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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number: 001-32877

ma-20211231_g1.jpg
Mastercard Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
13-4172551
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification Number)
2000 Purchase Street
Purchase,
NY
10577
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(914) 249-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange of which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
MA
New York Stock Exchange
1.1% Notes due 2022
MA22
New York Stock Exchange
2.1% Notes due 2027
MA27
New York Stock Exchange
2.5% Notes due 2030
MA30
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes
No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
(do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13 (a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes
No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, held by non-affiliates (using the New York Stock Exchange closing price as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $317.9 billion. There is currently no established public trading market for the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of February 8, 2022, there were 969,729,455 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and 7,746,984 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.






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MASTERCARD INCORPORATED FISCAL YEAR 2021 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
PART II
Reserved
PART III
PART IV
MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 3


In this Report on Form 10-K (“Report”), references to the “Company,” “Mastercard,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business conducted by Mastercard Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries, including our operating subsidiary, Mastercard International Incorporated, and to the Mastercard brand.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Report contains forward-looking statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts may be forward-looking statements. When used in this Report, the words “believe”, “expect”, “could”, “may”, “would”, “will”, “trend” and similar words are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements that relate to the Company’s future prospects, developments and business strategies.
Many factors and uncertainties relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are outside of our control, influence whether any forward-looking statements can or will be achieved. Any one of those factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in writing in any forward-looking statements made by Mastercard or on its behalf, including, but not limited to, the following factors:
regulation directly related to the payments industry (including regulatory, legislative and litigation activity with respect to interchange rates and surcharging)
the impact of preferential or protective government actions
regulation of privacy, data, security and the digital economy
regulation that directly or indirectly applies to us based on our participation in the global payments industry (including anti-money laundering, counter financing of terrorism, economic sanctions and anti-corruption, account-based payments systems, and issuer practice regulation)
the impact of changes in tax laws, as well as regulations and interpretations of such laws or challenges to our tax positions
potential or incurred liability and limitations on business related to any litigation or litigation settlements
the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response
the impact of competition in the global payments industry (including disintermediation and pricing pressure)
the challenges relating to rapid technological developments and changes
the challenges relating to operating a real-time account-based payments system and to working with new customers and end users
the impact of information security incidents, account data breaches or service disruptions
issues related to our relationships with our stakeholders (including loss of substantial business from significant customers, competitor relationships with our customers, banking industry consolidation, merchants’ continued focus on acceptance costs and unique risks from our work with governments)
exposure to loss or illiquidity due to our role as guarantor and other contractual obligations
the impact of global economic, political, financial and societal events and conditions, including adverse currency fluctuations and foreign exchange controls
reputational impact, including impact related to brand perception and lack of visibility of our brands in products and services
the inability to attract, hire and retain a highly qualified and diverse workforce, or maintain our corporate culture
issues related to acquisition integration, strategic investments and entry into new businesses
issues related to our Class A common stock and corporate governance structure
Please see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for a complete discussion of these risk factors. We caution you that the important factors referenced above may not contain all of the factors that are important to you. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Report or as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update our forward-looking statements.

4 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART I



PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Item 1. Business
Overview
Mastercard is a technology company in the global payments industry that connects consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital partners, businesses and other organizations worldwide, enabling them to use electronic forms of payment instead of cash and checks. We make payments easier and more efficient by providing a wide range of payment solutions and services using our family of well-known and trusted brands, including Mastercard®, Maestro® and Cirrus®. We operate a multi-rail payments network that provides choice and flexibility for consumers and merchants. Through our unique and proprietary core global payments network, we switch (authorize, clear and settle) payment transactions. We have additional payment capabilities that include automated clearing house (“ACH”) transactions (both batch and real-time account-based payments). Using these capabilities, we offer integrated payment products and services and capture new payment flows. Our value-added services include, among others, cyber and intelligence solutions to allow all parties to transact easily and with confidence, as well as other services that provide proprietary insights, drawing on our principled use of consumer and merchant data. Our franchise model sets the standards and ground-rules that balance value and risk across all stakeholders and allows for interoperability among them. Our payment solutions are designed to ensure safety and security for the global payments ecosystem.
For a full discussion of our business, please see page 9.
Our Performance
The following are our key financial and operational highlights for 2021, including growth rates over the prior year:
GAAP
Net revenueNet incomeDiluted EPS
$18.9B$8.7B$8.76
up 23%up 35%up 38%
Non-GAAP 1 (currency-neutral)
Net revenueAdjusted net incomeAdjusted diluted EPS
$18.9B$8.3B$8.40
up 22%up 28%up 30%
$7.6B
$5.9BRepurchased shares$9.5B
in capital returned
to stockholders
$1.7BDividends paid
cash flows
from operations
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Gross dollar volume
(growth on a local currency basis)
ma-20211231_g4.jpg
Cross-border volume growth (on a local currency basis)
ma-20211231_g5.jpg
Switched transactions
$7.7Tup 32%112.1B
up 21%up 25%
1Non-GAAP results exclude the impact of gains and losses on equity investments, Special Items and/or foreign currency. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Results Overview” in Part II, Item 7 for the reconciliation to the most direct comparable GAAP financial measures.
For a full discussion of our results of operations, including impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item II, Part 7.

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Our Strategy
We remain committed to our strategy to grow our core payments network, diversify our customers and geographies and build new capabilities through a combination of organic and inorganic strategic initiatives. We are executing on this strategy through a focus on three key priorities:
expand in payments for consumers, businesses and governments
extend our services to enhance transactions and drive customer value
embrace new network opportunities to enable open banking, digital identity and other adjacent network capabilities
Each of our priorities supports and builds upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent.
ma-20211231_g6.jpg
Our Key Strategic Priorities
Expand in payments. We continue to focus on expanding upon our core payments network to enable payment flows for consumers, businesses, governments and others, providing them with choice and flexibility to transact across multiple payment rails (including cards, real-time payments and account-to-account) while ensuring that all payments are done safely, securely and seamlessly. We do so by:
Driving growth in consumer purchases with a focus on accelerating digitization, growing acceptance and pursuing an expanded set of use cases, including through partnerships

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Capturing new payment flows by expanding our multi-rail capabilities and applications to penetrate key flows such as disbursements and remittances (through Mastercard Send™ and Cross-Border Services), business-to-business (“B2B”) (including Mastercard Track Business Payment Service™ (“Track BPS”) and areas beyond payments such as enablement of supply chain financing) and consumer bill payments
Leaning into new payment innovations such as our planned launch in 2022 of Mastercard Installments, our buy-now-pay-later solution, and developing solutions that support digital currencies and blockchain applications
Extend our services. Our services drive value for our customers and the broader payments ecosystem. We continue to do that as well as diversify our business, by extending our services, which include cyber and intelligence solutions, insights and analytics, test and learn, consulting, managed services, loyalty, processing and payment gateway solutions for e-commerce merchants. As we drive value, our services help accelerate our top-line financial performance by supporting revenue growth in our core payments network. We extend our services by:
Enhancing the value of payments by making payments safe, secure, intelligent and seamless
Expanding services to new segments and use cases to address the needs of a larger set of customers, including financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital players and others, while expanding our geographic reach
Supporting and strengthening new network capabilities, including expanding services associated with digital identities and deploying our expertise in open banking and open data, including with improved analytics
Embrace new network opportunities. We are building and managing new adjacent network capabilities to power commerce, creating new opportunities to develop and embed services. We do so by:
Applying our open banking solutions to help institutions and individuals exchange data securely and easily, by enabling the reliable access, transmission and management of consumer data (including for opening new accounts, securing loans, increasing credit scores and enabling consumer choice in money movement and personal finance management)
Enabling digital identity solutions, including device intelligence, document proofing, internet protocol (“IP”) intelligence, biometrics, transaction fraud data, location, identity attributes and payment authorization to make transactions across individual devices and accounts efficient, safe and secure
Each of our priorities supports and builds upon each other and are fundamentally interdependent:
Payments provide data and distribution to drive scale and differentiation in services and enable the development and adoption of new network capabilities
Services improve the security, efficiency and intelligence of payments, improve portfolio performance, differentiate our offerings and strengthen our customer relationships. They also power our open banking and digital identity platforms
New network opportunities strengthen our digital payments value proposition, including improved authentication with digital identity, and new opportunities to develop and embed services in our expanding product offerings
Powering Our Success
These priorities are supported by six key drivers:
People. Our success is driven by the skills, experience, integrity and mindset of the talent we hire. We attract and retain top talent from diverse backgrounds and industries. Our people and our winning culture is based on decency, respect and inclusion where people have opportunities to perform purpose-driven work that impacts communities, customers and co-workers on a global scale. The diversity and skill sets of our people underpin everything we do.
Brand. Our brands and brand identities (including our sonic brand identity) serve as a differentiator for our business, representing our values and enabling us to accelerate growth in new areas.
Data. We use our data assets, infrastructure and platforms to create a range of products and services for our customers, while incorporating our data principles in how we design, implement and deliver those solutions. Our Privacy by Design and Data by Design processes have been developed to ensure we embed privacy, security and data controls in all of our products and services, keeping a clear focus on protecting customers’ and individuals’ data.
Technology. Our technology provides resiliency, scalability and flexibility in how we serve customers. It enables broader reach to scale digital payment services to multiple channels, including mobile devices. Our technology standards, services and governance model help us to serve as the connection that allows financial institutions, financial technology companies (fintechs) and others to interoperate and enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to engage through digital channels.
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Franchise. We manage an ecosystem of stakeholders who participate in our network. Our franchise creates and sustains a comprehensive series of value exchanges across our ecosystem. We provide a balanced ecosystem where all participants benefit from the availability, innovation and safety and security of our network and platforms. Our franchise enables the scale of our payments network and helps ensure our multiple payment capabilities operate under a single governance structure, which can be extended to new opportunities.
Doing Well by Doing Good. We apply the full breadth of our technology, insights, partnerships and people to build a more financially inclusive and sustainable digital economy, with a commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion and a focus on a sustainable future. We are committed to our core values of operating ethically, responsibly and with decency. This commitment is directly connected to our continuing success as a business. We refer you to our most recently published Sustainability Report and Proxy Statement (each located on our website) for our efforts and initiatives in the area of sustainability.
Our Business
Our Multi-Rail Network and Payment Capabilities
We enable a wide variety of payment capabilities (including integrated products and value-added service solutions) over our multi-rail network among account holders, merchants, financial institutions, businesses, governments and others, offering our customers one partner for their payment needs.
Core Network
Our core network links issuers and acquirers around the globe to facilitate the switching of transactions, permitting account holders to use a Mastercard product at tens of millions of acceptance locations worldwide. This network facilitates an efficient, safe and secure means for receiving payments, a convenient, quick and secure payment method for consumers to access their funds and a channel for businesses to receive insight through information that is derived from our network. We enable transactions for our customers through our core network in more than 150 currencies and in more than 210 countries and territories.

