determination to pay cash dividends would be at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable limitations under Delaware law. This decision would be dependent upon our results of operations, financial condition, and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchases
On September 10, 2015, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program of up to $250 million worth of JetBlue common stock over a three year period beginning in January 2016. On December 7, 2016, the Board approved certain changes to our share repurchase program, or the 2016 Authorization, to increase the aggregate authorization to $500 million worth of common stock, and to extend the term of the program through December 2019. The 2016 Authorization was completed in 2017.
On December 8, 2017, the Board of Directors approved a two year share repurchase program, or the 2017 Authorization, of up to $750 million worth of common stock beginning on January 1, 2018. The 2017 Authorization was completed in 2019.
On September 19, 2019, the Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program, or the 2019 Authorization, of up to $800 million worth of common stock beginning on October 1, 2019 and ending no later than December 31, 2021. Our share repurchase programs include authorization for repurchases in open market transactions pursuant to Rules 10b-18 and/or 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act, and/or one or more privately-negotiated accelerated stock repurchase transactions. The timing, price, and volume of any repurchases will be based on market conditions and other relevant factors.
During 2019, the following shares were repurchased under the above programs (in millions, except per share data):
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
March 2019
 
6.1

 
(1) 
 
6.1

 
$
250

May 2019
 
1.3

 
(1) 
 
1.3

 
250

June 2019
 
5.2

 
(2) 
 
5.2

 
125

August 2019
 
1.5

 
(2) 
 
1.5

 
125

September 2019
 
6.0

 
(3) 
 
6.0

 

November 2019
 
8.0

 
(3)(4) 
 
8.0

 
640

Total
 
28.1

 

 
28.1

 

(1) On March 11, 2019, JetBlue entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement, or ASR, paying $125 million for an initial delivery of 6.1 million shares. The term of the ASR concluded on May 21, 2019 with delivery of 1.3 million additional shares to JetBlue on May 22, 2019. A total of 7.4 million shares, at an average price of $16.93 per share, were repurchased under the agreement.
(2) On June 13, 2019, JetBlue entered into an ASR paying $125 million for an initial delivery of 5.2 million shares. The term of the ASR concluded on August 13, 2019 with delivery of 1.5 million additional shares to JetBlue on August 15, 2019. A total of 6.7 million shares, at an average price of $18.58 per share, were repurchased under the agreement.
(3) On September 6, 2019, JetBlue entered into an ASR paying $125 million for an initial delivery of 6.0 million shares. The term of the ASR concluded on November 18, 2019 with delivery of 1.1 million additional shares to JetBlue. A total of 7.1 million shares, at an average price of $17.46 per share, were repurchased under the agreement.

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(4) On November 21, 2019, JetBlue entered into an ASR paying $160 million for an initial delivery of 6.9 million shares. The term of the ASR is expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2020. The total number of shares to ultimately be purchased by JetBlue will be based on the average volume weighted average prices of JetBlue's common stock during the term of the ASR, less a discount.

Stock Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” with the SEC or subject to Section 18 of the Exchange Act, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act, as amended.
The following line graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Stock Index and the NYSE Arca Airline Index from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2019. The comparison assumes the investment of $100 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and reinvestment of all dividends. The stock performance shown represents historical performance and is not representative of future stock performance.
chart-c3058d6d89ed5b5aac4.jpg
 
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
 
12/31/2019
JetBlue Airways Corporation
 
$
100

 
$
99

 
$
99

 
$
71

 
$
83

S&P 500 Stock Index
 
100

 
110

 
131

 
123

 
158

NYSE Arca Airline Index
 
100

 
128

 
134

 
104

 
126



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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following financial information for each of the prior five years ending on December 31 has been derived from our consolidated financial statements. This information should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Report.
(in millions except per share data)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016(1)
 
2015(1)(2)
Statements of Operations Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating revenues
 
$
8,094

 
$
7,658

 
$
7,012

 
$
6,584

 
$
6,416

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aircraft fuel and related taxes
 
