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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission file number: 001-16751
ANTHEM, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana
 
35-2145715
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
 
220 Virginia Avenue
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 331-1476
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, Par Value $0.01
 
ANTM
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  x No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  ¨ No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  x No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  x No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 
 
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming solely for the purposes of this calculation that all Directors and executive officers of the registrant are “affiliates”) as of June 28, 2019 was approximately $72,160,040,688.
As of February 6, 2020, 252,329,919 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock were outstanding.
 DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates by reference information from the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 21, 2020.



Anthem, Inc.
 
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
 
Table of Contents
 
 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
 
 
 
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
 
 
 
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
 
 
 
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
FORM 10-K SUMMARY
 
 

-1-



References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “Anthem” or the “Company” refer to Anthem, Inc., an Indiana corporation, and, unless the context otherwise requires, its direct and indirect subsidiaries. References to the term “states” include the District of Columbia, unless the context otherwise requires.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements reflect our views about future events and financial performance and are generally not historical facts. Words such as “expect,” “feel,” “believe,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “forecast,” “plan” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements include, but are not limited to: financial projections and estimates and their underlying assumptions; statements regarding plans, objectives and expectations with respect to future operations, products and services; and statements regarding future performance. Such statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and generally beyond our control, that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied or projected by, the forward-looking statements. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements that speak only as of the date hereof. You are also urged to carefully review and consider the various risks and other disclosures discussed in our reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time, which attempt to advise interested parties of the factors that affect our business. Except to the extent otherwise required by federal securities laws, we do not undertake any obligation to republish revised forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: trends in healthcare costs and utilization rates; our ability to secure sufficient premium rates, including regulatory approval for and implementation of such rates; the impact of federal and state regulation, including ongoing changes in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended, or collectively, the ACA, and the ultimate outcome of legal challenges to the ACA; our ability to contract with providers on cost-effective and competitive terms; competitive pressures and our ability to adapt to changes in the industry and develop and implement strategic growth opportunities; reduced enrollment; unauthorized disclosure of member or employee sensitive or confidential information, including the impact and outcome of any investigations, inquiries, claims and litigation related thereto; risks and uncertainties regarding Medicare and Medicaid programs, including those related to non-compliance with the complex regulations imposed thereon; our ability to maintain and achieve improvement in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, Star ratings and other quality scores and funding risks with respect to revenue received from participation therein; a negative change in our healthcare product mix; costs and other liabilities associated with litigation, government investigations, audits or reviews; the ultimate outcome of litigation between Cigna Corporation, or Cigna, and us related to the merger agreement between the parties and the potential for such litigation to cause us to incur substantial additional costs, including potential settlement and judgment costs; risks and uncertainties related to our pharmacy benefit management, or PBM, business, including non-compliance by any party with the PBM services agreements between us and each of Express Scripts, Inc., or Express Scripts, and CaremarkPCS Health, L.L.C., or CVS Health, as well as agreements governing the transition of pharmacy benefit management services provided to us from Express Scripts to CVS Health Corporation; medical malpractice or professional liability claims or other risks related to healthcare services and PBM services provided by our subsidiaries; general risks associated with mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic alliances; possible impairment of the value of our intangible assets if future results do not adequately support goodwill and other intangible assets; possible restrictions in the payment of dividends from our subsidiaries and increases in required minimum levels of capital; our ability to repurchase shares of our common stock and pay dividends on our common stock due to the adequacy of our cash flow and earnings and other considerations; the potential negative effect from our substantial amount of outstanding indebtedness; a downgrade in our financial strength ratings; the effects of any negative publicity related to the health benefits industry in general or us in particular; failure to effectively maintain and modernize our information systems; events that may negatively affect our licenses with the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association; large scale medical emergencies, such as future public health epidemics and catastrophes; changes in economic and market conditions, as well as regulations that may negatively affect our liquidity and investment portfolios; the impact of international laws and regulations; changes in U.S. tax laws; intense competition to attract and retain employees; and various laws and provisions in our governing documents that may prevent or discourage takeovers and business combinations.

-2-


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS.
General
We are one of the largest health benefits companies in the United States in terms of medical membership, serving approximately 41 million medical members through our affiliated health plans as of December 31, 2019. We are an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, or BCBSA, an association of independent health benefit plans. We serve our members as the Blue Cross licensee for California and as the Blue Cross and Blue Shield, or BCBS, licensee for Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Missouri (excluding 30 counties in the Kansas City area), Nevada, New Hampshire, New York (in the New York City metropolitan area and upstate New York), Ohio, Virginia (excluding the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C.) and Wisconsin. In a majority of these service areas, we do business as Anthem Blue Cross, Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield, and Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield or Empire Blue Cross. We also conduct business through arrangements with other BCBS licensees as well as other strategic partners. Through our subsidiaries, we also serve customers in numerous states across the country as Aim Specialty Health, Amerigroup, Aspire Health, CareMore, Freedom Health, HealthLink, HealthSun, Optimum HealthCare, Simply Healthcare, and/or UniCare. Also, in the second quarter of 2019, we began providing pharmacy benefits management, or PBM, services through our IngenioRx subsidiary. We are licensed to conduct insurance operations in all 50 states and the District of Columbia through our subsidiaries.
In the second quarter of 2019, we began using our new pharmacy benefits manager called IngenioRx to market and sell a PBM product to fully-insured and self-funded Anthem health plan customers throughout the country, as well as to customers outside of the health plans we own. This comprehensive product portfolio includes features such as drug formularies, a pharmacy network, prescription drug database, member services and mail order capabilities. In July 2019, we announced our first contract win with a third-party health insurer, Blue Cross of Idaho, and we began providing PBM services under that contract beginning on January 1, 2020. Also beginning in the second quarter of 2019, we began delegating certain PBM administrative functions, such as claims processing and prescription fulfillment, to CaremarkPCS Health, L.L.C., or CVS Health, which is a subsidiary of CVS Health Corporation, pursuant to a five-year agreement with CVS Health, or the CVS PBM Agreement. We intend to retain the responsibilities for IngenioRx’s clinical and formulary strategy and development, member and employer experiences, operations, sales, marketing, account management and retail network strategy. From December 2009 through December 2019, we delegated certain PBM functions and administrative services to Express Scripts, Inc., or Express Scripts, pursuant our PBM agreement with Express Scripts, or the ESI PBM Agreement. In January 2019, we exercised our contractual right to terminate the ESI PBM Agreement earlier than the original expiration date of December 31, 2019, due to the acquisition of Express Scripts by Cigna Corporation, or Cigna. We began transitioning existing members from Express Scripts to IngenioRx in the second quarter of 2019, and completed the transition of all of our members on January 1, 2020. Prior to the termination of the ESI PBM Agreement, Express Scripts managed the network of pharmacy providers, operated mail order pharmacies and processed prescription drug claims on our behalf, while we sold and supported the product for our members, made formulary decisions, sold drug benefit design strategy and provided front line member support. We expect IngenioRx to provide our members with more cost-effective solutions and improve our ability to integrate pharmacy benefits within our medical and specialty platform. Notwithstanding our termination of the ESI PBM Agreement, the litigation between us and Express Scripts regarding the ESI PBM Agreement continues. In March 2016, we filed a lawsuit against Express Scripts seeking to recover damages for pharmacy pricing that is higher than competitive benchmark pricing and damages related to operational breaches. Express Scripts filed an answer to the lawsuit disputing our contractual claims and alleging various defenses and counterclaims. For additional information regarding this lawsuit, see Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings - Express Scripts, Inc. Pharmacy Benefit Management Litigation,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

On June 6, 2019, we announced our entrance into an agreement to acquire Beacon Health Options, Inc., or Beacon, the largest independently held behavioral health organization in the country. Beacon serves approximately 40 million individuals across all 50 states. This acquisition aligns with our strategy to diversify into health services and deliver both integrated solutions and care delivery models that personalize care for people with complex and chronic conditions. The acquisition is expected to close in the first quarter of 2020 and is subject to standard closing conditions and customary approvals.

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In May 2017, we announced that we were terminating the Agreement and Plan of Merger, or Cigna Merger Agreement, between us and Cigna. Both we and Cigna have commenced litigation against the other seeking various actions and damages, including Cigna’s damage claim for a $1.850 billion termination fee pursuant to the terms of the Cigna Merger Agreement. For additional information about the ongoing litigation related to the Cigna Merger Agreement, see Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings - Cigna Corporation Merger Litigation,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At Anthem, we believe in working together to achieve our mission of improving lives and communities, simplifying healthcare and expecting more. As we seek to accomplish these goals through a collaborative focus on execution and delivering for those we serve, our vision is to be the most innovative, valuable and inclusive health partner. We focus on ensuring quality products and services that give members access to the care they need. With an unyielding commitment to meeting the needs of our diverse customers, we are guided by the following values:
Leadership – Redefine what is possible
Community – Committed, connected, invested
Integrity – Do the right thing, with a spirit of excellence
Agility – Delivery today, transform tomorrow
Diversity – Open your hearts and minds
By striving to live our values each day and in every interaction, we are committed to simplifying as well as radically reinventing the healthcare experience for all Americans.
We offer a broad spectrum of network-based managed care plans to Large Group, Small Group, Individual, Medicaid and Medicare markets. Our managed care plans include: Preferred Provider Organizations, or PPOs; Health Maintenance Organizations, or HMOs; Point-of-Service, or POS, plans; traditional indemnity plans and other hybrid plans, including Consumer-Driven Health Plans, or CDHPs; and hospital only and limited benefit products. In addition, we provide a broad array of managed care services to self-funded customers, including claims processing, stop loss insurance, actuarial services, provider network access, medical cost management, disease management, wellness programs and other administrative services. We provide an array of specialty and other insurance products and services such as PBM services, dental, vision, life and disability insurance benefits, radiology benefit management and analytics-driven personal healthcare. We also provide services to the federal government in connection with our Federal Health Products & Services business, or FHPS, which administers the Federal Employees Health Benefits, or FEHB, Program.
An ongoing focus on healthcare costs by employers, the government and consumers has continued to drive the growth of alternatives to traditional indemnity health insurance. HMO, PPO and hybrid plans are among the various forms of managed care products that have been developed. Through these types of products, insurers attempt to contain the cost of healthcare by negotiating contracts with hospitals, physicians and other providers to deliver high-quality healthcare to members at favorable rates. These products usually feature medical management and other quality and cost optimization measures such as pre-admission review and approval for certain non-emergency services, pre-authorization of outpatient surgical procedures, network credentialing to determine that network physicians and hospitals have the required certifications and expertise, and various levels of care management programs to help members better understand and navigate the healthcare system. In addition, providers may have incentives to achieve certain quality measures, may share medical cost risk or may have other incentives to deliver quality medical services in a cost-effective manner. Also, certain plans offer members incentives for healthy behaviors, such as smoking cessation and weight management. Members are charged periodic, prepaid premiums and generally pay co-payments, coinsurance and/or deductibles when they receive services. While the distinctions between the various types of plans have lessened over recent years, PPO, POS and CDHP products generally provide reduced benefits for out-of-network services, while traditional HMO products generally provide little to no reimbursement for non-emergency out-of-network utilization, but often offer more generous benefit coverage. An HMO plan may also require members to select one of the network primary care physicians, or PCPs, to coordinate their care and approve any specialist or other services.
Economic factors, greater consumer and employer sophistication and accountability have resulted in an increased demand for choice in both product/benefit designs and provider network configurations. As a result, we continue to offer our broad access PPO networks with multiple benefit designs, but are also focused on leveraging our provider collaboration

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initiatives with our Accountable Care Organization, or ACO, partnerships to develop both narrow and tiered network offerings. This array of network and product configurations allows both the employer and the employee to design and select the combination of benefit designs (e.g., traditional PPOs, high deductibles, health reimbursement accounts, health savings accounts, PCP based products, tiered copays) and networks (e.g., broad, narrow, tiered, closed or exclusive provider, and open) that optimize choice, quality and price at the consumer, employer and market level. We believe we are well-positioned in each of our states to respond to these market preferences.
For our fully-insured products, we charge a premium and assume the risk for the cost of covered healthcare services. Under self-funded products, we charge a fee for services and the employer or plan sponsor funds or reimburses us for the healthcare costs. In addition, we charge a premium to underwrite stop loss insurance for Local Group and National Account employers that maintain self-funded health plans.
Our medical membership includes seven different customer types: Local Group, Individual, National Accounts, BlueCard®, Medicare, Medicaid and FEHB. BCBS-branded business generally refers to members in our service areas licensed by the BCBSA. Non-BCBS-branded business refers to members in our non-BCBS-branded Amerigroup, Freedom Health, HealthSun, Optimum HealthCare and Simply Healthcare plans, as well as HealthLink and UniCare members. In addition to the above medical membership, we also serve customers who purchase one or more of our other products or services that are often ancillary to our health business.
Our products are generally developed and marketed with an emphasis on the differing needs of our customers. In particular, our product development and marketing efforts take into account the differing characteristics between the various customers served by us, as well as the unique needs of educational and public entities, labor groups, federal employee health and benefit programs, national employers and state-run programs servicing low-income, high-risk and underserved markets. Overall, we seek to establish pricing and product designs to provide value for our customers while achieving an appropriate level of profitability for each of our customer categories balanced with the competitive objective to grow market share. We believe that one of the keys to our success has been our focus on these distinct customer types, which better enables us to develop benefit plans and services that meet our customers’ unique needs. Further, IngenioRx was built to simplify pharmacy care and focus on the whole person, and we expect it will make it easier for our customers to achieve the best possible health outcomes at the lowest possible total cost of care.
We market our Individual, Medicare and certain Local Group products through direct marketing activities and an extensive network of independent agents, brokers and retail partnerships. Products for National Accounts and Local Group customers with a larger employee base are generally sold through independent brokers or consultants retained by the customer who work with industry specialists from our in-house sales force. In the Individual and Small Group markets, we offer on-exchange products through state- or federally-facilitated marketplaces, referred to as public exchanges, and off-exchange products. Federal subsidies are available for certain members, subject to income and family size, who purchase public exchange products. 
Being a licensee of the BCBS association of companies, of which there were 36 independent primary licensees including us as of December 31, 2019, provides significant market value, especially when competing for very large multi-state employer groups. For example, each BCBS member company is able to utilize other BCBS licensees’ substantial provider networks and discounts when any BCBS member works or travels outside of the state in which their policy is written. This program is referred to as BlueCard® and is a source of revenue when we provide member services in the states where we are the BCBS licensee to individuals who are customers of BCBS plans not affiliated with us. This program also provides a national provider network for our members when they travel to other states.
For additional information describing each of our customer types, detailed marketing efforts and changes in medical membership over the last three years, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our results of operations depend in large part on our ability to accurately predict and effectively manage healthcare costs through effective contracting with providers of care to our members, product pricing, medical management and health and wellness programs, including service coordination and case management for addressing complex and specialized health care needs, innovative product design and our ability to maintain or achieve improvement in our CMS Star ratings. CMS Star ratings affect Medicare Advantage plan reimbursements as well as our eligibility to earn quality-based bonus payments for those plans. See “Regulation” herein for additional information on our CMS Star ratings.

