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Table of Contents



UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________ to __________

Commission File Number: 001-36083

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

76-0533927

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

13139 Jess Pirtle Blvd.

Sugar Land, TX 77478

(Address of principal executive offices)

(281295-1800

(Registrant’s telephone number)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Trading Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, Par value $0.001

AAOI

NASDAQ Global Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☒    No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes ☒    No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

Large accelerated filer

☐ 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

☐ 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

  

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.                     ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).                                       Yes   No ☒

 

As of May 2, 2022 there were 27,634,082 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

 

 
 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc.

Table of Contents

   

Page

Part I. Financial Information

   

 

Item 1.

Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

   

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2022 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2021

3

   

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (Unaudited)

4

   

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Three Months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (Unaudited)

5

   

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the Three Months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (Unaudited)

6

   

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (Unaudited)

7

   

 

 

Notes To Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

8

   

 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

19

   

 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

25

   

 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

25

   

 

Part II. Other Information

     

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

25

     

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

25

     

Item 2.

Exhibits

25

     
 

Signatures

27

 

2

 

 

Part I. Financial Information

Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Unaudited, in thousands)

  

March 31,

  

December 31,

 

 

2022

  

2021

 

ASSETS

 

  

 

Current Assets

 

  

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 $31,980  $34,656 

Restricted cash

  8,128   6,480 

Accounts receivable - trade, net of allowance of $29 and $30, respectively

  54,218   47,944 

Notes receivable

  1,195   8,148 

Inventories

  92,007   92,516 

Prepaid income tax

  -   1 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  5,711   4,334 

Total current assets

  193,239   194,079 

Property, plant and equipment, net

  236,774   243,035 

Land use rights, net

  5,848   5,856 

Operating right of use asset

  6,623   7,078 

Financing right of use asset

  49   57 

Intangible assets, net

  3,792   3,836 

Other assets, net

  428   518 

TOTAL ASSETS

 $446,753  $454,459 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

    

 

Current liabilities

 

    

Current portion of notes payable and long-term debt

 $52,233  $49,689 

Accounts payable

  40,044   34,402 

Bank acceptance payable

  9,955   8,198 

Current lease liability - operating

  1,046   1,062 

Current lease liability - financing

  19   19 

Accrued liabilities

  13,237   15,587 

Total current liabilities

  116,534   108,957 

Notes payable and long-term debt, less current portion

  5,000   5,000 

Convertible senior notes

  78,884   78,680 

Non-current lease liability - operating

  6,699   7,189 

Non-current lease liability - financing

  59   63 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

  207,176   199,889 

Stockholders' equity:

 

  

 

Preferred Stock; 5,000 shares authorized at $0.001 par value; no shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively

  -   - 

Common Stock; 45,000 shares authorized at $0.001 par value; 27,530 and 27,323 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively

  27   27 

Additional paid-in capital

  383,474   381,143 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

  14,809   16,071 

Accumulated deficit

  (158,733)  (142,671)

TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

  239,577   254,570 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

 $446,753  $454,459 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

 

 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(Unaudited, in thousands, except share and per share data)

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Revenue, net

  $ 52,242     $ 49,701  

Cost of goods sold

    43,217       38,982  

Gross profit

    9,025       10,719  

Operating expenses

 

   

 

Research and development

    9,486       10,928  

Sales and marketing

    2,558       2,960  

General and administrative

    11,220       10,869  

Total operating expenses

    23,264       24,757  

Loss from operations

    (14,239 )     (14,038 )

Other income (expense)

 

   

 

Interest income

    28       16  

Interest expense

    (1,401 )     (1,431 )

Other income (expense), net

    (450 )     (169 )

Total other income (expense), net

    (1,823 )     (1,584 )

Loss before income taxes

    (16,062 )     (15,622 )

Income tax expense

    -       -  

Net loss

  $ (16,062 )   $ (15,622 )

Net loss per share

 

   

 

Basic

  $ (0.58 )   $ (0.59 )

Diluted

  $ (0.58 )   $ (0.59 )

 

   

 

Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share:

 

   

 

Basic

  27,463,321     26,438,071  

Diluted

  27,463,321     26,438,071  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

 

 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

(Unaudited, in thousands)

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Net loss

  $ (16,062 )   $ (15,622 )

Loss on foreign currency translation adjustment

    (1,262 )     (1,034 )

Comprehensive loss

  $ (17,324 )   $ (16,656 )

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

5

 

 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Three Months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

(Unaudited, in thousands)

                 Accumulated       

 

Preferred Stock

  

Common Stock

  

Additional

  

other

  

  

 

 

Number

  

  

Number

  

  

paid-in

  

comprehensive

  

Accumulated

  

Stockholders'

 

 

of shares

  

Amount

  

of shares

  

Amount

  

capital

  

gain (loss)

  

deficit

  

equity

 

December 31, 2021

    $   27,323  $27  $381,143  $16,071  $(142,671) $254,570 

Issuance of restricted stock, net of shares withheld for employee tax

        207      (141)        (141)

Share-based compensation

              2,472         2,472 

Foreign currency translation adjustment

                 (1,262)     (1,262)

Net loss

                    (16,062)  (16,062)

March 31, 2022

    $   27,530  $27  $383,474  $14,809  $(158,733) $239,577 

  

  

  

  

  

  

Accumulated

  

  

 

 

Preferred Stock

  

Common Stock

  

Additional

  

other

  

  

 

 

Number

  

  

Number

  

  

paid-in

  

comprehensive

  

Accumulated

  

Stockholders'

 

 

of shares

  

Amount

  

of shares

  

Amount

  

capital

  

gain (loss)

  

deficit

  

equity

 

December 31, 2020

    $   25,110  $25  $354,685  $11,690  $(88,509) $277,891 

Public offering of common stock, net

        1,511   2   14,966         14,968 

Stock options exercised, net of shares withheld for employee tax

        2      8         8 

Issuance of restricted stock, net of shares withheld for employee tax

        164      (258)        (258)

Share-based compensation

              2,519         2,519 

Foreign currency translation adjustment

                 (1,034)     (1,034)

