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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number: 001-32877

mcbrandmarkrgba01.jpg
Mastercard Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
13-4172551
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification Number)
2000 Purchase Street
Purchase,
NY
10577
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(914) 249-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange of which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
MA
New York Stock Exchange
2.1% Notes due 2027
MA27
New York Stock Exchange
1.0% Notes due 2029MA29A
New York Stock Exchange
2.5% Notes due 2030
MA30
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes
No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
(do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13 (a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes
No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, held by non-affiliates (using the New York Stock Exchange closing price as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $328.8 billion. There is currently no established public trading market for the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of February 8, 2024, there were 925,723,131 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and 7,168,369 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.






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MASTERCARD INCORPORATED FISCAL YEAR 2023 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
PART II
Reserved
PART III
PART IV
MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K 3


In this Report on Form 10-K (“Report”), references to the “Company,” “Mastercard,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business conducted by Mastercard Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries, including our operating subsidiary, Mastercard International Incorporated, and to the Mastercard brand.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Report contains forward-looking statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts may be forward-looking statements. When used in this Report, the words “believe”, “expect”, “could”, “may”, “would”, “will”, “trend” and similar words are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements that relate to the Company’s future prospects, developments and business strategies.
Many factors and uncertainties relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are outside of our control, influence whether any forward-looking statements can or will be achieved. Any one of those factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in writing in any forward-looking statements made by Mastercard or on its behalf, including, but not limited to, the following factors:
regulation related to the payments industry (including regulatory, legislative and litigation activity with respect to interchange rates and surcharging)
the impact of preferential or protective government actions
regulation of privacy, data, AI, information security and the digital economy
regulation that directly or indirectly applies to us based on our participation in the global payments industry (including anti-money laundering, countering the financing of terrorism, economic sanctions and anti-corruption, account-based payments systems, and issuer and acquirer practices regulation)
the impact of changes in tax laws, as well as regulations and interpretations of such laws or challenges to our tax positions
potential or incurred liability and limitations on business related to any litigation or litigation settlements
the impact of competition in the global payments industry (including disintermediation and pricing pressure)
the challenges relating to rapid technological developments and changes
the challenges relating to operating a real-time account-based payments system and to working with new customers and end users
the impact of information security incidents, account data breaches or service disruptions
issues related to our relationships with our stakeholders (including loss of substantial business from significant customers, competitor relationships with our customers, consolidation amongst our customers, merchants’ continued focus on acceptance costs and unique risks from our work with governments)
the impact of global economic, political, financial and societal events and conditions, including adverse currency fluctuations and foreign exchange controls
reputational impact, including impact related to brand perception and lack of visibility of our brands in products and services
the impact of environmental, social and governance matters and related stakeholder reaction
the inability to attract and retain a highly qualified and diverse workforce, or maintain our corporate culture
issues related to acquisition integration, strategic investments and entry into new businesses
exposure to loss or illiquidity due to our role as guarantor as well as other contractual obligations and discretionary actions we may take
issues related to our Class A common stock and corporate governance structure
Please see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for a complete discussion of these risk factors. We caution you that the important factors referenced above may not contain all of the factors that are important to you. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Report or as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update our forward-looking statements.

4 MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K


PART I
Item 1C. Cybersecurity



PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Item 1. Business
Overview
Mastercard is a technology company in the global payments industry. We connect consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital partners, businesses and other organizations worldwide by enabling electronic payments and making those payment transactions safe, simple, smart and accessible. We make payments easier and more efficient by providing a wide range of payment solutions and services using our family of well-known and trusted brands, including Mastercard®, Maestro® and Cirrus®. We operate a multi-rail payments network that provides choice and flexibility for consumers, merchants and our customers. Through our unique and proprietary core global payments network, we switch (authorize, clear and settle) payment transactions. We have additional payments capabilities that include automated clearing house (“ACH”) transactions (both batch and real-time account-based payments). Using these capabilities, we offer payment products and services and capture new payment flows. Our value-added services include, among others, cyber and intelligence solutions designed to allow all parties to transact securely, easily and with confidence, as well as other services that provide proprietary insights, drawing on our principled and responsible use of secure consumer and merchant data. Our investments in new networks, such as open banking solutions and digital identity capabilities, support and strengthen our payments and services solutions. Each of our capabilities support and build upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent. For our core global payments network, our franchise model sets the standards and ground-rules that balance value and risk across all stakeholders and allows for interoperability among them. We employ a multi-layered approach to help protect the global payments ecosystem in which we operate.
For a full discussion of our business, please see page 10.
Our Performance
The following are our key financial and operational highlights for 2023, including growth rates over the prior year:
GAAP
Net revenueNet incomeDiluted EPS
$25.1B$11.2B$11.83
up 13%up 13%up 16%
Non-GAAP 1 (currency-neutral)
Adjusted net revenueAdjusted net incomeAdjusted diluted EPS
$25.1B$11.6B$12.26
up 13%up 12%up 15%
$11.2B
$9.0BRepurchased shares$12.0B
in capital returned
to stockholders
$2.2BDividends paid
cash flows
from operations
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Gross dollar volume
(growth on a local currency basis)
icon_crossbordera05.jpg
Cross-border volume growth (on a local currency basis)
icon_switchedtransactionsa04.jpg
Switched transactions
$9.0Tup 24%143.2B
up 12%up 14%
1Non-GAAP results (including growth rates) exclude the impact of gains and losses on equity investments, Special Items and/or foreign currency. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Results Overview” in Part II, Item 7 for the reconciliation to the most direct comparable GAAP financial measures.
6 MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
The following chart provides gross dollar volume (“GDV”) and number of cards featuring our brands in 2023 for select programs and solutions:
GDVCards
Year Ended December 31, 2023As of December 31, 2023
Mastercard-branded Programs 1, 2
(in billions)Growth (Local)% of Total GDV(in millions)% Increase from December 31, 2022
    Consumer Credit$3,445 12 %38 %1,024 %
    Consumer Debit and Prepaid4,437 12 %49 %1,780 12 %
    Commercial Credit and Debit1,148 13 %13 %140 15 %
1Excludes Maestro and Cirrus cards and volume generated by those cards.
2Prepaid includes both consumer and commercial prepaid.
For a full discussion of our results of operations, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item II, Part 7.
Our Strategy
Our strategy centers on growing our core payments network, diversifying our customers and geographies and building new capabilities through a combination of organic and inorganic strategic initiatives. We are executing on this strategy through a focus on three key priorities:
expand in payments for consumers, businesses and governments
extend our services to enhance transactions and drive customer value
embrace new network opportunities to enable open banking, digital identity and other adjacent network capabilities
Each of our priorities supports and builds upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent.
Our strategyOur key priorities Powering our success
icon_grow.jpg
icon_keypriorities.jpg
icon_people.jpg
icon_brand.jpg
Grow
our core
PeopleBrand
icon_diversify.jpg
icon_data.jpg
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Diversify
into new customers
and geographies
DataTechnology
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icon_doingwell.jpg
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Build
new areas
for the future
FranchiseDoing well by
doing good

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Our Key Strategic Priorities
Expand in payments. We focus on expanding upon our core payments network to enable payment flows for consumers, businesses, governments and others, which provides them with choice and flexibility to transact across multiple payment rails (including cards, real-time payments, account-based transactions, crypto and others), while ensuring that all payments are safe, secure and seamless. We do so by:
Driving growth in consumer payments with a focus on accelerating digitization, growing acceptance and pursuing an expanded set of use cases, including through partnerships
Capturing new payment flows by expanding our multi-rail capabilities and applications to penetrate key flows such as commercial point-of-sale transactions, business-to-business (“B2B”) accounts payable flows, disbursements and remittances and consumer bill payments
Leaning into new payment innovations including acceptance growth accelerators such as Tap on Phone, cloud commerce and contactless, as well as developing solutions that support digital currencies and blockchain applications
Extend our services. Our services drive value for our customers and the broader payments ecosystem. These services include cyber and intelligence solutions, insights and analytics, consulting, marketing, loyalty, processing and payment gateway solutions for e-commerce merchants. As we drive value, our services generate revenue while helping to accelerate our overall financial performance by supporting revenue growth in payments and new network opportunities. We extend our services by:
Enhancing the value of payments by making payments safe, secure, intelligent and seamless
Expanding services to new segments and use cases to address the needs of a larger set of customers, including financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital players and others, while expanding our geographic reach
Supporting and strengthening new network capabilities, including expanding services associated with digital identities and deploying our expertise in open banking and open data
Embrace new network opportunities. We are building and managing new adjacent network capabilities to power commerce and payments, creating new opportunities to develop and embed services. We do so by:
Applying our open banking solutions to help institutions and individuals exchange consumer-permissioned data securely and easily by enabling the reliable access, transmission and management of consumer data (including for opening new accounts, securing loans, increasing credit scores and enabling consumer choice in money movement and personal finance management)
Enabling digital identity solutions to instill trust in the digital world and help ensure that payments across consumers, businesses, devices and virtual entities are efficient, safe and secure
Each of our priorities supports and builds upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent:
Payments provide data and distribution to drive scale and differentiation in services and enable the development and adoption of new network capabilities
Services improve the security, efficiency and intelligence of payments, improve portfolio performance, differentiate our offerings, strengthen our customer relationships and support our open banking and digital identity networks
New network opportunities strengthen our digital payments value proposition, including improved authentication with digital identity, and new opportunities to develop and embed services in our expanding product offerings
Powering Our Success
These priorities are supported by six key drivers:
People. Our success is driven by the skills, experience, integrity and mindset of our people. We attract, develop and retain top talent from diverse backgrounds and industries, in alignment with our strategic priorities. Our winning culture is guided by the Mastercard Way, which outlines the behaviors we expect from employees to deliver for our customers and one another. We foster a working environment grounded in decency, respect, equity and inclusion, where people have opportunities to perform purpose-driven work that impacts communities, customers and co-workers on a global scale.
Brand. Our brands and brand identities serve as a differentiator for our business, representing our values and enabling us to accelerate growth in new areas.
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Data. We create a range of products and services for our customers using our data assets, infrastructure, platforms and expertise while following our data and tech responsibility principles in how we design, implement and deliver those solutions. Our Privacy by Design, Data by Design and Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) Governance processes are designed to ensure we embed multiple layers of privacy, data protection and information security controls in all of our products and services, keeping a clear focus on protecting customers’ and individuals’ data and privacy.
Technology. Our technology provides resiliency, scalability and flexibility in how we serve customers. It enables broader reach to scale digital payment services to multiple channels. Our technology standards, services and governance model help us to serve as the connection that allows financial institutions, financial technology companies (fintechs) and others to interoperate and enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to engage through digital channels.
Franchise. We manage an ecosystem of stakeholders who participate in our global payments network. Our franchise model creates and sustains a comprehensive series of value exchanges across our ecosystem. We provide a balanced ecosystem where all participants benefit from the availability, innovation and safety and security of our network. Our franchise model enables the scale of our network and provides a single governance structure for its operation. This structure has the potential to be extended to new opportunities.
Doing Well by Doing Good. Sustainable impact is fundamental to our business strategy. We leverage our employees, technology, resources, partnerships and expertise to address social, economic and environmental challenges, while at the same time creating markets for future growth and driving long-term value for stockholders. Our environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) priorities are expressed through three pillars - People, Prosperity, Planet - and all of the work we do is grounded in strong governance principles. For more information, please reference our most recently published Environmental, Social and Governance Report and Proxy Statement (each located on our website).

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Our Business
Our Multi-Rail Network and Payments Capabilities
We enable a wide variety of payments capabilities (including products and value-added services and solutions) over our multi-rail network among account holders, merchants, financial institutions, businesses, governments and others, offering our customers one partner for their payment needs.
Payment Network
Our core payment network links issuers and acquirers around the globe to facilitate the switching of transactions, permitting account holders to use our products at over 100 million acceptance locations worldwide. This network facilitates an efficient, safe and secure means for making and receiving payments, a convenient, quick and secure payment method for consumers to access their funds and a channel for businesses to receive insight through information that is derived from our network. We enable transactions for our customers through our core payment network in more than 150 currencies and in more than 210 countries and territories.
Payment Network Transactions. Our core payment network supports what is often referred to as a “four-party” payments network and includes the following participants: account holder (a person or entity who holds a card or uses another device enabled for payment), issuer (the account holder’s financial institution), merchant and acquirer (the merchant’s financial institution).
We do not issue cards, extend credit, determine or receive revenue from interest rates or other fees charged to account holders by issuers, or establish the rates charged by acquirers in connection with merchants’ acceptance of our products. In most cases, account holder relationships belong to, and are managed by, our customers.
The following graphic depicts a typical transaction on our core payment network and our role in that transaction, which includes payments ecosystem security, value-added services and the enablement of digital payments:
gfx_core-op2.jpg
In a typical transaction, an account holder purchases goods or services from a merchant using one of our payment products. After the transaction is authorized by the issuer, the issuer pays the acquirer an amount equal to the value of the transaction, minus the interchange fee (described below) and other applicable fees, and then posts the transaction to the account holder’s account. The acquirer pays the amount of the purchase, net of a discount (referred to as the “merchant discount” rate), to the merchant.
Interchange Fees. Interchange fees reflect the value merchants receive from accepting our products and play a key role in balancing the costs and benefits that consumers and merchants derive. Generally, interchange fees are collected from acquirers and paid to issuers to reimburse the issuers for a portion of the costs incurred. These costs are incurred by issuers in providing services that benefit all participants in the system, including acquirers and merchants, whose participation in the network enables increased sales to their existing and new customers, efficiencies in the delivery of existing and new products, guaranteed payments and improved customer experience. We (or, alternatively, financial institutions) establish “default interchange fees” that apply when there are no other established settlement terms in place between an issuer and an acquirer. We administer the collection and remittance of interchange fees through the settlement process.
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Additional Four-Party System Fees. The merchant discount rate is established by the acquirer to cover its costs of both participating in the four-party system and providing services to merchants. The rate takes into consideration the amount of the interchange fee which the acquirer generally pays to the issuer. Additionally, acquirers may charge merchants processing and related fees in addition to the merchant discount rate. Issuers may also charge account holders fees for the transaction, including, for example, fees for extending revolving credit.
Switched Transactions
Authorization, Clearing and Settlement. Through our core payment network, we enable the routing of a transaction to the issuer for its approval, facilitate the exchange of financial transaction information between issuers and acquirers after a successfully conducted transaction, and settle the transaction by facilitating the exchange of funds between parties via settlement banks chosen by us and our customers.
Cross-Border and Domestic. Our core payment network switches transactions throughout the world when the merchant country and country of issuance are different (“cross-border transactions”), providing account holders with the ability to use, and merchants to accept, our products and services across country borders. We also provide switched transaction services to customers where the merchant country and the country of issuance are the same (“domestic transactions”). We switch over 65% of all transactions for Mastercard and Maestro-branded cards, including nearly all cross-border transactions.
We guarantee the settlement of many of the transactions from issuers to acquirers to ensure the integrity of our core payment network. We refer to the amount of this guarantee as our settlement exposure. We do not, however, guarantee payments to merchants by their acquirers or the availability of unspent prepaid account holder account balances.
Payment Network Architecture. Our core payment network features a globally integrated structure that provides scale for our issuers, enabling them to expand into regional and global markets. It is based largely on a distributed (peer-to-peer) architecture that enables the network to adapt to the needs of each transaction. The network accomplishes this by performing intelligent routing and applying multiple value-added services (such as fraud scoring, tokenization services, etc.) to appropriate transactions in real time. This architecture enables us to connect all parties regardless of where or how the transaction is occurring. It has 24-hour a day availability and world-class response time.
Account-Based Payments Capabilities
We offer ACH batch and real-time account-based payments capabilities, enabling payments for ACH transactions between bank accounts in real-time. Our real-time account-based payments capabilities provide consumers and businesses the ability to make instant (faster) payments while providing enhanced data and messaging capabilities. We build, implement, enhance and operate real-time clearing and settlement infrastructure, payment platforms and direct debit systems for jurisdictions globally. As of December 31, 2023, we either operated or were implementing real-time payments infrastructure in 13 markets. We also use our real-time account-based payments capabilities to enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to send and receive money directly from account to account.
We discuss below under “Our Payment Products and Applications” the ways in which we apply our real-time account-based payments capabilities to capture new payment flows.
Security and Franchise
Payments Ecosystem Security. We employ a multi-layered approach to help protect the global payments ecosystem, including a robust program designed to protect our network from cyber and information security threats. Our network and platforms incorporate multiple layers of protection, providing greater resiliency and security protection. Our programs are assessed by third parties and incorporate benchmarking and other data from peer companies and consultants. We engage in many efforts to mitigate information security challenges, including maintaining an information security program, an enterprise resilience program and insurance coverage, as well as regularly testing our systems to address potential vulnerabilities. We work with experts across the organization (as well as through other sources such as public-private partnerships) to monitor and respond quickly to a range of cyber and physical threats, including threats and incidents associated with the use of services provided by third-party providers.
As another feature of our multi-layered approach, we work with issuers, acquirers, merchants, governments and payments industry associations to develop and put in place technical standards (such as EMV standards for chips and smart payment cards) for safe and secure transactions and we provide solutions and products that are designed to help provide safety and security for the global payments ecosystem. Our approach includes supporting small businesses by sharing best practices and providing access to free utilities and services, benefiting both them and the entire payments ecosystem. We discuss specific cyber and intelligence solutions that we offer to our customers below under “Our Value-Added Services”.