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Advances in medical technology, increases in specialty drug costs, increases in hospital expenditures and other provider costs, the aging of the population and other demographic characteristics continue to contribute to rising healthcare costs. Our managed care plans and products are designed to encourage providers and members to participate in quality, cost-effective health benefit programs by using the full range of our innovative medical management services, quality initiatives and financial incentives. Our market share and high business retention rates enable us to realize the long-term benefits of investing in preventive and early detection programs. Our ability to provide cost-effective health benefits products and services is enhanced through a disciplined approach to internal cost containment, prudent management of our risk exposure and successful integration of acquired businesses. In addition, our ability to manage selling, general and administrative costs continues to be a driver of our overall profitability.
The future results of our operations will also be impacted by certain external forces and resulting changes in our business model and strategy. The continuing growth in our government-sponsored business exposes us to increased regulatory oversight. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended, or collectively, the ACA, has changed and may continue to make broad-based changes to the U.S. healthcare system. The ACA presented us with new growth opportunities, but also introduced new risks, regulatory challenges and uncertainties, and required changes in the way products are designed, underwritten, priced, distributed and administered. Changes to our business environment are likely to continue as elected officials at the national and state levels continue to enact, and both elected officials and candidates for election continue to propose, significant modifications to existing laws and regulations, including changes to taxes and fees. In addition, the legal challenges regarding the ACA, including a federal district court decision invalidating the ACA, or the “2018 ACA Decision”, which judgment has been stayed pending appeal, continue to contribute to this uncertainty. We will continue to evaluate the impact of the ACA as additional guidance is made available and any further developments or judicial rulings occur. For additional discussion, see “Regulation” herein and Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In addition to the external forces discussed in the preceding paragraph, our results of operations are impacted by levels and mix of membership which can change as a result of the quality and pricing of our health benefits products and services, aging population, economic conditions, changes in unemployment, acquisitions, entry into new markets and expansions in or exits from existing markets. These membership trends could be negatively impacted by various factors that could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations such as general economic downturns that result in business failures, failure to obtain new customers or retain existing customers, premium increases, benefit changes or our exit from a specific market. See Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
During 2019, we modestly expanded our participation in the Individual ACA-compliant market. Our strategy has been, and will continue to be, to only participate in rating regions where we have an appropriate level of confidence that these markets are on a path toward sustainability, including, but not limited to, factors such as expected financial performance, regulatory environment, and underlying market characteristics. We currently offer Individual ACA-compliant products in 91 of the 143 rating regions in which we operate.
We believe healthcare is local and that we have the strong local presence required to understand and meet local customer needs with regard to any product they are enrolled in with us. Further, we believe we are well-positioned to deliver what customers want: innovative, choice-based and affordable products; distinctive service; simplified transactions; and better access to information for quality care. Our local presence, combined with our national expertise, has created opportunities for collaborative programs that reward physicians and hospitals for clinical quality and excellence. We feel that our commitment to health improvement and care management provides added value to customers and healthcare professionals. Ultimately, we believe that practical and sustainable improvements in healthcare must focus on improving healthcare quality while managing costs for total affordability. We have implemented initiatives driving payment innovation and partnering with providers to lower cost and improve the quality of healthcare for our members, and we continue to develop new and innovative ways to effectively manage risk and engage our members. Further, we are expanding our financial arrangements with providers to include payment models that encourage value-based care. We believe focusing on quality of care rather than volume of care is the foundation for improving patient outcomes. Our value-based payment model supports patient-centered care by improving collaboration between providers and health partners and delivering to our patients the right care, at the right time, in the right place. In addition, we are focused on achieving efficiencies from our national scale while optimizing service performance for our customers. Finally, we expect to continue to rationalize our portfolio of businesses and products

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and align our investments to capitalize on new opportunities to drive growth in our existing markets and expand into new markets in the future.
We continue to enhance interactions with customers, providers, brokers, agents, employees and other stakeholders through web-enabled technology and improving internal operations. Our approach includes not only the sales and distribution of health benefits products on the Internet, but also implementing advanced capabilities that improve services benefiting customers, agents, brokers, and providers while optimizing administrative costs. These enhancements can also help improve the quality, coordination and safety of healthcare through increased communications between patients and their physicians.
In pursuing our vision of being the most innovative, valuable and inclusive partner, we intend to transform healthcare by providing trusted and caring solutions and delivering quality products and services that give customers access to the care they need. At the same time, we will focus on earnings, organic membership growth, improvements in our operating cost structure, strategic acquisitions and the efficient use of capital.
Significant Transactions
The significant transactions that have occurred over the last five years that have impacted or will impact our capital structure or that have influenced or will influence how we conduct our business operations include:
Launch of IngenioRx (2019);
Acquisition of America’s 1st Choice (2018);
Acquisition of HealthSun Health Plans, Inc., or HealthSun (2017);
Acquisition of Simply Healthcare Holdings, Inc., or Simply Healthcare (2015); and
Use of Capital—Board of Directors declarations of dividends on our common stock; repurchases of our common stock; and debt repurchases and new debt issuances (2019 and prior).
For additional information regarding certain of these transactions, see Note 3, “Business Acquisitions,” Note 12, “Debt,” and Note 14, “Capital Stock,” to our audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Competition
The managed care industry is highly competitive, both nationally and in our local markets. Competition continues to be intense due to aggressive marketing, pricing, government-sponsored programs bid activity, business consolidations, new strategic alliances, new competitors in the market, a proliferation of new products, technological advancements, the impact of legislative reform, and increased quality awareness and price sensitivity among customers.
We believe that participants in the managed care industry compete for customers based on quality of service, price, access to provider networks, access to care management and wellness programs (including health information), innovation, breadth and flexibility of products and benefits, expertise and reputation (including National Committee on Quality Assurance, or NCQA, accreditation status), brand recognition and financial stability. Our ability to attract and retain customers is substantially tied to our ability to distinguish ourselves from our competitors in these areas.
Also, a health plan’s ability to interact with employers, customers and other third parties (including healthcare professionals) through electronic data transfer has become a more important competitive factor, and we have made significant investments in technology to enhance our electronic interaction with providers, employers, customers and third parties.
We believe our exclusive right to market products under the most recognized brand in the industry, BCBS, in our most significant markets provides us with greater brand recognition over competitive product offerings. Our provider networks in our markets enable us to achieve efficiencies and distinctive service levels by allowing us to offer a broad range of health benefits to our customers on a more cost-effective basis than many of our competitors. We strive to distinguish our products through provider access, service, care management, product value and brand recognition.
Product pricing remains competitive and we strive to price our healthcare benefit products and design our Medicare and Medicaid bids consistent with anticipated underlying medical trends. We believe our pricing and bid strategy, based on

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predictive modeling, proprietary research and data-driven processes, has positioned us to benefit from the potential growth opportunities available through entry into new markets, expansions in existing markets and as a result of any future changes to the current regulatory scheme. We believe that our pricing and bid strategy, brand name and network quality will provide a strong foundation for membership growth opportunities in the future.
To build our provider networks, we compete with other health benefits plans for the best contracts with hospitals, physicians and other providers. We believe that physicians and other providers primarily consider customer volume, reimbursement rates, timeliness of reimbursement and administrative service capabilities along with the reduction of non-value added administrative tasks when deciding whether to contract with a health benefits plan.
At the sales and distribution level, we compete for qualified agents and brokers to recommend and distribute our products. Strong competition exists among insurance companies and health benefits plans for agents and brokers with demonstrated ability to secure new business and maintain existing accounts. We believe that the quality and price of our products, support services, reputation and prior relationships, along with a reasonable commission structure, are the factors agents and brokers consider in choosing whether to market our products. We believe that we have good relationships with our agents and brokers, and that our products, support services and commission structure compare favorably to those of our competitors in all of our markets. Typically, we are the largest competitor in each of our BCBS branded markets and, thus, are a closely-watched target by other insurance competitors.
In addition, the PBM industry is highly competitive, and IngenioRx is subject to competition from national, regional and local PBMs, insurers, health plans, large retail pharmacy chains, large retail stores, supermarkets, other mail order pharmacies, web pharmacies and specialty pharmacies.
Reportable Segments
We manage our operations through three reportable segments: Commercial & Specialty Business, Government Business and Other. We regularly evaluate the appropriateness of our reportable segments, particularly in light of organizational changes, merger and acquisition activity and changing laws and regulations. Prior to the second quarter of 2019, our Other segment included certain eliminations and corporate expenses not allocated to either of our other reportable segments. Beginning with the second quarter of 2019, our Other segment also includes IngenioRx, our pharmacy benefits manager, which began operations during the second quarter of 2019. In addition, during the second quarter of 2019, we reclassified our integrated health services business, our Diversified Business Group, or DBG, from our Government Business segment to the Other segment to reflect changes in how our segments are being managed. Amounts for prior years have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation for comparability. Based on the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, guidance, as of December 31, 2019, IngenioRx and DBG did not collectively meet the quantitative thresholds for a reportable segment. Current reportable segments may change in the future.
Our Commercial & Specialty Business and Government Business segments both offer a diversified mix of managed care products, including PPOs, HMOs, traditional indemnity benefits and POS plans, as well as a variety of hybrid benefit plans including CDHPs, hospital only and limited benefit products.
Our Commercial & Specialty Business segment includes our Local Group, National Accounts, Individual and Specialty businesses. Business units in the Commercial & Specialty Business segment offer fully-insured health products; provide a broad array of managed care services to self-funded customers including claims processing, underwriting, stop loss insurance, actuarial services, provider network access, medical cost management, disease management, wellness programs and other administrative services; and provide an array of specialty and other insurance products and services such as dental, vision, life and disability insurance benefits.
Our Government Business segment includes our Medicare and Medicaid businesses, National Government Services, or NGS, and services provided to the federal government in connection with our FHPS business. Medicaid makes federal matching funds available to all states for the delivery of healthcare benefits to eligible individuals, principally those with incomes below specified levels who meet other state-specified requirements. Medicaid is structured to allow each state to establish its own eligibility standards, benefits package, payment rates and program administration under broad federal guidelines. Our Medicare customers are Medicare-eligible individual members age 65 and over who have enrolled in Medicare Advantage, a managed care alternative for the Medicare program, or who have purchased Medicare Supplement benefit coverage, some disabled members under age 65, or members of all ages with end stage renal disease. Medicare

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Supplement policies are sold to Medicare recipients as supplements to the benefits they receive from the Medicare program. Medicare Supplement policy rates are filed with, and in some cases approved by, state insurance departments. Most of the premium for Medicare Advantage is based on bids submitted to CMS and paid directly by the federal government on behalf of the participant who may also be charged a small premium. Additionally, through our alliance partnership engagements with larger provider groups and BCBS plans, we offer a variety of Medicaid services that include joint ventures, administrative service offerings, and full-risk arrangements. NGS acts as a Medicare contractor for the federal government in several regions across the nation.
Our Other segment includes our PBM business (IngenioRx), our integrated health services business (DBG) and corporate expenses not allocated to either of our other reportable segments.
Through our participation in various federal government programs, we generated approximately 20.7%, 19.8% and 17.8% of our total consolidated revenues from agencies of the U.S. government for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. These revenues are contained in the Government Business segment. An immaterial amount of our total consolidated revenues is derived from activities outside of the U.S.
 Products and Services
A general description of our products and services is provided below:
Preferred Provider Organization:    PPO products offer the member an option to select any healthcare provider, with benefits reimbursed by us at a higher level when care is received from a participating network provider. Increasingly, customers are choosing our PPO products offered with an exclusive provider organization, which eliminates coverage out of network. Coverage is subject to co-payments or deductibles and coinsurance, with member cost sharing usually limited by out-of-pocket maximums.
Consumer-Driven Health Plans:    CDHPs provide consumers with increased financial responsibility, choice and control regarding how their healthcare dollars are spent. Generally, CDHPs combine a high-deductible PPO plan with an employer-funded and/or employee-funded personal care account, which may result in tax benefits to the employee. Some or all of the dollars remaining in the personal care account at year-end can be rolled over to the next year for future healthcare needs.
Traditional Indemnity:    Indemnity products offer the member an option to select any healthcare provider for covered services. Coverage is subject to deductibles and coinsurance, with member cost sharing usually limited by out-of-pocket maximums.
Health Maintenance Organization:    HMO products include comprehensive managed care benefits, generally through a participating network of physicians, hospitals and other providers. A member in one of our HMOs must typically select a PCP from our network. PCPs generally are family practitioners, internists or pediatricians who provide necessary preventive and primary medical care, and are generally responsible for coordinating other necessary healthcare services. We offer HMO plans with varying levels of co-payments, which result in different levels of premium rates.
 Point-of-Service:    POS products blend the characteristics of HMO, PPO and indemnity plans. Members can have comprehensive HMO-style benefits through participating network providers with minimum out-of-pocket expenses (co-payments) and also can go directly, without a referral, to any provider they choose, subject to, among other things, certain deductibles and coinsurance. Member cost sharing is limited by out-of-pocket maximums.
Public Exchange and Off-Exchange Products: Individual and Small Group products cover essential health benefits as defined in the ACA along with many other requirements and cost sharing features. Individual and Small Group products offered on and off the public exchanges meet the definition of the “metal” product requirements (bronze, silver, gold and platinum) and each metal product must satisfy a specific actuarial value. Health insurers participating on the public exchanges must offer at least one silver and one gold product.
Administrative Services:    In addition to fully-insured products, we provide administrative services to Large Group, Small Group and National Account employers that maintain self-funded health plans. These administrative services include underwriting, actuarial services, medical cost management, disease management, wellness programs, claims processing and other administrative services for self-funded employers. Self-funded health plans are also able to use our provider networks and to realize savings through our negotiated provider arrangements, while allowing employers the ability to design certain

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health benefit plans in accordance with their own requirements and objectives. We also underwrite stop loss insurance for self-funded plans.
 BlueCard®:    BlueCard® is a national program that links participating healthcare providers and independent BCBS plans. BlueCard® host members are generally members who reside in or travel to a state in which an Anthem subsidiary is the Blue Cross and/or Blue Shield licensee and who are covered under an employer-sponsored health plan serviced by a non-Anthem controlled BCBS licensee, which is the “home” plan. We perform certain administrative functions for BlueCard® host members, for which we receive administrative fees from the BlueCard® members’ home plans. Other administrative functions, including maintenance of enrollment information and customer service, are performed by the home plan.
 Medicare Plans:    We offer a wide variety of plans, products and options to individuals age 65 and older such as Medicare Supplement plans; Medicare Advantage, including Special Needs Plans or SNPs, also known as Medicare Advantage SNPs; Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Plans, or Medicare Part D; and dual-eligible programs through Medicare-Medicaid Plans, or MMPs. Medicare Supplement plans typically pay the difference between healthcare costs incurred by a beneficiary and amounts paid by Medicare. Medicare Advantage plans provide Medicare beneficiaries with a managed care alternative to traditional Medicare and often include a Medicare Part D benefit. In addition, our Medicare Advantage SNPs provide tailored benefits to special needs individuals who are institutionalized or have severe or disabling chronic conditions and to dual-eligible customers, who are low-income seniors and persons under age 65 with disabilities. Medicare Advantage SNPs are coordinated care plans specifically designed to provide targeted care, covering all the health care services considered medically necessary for members and often providing professional care coordination services, with personal guidance and programs that help members maintain their health. Medicare Part D offers a prescription drug plan to Medicare and MMP beneficiaries. MMP is a demonstration program focused on serving members who are dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare, which was established as a result of the passage of the ACA. We offer these plans to customers through our health benefit subsidiaries throughout the country, including America’s 1st Choice, Amerigroup, CareMore, HealthSun and Simply Healthcare.
 Individual Plans:    We offer a full range of health insurance plans with a variety of options and deductibles for individuals who are not covered by employer-sponsored coverage and are not eligible for government sponsored plans, such as Medicare and/or Medicaid. Individual policies are generally sold through independent agents and brokers, retail partnerships, our in-house sales force or via the exchanges. Individual business is sold on a fully-insured basis. We offer on-exchange products through public exchanges and off-exchange products. Federal premium subsidies are available only for certain public exchange Individual products. Unsubsidized Individual customers are generally more sensitive to product pricing and, to a lesser extent, the configuration of the network and the efficiency of administration. Instability in the Individual market has resulted in a targeted approach where we offer products in select geographies.
 Medicaid Plans and Other State-Sponsored Programs:    We have state contracts to serve members enrolled in publicly funded healthcare programs, including Medicaid; ACA-related Medicaid expansion programs; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF; programs for seniors and people with disabilities, or SPD; Children’s Health Insurance Programs, or CHIP; and specialty programs such as those focused on long-term services and support, or LTSS, HIV/AIDS, children living in foster care, behavioral health and/or substance abuse disorders, and intellectual disabilities and/or developmental disabilities, or ID/DD programs. The Medicaid program makes federal matching funds available to all states for the delivery of healthcare benefits for low income and/or high medical risk individuals. These programs are managed by the individual states based on broad federal guidelines. TANF is a state and federally funded program designed for the population consisting primarily of low-income children and their guardians. SPD is a federal income supplement program designed for Supplemental Security Income recipients; however, states can broaden eligibility criteria. This population consists of low-income seniors and people with disabilities. CHIP is a state and federally funded program that provides healthcare coverage to children not otherwise covered by Medicaid or other insurance programs. LTSS is a state and federally funded program that offers states a broad and flexible set of program design options and refers to the delivery of long-term services and support for our members who receive home and community- or institution-based services for long-term care. Our HIV/AIDS program is a state and federally sponsored program that provides services to those living with HIV/AIDS. Our foster care program is a state and federally sponsored program serving children with complex needs within the foster care system. Our behavioral health program is a state and federally sponsored program providing services to those with mental health and/or substance abuse disorders. ID/DD is a state and federally sponsored program serving those living with limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior learning disabilities. Our Medicaid plans also cover certain dual-eligible customers, as previously described above, who also receive Medicare benefits. We provide Medicaid and other state