1,847

 
1,899

 
1,363

 
1,074

 
1,348

Salaries, wages and benefits
 
2,320

 
2,044

 
1,887

 
1,698

 
1,540

Landing fees and other rents
 
474

 
462

 
438

 
357

 
342

Depreciation and amortization
 
525

 
469

 
424

 
393

 
345

Aircraft rent
 
99

 
104

 
102

 
110

 
122

Sales and marketing
 
290

 
294

 
271

 
263

 
264

Maintenance, materials and repairs
 
619

 
625

 
622

 
563

 
490

Other operating expenses
 
1,106

 
1,060

 
932

 
866

 
749

Special items(3)
 
14

 
435

 

 

 

Total operating expenses
 
7,294

 
7,392

 
6,039

 
5,324

 
5,200

Operating income
 
800

 
266

 
973

 
1,260

 
1,216

Other income (expense)(4)
 
(32
)
 
(47
)
 
(55
)
 
(96
)
 
(119
)
Income before income taxes
 
768

 
219

 
918

 
1,164

 
1,097

Income tax expense (benefit)(6)(7)
 
199

 
30

 
(222
)
 
437

 
420

Net income
 
$
569

 
$
189

 
$
1,140

 
$
727

 
$
677

Earnings per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
1.92

 
$
0.60

 
$
3.47

 
$
2.23

 
$
2.15

Diluted(2)(3)(4)(6)
 
$
1.91

 
$
0.60

 
$
3.45

 
$
2.13

 
$
1.98

Other Financial Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating margin
 
9.9
%
 
3.5
%
 
13.9
%
 
19.1
%
 
19.0
%
Pre-tax margin(5)
 
9.5
%
 
2.9
%
 
13.1
%
 
17.7
%
 
17.1
%
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
1,449

 
$
1,200

 
$
1,379

 
$
1,632

 
$
1,598

Net cash (used in) investing activities
 
(1,129
)
 
(1,157
)
 
(979
)
 
(1,046
)
 
(1,134
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
 
165

 
131

 
(536
)
 
(472
)
 
(487
)
(1) Amounts prior to 2017 do not reflect the impact of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) of the Codification, adopted as of January 1, 2019. Refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for details.
(2) Amounts in 2015 do not reflect the impact of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) of the Codification, adopted as of January 1, 2018.
(3) In 2019 and 2018, we had special items of $14 million and $435 million, respectively, related to the implementation and ratification of our pilots' collective bargaining agreement, and our Embraer E190 fleet transition. The impact of special items to our diluted earnings per share was $0.03 and $1.04, for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Refer to Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements for details.
(4) In 2019, we recognized a gain on equity method investments of $15 million. The impact of this gain to our diluted earnings per share was $0.04.
(5) Pre-tax margin excluding special items and gain on equity method investments was 9.5% and 8.5%, in 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(6) Our 2017 results included a $564 million tax benefit, or $1.71 of diluted earnings per share, from the remeasurement of our deferred taxes to reflect the impact of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

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(7) Our 2018 results included a $28 million tax benefit, or $0.09 of diluted earnings per share, resulting from measurement period adjustments related to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
(in millions)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016(1)
 
2015(1)(2)
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
959

 
$
474

 
$
303

 
$
433

 
$
318

Investment securities
 
372

 
416

 
392

 
628

 
607

Total assets
 
11,918

 
10,959

 
10,402

 
9,323

 
8,499

Total debt and finance leases
 
2,334

 
1,670

 
1,199

 
1,384

 
1,827

Common stockholders’ equity
 
4,799

 
4,685

 
4,805

 
3,933

 
3,210

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016(1)
 
2015(1)(2)
Operating Statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue passengers (thousands)
 
42,728

 
42,150

 
40,038

 
38,263

 
35,101

Revenue passenger miles (millions)
 
53,617

 
50,790

 
47,240

 
45,619

 
41,711

Available seat miles (ASMs) (millions)
 
63,841

 
59,881

 
56,007

 
53,620

 
49,258

Load factor
 
84.0
%
 
84.8
%
 
84.3
%
 
85.1
%
 
84.7
%
Aircraft utilization (hours per day)
 