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Core Network Transactions. Our core network supports what is often referred to as a “four-party” payments network and includes the following participants: account holder (a person or entity who holds a card or uses another device enabled for payment), issuer (the account holder’s financial institution), merchant and acquirer (the merchant’s financial institution).
We do not issue cards, extend credit, determine or receive revenue from interest rates or other fees charged to account holders by issuers, or establish the rates charged by acquirers in connection with merchants’ acceptance of our products. In most cases, account holder relationships belong to, and are managed by, our customers.
The following graphic depicts a typical transaction on our core network, and our role in that transaction:
ma-20211231_g7.jpg
In a typical transaction, an account holder purchases goods or services from a merchant using one of our payment products. After the transaction is authorized by the issuer, the issuer pays the acquirer an amount equal to the value of the transaction, minus the interchange fee (described below) and other applicable fees, and then posts the transaction to the account holder’s account. The acquirer pays the amount of the purchase, net of a discount (referred to as the “merchant discount” rate), to the merchant.
Interchange Fees. Interchange fees reflect the value merchants receive from accepting our products and play a key role in balancing the costs and benefits that consumers and merchants derive. Generally, interchange fees are collected from acquirers and paid to issuers to reimburse the issuers for a portion of the costs incurred. These costs are incurred by issuers in providing services that benefit all participants in the system, including acquirers and merchants, whose participation in the network enables increased sales to their existing and new customers, efficiencies in the delivery of existing and new products, guaranteed payments and improved experience for the customers. We (or, alternatively, financial institutions) establish “default interchange fees” that apply when there are no other established settlement terms in place between an issuer and an acquirer. We administer the collection and remittance of interchange fees through the settlement process.
Additional Four-Party System Fees. The merchant discount rate is established by the acquirer to cover its costs of both participating in the four-party system and providing services to merchants. The rate takes into consideration the amount of the interchange fee which the acquirer generally pays to the issuer. Additionally, acquirers may charge merchants processing and related fees in addition to the merchant discount rate. Issuers may also charge account holders fees for the transaction, including, for example, fees for extending revolving credit.
Switched Transactions
Authorization, Clearing and Settlement. Through our core network, we enable the routing of a transaction to the issuer for its approval, facilitate the exchange of financial transaction information between issuers and acquirers after a successfully conducted transaction, and settle the transaction by facilitating the exchange of funds between parties via settlement banks chosen by us and our customers.
Cross-Border and Domestic. Our core network switches transactions throughout the world when the merchant country and country of issuance are different (“cross-border transactions”), providing account holders with the ability to use, and merchants
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to accept, our products and services across country borders. We also provide switched transaction services to customers where the merchant country and the country of issuance are the same (“domestic transactions”). We switch over 60% of all transactions for Mastercard and Maestro-branded cards, including nearly all cross-border transactions.
We guarantee the settlement of many of the transactions from issuers to acquirers to ensure the integrity of our core network. We refer to the amount of this guarantee as our settlement exposure. We do not, however, guarantee payments to merchants by their acquirers or the availability of unspent prepaid account holder account balances.
Core Network Architecture. Our core network features a globally integrated structure that provides scale for our issuers, enabling them to expand into regional and global markets. It is based largely on a distributed (peer-to-peer) architecture that enables the network to adapt to the needs of each transaction. The network accomplishes this by performing intelligent routing and applying multiple value-added services (such as fraud scoring, tokenization services, etc.) to appropriate transactions in real time. This architecture enables us to connect all parties regardless of where or how the transaction is occurring. It has 24-hour a day availability and world-class response time.
Additional Payment Capabilities
ACH Batch and Real-Time Account-Based Payments Infrastructure and Applications. We offer ACH batch and real-time account-based payments capabilities, enabling payments for ACH transactions between bank accounts in real-time. These capabilities provide consumers and businesses the ability to make instant (faster) payments while providing enhanced data and messaging capabilities. We build, implement, enhance and operate real-time clearing and settlement infrastructure, payment platforms and direct debit systems for jurisdictions globally. As of December 31, 2021, we either operated or were implementing real-time payments infrastructure in 12 of the top 50 markets as measured by GDP. We also apply our real-time payments capabilities to new payment flows, such as consumer bill payments using our real-time bill pay solutions.
Account to Account. We enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to send and receive money directly from account to account. We apply these capabilities to help these stakeholders with various disbursements and remittances.
We discuss below under “Our Payment Products and Applications” the ways in which we apply our real-time account-based and account to account payment capabilities to capture new payment flows.
Security and Franchise
Payments System Security. We have a multi-layered approach to protect the global payments ecosystem. As part of this approach, we have a robust program to protect our network from cyber and information security threats. Our network and platforms incorporate multiple layers of protection, providing greater resiliency and best-in-class security protection. Our programs are assessed by third parties and incorporate benchmarking and other data from peer companies and consultants. We engage in many efforts to mitigate information security challenges, including maintaining an information security program, an enterprise resilience program and insurance coverage, as well as regularly testing our systems to address potential vulnerabilities. Through the combined efforts of our Security Operations Centers, Fusion Centers and the Mastercard Intelligence Center, we work with experts across the organization (as well as through other sources such as public-private partnerships) to monitor and respond quickly to a range of cyber and physical threats.
As another feature of our multi-layered approach to protect the global payments ecosystem, we work with issuers, acquirers, merchants, governments and payments industry associations to develop and put in place technical standards (such as EMV standards for chips and smart payment cards) for safe and secure transactions and we provide solutions and products that are designed to ensure safety and security for the global payments ecosystem. We discuss specific cyber and intelligence solutions that we offer to our customers in “Our Value-Added Services”.
Our Franchise. We manage an ecosystem of stakeholders that participate in our network and payments platforms. Our franchise creates and sustains a comprehensive series of value exchanges across our ecosystem. We ensure a balanced ecosystem where all participants benefit from the availability, innovation, safety and security of our network. We achieve this through the following key activities:
Participant Onboarding. We ensure the capability of new customers to use our network and define the roles and responsibilities for their operations once on the network
Safety and Security. We establish the core principles, including ensuring consumer protections and integrity, so participants feel confident to transact on the network
Operating Standards. We define the operational, technical and financial policies to which network participants are required to adhere