Net loss

                    (15,622)  (15,622)

March 31, 2021

    $   26,787  $27  $371,920  $10,656  $(104,131) $278,472 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

6

 

 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Unaudited, in thousands)

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Operating activities:

 

   

 

Net loss

  $ (16,062 )   $ (15,622 )

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

   

 

Provision for losses on accounts receivable

    (1 )     -  

Lower of cost or market reserve adjustment to inventory

    2,037       937  

Depreciation and amortization

    6,108       6,444  

Amortization of debt issuance costs

    211       221  

Gain on disposal of assets

    (39 )     -  

Share-based compensation

    2,472       2,519  

Unrealized foreign exchange gain

    997       850  

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

           

Accounts receivable, trade

    (223 )     (4,528 )

Notes receivable

    6,986       (1,055 )

Prepaid income tax

    1       -  

Inventories

    (1,978 )     2,844  

Other current assets

    (1,422 )     (76 )

Operating right of use asset

    243       230  

Accounts payable

    (406 )     (3,281 )

Accrued liabilities

    (2,271 )     (4,449 )

Lease liability

    (256 )     (248 )

Net cash used in operating activities

    (3,603 )     (15,214 )

Investing activities:

 

   

 

Purchase of property, plant and equipment

    (1,022 )     (2,212 )

Proceeds from disposal of equipment

    115       -  

Deposits for equipment

    (30 )     (115 )

Purchase of intangible assets

    (114 )     (95 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (1,051 )     (2,422 )

Financing activities:

 

   

 

Principal payments of long-term debt and notes payable

    (170 )     (1,029 )

Proceeds from line of credit borrowings

    41,395       39,512  

Repayments of line of credit borrowings

    (39,062 )     (26,320 )

Proceeds from bank acceptance payable

    9,686       4,772  

Repayments of bank acceptance payable

    (7,968 )     (14,280 )

Principal payments of financing lease

    (5 )     (4 )

Exercise of stock options

    -       8  

Payments of tax withholding on behalf of employees related to share-based compensation

    (140 )     (258 )

Proceeds from common stock offering, net

    -       15,074  

Net cash provided by financing activities

    3,736       17,475  

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

    (110 )     (615 )

Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

    (1,028 )     (776 )

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

    41,136       50,114  

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

  $ 40,108     $ 49,338  

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

         

Cash paid (received) for:

         

Interest, net of amounts capitalized

  $ 2,406     $ 2,219  

 

               

Non-cash investing and financing activities:

         

Net change in accounts payable related to property and equipment additions

    19       (506 )

Net change in deposits and prepaid for equipment related to property and equipment additions

    13       47  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

7

 

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and Subsidiaries

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

Note 1.   Description of Business​

Business Overview

Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. (“AOI” or the “Company”) is a Delaware corporation. The Company is a leading, vertically integrated provider of fiber-optic networking products, primarily for four networking end-markets: internet data center, cable television ("CATV"), telecommunications ("telecom") and fiber-to-the-home ("FTTH"). The Company designs and manufactures a wide range of optical communications products at varying levels of integration, from components, subassemblies and modules to complete turn-key equipment.

The Company has manufacturing and research and development facilities located in the U.S., Taiwan and China. In the U.S., at its corporate headquarters and manufacturing facilities in Sugar Land, Texas, the Company primarily manufactures lasers and laser components and performs research and development activities for laser component and optical module products. In addition, the Company also has a research and development facility in Duluth, Georgia. The Company operates in Taipei, Taiwan and Ningbo, China through its wholly-owned subsidiary Prime World International Holdings, Ltd. (“Prime World”, incorporated in the British Virgin Islands). Prime World operates a branch in Taipei, Taiwan, which primarily manufactures transceivers and performs research and development activities for the transceiver products. Prime World is also the parent of Global Technology, Inc. (“Global”, incorporated in the People’s Republic of China). Through Global, the Company primarily manufactures certain of its data center transceiver products, including subassemblies, as well as CATV systems and equipment, and performs research and development activities for the CATV products.

Interim Financial Statements

The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 and for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim information and with the instructions on Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In accordance with those rules and regulations, the Company has omitted certain information and notes required by GAAP for annual consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, except as otherwise noted, necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the periods presented. The year-end condensed balance sheet data was derived from audited financial statements. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the entire fiscal year. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported. Actual results could differ from those estimates in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates and assumptions that impact these financial statements and the accompanying notes relate to, among other things, allowance for credit losses, inventory reserve, product warranty costs, share-based compensation expense, estimated useful lives of property and equipment, and taxes.

 

Note 2.  Significant Accounting Policies

There have been no changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to the significant accounting policies described in its 2021 Annual Report, except as described below.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Yet to be Adopted

 

To date, there have been no recent accounting pronouncement not yet effective that have significance, or potential significance, to our Consolidated Financial Statements. 

 

 

Note 3.  Revenue Recognition

Disaggregation of Revenue

Revenue is classified based on the location where the product is manufactured. For additional information on the disaggregated revenues by geographical region, see Note 17, "Geographic Information.”

8

 

Revenue is also classified by major product category and is presented below (in thousands):

  

Three months ended March 31,

 

     

% of

      

% of

 

 

2022

  

Revenue

  

2021

  

Revenue

 

Data Center

 $21,415   41.0% $25,939   52.2%

CATV

  24,980   47.8%  18,638   37.5%

Telecom

  5,265   10.1%  4,479   9.0%

FTTH

  98   0.2%  423   0.9%

Other

  484   0.9%  222   0.4%

Total Revenue

 $52,242   100.0% $49,701   100.0%

 

 

Note 4.  Leases

The Company leases space under non-cancellable operating leases for manufacturing facilities, research and development offices and certain storage facilities and apartments. These leases do not contain contingent rent provisions. The Company also leases certain machinery, office equipment and a vehicle. Many of its leases include both lease (e.g. fixed payments including rent, taxes, and insurance costs) and non-lease components (e.g. common-area or other maintenance costs) which are accounted for as a single lease component as the Company has elected the practical expedient to group lease and non-lease components for all leases. Several of the leases include one or more options to renew which have been assessed and either included or excluded from the calculation of the lease liability of the right of use ("ROU") asset based on management’s intentions and individual fact patterns. Several warehouses and apartments have non-cancellable lease terms of less than one-year and therefore, the Company has elected the practical expedient to exclude these short-term leases from its ROU asset and lease liabilities.