11.9

 
11.8

 
11.7

 
12.0

 
11.9

Average fare
 
$
182.23

 
$
175.11

 
$
168.88

 
$
166.74

 
$
167.89

Yield per passenger mile (cents)
 
14.52

 
14.53

 
14.31

 
13.99

 
14.13

Passenger revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.20

 
12.33

 
12.07

 
11.90

 
11.96

Operating revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.68

 
12.79

 
12.52

 
12.28

 
13.03

Operating expense per ASM (cents)
 
11.43

 
12.34

 
10.78

 
9.93

 
10.56

Operating expense per ASM, excluding fuel(3)
 
8.44

 
8.37

 
8.29

 
7.88

 
7.82

Departures
 
368,355

 
366,619

 
353,681

 
337,302

 
316,505

Average stage length (miles)
 
1,140

 
1,096

 
1,072

 
1,093

 
1,092

Average number of operating aircraft during period
 
253.6

 
246.8

 
233.5

 
218.9

 
207.9

Average fuel cost per gallon, including fuel taxes
 
$
2.09

 
$
2.24

 
$
1.72

 
$
1.41

 
$
1.93

Fuel gallons consumed (millions)
 
885

 
849

 
792

 
760

 
700

Average number of full-time equivalent crewmembers
 
18,535

 
17,766

 
17,118

 
15,696

 
14,537

(1) Amounts prior to 2017 do not reflect the impact of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) of the Codification, adopted as of January 1, 2019. Refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for details.
(2) Amounts in 2015 do not reflect the impact ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) of the Codification, adopted as of January1, 2018.
(3) Refer to our "Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.


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Glossary of Airline terminology
Airline terminology used in this section and elsewhere in this Report:
Aircraft utilization - The average number of block hours operated per day per aircraft for the total fleet of aircraft.
Available seat miles - The number of seats available for passengers multiplied by the number of miles the seats are flown.
Average fare - The average one-way fare paid per flight segment by a revenue passenger.
Average fuel cost per gallon - Total aircraft fuel costs, including fuel taxes and effective portion of fuel hedging, divided by the total number of fuel gallons consumed.
Average stage length - The average number of miles flown per flight.
Load factor - The percentage of aircraft seating capacity actually utilized, calculated by dividing revenue passenger miles by available seat miles.
Operating expense per available seat mile - Operating expenses divided by available seat miles.
Operating expense per available seat mile, excluding fuel - Operating expenses, less aircraft fuel, other non-airline expenses, and special items, divided by available seat miles.
Operating revenue per available seat mile - Operating revenues divided by available seat miles.
Passenger revenue per available seat mile - Passenger revenue divided by available seat miles.
Revenue passengers - The total number of paying passengers flown on all flight segments.
Revenue passenger miles - The number of miles flown by revenue passengers.
Yield per passenger mile - The average amount one passenger pays to fly one mile.