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sponsored services, such as administrative services, in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Washington D.C.
 Pharmacy Products:    In the second quarter of 2019, we began using IngenioRx to market and sell a PBM product to fully-insured and self-funded Anthem health plan customers throughout the country, as well as to customers outside of the health plans we own. This comprehensive product portfolio includes features such as drug formularies, a pharmacy network, prescription drug database, member services, and mail order capabilities. In July 2019, we announced our first contract win with a third-party health insurer, Blue Cross of Idaho, and we began providing PBM services under that contract beginning on January 1, 2020. Also beginning in the second quarter of 2019, we began delegating certain PBM administrative functions, such as claims processing and prescription fulfillment, to CVS Health pursuant to the CVS PBM Agreement. We intend to retain the responsibilities for IngenioRx’s clinical and formulary strategy and development, member and employer experiences, operations, sales, marketing, account management and retail network strategy. From December 2009 through December 2019, we delegated certain PBM functions and administrative services to Express Scripts pursuant to the ESI PBM Agreement, excluding certain health plans and self-insured members who have exclusive agreements with different PBM service providers. We began transitioning existing members from Express Scripts to IngenioRx in the second quarter of 2019 and completed the transition of all of our members on January 1, 2020. Express Scripts managed the network of pharmacy providers, operated mail order pharmacies and processed prescription drug claims on our behalf, while we sold and supported the product for our members, made formulary decisions, sold drug benefit design strategy and provided front line member support.
 Life Insurance:    We offer an array of competitive individual and group life insurance benefit products to both Large Group and Small Group customers in conjunction with our health plans. The life products include term life and accidental death and dismemberment.
 Disability:    We offer short-term and long-term disability products, usually in conjunction with our health plans.
 Radiology Benefit Management:    We offer outpatient diagnostic imaging management services to health plans, which promote the most appropriate use of clinical services to improve the quality of care delivered to members. These services include utilization management for advanced diagnostic imaging procedures, network development and optimization, patient safety, claims adjudication and provider payment.
 Personal Health Care Guidance:    We offer evidence-based and analytics-driven personal healthcare guidance. These services help improve the quality, coordination and safety of healthcare, enhance communications between patients and their physicians, and reduce medical costs.
 Dental:    Our dental plans include networks in certain states in which we operate. Many of the dental benefits are provided to customers enrolled in our health plans and are offered on both a fully-insured and self-funded basis. Our members also have access to additional dental providers through our participation in the National Dental GRID, a national dental network developed by and for BCBS plans. The National Dental GRID includes dentists in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and provides multi-state customers with a national solution that offers in-network discounts across the country. Additionally, we offer managed dental services to other healthcare plans to assist those plans in providing dental benefits to their customers.
 Vision Services and Products:    Our vision plans include networks within the states in which we operate. Many of the vision benefits are provided to customers enrolled in our health plans and are offered on both a fully-insured and self-funded basis.
 Medicare Administrative Operations:    Through our subsidiary, NGS, we serve as a fiscal intermediary, carrier and Medicare administrative contractor for the federal government by providing administrative services for the Medicare program, Parts A and B, which generally provides coverage for persons who are 65 or older and for persons who are under 65 and disabled or with end-stage renal disease. Part A of the Medicare program provides coverage for services provided by hospitals, skilled nursing facilities and other healthcare facilities. Part B of the Medicare program provides coverage for services provided by physicians, physical and occupational therapists and other professional providers, as well as certain durable medical equipment and medical supplies.

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 Networks and Provider Relations
Our relationships with physicians, hospitals and professionals that render healthcare services to our members are guided by local, regional and national standards for network development, reimbursement and contract methodologies. While following industry standards, we are simultaneously seeking to lead transformation efforts within our healthcare system, moving from a fragmented model premised on episodic intervention to one based on proactive, coordinated care built around the needs of the patient. A key element of this transformation involves a transition from traditional fee-for-service payment models to models where providers are paid based on the value, both in quality and affordability, of the care they deliver.
 We establish “market-based” hospital reimbursement payments that we believe are fair, but aggressive, and among the most competitive in the market. We also seek to ensure that physicians in our network are paid in a timely manner at appropriate rates. In many instances, we deploy multi-year contracting strategies, including case rates or fixed rates, to limit our exposure to medical cost inflation and to increase cost predictability. We maintain both broad and narrow provider networks to ensure member choice, based on both price and access needs, while implementing programs designed to improve the quality of care our members receive. Increasingly, we are supplementing our broad-based networks with smaller or more cost-effective networks that are designed to be attractive to a more price-sensitive customer segment, such as public exchange customers.
 Our reimbursement strategies vary across markets and depend on the degree of consolidation and integration of physician groups and hospitals. Under a fee-for-service reimbursement methodology for physicians, fee schedules are developed at the state level based on an assessment of several factors and conditions, including the CMS resource-based relative value system, or RBRVS, medical practice cost inflation and physician supply. We utilize CMS RBRVS fee schedules as a reference point for fee schedule development and analysis. The RBRVS structure was developed, maintained, and updated by CMS and is used by the Medicare program and other major payers. In addition, we have implemented and continue to expand physician incentive contracting, or “pay-for-performance,” which ties physician payment levels to performance on clinical measures.
 While we generally do not delegate full financial responsibility to our physician providers in the form of capitation-based reimbursement, we maintain capitation-based arrangements in certain markets where we determine that market dynamics result in it being a useful method to lower costs and reduce underwriting risk.
 Our hospital contracts provide for a variety of reimbursement arrangements depending on local market dynamics and current hospital utilization efficiency. Most hospitals are reimbursed a fixed amount per day or reimbursed a per-case amount, per admission, for inpatient covered services. A small percentage of hospitals, primarily rural, sole community hospitals, are reimbursed on a discount from approved charge basis for covered services. Our “per-case” reimbursement methods utilize many of the same attributes contained in Medicare’s Diagnosis Related Groups methodology. Hospital outpatient services are reimbursed by fixed case rates, fee schedules or percent of approved charges. Our hospital contracts recognize unique hospital attributes, such as academic medical centers or community hospitals, and the volume of care performed for our members. To improve predictability of expected costs, we frequently use a multi-year contracting approach with providers. In addition, the majority of our hospital contracts include a pay-for-performance component where reimbursement levels are linked to improved clinical performance, patient safety and medical error reduction. 
Our provider engagement and contracting strategies are moving away from “unit price” or volume-based payment models to payment models that align compensation with the value delivered as measured by healthcare outcomes, quality and cost. Our Enhanced Personal Health Care program augments traditional fee-for-service with shared savings opportunities for providers when actual healthcare costs are below projected costs and providers meet specific quality measures. The quality measures are based on nationally accepted, credible standards (e.g., NCQA, the American Diabetes Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics) and span preventive, acute and chronic care. We understand, however, that payment incentives alone are insufficient to create the large-scale, system-wide transformation required to achieve meaningful impacts on cost, quality and member experience. Accordingly, we are investing in care delivery transformation and population health management support structures to help providers succeed under value-based payment models. This support includes our web-based population health management technology and teams of dedicated practice consultants who work alongside providers, sharing best practices, and helping them leverage our data to the benefit of their patients. In some of these arrangements, participating physician practices receive a per-member, per-month clinical coordination fee to compensate them for important care management activities that occur outside of the patient visit (e.g., purchasing an electronic health record or hiring care

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management nurses), all of which have been shown to reduce healthcare costs and improve care outcomes. Since the launch of our Enhanced Personal Health Care program, we now have arrangements with provider organizations covering 52% of our PCPs and have rolled this program out in each of the 14 states where we operate as a licensee of the BCBSA.
Medical Management Programs
Our medical management programs include a broad array of activities that facilitate improvements in the quality of care provided to our members and promote cost-effective medical care. These medical management activities and programs are administered and directed by physicians and nurses. The goals of our medical management strategies are to ensure that the care delivered to our members is supported by appropriate medical and scientific evidence, is received on a timely basis and occurs in the most appropriate setting. The following is a general description of our medical management programs, which are available to our members depending on the particular plan or product in which they participate:
Precertification:    A traditional medical management program involves assessment of the appropriateness of certain hospitalizations and other medical services prior to the services being rendered. For example, precertification is used to determine whether a set of hospital and medical services is being appropriately applied to the member’s clinical condition, in accordance with criteria for medical necessity as that term is defined in the member’s benefits contract. All of our health plans have implemented precertification programs for selected medical services including surgeries, major diagnostic procedures, devices, drugs and other services to help members maximize benefits and avoid unnecessary charges or penalties. Through our American Imaging Management, Inc. subsidiary, doing business as AIM Specialty Health, or AIM, we promote appropriate, safe and affordable member care in the areas of imaging, sleep disorders, cardiac testing, oncology drugs and musculoskeletal procedures. These expanded specialty benefit management solutions leverage clinical expertise and technology to engage our provider communities and members in more effective and efficient use of outpatient services.
Care coordination:    Another traditional medical management strategy we use is care coordination, which is based on nationally recognized criteria developed by third-party medical specialists. With inpatient care coordination, the requirements and intensity of services during a patient’s hospital stay are reviewed, at times by an onsite, skilled nurse professional in collaboration with the hospital’s medical and nursing staff, in order to coordinate care and determine the most effective transition of care from the hospital setting. In addition, continued stay cases are reviewed with physician medical directors to ensure appropriate utilization of medical services. We also coordinate care for outpatient services to help ensure that patients with chronic conditions who receive care from multiple physicians are able to manage the exchange of information between physicians and coordinate office visits to their physicians.
Case management:    We have implemented a medical management strategy focused on identifying the small percentage of the membership that will require a high level of intervention and assistance to manage their healthcare needs. Case Management identifies members who are likely to be re-admitted to the hospital through claims analysis using predictive modeling techniques, the use of health risk assessment data, utilization management reports and referrals from a physician or one of our other programs, such as the 24/7 NurseLine. Registered nurses, medical directors, behavioral health experts, pharmacists and other clinicians focus on these members and help them coordinate their care through pharmacy compliance, post-hospital care, follow-up visits to see their physician and support in their home. Increasingly, we collaborate with our providers and key health partners within the member’s provider care team by providing actionable patient data insights, practice-coaching capabilities, technology and programs and products that help our providers and health partners to successfully deliver the right care, at the right time, in the right place.
Formulary management:    We have developed formularies, which are selections of drugs based on clinical quality and effectiveness. A pharmacy and therapeutics committee of physicians uses scientific and clinical evidence to ensure that our members have access to the appropriate drug therapies and receive these therapies through proper settings. 
Medical policy:    A medical policy committee determines our national policies and guidelines for the application of medical technologies, procedures and services. This committee is comprised of internal and external physician leaders from various specialties and areas of the country. We also work in cooperation with academic medical centers, practicing community physicians and medical specialty organizations. All guidelines and policies are reviewed at least once a year or as new published clinical evidence becomes available.
Quality programs:    We are actively engaged with our hospital and physician networks to enable them to improve medical and surgical care and achieve better outcomes for our members. We endorse, encourage and incentivize hospitals and

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physicians to support national initiatives to improve the quality of clinical care and patient outcomes and to reduce medication errors and hospital infections.
External review procedures:    We work with outside experts through a process of external review to provide our members scientifically and clinically, evidence-based medical care. When we receive member concerns, we have formal appeals procedures that ultimately allow coverage disputes related to medical necessity decisions under the benefits contract to be settled by independent expert physicians.
Provider cost comparison tools: Through Estimate Your Cost, Care & Cost Finder, and other web-based tools, our members can compare cost estimates, quality accreditation data and patient reviews for common services at contracted providers, with cost estimates for facility, professional and ancillary services. These cost estimates bundle related services typically performed at the time of the procedure, not just for the procedure itself. Users can review cost data for over 400 common, shop-able medical procedures in all states. Members can also estimate out-of-pocket costs based on a member’s own benefit coverage, deductible, and out-of-pocket maximum. We also offer information on overall facility ratings and patient experience using trusted third-party data. We continue to work on enhancing and evolving our tools to assist members in making informed and value-based healthcare decisions. In addition, we collaborate with an external independent vendor to support employers wanting to purchase a consumer engagement solution with certain additional functionality.
Anthem Health Guide: Anthem Health Guide integrates the customer service experience with clinical and wellness coaching to provide easier navigation of healthcare services for our members. Anthem Health Guide provides members with education on benefit options and digital opportunities that fit member references, and makes recommendations for eligible clinical programs to ensure members are connected to the most appropriate care and clinical resources. By allowing members to connect with us using voice, click-to-chat, secure email and mobile technology, we enhance our ability to engage with our members.
Anthem Whole Health Connection: Anthem Whole Health Connection is a differentiated approach to whole person health that uniquely connects medical, pharmacy, dental, vision, disability and supplemental health clinical and claims data to proactively identify health issues earlier and engage our members with their health providers in new ways to support health, lower costs and deliver better healthcare experience. Anthem Whole Health Connection is included when Anthem health benefits are combined with one or more of the Anthem pharmacy, dental, vision, life, disability or supplemental health coverage plans.
Care Management Programs
We continue to expand our 360º Health suite of integrated care management programs and tools. 360º Health offers the following programs, among others, which are available to our members depending on the particular plan or product in which they participate, and have been proven to increase quality and reduce medical costs for our members:
ConditionCare and FutureMoms are care management and maternity management programs that serve as adjuncts to physician care. Skilled nurse professionals, with added support from our team of dietitians, social workers, pharmacists, health educators and other health professionals, help participants understand their condition, their doctor’s orders and how to become a better self-manager of their condition. We also offer members infertility consultation through our SpecialOffers@Anthem program, a comprehensive and integrated assembly of discounted health and wellness products and services from a variety of the nation’s leading retailers.
24/7 NurseLine offers access to qualified, registered nurses anytime. This allows our members to make informed decisions about the appropriate level of care and avoid unnecessary worry. This program also includes a referral process to the nearest urgent care facility, a robust audio library, accessible by phone, with more than 600 health and wellness topics, as well as on-line health education topics designed to educate members about symptoms and treatment of many common health concerns.
MyHealth Advantage utilizes integrated information systems and sophisticated data analytics to help our members improve their compliance with evidence-based care guidelines, providing personal care notes that alert members to potential gaps in care, enable more prudent healthcare choices, and assist in the realization of member out-of-pocket cost savings. Key opportunities are also shared with physicians through Availity® at the time of membership eligibility verification. Availity® is