As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Based on the applicable lease terms and current economic environment, the Company applies a location approach for determining the incremental borrowing rate.

The components of lease expense were as follows for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Operating lease expense

  $ 306     $ 303  

Financing lease expense

    8       8  

Short Term lease expense

    3       9  

Total lease expense

  $ 317     $ 320  

 

Maturities of lease liabilities are as follows for the future one-year periods ending  March 31, 2022 (in thousands):

      Operating       Financing  

2023

  $ 1,280     $ 22  

2024

    1,268       60  

2025

    1,197        

2026

    1,218        

2027

    1,144        

2028 and thereafter

    2,540        

Total lease payments

  $ 8,647     $ 82  

Less imputed interest

    (902 )     (5 )

Present value

  $ 7,745     $ 77  

The weighted average remaining lease term and discount rate for operating leases were as follows for the periods indicated:

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term (Years) - operating leases

    6.91       7.84  

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term (Years) - financing leases

    1.58       2.58  

Weighted Average Discount Rate - operating leases

    3.22 %     3.23 %

Weighted Average Discount Rate - financing leases

    5.00 %     5.00 %

 

9

 

Supplemental cash flow information related to operating leases was as follows for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities

 

   

 

Operating cash flows from operating leases

    314       330  

Operating cash flows from financing lease

    1       1  

Financing cash flows from financing lease

    5       4  

 

Note 5.  Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the statement of financial position that sum to the total of the same such amounts in the statement of cash flows (in thousands):

 

   

March 31,

   

December 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 31,980     $ 34,656  

Restricted cash

    8,128       6,480  

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the statement of cash flows

  $ 40,108     $ 41,136  

Restricted cash includes guarantee deposits for customs duties, China government subsidy fund, and compensating balances required for certain credit facilities. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, there was $4.5 million and $3.0 million of restricted cash required for bank acceptance notes issued to vendors, respectively. In addition, there was $2.5 million and $2.4 million certificate of deposit associated with credit facilities with a bank in China as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. There was $1.1 million and $1.0 million guarantee deposits for customs duties as of  March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.

 

Note 6.  Earnings (Loss) Per Share

Basic net loss per share has been computed using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share has been computed using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock and dilutive potential common shares from stock options, restricted stock units and senior convertible notes outstanding during the period. In periods with net losses, normally dilutive shares become anti-dilutive. Therefore, basic and diluted loss per share are the same.

The following table sets forth the computation of the basic and diluted net loss per share for the periods indicated (in thousands):

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Numerator:

 

   

 

Net loss

  $ (16,062 )   $ (15,622 )

Denominator:

 

   

 

Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share

 

   

 

Basic

  27,463     26,438  

Diluted

  27,463     26,438  

Net loss per share

 

   

 

Basic

   $ (0.58)     $ (0.59)  

Diluted

  $ (0.58)     $ (0.59)  

 

The following potentially dilutive securities were excluded from the diluted net loss per share as their effect would have been antidilutive (in thousands):

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Employee stock options

          13  

Restricted stock units

          20  

Shares for convertible senior notes

    4,587       4,587  

Total antidilutive shares

    4,587       4,620  

10

 
 

Note 7.  Inventories

Inventories, net of inventory write-downs, consist of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

March 31, 2022

   

December 31, 2021

 

Raw materials

  $ 29,146     $ 29,469  

Work in process and sub-assemblies

    41,344       41,528  

Finished goods

    21,517       21,519  

Total inventories

  $ 92,007     $ 92,516  

The lower of cost or market adjustment expensed for inventory for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $2.0 million and $0.9 million, respectively. 

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the direct inventory write-offs related to scrap, discontinued products, and damaged inventories were $1.0 million and $6.0 million, respectively. 

 

Note 8.  Property, Plant & Equipment

Property, plant and equipment consisted of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 

Land improvements

 $806  $806 

Building and improvements

  89,248   89,698 

Machinery and equipment

  264,554   266,386 

Furniture and fixtures

  5,639   5,658 

Computer equipment and software

  12,517   12,727 

Transportation equipment

  737   726 

  373,501   376,001 

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization

  (171,505)  (167,772)

  201,996   208,229 

Construction in progress

  33,677   33,705 

Land

  1,101   1,101 

Total property, plant and equipment, net

 $236,774  $243,035 

For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the depreciation expense of property, plant and equipment was $6.0 million and $6.3 million, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the capitalized interest was each $0.1 million. 

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company concluded that its continued loss history constitutes a triggering event as described in ASC 360-10-35-21,Property, Plant, and Equipment.  The Company performed a recoverability test and concluded that future undiscounted cash flows exceed the carrying amount of the Company’s long-lived assets and therefore no impairment charge was recorded. 

 

 

Note 9.  Intangible Assets, net

Intangible assets consisted of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

  

March 31, 2022

 

 

Gross

  

Accumulated

  

Intangible

 

 

Amount

  

amortization

  

assets, net

 

Patents

 $8,683  $(4,910) $3,773 

Trademarks

  37   (18)  19 

Total intangible assets

 $8,720  $(4,928) $3,792 

  

December 31, 2021

 

 

Gross

  

Accumulated

  

Intangible

 

 

Amount

  

amortization

  

assets, net

 

Patents

 $8,597  $(4,779) $3,818 

Trademarks

  35   (17)  18 

Total intangible assets

 $8,632  $(4,796) $3,836 

For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, amortization expense for intangible assets, included in general and administrative expenses on the income statement, was each $0.1 million. The remaining weighted average amortization period for intangible assets is approximately 6 years.