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Our Franchise. We manage an ecosystem of stakeholders that participate in our global payments network, setting standards and rules for all participants and aiming to ensure interoperability among them while balancing risk and value across all stakeholders. Our franchise model achieves this by creating and sustaining a comprehensive series of value exchanges across our ecosystem. Through our franchise model, we work to ensure a balanced ecosystem where all participants may benefit from the availability, innovation, safety and security of our network. We achieve this goal through the following key activities:
Participant Onboarding. We determine that each new customer meets the necessary prerequisites to use and contribute to our network by defining clear ecosystem roles and responsibilities for their operations
Operating Standards. We define the technical, operational and financial standards that all network participants are required to uphold
Safety and Security. We establish central principles, including safeguarding consumer protections and integrity, so participants feel confident to transact on the network
Responsible Stewardship. We set performance standards to support ecosystem optimization and growth and use proactive monitoring to both ensure participant adherence to operating standards and protect the integrity of the ecosystem
Issue Resolution. We operate a framework to address disputes between our network participants
Our Payment Products and Applications
We provide a wide variety of products and services that support payment products that customers can offer to consumers and merchants. These offerings facilitate transactions across our multi-rail payments network and platforms among account holders, merchants, financial institutions, digital partners, businesses, governments and other organizations in markets globally.
Core Payment Products.jpgConsumer Payment Products
Consumer Credit. We offer products that enable issuers to provide consumers with credit, allowing them to defer payment. These programs are designed to meet the needs of our customers around the world and address standard, premium and affluent consumer segments.
How We Benefit Consumers
We enable our customers to benefit consumers by:
making electronic payments more convenient, secure and efficient
delivering better, seamless consumer experiences
providing consumers choice, empowering them to make and receive payments in the ways that best meet their daily needs
protecting consumers and all other participants in a transaction, as well as consumer data
providing loyalty rewards and benefits
Consumer Debit. We support a range of payment products and solutions that allow our customers to provide consumers with convenient access to funds in deposit and other accounts. Our debit and deposit access programs can be used to make purchases and to obtain cash from bank branches, at ATMs and, in some cases, at the point of sale. Our branded debit programs consist of Mastercard (including standard, premium and affluent offerings), Maestro (our PIN-based solution that operates globally) and Cirrus (our primary global cash access solution).
Prepaid. Prepaid accounts are a type of electronic payment that enables consumers to pay from pre-funded accounts whether or not they previously had a bank account or a credit history. These accounts can be tailored to meet specific program, customer or consumer needs, such as paying bills, sending person-to-person payments or withdrawing cash from an ATM. Our focus ranges from digital accounts (such as fintech and gig economy platforms) to business programs such as employee payroll, health savings accounts and solutions for small business owners. Our prepaid programs also offer opportunities in the private and public sectors to drive financial inclusion of previously unbanked individuals through social security payments, unemployment benefits and salary cards.
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New Payment Flows.jpgNew Payment Flows
We offer platforms, products and applications that apply our multi-rail payment capabilities to capture new payment flows, enabling us to serve the needs of a significant addressable market.
Commercial Point of Sale. We offer commercial credit, debit and prepaid payment products and solutions that meet the payment needs of large corporations, midsize companies, small businesses and government entities. Our solutions streamline procurement and payment processes, manage information and expenses (such as travel and entertainment) and reduce administrative costs. Our point-of-sale offerings include:
Small business cards (credit, debit and prepaid) tailored to small and medium businesses.
Commercial travel and entertainment, procurement and fleet cards, consisting mostly of credit cards and associated platforms for corporations to manage travel and expense, procurement and fleet expenses. Our Mastercard Smart Data™ platform provides expense management and reporting capabilities.
B2B Accounts Payable. We offer solutions that enable businesses or governments to make payments to businesses with whom they have a trusted relationship for goods and services. Our solutions include Virtual Card Number (VCN), which is generated dynamically from a physical card and leverages the credit limit of the funding account. Our VCN solution may include the use of Mastercard InControl™, our virtual card platform that allows buyers to pay suppliers using a one-time use card number that can be set with transaction level controls, providing unmatched configurability and flexibility.

Additionally, we offer a platform to optimize supplier payment enablement campaigns for financial institutions, as well as our treasury intelligence platform that provides corporations with recommendations to improve working capital performance and accelerate spend on cards.
Key 2023 Developments
In 2023, we launched Mastercard Receivables Manager, a solution aimed at streamlining how suppliers receive virtual card payments by automating the integration of reconciliation data into suppliers’ accounts receivables systems.

In 2023, our Disbursements and Remittances capabilities have the ability to reach more than 95% of the world’s banked population.

Disbursements and Remittances. We offer applications that enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to send and receive money domestically and across borders with greater speed and ease, with a payout reach of approximately 10 billion endpoints globally across multiple channels, and in more than 180 markets and 150 currencies.
Using Mastercard Send™, we partner with digital messaging and payment platforms to enable consumers to send money directly within applications to other consumers. We partner with central banks, fintechs and financial institutions to help governments and nonprofits more efficiently enable, as applicable, distribution of social and economic assistance and business-to-consumer (“B2C”) disbursements across various use cases (such as wallet funding, cash payouts, gig worker payouts and insurance claims).
Mastercard Cross-Border Services enables a wide range of payment flows and use cases to customers (including trade payments, remittances and disbursements). These flows are enabled via a distribution network with a single point of access that allows financial institutions, fintechs and digital partners to send and receive money globally through multiple channels, including bank accounts, mobile wallets, cards and cash payouts.
Consumer Bill Payments. Our solutions enable consumers and small businesses to pay their billers in a seamless and secure way. Leveraging our merchant acceptance network (which includes many billers), we offer consumers the choice of paying their bills in a convenient and secure manner using credit, debit or prepaid. We also offer the choice of account-based payments methods. As a result, these solutions provide an experience that offers flexibility and benefits consumers, financial institutions and billers.

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Innovation and Technology.jpgPayments Innovation
Our innovation capabilities and our technology provide resiliency, scalability and flexibility in how we serve customers and in turn help them benefit consumers. They enable broader reach to scale digital payment services across multiple channels. Our technology standards, services and governance model help us to serve as the connection that allows financial institutions, fintechs and technology companies to interoperate and enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to engage through digital channels.
Key 2023 Developments
In 2023, we marked the tenth anniversary of Mastercard introducing token standards to the payments industry, and we reached the milestone of three billion tokens in one month.
In 2023, we launched our Multi Token Network, a set of foundational capabilities designed to make transactions within digital asset and blockchain ecosystems secure, scalable and interoperable.
Delivering better digital experiences everywhere. We use our technologies and security protocols to develop solutions to make digital shopping and selling experiences, such as on smartphones and other connected devices, simpler, faster and safer for both consumers and merchants. We also offer products that make it easier for merchants to accept payments and expand their customer base.
Our contactless payment solutions help deliver a simple and intuitive way to pay
Our Mastercard Digital First™ program enables customers to offer their cardholders a fully digital payment experience with an optional physical card, meeting cardholder expectations of immediacy, safety and convenience during card application, authentication and instant card access, securing purchases (whether contactless, in-store, in-app or via the web) and managing alerts, controls and benefits
Our Click to Pay checkout experience is designed to provide consumers the same convenience and security in a digital environment that they have when paying in a store, make it easier for merchants to implement secure digital payments and provide issuers with improved fraud detection and prevention capabilities. This experience is based on the EMV Secure Remote Commerce industry standard that enables a faster, more secure checkout experience across web and mobile sites, mobile apps and connected devices
Our Tap on Phone acceptance technology enables businesses of all sizes to accept payments from any contactless card or mobile wallet directly from their NFC-enabled device, providing a turnkey and cost-effective solution without any additional hardware required
Securing more transactions. We leverage tokenization, biometrics and machine learning technologies in our push to secure every transaction. These efforts include driving EMV-level security and benefits through all our payment channels.
Creating solutions to support blockchain-based digital currencies. Through a principled approach (including applying prudent risk management practices and maintaining continuous monitoring of our partners that are active in the digital asset market), Mastercard is focused on supporting digital currencies by:
Providing identity, cyber and consulting services for market participants (including our identity and biometric solutions, cybersecurity solutions, crypto analytics, transaction monitoring and anti-money laundering detection capabilities) as well as engaging with central banks as they design and develop central bank digital currencies
Helping consumers safely and easily purchase cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”) as well as enabling consumers to spend their converted crypto holdings on Mastercard card offerings and cash out their crypto wallets using Mastercard Send
Simplifying access to, and integration of, our digital assets. Our Mastercard Developer platform makes it easy for customers and partners to leverage our many digital assets and services. By providing a single access point with tools and capabilities to find APIs across a broad range of Mastercard services, we enable easy integration of our services into new and existing solutions.
Identifying and experimenting with future technologies, start-ups and trends. Through Mastercard Foundry, we continue to provide customers and partners access to thought leadership, innovation methodologies, new technologies and relevant early-stage fintech players.
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Our Value-Added Services
Our services encompass a wide-ranging portfolio of value-added and differentiating capabilities that:
instill trust in the ecosystem to allow parties to transact and operate with confidence
provide actionable insights to our customers to assist in their decision making
enable our customers to strengthen their engagement with their own end users
enable connectivity and access for a fragmented and diverse set of parties
Cyber and Intelligence Solutions.jpgCyber and Intelligence Solutions
As part of the security we bring to the payments ecosystem, we offer products and services designed to prevent, detect and respond to fraud and cyber-attacks and to ensure the safety of transactions made using Mastercard and non-Mastercard products. We do this using a multi-layered safety and security strategy:
The “Prevent” layer is designed to protect against attacks on infrastructure, devices and data. We have continued to grow global usage of EMV chip and contactless security technology, helping to reduce fraud. Our solutions include Mastercard SafetyNet™, which protects financial institutions by helping to stop real-time attacks that are visible in the network, but not easily detected by financial institutions.
Key 2023 Developments
In 2023, we launched our Consumer Fraud Risk solution, which leverages our AI capabilities and the unique network view of real-time payments to help banks predict and prevent payment scams.
In 2023, Mastercard SafetyNet prevented more than $20 billion in fraud globally.
In 2023, we acquired an AI-enabled, cloud-based solution designed to help stop cyber-attacks related to malware, ransomware and DDOS attacks.
The “Identify” layer allows us to help banks and merchants verify the authenticity of consumers during the payment process using various biometric technologies, including fingerprint, face and iris scanning, and behavioral user data assessment technology to verify online purchases on mobile devices, as well as a card with biometric technology built in.
The “Detect” layer is designed to both spot and take action to stop fraudulent behavior and cyber-attacks once detected. Our offerings include alerts when accounts are exposed to data breaches or security incidents, fraud scoring technology that scans billions of dollars of money flows each day while increasing approvals and reducing false declines, and network-level monitoring on a global scale to help detect the occurrence of widespread fraud attacks when the customer (or their processor) may be unable to detect or defend against them.
The “Experience” layer is designed to improve the security experience for our stakeholders in areas from the speed of transactions (enhancing approvals for online and card-on-file payments) to the ability to differentiate legitimate consumers from fraudulent ones. Our offerings include solutions for consumer alerts and controls and a suite of digital token services. We also offer an e-commerce fraud and dispute management network that enables merchants to stop delivery when a fraudulent or disputed transaction is identified, and issuers to refund the cardholder to avoid the chargeback process.
The “Network” layer extends the services we provide to transactions in the payments ecosystem and across all of our rails, including decision intelligence and tokenization capabilities, to help secure our customers and transactions on a real-time basis.
Moreover, we use our AI and data analytics, along with our cyber risk assessment capabilities, to help enable financial institutions, merchants, corporations and governments to secure their digital assets across each of these five layers.
We have also worked with our customers to provide products to consumers globally with increased confidence through the benefit of “zero liability”, where the consumer bears no responsibility for counterfeit or lost card losses in the event of fraud.

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Insights, Analytics amd Test and Learn 3.jpgData and Services Solutions
Insights, Analytics amd Test and Learn 2.jpgInsights, Analytics amd Test and Learn 1.jpg Insights and Analytics. Our capabilities incorporate payments expertise and analytical and executional skills to create end-to-end solutions which are increasingly delivered via platforms embedded in our customers’ day-to-day operations. We offer business intelligence to monitor key performance indicators (“KPIs”) and benchmark performance through self-service digital platforms, tools, and reports for financial institutions, merchants and others. We enable customers to better understand consumer behavior and improve segmentation and targeting by using our anonymized and aggregated data assets, third-party data and AI technologies. We also help our customers accurately measure the impact of their decisions and improve them by leveraging data analytics to conduct disciplined business experiments for in-market tests to drive more profitable decision making.
Key 2023 Developments
In 2023, we built upon our acquisition of Dynamic Yield™ by launching Element. This solution is designed to combine insights from our data analytics with Dynamic Yield’s personalization experience to provide more insight-driven, customized product recommendations, offers and content to consumers.
Consulting and Innovation 2.jpgConsulting and Innovation 1.jpg Consulting and Innovation. We provide advisory services that help customers make better decisions and improve performance. By observing patterns of payments behavior based on billions of transactions switched globally, we are able to leverage anonymized and aggregated information to provide advice based on data. We also utilize our expertise, digital technology, innovation tools, methodologies and processes to collaborate with, and increasingly drive innovation at, financial institutions, merchants and governments. Through our global innovation and development arm, Mastercard Foundry, we offer customized innovation programs and concept design. We continue to innovate and expand our offerings to help businesses evolve and expand their growth enterprise-wide. Our services include consulting and innovation offerings dedicated to open banking, open data, crypto and digital currencies and ESG matters.
Managed Services.jpg Marketing Services. We deliver marketing services, digital implementation and program management with performance-based solutions at every stage of the consumer lifecycle to assist our customers in implementing actions based on insights and driving adoption and usage. These services include developing messaging, targeting key groups, launching campaigns and training staff, all of which help our customers drive engagement and portfolio profitability.
Issuer and Merchant Loyalty 2.jpgIssuer and Merchant Loyalty 1.jpg Issuer and Merchant Loyalty. We have built a scalable rewards platform that enables issuers to provide consumers with a variety of benefits and services, such as personalized offers and rewards, access to a global airport lounge network, concierge services, insurance services, emergency card replacement, emergency cash advances and a 24-hour account holder service center. For merchants, we provide campaigns with targeted offers and rewards, management services for publishing offers, and accelerated points programs for co-brand and rewards program members. We also provide a loyalty platform that enables stronger relationships with retailers, restaurants, airlines and consumer packaged goods companies by creating experiences that drive loyalty and impactful consumer engagement.
Processing and Gateway.jpg Processing and Gateway
We extend our processing capabilities in the payments value chain in various regions with an expanded suite of offerings, including:
Issuer solutions designed to provide customers with a complete processing solution to help them create differentiated products and services and allow quick deployment of payments portfolios across banking channels
Payment gateways that offer a single interface to provide e-commerce merchants with the ability to process secure online and in-app payments and offer value-added solutions, including outsourced electronic payments, fraud prevention and alternative payment options
Mobile gateways that facilitate transaction routing and processing for mobile-initiated transactions
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Our New Network Capabilities
Open Banking.jpgOpen Banking
We offer an open banking platform that enables data providers and third parties, on a permissioned basis, to reliably access, securely transmit and confidently manage consumer and small business data to improve the customer experience. Our platform enables individuals to have choice of financial services, providing them the ability to access, control and benefit from the use of their data, as well as an improved payment experience. Our platform is also used to serve the needs of the lending market, including through streamlining loan application processes and improving credit decisioning, thereby driving further financial inclusion. The network connections that underpin this platform leverage our data responsibility principles (including data usage guardrails, consumer protection and consent management), as well as API technology.
Key 2023 Developments
In 2023, we partnered with leading financial institutions to launch a previously-announced ACH payment solution that uses our open banking capabilities to enable seamless and secure consumer bill payments.
In 2023, our open banking capabilities provided connectivity to over 95% of deposit accounts in the U.S. and approximately 3,000 banks across Europe (directly as well as through partners).
Digital Identity.jpgDigital Identity
We enable digital identity solutions, which provide seamless digital experiences and strengthen and secure digital payments across individuals, devices and accounts. Our digital identity capabilities focus on the identity of people, devices and transactions. They embody Privacy by Design principles and are consent-centric. Our solutions include device intelligence and behavioral biometrics (to determine whether the user is genuine or a fraudulent device), document proofing, IP intelligence, biometrics, transaction fraud data (from which we derive insights that can be used to significantly improve the global approval rate of transactions), location, identity attributes and payment authorization.