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an electronic data interchange system that allows for the exchange of health information among providers over a secure network.
MyHealth Coach provides our members with a professional guide who helps them navigate the healthcare system and make better decisions about their well-being. MyHealth Coach proactively reaches out to people who are at risk for potentially serious health issues or have complex healthcare needs. Our health coaches help participants understand and manage chronic conditions, handle any health and wellness related services they need and make smart lifestyle choices.
HealthyLifestyles helps employees transform unhealthy habits into positive ones by focusing on behaviors that can have a positive effect on their health and their employer’s financial well-being. HealthyLifestyles programs include smoking cessation, weight management, stress management, physical activity, and diet and nutrition.
Behavioral Health Case Management is a comprehensive program supporting a wide range of members who are impacted by their behavioral health condition, including specialty areas such as eating disorders, anxiety, depression and substance abuse. The program assists members and their families with obtaining appropriate behavioral health treatment, offering community resources, providing education and telephonic support, and promoting provider collaboration.
Autism Spectrum Disorder Program is a specialized case management program staffed by a dedicated team of clinicians who have been trained on the unique challenges and needs of families with a member who has a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. These clinicians provide education, information on community resources to help with care and support, guidance on the appropriate usage of benefits, and assistance in exploring effective treatments, such as medical services, that may help the member and their families.
Employee Assistance Programs provide 24/7 telephonic support for personal and crisis events. Members also gain access to many resources that allow support within work and personal life by providing quick and easy access to confidential resources to help meet the challenges of daily life. Examples of services available include counseling, referral assistance with child care, health and wellness, financial issues, legal issues, adoption and daily living.
Healthcare Quality Initiatives
Increasingly, the healthcare industry is able to define quality healthcare based on preventive health measurements, outcomes of care and optimal care management for chronic disease. A key to our success has been our ability to work with our network physicians and hospitals to improve the quality and outcomes of the healthcare services provided to our members. Our ability to promote quality medical care has been recognized by NCQA, the largest and most respected national accreditation program for managed care health plans.
Several quality healthcare measures, including the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set, or HEDIS®, have been incorporated into NCQA’s accreditation processes. HEDIS® measures range from preventive services, such as screening mammography and pediatric immunization, to elements of care, including decreasing the complications of diabetes and improving treatment for patients with heart disease. For health plans, NCQA’s highest accreditation status of Excellent is granted only to those plans that demonstrate levels of service and clinical quality that meet or exceed NCQA’s rigorous requirements for consumer protection and quality improvement. Plans earning this accreditation level must also achieve HEDIS® results that are in the highest range of national or regional performance. Details for each of our plans’ accreditation levels can be found at www.ncqa.org.
Our wholly-owned health outcomes research subsidiary, HealthCore, Inc., or HealthCore, generates consistent and actionable evidence to support decision making while helping to guide fresh initiatives for a range of stakeholders in the healthcare industry. By leveraging a rich array of medical and pharmacy utilization data queried from administrative claims, patient surveys, medical charts and laboratory diagnostics, among other health records, HealthCore’s multi-disciplinary research teams uncover a broad spectrum of safety, effectiveness, pharmacoepidemiology, and health economics evidence. HealthCore’s real world evidence and comparative effectiveness research, among other data, has played roles in the product planning and development campaigns of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and today it lists most of the leading biologics and drug manufacturers as clients or alliance partners. Its health plan research has led to better insights into evidence-based treatment approaches, the development of value-based initiatives to drive access and adherence to treatment, and the crafting of incentives to modify patient and provider behavior. One of HealthCore’s predominant initiatives is its governmental and academic collaborations that include cooperation with some of the country’s top institutions and federal

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agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the National Institutes of Health. HealthCore is also an active contributor to the FDA’s medical product safety surveillance Sentinel program. HealthCore serves as the coordinating center for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Pediatric Heart Network, a collaboration among 40 of the nation’s top pediatric hospitals. Additionally, HealthCore has taken a thought-leadership position in the development of pragmatic clinical trials. As a notable contributor to the health outcomes evidence base, HealthCore’s research findings are broadly disseminated during presentations at national and international medical meetings and are published in a variety of respected peer-reviewed medical and health services journals.
Our AIM subsidiary supports quality by implementing clinical appropriateness and patient safety solutions for advanced imaging procedures, cardiology, sleep medicine, medical oncology, radiation therapy, rehabilitative, certain outpatient surgical and musculoskeletal services. These programs, based on widely accepted and evidence-based clinical guidelines, promote the most appropriate use of clinical services to improve the quality of overall healthcare delivered to our members and members of other health plans that are covered under AIM’s programs. To provide additional impact to its clinical appropriateness program, AIM has also implemented a provider assessment program, OptiNet®, which promotes more informed selection of diagnostic imaging and testing facilities by providing cost and facility information to physician offices at the point that a procedure is ordered. We have also leveraged AIM’s provider network assessment information to proactively engage and educate our members about imaging providers and sleep testing choices based on site capabilities and cost differences. This program is another example of how we facilitate improvements in the quality of care provided to our members and promote cost-effective medical care.
Pricing and Underwriting of Our Products
We price our products based on our assessment of current healthcare claim costs and emerging healthcare cost trends, combined with charges for administrative expenses, risk and profit, including charges for the ACA taxes and fees, where applicable. We continually review our product designs and pricing guidelines on a national and regional basis so that our products remain competitive and consistent with our profitability goals and strategies.
Our revenue on Medicare policies is based on annual bids submitted to CMS. We base the commercial and Medicaid premiums we charge and our Medicare bids on our estimates of future medical costs over the fixed contract period. In applying our pricing to each employer group and customer, we aim to maintain consistent, competitive, disciplined underwriting standards. We employ our proprietary accumulated actuarial and financial data to determine underwriting and pricing parameters for both our fully-insured and self-funded businesses.
In most circumstances, our pricing and underwriting decisions follow a prospective rating process in which a fixed premium is determined at the beginning of the contract period. For our fully-insured business, any deviation, favorable or unfavorable, from the medical costs assumed in determining the premium is our responsibility. Some of our larger groups employ retrospective rating reviews, where positive experience is partially refunded to the group, and negative experience is charged against a rate stabilization fund established from the group’s favorable experience or charged against future favorable experience.
BCBSA Licenses
We are a party to license agreements with the BCBSA that entitle us to the exclusive, and in certain areas, non-exclusive use of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield names and marks in assigned geographic territories. BCBSA is a national trade association of Blue Cross and Blue Shield licensees, the primary function of which is to promote and preserve the integrity of the BCBS names and marks, as well as provide certain coordination among the member companies. Each BCBSA licensee is an independent legal organization and is not responsible for obligations of other BCBSA member organizations. We have no right to market products and services using the BCBS names and marks outside of the states in which we are licensed to sell BCBS products. We are required to pay an annual license fee to the BCBSA based on enrollment and also to comply with various operational, governance and financial standards set forth in the licenses.
We believe that we and our licensed affiliates are currently in compliance with these standards. The standards under the license agreements may be modified in certain instances by the BCBSA. See Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details of our licensing requirements and the impact if we were not to comply with these license agreements.

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Regulation 
General
Our operations are subject to comprehensive and detailed state, federal and international regulation throughout the jurisdictions in which we do business. These laws and regulations, which can vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, restrict how we conduct our businesses and result in additional burdens and costs to us. Further, federal and state laws and regulations are subject to amendments and changing interpretations in each jurisdiction. The application of these complex legal and regulatory requirements to the detailed operation of our businesses creates areas of uncertainty. In addition, there are numerous proposed healthcare laws and regulations at the federal and state levels, including single payer, Medicare for All and public option proposals, some of which could materially adversely affect our businesses if they were to be enacted.
Supervisory agencies, including federal and state regulators and departments of health, insurance and corporation, have broad authority to:
grant, suspend and revoke licenses to transact business;
regulate our products and services in great detail;
regulate, limit, or suspend our ability to market products, including the exclusion of our plans from participating on public exchanges;
retroactively adjust premium rates;
monitor our solvency and reserve adequacy;
scrutinize our investment activities on the basis of quality, diversification and other quantitative criteria; and
impose monetary and criminal sanctions for non-compliance with regulatory requirements.
To carry out these tasks, these government entities periodically examine our operations and accounts.
The health benefits business also may be adversely impacted by court and regulatory decisions that expand or invalidate the interpretations of existing statutes and regulations. It is uncertain whether we can recoup, through higher premiums or other measures, the increased costs of mandated benefits or other increased costs caused by potential legislation, regulation or court rulings. See Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
State Regulation of Insurance Companies and HMOs
Our insurance and HMO subsidiaries must obtain a certificate of authority and maintain that license in the jurisdictions in which they conduct business. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners, or NAIC, has adopted model regulations that, where adopted by states, require expanded governance practices, risk and solvency assessment reporting and the filing of periodic financial and operating reports. Most states have adopted these or similar measures to expand the scope of regulations relating to corporate governance and internal control activities of HMOs and insurance companies. Health insurers and HMOs are subject to state examination and periodic license renewal.
In addition, we are regulated as an insurance holding company and are subject to the insurance holding company acts of the states in which our insurance company and HMO subsidiaries are domiciled. These acts contain certain reporting requirements, as well as restrictions on transactions between an insurer or HMO and its affiliates, and may restrict the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends to our holding companies. These holding company laws and regulations generally require registration with applicable state departments of insurance and the filing of reports describing capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain intercompany transactions, enterprise risks, corporate governance and general business operations. In addition, state insurance holding company laws and regulations require notice or prior regulatory approval of transactions including acquisitions, material intercompany transfers of assets, guarantees and other transactions between the regulated companies and their affiliates, including parent holding companies. Applicable state insurance holding company acts also restrict the ability of any person to obtain control of an insurance company or HMO without prior regulatory approval. “Control” is generally defined as the direct or indirect power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person and is presumed to exist if a person directly or indirectly owns or

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controls 10% or more of the voting securities of another person. Dispositions of control generally are also regulated under the state insurance holding company acts.
The states of domicile of our regulated subsidiaries have statutory risk-based capital, or RBC, requirements for health and other insurance companies and HMOs based on the Risk-Based Capital (RBC) For Health Organizations Model Act. These RBC requirements are intended to assess the capital adequacy of life and health insurers and HMOs, taking into account the risk characteristics of a company’s investments and products. In general, under these laws, an insurance company or HMO must submit a report of its RBC level to the insurance department or insurance commissioner of its state of domicile for each calendar year. The law requires increasing degrees of regulatory oversight and intervention as a company’s RBC declines. As of December 31, 2019, the RBC levels of our insurance and HMO subsidiaries exceeded all applicable mandatory RBC requirements. For more information on RBC capital and additional liquidity and capital requirements for a licensee of the BCBSA, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations–Liquidity and Capital Resources–Risk-Based Capital,” included in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Ongoing Requirements and Changes Stemming from the ACA
The ACA significantly changed the United States healthcare system. While we anticipate continued efforts to invalidate, modify, repeal or replace the ACA, either through Congress or court challenges, we expect the major portions of the ACA to remain in place and continue to significantly impact our business operations and results of operations, including pricing, minimum medical loss ratios, or MLRs, and the geographies in which our products are available.
The ACA prohibits lifetime limits, certain annual limits, member cost-sharing on specified preventive benefits and pre-existing condition exclusions. Further, the ACA implemented certain requirements for insurers, including changes to Medicare Advantage payments and the minimum MLR provision that requires insurers to pay rebates to customers when insurers do not meet or exceed the specified MLR thresholds. In addition, the ACA also required a number of other changes with significant effects on both federal and state health insurance markets, including strict rules on how health insurance is rated, what benefits must be offered, the assessment of new taxes and fees (including annual fees on health insurance companies), the creation of public exchanges for Individuals and Small Groups, the availability of premium subsidies for qualified individuals, and expansions in eligibility for Medicaid. Changes to our business environment are likely to continue as elected officials at the national and state levels continue to enact, and both elected officials and candidates for election continue to propose, significant modifications to existing laws and regulations, including changes to taxes and fees. Also, the legal challenges regarding the ACA, including the 2018 ACA Decision, which judgment has been stayed pending appeal, could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
In general, the Individual market risk pool that includes public exchange markets has become less healthy since its inception in 2014 and continues to exhibit risk volatility. Based on our experience in public exchange markets to date, we have made adjustments to our premium rates and participation footprint, and we will continue to evaluate the performance of our public exchange plans going forward. In addition, insurers have faced uncertainties related to federal government funding for various ACA programs. These factors may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations if premiums are not adequate or do not appropriately reflect the acuity of these individuals. Any variation from our expectations regarding acuity, enrollment levels, adverse selection, or other assumptions utilized in setting premium rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Further, implementation of the ACA brings with it significant oversight responsibilities by health insurers that may result in increased governmental audits, increased assertions of False Claims Act violations, and an increased risk of other litigation.

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Federal regulatory agencies continue to modify regulations and guidance related to the ACA and markets more broadly. Some of the more significant ACA rules are described below:
The minimum MLR thresholds by line of business for the Commercial market, as defined by HHS, are as follows:
Line of Business
 
%
Large Group
 
85
Small Group
 
80
Individual
 
80
New York state regulations require us to meet a more restrictive MLR threshold of 82% for both Small Group and Individual lines of business. The minimum MLR thresholds disclosed above are based on definitions of an MLR calculation provided by HHS, or specific states, as applicable, and differ from our calculation of “benefit expense ratio” based on premium revenue and benefit expense as reported in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. Furthermore, the definitions of the lines of business differ under the various federal and state regulations and may not correspond to our lines of business. Definitions under the MLR regulation also impact insurers differently depending upon their organizational structure or tax status, which could result in a competitive advantage to some insurance providers that may not be available to us, resulting in an uneven playing field in the industry.
The ACA also imposed a separate minimum MLR threshold of 85% for Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D prescription drug plans, or Medicare Part D plans. Medicare Advantage or Medicare Part D plans that do not meet this threshold will have to pay a minimum MLR rebate. If a plan’s MLR is below 85% for three consecutive years beginning with 2014, enrollment will be restricted. A Medicare Advantage or Medicare Part D plan contract will be terminated if the plan’s MLR is below 85% for five consecutive years.
In addition, state Medicaid programs are required to set managed care capitation rates such that a minimum 85% MLR is projected to be achieved; however, states are not required to collect remittances if the minimum MLR is not achieved.
Approximately 58.9% and 20.8% of our premium revenue and medical membership, respectively, were subject to the minimum MLR regulations as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019. Approximately 58.7% and 22.0% of our premium revenue and medical membership, respectively, were subject to the minimum MLR regulations as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The ACA created an incentive payment program for Medicare Advantage plans. CMS developed the Medicare Advantage Star ratings system, which awards between 1.0 and 5.0 stars to Medicare Advantage plans based on performance in several categories, including quality of care and customer service. The Star ratings are used by CMS to award quality-based bonus payments to plans that receive a rating of 4.0 or higher. The methodology and measures included in the Star ratings system can be modified by CMS annually. As of December 31, 2019, all of our Medicare Advantage plans have received a rating of 3.0 or higher.
Regulations require premium rate increases to be reviewed for Small Group and Individual products above specified thresholds, 15% for 2019 and 2020, and may be adjusted from time to time. The regulations provide for state insurance regulators to conduct the reviews, except for cases where a state does not have an “effective” rate review program or in federal enforcement states, in which cases HHS will conduct the reviews for any rate increase.
Prior to the implementation of the ACA, health insurers were permitted to use differential pricing, commonly referred to as “rating bands,” based on factors such as health status, gender and age. The ACA precludes health insurers from using health status and gender in the determination of the insurance premium. In addition, rating bands for age cannot vary by more than 3 to 1, and rating bands for tobacco use cannot vary by more than 1.5 to 1. The ongoing use of the 3 to 1 rating bands may have a significant impact on the majority of Individual and Small Group customers and could lead to adverse selection in the market as well as increased variability in projecting future premiums for those customer markets.

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The ACA imposed an annual Health Insurance Provider Fee, or HIP Fee, on health insurers that write certain types of health insurance on U.S. risks, which has been permanently repealed effective January 1, 2021. The annual HIP Fee is allocated to health insurers based on the ratio of the amount of an insurer’s net premium revenues written during the preceding calendar year to the amount of health insurance premium for all U.S. health risk for those certain lines of business written during the preceding calendar year. We record our estimated liability for the HIP Fee in full at the beginning of the year with a corresponding deferred asset that is amortized on a straight-line basis to selling, general and administrative expense. The final calculation and payment of the annual HIP Fee is due by September 30th of each fee year. The HIP Fee is non-deductible for federal income tax purposes. Our affected products are priced to cover the increased selling, general and administrative and income tax expenses associated with the HIP Fee. The total amount due from allocations to health insurers was $14.3 billion for 2018 and was suspended for 2019. The HIP Fee has resumed and increased to $15.5 billion for 2020 and has been permanently eliminated beginning in 2021.
Medicare Advantage reimbursement rates will not increase as much as they would otherwise due to the payment formula promulgated by the ACA that continues to impact reimbursements. We also expect further and ongoing regulatory guidance on a number of issues related to Medicare, including evolving methodology for ratings and quality bonus payments. CMS is also proposing changes to its program that audits data submitted under the risk adjustment programs in a way that would increase financial recoveries from plans.
Drug Benefit and Pharmacy Benefit Manager Regulation
Pharmacy benefit managers are regulated at both the federal and state levels and must comply with federal and state statutes and regulations governing labeling, packaging, advertising and adulteration of prescription drugs, dispensing of controlled substances, and licensing. In recent years the federal government has banned certain business practices, including “gag clauses,” which prohibited pharmacists from informing patients when a lower cost drug was available as a substitute, and “clawbacks,” which occurred when pharmacy benefit managers sought to recoup the difference between the reimbursed cost of the drug and the patient’s copay and the drug itself was less expensive than the copay paid by the patient. Regulation in the states varies dramatically and ranges from licensure of PBMs as third-party administrators, licensure specifically as a pharmacy benefit manager, and licensure accompanied by additional disclosures and limitations of business practices to varying degrees. The NAIC is working on a PBM model law that, if adopted widely, could result in a more standardized approach to PBM regulation in the states in the future.
A number of proposals are being considered at the federal and state levels that would increase regulation of drug benefits and pharmacy benefit managers. Such proposals under consideration include (1) regulation of rebates from drug manufacturers that would require rebate dollars to be applied at the point-of-sale, (2) federal policy changes to set the prices for a subset of drugs covered under the Medicare program, (3) reforms to the Medicare drug benefit, such as beneficiary cost-sharing changes that aim to lower consumer costs, and (4) attempts at both the federal and state levels to ban the use of spread pricing contracts in both the Commercial and Medicaid markets. These reforms have the potential to have broad impacts on our PBM business and could materially adversely affect our business if they are enacted.
Privacy, Confidentiality and Data Standards Regulation
The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the administrative simplification provisions of HIPAA impose a number of requirements on covered entities (including insurers, HMOs, group health plans, providers and clearinghouses) and their business associates relating to the use, disclosure and safeguarding of protected health information. These requirements include uniform standards of common electronic healthcare transactions; privacy and security regulations; and unique identifier rules for employers, health plans and providers.
Also, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, or HITECH, Act provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and corresponding implementing regulations have imposed additional requirements on the use and disclosure of protected health information such as additional breach notification and reporting requirements, contracting requirements for HIPAA business associate agreements, strengthened enforcement mechanisms and increased penalties for HIPAA violations. Federal consumer protection laws may also apply in some instances to privacy and security practices related to personally identifiable information.