 

11

 

At March 31, 2022, future amortization expense for intangible assets is estimated to be (in thousands):

 

2023

 $584 

2024

  584 

2025

  584 

2026

  584 

2027

  584 

thereafter

  872 
  $3,792 

 

 

Note 10.  Fair Value of Financial Instruments​

The following table represents a summary of the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis for the periods indicated (in thousands):

   

As of March 31, 2022

   

As of December 31, 2021

 

 

(Level 1)

   

(Level 2)

   

(Level 3)

   

Total

   

(Level 1)

   

(Level 2)

   

(Level 3)

   

Total

 

Assets:

 

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 31,980     $     $     $ 31,980     $ 34,656     $     $     $ 34,656  

Restricted cash

    8,128                 $ 8,128       6,480                 $ 6,480  

Note receivable

          1,195             1,195             8,148             8,148  

Total assets

  $ 40,108     $ 1,195     $     $ 41,303     $ 41,136     $ 8,148     $     $ 49,284  

Liabilities:

 

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

 

Bank acceptance payable

  $     $ 9,955     $     $ 9,955     $     $ 8,198     $       8,198  

Convertible senior notes

          68,667             68,667             67,588             67,588  

Total liabilities

  $     $ 78,622     $     $ 78,622     $     $ 75,786     $     $ 75,786  

The carrying value amounts of accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. The carrying value amounts of note receivable and bank acceptances approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of the debt since it renews frequently at current interest rates. The Company believes that the interest rates in effect at each period end represent the current market rates for similar borrowings.

 

The fair value of its convertible senior debt is measured for disclosure purpose. The fair value is based on observable market prices for this debt, which is traded in less active markets and are therefore classified as a Level 2 fair value measurement.

 

Note 11.  Notes Payable and Long-Term Debt

Notes payable and long-term debt consisted of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 

Revolving line of credit with a U.S. bank up to $20,000 with interest at SOFR plus 1.56% , maturing April 15, 2023

 $19,551  $14,373 

Notes payable to a finance company due in monthly installments with 3.1% interest, maturing January 21, 2022

     170 

Revolving line of credit with a China bank up to $25,449 with interest from 2.8% to 4.57%, maturing May 24, 2024

  19,133   19,595 

Credit facility with a China bank up to $14,125 with interest of from 2.6% to 4.5%, maturing January 5, 2024

  10,988   13,044 

Credit facility with a China bank up to $7,167 with interest of 5.7%, maturing on June 27, 2022

  7,561   7,529 

Sub-total

  57,233   54,711 

Less debt issuance costs, net

  (17)  (22)

Grand total

  57,233   54,689 

Less current portion

  (52,233)  (49,689)

Non-current portion

 $5,000  $5,000 

 

  

 

Bank Acceptance Notes Payable

 

  

 

Bank acceptance notes issued to vendors with a zero percent interest rate

 $9,955  $8,198 

 

12

 

The current portion of long-term debt is the amount payable within one year of the balance sheet date of March 31, 2022.

Maturities of long-term debt are as follows for the future one-year periods ending March 31, (in thousands):

Within one year

  $ 52,233  

Beyond one year

    5,000  

Total outstanding

  $ 57,233  

On September 28, 2017, the Company entered into a Loan Agreement (“Loan Agreement”), a Promissory Note, an Addendum to the Promissory Note, a Truist Bank Security Agreement, a Trademark Security Agreement, and a Patent Security Agreement (together the “Credit Facility”) with Truist Bank. The Company’s obligations under the Credit Facility are secured by the Company’s accounts receivable, inventory, intellectual property, and all business assets with the exception of real estate and equipment.

On  December 29, 2021, the Company executed a Sixth Amendment to the Loan Agreement (the "Sixth Amendment") and a Fifth Amendment to Security Agreement, a Note Modification Agreement, and an Addendum to Promissory Note (together the "Sixth Amended Credit Facility") with Truist Bank. The Sixth Amended Credit Facility extends the $20 million line of credit, originally entered into on  September 28, 2017, until  April 15, 2023. Borrowings will bear interest at a rate equal to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) plus 1.56%, with a SOFR floor of 0.75%. As of March 31, 2022, the Company had $19.6 million of outstanding borrowings and was in compliance with all covenants under the Sixth Amended Credit Facility.

 

On September 15, 2020, Prime World entered into an Amendment to the Finance Lease Agreements dated November 29, 2018 and January 21, 2019 (the “Amendment”) with Chailease Finance Co., Ltd. (“Chailease”). The Amendment amends the Finance Lease Agreements, dated November 29, 2018 and January 21, 2019 (hereafter collectively referred to as the “Original Finance Agreements”). Pursuant to the Amendment, Prime World agrees to pay Chailease NT$22,311,381, or approximately $0.8 million for certain leased equipment listed in the Amendment (the “Leased Equipment”). This payment includes all outstanding lease payments, costs and expenses; simultaneously, Chailease agrees to transfer title of such Leased Equipment back to Prime World. Regarding all other equipment contemplated in the Original Finance Agreements but not listed in the Amendment, pursuant to the terms and conditions made under the Original Finance Agreements, Prime World is obligated to pay Chailease monthly lease payments which total NT$159,027,448, or approximately $5.5 million (the “Lease Payments”). The Lease Payments began on September 21, 2020 with the last Lease Payment due on January 21, 2022, title of all other equipment contemplated under the Original Finance Agreements but not listed in the Amendment transferred to Prime World upon completion of the Lease Payments and expiration of the Original Finance Agreements. As of March 31, 2022, the Company has fully repaid the Original Finance Agreements and Amendment.
 