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Our People
As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 33,400 persons globally. Our employee base is predominantly full-time and approximately 67% were employed outside of the U.S. in more than 80 countries. We also had approximately 4,600 contractors which we used to supplement our employee base in order to meet specific needs. Our voluntary workforce turnover (rolling 12-month attrition) was approximately 5% as of December 31, 2023. The total cost of our workforce for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $6.0 billion, which primarily consists of compensation, benefits and other personnel- and contractor-related costs.
Management reviews our people strategy and culture, as well as related risks, with our Human Resources and Compensation Committee on a quarterly basis, and annually with our Board of Directors. Additionally, our Board and Board committees are tasked with overseeing other human capital management matters on a regular basis, such as ensuring processes are in place for maintaining an ethical corporate culture, overseeing key diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”) initiatives, policies and practices, and monitoring governance trends in areas such as human rights. Our ability to attract, develop and retain top talent and build a healthy culture is critical to our business strategy.
Specifically, to enable our business strategy effectively, our aim is to:
attract and retain talent with the key skills needed to achieve short-term and long-term goals
develop a high-performing, agile workforce that can collaborate and compete in a fast-paced, innovative environment
build on our DEI efforts to enable equal opportunities and empower people
Attract talent.
We continuously recruit talent by leveraging the strength of our brand and utilizing a variety of sources, channels, and initiatives in order to support our growth across sectors, markets and emerging industries
Our acquisition activity has also provided a strong source of talent with differentiated skills
Develop and retain talent. We develop and retain our employees, ensuring we stay competitive and respond to both changing market dynamics and our employees’ needs while supporting a culture of innovation grounded in decency. Our efforts include:
An annual cycle that aligns with our “Mastercard Way” and focuses on objective setting, performance assessment, talent evaluation, skill development, opportunities and career progression
Succession planning for key roles, including talent and leadership programs across various levels. These programs embed our culture principles, include diverse populations, aim to develop talent and managerial skills through personalized coaching and group executive development and leverage mentorship programs and other learning opportunities
The Mastercard Way
The Mastercard Way is the statement of our culture. It consists of three principles:
Create value
Grow together
Move fast
These principles address where we are going as an organization, how we work together and how we deliver for our customers and each other.
A competitive compensation approach (subject to periodic reviews) under which eligible employees across multiple job levels can receive long-term incentive equity awards
Contributions to employees’ financial well-being as they plan for retirement. All employees globally are entitled to receive a matching Mastercard contribution of $1.67 for every $1 contributed to a 401(k) or other retirement plan on the first 6% of base pay
Continued expansion and prioritization of well-being offerings for employees, including access to mental, physical and financial health resources, additional paid time off for dependent care, and support for family planning
Flexibility policies and programs to support employees, including a four-week ”work from anywhere” policy, meeting-free days and a hybrid work approach guided by team-based agreements for when teams come together
Supporting of employee charitable donations with matching Mastercard gifts and making a donation for every hour volunteered, as well as providing five paid days per year for full-time employees for eligible volunteer work
Experience surveys that we periodically run to assess our overall employee engagement areas (with occasional focus on more targeted topics) and prioritize how we address emerging opportunity areas
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A culture of high ethical business practices and compliance standards, grounded in honesty, decency, trust and personal accountability. It is driven by “tone at the top,” reinforced with regular training, fostered in a speak-up environment, and measured by our periodic employee surveys and other metrics that enable our Board to maintain a pulse on areas of strength and opportunities for improvement
Diversity, equity and inclusion underpin everything we do, helping us build a healthy culture, attract talent and drive long-term value for stockholders:
We have developed regional and functional action plans to identify priorities and actions that will help us make more progress for DEI, including appropriate balance and inclusion in gender and racial representation
We remain committed to our “In Solidarity” initiative through alignment of our DEI plans globally to address local needs and opportunities, for example through the introduction of new training programs such as our neurodiversity hiring initiative and new partnerships with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the U.S.
Workforce Demographics
39% of our global workforce are women
44% of our U.S. workforce are people of color 1
Female employees earned $1.00 for every $1.00 men earned during 2023
In the U.S., employees of color earned $1.00 for every $1.00 white employees earned during 2023 1
The median pay for female employees was 96.4% compared to male employees during 2023 2
We remain dedicated to practices designed to ensure there is equal pay for equal work. We have established a framework for examining pay practices annually, supported by third-party analysis and benchmarked to the external market. We assess compensation decisions for potential pay disparities by gender (including base, bonus and long-term incentives), among other categories, and appropriately respond to any disparities that are found
Our employee incentive compensation plan features an ESG modifier for all employees that includes quantitative goals for a number of ESG items, including gender pay parity.
We expect to provide more detailed information in 2024 regarding our employees, including additional workforce demographics, in our annual Environmental, Social and Governance Report and Proxy Statement, both of which will be located on our website.
1People of Color are defined as Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian, American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, or two or more races. Ethnicity data does not include undeclared.
2The gender pay gap is predominantly due to the fact that we have more men in senior roles, not because men are paid more.
Brand
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Our family of well-known brands includes Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus. We manage and promote our brands and brand identities through advertising, promotions and sponsorships, as well as digital, mobile and social media initiatives, in order to increase people’s preference for our brands and usage of our products.  We sponsor a variety of sporting, entertainment and charity-related marketing properties to align with consumer segments important to us and our customers. Our advertising plays an important role in building brand visibility, preference and overall usage among account holders globally.  Our “Priceless®” advertising campaign, which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2022 and has run in more than 50 languages and in more than 120 countries worldwide, promotes Mastercard usage benefits and acceptance, markets Mastercard payment products and solutions and provides Mastercard with a consistent, recognizable message that supports our brand around the globe. 

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Data
We create a range of products and services for our customers (including the majority of our value-added services) that use our data assets, infrastructure, expertise and platforms. These products and services are designed to help reduce fraud, increase security, provide actionable insights to our customers to assist in their decision-making and enable our customers to increase their engagement with consumers. We do all this while following our data and tech responsibility principles in how we design, implement and deliver those solutions. Our Privacy by Design, Data by Design and AI Governance processes are designed to ensure we embed multiple layers of privacy, data protection and information security controls in all of our products and services, keeping a clear focus on protecting customers’ and individuals’ data. We seek to do this in a number of ways:
Practicing data minimization. We practice collecting and retaining only the personal information that is needed for a given product or service, and limiting the amount and type of personal information shared with third parties
Being transparent and providing control. We explain how we use personal information and AI and give individuals access and control over how their data is used and shared
Working with trusted partners. Our processes are designed to ensure we select partners and service providers who share our principled-approach to protecting data and using AI
Addressing bias in our data and AI. We have implemented governance and processes to help test and mitigate for bias when we use advanced analytics, including AI and Machine Learning, to create fair and inclusive solutions that reflect individual, group and societal interests
Advancing positive social impact. Where possible, we utilize our data sets and analytics capabilities to create innovative solutions to societal challenges, promoting inclusive financial, social, climate, health and education growth
Technology
We leverage our technology to help enable payments, services and new networks, enhance our operational strength and enable our employees to deliver effectively for our customers. Our strategy to “lead through technology” includes the following key areas:
Offering our products to customers around the world:
Standardizing and simplifying how we connect with customers to provide them with the tools to manage and expand their Mastercard relationship
Deploying our cloud-native technology infrastructure to adapt to evolving market conditions and further enhance speed, resiliency and scalability
Enabling our full range of products and services:
Enhancing payment rails and expanding them across payments and services, including providing seamless customer adoption across new services and enhancing connectivity to new networks
Further evolving our data infrastructure to unlock incremental value and ensure ongoing compliance with evolving data laws and regulations
Empowering our employees:
Improving the speed in which we deliver for our customers through a combination of tools and customer-centric practices
Attracting, developing and retaining top technology talent, as well as strengthening our employees’ technology acumen
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Revenue Sources
Mastercard is a payments network service provider that generates revenue from a wide range of payment solutions we provide to our customers. We classify our net revenues, which includes the impact of rebates and incentives, from contracts with customers into two categories: (i) payment network and (ii) value-added services and solutions.
Within our payment network, revenue is primarily generated from charging fees to our customers based on GDV (which includes both domestic and cross-border volume) on the cards that carry our brands and for providing switching and other network-related services.
Within our value-added services and solutions, we generate revenue primarily related to the following:
Cyber and intelligence solutions
Data and services solutions
ACH batch and real-time account-based domestic and cross-border payments and solutions
Processing and gateway
Open banking solutions
Digital identity solutions
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Revenue” in Part II, Item 7 and Note 3, Revenue for more detail about our revenue.
Intellectual Property
We own a number of valuable trademarks that are essential to our business, including Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus, through one or more affiliates. We also own numerous other trademarks covering various brands, programs and services offered by us to support our payment programs. Trademark and service mark registrations are generally valid indefinitely as long as they are used and/or properly maintained. Through license agreements with our customers, we authorize the use of our trademarks on a royalty-free basis in connection with our customers’ issuing and merchant acquiring businesses. In addition, we own a number of patents and patent applications relating to payment solutions, transaction processing, smart cards, contactless, mobile, biometrics, AI, security systems, blockchain and other technologies, which are important to our business operations. These patents expire at varying times depending on the jurisdiction and filing date.
Competition
We face a number of competitors both within and outside of the global payments industry. We compete in all categories of payments (including paper-based payments and all forms of electronic payments) as well as in all categories in which we provide value-added services and solutions:
General Purpose Payments Networks. We compete worldwide with payments networks such as Visa, American Express, JCB, China UnionPay and Discover, among others. These competitors tend to offer a range of card-based payment products. Some competitors have more market share than we do in certain jurisdictions. Some also have different business models that may provide an advantage in pricing, regulatory compliance burdens or otherwise. Globally, financial institutions may issue both Mastercard- and Visa-branded payment products, and we compete with Visa for business on the basis of individual portfolios or programs. In addition, a number of our customers issue American Express-, China UnionPay- and/or Discover-branded payment cards in a manner consistent with a four-party system. We continue to face intense competitive pressure on the prices we charge our issuers and acquirers, and we seek to enter into business agreements with them through which we offer incentives and other support to issue and promote our payment products.
Debit and Local Networks. We compete with ATM and point-of-sale debit networks. In various countries, local debit brands serve as the main domestic brands, while our brands are used mostly to enable cross-border transactions (typically representing a small portion of overall transaction volume). In addition, several governments are promoting, or considering promoting, local networks for domestic switching. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for a more detailed discussion of the risks related to payments system regulation and government actions that may prevent us from competing effectively.
Real-time Account-based Payments Systems. We face competition in the ACH and real-time account-based payments space from providers of infrastructure, applications and services. As these real-time account-based propositions mature, we face a possible increase in competition for our existing domestic person-to-merchant (“P2M”) and person-to-person (“P2P”) transaction market share. Similarly, as interlinking of these infrastructures is further explored, they could disrupt our existing cross-border

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P2M and P2P market share. Also, several industry initiatives are experimenting with the concept of account-based global schemes, which could lead to a disruption of the clearing and settlement options utilized in various currencies.
Digital Wallets and other Fintechs. As the global payments industry becomes more complex, we face increasing competition from fintechs and other emerging payments providers, both for customers and data. Many of these providers, who in many circumstances can also be our partners or customers, have developed payments systems focused on online activity in e-commerce and mobile channels (in some cases, expanding to other channels), and may process payments using in-house account transfers, real-time account-based payments networks or global or local networks, in addition to card. Examples include digital wallet providers, point-of-sale financing/buy-now-pay-later providers, mobile operator services, mobile phone-based money transfer and microfinancing services, handset manufacturers, B2B accounts payable and accounts receivable providers.
Government-Backed Networks. Governments have been increasingly creating and expanding local payments structures (such as the Brazilian Instant Payment System-PIX, FedNow in the U.S. and United Payments Interface (UPI) in India), which are increasingly being considered as alternatives to traditional domestic payment solutions and schemes such as ours. In particular, India has recently engaged in a series of efforts to expand the interoperability and cross-border reach of UPI globally. Most recently, it announced an agreement in 2023 to partner with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to enable Indian travelers within the UAE to pay with UPI. In addition to local and regional networks, national governments continue to explore the use of central bank digital currencies (“CBDCs”).
Digital Currencies. Stablecoins and floating cryptocurrencies may become more popular as they become more regulated and increasingly viewed as providing immediacy, 24/7 accessibility, immutability and efficiency. Some players, including payment service providers and payment facilitators, have started to enable merchant acceptance of such currencies in P2M, while some banks have started experimenting with blockchain B2B payments. Digital currencies and emerging players (such as crypto natives) have the ability to disrupt traditional financial markets. The increased prominence of digital currencies creates an opportunity for us but could equally compete with our products and services.
Value-Added Service Providers and New Network Capabilities Players. We face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our value-added services and solutions. These companies include information services and consulting firms that provide consulting services and insights to financial institutions, merchants and governments, technology companies that provide cyber and fraud solutions (including AI-based solutions), and companies that compete against us as providers of loyalty and program management solutions. We also face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our open banking and digital identity solutions. Regulatory initiatives could also lead to increased competition in this space.
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We play a valuable role as a trusted intermediary in a complex system, creating value for individual stakeholders and the payments ecosystem overall. Our competitive advantages include:
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Global network
Highly adaptable and world class global payments network built over more than 50 years that can reach a variety of parties to enable payments anywhere
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Franchise model
Establishing rules, standards and bearing of financial risk (including our settlement guarantee backed by our strong credit standing) that allows for interoperability among all participants
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Multi-railMultiple payment and new network capabilities based on our innovation and technology that enable choice
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BrandGlobally recognized and trusted brands
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Data
Products and services leveraging our data assets, infrastructure, platforms and expertise that incorporate our data and tech responsibility principles and reflect our Privacy by Design, Data by Design and AI Governance processes. These include our safety and security solutions, analytics insights, consulting and marketing services and loyalty solutions
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Talent and culture
World class talent and culture guided by the Mastercard Way, with a focus on diversity, equity and inclusion and “doing well by doing good”
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TechnologyLeading-edge technology that advances the quality, speed and diversity of our offerings and solutions
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Government engagementAbility to serve a broad array of participants in global payments due to our expanded on-soil presence in individual markets and a heightened focus on working with governments
Collectively, the capabilities that we have created organically, and those that we have obtained through acquisitions, support and build upon each other to enhance the total proposition we offer our customers. They enable us to partner with many participants in the broader payments ecosystem and provide choice, security and services to improve the value we provide to our customers.