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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW
In 2019, we experienced the persistent competitiveness of the airline industry and were challenged with unexpected revenue headwinds, particularly with an unusually volatile year in our Latin and Caribbean markets. Even with these external factors, we managed to generate operating revenue growth of 5.7% year-over-year. We remain committed to delivering a safe and reliable JetBlue Experience for our customers and increasing returns for our shareholders. We believe our continued focus on cost discipline, product innovation and network enhancements, combined with our commitment to service excellence, will drive our future success.
2019 Highlights
We generated $8.1 billion in operating revenue, an increase of $436 million compared to 2018, primarily due to a 1.4% increase in revenue passengers and a 4.1% increase in average fare.
Operating expense and operating expense per available seat mile (CASM) for 2019 decreased by 1.3% to $7.3 billion and 7.4% to 11.43 cents, respectively. Our 2019 and 2018 operating expense included special items of $14 million and $435 million, respectively, related to the implementation and ratification of our pilots' collective bargaining agreement, and our Embraer E190 fleet transition. These special items contributed 0.02 cents and 0.73 cents to our unit costs in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Excluding fuel and related taxes, special items, as well as operating expenses related to our non-airline businesses, our cost per available seat mile (CASM ex-fuel)(1) increased by 0.8% to 8.44 cents. In recent years, the benefits from our Structural Cost Program have slowed our unit cost growth.
In 2019, we reported net income of $569 million, operating income of $800 million, operating margin of 9.9%, and diluted earnings per share of $1.91. This compares to reported net income of $189 million, operating income of $266 million, operating margin of 3.5%, and diluted earnings per share of $0.60 in 2018.
Our 2019 and 2018 reported results included the effects of special items. Adjusting for these one-time items(1), our adjusted net income was $568 million, operating income was $814 million, and our adjusted operating margin was 10.1% for 2019. This compares to adjusted net income of $488 million, operating income of $701 million, and operating margin of 9.2% for 2018. Excluding one-time items(1), diluted earnings per share were $1.90 and $1.55 for 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We generated $1.4 billion in cash from operations. The significant amount of cash we generated provided the opportunity to pay cash for all of our 2019 aircraft deliveries, buy out the lease of one aircraft, invest in our infrastructure and customer experience, and execute share repurchases.
Company Initiatives
Balance Sheet
We ended 2019 with unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $1.3 billion and undrawn lines of credit of approximately $750 million. In March 2019, Fitch Ratings affirmed our Issuer Default Rating at BB with a positive outlook. At December 31, 2019, our unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments was approximately 16% of trailing twelve months revenue. In 2019, we raised $981 million in secured aircraft debt and repaid $323 million of regularly scheduled debt. During 2019, we acquired approximately 28.1 million shares of our common stock for approximately $535 million under our share repurchase programs, returning excess capital to our shareholders. Our adjusted debt to capitalization ratio(1) was 34% at December 31, 2019.
Aircraft and Airport Infrastructure Investments
We placed our first Airbus A321neo aircraft into service in September 2019. During 2019, we took delivery of six Airbus A321neo aircraft and bought out the lease on one Airbus A320 aircraft.
We have made significant progress in our cabin restyle program which includes two iterations. Phase 1 of the program introduced our popular Airbus A321 interior to our Airbus A320 aircraft. Phase 2, which began in early 2019, includes enhancements to provide our customers with a cabin experience of the future. It features a new seat design with memory foam cushion comfort and adjustable headrests, a next generation inflight entertainment system with an expanded collection of on demand movies, television shows including full seasons and video content, plus new gaming features, and expanded Fly-Fi® coverage over water to support our growing network. As of December 31, 2019, Phase 2 of the restyling program was completed on 31 of our Airbus A320 aircraft, bringing the total number of restyled aircraft to 51.

(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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Table of Contents

We continue to introduce self-tagging kiosks to our BlueCities in 2019. Quito, Ecuador became the 25th self-tagging lobby in our network and the first international BlueCity with our seamless lobby experience. Self-tagging kiosks were available at 28 of our BlueCities as of December 31, 2019. These kiosks reduce wait time for our customers during check-in and allow our crewmembers to deliver an even more personalized hospitality experience.
Network
As part of our ongoing network initiatives and route optimization efforts, we continued to make schedule and frequency adjustments throughout 2019. As a result, we added one new destination to our growing network as well as new routes and additional frequencies between existing BlueCities.
Outlook for 2020
We plan to add new destinations and route pairings based upon market demand. We are continuously looking to expand our other ancillary revenue opportunities, improve our TrueBlue® loyalty program, and deepen our portfolio of commercial partnerships. As in the past, we intend to continue investing in infrastructure and product enhancements in 2020, which we believe will enable us to reap future benefits. We also plan to continue strengthening the balance sheet.
For the full year 2020, we estimate our operating capacity will increase by approximately 5.5% to 7.5% over 2019 with the expected delivery of eleven Airbus A321neo aircraft and our first Airbus A220 aircraft. We are expecting our 2020 cost per available seat mile, excluding aircraft fuel and related taxes, operating expenses related to other non-airline businesses, and special items (CASM ex-fuel)(1) to decrease by between approximately (2.0)% to 0.0% year-over-year, carrying forward our achievements from 2019. We expect our CASM ex-fuel growth to be lower in the second half of 2020 driven by the timing of our capacity growth.
We plan to offset carbon dioxide emissions from jet fuel for all domestic flights beginning in July 2020. We anticipate contributing to emissions reduction projects around the globe which aim to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere in at least one of three ways: avoiding greenhouse gas emissions in favor of renewable sources, removing emissions from the atmosphere, and destroying emissions when possible. In addition, we also plan to start flying with sustainable aviation fuel in mid-2020 on flights from San Francisco International Airport.
In October 2019, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative announced a 10% tariff on new commercial aircraft and related parts imported from certain European Union member states, which include aircraft and other parts we are already contractually obligated to purchase, including those noted above. In February 2020, the U.S. Trade Representative announced an increase in the tariff to 15% which will become effective in March 2020. We are working with our business partners, including Airbus, to evaluate the potential financial and operational impact of these announcements on our future aircraft deliveries. The imposition of the tariff could substantially increase the cost of new Airbus aircraft and parts. Continued imposition of the tariff, including continued escalation of the tariff, could adversely affect our aircraft supply chain, growth plans, and our business.