On May 24, 2019, the Company’s China subsidiary, Global, entered into a five-year revolving credit line agreement, totaling 180,000,000 RMB (the “SPD Credit Line”), or approximately $25.4 million, and a mortgage security agreement (the “Security Agreement”), with Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Co., Ltd ("SPD"). Borrowing under the SPD Credit Line will be used for general corporate and capital investment purposes, including the issuance of bank acceptance notes to Global’s vendors. The total SPD Credit Line of 180 million RMB is inclusive of all credit facilities previously entered into with SPD including: a 30 million RMB credit facility entered into on May 7, 2019; and a 9.9 million RMB credit facility entered into on April 30, 2019 and $2 million credit facility entered into on May 8, 2019. Global may draw upon the SPD Credit Line on an as-needed basis at any time during the 5-year term; however, draws under the SPD Credit Line may become due and repayable to SPD at SPD’s discretion due to changes in Chinese government regulations and/or changes in Global’s financial and operational condition. Each draw will bear interest equal to SPD’s commercial banking interest rate effective on the day of the applicable draw. Global’s obligations under the SPD Credit Line will be secured by real property owned by Global and mortgaged to the Bank under the terms of the Security Agreement. As of March 31, 2022, $19.1 million was outstanding under the SPD Credit Line and the outstanding balance of bank acceptance notes issued to vendors was $2.2 million.

On June 21, 2019, the Company’s China subsidiary, Global, entered into an 18 month credit facility totaling 100,000,000 RMB (the “¥100M Credit Facility”), or approximately $14.1 million, with China Zheshang Bank Co., Ltd., in Ningbo City, China (“CZB”). Borrowing under the ¥100M Credit Facility will be used by Global for general corporate purposes. On January 6, 2021, the ¥100M Credit Facility with CZB was extended for three (3) years until January 5, 2024. Global may draw upon the ¥100M Credit Facility from June 21, 2019 until January 5, 2024 (the “¥100M Credit Period”). During the ¥100M Credit Period, Global may request to draw upon the ¥100M Credit Facility on an as-needed basis; however, draws under the ¥100M Credit Facility may become due and repayable to CZB at CZB’s discretion due to changes in Chinese government regulations and/or changes in Global’s financial and operational condition. Each draw will bear interest equal to CZB’s commercial banking interest rate effective on the day of the applicable draw. Global’s obligations under the ¥100M Credit Facility will be secured by real property owned by Global and mortgaged to CZB under the terms of the Real Estate Security Agreement. The agreements for the ¥100M Credit Facility and the Real Estate Security Agreement also contain rights and obligations, representations and warranties, and events of default applicable to the Company that are customary for agreements of this type. As of March 31, 2022, $11.0 million was outstanding under the ¥100M Credit Facility and the outstanding balance of bank acceptance notes issued to vendors was $7.7 million.

On June 21, 2019, the Company’s China subsidiary, Global, entered into a three-year credit facility totaling 50,000,000 RMB (the “¥50M Credit Facility”), or approximately $7.1 million, with CZB. Borrowing under the ¥50M Credit Facility will be used by Global for general corporate purposes. Global may draw upon the ¥50M Credit Facility from June 21, 2019 until June 20, 2022 (the “¥50M Credit Period”). During the ¥50M Credit Period, Global may request to draw upon the ¥50M Credit Facility on an as-needed basis; however, draws under the ¥50M Credit Facility may become due and repayable to CZB at CZB’s discretion due to changes in Chinese government regulations and/or changes in Global’s financial and operational condition. Each draw will bear interest equal to CZB’s commercial banking interest rate effective on the day of the applicable draw. Global’s obligations under the ¥50M Credit Facility will be secured by machinery and equipment owned by Global and mortgaged to CZB under the terms of the Machinery and Equipment Security Agreement. As of March 31, 2022, $7.6 million was outstanding under the ¥50M Credit Facility. 

As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had $4.3 million and $7.4 million of unused borrowing capacity, respectively.

 

As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, there was $7.0 million and $5.4 million of restricted cash, investments or security deposits associated with the loan facilities, respectively.

13

 
 

Note 12.  Convertible Senior Notes

On March 5, 2019, the Company issued $80.5 million of 5% convertible senior notes due 2024 (the “Notes”). The Notes were issued pursuant to an indenture, dated as of March 5, 2019 (the “Indenture”), between the Company and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee, paying agent, and conversion agent (the “Trustee”). The Notes bear interest at a rate of 5.00% per year, payable in cash semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning on September 15, 2019. The Notes will mature on March 15, 2024, unless earlier repurchased, redeemed or converted in accordance with their terms.

The sale of the Notes generated net proceeds of $76.4 million, after deducting the Initial Purchasers’ discounts and offering expenses payable by the Company. The Company used approximately $37.8 million of the net proceeds from the offering to fully repay the CapEx Loan and Term Loan with Truist Bank and the remainder will be used for general corporate purposes.

The following table presents the carrying value of the Notes for the periods indicated (in thousands):

   

March 31,

   

December 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Principal

  $ 80,500     $ 80,500  

Unamortized debt issuance costs

    (1,616 )     (1,820 )

Net carrying amount

  $ 78,884     $ 78,680  

The Notes are convertible at the option of holders of the Notes at any time until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date. Upon conversion, holders of the Notes will receive shares of the Company’s common stock, together, if applicable, with cash in lieu of any fractional share, at the then-applicable conversion rate. The initial conversion rate is 56.9801 shares of the Company’s common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Notes (representing an initial conversion price of approximately $17.55 per share of common stock, which represents an initial conversion premium of approximately 30% above the closing price of $13.50 per share of the Company’s common stock on February 28, 2019), subject to customary adjustments. If a make-whole fundamental change (as defined in the Indenture) occurs, and in connection with certain other conversions before March 15, 2022, the Company will in certain circumstances increase the conversion rate for a specified period of time.

 

Initially there are no guarantors of the Notes, but the Notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed, on a senior, unsecured basis by certain of the Company’s future domestic subsidiaries.  The Notes are the Company’s senior, unsecured obligations and are equal in right of payment with existing and future senior, unsecured indebtedness, senior in right of payment to the Company’s existing and future indebtedness that is expressly subordinated to the Notes and effectively subordinated to the Company’s existing and future secured indebtedness, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing that indebtedness.  The Note Guarantee (as defined in the Indenture) of each future guarantor, if any, will be such guarantor’s senior, unsecured obligations and are equal in right of payment with existing and future senior, unsecured indebtedness, senior in right of payment to such future guarantor’s existing and future indebtedness that is expressly subordinated to the Notes and effectively subordinated to such future guarantor’s existing and future secured indebtedness, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing that indebtedness.