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Government Regulation
As a technology company operating in the global payments industry, we are subject to government regulation that impacts key aspects of our business. In particular, we are subject to the laws and regulations that affect the payments industry in the many countries in which our products and services are used. We are committed to complying with all applicable laws and regulations and implementing policies, procedures and programs designed to promote compliance. We monitor and coordinate globally while acting locally and establish relationships to assess and manage the effects of regulation on us. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for more detail and examples of the regulation to which we are subject.
Payments Oversight and Regulation. Central banks and other regulators around the world either have, or are seeking to establish, formal oversight over participants in the payments industry, as well as authority to regulate certain aspects of the payments systems in their countries. Such authority has resulted in regulation of Mastercard as financial market infrastructure, as well as regulation related to various aspects of our business (including areas such as consumer protections and cybersecurity). In the European Union (the “EU”), Mastercard is subject to systemic importance regulation, which includes various requirements we must meet, including obligations related to governance and risk management. In the U.K., the Bank of England designated Vocalink™, our real-time account-based payments network platform, as a “specified service provider”, and Mastercard as a “recognized payment system”, which includes supervisions and examination requirements. In addition, EU legislation requires us to separate our scheme activities (brand, products, franchise and licensing) from our switching activities and other processing in terms of how we go to market, make decisions and organize our structure. Examples of other markets where Mastercard is formally overseen include Australia, Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa. Additionally, certain of our subsidiaries are also regulated as payments institutions, including as money transmitters. This regulation subjects us to licensing obligations, regulatory supervision and examinations, as well as various business conduct and risk management requirements.
Interchange Fees. Interchange fees that support the function and value of four-party payments systems like ours are being reviewed or challenged around the world via legislation to regulate interchange fees, competition-related regulatory proceedings, central bank regulation and litigation. Examples include statutes in the U.S. that cap debit interchange for certain regulated activities, proposed legislation in the U.S. to extend routing mandates to credit, our settlement with the European Commission (the “EC”) resolving its investigation into our interregional interchange fees and the EU legislation capping consumer credit and debit interchange fees on payments issued and acquired within the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). For more detail, see “Risk Factors - Other Regulation” in Part I, Item 1A and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Key 2023 Developments
In October 2023, the U.S. Federal Reserve issued a proposal that would lower the interchange rate cap for debit and prepaid transactions in the U.S. by approximately 28%-30% (based on an average ticket size of $50), with the cap automatically updating every two years.
In June 2023, legislation was re-introduced in the U.S. Senate that would extend routing mandates for Mastercard and Visa to credit. The bill stipulates that the top two networks could not be enabled on the same card, leaving room for regional networks to serve as second options. The bill proposes to mandate Mastercard provide authentication, tokenization or other security technology to competing networks, whether or not the transaction is switched by Mastercard.
In October 2023, the U.S. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) proposed a rule requiring data providers to make covered data available to consumers and authorized third parties, promoting industry standard-setting bodies recognized by the CFPB, and outlining obligations for third parties accessing data on behalf of consumers (including limitations on the collection, use and retention of covered data).
In October 2023, Mastercard was designated by the Bank of Canada (BoC) as a “prominent payment system” as it relates to its business in Canada (i.e., a payment system that is critical for economic activity in Canada). This designation will result in broad regulatory oversight by the BoC.
Preferential or Protective Government Actions. Some governments have taken action to provide resources, preferential treatment or other protection to selected domestic payments and processing providers, as well as to create their own national providers. For example, governments in some countries mandate switching of domestic payments either entirely in that country or by only domestic companies. Some jurisdictions are currently considering adopting or have adopted “data localization” requirements, which mandate the collection, storage, and/or other processing of data within their borders. This is the case, for instance, in India, China and Saudi Arabia. Various forms of data localization requirements or data transfer restrictions are also under consideration in other countries and jurisdictions, including the EU.
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Anti-Money Laundering, Countering the Financing of Terrorism, Economic Sanctions and Anti-Corruption. We are subject to anti-money laundering (“AML”) and countering the financing of terrorism (“CFT”) laws and regulations globally, including the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act, as well as the various economic sanctions programs, including those imposed and administered by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). We have implemented a comprehensive AML/CFT program, comprised of policies, procedures and internal controls, including the designation of a compliance officer, which is designed to prevent our payments network from being used to facilitate money laundering and other illicit activity and to address these legal and regulatory requirements and assist in managing money laundering and terrorist financing risks. The economic sanctions programs administered by OFAC restrict financial transactions and other dealings with certain countries and geographies (specifically Crimea, the Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic regions of Ukraine, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria) and with persons and entities included in OFAC sanctions lists including its list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (the “SDN List”). We take measures to prevent transactions that do not comply with OFAC and other applicable sanctions, including establishing a risk-based compliance program that has policies, procedures and controls designed to prevent us from having unlawful business dealings with prohibited countries, regions, individuals or entities. As part of this program, we obligate issuers and acquirers to comply with their local sanctions obligations and U.S. and EU sanctions programs. In the U.S., these obligations include requiring the screening of account holders and merchants, respectively, against OFAC sanctions lists (including the SDN List). Iran and Syria have been identified by the U.S. State Department as terrorist-sponsoring states, and we have no offices, subsidiaries or affiliated entities located in these countries and do not license entities domiciled there. We are also subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations globally, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, which, among other things, generally prohibit giving or offering payments or anything of value for the purpose of improperly influencing a business decision or to gain an unfair business advantage. We have implemented policies, procedures and internal controls to proactively manage corruption risk.
Issuer and Acquirer Practices Legislation and Regulation. Our issuers and acquirers are subject to numerous regulations and investigations applicable to banks, financial institutions and other licensed entities, impacting us as a consequence. Additionally, regulations such as the revised Payment Services Directive (commonly referred to as “PSD2”) in the EEA require financial institutions to provide third-party payment processors access to consumer payment accounts, enabling them to route transactions away from Mastercard products and provide payment initiation and account information services directly to consumers who use our products. PSD2 also requires a new standard for authentication of transactions, which necessitates additional verification information from consumers to complete transactions. This may increase the number of transactions that consumers abandon if we are unable to ensure a frictionless authentication experience under the new standards.
Regulation of Internet, Digital Transactions and High-Risk Merchant Categories. Various jurisdictions have enacted or have proposed regulation related to internet transactions which applies to payments system participants, including us and our customers. We may also be impacted by evolving laws surrounding gambling, including fantasy sports, as well as certain legally permissible but high-risk merchant categories, such as adult content, firearms, alcohol and tobacco.
Privacy, Data Protection, AI and Information Security. Aspects of our operations or business are subject to increasingly complex and fragmented privacy, data and information security laws and regulations in the U.S., the EU and elsewhere around the world. For example, in the U.S., we and our customers are respectively subject to, among other laws and regulations, Federal Trade Commission and federal banking agency information safeguarding requirements under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) that require, among other things, the maintenance of a written, comprehensive information security program and, increasingly, a number of state data and privacy laws. With respect to information security, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) adopted new disclosure rules that require, among other things, disclosing material cybersecurity incidents in a Current Report on Form 8-K, generally within four business days of determining an incident is material. In the EU, we are subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and its equivalent in the U.K., which requires, among other things, a comprehensive privacy, data protection and information security program to protect the personal and sensitive data of EEA residents. Several regulators and policymakers around the globe use the GDPR as a reference to adopt new or updated privacy, data protection and information security laws and regulations, although divergences have occurred. Laws and regulations in this area are constantly evolving due to several factors, including increasing data collection and data flows, numerous data breaches and security incidents, more sensitive data categories, and emerging technologies such as AI. In addition, the interpretation and application of these privacy, data protection and information security laws and regulations are often uncertain and in a state of flux, thus requiring constant monitoring for compliance.

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ESG. Various jurisdictions have adopted or are increasingly considering adopting laws and regulations impacting our reporting on ESG governance, strategy, risk management, metrics and targets, and results. Regulations already adopted or being considered include required corporate reporting and disclosures on specific topics as well as broader ESG matters. Specific topics include climate (such as the U.K. Streamlined Energy and Carbon Reporting, the EU Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive, or “EU CSRD”, and the SEC proposed rules related to climate change) and human rights (such as the EU Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence Directive). Broader ESG matters include other environmental matters, treatment of employees and diversity of workforce (such as in the EU CSRD).
Additional Regulatory Developments. Various regulatory agencies also continue to examine a wide variety of issues that could impact us, including evolving laws surrounding buy-now-pay-later, open banking, digital currencies, marijuana, prepaid payroll cards, identity theft, account management guidelines, disclosure rules and marketing.
Additional Information
Mastercard Incorporated was incorporated as a Delaware corporation in May 2001. We conduct our business principally through our principal operating subsidiary, Mastercard International Incorporated, a Delaware non-stock (or membership) corporation that was formed in November 1966. For more information about our capital structure, including our Class A common stock (our voting stock) and Class B common stock (our non-voting stock), see Note 16 (Stockholders' Equity) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Website and SEC Reports
Our internet address is www.mastercard.com. From time to time, we may use our corporate website as a channel of distribution of material company information. Financial and other material information is routinely posted and accessible on the investor relations section of our corporate website. You can also visit “Investor Alerts” in the investor relations section to enroll your email address to automatically receive email alerts and other information about Mastercard.
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are available for review, without charge, on the investor relations section of our corporate website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained on our corporate website, including, but not limited to, our Environmental, Social and Governance Report and our U.S. Consolidated EEO-1 Report, is not incorporated by reference into this Report. Our filings are also available electronically from the SEC at www.sec.gov.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Item 1A. Risk factors
RISK HIGHLIGHTS
Legal and RegulatoryBusiness and Operations
Payments Industry RegulationCompetition and TechnologyBrand, Reputational Impact and ESG
Preferential or Protective Government ActionsInformation Security and Operational ResilienceTalent and Culture
Privacy, Data Protection, AI and Information Security
Stakeholder Relationships
Acquisitions and Strategic Investments
Other RegulationGlobal Economic and Political EnvironmentSettlement and Third-Party Obligations
Litigation
Class A Common Stock and Governance Structure
Legal and Regulatory
Payments Industry Regulation
Global regulatory and legislative activity related to the payments industry may have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Central banks and similar regulatory bodies have increasingly established or further expanded their authority over certain aspects of payments systems such as ours, including obligations or restrictions with respect to the types of products and services that we may offer, the countries in which our products and services may be used, the way we structure and operate our business and the types of consumers and merchants who can obtain or accept our products or services. Similarly, jurisdictions that regulate a particular product may consider extending their jurisdiction to other products. For example, debit regulations could lead to regulation of credit products. Moreover, several jurisdictions are demonstrating increased interest about the network fees we charge to our customers (in some cases as part of broader market reviews of retail payments), which could in the future lead to regulation of our network fees. In several jurisdictions, we have been designated as a “systemically important payment system”, with other regulators considering similar designations. This type of regulation and oversight is related to switching activities (authorization, clearing and settlement), and includes policies, procedures and requirements related to risk management, collateral, participant default, timely switching of financial transactions, and capital and financial resources. Parts of our business have also been deemed as a “specified service provider” or considered “critical infrastructure”. The impact to our business created by any new law, regulation or designation is magnified by the potential it has to be replicated in, or conflict with, other jurisdictions, or involve other products within any particular jurisdiction.
The expansion of our products and services as part of our multi-rail strategy has also created the need for us to obtain new types and increasing numbers of regulatory licenses, resulting in increased supervision and additional compliance burdens distinct from those imposed on our core payment network activities. For example, certain of our subsidiaries maintain money transfer licenses to support certain activities. These licenses typically impose supervisory and examination requirements, as well as capital, safeguarding, risk management and other business obligations.
Increased regulation and oversight of payments systems, as well as increased exposure to regulation resulting from changes to our products and services, have resulted and may continue to result in significant compliance and governance burdens or otherwise increase our costs. As a result, customers could be less willing to participate in our payments system and/or use our other products or services, reduce the benefits offered in connection with the use of our products (making our products less desirable to consumers), reduce the volume of domestic and cross-border transactions or other operational metrics, disintermediate us, impact our profitability and/or limit our ability to innovate or offer differentiated products and services, all of which could materially and adversely impact our financial performance. In addition, any regulation that is enacted related to the type and level of network fees

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we charge our customers could also materially and adversely impact our results of operations. Regulators could also require us to obtain prior approval for changes to our system rules, procedures or operations, or could require customization with regard to such changes, which could negatively impact us. Moreover, failure to comply with the laws and regulations to which we are subject could result in fines, sanctions, civil damages or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations, as well as have an impact on our brand and reputation.
Increased regulatory, legislative and litigation activity with respect to interchange rates could have an adverse impact on our business.
Interchange rates are a significant component of the costs that merchants pay in connection with the acceptance of products associated with our core payment network. Although we do not earn revenues from interchange, interchange rates can impact the volume of transactions we see on our payment products. If interchange rates are too high, merchants may stop accepting our products or route transactions away from our network. If interchange rates are too low, issuers may stop promoting our products and services, eliminate or reduce loyalty rewards programs or other account holder benefits (e.g., free checking or low interest rates on balances), or charge fees to account holders (e.g., annual fees or late payment fees).
Governments and merchant groups in a number of countries have implemented or are seeking interchange rate reductions through legislation, regulation and litigation. See “Business - Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for more details.
If issuers cannot collect or we are required to reduce interchange rates, issuers may be less willing to participate in our four-party payments system. Alternatively, they may reduce the benefits associated with our products, choose to charge higher fees to consumers to attempt to recoup a portion of the costs incurred for their services, or seek a fee reduction from us to decrease the expense of their payment programs (particularly if regulation has a disproportionate impact on us as compared to our competitors in terms of the fees we can charge). These and other impacts could make our products less desirable to consumers, limit our ability to innovate or offer differentiated products, and/or make proprietary three-party networks or other forms of payment more attractive, ultimately reducing the volume of transactions over our network and our profitability.
We are devoting substantial resources to defending our right to establish interchange rates in regulatory proceedings, litigation and legislative activity. The potential outcome of any of these activities could have a more positive or negative impact on us relative to our competitors. If we are ultimately unsuccessful in defending our ability to establish interchange rates, any resulting legislation, regulation and/or litigation may have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations. In addition, regulatory proceedings and litigation could result (and in some cases has resulted) in us being fined and/or having to pay civil damages, the amount of which could be material.
Limitations on our ability to restrict merchant surcharging could materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
We have historically implemented policies, referred to as no-surcharge rules, in certain jurisdictions, including the U.S. and Canada, that prohibit merchants from charging higher prices to consumers who pay using our products instead of other means. Authorities in several jurisdictions have acted to end or limit the application of these no-surcharge rules (or indicated interest in doing so). Additionally, our no-surcharge rules now permit U.S. and Canadian merchants to surcharge credit cards (subject to certain limitations), which over time could lead merchants in some or all merchant categories in these jurisdictions to choose to surcharge as permitted. This could result in consumers viewing our products less favorably and/or using alternative means of payment instead of electronic products, which could result in a decrease in our overall transaction volumes, and which in turn could materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
Preferential or Protective Government Actions
Preferential and protective government actions related to domestic payment services could adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our revenues.
Governments in some countries have acted, or in the future may act, to provide resources, preferential treatment or other protection to selected national payment and switching providers, or have created, or may in the future create, their own national provider. This action may displace us from, prevent us from entering into, or substantially restrict us from participating in, particular geographies, and may prevent us from competing effectively against those providers. For example:
Governments in some countries have implemented, or may implement, regulatory requirements that mandate switching of domestic payments either entirely in that country or by only domestic companies.
Some jurisdictions have implemented, or are considering, requirements to collect, store and/or process data within their borders, as well as prohibitions on the transfer of data abroad, leading to technological and operational implications as well as increased compliance burdens and other costs.
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Geopolitical events (such as Russia’s invasion of Ukraine) and resulting OFAC sanctions, adverse trade policies, enforcement of U.S. laws related to countering the financing of terrorism, economic sanctions and anti-corruption, or other types of government actions could lead affected or other jurisdictions to take actions in response that could adversely affect our business. Moreover, given our decision to suspend business operations in Russia, other separate jurisdictions may decide to begin to or increase their focus on growing local payment networks and other solutions.
Regional groups of countries are considering, or may consider, efforts to restrict our switching of regional transactions.
Governments have been increasingly creating and expanding local payments structures (such as the Brazilian Instant Payment System-PIX, FedNow in the U.S. and UPI in India), which are increasingly being considered as alternatives to traditional domestic payment solutions and schemes such as ours.
Such developments prevent us from utilizing our global switching capabilities for domestic or regional customers. In addition, to the extent a jurisdiction determines us not to be in compliance with regulatory requirements (including those related to data localization), we have been, and may again in the future be, subject to resource and time pressures in order to come back into compliance. Our inability to effect change in, or work with, these jurisdictions could adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and extend our global brand.
Additionally, some jurisdictions have implemented, or may implement, foreign ownership restrictions, which could potentially have the effect of forcing or inducing the transfer of our technology and proprietary information as a condition of access to their markets. Such restrictions could adversely impact our ability to compete in these markets.
Privacy, Data Protection, AI and Information Security
Regulation and enforcement of privacy, data, AI, information security and the digital economy could increase our costs and lead to legal claims and fines, as well as negatively impact our growth and reputation.
We are subject to increasingly complex, fragmented and divergent laws and regulations related to privacy and data protection, data use and governance, AI and information security in the jurisdictions in which we do business. While policymakers around the globe look to the EU and the GDPR when adopting new or updated privacy and data protection laws, divergences have occurred and continue to occur. As a result, new or updated privacy and data protection and information security laws and regulations have led, and may continue to lead, to similar, stricter or at times conflicting requirements, creating an uncertain regulatory environment. For example, some jurisdictions have implemented or are otherwise considering requirements to collect, store and/or process data within their borders, as well as prohibitions on the transfer of data abroad, leading to technological and operational implications. Other jurisdictions have adopted or are otherwise considering adopting sector-specific regulations for the payments industry and other industries in which we participate, including forced data sharing requirements or additional verification requirements. In addition, laws and regulations on AI, data governance and credit decisioning may overlap or conflict with, or diverge from, general privacy rules. Overall, these myriad laws and regulations may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies, incur substantial compliance-related costs and expenses, and otherwise suffer adverse impacts on our business. Failure to comply with any of these laws, regulations and requirements could result in fines, sanctions or other enforcement actions or penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and overall business, as well as have an impact on our reputation.
As a user and deployer of AI technology, we are also subject to increasing and evolving laws and regulations related to AI governance and new applications of existing laws and regulations to AI. How our use and deployment of AI will be regulated remains uncertain given the uncertainty that exists as to how AI technology will develop. In addition, the use of AI creates or amplifies risks that are challenging to fully prevent or mitigate. In particular, AI algorithms may generate inaccurate, unintended, unfair or discriminatory outcomes, which may not be easily detectable or explainable, and may inadvertently breach intellectual property, privacy or other rights, as well as confidential information. Our implementation of robust AI governance and risk management frameworks aimed at complying with emerging laws and regulations may not be sufficient protection against these emerging risks.
Further, as we acquire new companies and develop integrated and personalized products and services to meet the needs of a changing marketplace, we have expanded our data profile through additional data types and sources, across multiple channels, and involving new partners. This expansion has amplified the impact of these various laws and regulations on our business. As a result, we are required to constantly monitor our data practices and potentially change them when necessary or appropriate. We also need to provide increased care in our data management, governance and quality practices, particularly as it relates to the use of data in products leveraging AI.
New requirements or changing interpretations of existing requirements in these areas, or the development of new regulatory schemes related to the digital economy in general, may also increase our costs and/or restrict our ability to leverage data or use AI for innovation. This could impact the products and services we offer and other aspects of our business, such as fraud monitoring, the need for improved data management, governance and quality practices, the development of information-based products and solutions, and technology operations. In addition, these requirements may increase the costs to our customers of issuing payment