(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2019 Compared to 2018
Overview
We reported net income of $569 million, operating income of $800 million and operating margin of 9.9% for the year ended December 31, 2019. This compares to net income of $189 million, operating income of $266 million, and operating margin of 3.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018. Diluted earnings per share were $1.91 for 2019 compared to $0.60 for 2018.
Our 2019 and 2018 reported results included the effects of special items. Adjusting for these one-time items(1), our adjusted net income was $568 million, operating income was $814 million, and our adjusted operating margin was 10.1% for 2019. This compares to adjusted net income of $488 million, operating income of $701 million, and operating margin of 9.2% for 2018. Excluding one-time items(1), diluted earnings per share were $1.90 and $1.55 for 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Operating Revenues
(revenues in millions; percent changes based on unrounded numbers)
 
 
 
 
 
Year-over-Year Change
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
$
 
%
 
Passenger revenue
 
$
7,786

 
$
7,381

 
405

 
5.5

 
Other revenue
 
308

 
277

 
31

 
11.0

 
Operating revenues
 
$
8,094

 
$
7,658

 
436

 
5.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average fare
 
$
182.23

 
$
175.11

 
7.12

 
4.1

 
Yield per passenger mile (cents)
 
14.52

 
14.53

 
(0.01
)
 
(0.1
)
 
Passenger revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.20

 
12.33

 
(0.13
)
 
(1.1
)
 
Operating revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.68

 
12.79

 
(0.11
)
 
(0.9
)
 
Average stage length (miles)
 
1,140

 
1,096

 
44

 
4.0

 
Revenue passengers (thousands)
 
42,728

 
42,150

 
578

 
1.4

 
Revenue passenger miles (millions)
 
53,617

 
50,790

 
2,827

 
5.6

 
Available seat miles (ASMs) (millions)
 
63,841

 
59,881

 
3,960

 
6.6

 
Load factor
 
84.0
%
 
84.8
%
 
 
 
(0.8
)
pts
Passenger revenue accounted for 96.2% of our total operating revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. In addition to seat revenue, passenger revenue includes revenue from our ancillary product offerings such as Even More® Space. Revenue generated from international routes, including Puerto Rico, accounted for 30.4% of our passenger revenue in 2019. Passenger revenue, including certain ancillary fees directly related to passenger tickets, is recognized when the transportation is provided. Passenger revenue from unused tickets and passenger credits are recognized in proportion to flown revenue based on estimates of expected expiration or when the likelihood of the customer exercising his or her remaining rights becomes remote. We measure capacity in terms of available seat miles, which represents the number of seats available for passengers multiplied by the number of miles the seats are flown. Yield, or the average amount one passenger pays to fly one mile, is calculated by dividing Passenger revenue by Revenue passenger miles. We attempt to increase Passenger revenue primarily by increasing our yield per flight which produces higher revenue per available seat mile. Our objective is to optimize our fare mix to increase our overall average fare while continuing to provide our customers with competitive fares.
In 2019, the increase in Passenger revenue was mainly attributable to a 1.4% increase in revenue passengers and a 4.1% increase in average fare. Fee revenue increased by $76 million as a result of changes in our baggage and change fee policies. Our largest ancillary product remains the Even More® Space seats, generating approximately $301 million in revenue, an increase of 10% compared to 2018.
Other revenue is primarily comprised of the marketing component of the sales of our TrueBlue® points. It also includes revenue from the sale of vacations packages, ground handling fees received from other airlines, and rental income.