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Responsible Stewardship. We establish performance standards to support ecosystem growth and optimization and establish proactive monitoring to ensure participant performance
Issue Resolution. We operate a framework to enable the resolution of disputes for both customers and consumers
Our Payment Products and Applications
We provide a wide variety of integrated products and services that support payment products that customers can offer to consumers and merchants. These offerings facilitate transactions across our multi-rail payments network and platforms among account holders, merchants, financial institutions, digital partners, businesses, governments and other organizations in markets globally.
 ma-20211231_g8.jpgCore Payment Products
Consumer Credit. We offer a number of products that enable issuers to provide consumers with credit, allowing them to defer payment. These programs are designed to meet the needs of our customers around the world and address standard, premium and affluent consumer segments.
How We Benefit Consumers
We enable our customers to benefit consumers by:
making electronic payments more convenient, secure and efficient
delivering better, seamless consumer experiences
providing consumers choice, empowering them to make and receive payments in the ways that best meet their daily needs
protecting consumers and all other participants in a transaction, as well as consumer data
providing loyalty rewards
Consumer Debit. We support a range of payment products and solutions that allow our customers to provide consumers with convenient access to funds in deposit and other accounts. Our debit and deposit access programs can be used to make purchases and to obtain cash in bank branches, at ATMs and, in some cases, at the point of sale. Our branded debit programs consist of Mastercard (including standard, premium and affluent offerings), Maestro (the only PIN-based solution that operates globally) and Cirrus (our primary global cash access solution).
Prepaid. Prepaid accounts are a type of electronic payment that enables consumers to pay in advance whether or not they previously had a bank account or a credit history. These accounts can be tailored to meet specific program, customer or consumer needs, such as paying bills, sending person-to-person payments or withdrawing cash from an ATM. Our focus ranges from digital accounts (such as fintech and gig economy platforms) to business programs such as employee payroll, health savings accounts and solutions for small business owners. Our prepaid programs also offer opportunities in the private and public sectors to drive financial inclusion of previously unbanked individuals through social security payments, unemployment benefits and salary cards.
We also provide prepaid program management services, primarily outside of the United States, that provide processing and end-to-end services on behalf of issuers or distributor partners such as airlines, foreign exchange bureaus and travel agents.
Commercial Credit and Debit. We offer commercial credit and debit payment products and solutions that meet the payment needs of large corporations, midsize companies, small businesses and government entities. Our solutions streamline procurement and payment processes, manage information and expenses (such as travel and entertainment) and reduce administrative costs. Our point of sale offerings include small business (debit and credit), travel and entertainment, purchasing cards and fleet cards. Our SmartData platform provides expense management and reporting capabilities. Our virtual card offerings, supported by our Mastercard In Control™ platform, generate virtual account numbers which provide businesses with enhanced controls, more security and better data.
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The following chart provides gross dollar volume (“GDV”) and number of cards featuring our brands in 2021 for select programs and solutions:
Year Ended December 31, 2021As of December 31, 2021
GDVCards
(in billions)Growth (Local)% of Total GDV(in millions)Percentage Increase from December 31, 2020
Mastercard-branded Programs1,2
    Consumer Credit$2,899 18 %38 %968 %
    Consumer Debit and Prepaid3,953 22 %51 %1,509 13 %
    Commercial Credit and Debit867 25 %11 %111 11 %
1Excludes Maestro and Cirrus cards and volume generated by those cards.
2Prepaid includes both consumer and commercial prepaid.
ma-20211231_g9.jpgNew Payment Flows
We offer platforms that apply our payment capabilities to support and capture new payment flows beyond cards.
Disbursements and Remittances. We offer applications that enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to send and receive money domestically and across borders with greater speed and ease.
Using Mastercard Send, we partner with digital messaging and payment platforms to enable consumers to send and receive money directly within applications. We partner with central banks, fintechs and financial institutions to help governments and nonprofits more efficiently enable, as applicable, distribution of social and economic assistance and business-to-consumer (“B2C”) disbursements.
Mastercard Cross-Border Services enables a wide range of payment flows and use cases to customers, including trade payments, remittances and disbursements. These flows are enabled via a distribution network with a single point of access that allows financial institutions, fintechs and digital partners to send and receive money globally through multiple channels, including bank accounts, mobile wallets, cards and cash payouts.
B2B Payments. We continue to focus on developing solutions to address ways that businesses move money, building on our point of sale capabilities to capture B2B payments. We offer B2B solutions globally that optimize customer choice, enabling payments through card, ACH and real-time payment rails. Mastercard Track BPS, our two-sided open-loop commercial service platform, is aimed at improving the way businesses pay and get paid by simplifying and automating payments between suppliers and buyers. It provides a single connection enabling access to multiple payment rails, providing greater control, richer data and working capital optimization capabilities to enhance B2B transactions for both buyers and suppliers. Track BPS leverages multiple payment options, including both real-time payments and batch ACH, as well as our core network.
Consumer Bill Payments.
We offer applications including those that make it easier for consumers and small businesses to present, view, manage and pay their bills through their online or mobile banking apps. Payments can be made in a variety of ways, using cards, real-time payments or batch ACH payments through a digital interface, providing a convenient, secure and paperless means to manage household bills in one place.
Our bill pay solutions, which include Bill Pay Exchange, provide an open, Application Programming Interface (“API”) based bill pay network that leverages real-time messaging to connect consumers with billers and merchants through the home banking channel. We also provide real-time bill pay solutions as well as clearing and instant payment services. Our solutions enable enhanced biller setup and expanded bill presentment. They facilitate payment choice using multiple payment rails (including real-time account-based payments) and deliver immediate payment confirmation, providing an experience that benefits consumers, financial institutions and billers.

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ma-20211231_g10.jpgInnovation and Technology
Our innovation capabilities and our technology provide resiliency, scalability and flexibility in how we serve customers. They enable broader reach to scale digital payment services across multiple channels, including mobile devices. Our technology standards, services and governance model help us to serve as the connection that allows financial institutions, fintechs and technology companies to interoperate and enable consumers, businesses, governments and merchants to engage through digital channels.
Delivering better digital experiences everywhere. We are using our technologies and security protocols to develop solutions to make digital shopping and selling experiences, such as on smartphones and other connected devices, simpler, faster and safer for both consumers and merchants. We also offer products that make it easier for merchants to accept payments and expand their customer base.
Our contactless payment solutions help deliver a simple and intuitive way to pay, as well as health and safety benefits when consumers are looking for low-touch options

Key 2021 Developments
During 2021, we announced the expansion of several programs that enabled consumers to either use their cards to purchase cryptocurrencies or to convert their cryptocurrencies back into fiat currencies at their respective financial institutions.
During 2021, we announced Mastercard Installments, our new open loop solution to deliver buy-now-pay-later installments capabilities at scale. The solution connects lenders with merchants across our acceptance network to provide buy-now-pay-later options for consumers. The program is expected to launch in 2022.
Our Click to Pay checkout experience is designed to provide consumers the same convenience and security in a digital environment that they have when paying in a store, make it easier for merchants to implement secure digital payments and provide issuers with improved fraud detection and prevention capability. This experience is based on the EMV Secure Remote Commerce industry standard that enables a faster, more secure checkout experience across web and mobile sites, mobile apps and connected devices
Our Digital First Card program enables customers to offer their cardholders a fully digital payment experience with an optional physical card, meeting cardholder expectations of immediacy, safety and convenience during card application, authentication and instant card access, securing purchases (whether contactless, in-store, in-app or via the web) and managing alerts, controls and benefits
Our Digital Doors program helps small businesses establish and protect an online presence, including accepting digital payments
Securing more transactions. We are leveraging tokenization, biometrics and machine learning technologies in our push to secure every transaction. These efforts include driving EMV-level security and benefits through all our payment channels.
Simplifying access to, and integration of, our digital assets. Our Mastercard Developer platform makes it easy for customers and partners to leverage our many digital assets and services. By providing a single access point with tools and capabilities to find what we believe are some of the best-in-class APIs across a broad range of Mastercard services, we enable easy integration of our services into new and existing solutions.
Identifying and experimenting with future technologies, start-ups and trends. Through Mastercard Foundry (formerly known as Mastercard Labs), we continue to bring customers and partners access to thought leadership, innovation methodologies, new technologies and relevant early-stage fintech players.
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Our Value-Added Services
Our services encompass a wide-ranging portfolio of value-added and differentiating capabilities that:
instill trust in the ecosystem to allow parties to transact and operate with confidence
provide actionable insights to our customers to assist in their decision making
enable our customers to strengthen their engagement with their own end-users
enable connectivity and access for a fragmented and diverse set of parties
ma-20211231_g11.jpgCyber and Intelligence Solutions
As part of the security we bring to the payments ecosystem, we offer integrated products and services to prevent, detect and respond to fraud and cyber-attacks and to ensure the safety of transactions made using Mastercard products. We do this using a multi-layered safety and security strategy:
The “Prevent” layer is designed to protect against attacks on infrastructure, devices and data. We have continued to grow global usage of EMV chip and contactless security technology, helping to reduce fraud. Our solutions include SafetyNet, which protects financial institutions by helping to stop real-time attacks that are visible in the network, but not easily detected by financial institutions.
The “Identify” layer allows us to help banks and merchants verify the authenticity of consumers during the payment process using various biometric technologies, including fingerprint, face and iris scanning, and behavioral user data assessment technology to verify online purchases on mobile devices, as well as a card with biometric technology built in.
Key 2021 Developments
We acquired CipherTrace, a leading digital currency intelligence platform that can map and trace blockchain-based transactions between entities, providing greater transparency and helping manage regulatory and compliance obligations.
We became the first company to announce the retirement of legacy magnetic stripe technology enabling us to focus on technologies, such as chip and contactless, which provide increased security.
The “Detect” layer spots fraudulent behavior and cyber-attacks and takes action to stop these activities once detected. Our offerings in this space include alerts when accounts are exposed to data breaches or security incidents, fraud scoring technology that scans billions of dollars of money flows each day while increasing approvals and reducing false declines, and network-level monitoring on a global scale to help detect the occurrence of widespread fraud attacks when the customer (or their processor) may be unable to detect or defend against them.
The “Experience” layer improves the security experience for our stakeholders in areas from the speed of transactions (enhancing approvals for online and card-on-file payments) to the ability to differentiate legitimate consumers from fraudulent ones. Our offerings in this space include solutions for consumer alerts and controls and a suite of digital token services. We also offer an e-commerce fraud and dispute management network that enables merchants to stop delivery when a fraudulent or disputed transaction is identified, and issuers to refund the cardholder to avoid the chargeback process.
The “Network” layer extends the services we provide to transactions in the payments ecosystem and across all of our rails, including decision intelligence and tokenization capabilities, to help secure our customers and transactions on a real-time basis.
Moreover, we use our artificial intelligence (“AI”) and data analytics, along with our cyber risk assessment capabilities, to help financial institutions, merchants, corporations and governments secure their digital assets across each of these five layers.
We have also worked with our customers to provide products to consumers globally with increased confidence through the benefit of “zero liability”, where the consumer bears no responsibility for counterfeit or lost card losses in the event of fraud.