 

Holders may require the Company to repurchase their Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the Indenture) at a cash purchase price equal to the principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any.

 

The Company was not permitted to redeem the Notes prior to March 15, 2022.  The Company currently may redeem for cash all or part of the Notes if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price on (i) each of at least 20 trading days, whether or not consecutive, during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the trading day immediately before the date the Company sends the related redemption notice; and (ii) the trading day immediately before the date the Company sends such redemption notice.  The redemption price is equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date.  In addition, calling any Note for redemption will constitute a “make-whole fundamental change” with respect to that Note, in which case the conversion rate applicable to the conversion of that Note will be increased in certain circumstances if it is converted after it is called for redemption.

 

The Indenture contains covenants that limit the Company’s ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things: (i) incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or issue disqualified stock; and (ii) create or incur liens.

Pursuant to the guidance in ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity, the Company evaluated whether the conversion feature of the note needed to be bifurcated from the host instrument as a freestanding financial instrument. Under ASC 815-40, to qualify for equity classification (or non-bifurcation, if embedded) the instrument (or embedded feature) must be both (1) indexed to the issuer’s own stock and (2) meet the requirements of the equity classification guidance. Based upon the Company’s analysis, it was determined the conversion option is indexed to its own stock and also met all the criteria for equity classification contained in ASC 815-40-25-7 and 815-40-25-10. Accordingly, the conversion option is not required to be bifurcated from the host instrument as a freestanding financial instrument. Since the conversion feature meets the equity scope exception from derivative accounting, the Company then evaluated whether the conversion feature needed to be separately accounted for as an equity component under ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options.  The Company determined that notes should be accounted for in their entirety as a liability.

 

14

 

The Company incurred approximately $4.1 million in transaction costs in connection with the issuance of the Notes. These costs were recognized as a reduction of the carrying amount of the Notes utilizing the effective interest method and are being amortized over the term of the Notes.

The following table sets forth interest expense information related to the Notes (in thousands):

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Contractual interest expense

  $ 1,006     $ 1,006  

Amortization of debt issuance costs

    204       204  

Total interest cost

  $ 1,210     $ 1,210  

Effective interest rate

    5.1 %     5.1 %

 

Note 13.  Accrued Liabilities​

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

   

March 31, 2022

   

December 31, 2021

 

Accrued payroll

  $ 6,157     $ 6,516  

Accrued employee benefits

    3,245       3,471  

Accrued state and local taxes

    973       1,897  

Accrued interest

    335       1,475  

Advance payments

    423       195  

Accrued product warranty

    171       263  

Accrued commission expenses

    1,024       1,003  

Accrued professional fees

    336       346  

Accrued shipping and tariff expenses

    19       33  

Accrued other

    554       388  

Total accrued liabilities

  $ 13,237     $ 15,587  

 

Note 14.  Other Income and Expense

Other income and (expense) consisted of the following for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Foreign exchange transaction loss

  $ (523 )   $ (208 )

Government subsidy income

    18       39  

Other non-operating gain

    16        

Gain on disposal of assets

    39       0  

Total other expense, net

  $ (450 )   $ (169 )

15

 
 

Note 15.  Share-Based Compensation

Equity Plans

The Company’s board of directors and stockholders approved the following equity plans:

 

the 2006 Share Incentive Plan

 

the 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (“2013 Plan”)

 

the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (“2021 Plan”)

 

The Company issued stock options, restricted stock awards (“RSAs”) and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to employees, consultants and non-employee directors. Stock option awards generally vest over a four-year period and have a maximum term of ten years. Stock options under these plans have been granted with an exercise price equal to the fair market value on the date of the grant. Nonqualified and Incentive Stock Options, RSAs and RSUs may be granted from these plans. Prior to the Company’s initial public offering in September 2013, the fair market value of the Company’s stock had been historically determined by the board of directors and from time to time with the assistance of third-party valuation specialists.

Stock Options

Options have been granted to the Company’s employees under the two incentive plans and generally become exercisable as to 25% of the shares on the first anniversary date following the date of grant and 12.5% on a semi-annual basis thereafter. All options expire ten years after the date of grant.

The following is a summary of option activity (in thousands, except per share data):

  

  

  

Weighted

  

  

Weighted

  

 

 

  

Weighted

  

Average

  

  

Average

  

 

 

  

Average

  

Share Price

  

Weighted

  

Remaining

  

Aggregate

 

 

Number of

  

Exercise

  

on Date of

  

Average

  

Contractual

  

Intrinsic

 

 

shares

  

Price

  

Exercise

  

Fair Value

  

Life

  

Value

 

 

(in thousands, except price data)

 

Outstanding at January 1, 2022

  270  $10.32  

  $5.44   1.44  $- 

Outstanding, March 31, 2022

  270   10.32  

   5.44       - 

Exercisable, March 31, 2022

  270   10.32  

  

5.44

       - 

Vested and expected to vest

  270   10.32  

  

5.44

       - 

 

As of March 31, 2022, there was no unrecognized stock option expense.

Performance Based Incentive Plan

 

In June 2021, the Company approved to grant performance restricted stock units (“PSUs”) to senior executives as a part of our long-term equity compensation program. The number of shares of common stock that will ultimately be issued to settle PSUs granted ranges from 0% to 200% of the number granted and is determined based on certain performance criteria over a -three-year measurement period. The performance criteria for the PSUs are based on a combination of the performance of our stock price and the Total Shareholder Return (“TSR”) for the performance period compared with the TSR of certain peer companies or index for the performance period. PSUs granted vest 100% on the third anniversary of their grant, assuming achievement of the applicable performance criteria. We estimated the fair value of the PSUs using a Monte Carlo simulation model on the date of grant. Compensation expense is recognized ratably over the explicit service period.  The company recognized $0.3 million expenses in the first quarter of 2022.