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The federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act generally places restrictions on the disclosure of non-public information to non-affiliated third parties, and requires financial institutions, including insurers, to provide customers with notice regarding how their non-public personal information is used, including an opportunity to “opt out” of certain disclosures. State departments of insurance and certain federal agencies adopted implementing regulations as required by federal law.
The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 encourages organizations to share cyber threat indicators with the federal government and, among other things, directed HHS to develop a set of voluntary cybersecurity best practices for organizations in the health care industry.
In addition, public exchanges are required to adhere to privacy and security standards with respect to personally identifiable information and to impose privacy and security standards that are at least as protective as those the public exchange has implemented for itself on insurers offering plans through the public exchanges and their designated downstream entities, including pharmacy benefit mangers and other business associates. These standards may differ from, and be more stringent than, HIPAA.
Furthermore, states have begun enacting more comprehensive privacy laws and regulations addressing consumer rights to data protection or transparency that may affect our privacy and security practices, such as state laws like the California Consumer Privacy Act that govern the use, disclosure and protection of member data and impose additional breach notification requirements. State consumer protection laws may also apply to privacy and security practices related to personally identifiable information, including information related to consumers and care providers. Complying with conflicting cybersecurity regulations and varying enforcement philosophies, which may differ from state to state, requires significant resources and may materially and adversely affect our ability to standardize our products and services across state lines.
Federal regulation has also been proposed in the following areas that could materially impact our operations if finalized:
Federal regulations on data interoperability that would require claims data to be made available to third parties unaffiliated with Anthem; and
Federal regulations requiring hospitals and health insurers to publish negotiated prices for services.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
The provision of services to certain employee welfare benefit plans is subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or ERISA, a complex set of laws and regulations subject to interpretation and enforcement by the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Labor. ERISA regulates certain aspects of the relationships between us, the employers that maintain employee welfare benefit plans subject to ERISA and participants in such plans. Some of our administrative services and other activities may also be subject to regulation under ERISA. In addition, certain states require licensure or registration of companies providing third-party claims administration services for benefit plans. We provide a variety of products and services to employee welfare benefit plans that are covered by ERISA. Plans subject to ERISA can also be subject to state laws, and the question of whether and to what extent ERISA preempts a state law has been, and will continue to be, interpreted by many courts.
Guaranty Fund Assessments
Under insolvency or guaranty association laws in most states, insurance companies and HMOs can be assessed for amounts paid by guaranty funds for policyholder losses incurred when an insurance company or HMO becomes insolvent. Most state insolvency or guaranty association laws currently provide for assessments based upon the amount of premiums received on insurance underwritten within such state (with a minimum amount payable even if no premium is received). Under many of these guaranty association laws, assessments are made retrospectively. Some states permit insurers or HMOs to recover assessments paid through full or partial premium tax offsets or through future policyholder surcharges. The amount and timing of any future assessments cannot be predicted with certainty; however, future assessments are likely to occur.
Employees
At December 31, 2019, we had approximately 70,600 employees. Our employees are an important asset, and we seek to develop them to their full potential. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good.

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Available Information
We are a large accelerated filer (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act) and are required, pursuant to Item 101 of Regulation S-K, to provide certain information regarding our website and the availability of certain documents filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Our website is www.antheminc.com. We have included our website address throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K as a textual reference only. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We make available, free of charge, by mail or through our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with or furnish it to the SEC. We also include on our website our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Code of Conduct and the charter of each standing committee of our Board of Directors. In addition, we intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Conduct that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE. Anthem, Inc. is an Indiana corporation incorporated on July 17, 2001.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.
The following is a description of significant factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and presented elsewhere by management from time to time. Such factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and you should carefully consider them and not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. It is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, you should not consider any such list to be a complete statement of all our potential risks or uncertainties. Because of these and other factors, past performance should not be considered an indication of future performance.
If we fail to appropriately predict, price for and manage healthcare costs, the profitability of our products could decline, which could materially adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Our profitability depends in large part on accurately predicting and pricing healthcare costs and on our ability to manage future healthcare costs through medical management, product design, negotiation of favorable provider contracts and underwriting criteria. Total healthcare costs are affected by the number of individual services rendered, the cost of each service and the type of service rendered. Numerous factors affecting the cost of healthcare may adversely affect our ability to predict and manage healthcare costs, as well as our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. These factors include, among others, changes in healthcare practices, demographic characteristics including the aging population, medical cost inflation, the introduction of new technologies, drugs and treatments, increased cost of individual services, increases in the cost and number of prescription drugs, clusters of high cost cases, increased use of services, including due to natural catastrophes or other large-scale medical emergencies or epidemics, and new treatment guidelines, new mandated benefits (such as the expansion of essential benefits coverage) or changes to other regulations impacting our business. Relatively small differences between predicted and actual medical costs or utilization rates as a percentage of revenues can result in significant changes in our financial results.
Generally, our premiums on Commercial policies and Medicaid contracts are fixed for a 12-month period and are determined several months prior to the commencement of the premium period. Our revenue on Medicare policies is based on bids submitted to CMS six months prior to the start of the contract year. Accordingly, the costs we incur in excess of our benefit cost projections generally are not recovered in the contract year through higher premiums. Existing Medicaid contract rates are often established by the applicable state, and our actual costs may exceed those rates. Although we base our Commercial premiums and our Medicare and Medicaid bids, and our acceptance of state-established Medicaid rates on our estimates of future medical costs over the fixed contract period, many factors, including those discussed above, may cause actual costs to exceed those estimated and reflected in premiums and bids.
Relatively small differences between predicted and actual healthcare costs as a percentage of premium revenues can result in significant changes in our results of operations. Although federal and state premium and risk adjustment mechanisms could help offset healthcare benefit costs in excess of our projections if our assumptions (including assumptions for

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government premium and risk adjustment payments) utilized in setting our premium rates are significantly different than actual results, our income statement and financial condition could still be adversely affected.
In addition to the challenge of managing healthcare costs, we face pressure to contain premium rates. Our customers may renegotiate their contracts to seek to contain their costs or may move to a competitor to obtain more favorable premiums. Further, federal and state regulatory agencies may restrict or prevent entirely our ability to implement changes in premium rates. For example, we must submit data on all proposed rate increases to HHS for monitoring purposes on many of our products. In addition, the ACA includes an annual rate review requirement to prohibit unreasonable rate increases, and our plans may be excluded from participating in the public exchanges if they are deemed to have a history of “unreasonable” rate increases. A limitation on our ability to increase or maintain our premium or reimbursement levels or a significant loss of membership resulting from our need to increase or maintain premium or reimbursement levels could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the reserves that we establish for health insurance policy benefits and other contractual rights and benefits are based upon assumptions concerning a number of factors, including trends in healthcare costs, expenses, general economic conditions and other factors. To the extent the actual claims experience is unfavorable as compared to our underlying assumptions, our incurred losses would increase and future earnings could be adversely affected.
We are subject to significant government regulation, and changes or proposed changes in the regulation of our business by federal and state regulators may adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition, results of operations and the market price of our securities.
We are subject to significant state and federal regulation associated with many aspects of our business, including, but not limited to, licensing, premiums, marketing activities, provider contracting, access and payment standards, and corporate governance and financial reporting matters. In addition, IngenioRx is also subject to an increasing number of licensure, registration and other laws and accreditation standards that impact the business practices of a pharmacy benefit manager. We must identify, assess and respond to new laws and regulations, as well as comply with the various existing laws and regulations applicable to our business. Further, the integration into our business of entities that we acquire, or the expansion of our business into new areas, may affect the way in which existing laws and rules apply to us, including by subjecting us to laws and rules that did not previously apply to us.
Changes in existing laws, rules and regulatory interpretation or future laws, rules, regulatory interpretations or judgments could force us to change how we conduct our business, affect the products we offer (and where we offer them), restrict revenue and enrollment growth, increase our costs, including operating, healthcare technology and administrative costs, restrict our ability to obtain new product approvals and implement changes in premium rates and require enhancements to our compliance infrastructure and internal controls environment, which could adversely impact our business and results of operations. In addition, legislative and/or regulatory policies or proposals that seek to manage the healthcare industry or otherwise impact our business may cause the market price of our securities to decrease, even if such policies or proposals never become effective.
Our insurance, managed healthcare and HMO subsidiaries are subject to extensive regulation and supervision by regulatory authorities and agencies in each state in which they are licensed or authorized to do business, in addition to regulation by federal agencies. We are required to obtain and maintain insurance and other regulatory approvals to market certain of our products, to increase prices for certain regulated products and to consummate some of our acquisitions and dispositions. Delays in obtaining or failure to obtain or maintain these approvals, as well as future regulatory action by state or federal authorities could have a material adverse effect on the profitability or marketability of our health benefits or managed care products or on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, because of our participation in government-sponsored programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, many of our subsidiaries are also subject to regulation by CMS and state Medicaid agencies, and to changes in government regulations or policy with respect to, among other things, reimbursement levels, eligibility requirements, benefit coverage requirements and additional governmental participation, which could also adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, under insolvency or guaranty association laws in most states, insurance companies can be assessed for certain obligations to policyholders and claimants of impaired or insolvent insurance companies. Some states have similar

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laws relating to HMOs and other payers such as consumer operated and oriented plans (co-ops) established under the ACA. The NAIC has amended the Life and Health Insurance Guaranty Association Model Act, or NAIC Model Act, to expand the assessment base for long-term care products and to add HMOs as members. We have experienced assessments in the past, and may experience assessments in the future as a result of other companies that fail to establish premiums sufficient to cover their costs. If the amended NAIC Model Act is adopted by the states, these changes could impact our assessments. Any such assessment could expose us to the risk of paying a portion of an impaired or insolvent insurance company’s claims through state guaranty associations. We are not currently able to estimate our potential financial obligations, losses, or the availability of potential offsets associated with potential guaranty association assessments; however, any significant increase in guaranty association assessments could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect state legislatures will continue to focus on healthcare delivery and financing issues. State ballot initiatives can also be put to voters that would substantially impair our operating environment. Most states are very focused on how to manage and reduce their budgets and are exploring ways to mitigate cost increases. As such, some states have acted to reduce or limit increases to premium payments. Others have enacted, or are contemplating, significant reform of their health insurance markets to include provisions affecting both public programs and privately-financed health insurance arrangements. If enacted into law, these state proposals could have a material adverse impact on our business, cash flows, operations or financial condition.
A number of states in which we offer Medicaid products have not opted for Medicaid expansion under the ACA, at least for the present time, and states frequently review public program eligibility. Where states make changes to reduce eligibility, we could experience reduced Medicaid enrollment and reduced growth opportunities. If future modifications to laws and regulations at the federal or state level result in reduced public enrollment, this could negatively impact our Medicaid business.
Additionally, from time to time, Congress has considered, and may consider in the future, various forms of managed care reform legislation which, if adopted, could fundamentally alter the treatment of coverage decisions under ERISA. There have been legislative attempts to limit ERISA’s preemptive effect on state laws and litigants’ ability to seek damages beyond the benefits offered under their plans. If adopted, such limitations could increase our liability exposure, could permit greater state regulation of our operations, and could expand the scope of damages, including punitive damages, litigants could be awarded. While we cannot predict if any of these initiatives will ultimately become effective or, if enacted, what their terms will be, their enactment could increase our costs, expose us to expanded liability or require us to revise the ways in which we conduct business.
The ongoing changes to the ACA and related laws and regulations could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
The ongoing changes in federal and state laws and regulations stemming from the ACA, including the steps that have been taken to amend, repeal and limit the scope and application of the ACA, continue to represent significant challenges to the U.S. healthcare system. We are unable to predict how these events will ultimately be resolved and what the potential impact may be on our business, including, but not limited to, our products, services, processes and technology, and on our relationships with current and future customers and healthcare providers. The legal challenges regarding the ACA, including a federal district court decision invalidating the ACA in its entirety, which judgment has been stayed pending appeal, continue to contribute to this uncertainty, which could significantly impact the market for our products, the regulations applicable to us and the fees and taxes payable by us. In addition, the ACA imposes significant fees, assessments and taxes on us and other health insurers, health plans and other industry participants, including the annual non-tax deductible HIP Fee; however, the HIP Fee has been permanently repealed beginning January 1, 2021. Further regulations and modifications to the ACA at the federal or state level, including any judicial invalidation of the ACA, could have significant effects on our business and future operations, some of which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
In general, the risk pool for the Individual market, which includes public exchange markets, has become less healthy since its inception in 2014. In addition, insurers have faced uncertainties related to federal government funding for various ACA programs. Based on our experience in public exchange markets to date, we have made adjustments to our premium rates and geographic participation, and will continue to evaluate the performance of our public exchange plans, the future viability of the public exchanges and availability of federal subsidies, and may make further adjustments to our rates and

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participation going forward. These factors may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations if premiums are not adequate or do not appropriately reflect the acuity of these individuals. Any variation from our expectations regarding acuity, enrollment levels, adverse selection, or other assumptions utilized in setting premium rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
For additional information related to the ACA, see Part I, Item 1 “Business” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
If we fail to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with hospitals, physicians, pharmacy benefit service providers and other healthcare providers, our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our profitability is also dependent in part upon our ability to contract on favorable terms with hospitals, physicians, PBM service providers and other healthcare providers. Physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers may elect not to contract with us, and the failure to secure or maintain cost-effective healthcare provider contracts on competitive terms may result in a loss of membership or higher medical costs, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, consolidation among healthcare providers, ACO practice management companies, which aggregate physician practices for administrative efficiency and marketing leverage, and other organizational structures that physicians, hospitals and other care providers choose, as well as the ability of larger employers to contract directly with providers, may change the way that these providers interact with us and may change the competitive landscape. Such organizations or groups of physicians may compete directly with us, which may impact our relationship with these providers or affect the way that we price our products and estimate our costs and may require us to incur costs to change our operations, which could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Our inability to contract with providers, or if providers attempt to use their market position to negotiate more favorable contracts or place us at a competitive disadvantage, or the inability of providers to provide adequate care, could adversely affect our business. In addition, we do not have contracts with all providers that render services to our members and, as a result, may not have a pre-established agreement about the amount of compensation those out-of-network providers will accept for the services they render, which can result in significant litigation or arbitration proceedings, or provider attempts to obtain payment from our members for the difference between the amount we have paid and the amount they have charged.
We face competition in many of our markets, and if we fail to adequately adapt to changes in our industry and develop and implement strategic growth opportunities, our ability to compete and grow may be adversely affected.
As a health benefits company, we operate in a highly competitive environment and in an industry that is subject to significant changes from legislative reform, business consolidations, new strategic alliances, new market entrants, aggressive marketing practices by other health benefits organizations and technological advancements. These factors have produced and will likely continue to produce, significant pressures on our profitability. Furthermore, decisions to buy our products and services are increasingly made or influenced by consumers, through means such as direct purchasing (for example, Medicare Advantage plans) and insurance exchanges that allow individual choice, or by large employers that may increasingly have the ability to contract directly with providers. This creates unique market pressures, and in order to compete effectively in the consumer-driven marketplace, we will be required to develop and deliver innovative and potentially disruptive products and services to satisfy evolving market demands.
In addition, the PBM industry is highly competitive, and IngenioRx is subject to competition from national, regional and local PBMs, insurers, health plans, large retail pharmacy chains, large retail stores, supermarkets, other mail order pharmacies, web pharmacies and specialty pharmacies. Strong competition within the pharmacy benefit business has generated greater demand for lower product and service pricing, increased revenue sharing and enhanced product and service offerings. Our inability to maintain positive trends, contract on favorable terms with pharmaceutical manufacturers for, among other things, rebates, discounts and administrative fees or a failure to identify and implement new ways to mitigate pricing pressures, could negatively impact our ability to attract or retain customers, negatively impact our margins and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Furthermore, as a result of changes to traditional health insurance over the past several years, the health insurance industry has experienced a significant shift in membership to products with lower margins. In order to profitably grow our