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ma-20211231_g12.jpgma-20211231_g13.jpgma-20211231_g14.jpgInsights, Analytics and Test and Learn
Our capabilities incorporate payments expertise and analytical and executional skills to create end-to-end solutions which are increasingly delivered via platforms embedded in our customers’ day-to-day operations. We offer business intelligence to monitor key performance indicators (“KPIs”) and benchmark performance through self-service digital platforms, tools, and reports for financial institutions, merchants and others. We enable clients to better understand consumer behavior and improve segmentation and targeting by using our anonymized and aggregated data assets, third-party data and AI technologies. Through our Test & Learn software as a service platform, we can help our customers accurately measure the impact of their decisions and improve them by leveraging data analytics to conduct disciplined business experiments for in-market tests to drive more profitable decision making.
ma-20211231_g15.jpgma-20211231_g16.jpgConsulting and Innovation
We provide advisory services that help clients make better decisions and improve performance. By observing patterns of payments behavior based on billions of transactions switched globally, we are able to leverage anonymized and aggregated information to provide advice based on data. We also utilize our expertise, digital technology, innovation tools, methodologies and processes to collaborate with, and increasingly drive innovation at, financial institutions, merchants and governments. Through our global innovation and development arm, Mastercard Foundry, we offer “Launchpad,” a five-day app prototyping workshop, as well as other customized innovation programs such as in-lab usability testing and concept design.
ma-20211231_g17.jpgManaged Services
We deliver marketing services, digital implementation and program management with performance-based solutions at every stage of the consumer lifecycle to assist our customers in implementing actions based on insights and driving adoption and usage. These services include developing messaging, targeting key groups, launching campaigns and training staff, all of which help our customers drive engagement and portfolio profitability.
ma-20211231_g18.jpgma-20211231_g19.jpgIssuer and Merchant Loyalty
We have built a scalable rewards platform that enables issuers to provide consumers with a variety of benefits and services, such as personalized offers and rewards, access to a global airline lounge network, concierge services, insurance services, emergency card replacement, emergency cash advances and a 24-hour account holder service center. For merchants, we provide campaigns with targeted offers and rewards, management services for publishing offers, and accelerated points programs for co-brand and rewards program members. We also provide a loyalty platform that enables stronger relationships with retailers, restaurants, airlines and consumer packaged goods companies by creating experiences that drive loyalty and impactful consumer engagement.
ma-20211231_g20.jpg Processing and Gateway
We extend our processing capabilities in the payments value chain in various regions and across the globe with an expanded suite of offerings, including:
Issuer solutions designed to provide customers with a complete processing solution to help them create differentiated products and services and allow quick deployment of payments portfolios across banking channels
Payment gateways that offer a single interface to provide e-commerce merchants with the ability to process secure online and in-app payments and offer value-added solutions, including outsourced electronic payments, fraud prevention and alternative payment options
Mobile gateways that facilitate transaction routing and processing for mobile-initiated transactions
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Our Expanded Network Capabilities
ma-20211231_g21.jpgOpen Banking
We offer an open banking platform that enables data providers and third parties, on a permissioned basis, to reliably access, securely transmit and confidently manage consumer data to improve the customer experience. Our platform enables consumers to have choice of financial services, providing them the ability to access, control and benefit from the use of their data, as well as an improved payment experience. Our platform is also used to serve the needs of the lending market, including through streamlining loan application processes and improving credit decisioning, thereby driving further financial inclusion. The network connections that underpin this platform leverage our data principles (including data usage guardrails, consumer protection and consent management), as well as API technology.
ma-20211231_g22.jpgDigital Identity
We enable digital identity solutions, which provide smooth digital experiences and strengthen and secure digital payments across individuals, devices and accounts. Our digital identity capabilities focus on the identity of people, devices and transactions. They embody privacy by design principles and are consent-centric. Our solutions include device intelligence and behavioral biometrics (to determine whether the user is genuine or a fraudulent device), document proofing, IP intelligence, biometrics, transaction fraud data (from which we derive insights that can be used to significantly improve the global approval rate of transactions), location, identity attributes and payment authorization.
Key 2021 Developments
We acquired Ekata, Inc., a leader in digital identity verification solutions, broadening our fraud prevention and digital identity verification programs by adding Ekata's identity verification data, machine learning technology and global experience.

Our People
As of December 31, 2021, we employed approximately 24,000 persons globally. Our employee base is predominantly full-time and approximately 65% were employed outside of the United States in more than 80 countries around the world. We also had approximately 3,900 contractors which we used to supplement our employee base in order to meet specific needs. Our voluntary workforce turnover (rolling 12-month attrition) was 11% as of December 31, 2021. The total cost of our workforce for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $4.5 billion, which primarily consists of compensation, benefits and other personnel- and contractor-related costs.
We provide more detailed information regarding our employees, including additional workforce demographics such as gender and racial/ethnic representation, in our Sustainability Report, our Proxy Statement, our Global Inclusion Report and our U.S. Consolidated EEO-1 Report, all of which are located on our website.
We continue to support our employees during the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. We have extended a variety of global COVID-related employee benefits through 2022, including flexible hybrid working arrangements and additional paid time off due to illness, to get vaccinated, or to tend to childcare or eldercare-related demands. Our focus remains on the safety and well-being of our employees while maintaining health and safety protocols at each office location.
Management reviews our people strategy and culture, as well as related risks, with our Human Resources and Compensation Committee on a quarterly basis, and annually with our Board of Directors. Additionally, our Board of Directors and our Board committees are tasked with overseeing other human capital management matters on a regular basis, such as ensuring processes are in place for maintaining an ethical corporate culture, overseeing key diversity initiatives, policies and practices, and monitoring governance trends in areas such as human rights. Our ability to attract, retain and engage top talent and build a culture centered around decency, with an overall focus on diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”), is critical to our business strategy.
Specifically, to enable our business strategy effectively, our aim is to:
attract talent with the key skills needed
develop and retain an agile workforce that is able to compete in a fast-paced, digitally native and innovative environment and
build on our DEI efforts to support our employees

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Attract talent. Leveraging the strength of our brand, we attract talent through acquisitions, workforce planning and recruitment that incorporates a variety of sources.
Develop and retain talent. Our efforts to develop and retain our employees include:
An annual cycle that is focused on objective setting, performance assessment, talent evaluation, skill development, opportunities and career progression
Succession planning for key roles, including talent and leadership programs across various levels. These programs embed our culture principles, include diverse populations and aim to develop talent and managerial skills through personalized coaching and group executive development
Learning opportunities, such as Learning Academies that support our corporate business strategy and priorities and offer programs aligned to regional priorities
Mentorship programs that give mentees tools and resources to help build and enhance their skills, inspire personal growth, overcome dilemmas, foster inclusion and support well-being
A competitive compensation approach under which eligible employees across multiple job levels can receive long-term incentive equity awards
Holistic physical, mental, professional and other benefits to our employees and their families to provide support when and where they need it
Contributions to employees’ financial well-being as they plan for retirement. All employees globally are entitled to receive a matching Company contribution of $1.67 for every $1 contributed to a 401(k) or other retirement plan on the first 6% of base pay
Support for charitable contributions of our employees’ time and money. We support employee charitable donations with matching Company gifts of up to $15,000 per employee annually and permit full-time employees to use five paid days per year for eligible volunteer work
A culture of high ethical business practices and compliance standards, grounded in honesty, decency, trust and personal accountability. It is driven by “tone at the top,” reinforced with regular training, fostered in a speak-up environment, and measured by periodic employee surveys and other metrics that are designed to enable our Board of Directors to gauge the health of our culture
Diversity, equity and inclusion underpin everything we do:
We monitor our recruitment, development, succession and retention practices with a focus on gender, race (in the U.S.) and generational mix of our employee population
We have developed regional and functional action plans to identify priorities and actions that will help us make more progress for DEI, including appropriate balance and inclusion in gender and racial representation
We remain committed to our “In Solidarity” initiative through alignment of our DEI plans, introduction of new training programs and partnerships with historically Black colleges and universities (“HBCUs”) and other schools with diverse talent
We introduced a modifier to our 2021 executive compensation plan that includes quantitative goals for gender pay and other key environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) items
We expect to provide additional updates in 2022 on our diversity, equity and inclusion efforts, including the executive compensation modifier, in our upcoming Sustainability Report, Proxy Statement and Global Inclusion Report, all of which will be located on our website.
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Brand
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Our family of well-known brands includes Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus. We manage and promote our brands and brand identities (including our sonic brand identity) through advertising, promotions and sponsorships, as well as digital, mobile and social media initiatives, in order to increase people’s preference for our brands and usage of our products.  We sponsor a variety of sporting, entertainment and charity-related marketing properties to align with consumer segments important to us and our customers. Our advertising plays an important role in building brand visibility, preference and overall usage among account holders globally.  Our “Priceless®” advertising campaign, which has run in more than 50 languages and in more than 120 countries worldwide, promotes Mastercard usage benefits and acceptance, markets Mastercard payment products and solutions and provides Mastercard with a consistent, recognizable message that supports our brand around the globe. 
Data
We use our data assets, infrastructure and platforms to create a range of products and services for our customers, including the majority of our value-added services, which help reduce fraud, increase security, provide actionable insights to our customers to assist in their decision making and enable our customers to increase their engagement with consumers. We do all this while incorporating our data principles in how we design, implement and deliver those solutions. Our Privacy by Design and Data by Design processes have been developed to ensure we embed privacy, security and data controls in all of our products and services, keeping a clear focus on protecting customers’ and individuals’ data. We do this in a number of ways:
Practicing data minimization. We collect and retain only the data that is needed for a given product or service, and limit the amount and type of personal information shared with third parties
Being transparent and providing control. We explain how we use personal information and give individuals’ access and control over how their data is used and shared
Working with trusted partners. We select partners and service providers who share our principled-approach to protecting data
Addressing data bias. We ensure our use of advanced analytics, including AI and Machine Learning, utilizes diverse data sets to create fair and inclusive solutions that reflect individual, group and societal interests
Advancing positive social impact. We utilize our data sets to create innovative solutions to societal challenges, promoting inclusive financial, social, climate, health and education growth
Revenue Sources
We generate revenue primarily from assessing our customers based on GDV on the products that carry our brands, from the fees we charge to our customers for providing transaction processing and from other payment-related products and services. Our net revenues are classified into five categories: domestic assessments, cross-border volume fees, transaction processing, other revenues and rebates and incentives (contra-revenue).
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Revenue” in Part II, Item 7 and Note 3, Revenue for more detail about our revenue, GDV, processed transactions and our other payment-related products and services.
Intellectual Property
We own a number of valuable trademarks that are essential to our business, including Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus, through one or more affiliates. We also own numerous other trademarks covering various brands, programs and services offered by us to support our payment programs. Trademark and service mark registrations are generally valid indefinitely as long as they are used and/or properly maintained. Through license agreements with our customers, we authorize the use of our trademarks on a royalty-free basis in connection with our customers’ issuing and merchant acquiring businesses. In addition, we own a number of patents and patent applications relating to payment solutions, transaction processing, smart cards, contactless, mobile, biometrics, AI, security systems, blockchain and other technologies, which are important to our business operations. These patents expire at varying times depending on the jurisdiction and filing date.