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products or using information products, which may, in turn, decrease the number of our products that they offer. While we intend to comply with all regulatory requirements, innovate responsibly and deploy Privacy by Design, Data by Design and AI Governance approaches to all of our product development, the speed and pace of changes in laws (as well as stakeholder interests) may not allow us to meet rapidly evolving regulatory and stakeholder expectations. Any of these developments could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Other Regulation
Regulations that directly or indirectly apply to Mastercard as a result of our participation in the global payments industry may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
We are subject to regulations that affect the payments industry in the many jurisdictions in which our products and services are used. Many of our customers are also subject to regulations applicable to banks and other financial institutions that, at times, consequently affect us. Such regulation has increased significantly in the last several years (as described in “Business - Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1). Examples include:
Anti-Money Laundering, Countering the Financing of Terrorism, Economic Sanctions and Anti-Corruption - We are subject to AML and CFT laws and regulations globally. Economic sanctions programs administered by OFAC restrict financial transactions and other dealings with certain countries and geographies, and persons and entities. We are also subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations globally, which, among other things, generally prohibit giving or offering payments or anything of value for the purpose of improperly influencing a business decision or to gain an unfair business advantage.
Account-based Payments Systems - In the U.K., aspects of our Vocalink business are subject to the U.K. payment system oversight regime and are directly overseen by the Bank of England.
Issuer and Acquirer Practices Legislation and Regulation - Certain regulations (such as PSD2 in the EEA) may impact various aspects of our business. For example, PSD2’s strong authentication requirement could increase the number of transactions that consumers abandon if we are unable to secure a frictionless authentication experience under these standards. An increase in the rate of abandoned transactions could adversely impact our volumes or other operational metrics.
Increased regulatory focus on us has resulted and may continue to result in significant compliance and governance burdens or otherwise increase our costs. Similarly, increased regulatory focus on our customers may cause such customers to reduce the volume of transactions processed through our systems, or may otherwise impact the competitiveness of our products. Actions by regulators could influence other organizations around the world to enact or consider adopting similar measures, amplifying any potential compliance burden. Additionally, our compliance with new economic sanctions and related laws with respect to particular jurisdictions or customers could result in a loss of business, which could be significant. Moreover, while our risk-based compliance program obligates issuers and acquirers to comply with U.S., EU and local sanctions programs (among other obligations), the failure of those issuers and acquirers to identify potential non-compliance issues either during or after their customer onboarding processes could ultimately impact our compliance with economic sanctions and related laws. Finally, failure to comply with the laws and regulations discussed above to which we are subject could result in fines, sanctions or other penalties. In particular, a violation and subsequent judgment or settlement against us, or those with whom we may be associated, under economic sanctions and AML, CFT, and anti-corruption laws could subject us to substantial monetary penalties, damages, and/or have a significant reputational impact. Each instance may individually or collectively materially and adversely affect our financial performance and/or our overall business and results of operations, as well as have an impact on our reputation.
We could be subject to adverse changes in tax laws, regulations and interpretations or challenges to our tax positions.
We are subject to tax laws and regulations of the U.S. federal, state and local governments as well as various non-U.S. jurisdictions. Current and potential future changes in existing tax laws, including regulatory guidance, are continuously being considered and have been or may be enacted (such as guidelines issued by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) which impact how multinational enterprises are taxed on their global profits). These changes have and in the future may continue to have an impact on our effective income tax rate and tax payments. Similarly, changes in tax laws and regulations that impact our customers and counterparties, or the economy generally, have impacted and may continue to impact us as well.
In addition, tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to varying interpretations, and any significant failure to comply with applicable tax laws and regulations in all relevant jurisdictions could give rise to substantial penalties and liabilities. Jurisdictions around the globe have also increased tax-related audits, which require time and resources to resolve.
Any changes in enacted tax laws, rules, regulatory or judicial interpretations or guidance; any adverse outcome in connection with tax audits in any jurisdiction; or any changes in the pronouncements relating to accounting for income taxes could materially and adversely impact our effective income tax rate, tax payments, financial condition and results of operations.
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Litigation
Liabilities we may incur or limitations on our business related to any litigation or litigation settlements could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We are a defendant in a number of civil litigations and regulatory proceedings and investigations, including among others, those alleging violations of competition and antitrust law and those involving intellectual property claims (as described in Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8). In the event we are found liable in any material litigations or proceedings (particularly in a large class-action lawsuit or on the basis of an antitrust claim entitling the plaintiff to treble damages or under which we were jointly and severally liable), we could be subject to significant damages, which could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Certain limitations have been placed on our business in recent years because of litigation and litigation settlements, such as changes to our no-surcharge rule in the U.S. and Canada. Any future limitations on our business resulting from the outcomes of any litigation or regulatory proceeding, including any changes to our rules or business practices, could impact our relationships with our customers, including reducing the volume of business that we do with them, which may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Business and Operations
Competition and Technology
Substantial and intense competition worldwide in the global payments industry may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
The global payments industry is highly competitive. Our payment programs compete against competitors both within and outside of the global payments industry and compete in all payment categories, including paper-based payments and all forms of electronic payments. We compete against general purpose payments networks, debit and local networks, ACH and real-time account-based payments systems, digital wallets and other fintechs (focused on online activity across various channels and processing payments using in-house capabilities), government-backed networks and digital currencies. We also face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our value-added services and new adjacent network capabilities (including open banking and digital identity).
Our traditional competitors may have substantially greater financial and other resources than we have, may offer a wider range of programs, services, and payment capabilities than we offer or may use more effective advertising and marketing strategies to achieve broader brand recognition and merchant acceptance than we have. They may also introduce their own innovative programs, value-added services and capabilities that adversely impact our growth.
Certain of our competitors to our core payment network operate three-party payments systems with direct connections to both merchants and consumers, potentially providing competitive advantages. If we continue to attract more regulatory scrutiny than these competitors because we operate a four-party system, or we are regulated because of the system we operate in a way in which our competitors are not, we could lose business to these competitors. See “Business - Competition” in Part I, Item 1.
Certain of our competitors have developed alternative payments systems, e-commerce payments systems and payments systems for mobile devices, as well as physical store locations. A number of these competitors rely principally on technology to support their services that provides cost advantages, and as a result may enjoy lower costs than we do. Many of these competitors are also able to use existing payment networks without being subject to many of the associated costs. Moreover, these competitors also occupy various roles in the payments ecosystem that enable them to influence payment choice of other participants. Any of these factors could put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Our ability to compete may also be affected by regulatory and legislative initiatives, as well as the outcomes of litigation, competition-related regulatory proceedings and both central bank and legislative activity.
If we are not able to differentiate ourselves from our competitors, drive value for our customers and/or effectively align our resources with our goals and objectives, we may not be able to compete effectively against these threats. Our failure to compete effectively against any of the foregoing threats could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.

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Disintermediation from stakeholders both within and outside of the payments value chain could harm our business.
As the payments industry continues to develop and change, we face disintermediation and related risks, including:
Parties that process our transactions in certain countries may try to eliminate our position as an intermediary in the payment process. For example, merchants could switch (and in some cases are switching) transactions directly with issuers. Additionally, processors could process transactions directly between issuers and acquirers. Large scale consolidation within processors could result in these processors developing bilateral agreements or in some cases switching the entire transaction on their own network, thereby disintermediating us.
Industry participants continue to invest in and develop alternative capabilities, such as account-based payments, which could facilitate P2M transactions that compete with both our core payment network and our additional payment capabilities.
Regulation (such as PSD2 in the EEA) may disintermediate issuers by enabling third-party providers opportunities to route payment transactions away from our network and products and towards other forms of payment by offering account information or payment initiation services directly to those who currently use our products. Such regulation may also provide these processors with the opportunity to commoditize the data that are included in the transactions they are servicing. If our customers are disintermediated in their business, we could face diminished demand for our products and services.
Although we partner with fintechs and technology companies (such as digital players and mobile providers) that leverage our technology, platforms and networks to deliver their products, they could develop platforms or networks that disintermediate us from digital payments and impact our ability to compete in the digital economy. These companies may also develop products or services that compete with our customers within the payments ecosystem and, as a result, could diminish demand for our products and services. When we do partner with fintechs and technology companies, we face a heightened risk when we share data as part of those relationships. While we share this data in a controlled manner subject to applicable anonymization and privacy and data standards, sharing this data without proper oversight could provide partners with a competitive advantage.
Competitors, customers, fintechs, technology companies, governments and other industry participants may develop products that compete with or replace products and services we currently provide to support our switched transaction and payments offerings. These products could either replace, or force us to change our pricing or practices, for these offerings. In addition, governments that develop or encourage the creation of national or international payments platforms may promote their platforms in such a way that could put us at a competitive disadvantage in those markets, or require us to compete differently.
Participants in the payments industry may merge, create joint ventures or form other business combinations that may strengthen their existing business services or create new payment products and services that compete with our products and services.
Our failure to compete effectively against any of the foregoing competitive threats could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Continued intense pricing pressure may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
In order to increase transaction volumes, enter new markets and expand our products and services, we seek to enter into business agreements with customers through which we offer incentives, pricing discounts and other support that promote our products. In order to stay competitive, we may have to increase the amount of these incentives and pricing discounts so as to meet customer demand for better pricing arrangements and greater rebates and incentives, which moderates our growth. Our inability to switch additional transaction volumes or to provide additional services to our customers at levels sufficient to compensate for such lower fees or increased costs in the future could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations. In addition, increased pressure on prices increases the importance of cost containment and productivity initiatives in areas other than those relating to customer incentives.
In the future, we may not be able to enter into agreements with our customers if they require terms that we are unable or unwilling to offer, and we may be required to modify existing agreements in order to maintain relationships and to compete with others in the industry. Some of our competitors are larger with greater financial resources and accordingly may be able to charge lower prices to our customers. In addition, to the extent that we offer discounts or incentives under such agreements, we will need to further increase transaction volumes or the amount of services provided in order to benefit from such agreements and to increase revenue and profit, and we may not be successful in doing so, particularly in the current regulatory environment. Our customers also may implement cost reduction initiatives that reduce or eliminate payment product marketing or increase requests for greater incentives or greater cost stability. These factors could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Additionally, we face pricing pressure related to real-time account-based payment schemes and cross-border payments (including the increased use of domestic real-time account-based payment schemes offering increasingly lower or subsidized pricing for P2M transactions as well as continued downward pressure on pricing for cross-border payments resulting from competition from real-time account-based payment schemes and from initiatives to lower the cost of cross-border payments to end users (such as the G20
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Roadmap for Enhancing Cross-border Payments)). These factors could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Rapid and significant technological developments and changes could negatively impact our overall business and results of operations or limit our future growth.
The payments industry is subject to rapid and significant technological changes, which can impact our business in several ways:
Technological changes (including continuing developments of technologies in the areas of smart cards and devices, contactless and mobile payments, e-commerce, cryptocurrency and blockchain, AI, machine learning, privacy enhancement and cybersecurity) could result in new technologies that may be superior to, or render obsolete, the technologies we currently use in our programs and services. Moreover, these changes could result in new and innovative payment methods, products and services that could place us at a competitive disadvantage and that could reduce the use of our products and services.
We rely in part on third parties (including some of our competitors and potential competitors) for the development of and access to new technologies. The inability of these companies to keep pace with technological developments, or the acquisition of these companies by competitors, could negatively impact our offerings.
Our ability to develop and adopt new services and technologies may be inhibited by industry-wide solutions and standards (such as those related to EMV, tokenization or other safety and security technologies), and by resistance from customers or merchants to such changes.
Our ability to develop evolving systems and products may be inhibited by any difficulty we may experience in attracting and retaining employees with technology expertise.
Our ability to adopt these technologies can also be inhibited by intellectual property rights of third parties. We have received, and we may in the future receive, notices or inquiries from patent holders (including operating companies or non-practicing entities) suggesting that we may be infringing patents or that we need to license the use of their patents to avoid infringement. Such notices may, among other things, threaten litigation against us or our customers or demand significant license fees.
Our ability to develop new technologies and reflect technological changes in our payments offerings requires resources, which has resulted in and may further result in additional expenses.
We work with fintechs, technology companies (such as digital players and mobile providers) and traditional customers that use our technology to enhance payment safety and security and to deliver their payment-related products and services quickly and efficiently to consumers. Our inability to keep pace technologically could negatively impact the willingness of these customers to work with us, and could encourage them to use their own technology and compete against us.
Regulatory or government requirements have and could continue to require us to host and deliver certain products and services on-soil in certain markets, requiring us to alter our technology and delivery model, potentially resulting in additional expenses.
Various central banks are experimenting with CBDCs which may be launched with their own networks to transfer money between participants. Policy and design considerations that governments adopt could impact the extent of our role in facilitating CBDC-based payment transactions, potentially impacting the transactions that we may process over our network.
We cannot predict the effect of future technological changes on our business, and our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate, develop or adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. Failure to keep pace with these technological developments or otherwise bring to market products that reflect these technologies could lead to a decline in the use of our products, which could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Operating a real-time account-based payments network presents risks that could materially affect our business.
U.K. regulators have designated Vocalink, our real-time account-based payments network platform, to be a “specified service provider” and regulators in other countries may in the future expand their regulatory oversight of real-time account-based payments systems in similar ways. In addition, any prolonged service outage on this network could result in quickly escalating impacts, including potential intervention by the Bank of England and significant reputational risk to Vocalink and us. For a discussion of the regulatory risks related to our real-time account-based payments platform and oversight by regulators, see our risk factor in “Risk Factors - Payments Industry Regulation” in this Part I, Item 1A. Furthermore, the complexity of this payment technology requires careful management to address information security vulnerabilities that are different from those faced on our core payment network. Operational difficulties, such as the temporary unavailability of our services or products, or information security breaches on our real-time account-based payments network could cause a loss of business for these products and services, result in potential liability for us and adversely affect our reputation.


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Working with new customers and end users as we expand our multi-rail solutions and products and services can present operational and onboarding challenges, be costly and result in reputational damage if the new products or services do not perform as intended.
The payments markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid technological change, new product introductions, evolving industry standards and changing customer and consumer needs. In order to remain competitive and meet the needs of the payments markets, we are continually involved in developing and implementing complex multi-rail solutions and diversifying our products and services. These efforts carry the risks associated with any diversification initiative, including cost overruns, delays in delivery and performance problems. These projects also carry risks associated with working with different types of customers (such as corporations that are not financial institutions, non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”) and new end users). These differences may present new operational challenges, such as enhanced infrastructure and monitoring for less regulated customers.
Our failure to effectively design and deliver these multi-rail solutions and products and services could make our other offerings less desirable to these customers, or put us at a competitive disadvantage. In addition, if there is a delay in the implementation of our products or services (which could include compliance obligations, such as AML and CFT, and licensing requirements for our products and services that operate under regulatory licenses), if our products or services do not perform as anticipated, or we are unable to otherwise adequately anticipate risks related to new types of customers, we could face additional regulatory scrutiny, fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations, as well as negatively impact our brand and reputation.
Information Security and Operational Resilience
Information security incidents or account data compromise events could disrupt our business, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.
Information security risks for payments and technology companies such as ours have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, “hacktivists”, terrorists, nation-states, state-sponsored actors and other external parties. These threats may derive from fraud or malice on the part of our employees or third parties, or may result from human error, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failure or other technological failure. These threats include cyber-attacks such as computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, malicious code (including ransomware), social-engineering attacks (including phishing attacks) or information security breaches and could lead to the misappropriation or loss of consumer account and other information and identity theft. These types of threats have risen significantly due to a significant portion of our workforce working in a hybrid environment. These threats also may be further enhanced in frequency or effectiveness through threat actors’ use of AI.
Our operations rely on the secure transmission, storage and other processing of confidential, proprietary, sensitive and personal information and technology in our computer systems and networks, as well as the systems of our third-party providers. Our customers and other parties in the payments value chain, as well as account holders, rely on our digital technologies, computer systems, software and networks to conduct their operations. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers and account holders increasingly use personal smartphones, tablet PCs and other mobile devices that may be beyond our control. We, like other financial technology organizations, routinely are subject to cyber-threats and our technologies, systems and networks, as well as the systems of our third-party providers, have been subject to attempted cyber-attacks. Because of our position in the payments value chain, we believe that we are likely to continue to be a target of such threats and attacks. Geopolitical events and resulting government activity could also lead to information security threats and attacks by affected or sympathizing jurisdictions or other actors, which could put our information and assets at risk, as well as result in network disruption.
To date, we have not experienced any material impact relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. However, future attacks or breaches could lead to security breaches of the networks, systems (including third-party provider systems) or devices that our customers use to access our products and services, which in turn could result in the unauthorized disclosure, release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of confidential, proprietary, sensitive and personal information (including account data information) or data security compromises. Such attacks or breaches could also cause service interruptions, malfunctions or other failures in the physical infrastructure, networks or operations systems that support our business and customers (such as the lack of availability of our value-added services), as well as the operations of our customers or other third parties.  In addition, they could lead to damage to our reputation with our customers, other stakeholders and the broader payments ecosystem, additional costs to us (such as repairing systems, adding new personnel or protection technologies or compliance costs), regulatory penalties, financial losses to both us and our customers and partners and the loss of customers and business opportunities. These consequences could be further pronounced in jurisdictions in which we are deemed critical national infrastructure. If such attacks are not detected immediately, or disclosed as required by law, their effect could be compounded.
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In addition to information security risks for our systems and networks, we also routinely encounter account data compromise events involving merchants and third-party payment processors that process, store or transmit payment transaction data, which affect millions of Mastercard, Visa, Discover, American Express and other types of account holders. Further events of this type may subject us to reputational damage and/or lawsuits involving payment products carrying our brands. Damage to our reputation or that of our brands resulting from an account data breach of either our systems and networks or the systems and networks of our customers, merchants and other third parties could decrease the use and acceptance of our products and services. Such events could also slow or reverse the trend toward electronic payments. In addition to reputational concerns, the cumulative impact of multiple account data compromise events could increase the impact of the fraud resulting from such events by, among other things, making it more difficult to identify consumers. Moreover, while most of the lawsuits resulting from account data breaches do not involve direct claims against us and while we have releases from many issuers and acquirers, we could still face damage claims, which, if upheld, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. While we offer cyber and intelligence products that are designed to prevent, detect and respond to fraud and cyber-attacks, there can be no assurance that such security solutions will perform as expected or address all possible security threats. Real or perceived defects, failures, errors or vulnerabilities in our security solutions, such as our cyber and intelligence products, could adversely impact our reputation, customer confidence in our solutions and our business and may subject us to litigation, governmental audits and investigation or other liabilities. Such events could have a material adverse impact on our transaction volumes, results of operations and prospects for future growth, or increase our costs by leading to additional regulatory burdens being imposed on us.
In addition, fraudulent activity and increasing cyber-attacks have encouraged legislative and regulatory intervention, and could damage our reputation and reduce the use and acceptance of our products and services or increase our compliance costs. Criminals are using increasingly sophisticated methods to capture consumer personal information to engage in illegal activities such as counterfeiting or other fraud and may see their effectiveness enhanced by the use of AI. As outsourcing and specialization become common in the payments industry, there are more third parties involved in processing transactions using our payment products. While we are continuing to take measures to make card and digital payments more secure, increased fraud levels involving our products and services, or misconduct or negligence by third parties switching or otherwise servicing our products and services, could lead to legislative or regulatory intervention, such as enhanced security requirements and liabilities, as well as damage to our reputation. See “Risk Factors - Privacy, Data Protection, AI and Information Security Compliance” in this Part I, Item 1A for more detail concerning related legal risks and obligations.
Despite various mitigation efforts that we undertake, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer material breaches and resulting losses in the future. While we maintain insurance coverage, such coverage may not be adequate to protect us from such losses as well as any liabilities or damages with respect to claims alleging compromises of our confidential, proprietary, sensitive or personal information or our technologies, systems or networks. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage will continue to be available on acceptable terms or at all, or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim. Our risk and exposure to these matters remain heightened due to, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, our prominent role in the global payments ecosystem, our continued implementation of our strategic priorities, our extensive use of third-party vendors and potential vulnerabilities from previous and future acquisitions, strategic investments or related opportunities. As a result, information security and the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes and practices designed to protect our computer systems, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority for us. As cyber-threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Any of the risks described above could materially adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Service disruptions that cause us to be unable to process transactions or service our customers could reduce our operational resilience and materially affect our overall business and results of operations.
Our transaction switching systems and other offerings have experienced in limited instances and may continue to experience interruptions as a result of technology malfunctions, supply-chain attacks, fire, floods, earthquakes, weather events, power outages, telecommunications disruptions, terrorism, workplace violence, accidents or other catastrophic events (including those related to climate change). Our visibility in the global payments industry may also put us at greater risk of attack by terrorists, activists, or hackers who intend to disrupt our facilities, networks and/or systems. Additionally, we rely on third-party service providers for the timely transmission of information across our global data network. Inadequate infrastructure in lesser-developed markets could also result in service disruptions, which could impact our ability to do business in those markets. If one of our service providers fails to provide the communications capacity or services we require, as a result of natural disaster, operational disruptions, terrorism, hacking or any other reason, the failure could interrupt our services. Although we maintain an enterprise resiliency program to analyze risk, assess potential impacts, and develop effective response strategies, we cannot ensure that our business would be immune to these risks, because of the intrinsic importance of our switching systems to our business, any interruption or degradation could adversely affect the perception of the reliability of products carrying our brands and materially adversely affect our overall business and our results of operations.