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business in the future, we need to not only grow our profitable medical membership, but also continue to diversify our sources of revenue and earnings, including through the increased sale of our specialty products, such as dental, vision and other supplemental products, expansion of our non-insurance assets and establishment of new cost of care solutions, including innovations in PBM services. If we are unable to acquire or develop and successfully manage new opportunities that further our strategic objectives and differentiate our products from our competitors, our ability to profitably grow our business could be adversely affected.
We also will have to respond to pricing and other actions taken by existing competitors and potentially disruptive new entrants. Also, due to the price transparency provided by public exchanges and new market entrants, we face competitive pressures from new and existing competitors in the market for Individual health insurance. These risks may be enhanced if employers shift to defined contribution healthcare benefits plans and make greater utilization of private insurance exchanges or encourage their employees to purchase health insurance on the public exchanges. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully on these exchanges or that we will be able to benefit from any opportunities presented by such exchanges. If we are not competitive on these exchanges or are unsuccessful in reducing our cost structure, our future growth and profitability may be adversely impacted.
We are currently dependent on the non-exclusive services of independent agents and brokers in the marketing of our healthcare products, particularly with respect to individuals, seniors and small employer group customers. We face intense competition for the services and allegiance of these independent agents and brokers, who may also market the products of our competitors. Our relationship with our brokers and independent agents could be adversely impacted by changes in our business practices to address legislative changes, including potential reductions in commissions and consulting fees paid to agents and brokers. We cannot ensure that we will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors for these services or that competitive pressures faced by us will not materially and adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant reduction in the enrollment in our health benefits or PBM products or services, particularly in states where we have large regional concentrations, could have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant reduction in the number of enrollees in our health benefits or PBM products or services could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Factors that could contribute to a reduction in enrollment include: reductions in workforce by existing customers; a general economic upturn that results in fewer individuals being eligible for Medicaid programs; a general economic downturn that results in business failures and high unemployment rates; employers no longer offering certain healthcare coverage as an employee benefit or electing to offer coverage on a voluntary, employee-funded basis; participation on public exchanges; federal and state regulatory changes, including the elimination of the individual mandate penalty in the ACA; failure to obtain new customers or retain existing customers; premium increases and benefit changes; our exit from a specific market; negative publicity and news coverage; and failure to attain or maintain nationally recognized accreditations.
The states in which we operate that have the largest concentrations of revenues include California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, New York, Ohio, Texas and Virginia. Due to this concentration of business in these states, we are exposed to potential losses resulting from the risk of state-specific or regional economic downturns impacting these states. If any such negative economic conditions do not improve, we may experience a reduction in existing and new business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
A cyber attack or other privacy or data security incident could result in an unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential information, cause a loss of data, disrupt a large amount of our operations, give rise to remediation or other expenses, expose us to liability under federal and state laws, and subject us to litigation and investigations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

As part of our normal operations, we collect, process and retain certain sensitive and confidential information. We are subject to various federal, state and international laws and rules regarding the use and disclosure of certain sensitive or confidential information, including HIPAA, the HITECH Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and numerous state laws governing personal information, including the California Consumer Privacy Act. Our facilities and systems, and those of our

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third-party service providers, are regularly the target of, and may be vulnerable to, cyber attacks, security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other threats.
We were the target of an external cyber attack in 2015 and have been, and will likely continue to be, the target of other attempted cyber attacks and security threats. In the event of such a cyber attack in the future, we may be subject to litigation and governmental investigations which could divert the attention of management from the operation of our business, result in reputational damage and have a material adverse impact on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. While we have contingency plans and insurance coverage for potential liabilities of this nature, they may not be sufficient to cover all claims and liabilities.
We cannot ensure that we will be able to identify, prevent or contain the effects of cyber attacks or other cybersecurity risks that bypass our security measures or disrupt our information technology systems or business. We have security technologies, processes and procedures in place to protect against cybersecurity risks and security breaches. However, hardware, software or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design, manufacturer defects or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. In addition, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently, are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and may not immediately produce signs of intrusion, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques, timely discover or counter them or implement adequate preventative measures. Viruses, worms or other malicious software programs may be used to attack our systems or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities, and such security attacks may cause system disruptions or shutdowns, or may cause personal information or proprietary or confidential information to be misappropriated or compromised. As a result, cybersecurity and the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes and practices designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage and unauthorized access remain a priority for us.
In addition, we use third-party technology, systems and services for a variety of reasons, including, without limitation, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, content delivery to customers, back-office support, and other functions that in some cases involve processing, storing and transmitting large amounts of data for our business. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party vendor, such measures cannot provide absolute security, and these third-party providers may also experience security breaches or interruptions to their information technology hardware and software infrastructure and communications systems that could adversely impact us.
Noncompliance with any privacy or security laws and regulations, or any security breach, cyber attack or cybersecurity breach, and any incident involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure or use of, or access to, sensitive or confidential member information, whether by us or by one of our third-party service providers, could require us to expend significant resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures and to remediate any damage. In addition, this could negatively affect our operations, cause system disruptions, damage our reputation, cause membership losses and contract breaches, and could also result in regulatory enforcement actions, material fines and penalties, litigation or other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
There are various risks associated with participating in Medicaid and Medicare programs, including dependence upon government funding and the timing of payments, compliance with government contracts and increased regulatory oversight.
We contract with various federal and state agencies, including CMS, to provide managed healthcare services, such as Medicare Advantage, Medicare Part D, Medicare Supplement, Medicaid, TANF, SPD, LTSS, CHIP, ACA-related Medicaid expansion programs and various specialty programs. We also provide various administrative services for several other entities offering medical and/or prescription drug plans to their Medicaid or Medicare eligible members through our affiliated companies, and we offer employer group waiver plans which provide medical and/or prescription drug coverage to retirees. We are also participating in programs in several states for the care of dual-eligible members. These programs have been the subject of ongoing regulatory reform initiatives, and it is difficult to predict the impact of these and potential future regulatory reforms on our Government Business segment. Regulatory reform initiatives or additional changes in existing laws or regulations, or their interpretations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

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Revenues from the Medicare and Medicaid programs are dependent, in whole or in part, upon annual funding from the federal government and/or applicable state governments. The base premium rate paid by each state or federal agency differs depending upon a combination of various factors such as defined upper payment limits, a member’s health status, age, gender, county or region, benefit mix, member eligibility category and risk scores. Future Medicare and Medicaid rates may be affected by continued government efforts to contain costs as well as federal and state budgetary constraints. Additionally, ongoing CMS system changes related to the data it uses to calculate risk scores in the Medicare Advantage program may impact our federal funding. If the federal government or any state in which we operate were to decrease rates paid to us, pay us less than the amount necessary to keep pace with our cost trends or seek an adjustment to previously negotiated rates, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Further, certain state contracts are subject to cancellation in the event of the unavailability of state funds. In addition, various states’ MMPs are still subject to uncertainty surrounding payment rates and other requirements, which could affect where we seek to participate in these programs. An unexpected reduction in payments, inadequate government funding or significantly delayed payments for these programs may adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Other potential risks associated with Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D plans include increased medical or pharmaceutical costs, data corrections identified as a result of ongoing auditing and monitoring activities, potential uncollectability of receivables resulting from processing and/or verifying enrollment, inadequacy of underwriting assumptions, inability to receive and process correct information (including inability due to systems issues by the federal government, the applicable state government or us), uncollectability of premiums from members, and limited enrollment periods. While we believe we have adequately reviewed our assumptions and estimates regarding these complex and wide-ranging programs under Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D, including those related to collectability of receivables and establishment of liabilities, actual results may be materially different than our assumptions and estimates and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Finally, there is the possibility that the Medicare Advantage program could be significantly impacted by any future modification, repeal or replacement of the ACA.
Our contracts with CMS and state governmental agencies contain certain provisions regarding data submission, risk adjustment, provider network maintenance, quality measures, claims payment, encounter data, continuity of care, call center performance and other requirements specific to federal and state program regulations. We have been subject in the past, and may again be in the future, to administrative actions, fines, penalties, liquidated damages or retrospective adjustments in payments made to our health plans as a result of a failure to comply with those requirements, which has impacted and in the future could impact our profitability. In addition, we could be required to file a corrective plan of action with additional penalties for noncompliance, including a negative impact on future membership enrollment levels. Further, the majority of our CMS and state Medicaid contracts are subject to a competitive procurement process. Our existing contracts have not always been renewed, we have not always been awarded new contracts as a result of the competitive procurement process, and in some cases, we have lost members under existing contracts as a result of a post-award challenge, each of which could take place again in the future and have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the Medicare Advantage Star rating system utilized by CMS to evaluate Medicare Advantage Plans may have a significant effect on our revenue, as higher-rated plans tend to experience increased enrollment and plans with a Star rating of 4.0 or higher are eligible for quality-based bonus payments and can market to and enroll members year-round. Our Star ratings may be negatively impacted if we fail to meet the quality, performance and regulatory compliance criteria established by CMS. Furthermore, the Star rating system is subject to change annually by CMS, which may make it more difficult to achieve four stars or greater. If we do not maintain or continue to improve our Star ratings, fail to meet or exceed our competitors’ ratings, or if quality-based bonus payments are reduced or eliminated, we may experience a negative impact on our revenues and the benefits that our plans can offer, which could materially and adversely affect the marketability of our plans, our membership levels, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Similarly, a number of state Medicaid programs in which we participate have implemented performance standards, and if we fail to meet or exceed those standards, we may not receive performance-based bonus payments or may incur performance-based penalties.
In addition to the contractual requirements affecting our participation in Medicaid and Medicare programs, we are also subject to various federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, including those directed at preventing fraud, abuse and discrimination in government-funded programs. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in investigations, litigation, fines, restrictions on, or exclusions from, program participation, or the imposition of corporate

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integrity agreements or other agreements with a federal or state governmental agency, any of which could adversely impact our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
We are periodically subject to government audits, including CMS Risk Adjustment Data Validation, or RADV audits, of our Medicare Advantage Plans to validate diagnostic data, patient claims and financial reporting, as well as audits by the Medicare Part D Recovery Audit Contractor, or RAC. CMS has recently proposed changing its audits in a way that could increase financial recoveries from health plans. These audits could result in significant adjustments in payments made to our health plans. In addition to these federal programs, the states in which we operate Medicaid plans conduct audits, and a number of states have implemented Medicaid RAC programs which were authorized by the ACA. State RAC programs could increase the number of audits and any subsequent recoupment by the federal and state governments, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. If we fail to report and correct errors discovered through our own auditing procedures or during a CMS, state or RAC audit, or otherwise fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to fines, civil penalties or other sanctions which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to participate in these programs, and on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
On November 1, 2018, CMS released a proposed rule that would revise its RADV methodology by, among other things, excluding an adjustment for underlying fee-for-service data errors and extrapolating RADV results at the contract level. If adopted in its current form, the rule could have a detrimental impact on all Medicare Advantage insurers. While it is uncertain whether CMS will issue the rule as proposed, if adopted, it could have a material adverse impact on our Medicare business and future results of operations. In addition to the proposed rule, there has been increased government scrutiny and civil litigation under the False Claims Act related to risk adjustment practices under the Medicare Advantage program. Government investigations, any enforcement actions and civil litigation could result in monetary damages, penalties and business practice changes that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Our Medicare and Medicaid contracts are also subject to various MLR rules, including minimum MLR thresholds, rebate requirements and audits, which could adversely affect our membership and revenues if any of our state Medicare or Medicaid plans do not meet an applicable minimum MLR thresholds. If a Medicare Advantage, MMP or Medicare Part D contract pays minimum MLR rebates for three consecutive years, it will become ineligible to participate in open enrollment. If a Medicare Advantage or Medicare Part D contract pays such rebates for five consecutive years, it will be terminated by CMS.
A change in our healthcare product mix may impact our profitability.
Our healthcare products that involve greater potential risk generally tend to be more profitable than administrative services products and those healthcare products where the employer groups assume the underwriting risks. Individuals and small employer groups are more likely to purchase our higher-risk healthcare products because such purchasers are generally unable or unwilling to bear greater liability for healthcare expenditures. Typically, government-sponsored programs also involve our higher-risk healthcare products. A shift of enrollees from more profitable products to less profitable products could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
We face risks related to litigation.
We are, or may in the future be, a party to a variety of legal actions that may affect our business, such as employment and employment discrimination-related suits, administrative charges before government agencies, employee benefit claims, breach of contract actions, tort claims and intellectual property-related litigation. In addition, because of the nature of our business, we are subject to a variety of legal actions relating to our business operations, including the design, administration and offering of our products and services. These could include claims relating to the denial or limitation of healthcare benefits; federal and state false claims act laws; dispensing of drugs associated with our PBM business; professional liability claims arising out of the delivery of healthcare and related services to the public; development or application of medical policies and coverage and clinical guidelines; medical malpractice actions; product liability claims; allegations of anti-competitive and unfair business activities; provider disputes over reimbursement and contracts; provider tiering programs; narrow networks; termination of provider contracts; the recovery of overpayments from providers; self-funded business; disputes over co-payment calculations; reimbursement of out-of-network claims; the failure to disclose certain business practices; the failure to comply with various state or federal laws, including but not limited to, ERISA and the Mental Health

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Parity Act; and customer audits and contract performance, including government contracts. These actions or proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
We are also involved in, or may in the future be party to, pending or threatened litigation of the character incidental to the business we transact or arising out of our operations, including, but not limited to, breaches of security and violations of privacy requirements, shareholder actions, compliance with federal and state laws and regulations (including qui tam or “whistleblower” actions), or sales and acquisitions of businesses or assets (including as a result of the terminated Cigna Merger Agreement, or as more fully described under Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings - Cigna Corporation Merger Litigation,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). From time to time, we are involved as a party in various governmental investigations, audits, reviews and administrative proceedings, including challenges relating to the award of government contracts. These investigations, audits and reviews include routine and special investigations by various state insurance departments, various federal regulators including CMS and the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (HHS-OIG), state attorneys general, the Department of Justice (DOJ), and various offices of the U.S. Attorney General. Following an investigation, we may be subject to civil or criminal fines, penalties and other sanctions if we are determined to be in violation of applicable laws or regulations. Liabilities that may result from these actions could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.
Recent court decisions and legislative activity may increase our exposure for any of these types of claims. In some cases, substantial non-economic (including injunctive relief), treble or punitive damages may be sought. Although we maintain insurance coverage for some of these potential liabilities, some liabilities and damages may not be covered by insurance, insurers may dispute coverage or the amount of insurance may not be enough to cover the damages awarded. In addition, insurance coverage for all or certain forms of liability may become unavailable or prohibitively expensive in the future. Any adverse judgment against us resulting in such damage awards could result in negative publicity and have an adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.
Further, litigation brought against the federal and some state governments over the ACA, including the 2018 ACA Decision, could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations as changes to, or the invalidation of, the ACA resulting from such litigation may be unfavorable to our business or may create uncertainty over the applicability and enforceability of portions of the law and related regulations, which impacts our strategy and could negatively impact our future growth opportunities.
Cigna’s pursuit of litigation in connection with the Cigna Merger Agreement, together with our own litigation against Cigna, could cause us to incur substantial costs, may present material distractions and, if decided adverse to Anthem, could negatively impact our financial condition.
As described in Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings - Cigna Corporation Merger Litigation,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in February 2017, Cigna commenced litigation against us in the Delaware Court of Chancery, or the Delaware Court, for a declaratory judgment that its purported termination of the Cigna Merger Agreement was lawful and seeking damages against us. We promptly filed our own litigation against Cigna seeking to compel Cigna’s specific performance of the Cigna Merger Agreement and damages against Cigna. In May 2017, after the Delaware Court denied our motion to enjoin Cigna from terminating the Cigna Merger Agreement, we delivered to Cigna a notice terminating the Cigna Merger Agreement. In the Delaware Court litigation, trial commenced in late February 2019 and concluded in March 2019, and closing arguments were held in November 2019. We have incurred, and likely will continue to incur, substantial litigation costs related to these lawsuits, and may incur substantial additional cost, including potential settlement and judgment costs. Our defense against Cigna’s claims, the pursuit of our claims or the settlement, or failure to reach a settlement, for any claims may result in negative media attention, and may adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our PBM business and related operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that are in addition to those we face in our core healthcare business.
We provide PBM services through our IngenioRx business, and we are responsible to regulators and our customers for the delivery of those PBM services that we contract to provide. Our PBM business is subject to the risks inherent in the