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Competition
We face a number of competitors both within and outside of the global payments industry and compete in all categories of payment, including paper-based payments and all forms of electronic payments. Among electronic payments, we face the following competition:
General Purpose Payments Networks. We compete worldwide with payments networks such as Visa, American Express, JCB, China UnionPay and Discover, among others. These competitors tend to offer a range of card-based payment products. Some competitors have more market share than we do in certain jurisdictions. Some also have different business models that may provide an advantage in pricing, regulatory compliance burdens or otherwise. Globally, financial institutions may issue both Mastercard and Visa-branded payment products, and we compete with Visa for business on the basis of individual portfolios or programs. In addition, a number of our customers issue American Express, China UnionPay and/or Discover-branded payment cards in a manner consistent with a four-party system. We continue to face intense competitive pressure on the prices we charge our issuers and acquirers, and we seek to enter into business agreements with them through which we offer incentives and other support to issue and promote our payment products.
Debit and Local Networks. We compete with ATM and point of sale debit networks in various countries. In addition, in many countries outside of the United States, local debit brands serve as the main domestic brands, while our brands are used mostly to enable cross-border transactions (typically representing a small portion of overall transaction volume). Certain jurisdictions have also created domestic card schemes focused mostly on debit. In addition, several governments are promoting, or considering promoting, local networks for domestic switching. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for a more detailed discussion of the risks related to payments system regulation and government actions that may prevent us from competing effectively.
Real-time Account-based Payments Systems. We face competition in the real-time account-based payments space from other companies that provide infrastructure, applications and services to support these payment solutions.
Alternative Payments Systems and New Entrants. As the global payments industry becomes more complex, we face increasing competition from alternative payments systems and emerging payments providers. Many of these providers, who in many circumstances can also be our partners or customers, have developed payments systems focused on online activity in e-commerce and mobile channels (in some cases, expanding to other channels), and may process payments using in-house account transfers, real-time account-based payments networks or global or local networks. Examples include digital wallet providers (such as Paytm, PayPal, Alipay and Amazon), point of sale financing/buy-now-pay-later providers (such as Klarna), mobile operator services, mobile phone-based money transfer and microfinancing services (such as M-PESA) and handset manufacturers. We also compete with merchants and governments.
National (Government-Backed) Networks. Governments have been increasingly creating regional payments structures, such as the newly established European Payments Initiative (“EPI”). Backed by numerous Eurozone banks and acquirers, EPI is aimed at creating a unified pan-European payments system, offering card, digital wallet and person-to-person (“P2P”) payment solutions for consumers and merchants. EPI is being positioned as an alternative to existing international payment solutions and schemes such as ours. In addition to regional networks, more than 80 national governments are exploring the use of central bank digital currencies (“CBDCs”).
Digital Currencies. Stablecoins and floating cryptocurrencies may become more popular as they are increasingly viewed as providing immediacy, 24/7 accessibility, immutability and efficiency. Such currencies are starting to be accepted by person-to-merchant (“P2M”) players (such as Square). These currencies are also introducing into the payments ecosystem an emerging set of providers referred to as crypto natives, who have the ability to disrupt traditional financial markets. The increased prominence of digital currencies could compete with our products and services.
Value-Added Service Providers and Adjacent Network Capabilities Players. We face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our value-added products and services, including information services and consulting firms that provide consulting services and insights to financial institutions, merchants and governments and technology companies that provide cyber and fraud solutions, as well as companies that compete against us as providers of loyalty and program management solutions. We also face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our open banking and digital identity solutions. Regulatory initiatives could also lead to increased competition in this space.
Mastercard plays a valuable role as a trusted intermediary in a complex system, creating value for individual stakeholders and the payments ecosystem overall. Our competitive advantages include our:
globally recognized and trusted brands
highly adaptable global acceptance network built over more than 50 years which can reach a variety of parties enabling payments
global payments network with world-class operating performance
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settlement guarantee backed by our strong credit standing
expertise in real-time account-based payments and open banking
development and adoption of innovative products and digital solutions
safety and security solutions offered on our network, which reduce fraud and increase security for the payments ecosystem
analytics insights and consulting services that help issuers and merchants optimize their payments and related businesses
loyalty solutions that enhance the payments value proposition for issuers and merchants
ability to serve a broad array of participants in global payments due to our expanded on-soil presence in individual markets and a heightened focus on working with governments
world class talent and culture, with a focus on inclusion and being a “force for good”
Collectively, the capabilities that we have created organically, and those that we have obtained through acquisitions, continue to enhance the total proposition we offer our customers. They enable us to partner with many participants in the broader payments ecosystem and provide choice, security and services to improve the value we provide to our customers.
Government Regulation
General. Government regulation impacts key aspects of our business. We are subject to regulations that affect the payments industry in the many countries in which our integrated products and services are used. We are committed to comply with all applicable laws and regulations and implement policies, procedures and programs designed to promote compliance. We coordinate globally while acting locally and leverage our relationships to manage the effects of regulation on us. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A for more detail and examples of the regulation to which we are subject.
Payments Oversight and Regulation. Central banks and other regulators in several jurisdictions around the world either have, or are seeking to establish, formal oversight over the payments industry, as well as authority to regulate certain aspects of the payments systems in their countries. Such authority has resulted in regulation of various aspects of our business. In the European Union, Mastercard is subject to systemic importance regulation, which includes various requirements we must meet, including obligations related to governance and risk management. In the U.K., the Bank of England designated Vocalink, our real-time account-based payments network platform, as a “specified service provider”, and Mastercard Europe as a “recognized payment system”, which includes supervisions and examination requirements. In addition, European Union legislation requires us to separate our scheme activities (brand, products, franchise and licensing) from our switching activities and other processing in terms of how we go to market, make decisions and organize our structure. Certain of our subsidiaries are regulated as payments institutions, including as money transmitters. This regulation subjects us to licensing obligations and regulatory supervision, as well as various business conduct and risk management requirements.
Interchange Fees. Interchange fees that support the function and value of four-party payments systems like ours are being reviewed or challenged in various jurisdictions around the world via legislation to regulate interchange fees, competition-related regulatory proceedings, central bank regulation and litigation. Examples include statutes in the United States that cap debit interchange for certain regulated activities, our settlement with the European Commission resolving its investigation into our interregional interchange fees and the European Union legislation capping consumer credit and debit interchange fees on payments issued and acquired within the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). For more detail, see “Risk Factors - Other Regulation” in Part I, Item 1A and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Preferential or Protective Government Actions. Some governments have taken action to provide resources, preferential treatment or other protection to selected domestic payments and processing providers, as well as to create their own national providers. For example, governments in some countries mandate switching of domestic payments either entirely in that country or by only domestic companies. In China, we are currently excluded from domestic switching and are seeking market access, which is uncertain and subject to a number of factors, including receiving regulatory approval.  We are in active discussions to explore different solutions. Some jurisdictions are currently considering adopting or have adopted “data localization” requirements, which mandate the collection, processing, and/or storage of data within their borders. This is the case, for instance, in India, China, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. Various forms of data localization requirements or data transfer restrictions are also under consideration in other countries and jurisdictions, including the European Union.
Anti-Money Laundering, Counter Financing of Terrorism, Economic Sanctions and Anti-Corruption. We are subject to anti-money laundering (“AML”) and counter-financing of terrorism (“CFT”) laws and regulations globally, including the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act, as well as the various economic sanctions programs, including those imposed and administered by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). We have implemented a comprehensive AML/CFT program, comprised of policies, procedures and internal controls, including the designation of a compliance officer, which is designed to prevent our payments