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Stakeholder Relationships
Losing a significant portion of business from one or more of our largest customers could lead to significant revenue decreases in the longer term, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and our results of operations.
Many of our customer relationships are not exclusive. Our customers can reassess their future commitments to us subject to the terms of our contracts, and they separately may develop their own services that compete with ours. Our business agreements with these customers may not ultimately reduce the risk inherent in our business that customers may terminate their relationships with us in favor of relationships with our competitors, or for other reasons, or might not meet their contractual obligations to us.
In addition, a significant portion of our revenue is concentrated among our five largest customers. Loss of business from any of our large customers could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Exclusive/near exclusive relationships certain customers have with our competitors may have a material adverse impact on our business.
While we have exclusive, or nearly-exclusive, relationships with certain of our customers to issue payment products, other customers have similar exclusive, or nearly-exclusive, relationships with our competitors. These relationships may make it difficult or cost-prohibitive for us to do significant amounts of business with these customers to increase our revenues. In addition, these customers may be more successful and may grow faster than the customers that primarily issue our payment products, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Furthermore, we earn substantial revenue from customers with nearly-exclusive relationships with our competitors. Such relationships could provide advantages to the customers to shift business from us to the competitors with which they are principally aligned. A significant loss of our existing revenue or transaction volumes from these customers could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Consolidation amongst our customers could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Our customers’ industries have undergone substantial, accelerated consolidation in the past. These consolidations have included customers with a substantial Mastercard portfolio being acquired by institutions with a strong relationship with a competitor. Potential future consolidation could occur as a result of bank failures, similar to those that occurred in the U.S. during 2023. If significant consolidation among customers were to continue, it could result in the substantial loss of business for us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects. In addition, one or more of our customers could seek to merge with, or acquire, one of our competitors, and any such transaction could also have a material adverse impact on our overall business. Consolidation could also produce a smaller number of large customers, which could increase their bargaining power and lead to lower prices and/or more favorable terms for our customers. These developments could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business significantly depends on the continued success and competitiveness of our issuing and acquiring customers and, in many jurisdictions, their ability to effectively manage or help manage our brands.
While we work directly with many stakeholders in the payments system (including merchants, governments, fintechs and large digital companies and other technology companies), we are, and will continue to be, significantly dependent on our relationships with our issuers and acquirers and their respective relationships with account holders and merchants to support our programs and services. Furthermore, we depend on our issuing partners and acquirers to continue to innovate to maintain competitiveness in the market. We do not issue cards or other payment devices, extend credit to account holders or determine the interest rates or other fees charged to account holders. Each issuer determines these and most other competitive payment program features. In addition, we do not establish the discount rate that merchants are charged for acceptance, which is the responsibility of our acquiring customers. As a result, our business significantly depends on the continued success and competitiveness of our issuing and acquiring customers and the strength of our relationships with them. In turn, our customers’ success depends on a variety of factors over which we have little or no influence, including economic conditions in global financial markets or their disintermediation by competitors or emerging technologies, as well as regulation. If our customers become financially unstable, we may lose revenue or we may be exposed to settlement risk. See “Risk Factors - Settlement and Third-Party Obligations” in this Part I, Item 1A with respect to how we guarantee certain third-party obligations.
With the exception of the U.S. and a select number of other jurisdictions, most in-country (as opposed to cross-border) transactions conducted using cards with our brands are switched by our customers or other processors. Because we do not provide domestic switching services in these countries or have direct relationships with account holders, we depend on our close working relationships with our customers to effectively manage our brands, and the perception of our payments system, among consumers in these countries. We also rely on these customers to help manage our brands and perception among regulators and merchants in these countries, alongside our own relationships with them. From time to time, our customers may take actions that we do not believe to be in the best interests of our payments system overall, which may materially and adversely impact our business.
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Merchants’ continued focus on acceptance costs may lead to additional litigation and regulatory proceedings and increase our incentive program costs, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
Merchants are important constituents in our payments system. We rely on both our relationships with them, as well as their relationships with our issuer and acquirer customers, to continue to expand the acceptance of our products and services. We also work with merchants to help them enable new sales channels, create better purchase experiences, improve efficiencies, increase revenues and fight fraud. In the retail industry, we believe a set of larger merchants with increasingly global scope and influence are having a significant impact on all participants in the global payments industry, including Mastercard. Some large merchants have supported the legal, regulatory and legislative challenges to interchange fees that Mastercard has been defending, including the U.S. merchant litigations. Some merchants are increasingly asking regulators to review and potentially regulate our own network fees, in addition to interchange. See “Risk Factors – Payments Industry Regulation” in this Part I, Item 1A. The continued focus of merchants on the costs of accepting various forms of payment (including digital) may lead to additional litigation and regulatory proceedings.
Certain larger merchants are also able to negotiate incentives from us and pricing concessions from our issuer and acquirer customers as a condition to accepting our products. We also make payments to certain merchants to incentivize them to create co-branded payment programs with us. As merchants consolidate and become even larger, we may have to increase the amount of incentives that we provide to certain merchants, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Competitive and regulatory pressures on pricing could make it difficult to offset the costs of these incentives. Additionally, if the rate of merchant acceptance growth slows, our business could suffer.
Our work with governments exposes us to unique risks that could have a material impact on our business and results of operations.
As we increase our work with national, state and local governments, both indirectly through financial institutions and with them directly as our customers, we may face various risks inherent in associating or contracting directly with governments. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Governmental entities typically fund projects through appropriated monies. Changes in governmental priorities or other political developments, including disruptions in governmental operations, could impact approved funding and result in changes in the scope, or lead to the termination, of the arrangements or contracts we or financial institutions enter into with respect to our payment products and services.
Our work with governments is heavily regulated, subjecting us to additional potential exposure under U.S. and international anti-corruption laws (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act), as well as compliance with various procurement and other laws, regulations, standards and contract terms. Any violation and subsequent judgment or settlement related to the above could subject us to substantial monetary penalties and damages and have a significant reputational impact. Moreover, as a government contractor, we are subject to a government’s right to conduct audits and investigations into both our contract performance and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and contract terms. Any adverse finding could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, sanctions, or suspension or disbarment.
Working or contracting with governments, either directly or via our financial institution customers, can subject us to heightened reputational risks, including extensive scrutiny and publicity, as well as a potential association with the policies of a government as a result of a business arrangement with that government. Any negative publicity or negative association with a government entity, regardless of its accuracy, may adversely affect our reputation.
Global Economic and Political Environment
Global economic, political, financial and societal events or conditions could result in a material and adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Adverse economic trends. Adverse economic trends in key countries in which we operate may adversely affect our financial performance. Such impact may include, but is not limited to, the following:
Customers mitigating their economic exposure by limiting the issuance of new Mastercard products and requesting greater incentive or greater cost stability from us
Consumers and businesses lowering spending, which could impact domestic and cross-border spend
Debt limit and budgetary discussions in the U.S. has affected, and could further affect, the U.S. credit rating, impacting consumer confidence and spending
Government intervention (including the effect of laws, regulations and/or government investments on or in our financial institution customers), as well as uncertainty due to changing political regimes in executive, legislative and/or judicial branches of government, that may have potential negative effects on our business and our relationships with customers or otherwise alter their strategic direction away from our products

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Tightening of credit availability that could impact the ability of participating financial institutions to lend to us under the terms of our credit facility
Cross-border transactions. We switch substantially all cross-border transactions using Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus-branded cards and generate a significant amount of revenue from cross-border volume fees and fees related to switched transactions. Revenue from switching cross-border and currency conversion transactions for our customers fluctuates with the levels and destinations of cross-border travel and our customers’ need for transactions to be converted into their base currency. Cross-border activity has, and may continue to be, adversely affected by world geopolitical, economic, health, weather and other conditions. These include or have included:
the global COVID-19 pandemic (and the potential of any post-pandemic global economic impact) and potential separate outbreaks of flu, viruses and other diseases (any of which could result in future epidemics or pandemics)
current and potential future geopolitical conflicts, as well as expansion into regional or global conflicts, and the resulting impacts to our business (this includes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the actions taken by the U.S., the EU, other governments and Mastercard in response)
the threat of terrorism and major environmental and extreme weather events (including those related to climate change)
The impact of and uncertainty that could result from any of these events or factors could ultimately decrease cross-border activity. Additionally, any regulation of interregional interchange fees could also negatively impact our cross-border activity (for example, the targets announced by the G20 Financial Stability Board related to cross-border payments). In each case, decreased cross-border activity could decrease the revenue we receive.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. In addition to the cross-border impacts described above, our compliance with sanctions and our decision to suspend our business operations in Russia has led, and could further lead, to other legal ramifications and operational challenges, including fines, the nationalization of our subsidiary and any resulting impacts, and/or lawsuits.
Standards. Our operations as a global payments network rely in part on global interoperable standards to help facilitate safe and simple payments. To the extent geopolitical events result in jurisdictions no longer participating in the creation or adoption of these standards, or the creation of competing standards, the products and services we offer could be negatively impacted.
Factors such as those discussed above have adversely impacted our business, results of operations and financial condition, and any of these developments potentially could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Adverse currency fluctuations and foreign exchange controls could negatively impact our results of operations.
During 2023, approximately 70% of our revenue was generated from activities outside the U.S. This revenue (and the related expense) could be transacted in a non-functional currency or valued based on a currency other than the functional currency of the entity generating the revenues. Resulting exchange gains and losses are included in our net income. Our risk management activities provide protection with respect to adverse changes in the value of only a limited number of currencies and are based on estimates of exposures to these currencies.
In addition, some of the revenue we generate outside the U.S. is subject to unpredictable currency fluctuations including devaluation of currencies where the values of other currencies change relative to the U.S. dollar. If the U.S. dollar strengthens compared to currencies in which we generate revenue, this revenue may be translated at a materially lower amount than expected. Furthermore, we may become subject to exchange control regulations that might restrict or prohibit the conversion into U.S. dollars of our other revenue currencies and financial assets.
The occurrence of currency fluctuations or exchange controls could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Brand, Reputational Impact and ESG
Negative brand perception may materially and adversely affect our overall business.
Our brands and their attributes are key assets of our business. The ability to attract consumers to our branded products and retain them depends upon the external perception of us and our industry:
Our business may be affected by actions taken by our customers, merchants or other organizations that impact the perception of our brands or the payments industry in general. From time to time, our customers may take actions that we do not believe to be in the best interests of our brands, such as creditor practices that may be viewed as “predatory”. Moreover, adverse developments with respect to our industry or the industries of our customers or other companies and organizations that use our products and services (including certain legally permissible but high-risk merchant categories, such as adult content, firearms, alcohol and tobacco) may also, by association, impair our reputation, or result in greater public, regulatory or legislative scrutiny,
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
as well as potential litigation. We may also face similar scrutiny to the extent that we are unable to detect and/or prevent illegal activities using our payment products or otherwise occurring over our network.
We have been pursuing the use of social media channels at an increasingly rapid pace. Under some circumstances, our use of social media, or the use of social media by others as a channel for criticism or other purposes, could also cause rapid, widespread reputational harm to our brands by disseminating rapidly and globally actual or perceived damaging information about us, our products or merchants or other end users who utilize our products.
We are headquartered in the U.S. As such, a negative perception of the U.S. could impact the perception of our company, which could adversely affect our business.
Any of the above issues could have a material and adverse effect on our overall business.
Lack of visibility of our brand in our products and services, or in the products and services of our partners who use our technology, may materially and adversely affect our business.
As more players enter the global payments ecosystem, the layers between our brand and consumers and merchants increase. In order to compete with other powerful consumer brands that are also becoming part of the consumer payment experience, we often partner with those brands on payment solutions. These brands include large digital companies and other technology companies who are our customers and use our networks to build their own acceptance brands. In some cases, our brand may not be featured in the payment solution or may be secondary to other brands. Additionally, as part of our relationships with some issuers, our payment brand is only included on the back of the card. As a result, our brand may either be invisible to consumers or may not be the primary brand with which consumers associate the payment experience. This brand invisibility, or any consumer confusion as to our role in the consumer payment experience, could decrease the value of our brand, which could adversely affect our business.
ESG matters and related stakeholder reaction may impact our reputation, expose us to legal requirements and liability and/or have other business impacts, which could adversely affect our overall business and/or results of operations.
Our brand and reputation are associated with our public commitments to various ESG initiatives, including our goals relating to climate (such as our commitment to achieve net-zero emissions by 2040), financial inclusion, and DEI. Consumers, investors, employees and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on ESG practices. To the extent any of our ESG disclosures, public statements and metrics are subsequently viewed as inaccurate, or we are unable to execute on our ESG initiatives, we may be viewed negatively by stakeholders concerned about these matters. Stakeholders (including those in support of or in opposition to ESG principles) may also have a negative view of us to the extent we are perceived to have not responded appropriately to their ESG concerns or take positions that are contrary to their views or expectations.
In addition, various jurisdictions are increasingly adopting or considering laws and regulations that have or would impact us pertaining to ESG governance, strategy, risk management and metrics/targets/results. These include required corporate reporting and disclosures on specific topics (such as climate and human rights) as well as broader matters (such as other environmental matters, treatment of employees and diversity of workforce). These requirements have, and are likely to continue to, result in increased compliance costs for our business and supply chain, which may increase our operating costs.
Moreover, as governments, investors and other stakeholders face pressure to address climate change and other ESG matters, these stakeholders may express new expectations and focus investments in ways that could cause significant shifts in commerce and consumption behaviors. The impact of and uncertainty that could result from such shifts could ultimately impact our business.
Any of the above issues could have a material or adverse impact to our overall business and/or results of operations.
Talent and Culture
We may not be able to attract and retain a highly qualified and diverse workforce, or maintain our corporate culture, which could harm our overall business and results of operations.
Our performance largely depends on the skills, capabilities and motivation of our employees (including our people leaders), as well as the environment we create for them to enable them to perform their jobs effectively. While attrition and pace of hiring has slowed due to economic uncertainty, the market for specialized skill-sets remains highly competitive, particularly in technology and other areas that are important to the growth of our business. To the extent we are unable to differentiate our value proposition in the market, effectively develop leaders and build robust succession pipelines, it could impact our ability to deliver for our customers. To the extent we cannot design our processes and practices to support equitable outcomes, our ability to attract talent may be significantly impacted and we may experience talent attrition. In addition, escalations in global conflict and a rise in mental health needs are also impacting the well-being of our people. To the extent we are unable to communicate effectively on these issues and provide support to our employees, we could experience a significant impact on our business, reputation and culture. Further,