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dispensing, packaging, fulfillment and distribution of pharmaceuticals and other healthcare products, including claims related to dispensing and other operational errors. Any failure by us or one of our PBM services suppliers to adhere to the laws and regulations applicable to the dispensing of pharmaceuticals could subject our PBM business to civil and criminal penalties.
Our PBM business is subject to federal and state laws and regulations that govern its relationships with pharmaceutical manufacturers, physicians, pharmacies and customers, including without limitation, federal and state anti-kickback laws, beneficiary inducement laws, consumer protection laws, ERISA, HIPAA and laws related to the operation of internet and mail-service pharmacies, as well as an increasing number of licensure, registration and other laws and accreditation standards that impact the business practices of a PBM business. In addition, the practice of pharmacy is subject to federal and state laws and regulation, including those of state boards of pharmacy, individual state-controlled substance authorities, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and the FDA. Also, we and our third-party vendors are subject to registration requirements and state and federal laws concerning labeling, packaging, advertising, handling and adulteration of prescription drugs and dispensing of controlled substances. Federal and state legislatures also regularly consider new regulations for the industry that could materially affect current industry practices, including potential new legislation and regulations regarding the receipt or disclosure of rebates, discounts and other fees from pharmaceutical companies, the development and use of formularies and other utilization management tools, the use of average wholesale prices or other pricing benchmarks, pricing for specialty pharmaceuticals, limited access to networks and pharmacy network reimbursement methodologies. Noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations by us or our third-party vendors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and reputation and could expose us to civil and criminal penalties.
Our PBM business would be adversely affected if we are unable to contract on favorable terms with pharmaceutical manufacturers for, among other things, rebates, discounts and administrative fees.
We are dependent on the success of our relationships with third parties for various services and functions, including PBM services.
We contract with various third parties to perform certain functions and services and provide us with certain information technology systems. Certain of these third parties provide us with significant portions of our business infrastructure and operating requirements, and we could become overly dependent on key vendors, which could cause us to lose core competencies. A termination of our agreements with, or disruption in the performance of, one or more of these service providers could result in service disruptions or unavailability, reduced service quality and effectiveness, increased or duplicative costs or an inability to meet our obligations to our customers. In addition, we may also have to seek alternative service providers, which may be unavailable or only available on less favorable contract terms. Any of these outcomes could adversely affect our business, reputation, cash flows, financial condition and operating results.
In particular, beginning in the second quarter of 2019, we began delegating certain PBM administrative functions, such as claims processing and prescription fulfillment, to CVS Health pursuant to the CVS PBM Agreement. In addition, although we completed the transition of our members from Express Scripts to IngenioRx on January 1, 2020, Express Scripts continues to provide certain audit and various run-out transition services related to our PBM business pursuant to the ESI PBM Agreement. CVS Health began providing certain PBM administrative functions to IngenioRx pursuant to the CVS PBM Agreement beginning in the second quarter of 2019. In connection with the transition of PBM administrative functions to CVS Health, if CVS Health fails to provide PBM services as contractually required, we may not be able to meet the full demands of our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations. For additional information on the agreement with CVS Health, see “Business - General,” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, the litigation between us and Express Scripts regarding the ESI PBM Agreement continues, as more fully described under Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings - Express Scripts, Inc. Pharmacy Benefit Management Litigation,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
There are various risks associated with providing healthcare services.
The direct provision of healthcare services by certain of our subsidiaries involves risks of additional litigation arising from medical malpractice actions based on our treatment decisions or brought against us or our associates for alleged malpractice or professional liability claims arising out of the delivery of healthcare and related services. In addition, liability may arise from maintaining healthcare premises that serve the public. The defense of any actions may result in significant

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expenses, and if we fail to maintain adequate insurance coverage for these liabilities, or if such insurance is not available, the resulting costs could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, many states in which certain of our subsidiaries operate limit the practice of medicine to licensed individuals or professional organizations comprised of licensed individuals. Business corporations generally may not exercise control over the medical decisions of physicians, and we are not licensed to practice medicine. Rules and regulations relating to the practice of medicine, fee-splitting between physicians and referral sources, and similar issues vary from state to state. Further, certain federal and state laws, including those covering our Medicare and Medicaid plans, prohibit the offer, payment, solicitation, or receipt of any form of remuneration to induce, or in return for, the referral of patient care opportunities, including, but not limited to, Medicare patients, and also generally prohibit physicians from making referrals to any entity providing certain designated health services if the referring physician or related person has an ownership or financial interest in the entity. Any enforcement actions by governmental officials alleging non-compliance with these rules and regulations could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic partnerships and other business combinations involve risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operation.
The following are some of the risks associated with mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic alliances, referred to collectively as business combinations, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations:
some of the business combinations may not achieve anticipated revenues, earnings or cash flow, business opportunities, synergies, growth prospects and other anticipated benefits;
the goodwill or other intangible assets established as a result of our business combinations may be incorrectly valued or become non-recoverable;
we may assume liabilities that were not disclosed to us or which were underestimated;
we may experience difficulties in integrating business combinations, be unable to integrate business combinations successfully or as quickly as expected, and be unable to realize anticipated economic, operational and other benefits in a timely manner, which could result in substantial costs and delays or other operational, technical or financial problems;
business combinations, and proposed business combinations that are not completed, could disrupt our ongoing business, lead to the incurrence of significant fees, distract management, result in the loss of key employees, divert resources, result in tax costs or inefficiencies and make it difficult to maintain our current business standards, controls, information technology systems, policies and procedures;
we may finance future business combinations by issuing common stock for some or all of the purchase price, which could dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders;
we may also incur additional debt related to future business combinations;
we would be competing with other firms, some of which may have greater financial and other resources, to acquire attractive companies;
we may experience disputes with our partners in our strategic alliances and joint ventures, which could result in litigation or a loss of business; and
future business combinations may make it difficult to comply with the requirements of the BCBSA and lead to an increased risk that our BCBSA license agreements may be terminated.
The value of our intangible assets may become impaired.
Due largely to our past mergers and acquisitions, goodwill and other intangible assets represent a substantial portion of our assets. If we make additional acquisitions, it is likely that we will record additional intangible assets on our consolidated balance sheets. The value we place on intangible assets may be adversely impacted if business combinations fail to perform in a manner consistent with our assumptions.

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In accordance with applicable accounting standards, we periodically evaluate our goodwill and other intangible assets to determine whether all or a portion of their carrying values may no longer be recoverable, in which case a charge to income may be necessary. This impairment testing requires us to make assumptions and judgments regarding the estimated fair value of our reporting units, including goodwill and other intangible assets. In addition, certain other intangible assets with indefinite lives, such as trademarks, are also tested separately. Estimated fair values developed based on our assumptions and judgments might be significantly different if other reasonable assumptions and estimates were to be used. If estimated fair values are less than the carrying values of goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives in future impairment tests, or if significant impairment indicators are noted relative to other intangible assets subject to amortization, we may be required to record impairment losses against future income.
Any future evaluations requiring an impairment of our goodwill and other intangible assets could materially affect our results of operations and shareholders’ equity in the period in which the impairment occurs. A material decrease in shareholders’ equity could, in turn, negatively impact our debt ratings or potentially impact our compliance with existing debt covenants.
In addition, the estimated fair value of our reporting units may be impacted as a result of business decisions we make associated with any future changes to laws and regulations. Such decisions, which could unfavorably affect our ability to support the carrying value of certain goodwill and other intangible assets, could result in impairment charges in future periods.
As a holding company, we are dependent on dividends from our subsidiaries. These dividends are necessary to pay our outstanding indebtedness. Our regulated subsidiaries are subject to state regulations, including restrictions on the payment of dividends, maintenance of minimum levels of capital and restrictions on investment portfolios.
We are a holding company whose assets include the outstanding shares of common stock (or other ownership interest) of our subsidiaries including our intermediate holding companies and regulated insurance and HMO subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries are separate legal entities. As a holding company, we depend on dividends and administrative expense reimbursements from our subsidiaries. Furthermore, our subsidiaries are not obligated to make funds available to us, and creditors of our subsidiaries will have a superior claim to certain of our subsidiaries’ assets. Among other restrictions, state insurance and HMO laws may restrict the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends. In some states, we have made special undertakings that may limit the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends. In addition, our subsidiaries’ ability to make any payments to us will also depend on their earnings, the terms of their indebtedness, business and tax considerations and other legal restrictions. Our ability to repurchase shares or pay dividends in the future to our shareholders and meet our obligations, including paying operating expenses and debt service on our outstanding and future indebtedness, will depend upon the receipt of dividends from our subsidiaries. An inability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends in the future in an amount sufficient for us to meet our financial obligations may materially adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Most of our regulated subsidiaries are subject to RBC standards or other forms of minimum capital requirements imposed by their states of domicile, which require our regulated subsidiaries to report their results of risk-based capital calculations to the departments of insurance and the NAIC. Failure to maintain the minimum RBC standards could subject our regulated subsidiaries to corrective action, including state supervision or liquidation. Changes to the existing RBC standards or the adoption of an RBC requirement at the holding company level, which is currently being considered and developed by the NAIC and various states, could further restrict our or our regulated subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends and adversely affect our business. In addition, as discussed in more detail below, we are a party to license agreements with the BCBSA which contain certain requirements and restrictions regarding our operations, including minimum capital and liquidity requirements, which could restrict the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to pay dividends.
Our regulated subsidiaries are subject to state laws and regulations that require diversification of their investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain riskier investment categories, such as below-investment-grade fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans, real estate and equity investments, which could generate higher returns on their investments. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations might cause investments exceeding regulatory limitations to be treated as non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring statutory surplus and risk-based capital, and, in some instances, require the sale of those investments.

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We have substantial indebtedness outstanding and may incur additional indebtedness in the future in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. Such indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to pursue desirable business opportunities and to react to changes in the economy or our industry, and exposes us to interest rate risk to the extent of our variable rate indebtedness.
Our debt service obligations require us to use a portion of our cash flow to pay interest and principal on debt instead of for other corporate purposes, including funding future expansion. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to service our debt obligations, we may be forced to seek extraordinary dividends from our subsidiaries, sell assets, seek additional equity or debt capital or restructure our debt. However, these measures might be unsuccessful or inadequate to meet scheduled debt service obligations, or may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.
We may also incur future debt obligations, in connection with acquisitions or otherwise, that might subject us to restrictive covenants that could affect our financial and operational flexibility. Our breach or failure to comply with any of these covenants could result in a default under our credit facilities or other indebtedness. If we default under our credit agreement, the lenders could cease to make further extensions of credit or cause all of our outstanding debt obligations under our credit agreement to become immediately due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. If the indebtedness under our notes or our credit agreement or our other indebtedness is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or finance the amounts due, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Changes in the method of determining the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect the market for or value of our outstanding debt and the interest rate, return, value and liquidity of certain of our investments.
A portion of our indebtedness bears interest at fluctuating interest rates, primarily based on LIBOR, and our investment portfolio also includes some LIBOR-based, floating rate debt investments. In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, a regulator of financial services firms in the United Kingdom, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. In response to concerns regarding the future of LIBOR, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York convened the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) to identify alternatives to LIBOR. The ARRC has recommended a benchmark replacement waterfall to assist issuers in continued capital market entry while safeguarding against LIBOR’s discontinuation. The initial steps in the ARRC’s recommended provision reference variations of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). At this time, it is not possible to predict whether SOFR will attain market traction as a LIBOR replacement.
We are unable to predict whether LIBOR will cease to exist after calendar year 2021, the effect of any changes, any establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR or any replacement of LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Such changes, reforms or replacements relating to LIBOR could have an adverse impact on the market for or value of any LIBOR-linked securities, loans, derivatives or other financial obligations or extensions of credit entered into by us, as well as the interest rate, return, value, and liquidity of any LIBOR-based securities held in our investment portfolios, and could adversely impact our cost of capital, overall financial condition or results of operations.
A downgrade in our credit ratings could have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Claims-paying ability as well as financial strength ratings and debt ratings by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies and health benefits companies. We believe our strong credit ratings are an important factor in marketing our products to customers, since credit ratings information is broadly disseminated and generally used by customers and creditors. In addition, if our credit ratings are downgraded or placed under review, our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted by limitations on future borrowings and a potential increase in our borrowing costs. Our ratings reflect each rating agency’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our obligations to policyholders and creditors, and are not evaluations directed toward the protection of investors in our common stock. Each of the ratings organizations reviews our ratings periodically, and there can be no assurance that our current ratings will be maintained in the future.