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network from being used to facilitate money laundering and other illicit activity and to address these legal and regulatory requirements and assist in managing money laundering and terrorist financing risks. The economic sanctions programs administered by OFAC restrict financial transactions and other dealings with certain countries and geographies (specifically Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria) and with persons and entities included in OFAC sanctions lists including its list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (the “SDN List”). We take measures to prevent transactions that do not comply with OFAC and other applicable sanctions, including establishing a risk-based compliance program that has policies, procedures and controls designed to prevent us from having unlawful business dealings with prohibited countries, regions, individuals or entities. As part of this program, we obligate issuers and acquirers to comply with their local sanctions obligations and the U.S. sanctions programs, including requiring the screening of account holders and merchants, respectively, against OFAC sanctions lists (including the SDN List). Iran and Syria have been identified by the U.S. State Department as terrorist-sponsoring states, and we have no offices, subsidiaries or affiliated entities located in these countries and do not license entities domiciled there. We are also subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations globally, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, which, among other things, generally prohibit giving or offering payments or anything of value for the purpose of improperly influencing a business decision or to gain an unfair business advantage. We have implemented policies, procedures and internal controls to proactively manage corruption risk.
Financial Sector Oversight. We are or may be subject to regulations related to our role in the financial industry and our relationship with our financial institution customers. In addition, we are or may be subject to regulation by a number of agencies charged with oversight of, among other things, consumer protection, financial and banking matters. The regulators have supervisory and independent examination authority as well as enforcement authority that we may be subject to because of the services we provide to financial institutions that issue and acquire our products.
Issuer and Acquirer Practices Legislation and Regulation. Our issuers and acquirers are subject to numerous regulations and investigations applicable to banks, financial institutions and other licensed entities, impacting us as a consequence. Additionally, regulations such as the revised Payment Services Directive (commonly referred to as “PSD2”) in the EEA require financial institutions to provide third-party payment processors access to consumer payment accounts, enabling them to route transactions away from Mastercard products and provide payment initiation and account information services directly to consumers who use our products. PSD2 also requires a new standard for authentication of transactions, which necessitates additional verification information from consumers to complete transactions. This may increase the number of transactions that consumers abandon if we are unable to ensure a frictionless authentication experience under the new standards.
Regulation of Internet, Digital Transactions and High-Risk Merchant Categories. Various jurisdictions have enacted or have proposed regulation related to internet transactions. The legislation applies to payments system participants, including us and our customers, and is implemented through a federal regulation. We may also be impacted by evolving laws surrounding gambling, including fantasy sports, as well as certain legally permissible but high-risk merchant categories, such as alcohol, tobacco, firearms and adult content.
Privacy, Data and Information Security. Aspects of our operations or business are subject to increasingly complex privacy and data protection laws in the United States, the European Union and elsewhere around the world. For example, in the United States, we and our customers are respectively subject to Federal Trade Commission and federal banking agency information safeguarding requirements under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act that require the maintenance of a written, comprehensive information security program. In the European Union, we are subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), which requires a comprehensive privacy and data protection program to protect the personal and sensitive data of EEA residents. A number of regulators and policymakers around the globe are using the GDPR as a reference to adopt new or updated privacy and data protection laws, including in the U.S. (California, Virginia and Colorado), Argentina, Brazil, Canada (Quebec), Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Saudi Arabia. Due to increasing data collection and data flows, numerous data breaches and security incidents as well as the use of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, regulations in this area are constantly evolving with regulatory and legislative authorities in numerous parts of the world adopting proposals to regulate data and protect information. In addition, the interpretation and application of these privacy and data protection laws are often uncertain and in a state of flux, thus requiring constant monitoring for compliance.
Sustainability. Various jurisdictions are increasingly considering or adopting laws and regulations that would impact us pertaining to ESG performance, transparency and reporting. Regulations being considered include mandated corporate reporting on sustainability matters generally (such as the European Union Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) as well as in specific areas such as mandated reporting on climate-related financial disclosures.
Additional Regulatory Developments. Various regulatory agencies also continue to examine a wide variety of issues that could impact us, including evolving laws surrounding marijuana, prepaid payroll cards, virtual currencies, identity theft, account management guidelines, disclosure rules, security and marketing that would impact our customers directly.
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Additional Information
Mastercard Incorporated was incorporated as a Delaware corporation in May 2001. We conduct our business principally through our principal operating subsidiary, Mastercard International Incorporated, a Delaware non-stock (or membership) corporation that was formed in November 1966. For more information about our capital structure, including our Class A common stock (our voting stock) and Class B common stock (our non-voting stock), see Note 16 (Stockholders' Equity) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Website and SEC Reports
Our internet address is www.mastercard.com. From time to time, we may use our corporate website as a channel of distribution of material company information. Financial and other material information is routinely posted and accessible on the investor relations section of our corporate website. You can also visit “Investor Alerts” in the investor relations section to enroll your email address to automatically receive email alerts and other information about Mastercard.
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are available for review, without charge, on the investor relations section of our corporate website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The information contained on our corporate website, including, but not limited to, our Sustainability Report, our Global Inclusion Report and our U.S. Consolidated EEO-1 Report, is not incorporated by reference into this Report. Our filings are also available electronically from the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk factors
RISK HIGHLIGHTS
Legal and RegulatoryBusiness and Operations
Payments Industry RegulationCOVID-19Global Economic and Political Environment
Preferential or Protective Government ActionsCompetition and TechnologyBrand and Reputational Impact
Privacy, Data and SecurityInformation Security and Service DisruptionsTalent and Culture
Other RegulationStakeholder RelationshipsAcquisitions
LitigationSettlement and Third-Party Obligations
Class A Common Stock and Governance Structure
Legal and Regulatory
Payments Industry Regulation
Global regulatory and legislative activity directly related to the payments industry may have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Regulators increasingly seek to regulate certain aspects of payments systems such as ours, or establish or expand their authority to do so. Many jurisdictions have enacted such regulations, establishing, and potentially further expanding, obligations or restrictions with respect to the types of products and services that we may offer, the countries in which our integrated products and services

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may be used, the way we structure and operate our business and the types of consumers and merchants who can obtain or accept our products or services. New regulations and oversight could also relate to our clearing and settlement activities (including risk management policies and procedures, collateral requirements, participant default policies and procedures, the ability to complete timely switching of financial transactions, and capital and financial resource requirements). Several jurisdictions have also inquired about the network fees we charge to our customers (typically as part of broader market reviews of retail payments). In addition, several central banks or similar regulatory bodies around the world have increased, or are seeking to increase, their formal oversight of the electronic payments industry. In several jurisdictions, we have been designated as a “systemically important payment system”, and other regulators are considering designating us as systemically important or in a similar category resulting in heightened regulatory oversight. These obligations, designations and restrictions may further expand and could conflict with each other as more jurisdictions impose oversight of payments systems. Moreover, as regulators around the world increasingly look to replicate similar regulation of payments and other industries, efforts in any one jurisdiction may influence approaches in other jurisdictions. Similarly, new initiatives within a jurisdiction involving one product may lead to regulation of similar or related products (for example, debit regulations could lead to regulation of credit products). As a result, the risks to our business created by any one new law or regulation are magnified by the potential it has to be replicated in other jurisdictions or involve other products within any particular jurisdiction.
The expansion of our products and services as part of our multi-rail strategy have also created the need for us to obtain new types and increasing numbers of regulatory licenses, resulting in increased supervision and additional compliance burdens distinct from those imposed on our core network activities. For example, certain of our subsidiaries maintain money transfer licenses to support certain activities. These licenses typically impose supervisory and examination requirements, as well as capital, safeguarding, risk management and other business obligations.
Increased regulation and oversight of payments systems, as well as increased exposure to regulation resulting from changes to our products and services, have resulted and may continue to result in costly compliance burdens or otherwise increase our costs. As a result, issuers, acquirers and other customers could be less willing to participate in our payments system and/or use our other products or services, reduce the benefits offered in connection with the use of our products (making our products less desirable to consumers), reduce the volume of domestic and cross-border transactions or other operational metrics, disintermediate us, impact our profitability and limit our ability to innovate or offer differentiated products and services, all of which could materially and adversely impact our financial performance. In addition, any regulation that is enacted related to the type and level of network fees we charge our customers could also materially and adversely impact our results of operations. Regulators could also require us to obtain prior approval for changes to our system rules, procedures or operations, or could require customization with regard to such changes, which could negatively impact us. Such changes could lead to new or different criteria for participation in and access to our payments system by financial institutions or other customers. Moreover, failure to comply with the laws and regulations to which we are subject could result in fines, sanctions, civil damages or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations, as well as have an impact on our brand and reputation.
Increased regulatory, legislative and litigation activity with respect to interchange rates could have an adverse impact on our business.
Interchange rates are a significant component of the costs that merchants pay in connection with the acceptance of our products. Although we do not earn revenues from interchange, interchange rates can impact the volume of transactions we see on our payment products. If interchange rates are too high, merchants may stop accepting our products or route transactions away from our network. If interchange rates are too low, issuers may stop promoting our integrated products and services, eliminate or reduce loyalty rewards programs or other account holder benefits (e.g., free checking or low interest rates on balances), or charge fees to account holders (e.g., annual fees or late payment fees).
Governments and merchant groups in a number of countries have implemented or are seeking interchange rate reductions through legislation, competition law, central bank regulation and litigation. See “Business - Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for more details.
If issuers cannot collect or we are required to reduce interchange rates, issuers may be less willing to participate in our four-party payments system, or may reduce the benefits offered in connection with the use of our products, reducing the attractiveness of our products to consumers. These and other impacts could lower transaction volumes, and/or make proprietary three-party networks or other forms of payment more attractive. Issuers could reduce the benefits associated with our products or choose to charge higher fees to consumers to attempt to recoup a portion of the costs incurred for their services. In addition, issuers could seek a fee reduction from us to decrease the expense of their payment programs, particularly if regulation has a disproportionate impact on us as compared to our competitors in terms of the fees we can charge. This could make our products less desirable to consumers, reduce the volume of transactions and our profitability, and limit our ability to innovate or offer differentiated products.
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We are devoting substantial resources to defending our right to establish interchange rates in regulatory proceedings, litigation and legislative activity. The potential outcome of any of these activities could have a more positive or negative impact on us relative to our competitors. If we are ultimately unsuccessful in defending our ability to establish interchange rates, any resulting legislation, regulation and/or litigation may have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations. In addition, regulatory proceedings and litigation could result (and in some cases has resulted) in us being fined and/or having to pay civil damages, the amount of which could be material.
Limitations on our ability to restrict merchant surcharging could materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
We have historically implemented policies, referred to as no-surcharge rules, in certain jurisdictions, including the United States, that prohibit merchants from charging higher prices to consumers who pay using our products instead of other means. Authorities in several jurisdictions have acted to end or limit the application of these no-surcharge rules (or indicated interest in doing so). Additionally, we have modified our no-surcharge rules to permit U.S. merchants to surcharge credit cards, subject to certain limitations. It is possible that over time merchants in some or all merchant categories in these jurisdictions may choose to surcharge as permitted by the rule change. This could result in consumers viewing our products less favorably and/or using alternative means of payment instead of electronic products, which could result in a decrease in our overall transaction volumes, and which in turn could materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
Preferential or Protective Government Actions
Preferential and protective government actions related to domestic payment services could adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our revenues.
Governments in some countries have acted, or in the future may act, to provide resources, preferential treatment or other protection to selected national payment and switching providers, or have created, or may in the future create, their own national provider. This action may displace us from, prevent us from entering into, or substantially restrict us from participating in, particular geographies, and may prevent us from competing effectively against those providers. For example:
Governments in some countries have implemented, or may implement, regulatory requirements that mandate switching of domestic payments either entirely in that country or by only domestic companies.
Some jurisdictions have implemented, or are considering, requirements to collect, process and/or store data within their borders, as well as prohibitions on the transfer of data abroad, leading to technological and operational implications as well as increased compliance burdens and other costs.
Geopolitical events and resulting OFAC sanctions, adverse trade policies or other types of government actions could lead affected jurisdictions to take actions in response that could adversely affect our business.
Regional groups of countries are considering, or may consider, efforts to restrict our participation in the switching of regional transactions.
Such developments prevent us from utilizing our global switching capabilities for domestic or regional customers. In addition, to the extent a jurisdiction determines us not to be in compliance with regulatory requirements (including those related to data localization), we have, and may continue to be, subject to resource and time pressures in order to come back into compliance. Our inability to effect change in, or work with, these jurisdictions could adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and extend our global brand.
Additionally, some jurisdictions have implemented, or may implement, foreign ownership restrictions, which could potentially have the effect of forcing or inducing the transfer of our technology and proprietary information as a condition of access to their markets. Such restrictions could adversely impact our ability to compete in these markets.
Privacy, Data and Security
Regulation of privacy, data, security and the digital economy could increase our costs, as well as negatively impact our growth.
We are subject to increasingly complex regulations related to privacy, data and information security in the jurisdictions in which we do business. These regulations could result in negative impacts to our business. As we continue to develop integrated and personalized products and services to meet the needs of a changing marketplace, and acquire new companies, we have expanded our information profile through the collection of additional data from additional sources and across multiple channels. This expansion has amplified the impact of these regulations on our business. Regulation of privacy, data and information security requires monitoring of and changes to our data practices in regard to the collection, use, disclosure, storage, transfer and/or security of personal and sensitive information, as well as increased care in our data management, governance and quality practices. While we make every effort to comply with all regulatory requirements and we deploy a privacy-by-design and data-by-design approach to all of our product development, the speed and pace of change may not allow us to meet rapidly evolving expectations. We are also