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
changes in and enforcement of immigration and work permit laws and visa regulations have made it difficult for employees to work in, or transfer among, jurisdictions where we operate, potentially impairing our ability to attract and retain talent.
Our flexibility policies and programs (in particular, those related to work arrangements) may impact the well-being and productivity of our workforce, which in turn could have a negative impact on the quality of our corporate culture and our ability to innovate. To the extent these policies (including our team-based agreements) do not meet candidate or employee expectations for flexibility, this could also impact our ability to attract and retain talent.
Failure to attract, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and diverse employee talent could leave us vulnerable to not anticipating or identifying emerging customer or market opportunities. We also rely on our people leaders to display integrity and decency. To the extent our leaders behave in a manner that is not consistent with our values, we could experience significant impact to our brand and reputation, as well as to our corporate culture.
Any one or more of the above could harm our overall business and results of operations.
Acquisitions and Strategic Investments
Our efforts to enter into acquisitions, strategic investments or new businesses could be impacted or prevented by regulatory scrutiny and could otherwise result in issues that could disrupt our business and harm our results of operations or reputation.
We continue to evaluate our strategic acquisitions of, and investments in, complementary businesses, products or technologies. As we do so, we face increasing regulatory scrutiny with respect to antitrust, national security and other considerations that could impact these efforts. We also face competition for acquisition targets due to the nature of the market for technology companies. As a result, we could be prevented from successfully completing such acquisitions in the future. If we are not successful in these efforts, we could lose strategic opportunities that are dependent, in part, on inorganic growth.
To the extent we do make these acquisitions, we may not be able to successfully partner with or integrate them, despite original intentions and focused efforts. Such an integration also may divert management’s time and resources from our core business and disrupt our operations. Moreover, we have spent, and may continue to spend, time and money on acquisitions or projects that do not sufficiently meet our expectations (either strategically or financially), which has resulted (and may in the future result) in divesting from or otherwise exiting these investments or businesses. Additionally, to the extent we pay the purchase price of any acquisition in cash, it would reduce our cash reserves available to us for other uses, and to the extent the purchase price is paid with our stock, it could be dilutive to our stockholders. Furthermore, we have inherited and may in the future inherit litigation risk which has or may increase our post-acquisition costs of operations and/or impact our ability to successfully finance that business.
Any acquisition, investment or entry into a new business could subject us to new regulations, both directly as a result of the new business as well as in the other existing parts of our business, with which we would need to comply. This compliance could increase our costs, and we could be subject to liability or reputational harm to the extent we cannot meet any such compliance requirements. Additionally, targets that we acquire have had, and may in the future have, data practices that do not initially conform to our privacy, data protection and information security standards and data governance model, which could lead to regulatory scrutiny and reputational harm. These targets also have resulted in, and may in the future lead to, information security vulnerabilities for us.
Settlement and Third-Party Obligations
Our role as guarantor, as well as other contractual obligations and discretionary actions, expose us to risk of loss or illiquidity.
We are a guarantor of certain third-party obligations, including those of certain of our customers and service providers. In this capacity, we are exposed to credit and liquidity risk. We may incur significant losses in connection with transaction settlements if a customer fails to fund its daily settlement obligations due to technical problems, liquidity shortfalls, insolvency or other reasons. The recent increased speed of bank failures as recently seen in the U.S. could increase the potential for such losses. Concurrent settlement failures of more than one of our larger customers or of several smaller customers either on a given day or over a condensed period of time may exceed our available resources. Additionally, certain non-guaranteed transactions as well as chargebacks to acquirers in the event of acquirer default could result in elevated brand risk and the potential for financial loss. These impacts could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We have significant contractual indemnification obligations with certain customers. Should an event occur that triggers these obligations, such an event could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Class A Common Stock and Governance Structure
Provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law could be considered anti-takeover provisions and have an impact on change-in-control.
Provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law could be considered anti-takeover provisions, including provisions that could delay or prevent entirely a merger or acquisition that our stockholders consider favorable. These provisions may also discourage acquisition proposals or have the effect of delaying or preventing entirely a change in control, which could harm our stock price. For example, subject to limited exceptions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation prohibits any person from beneficially owning more than 15% of any of the Class A common stock or any other class or series of our stock with general voting power, or more than 15% of our total voting power. In addition:
our stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors
our stockholders are not entitled to act by written consent
any representative of a competitor of Mastercard or of Mastercard Foundation is disqualified from service on our board of directors
Mastercard Foundation’s substantial stock ownership, and restrictions on its sales, may impact corporate actions or acquisition proposals favorable to, or favored by, the other public stockholders.
As of February 8, 2024, Mastercard Foundation owned 97,543,508 shares of Class A common stock, representing approximately 10.5% of our general voting power. Historically, Mastercard Foundation had been restricted from selling or otherwise transferring its shares of Class A common stock prior to May 1, 2027, except to the extent necessary to satisfy its charitable disbursement requirements, for which purpose earlier sales were permitted and had occurred. In July 2023, pursuant to an application in consultation with Mastercard, Mastercard Foundation received court approval to advance that date to January 1, 2024. As a result, Mastercard Foundation is now permitted to sell all or part of its remaining shares, subject to certain conditions. Mastercard Foundation would do so pursuant to an orderly and structured plan to diversify its Mastercard shares over a seven-year period, while remaining a long-term Mastercard stockholder and retaining a significant holding of Mastercard shares in its portfolio. The directors of Mastercard Foundation are required to be independent of us and our customers. The ownership of Class A common stock by Mastercard Foundation, together with the seven-year diversification plan, could discourage or make more difficult acquisition proposals favored by the other holders of the Class A common stock. In addition, because Mastercard Foundation intends to sell its shares over an extended period of time, it may not have the same interest in short or medium-term movements in our stock price as, or incentive to approve a corporate action that may be favorable to, our other stockholders.
Item 1B. Unresolved staff comments
Not applicable.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity program
As a technology company in the global payments industry entrusted with the safeguarding of sensitive information (including personal information), cybersecurity risk management is an integral part of our overall enterprise risk management program. A robust program to protect our network from cyber and information security threats is critical to managing risk effectively. Our network and platforms incorporate multiple layers of protection, providing greater resiliency and security protection. Our programs are assessed by third parties and incorporate benchmarking and other data from peer companies and consultants. We engage in many efforts to mitigate information security challenges, including maintaining an information security program, an enterprise resilience program and insurance coverage, as well as regularly testing our systems to address potential vulnerabilities. We work with experts across the organization (as well as through other sources such as public-private partnerships) to monitor and respond quickly to a range of cyber and physical threats, including threats and incidents associated with the use of services provided by third-party providers. Our cybersecurity program provides (among other things) a framework for handling cybersecurity threats and incidents, which includes steps for identifying the nature of a cybersecurity threat (including whether the threat is associated with a third-party provider), assessing the severity of a cybersecurity threat (including advancing to key members of management where appropriate for determination of potential materiality) and implementing cybersecurity processes and procedures.

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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
Program highlights
We are committed to the responsible handling of personal information, and we balance our product development activities with a commitment to transparency and control, fairness and non-discrimination, as well as accountability
Our multi-layered privacy, data protection and information security programs and practices are designed to ensure the safety, security and responsible use of the information and data our stakeholders entrust to us
We work with our customers, governments, policymakers and others to help develop and implement standards for safe and secure transactions, as well as privacy-centric data practices
Our programs are informed by third-party assessments and advice regarding best practices from consultants, peer companies and advisors
Our programs are designed to align with internationally recognized privacy, data protection and information security standards and undergo regular certifications and attestations
We continually test our systems to discover and address any potential vulnerabilities
We have processes for evaluating (among other things) the privacy, data protection and information security infrastructure of our third-party providers (including examining any relevant records), and we seek to manage third-party risk with procedures to onboard our third-party providers, monitor their activity during our engagement (where possible) and off-board such third-party service providers at the end of our engagement
We maintain a business continuity program and cyber insurance coverage
Governance and oversight of privacy, data protection and information security
Board and Committee responsibilities
Our Board and Risk Committee have specific oversight responsibilities with respect to cybersecurity and privacy risk:
Board: Understanding the issues and risks that are central to the company’s success, including cybersecurity matters
Risk Committee: Overseeing risks relating to our policies, procedures and strategic approach to information security (inclusive of cybersecurity), privacy and data protection
In general, the Audit Committee and Risk Committee coordinate to oversee our guidelines and policies with respect to risk assessment and risk management and our Audit Committee discusses our financial and operational risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such exposures. In this context, the Audit Committee would be informed of a material cybersecurity incident that could have a potential impact on our financial statements.
Management responsibilities
We have a core group of senior executives who are responsible for assessing and managing risk and implementing policies, procedures and strategies pertaining to security governance and data privacy. These executives include:
Chief Security Officer (CSO), who develops and oversees the programs, policies and controls we have implemented across the organization to reduce and prevent logical and physical risks, including information security and cyber risks to our people, intellectual property, data and tangible property
Chief Privacy and Data Responsibility Officer, who establishes and oversees the programs, policies, processes and controls we have implemented across the organization to ensure compliance with worldwide laws and regulations regarding how we collect, use, share, store, transfer and otherwise process data and leverage AI, while also managing our relevant engagements with regulators, policymakers and key stakeholders
Chief Data Officer, who oversees our efforts to maintain an ethical, responsible enterprise data program that adheres to our high standards for data quality, curation and governance while minimizing data risks
Data Protection Officer, who reports to the Chief Privacy and Data Responsibility Officer and ensures that we continue to adhere to the GDPR and local privacy requirements, including by handling privacy requests from individuals and regulators
In order to be appointed to one of the roles described above, we require expertise with cybersecurity or data privacy (as applicable), as demonstrated by prior work or other cybersecurity or data privacy experience or possession of a cybersecurity or data privacy degree or certification. The individuals currently serving in these roles each meet the applicable expertise requirements.
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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
How management is informed of and monitors incidents
Our management is responsible for identifying, considering and assessing material cybersecurity risks on an ongoing basis, establishing processes to ensure that such potential cybersecurity risks are monitored, implementing appropriate mitigation measures and maintaining our cybersecurity programs. Our cybersecurity programs are under the direction of our CSO (in coordination with our Chief Privacy and Data Responsibility Officer, Chief Data Officer, among others), who receives reports from our cybersecurity teams and monitors the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. Our management, including the CSO and our cybersecurity teams, follow a risk-based escalation process to notify the Risk Committee outside of the regular reporting cycle as appropriate when they identify an emerging risk or material issue.
Reporting to our Board
Given the importance of information security and privacy to our stakeholders, our Board receives an annual report from our CSO to discuss our program for managing information security risks, including cyber and data security risks. The Risk Committee also receives periodic briefings on data privacy from the Chief Privacy and Data Responsibility Officer. Our Risk Committee receives regular reports on our cyber readiness, our risk profile status, our cybersecurity programs, material cybersecurity risks and mitigation strategies, third-party assessments of our cybersecurity program and other cybersecurity developments. The Risk Committee chair provides reports to the Board on such topics. In addition, our Board and the Risk Committee also receive information about these topics as part of regular business and legal and regulatory updates. In addition, we engage directors as part of cybersecurity and data breach incident simulations.
Despite our efforts to identify and respond to cybersecurity threats, we cannot eliminate all risks from cybersecurity threats, or provide assurances that we have not experienced an undetected cybersecurity incident. See “Risk Factors – Information Security and Operational Resilience” in Part I, Item 1A for more information about these and other risks related to information security.
Item 2. Properties
We own our corporate headquarters, located in Purchase, New York, and our principal technology and operations center, located in O’Fallon, Missouri. As of December 31, 2023, Mastercard and its subsidiaries owned or leased commercial properties throughout the U.S. and other countries around the world, consisting of corporate and regional offices, as well as our operations centers.
We believe that our facilities are suitable and adequate for the business that we currently conduct. However, we periodically review our space requirements and may acquire or lease new space to meet the needs of our business and address climate-related impacts, or consolidate and dispose of facilities that are no longer required.
Item 3. Legal proceedings
Refer to Note 13 (Accrued Expenses and Accrued Litigation) and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Item 4. Mine safety disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART I
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Information about our executive officers
(as of February 13, 2024)
Name
Current Position
AgePrevious Mastercard ExperiencePrevious Business Experience
Ajay Bhalla
President, Cyber and
Intelligence Solutions
since November 2018
58
President, Enterprise Security Solutions (2014-2018)
President, Digital Gateway Services (2011-2013)
President, South Asia and Southeast Asia (2008-2011)
Various senior leadership positions, including President, Southeast Asia; Country Manager, Singapore and Head of Marketing, Southeast Asia; Vice President
Various leadership positions at HSBC and Xerox Corporation
Linda Kirkpatrick
President, Americas
since January 2024
47
President, North America (2021-2023)
President, U.S. Issuers (2020)
Executive Vice President, Merchants and Acceptance (2016-2020)
Senior Vice President, Core Merchants (2013-2016)
Senior Vice President, Franchise Development (2011-2013)
Vice President, U.S. Region (2008-2011)
Vice President, Investor Relations
Hai Ling
President, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa
since January 2024
53
Co-President, International Markets (2022-2023)
Co-President, Asia Pacific (2015-2021)
President, Enterprise Development (2014-2015)
President, Greater China (2010-2014)
Various roles at Booz Allen Hamilton and Bank of America
Edward McLaughlin
President and Chief Technology Officer, Mastercard Technology
since May 2017
58
Chief Information Officer (2016-2017)
Chief Emerging Payments Officer (2010-2015)
Various senior leadership roles, including Chief Franchise Development Officer and Senior Vice President, Bill Payment and Healthcare
Group Vice President, Product and Strategy, Metavante Corporation
Co-Founder and CEO, Paytrust, Inc.
Sachin Mehra
Chief Financial Officer
since April 2019
53
Chief Financial Operations Officer (2018-2019)
Executive Vice President, Commercial Products (2015-2018)
Executive Vice President and Business Financial Officer, North America (2013-2015)
Corporate Treasurer (2010-2013)
Various senior positions at Hess Corporation, including Vice President and Treasurer
Various senior treasury and finance positions at General Motors Corporation and GMAC
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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Name
Current Position
AgePrevious Mastercard ExperiencePrevious Business Experience
Michael Miebach
President and Chief Executive Officer
since January 2021
56
President (2020)
Chief Product Officer (2016-2020)
President, Middle East and Africa (2010-2015)
Managing Director, Middle East and North Africa and Managing Director, Sub-Saharan Africa, Barclays Bank PLC
Various executive positions at Citigroup in Germany, Austria, U.K. and Turkey
Tim Murphy
Chief Administrative Officer
since April 2021
56
General Counsel (2014-2021)
Chief Product Officer (2009-2014)
Various senior leadership roles, including President, U.S. Region; Executive Vice President, Customer Business Planning and Analysis; and Senior Vice President and Associate General Counsel
Associate, Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen and Hamilton, New York and London
Raja Rajamannar
Chief Marketing and Communications Officer and President, Healthcare
since January 2016
62
Chief Marketing Officer (2013-2015)
Executive Vice President-Senior Business and Chief Transformation Officer, Anthem (formerly, WellPoint, Inc.) (2012- 2013)
Senior Vice President and Chief Innovation and Marketing Officer, Humana Inc. (2009-2012)
Various management positions at Citigroup, including Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer-Citi Global Cards
Raj Seshadri
President, Data and Services
since January 2020
58
President, U.S. Issuers (2016-2019)
Managing Director, Head of iShares U.S. Wealth Advisory business, BlackRock (2014-2016)
Managing Director, Global Marketing Officer of iShares, BlackRock, Inc. (2012-2014)
Various leadership positions at Citigroup, U.S. Trust Company and McKinsey & Company, Inc.
Craig Vosburg
Chief Product Officer
since January 2021
56
President, North America (2016-2020)
Chief Product Officer (2014-2015)
Executive Vice President, U.S. Market Development (2010-2014)
Various senior leadership roles, including Head of Mastercard Advisors, U.S. and Canada and Head of Mastercard Advisors, Southeast Asia, Greater China and South Asia/Middle East/Africa

Senior member-financial services practice, Bain & Company and A.T. Kearney
Vice President, CoreStates Financial Corporation

MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K 45


PART II
Item 6. Reserved



PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUES PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Item 5. Market for registrant’s common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Our Class A common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MA”. At February 8, 2024, we had 75 stockholders of record for our Class A common stock. We believe that the number of beneficial owners is substantially greater than the number of record holders because a large portion of our Class A common stock is held in “street name” by brokers.
There is currently no established public trading market for our Class B common stock. There were approximately 226 holders of record of our non-voting Class B common stock as of February 8, 2024, constituting approximately 0.8% of our total outstanding equity.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph and table below compare the cumulative total stockholder return of Mastercard’s Class A common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Financials for the five-year period ended December 31, 2023. The graph assumes a $100 investment in our Class A common stock and both of the indices and the reinvestment of dividends. Mastercard’s Class B common stock is not publicly traded or listed on any exchange or dealer quotation system.
Comparison of cumulative five-year total return

linechart_cumulativefive-yeartotalreturn-01 v2.jpg

Total returns to stockholders for each of the years presented were as follows:
Base periodIndexed Returns
For the Years Ended December 31,
Company/Index201820192020202120222023
Mastercard$100.00 $159.16 $191.27 $193.48 $188.34 $232.40 
S&P 500 100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
S&P 500 Financials100.00 132.13 129.89 175.40 156.92 175.99 
Dividend Declaration and Policy
On December 5, 2023, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.66 per share paid on February 9, 2024 to holders of record on January 9, 2024 of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. On February 6, 2024, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.66 per share payable on May 9, 2024 to holders of record on April 9, 2024 of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Subject to legally available funds, we intend to continue to pay a quarterly cash dividend on our outstanding Class A common stock and Class B common stock. However, the declaration and payment of future dividends is at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, available cash and current and anticipated cash needs.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the fourth quarter of 2023, we repurchased 4.6 million shares for $1.8 billion at an average price of $396.75 per share of Class A common stock. See Note 16 (Stockholders' Equity) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for further discussion with respect to our share repurchase programs. The following table presents our repurchase activity on a cash basis during the fourth quarter of 2023:
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share
(including
commission cost)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
Dollar Value of
Shares that may yet
be Purchased under
the Plans or
Programs 1
October 1 – 311,953,908 $388.82 1,953,908 $4,213,825,619 
November 1 – 301,524,802 $392.00 1,524,802 $3,616,096,554 
December 1 – 311,136,667 $416.75 1,136,667 $14,142,393,829 
Total4,615,377 $396.75 4,615,377 
1Dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the share repurchase programs is as of the end of the period. In December 2023 and 2022, our Board of Directors approved share repurchase programs of our Class A common stock authorizing us to repurchase up to $11.0 billion and $9.0 billion, respectively.
Item 6. [Reserved]


47 MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Item 7. Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes of Mastercard Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Mastercard International Incorporated (“Mastercard International”) (together, “Mastercard” or the “Company”), included elsewhere in this Report. Percentage changes provided throughout “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” were calculated on amounts rounded to the nearest thousand. For discussion related to the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, please see Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Business Overview
Mastercard is a technology company in the global payments industry. We connect consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital partners, businesses and other organizations worldwide by enabling electronic payments and making those payment transactions safe, simple, smart, and accessible. We make payments easier and more efficient by providing a wide range of payment solutions and services using our family of well-known and trusted brands, including Mastercard®, Maestro® and Cirrus®. We operate a multi-rail payments network that provides choice and flexibility for consumers, merchants and our customers. Through our unique and proprietary core global payments network, we switch (authorize, clear and settle) payment transactions. We have additional payments capabilities that include automated clearing house (“ACH”) transactions (both batch and real-time account-based payments). Using these capabilities, we offer payment products and services and capture new payment flows. Our value-added services include, among others, cyber and intelligence solutions designed to allow all parties to transact securely, easily and with confidence, as well as other services that provide proprietary insights, drawing on our principled and responsible use of secure consumer and merchant data. Our investments in new networks, such as open banking solutions and digital identity capabilities, support and strengthen our payments and services solutions. Each of our capabilities support and build upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent. For our core global payments network, our franchise model sets the standards and ground-rules that balance value and risk across all stakeholders and allows for interoperability among them. We employ a multi-layered approach to help protect the global payments ecosystem in which we operate.
Mastercard is not a financial institution. We do not issue cards, extend credit, determine or receive revenue from interest rates or other fees charged to account holders by issuers, or establish the rates charged by acquirers in connection with merchants’ acceptance of our products. In most cases, account holder relationships belong to, and are managed by, our customers.
Financial Results Overview
The following table provides a summary of our key GAAP operating results, as reported: 
Year ended December 31,2023
Increase/
(Decrease)
2022
Increase/
(Decrease)
202320222021
(in millions, except per share data)
Net revenue$25,098 $22,237 $18,884 13%18%
Operating expenses$11,090 $9,973 $8,802 11%13%
Operating income$14,008 $12,264 $10,082 14%22%
Operating margin55.8 %55.2 %53.4 %0.7 ppt1.8 ppt
Income tax expense$2,444 $1,802 $1,620 36%11%
Effective income tax rate17.9 %15.4 %15.7 %2.6 ppt(0.4) ppt
Net income$11,195 $9,930 $8,687 13%14%
Diluted earnings per share$11.83 $10.22 $8.76 16%17%
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding946 971 992 (3)%(2)%

MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K 48


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table provides a summary of our key non-GAAP operating results1, adjusted to exclude the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments, Special Items (which represent litigation judgments and settlements and certain one-time items) and the related tax impacts on our non-GAAP adjustments. In addition, we have presented growth rates, adjusted for the impact of currency:
Year ended December 31,2023
 Increase/(Decrease)
2022
Increase/(Decrease)
202320222021As adjustedCurrency-neutralAs adjustedCurrency-neutral
($ in millions, except per share data)
Adjusted net revenue$25,098 $22,200 $18,884 13%13%18%23%
Adjusted operating expenses$10,551 $9,549 $8,627 10%11%11%14%
Adjusted operating margin58.0 %57.0 %54.3 %1.0 ppt0.9 ppt2.7 ppt3.4 ppt
Adjusted effective income tax rate18.5 %15.7 %15.4 %2.8 ppt2.7 ppt0.3 ppt0.5 ppt
Adjusted net income$11,607 $10,342 $8,333 12%12%24%32%
Adjusted diluted earnings per share$12.26 $10.65 $8.40 15%15%27%34%
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
1 See “Non-GAAP Financial Information” for further information on our non-GAAP adjustments and the reconciliation to GAAP reported amounts.
Key highlights for 2023 as compared to 2022 were as follows:
Net revenueAdjusted net revenue
GAAPNon-GAAP
(currency-neutral)
Both the as reported and as adjusted net revenue increase was attributable to growth in our payment network and value-added services and solutions.
up 13%up 13%
Operating expensesAdjusted
operating expenses
GAAPNon-GAAP
(currency-neutral)
Both the as reported and as adjusted operating expenses increase was primarily due to higher personnel costs and includes 1 percentage point of growth due to acquisitions.
up 11%up 11%
Effective income tax rate
Adjusted effective income tax rate
GAAPNon-GAAP
Both the as reported and as adjusted effective income tax rates were higher than the prior year rates primarily due to the release of a $333 million valuation allowance in 2022 and the establishment of a $327 million valuation allowance in 2023, partially offset by the ability to claim more U.S. foreign tax credits generated in 2022 and 2023.
17.9%18.5%
Other 2023 financial highlights were as follows:
We generated net cash flows from operations of $12.0 billion.
We repurchased 23.8 million shares of our common stock for $9.0 billion and paid dividends of $2.2 billion.
We completed a debt offering for an aggregate principal amount of $1.5 billion.

49 MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Non-GAAP Financial Information
Non-GAAP financial information is defined as a numerical measure of a company’s performance that excludes or includes amounts so as to be different than the most comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). Our non-GAAP financial measures exclude the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments which includes mark-to-market fair value adjustments, impairments and gains and losses upon disposition and the related tax impacts. Our non-GAAP financial measures also exclude the impact of special items, where applicable, which represent litigation judgments and settlements and certain one-time items, as well as the related tax impacts (“Special Items”). We also present growth rates adjusted for the impact of currency, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. We believe that the non-GAAP financial measures presented facilitate an understanding of our operating performance and provide a meaningful comparison of our results between periods. We use non-GAAP financial measures to, among other things, evaluate our ongoing operations in relation to historical results, for internal planning and forecasting purposes and in the calculation of performance-based compensation. We excluded these items because management evaluates the underlying operations and performance of the Company separately from these recurring and nonrecurring items. Net revenue, operating expenses, operating margin, other income (expense), effective income tax rate, net income and diluted earnings per share adjusted for the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments, Special Items and/or the impact of currency should not be relied upon as substitutes for measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.
Our non-GAAP financial measures for the comparable periods exclude the impact of the following:
Gains and Losses on Equity Investments
During 2023, 2022 and 2021, we recorded net pre-tax losses of $61 million ($36 million after tax, or $0.04 per diluted share), net pre-tax losses of $145 million ($126 million after tax, or $0.13 per diluted share) and net pre-tax gains of $645 million ($497 million after tax, or $0.50 per diluted share), respectively. These net gains and losses were primarily related to unrealized fair market value adjustments on marketable and nonmarketable equity securities. In addition, in 2021, net gains also included realized gains on sales of marketable equity securities.
Special Items
Litigation provisions
During 2023, we recorded pre-tax charges of $539 million ($376 million after tax, or $0.40 per diluted share) related to litigation provisions, which included pre-tax charges of:
$344 million as a result of changes in the estimate related to the claims of merchants who opted out of the U.S. merchant class litigation, and
$195 million as a result of settlements with a number of U.K. and Pan-European merchants.
During 2022, we recorded pre-tax charges of $356 million ($263 million after tax, or $0.27 per diluted share) related to litigation provisions, which included pre-tax charges of:
$223 million as a result of settlements (both final and agreements in principle) with a number of U.K. merchants, and
$133 million as a result of a change in estimate related to the claims of merchants who opted out of the U.S. merchant class litigation.
During 2021, we recorded pre-tax charges of $94 million ($74 million after tax, or $0.07 per diluted share) related to litigation settlements and estimated attorneys’ fees with U.K. and Pan-European merchants.
Russia-related impacts
During 2022, we recorded a net pre-tax charge of $30 million ($24 million after tax, or $0.02 per diluted share), directly related to imposed sanctions and the suspension of our business operations in Russia. The net charge was comprised of general and administrative expenses of $67 million, primarily related to incremental employee-related costs and reserves on uncollectible balances with certain sanctioned customers. This charge was offset by net benefits of $37 million in net revenue, primarily related to a reduction in payment network rebates and incentives liabilities as a result of lower estimates of customer performance for certain customer business agreements due to the suspension of our business operations in Russia.
Indirect tax matter
During 2021, we recorded a pre-tax charge of $88 million ($69 million after tax, or $0.07 per diluted share) to resolve a foreign indirect tax matter for 2015 through 2021 and the related interest expense. The charge was comprised of general and administrative expenses of $82 million and other income (expense) of $6 million.

MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K 50


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
See Note 7 (Investments) and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Report for further discussion related to certain of our non-GAAP financial measures.
Currency-neutral Growth Rates
Currency-neutral growth rates are calculated by remeasuring the prior period’s results using the current period’s exchange rates for both the translational and transactional impacts on operating results and are non-GAAP financial measures. The impact of currency translation represents the effect of translating operating results where the functional currency is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency. The impact of the transactional currency represents the effect of converting revenue and expenses occurring in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The impact of the related realized gains and losses resulting from our foreign exchange derivative contracts designated as cash flow hedging instruments is recognized in the respective financial statement line item on the statement of operations when the underlying forecasted transactions impact earnings. We believe the presentation of currency-neutral growth rates provides relevant information to facilitate an understanding of our operating results.
The translational and transactional impact of currency and the related impact of our foreign exchange derivative contracts designated as cash flow hedging instruments (“Currency impact”) has been excluded from our currency-neutral growth rates and has been identified in the non-GAAP information below and our “Drivers of Change” tables. See “Foreign Currency - Currency Impact” for further information on our currency impacts and “Financial Results - Net Revenue” and “Financial Results - Operating Expenses” for our “Drivers of Change” tables.
The following tables reconcile our reported financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP to the respective adjusted non-GAAP financial measures:
Year ended December 31, 2023
Net revenue
 Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income

(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$25,098 $11,090 55.8 %$(369)17.9 %$11,195 $11.83 
(Gains) losses on equity investments ** ****61 0.1 %36 0.04 
Litigation provisions ** (539)2.1 %**0.5 %376 0.40 
Adjusted - Non-GAAP$25,098 $10,551 58.0 %$(308)18.5 %$11,607 $12.26 
Year ended December 31, 2022
Net revenue Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income
(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$22,237 $9,973 55.2 %$(532)15.4 %$9,930 $10.22 
(Gains) losses on equity investments******145 — %126 0.13 
Litigation provisions**(356)1.6 %**0.3 %263 0.27 
Russia-related impacts(37)(67)0.2 %**— %24 0.02 
Adjusted - Non-GAAP$22,200 $9,549 57.0 %$(387)15.7 %$10,342 $10.65 
Year ended December 31, 2021
Net revenue Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income
(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$18,884 $8,802 53.4 %$225 15.7 %$8,687 8.76 
(Gains) losses on equity investments******(645)(0.5)%(497)(0.50)
Litigation provisions**(94)0.5 %**0.1 %74 0.07 
Indirect tax matter**(82)0.4 %0.1 %69 0.07 
Adjusted - Non-GAAP$18,884 $8,627 54.3 %$(413)15.4 %$8,333 $8.40 
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
** Not applicable

51 MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following tables represent the reconciliation of our growth rates reported under GAAP to our non-GAAP growth rates:
Year Ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Increase/(Decrease)
Net revenue Operating expensesOperating marginEffective income tax rate Net income Diluted earnings per share
Reported - GAAP13 %11 %0.7  ppt2.6  ppt13 %16 %
(Gains) losses on equity investments **  **  ** 0.1 ppt(1)%(1)%
Litigation provisions ** (1)%0.5  ppt0.1 ppt%%
Russia-related impacts— %%(0.1) ppt— ppt— %— %
Adjusted - Non-GAAP13 %10 %1.0  ppt2.8 ppt12 %15 %
Currency impact— %— %(0.1) ppt(0.1) ppt— %— %
Adjusted - Non-GAAP - currency-neutral13 %11 %0.9 ppt 2.7 ppt12 %15 %
Year Ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2021
Increase/(Decrease)
Net revenue Operating expensesOperating marginEffective income tax rate Net income Diluted earnings per share
Reported - GAAP18 %13 %1.8  ppt(0.4) ppt14 %17 %
(Gains) losses on equity investments******0.5 ppt%%
Litigation provisions**(3)%1.1 ppt0.3 ppt%%
Russia-related impacts— %(1)%0.2 ppt— ppt— %— %
Indirect tax matter**%(0.4) ppt(0.1) ppt(1)%(1)%
Adjusted - Non-GAAP18 %11 %2.7 ppt0.3 ppt24 %27 %
Currency impact%%0.8 ppt0.2 ppt%%
Adjusted - Non-GAAP - currency-neutral23 %14 %3.4 ppt0.5 ppt32 %34 %
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
** Not applicable
Key Metrics and Drivers
In addition to the financial measures described above in “Financial Results Overview”, we review the following metrics to evaluate and identify trends in our business, measure our performance, prepare financial projections and make strategic decisions. We believe that the key metrics presented facilitate an understanding of our operating and financial performance and provide a meaningful comparison of our results between periods. 
Operating Margin measures how much profit we make on each dollar of sales after our operating costs but before other income (expense) and income tax expense. Operating margin is calculated by dividing our operating income by net revenue.
Key Drivers
Gross Dollar Volume (“GDV”)1 measures dollar volume of activity, including both domestic and cross-border volume, on cards carrying our brands during the period, on a local currency basis and U.S. dollar-converted basis. GDV represents purchase volume plus cash volume; “purchase volume” means the aggregate dollar amount of purchases made with Mastercard-branded cards for the relevant period; and “cash volume” means the aggregate dollar amount of cash disbursements and includes the impact of balance transfers and convenience checks obtained with Mastercard-branded cards for the relevant period. Information denominated in U.S. dollars relating to GDV is calculated by applying an established U.S. dollar/local currency exchange rate for each local currency in which our volumes are reported. These exchange rates are calculated on a quarterly basis using the average exchange rate for each quarter.  We report period-over-period rates of change in purchase volume and cash volume on the basis of local currency information, in order to eliminate the impact of changes in the value of currencies against the U.S. dollar in calculating such rates of change.

MASTERCARD 2023 FORM 10-K 52


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Cross-border Volume Growth2 measures the growth of cross-border dollar volume during the period, on a local currency basis and U.S. dollar-converted basis, for all Mastercard-branded programs.
Switched Transactions2 measures the number of transactions switched by Mastercard, which is defined as the number of transactions initiated and switched through our network during the period.
1    Data used in the calculation of GDV is provided by Mastercard customers and is subject to verification by Mastercard and partial cross-checking against information provided by Mastercard’s transaction switching systems. All data is subject to revision and amendment by Mastercard or Mastercard’s customers. Starting in the first quarter of 2022, data related to sanctioned Russian banks was not reported to us and therefore such amounts are not included. Subsequent to the suspension of our business operations in Russia in March 2022, there is no Russian data to be reported.
2    Growth rates are normalized to eliminate the effects of differing switching and carryover days between periods, as needed. Carryover days are those where transactions and volumes from days where the Company does not clear and settle are processed.
The following tables provide a summary of the growth trends in our key drivers.
For the Years Ended December 31,
20232022
Increase/(Decrease)
USDLocalUSDLocal
Mastercard-branded GDV growth 1
10%12%6%12%
United States6%6%10%10%
Worldwide less United States13%15%4%13%
Cross-border volume growth 1
25%24%33%45%
Mastercard-branded GDV growth adjusted for Russia 1,2
11%12%10%18%
Worldwide less United States GDV growth adjusted for Russia 1,2
13%15%11%22%
Cross-border volume growth adjusted for Russia 1,2
25%25%37%50%
For the Years Ended December 31,