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The health benefits industry is subject to negative publicity, which could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
The health benefits industry is subject to negative publicity, which can arise from, among other things, increases in premium rates, industry consolidation, cost of care initiatives and the ongoing debate over laws and regulations impacting the U.S. healthcare system. Negative publicity may result in increased regulation and legislative review of industry practices, which may further increase our costs of doing business and adversely affect our profitability by limiting our ability to market or provide our products and services, requiring us to change our products and services, or increasing the regulatory oversight under which we operate. In addition, as long as we use the BCBS names and marks in marketing our health benefits products and services, any negative publicity concerning the BCBSA or other BCBSA licensees may adversely affect us and the sale of our health benefits products and services. Negative public perception or publicity of the health benefits industry in general, the BCBSA, other BCBSA licensees, or us or our key vendors in particular, could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
The failure to effectively maintain and upgrade our information systems could adversely affect our business.
Our business depends significantly on effective information systems, and we have many different information systems for our various businesses. As a result of our merger and acquisition activities, we have acquired and expect to acquire additional systems. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain and enhance existing systems and develop new systems in order to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, emerging cybersecurity risks and threats, evolving industry and regulatory standards including public exchanges and other aspects of the ACA, compliance with legal requirements, private insurance exchanges and changing customer preferences. In addition, we may from time to time obtain significant portions of our systems-related or other services or facilities from independent third parties, which may make our operations vulnerable if such third parties fail to perform adequately.
Failure to adequately implement and maintain effective and efficient information systems with sufficiently advanced technological capabilities, or our failure to efficiently and effectively consolidate our information systems to eliminate redundant or obsolete applications, could result in competitive and cost disadvantages to us compared to our competitors, a diversion of management’s time and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If the information we rely upon to run our business were found to be inaccurate or unreliable or if we fail to adequately maintain our information systems and data integrity effectively, we could experience problems in determining medical cost estimates and establishing appropriate pricing and reserves, have disputes with customers and providers, face regulatory problems, including sanctions and penalties, incur increases in operating expenses or suffer other adverse consequences, including a decrease in membership.
We are a party to license agreements with the BCBSA that entitle us to the exclusive and, in certain areas, non-exclusive use of the BCBS names and marks in our geographic territories. The termination of these license agreements or changes in the terms and conditions of these license agreements could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
We use the BCBS names and marks as identifiers for our products and services under licenses from the BCBSA. Our license agreements with the BCBSA contain certain requirements and restrictions regarding our operations and our use of the BCBS names and marks, including: minimum capital and liquidity requirements; enrollment and customer service performance requirements; participation in programs that provide portability of membership between plans; disclosures to the BCBSA relating to enrollment and financial conditions; disclosures as to the structure of the BCBS system in contracts with third parties and in public statements; plan governance requirements; cybersecurity requirements; a requirement that at least 80% (or, in the case of Blue Cross of California, substantially all) of a licensee’s annual combined local net revenue, as defined by the BCBSA, attributable to healthcare plans and related services within its service areas must be sold, marketed, administered or underwritten under the BCBS names and marks; a requirement that at least two-thirds of a licensee’s annual combined national net revenue, as defined by the BCBSA, attributable to healthcare plans and related services must be sold, marketed, administered or underwritten under the BCBS names and marks; a requirement that neither a plan nor any of its licensed affiliates may permit an entity other than a plan or a licensed affiliate to obtain control of the plan or the licensed affiliate or to acquire a substantial portion of its assets related to licensable services; a requirement that we divide our Board of Directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms; a requirement that we guarantee certain contractual and

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financial obligations of our licensed affiliates; and a requirement that we indemnify the BCBSA against any claims asserted against it resulting from the contractual and financial obligations of any subsidiary that serves as a fiscal intermediary providing administrative services for Medicare Parts A and B. Failure to comply with the foregoing requirements could result in a termination of the license agreements.
The license agreements may be modified by the BCBSA. To the extent that such amendments to the license agreements are adopted in the future, they could have a material adverse effect on our future expansion plans or results of operations. Further, BCBS licensees have certain requirements to perform administrative services for members of other BCBS licensees. As of December 31, 2019, we provided services to approximately 30 million Blue Cross and/or Blue Shield enrollees. If we or another BCBS licensee are not in compliance with all legal requirements or are unable to perform administrative services as required, this could have an adverse effect on our members and our ability to maintain our licenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Upon the occurrence of an event causing termination of the license agreements, we would no longer have the right to use the BCBS names and marks or to sell BCBS health insurance products and services in one or more of our service areas. Furthermore, the BCBSA would be free to issue a license to use the BCBS names and marks in these service areas to another entity. Our existing BCBS members would be provided with instructions for obtaining alternative products and services licensed by the BCBSA. Events that could cause the termination of a license agreement with the BCBSA include, without limitation, failure to comply with minimum capital requirements imposed by the BCBSA, failure to comply with governance requirements such as maintaining a classified board structure, a change of control or violation of the BCBSA ownership limitations on our capital stock, impending financial insolvency and the appointment of a trustee or receiver or the commencement of any action against a licensee seeking its dissolution. We believe that the BCBS names and marks are valuable identifiers of our products and services in the marketplace.
Upon termination of a license agreement, the BCBSA would have the right to impose a “Re-establishment Fee” upon us, which would be used in part to fund the establishment of a replacement Blue Cross and/or Blue Shield licensee in the vacated service area. The fee is set at $98.33 per licensed enrollee. If the Re-establishment Fee was applied to our total Blue Cross and/or Blue Shield enrollees of approximately 30 million as of December 31, 2019, we would be assessed approximately $3 billion by the BCBSA. As a result, termination of the license agreements would have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business may be impacted by natural disasters, war, terrorism, political events, global climate change and other occurrences that could create large-scale medical emergencies or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.
Natural disasters, war, terrorism, political events, global climate change and other similar occurrences could create large-scale medical emergencies or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Large-scale medical emergencies can take many forms and can cause widespread illness and death. For example, federal and state law enforcement officials have issued warnings about potential terrorist activity involving biological and other weapons. In addition, natural disasters such as hurricanes and the potential for a widespread pandemic of influenza or other illness and the lack of availability of appropriate preventative medicines can have a significant impact on the health of the population of widespread areas. If the United States were to experience widespread bioterrorism or other attacks, large-scale natural disasters in our concentrated coverage areas or a large-scale pandemic or epidemic, our covered medical expenses could rise, our operations could be interrupted and we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations or, in the event of extreme circumstances, our viability could be threatened. Furthermore, global climate change could result in certain types of natural disasters occurring more frequently or with more intense effects, and may have a long-term effect on general economic conditions and the healthcare or pharmacy industry in particular, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Adverse securities and credit market conditions may significantly affect our ability to meet liquidity needs.
During periods of increased volatility, adverse securities and credit markets may exert downward pressure on the availability of liquidity and credit capacity for certain issuers. We need liquidity to pay our operating expenses, make payments on our indebtedness and pay capital expenditures. The principal sources of our cash receipts are premiums, administrative fees, investment income, revenue received from IngenioRx and DBG, proceeds from the sale or maturity of

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our investment securities, proceeds from borrowings and proceeds from the issuance of common stock under our employee stock plans.
Our access to additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, the volume of trading activities, the availability of credit to our industry, our credit ratings and credit capacity, as well as the possibility that customers or lenders could develop a negative perception of our long- or short-term financial prospects. Similarly, our access to funds may be impaired if regulatory authorities or rating agencies take negative actions against us. If one or a combination of these factors were to occur, our internal sources of liquidity may prove to be insufficient, and in such case, we may not be able to successfully obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all.
The value of our investments is influenced by varying economic and market conditions, and a decrease in value may result in a loss charged to income.
The market values of our investments vary from time to time depending on economic and market conditions. For various reasons, we may sell certain of our investments at prices that are less than the carrying value of the investments. During periods in which interest rates are relatively low, as in recent years, our investment income could be adversely impacted. In addition, in periods of declining interest rates, bond calls and mortgage loan prepayments generally increase, resulting in the reinvestment of these funds at the then lower market rates. In periods of rising interest rates, the market values of our fixed maturity securities will generally decrease, which could result in material losses on investments in future periods. In addition, defaults by issuers, primarily from investments in corporate and municipal bonds, who fail to pay or perform their obligations, could reduce net investment income, which would adversely affect our profitability. We cannot assure you that our investment portfolios will produce positive returns or maintain their present values.
In accordance with FASB guidance for investments, we classify fixed maturity securities in our investment portfolio as “available-for-sale” or “trading” and report those securities at fair value. Current and long-term available-for-sale investment securities represented a significant percentage of our total consolidated assets at December 31, 2019.
Changes in the economic environment, including periods of increased volatility in the securities markets, can increase the difficulty of assessing investment impairment, and the same influences tend to increase the risk of potential impairment of these assets. Over time, the economic and market environment may provide additional insight into the value of our investment securities, which could change our judgment regarding the fair value of certain securities and/or impairment. Given the sometimes rapidly changing market conditions and the significant judgments involved, there is continuing risk that future declines in fair value may occur and material other-than-temporary impairments may be charged to income in future periods, resulting in realized losses.
We face intense competition to attract and retain employees. Further, managing key executive transition, succession and retention is critical to our success.
Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified employees to meet current and future needs, and to integrate and engage employees who have joined us through acquisitions. We face intense competition for qualified employees, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract and retain such employees or that such competition among potential employers will not result in increasing salaries. An inability to retain existing employees or attract additional employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

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We would be adversely affected if we fail to adequately plan for the succession of our President and Chief Executive Officer and other senior management and retention of key executives. While we have succession plans in place for members of our senior management, and employment arrangements with certain key executives, these plans and arrangements do not guarantee that the services of our senior executives will continue to be available to us or that we will be able to attract, transition and retain suitable successors.
We are subject to various risks associated with our international operations.
Certain of our subsidiaries that provide services to some of our health plans operate internationally and are subject to regulation in the jurisdictions in which they are organized or conduct business, which requires us to devote resources to implement controls and systems in new foreign jurisdictions to comply with, and to ensure that our vendors and partners comply with, U.S. and foreign laws and regulations. These regulatory regimes encompass, among other matters, local and cross-border taxation, licensing, tariffs, intellectual property, investment, capital (including minimum solvency margin and reserve requirements), management control, labor, anti-fraud, anti-corruption and privacy and data protection regulations (including requirements for cross-border data transfers), which vary by jurisdiction. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or employees, restrictions or outright prohibitions on the conduct of our business and significant reputational harm.
Changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to realize the value of our deferred tax assets.
Changes in tax laws and regulations, including with respect to corporate tax rates and the deductibility of expenses, or changes in the interpretation of tax laws and regulations by federal and/or state authorities, could have a material impact on the future value of our deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, could result in significant one-time charges in the current or future taxable years and could increase our future U.S. tax expense. These changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.
In accordance with applicable accounting standards, we separately recognize deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities. Such deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities represent the tax effect of temporary differences between financial reporting and tax reporting measured at tax rates enacted at the time the deferred tax asset or liability is recorded. At each financial reporting date, we evaluate our deferred tax assets to determine the likely realization of the benefit of the temporary differences. Our evaluation includes a review of the types of temporary differences that created the deferred tax asset; the amount of taxes paid on both capital gains and ordinary income in prior periods and available for a carry-back claim; the forecasted future taxable income, and therefore, the likely future deduction of the deferred tax item; and any other significant issues that might impact the realization of the deferred tax asset. If it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax asset may not be realized, we establish a valuation allowance. Significant judgment is required in determining an appropriate valuation allowance.
Any future increase in our valuation allowance would result in additional income tax expense and a decrease in shareholders’ equity, which could materially affect our financial position and results of operations in the period in which the increase occurs. A material decrease in shareholders’ equity could, in turn, negatively impact our debt ratings or potentially impact our compliance with existing debt covenants.
Indiana law, other applicable laws, our articles of incorporation and bylaws, and provisions of our BCBSA license agreements may prevent or discourage takeovers and business combinations that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interest.
Indiana law and our articles of incorporation and bylaws may delay, defer, prevent or render more difficult a takeover attempt that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests. For instance, they may prevent our shareholders from receiving the benefit from any premium to the market price of our common stock offered by a bidder in a takeover context. Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock if they are viewed as discouraging takeover attempts in the future.
We are regulated as an insurance holding company and subject to the insurance holding company acts of the states in which our insurance company subsidiaries are domiciled, as well as similar provisions included in the health statutes and regulations of certain states where these subsidiaries are regulated as managed care companies or HMOs. The insurance

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holding company acts and regulations and these similar provisions restrict the ability of any person to obtain control of an insurance company or HMO without prior regulatory approval. Under those statutes and regulations, without such approval or an exemption, no person may acquire any voting security of a domestic insurance company or HMO, or an insurance holding company which controls an insurance company or HMO, or merge with such a holding company, if as a result of such transaction such person would “control” the insurance holding company, insurance company or HMO. “Control” is generally defined as the direct or indirect power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person and is presumed to exist if a person directly or indirectly owns or controls 10% or more of the voting securities of another person. Further, the Indiana Business Corporation Law contains business combination provisions that, in general, prohibit for five years any business combination with a beneficial owner of 10% or more of our common stock unless the holder’s acquisition of the stock was approved in advance by our Board of Directors.
Our articles of incorporation restrict the beneficial ownership of our capital stock in excess of specific ownership limits. The ownership limits restrict beneficial ownership of our voting capital stock to less than 10% for institutional investors and less than 5% for non-institutional investors, both as defined in our articles of incorporation. Additionally, no person may beneficially own shares of our common stock representing a 20% or more ownership interest in us. These restrictions are intended to ensure our compliance with the terms of our licenses with the BCBSA. Our articles of incorporation prohibit ownership of our capital stock beyond these ownership limits without prior approval of a majority of our continuing directors (as defined in our articles of incorporation). In addition, as discussed above in the risk factor describing our license agreements with the BCBSA, such license agreements are subject to termination upon a change of control and a re-establishment fee would be imposed upon termination of the license agreements.
Certain other provisions included in our articles of incorporation and bylaws may also have anti-takeover effects and may delay, defer or prevent a takeover attempt that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests. In particular, our articles of incorporation and bylaws: divide our Board of Directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms (which is required by our license agreement with the BCBSA); permit our Board of Directors to determine the terms of and issue one or more series of preferred stock without further action by shareholders; restrict the maximum number of directors; limit the ability of shareholders to remove directors; impose restrictions on shareholders’ ability to fill vacancies on our Board of Directors; impose advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and nominations of directors to be considered at meetings of shareholders; and prohibit shareholders from amending certain provisions of our bylaws.
We also face other risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, which include:
any requirement to restate financial results in the event of inappropriate application of accounting principles;
a significant failure of our internal control over financial reporting;
failure of our prevention and control systems related to employee compliance with internal policies, including data security;
healthcare benefits fraud by providers, members and/or brokers that is not prevented or detected and impacts our medical costs or those of self-insured customers;
failure to protect our proprietary information; and
failure of our corporate governance policies or procedures.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED SEC STAFF COMMENTS.
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.
We lease our principal executive offices located at 220 Virginia Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana. In addition to this location, we have operating facilities located in each state where we operate as licensees of the BCBSA, in each state where Amerigroup conducts business and in certain other states and countries where our other subsidiaries operate. A majority of these locations are also leased properties. Our facilities support our various business segments. We believe that our properties are adequate and suitable for our business as presently conducted as well as for the foreseeable future.

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
For information regarding our legal proceedings, see Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation and Regulatory Proceedings,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
Not applicable.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Market Information 
Our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “ANTM.”
Holders
As of February 6, 2020, there were 57,967 shareholders of record of our common stock.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this Item concerning securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans is set forth in Part III, Item 12 “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table presents information related to our repurchases of common stock for the periods indicated:
Period
 
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased1 
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of
Publicly
Announced
Programs2 
 
Approximate
Dollar Value
of Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased
Under the
Programs
(In millions, except share and per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
October 1, 2019 to October 31, 2019
 
672,357

 
$
244.58

 
670,000

 
$
3,934

November 1, 2019 to November 30, 2019
 
282,903

 
276.20

 
279,500

 
3,857

December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019
 
222,613

 
290.75

 
222,294

 
3,792

 
 
 
1,177,873

 
 
 
1,171,794

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
Total number of shares purchased includes 6,079 shares delivered to or withheld by us in connection with employee payroll tax withholding upon exercise or vesting of stock awards. Stock grants to employees and directors and stock issued for stock option plans and stock purchase plans in the consolidated statements of shareholders’ equity are shown net of these shares purchased.
2
Represents the number of shares repurchased through the common stock repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors, which the Board evaluates periodically. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we repurchased 6,332,989 shares at a cost of $1,701 under the program, including the cost of options to purchase shares. The Board of Directors has authorized our common stock repurchase program since 2003. The Board’s most recent authorized increase to the program was $5,000 on December 7, 2017. No duration has been placed on our common stock repurchase program, and we reserve the right to discontinue the program at any time.

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Performance Graph
The following Performance Graph and related information compares the cumulative total return to shareholders of our common stock for the period from December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2019, with the cumulative total return over such period of (i) the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (the “S&P 500 Index”) and (ii) the Standard & Poor’s Managed Health Care Index (the “S&P Managed Health Care Index”). The graph assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2014 in each of our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Managed Health Care Index (and the reinvestment of all dividends).
The comparisons shown in the graph below are based on historical data, and we caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not indicative of, and is not intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock. Information used in the graph was obtained from S&P Global Market Intelligence, a source believed to be reliable, but we are not responsible for any errors or omissions in such information. The following graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting materials” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
capturea01.jpg
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
Anthem, Inc.
$
100

 
$
113

 
$
119

 
$
188

 
$
222

 
$
259

S&P 500 Index
100

 
101

 
114

 
138

 
132

 
174

S&P Managed Health Care Index
100

 
122

 
146

 
210

 
232

 
279

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Based upon an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2014 with dividends reinvested.

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
The table below provides selected consolidated financial data of Anthem. The information has been derived from our consolidated financial statements for each of the years in the five-year period ended December 31, 2019. You should read this selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
As of and for the Years Ended December 31
 
 
2019
 
2018 1
 
2017 1
 
2016
 
2015 1
(in millions, except where indicated and except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income Statement Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total operating revenue2
$
103,141

 
$
91,341

 
$
89,061

 
$
84,194

 
$
78,405

Total revenues
104,213

 
92,105

 
90,040

 
84,863

 
79,157

Net income
4,807

 
3,750

 
3,843

 
2,470

 
2,560

Per Share Data

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic net income per share
$
18.81

 
$
14.53

 
$
14.70

 
$
9.39

 
$