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subject to enhanced compliance and operational requirements in the European Union, and policymakers around the globe are using these requirements as a reference to adopt new or updated privacy laws that could result in similar or stricter requirements in other jurisdictions. Some jurisdictions have implemented or are otherwise considering requirements to collect, process and/or store data within their borders, as well as prohibitions on the transfer of data abroad, leading to technological and operational implications. Other jurisdictions have adopted or are otherwise considering adopting sector-specific regulations for the payments industry, including forced data sharing requirements or additional verification requirements, as well as regulations on artificial intelligence and data governance, that overlap or conflict with, or diverge from, general privacy rules. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations and requirements could result in fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and overall business, as well as have an impact on our reputation.
New requirements or changing interpretations of existing requirements in these areas, or the development of new regulatory schemes related to the digital economy in general, may also increase our costs and/or restrict our ability to leverage data for innovation. This could impact the products and services we offer and other aspects of our business, such as fraud monitoring, the need for improved data management, governance and quality practices, the development of information-based products and solutions, and technology operations. In addition, these requirements may increase the costs to our customers of issuing payment products, which may, in turn, decrease the number of our payment products that they issue. Moreover, due to account data compromise events and privacy abuses by other companies, as well as the disclosure of monitoring activities by certain governmental agencies in combination with the use of artificial intelligence and new technologies, there has been heightened legislative and regulatory scrutiny around the world that could lead to further regulation and requirements and/or future enforcement. Those developments have also raised public attention on companies’ data practices and have changed consumer and societal expectations for enhanced privacy and data protection. Any of these developments could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
In addition, fraudulent activity and increasing cyberattacks have encouraged legislative and regulatory intervention, and could damage our reputation and reduce the use and acceptance of our integrated products and services or increase our compliance costs. Criminals are using increasingly sophisticated methods to capture consumer personal information to engage in illegal activities such as counterfeiting or other fraud. As outsourcing and specialization become common in the payments industry, there are more third parties involved in processing transactions using our payment products. While we are taking measures to make card and digital payments more secure, increased fraud levels involving our integrated products and services, or misconduct or negligence by third parties switching or otherwise servicing our integrated products and services, could lead to legislative or regulatory intervention, such as enhanced security requirements and liabilities, as well as damage to our reputation.
Other Regulation
Regulations that directly or indirectly apply to Mastercard as a result of our participation in the global payments industry may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
We are subject to regulations that affect the payments industry in the many jurisdictions in which our integrated products and services are used. Many of our customers are also subject to regulations applicable to banks and other financial institutions that, at times, consequently affect us. Regulation of the payments industry, including regulations applicable to us and our customers, has increased significantly in the last several years. See “Business - Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 for a detailed description of such regulation and related legislation. Examples include:
Anti-Money Laundering, Counter Financing of Terrorism, Economic Sanctions and Anti-Corruption - We are subject to AML and CFT laws and regulations globally. Economic sanctions programs administered by OFAC restrict financial transactions and other dealings with certain countries and geographies, and persons and entities. We are also subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations globally, which, among other things, generally prohibit giving or offering payments or anything of value for the purpose of improperly influencing a business decision or to gain an unfair business advantage.
Account-based Payments Systems - In the U.K., aspects of our Vocalink business are subject to the U.K. payment system oversight regime and are directly overseen by the Bank of England.
Issuer and Acquirer Practices Legislation and Regulation - Certain regulations (such as PSD2 in the EEA) may impact various aspects of our business. For example, PSD2’s strong authentication requirement could increase the number of transactions that consumers abandon if we are unable to secure a frictionless authentication experience under the new standards. An increase in the rate of abandoned transactions could adversely impact our volumes or other operational metrics.
Increased regulatory focus on us, such as in connection with the matters discussed above, may result in costly compliance burdens and/or may otherwise increase our costs. Similarly, increased regulatory focus on our customers may cause such customers to reduce the volume of transactions processed through our systems, or may otherwise impact the competitiveness of our products. Actions by regulators could influence other organizations around the world to enact or consider adopting similar measures,
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amplifying any potential compliance burden. Additionally, our compliance with new economic sanctions and related laws with respect to particular jurisdictions or customers could result in a loss of business, which could be significant. Finally, failure to comply with the laws and regulations discussed above to which we are subject could result in fines, sanctions or other penalties. In particular, a violation and subsequent judgment or settlement against us, or those with whom we may be associated, under economic sanctions and AML, CFT, and anti-corruption laws could subject us to substantial monetary penalties, damages, and/or have a significant reputational impact. Each instance may individually or collectively materially and adversely affect our financial performance and/or our overall business and results of operations, as well as have an impact on our reputation.
We could be subject to adverse changes in tax laws, regulations and interpretations or challenges to our tax positions.
We are subject to tax laws and regulations of the U.S. federal, state and local governments as well as various non-U.S. jurisdictions. Potential changes in existing tax laws, including future regulatory guidance, may impact our effective income tax rate and tax payments. There can be no assurance that changes in tax laws or regulations, both within the U.S. and the other jurisdictions in which we operate, will not materially and adversely affect our effective income tax rate, tax payments, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, changes in tax laws and regulations that impact our customers and counterparties or the economy generally may also impact our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to varying interpretations, and any significant failure to comply with applicable tax laws and regulations in all relevant jurisdictions could give rise to substantial penalties and liabilities. Any changes in enacted tax laws, rules or regulatory or judicial interpretations; any adverse outcome in connection with tax audits in any jurisdiction; or any change in the pronouncements relating to accounting for income taxes could materially and adversely impact our effective income tax rate, tax payments, financial condition and results of operations.
Litigation
Liabilities we may incur or limitations on our business related to any litigation or litigation settlements could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We are a defendant in a number of civil litigations and regulatory proceedings and investigations, including among others, those alleging violations of competition and antitrust law and those involving intellectual property claims. See Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for more details regarding the allegations contained in these complaints and the status of these proceedings. In the event we are found liable in any material litigations or proceedings, particularly in the event we may be found liable in a large class-action lawsuit or on the basis of an antitrust claim entitling the plaintiff to treble damages or under which we were jointly and severally liable, we could be subject to significant damages, which could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Certain limitations have been placed on our business in recent years because of litigation and litigation settlements, such as changes to our no-surcharge rule in the United States. Any future limitations on our business resulting from litigation or litigation settlements could impact our relationships with our customers, including reducing the volume of business that we do with them, which may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Business and Operations
COVID-19
The global COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response have adversely impacted our business, results of operations and financial condition, and may continue to do so depending on future developments, which are uncertain.
The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to have negative effects on the global economy. The pandemic has affected business activity, adversely impacting consumers, our customers, suppliers and business partners, as well as our workforce. Variants of the virus have emerged, resulting in a resurgence of infections that have affected regions at different times. New variants may emerge with similar results. The extent to which the resurgence and severity of infections has affected, and may in the future affect, regions is impacted by the ongoing global administration of vaccines and the availability of therapeutic treatments in those locations. Governments, businesses and consumers continue to react to the changing conditions, tightening or loosening safety measures or voluntarily making personal safety decisions, as applicable, based on the current environment of their location.
The pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices (including employee travel, employee work locations, and working in remote or hybrid environments). We continue to monitor the effects of the pandemic and may take further actions as required that are in the best interests of our employees, customers and business partners and which otherwise meet the responses by