(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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Operating Expenses
(in millions; per ASM data in cents; percentages based on unrounded numbers)
 
 
 
 
 
Year-over-Year Change
 
per ASM
 
2019
 
2018
 
$
 
%
 
2019
 
2018
 
% Change
Aircraft fuel and related taxes
 
$
1,847

 
$
1,899

 
(52
)
 
(2.7
)
 
2.89

 
3.17

 
(8.8
)
Salaries, wages and benefits
 
2,320

 
2,044

 
276

 
13.5

 
3.64

 
3.41

 
6.5

Landing fees and other rents
 
474

 
462

 
12

 
2.6

 
0.74

 
0.77

 
(3.7
)
Depreciation and amortization
 
525

 
469

 
56

 
12.1

 
0.82

 
0.78

 
5.2

Aircraft rent
 
99

 
104

 
(5
)
 
(5.1
)
 
0.16

 
0.17

 
(11.0
)
Sales and marketing
 
290

 
294

 
(4
)
 
(1.1
)
 
0.46

 
0.49

 
(7.3
)
Maintenance, materials and repairs
 
619

 
625

 
(6
)
 
(1.0
)
 
0.97

 
1.04

 
(7.2
)
Other operating expenses
 
1,106

 
1,060

 
46

 
4.2

 
1.73

 
1.78

 
(2.2
)
Special items
 
14

 
435

 
(421
)
 
(96.7
)
 
0.02

 
0.73

 
(96.9
)
Total operating expenses
 
$
7,294

 
$
7,392

 
(98
)
 
(1.3
)
 
11.43

 
12.34

 
(7.4
)
Aircraft Fuel and Related Taxes
Aircraft fuel and related taxes represented 25% of our total operating expenses in 2019 compared to 26% in 2018. The average fuel price decreased 6.7% in 2019 to $2.09 per gallon. This was partially offset by a 4.3% increase in our fuel consumption of approximately 36 million gallons. Additional fuel consumption was mainly due to our increase in the average number of operating aircraft. Based on our expected fuel volume for 2020, a 10% per gallon increase in the cost of aircraft fuel would increase our annual fuel expense by approximately $192 million.
We recognized fuel hedge losses of $5 million and $2 million, in 2019 and 2018, respectively. These losses were recorded in Aircraft fuel and related taxes. We are unable to predict the potential loss from hedge accounting, which is determined on a derivative-by-derivative basis, due to the volatility in the forward markets for these commodities.
Salaries, Wages and Benefits
Salaries, wages and benefits represented 32% of our total operating expenses in 2019 compared to 28% in 2018. The increase in salaries, wages and benefits was primarily driven by the incremental costs of the new pilots' collective bargaining agreement which became effective on August 1, 2018. Our crewmember headcount also increased year-over-year. During 2019, the average number of full-time equivalent crewmembers increased by 4% and the average tenure of our crewmembers was 7 years. We expect the increasing tenure of our crewmembers, rising healthcare costs, and efforts to maintain competitiveness in our overall compensation packages to continue to pressure our costs in 2020.
Landing Fees and Other Rents
Landing fees and other rents include landing fees, which are at premium rates in the heavily trafficked northeast corridor of the U.S. where approximately 76% of our operations resided in 2019. Other rents primarily consist of rent for airports in our BlueCities. Landing fees and other rents increased $12 million, or 2.6%, in 2019 primarily due to our increased number of departures.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization primarily include depreciation for our owned and finance leased aircraft, engines, and inflight entertainment systems. Depreciation and amortization increased $56 million, or 12.1%, primarily driven by a 2.8% increase in the average number of aircraft operating in 2019 compared to the same period in 2018. We placed five Airbus A321 aircraft into service and bought out the lease of one Airbus A320 aircraft in 2019. In addition, we also completed the cabin restyle on 42 Airbus A320 aircraft.
Maintenance, Materials and Repairs
Maintenance, materials and repairs are generally expensed when incurred unless covered by a long-term flight hour services contract. The average age of our aircraft in 2019 was 10.6 years which is relatively young compared to our competitors. However, as our fleet ages our maintenance costs will increase significantly, both on an absolute basis and as a percentage of our unit costs, as older aircraft require additional, more expensive repairs over time. We had an average of 6.8 additional total operating aircraft in 2019 compared to 2018.