 

Restricted Stock Units/Awards

The following is a summary of RSU/RSA activity, inclusive of performance based incentive plan (in thousands, except per share data):

  

  

Weighted

  

  

 

 

  

Average Share

  

Weighted

  

Aggregate

 

 

Number of

  

Price on Date

  

Average Fair

  

Intrinsic

 

 

shares

  

of Release

  

Value

  

Value

 

 

(in thousands, except price data)

 

Outstanding at January 1, 2022

  2,170     $11.15  $11,156 

Granted

  24      3.95   96 

Released

  (243)     3.84   935 

Cancelled/Forfeited

  (53) 

 

   10.76   194 

Outstanding, March 31, 2022

  1,898      10.75   6,928 

Vested and expected to vest

  1,898      10.75   6,928 

As of March 31, 2022, there was $17.9 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to these RSUs and RSAs. This expense is expected to be recognized over 2.3 years.

 

16

 

Share-Based Compensation

Employee share-based compensation expenses recognized for the periods indicated (in thousands):

  

Three months ended

 

 

March 31,

 

 

2022

  

2021

 

Share-based compensation - by expense type

 

  

 

Cost of goods sold

 $136  $201 

Research and development

  365   563 

Sales and marketing

  226   219 

General and administrative

  1,745   1,536 

Total share-based compensation expense

 $2,472  $2,519 

 

 

Note 16.  Income Taxes

The Company’s effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was 0%. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the effective tax rate varied from the federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the change of the valuation allowance on federal, state, Taiwan, and China deferred tax assets ("DTA"). 

 

The Company continually monitors and performs an assessment of the realizability of its DTAs, including an analysis of factors such as future taxable income, reversal of existing taxable temporary differences, and tax planning strategies. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, the Company considered both positive and negative evidence related to the likelihood of realization of deferred tax assets using a “more likely than not” standard. In making such assessment, more weight was given to evidence that could be objectively verified, including recent cumulative losses. Based on the Company’s review of this evidence, management determined that a full valuation allowance against all of the Company’s net deferred tax assets at March 31, 2022 was appropriate.

 

Note 17.  Geographic Information

The Company operates in one reportable segment. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer, who is considered to be the chief operating decision maker, manages the Company’s operations as a whole and reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis, accompanied by information about product revenue, for purposes of evaluating financial performance and allocating resources.

The following tables set forth the Company’s revenue and asset information by geographic region. Revenue is classified based on the location of where the product is manufactured. Long-lived assets in the tables below comprise only property, plant, equipment and intangible assets (in thousands):

   

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Revenues:

 

   

 

United States

  $ 2,559     $ 3,316  

Taiwan

    27,779       26,395  

China

    21,904       19,990  

  $ 52,242     $ 49,701  

 

   

As of the period ended

 

 

March 31,

   

December 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Long-lived assets:

 

   

 

United States

  $ 85,756     $ 87,709  

Taiwan

    59,995       63,644  

China

    107,335       108,509  

  $ 253,086     $ 259,862  

17

 
 

Note 18.  Contingencies

Litigation

Overview

 

From time to time, the Company may be subject to legal proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including, but not limited to, inquiries, investigations, audits and other regulatory proceedings, such as described below. The Company records a loss provision when it believes it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Unless otherwise disclosed, the Company is unable to estimate the possible loss or range of loss for the legal proceeding described below.

 

Except for the lawsuits described below, the Company believes that there are no claims or actions pending or threatened against it, the ultimate disposition of which would have a material adverse effect on it.

 

Other Contingencies

 

On  August 9, 2021, the Company has received a Taxes Notification of Audit Result (“Notice”) from the Texas Comptroller’s Office (the “Comptroller”), for fiscal years between 2016 and 2019, informing the Company that the Comptroller believes the Company did not qualify for certain sales and use tax exemptions on various Research and Development purchases and accordingly the Company is liable for Sale and Use Tax in the amount of approximately $1.0 million including interest charges. The Company paid $0.4 million for the tax notice but challenged the remaining tax assessments and vigorously defended its position. The Comptroller’s office has not made final assessments after the Company’s defenses. However, the management estimated the additional tax assessment will be in the range of $0.2 million to $0.4 million including interest charges.

 

 

Note 19.  Subsequent Events

The Company repaid its revolving bank line of credit with Truist Bank in the amount of $16.6 million in April 2022.

 

18

 
 

Item 2.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2022 and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 included in our Annual Report. References to “Applied Optoelectronics,” “we,” “our” and “us” are to Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires.

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Quarterly Report that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Terminology such as "believe," "may," "estimate," "continue," "anticipate," "intend," "should," "could," "would," "target," "seek," "aim," "believe," "predicts," "think," "objectives," "optimistic," "new," "goal," "strategy," "potential," "is likely," "will," "expect," "plan," "project," "permit,"  or by other similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and industry and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in “Part II —Item 1A. Risk Factors” provided below, and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC, including our Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report.

Overview

We are a leading, vertically integrated provider of fiber-optic networking products. We target four networking end-markets: internet data centers, CATV, telecom and FTTH. We design and manufacture a range of optical communications products at varying levels of integration, from components, subassemblies and modules to complete turn-key equipment. In designing products for our customers, we typically begin with the fundamental building blocks of lasers and laser components. From these foundational products, we design and manufacture a wide range of products to meet our customers’ needs and specifications, and such products differ from each other by their end market, intended use and level of integration. We are primarily focused on the higher-performance segments within the internet data center, CATV, telecom and FTTH markets which increasingly demand faster connectivity and innovation. Our vertically integrated manufacturing model provides us several advantages, including rapid product development, fast response times to customer requests and control over product quality and manufacturing costs.

The four end markets we target are all driven by significant bandwidth demand fueled by the growth of network-connected devices, video traffic, cloud computing and online social networking. Within the internet data center market, we benefit from the increasing use of higher-capacity optical networking technology as a replacement for copper cables, particularly as speeds reach 100 Gbps and above, as well as the movement to open internet data center architectures and the increasing use of in-house equipment design among leading internet companies. Within the CATV market, we benefit from a number of ongoing trends including the build-out of CATV infrastructure in the US and other countries, the move to higher bandwidth networks among CATV service providers and the outsourcing of system design among CATV networking equipment companies. In the FTTH market, we benefit from continuing PON deployments and system upgrades among telecom service providers. In the telecom market, we benefit from deployment of new high-speed fiber-optic networks by telecom network operators, including 5G networks.

Our vertically integrated manufacturing model provides us several advantages, including rapid product development, fast response times to customer requests and greater control over product quality and manufacturing costs. We design, manufacture and integrate our own analog and digital lasers using a proprietary Molecular Beam Epitaxy, or MBE, and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) fabrication process, which we believe is unique in our industry. We manufacture the majority of the laser chips and optical components that are used in our products. The lasers we manufacture are tested extensively to enable reliable operation over time and our devices are often highly tolerant of changes in temperature and humidity, making them well-suited to the CATV, FTTH and 5G telecom markets where networking equipment is often installed outdoors.

 

We have three manufacturing sites: Sugar Land, Texas, Ningbo, China and Taipei, Taiwan. Our research and development functions are generally partnered with our manufacturing locations, and we have an additional research and development facility in Duluth, Georgia. In our Sugar Land facility, we manufacture laser chips (utilizing our MBE and MOCVD processes), subassemblies and components. The subassemblies are used in the manufacture of components by our other manufacturing facilities or sold to third parties as modules. We manufacture our laser chips only within our Sugar Land facility, where our laser design team is located. In our Taiwan location, we manufacture optical components, such as our butterfly lasers, which incorporate laser chips, subassemblies and components manufactured within our Sugar Land facility. Additionally, in our Taiwan location, we manufacture transceivers for the internet data center, telecom, FTTH and other markets. In our China facility, we take advantage of lower labor costs and manufacture certain more labor intensive components and optical equipment systems, such as optical subassemblies and transceivers for the internet data center market, CATV transmitters (at the headend) and CATV outdoor equipment (at the node). Each manufacturing facility conducts testing on the components, modules or subsystems it manufactures and each facility is certified to ISO 9001:2015. Our facilities in Ningbo, China, Taipei, Taiwan, and Sugar Land, Texas are all certified to ISO 14001:2015.

 

Our business depends on winning competitive bid selection processes to develop components, systems and equipment for use in our customers’ products. These selection processes are typically lengthy, and as a result our sales cycles will vary based on the level of customization required, market served, whether the design win is with an existing or new customer and whether our solution being designed in our customers’ product is our first generation or subsequent generation product. We do not have any long-term purchase commitments (in excess of one year) with any of our customers, most of whom purchase our products on a purchase order basis. However, once one of our solutions is incorporated into a customer’s design, we believe that our solution is likely to continue to be purchased for that design throughout that product’s life cycle because of the time and expense associated with redesigning the product or substituting an alternative solution.

Our principal executive offices are located at 13139 Jess Pirtle Blvd., Sugar Land, TX 77478, and our telephone number is (281) 295-1800.

 

19

 

COVID-19 Pandemic

 

We are subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict as coronavirus continues to spread around the world. In March 2020, we instituted travel restrictions and implemented sanitation and disinfection procedures to safeguard the health and safety of our employees which continue today. Recently, we began allowing certain employee travel, but continue strict sanitation procedures in our facilities.  With increased vaccinations and the potential significant reduction of infections, we have implemented procedures for a safe return to the office environment for all of our employees.

 

The spread of COVID-19 has impacted our supply chain operations through restrictions, reduced capacity and shutdown of business activities by suppliers whom we rely on for sourcing components and materials and third-party partners whom we rely on for manufacturing, warehousing and logistics services. Currently, the suppliers who are responsible for most of our supply-chain constraints in 2021 have begun the process of returning to normal operations and have expressed optimism that their deliveries in 2022 will return to normal.  However, late in the first quarter of 2022, certain areas of China began to experience severe restrictions due to COVID-19 outbreaks there. Currently, it is not possible to estimate the impact (if any) of these restrictions because it is not clear how long the restrictions will be in place or the extent to which the restrictions will curtail production by our suppliers in the affected areas. In order to minimize the impact of these and any similar disruptions, we have added additional suppliers for many key components, where it is practical to do so.  We believe that these additional suppliers will be able to augment our supply of needed components, although in some cases these new suppliers' materials are more expensive than the pre-existing suppliers so a switch to these alternate suppliers could have a negative impact on gross margins and profitability. However, this is uncertain and we also cannot predict if other suppliers could encounter similar difficulties. 

 

Although demand for many of our products has been strong in the short-term as subscribers seek more bandwidth, customers’ purchasing decisions over the long-term may be impacted by the pandemic and its impact on the economy, which could in turn impact our revenue and results of operations. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is therefore uncertain.

 

Results of Operations

The following table set forth our consolidated results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of our revenue for those periods (in thousands, except percentages):

   

Three months ended

   

Three months ended

 

 

March 31,

   

March 31,

 

 

2022

   

2021

 

Revenue, net

  $ 52,242       100.0 %   $ 49,701       100.0 %

Cost of goods sold

    43,217       82.7 %     38,982       78.4 %

Gross profit

    9,025       17.3 %     10,719       21.6 %

Operating expenses

 

   

   

   

 

Research and development

    9,486       18.2 %     10,928       22.0 %

Sales and marketing

    2,558       4.9 %     2,960       6.0 %

General and administrative

    11,220       21.5 %     10,869       21.9 %

Total operating expenses

    23,264       44.5 %     24,757       49.8 %

Loss from operations

    (14,239 )     (27.3 )%     (14,038 )     (28.2 )%

Other income (expense)

 

   

   

   

 

Interest income

    28       0.1 %     16       0.0 %

Interest expense

    (1,401 )     (2.7 )%     (1,431 )     (2.9 )%

Other income, net

    (450 )     (0.9 )%     (169 )     (0.3 )%

Total other income (expense), net

    (1,823 )     (3.5 )%     (1,584 )     (3.2 )%

Loss before income taxes

    (16,062 )     (30.7 )%     (15,622 )     (31.4 )%

Income tax expense

    -       (0.0 )%     0       (0.0 )%

Net loss

  $ (16,062 )     (30.7 )%   $ (15,622 )     (31.4 )%

Comparison of Financial Results