(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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In 2019, Maintenance, materials and repairs decreased by $6 million, or 1.0% compared to 2018. The decrease is attributable to lower cost structures achieved through the Structural Cost Program and timing of heavy maintenance visits.
Other Operating Expenses
Other operating expenses consist of the following categories: outside services (including expenses related to fueling, ground handling, skycap, security, and janitorial services), insurance, personnel expenses, professional fees, onboard supplies, shop and office supplies, bad debts, communication costs, and taxes other than payroll and fuel taxes.
In 2019, Other operating expenses increased by $46 million, or 4.2%, compared to 2018, primarily due to an increase in airport services and passenger onboard supplies resulting from an increased number of departures and customers flown.
Special Items
Special items in 2019 consisted of $6 million of one-time costs related to the Embraer E190 fleet transition and $8 million of one-time costs related to the implementation of our pilots' collective bargaining agreement. Special items in 2018 consisted of $362 million of impairment and one-time costs related to the Embraer E190 fleet transition, and $73 million of one-time costs related to the ratification of our pilots' collective bargaining agreement.
Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate was 25.9% in 2019, compared to 13.9% in 2018. Our 2018 effective tax rate included a benefit of $28 million related to implementation of various provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. We estimate that our underlying tax rate in 2020 will be approximately 26%.

2018 Compared to 2017
Overview
We reported net income of $189 million, operating income of $266 million and operating margin of 3.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018. This compares to net income of $1.1 billion, operating income of $973 million and operating margin of 13.9% for the year ended December 31, 2017. Diluted earnings per share were $0.60 for 2018 compared to $3.45 for 2017.
Our 2018 and 2017 reported results included the effects of special items and the implementation of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Adjusting for these one-time items(1), our net income was $488 million, operating income was $701 million, and our adjusted operating margin was 9.2%. for 2018. This compares to adjusted net income of $576 million, operating income of $973 million, and operating margin of 13.9% for 2017. Excluding one-time items(1), diluted earnings per share were $1.55 and $1.74 for 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Operating Revenues
(revenues in millions; percent changes based on unrounded numbers)
 
 
 
 
 
Year-over-Year Change
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
 
Passenger revenue
 
$
7,381

 
$
6,761

 
620

 
9.2
 
Other revenue
 
277

 
251

 
26

 
10.5
 
Operating revenues
 
$
7,658

 
$
7,012

 
646

 
9.2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average fare
 
$
175.11

 
$
168.88

 
$
6.23

 
3.7
 
Yield per passenger mile (cents)
 
14.53

 
14.31

 
0.22

 
1.5
 
Passenger revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.33

 
12.07

 
0.26

 
2.1
 
Operating revenue per ASM (cents)
 
12.79

 
12.52

 
0.27

 
2.1
 
Average stage length (miles)
 
1,096

 
1,072

 
24

 
2.2
 
Revenue passengers (thousands)
 
42,150

 
40,038

 
2,112

 
5.3
 
Revenue passenger miles (millions)
 
50,790

 
47,240

 
3,550

 
7.5
 
Available seat miles (ASMs) (millions)
 
59,881

 
56,007

 
3,874

 
6.9
 
Load factor
 
84.8
%
 
84.3
%
 
 
 
0.5
pts

(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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Passenger revenue accounted for over 96.4% of our total operating revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018. In addition to seat revenue, passenger revenue includes revenue from our ancillary product offerings such as Even More® Space. Revenue generated from international routes, including Puerto Rico, accounted for 29.7% of our passenger revenue in 2018. Passenger revenue, including certain ancillary fees directly related to passenger tickets, is recognized when the transportation is provided. Passenger revenue from unused tickets and passenger credits are recognized in proportion to flown revenue based on estimates of expected expiration or when the likelihood of the customer exercising his or her remaining rights becomes remote. We measure capacity in terms of available seat miles, which represents the number of seats available for passengers multiplied by the number of miles the seats are flown. Yield, or the average amount one passenger pays to fly one mile, is calculated by dividing Passenger revenue by Revenue passenger miles. We attempt to increase Passenger revenue primarily by increasing our yield per flight which produces higher Revenue per available seat mile. Our objective is to optimize our fare mix to increase our overall average fare while continuing to provide our customers with competitive fares.
In 2018, the increase in Passenger revenue was mainly attributable to a 5.3% increase in revenue passengers and a 3.7% increase in average fare. Fee revenue increased by $60 million as a result of changes in our baggage and change fee policies. Our largest ancillary product was Even More® Space, generating approximately $274 million in revenue, an increase of over 14% compared to 2017.
Other revenue is primarily comprised of the marketing component of the sales of our TrueBlue® points. It also includes revenue from the sale of vacations packages, ground handling fees received from other airlines, and rental income.
Operating Expenses
(in millions; per ASM data in cents; percentages based on unrounded numbers)
 
 
 
 
 
Year-over-Year Change
 
per ASM
 
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
Aircraft fuel and related taxes
 
$
1,899

 
$
1,363

 
536

 
39.4
 
3.17

 
2.43

 
30.4

Salaries, wages and benefits
 
2,044

 
1,887

 
157

 
8.3
 
3.41

 
3.37

 
1.3

Landing fees and other rents
 
462

 
438

 
24

 
5.4
 
0.77

 
0.78

 
(1.4
)
Depreciation and amortization
 
469

 
424

 
45

 
10.5
 
0.78

 
0.76

 
3.3

Aircraft rent
 
104

 
102

 
2

 
2.6
 
0.17

 
0.18

 
(4.0
)
Sales and marketing
 
294

 
271

 
23

 
8.4
 
0.49

 
0.49

 
1.4

Maintenance, materials and repairs
 
625

 
622

 
3

 
0.5
 
1.04

 
1.11

 
(6.0
)
Other operating expenses
 
1,060

 
932

 
128

 
13.7
 
1.78

 
1.66

 
6.3

Special items
 
435

 

 
435

 
 
0.73

 

 

Total operating expenses
 
$
7,392

 
$
6,039

 
1,353

 
22.4
 
12.34

 
10.78

 
14.5

Aircraft Fuel and Related Taxes
Aircraft fuel and related taxes represented 26% of our total operating expenses in 2018 compared to 23% in 2017. The average fuel price increased 30.2% in 2018 to $2.24 per gallon. This was coupled with an increase in our fuel consumption of approximately 57 million gallons. Additional fuel consumption was mainly due to our increase in the average number of operating aircraft.
In 2018, we recognized fuel hedge losses of $2 million compared to $15 million of fuel hedge gains in 2017 and these were recorded in Aircraft fuel and related taxes.
Salaries, Wages and Benefits
Salaries, wages and benefits represented approximately 28% of our total operating expenses in 2018 compared to 31% in 2017. The increase in salaries, wages and benefits was primarily driven by the incremental costs of the new pilots' collective bargaining agreement which became effective on August 1, 2018. Our crewmember headcount also increased year-over-year. During 2018, the average number of full-time equivalent crewmembers increased by 4% and the average tenure of our crewmembers was 7 years.
Our profit sharing is calculated as 10% of adjusted pre-tax income excluding special items, and reduced by Retirement Plus contributions. Profit sharing decreased by $38 million in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily driven by higher fuel prices which negatively impacted our adjusted pre-tax income.

(1) Refer to our ''Regulation G Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures" at the end of this section for more information on this non-GAAP measure.
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Landing Fees and Other Rents
Landing fees and other rents include landing fees, which are at premium rates in the heavily trafficked northeast corridor of the U.S. where approximately 75% of our operations resided in 2018. Other rents primarily consisted of rent for airports in our BlueCities. Landing fees and other rents increased $24 million