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governments, businesses and consumers. There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities or voluntary actions taken by the public.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our business, results of operations and financial condition. There are no comparable recent events which may provide guidance as to the effect of a global pandemic such as COVID-19, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of this pandemic or a similar health epidemic in the future is highly uncertain and subject to change. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, and measures taken in response, further impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are uncertain, including, but not limited to, the duration of the pandemic and its impact on the global economy, including how quickly and to what extent we can continue to progress toward more consistent economic and operating conditions. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse impacts to our business and our result of operations as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.
Competition and Technology
Substantial and intense competition worldwide in the global payments industry may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
The global payments industry is highly competitive. Our payment programs compete against competitors both within and outside of the global payments industry and compete in all categories of payment, including paper-based payments and all forms of electronic payments. We compete against general purpose payments networks, debit and local networks, ACH and real-time account-based payments systems, alternative payments systems and new entrants (focused on online activity across various channels and processing payments using in-house capabilities), national networks and digital currencies. We also face competition from companies that provide alternatives to our value-added services and adjacent network capabilities (including open banking and digital identity).
Our traditional competitors may have substantially greater financial and other resources than we have, may offer a wider range of programs, services, and payment capabilities than we offer or may use more effective advertising and marketing strategies to achieve broader brand recognition and merchant acceptance than we have. They may also introduce their own innovative programs, value-added services and capabilities that adversely impact our growth.
Certain of our competitors to our core network operate three-party payments systems with direct connections to both merchants and consumers and these competitors may derive competitive advantages from their business models. If we continue to attract more regulatory scrutiny than these competitors because we operate a four-party system, or we are regulated because of the system we operate in a way in which our competitors are not, we could lose business to these competitors. See “Business - Competition” in Part I, Item 1.
New entrants against whom we compete have developed alternative payments systems, e-commerce payments systems and payments systems for mobile devices, as well as physical store locations. A number of these new entrants rely principally on technology to support their services that provides cost advantages, and as a result may enjoy lower costs than we do, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Our ability to compete may also be affected by regulatory and legislative initiatives, as well as the outcomes of litigation, competition-related regulatory proceedings and central bank activity and legislative activity.
If we are not able to differentiate ourselves from our competitors, drive value for our customers and/or effectively align our resources with our goals and objectives, we may not be able to compete effectively against these threats. Our failure to compete effectively against any of the foregoing competitive threats could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Disintermediation from stakeholders both within and outside of the payments value chain could harm our business.
As the payments industry continues to develop and change, we face disintermediation and related risks, including:
Parties that process our transactions in certain countries may try to eliminate our position as an intermediary in the payment process. For example, merchants could switch (and in some cases are switching) transactions directly with issuers. Additionally, processors could process transactions directly between issuers and acquirers. Large scale consolidation within processors could result in these processors developing bilateral agreements or in some cases switching the entire transaction on their own network, thereby disintermediating us.
Industry participants continue to invest in and develop alternative capabilities, such as account to account payments, which could facilitate P2M transactions that compete with our core payments network.
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Regulation (such as PSD2 in the EEA) may disintermediate issuers by enabling third-party providers opportunities to route payment transactions away from our network and products and towards other forms of payment by offering account information or payment initiation services directly to those who currently use our products. Such regulation may also provide these processors with the opportunity to commoditize the data that are included in the transactions they are servicing. If our customers are disintermediated in their business, we could face diminished demand for our integrated products and services.
Although we partner with fintechs and technology companies (such as digital players and mobile providers) that leverage our technology, platforms and networks to deliver their products, they could develop platforms or networks that disintermediate us from digital payments and impact our ability to compete in the digital economy. When we do partner with fintechs and technology companies, we face a heightened risk when those relationships involve sharing Mastercard data. While we share this data in a controlled manner subject to applicable anonymization and privacy and data standards, without proper oversight we could give the partner a competitive advantage.
Competitors, customers, fintechs, technology companies, governments and other industry participants may develop products that compete with or replace value-added products and services we currently provide to support our switched transaction and payment offerings. These products could replace our own switching and payments offerings or could force us to change our pricing or practices for these offerings. In addition, governments that develop or encourage the creation of national payments platforms may promote their platforms in such a way that could put us at a competitive disadvantage in those markets, or require us to compete differently.
Participants in the payments industry may merge, create joint ventures or form other business combinations that may strengthen their existing business services or create new payment products and services that compete with our products and services.
Our failure to compete effectively against any of the foregoing competitive threats could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Continued intense pricing pressure may materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
In order to increase transaction volumes, enter new markets and expand our Mastercard-branded cards and enabled products and services, we seek to enter into business agreements with customers through which we offer incentives, pricing discounts and other support that promote our products. In order to stay competitive, we may have to increase the amount of these incentives and pricing discounts. We continue to experience pricing pressure. The demand from our customers for better pricing arrangements and greater rebates and incentives moderates our growth. We may not be able to continue our expansion strategy to switch additional transaction volumes or to provide additional services to our customers at levels sufficient to compensate for such lower fees or increased costs in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations. In addition, increased pressure on prices increases the importance of cost containment and productivity initiatives in areas other than those relating to customer incentives.
In the future, we may not be able to enter into agreements with our customers if they require terms that we are unable or unwilling to offer, and we may be required to modify existing agreements in order to maintain relationships and to compete with others in the industry. Some of our competitors are larger and have greater financial resources than we do and accordingly may be able to charge lower prices to our customers. In addition, to the extent that we offer discounts or incentives under such agreements, we will need to further increase transaction volumes or the amount of services provided thereunder in order to benefit incrementally from such agreements and to increase revenue and profit, and we may not be successful in doing so, particularly in the current regulatory environment. Our customers also may implement cost reduction initiatives that reduce or eliminate payment product marketing or increase requests for greater incentives or greater cost stability. These factors could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Rapid and significant technological developments and changes could negatively impact our overall business and results of operations or limit our future growth.
The payments industry is subject to rapid and significant technological changes, which can impact our business in several ways:
Technological changes, including continuing developments of technologies in the areas of smart cards and devices, contactless and mobile payments, e-commerce, cryptocurrency and block chain technology, machine learning and AI, could result in new technologies that may be superior to, or render obsolete, the technologies we currently use in our programs and services. Moreover, these changes could result in new and innovative payment methods and products that could place us at a competitive disadvantage and that could reduce the use of our products.
We rely in part on third parties, including some of our competitors and potential competitors, for the development of and access to new technologies. The inability of these companies to keep pace with technological developments, or the acquisition of these companies by competitors, could negatively impact our offerings.

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Our ability to develop and adopt new services and technologies may be inhibited by industry-wide solutions and standards (such as those related to EMV, tokenization or other safety and security technologies), and by resistance from customers or merchants to such changes.
Our ability to develop evolving systems and products may be inhibited by any difficulty we may experience in attracting and retaining technology experts.
Our ability to adopt these technologies can also be inhibited by intellectual property rights of third parties. We have received, and we may in the future receive, notices or inquiries from patent holders (for example, other operating companies or non-practicing entities) suggesting that we may be infringing certain patents or that we need to license the use of their patents to avoid infringement. Such notices may, among other things, threaten litigation against us or our customers or demand significant license fees.
Our ability to develop new technologies and reflect technological changes in our payments offerings will require resources, which may result in additional expenses.
We work with fintechs, technology companies (such as digital players and mobile providers) and traditional customers that use our technology to enhance payment safety and security and to deliver their payment-related products and services quickly and efficiently to consumers. Our inability to keep pace technologically could negatively impact the willingness of these customers to work with us, and could encourage them to use their own technology and compete against us.
Regulatory or government requirements could require us to host and deliver certain products and services on-soil in certain markets, which would require us to alter our technology and delivery model, potentially resulting in additional expenses.
Various central banks are experimenting with digital currencies called Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC). CBDCs may be launched with their own networks to transfer money between participants. Policy and design considerations that governments adopt could impact the extent of our role in facilitating CBDC-based payment transactions, potentially impacting the transactions that we may process over our network.
We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business, and our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate, develop or adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. Failure to keep pace with these technological developments or otherwise bring to market products that reflect these technologies could lead to a decline in the use of our products, which could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Operating a real-time account-based payments network presents risks that could materially affect our business.
U.K. regulators have designated Vocalink, our real-time account-based payments network platform, to be a “specified service provider” and regulators in other countries may in the future expand their regulatory oversight of real-time account-based payments systems in similar ways. In addition, any prolonged service outage on this network could result in quickly escalating impacts, including potential intervention by the Bank of England and significant reputational risk to Vocalink and us. For a discussion of the regulatory risks related to our real-time account-based payments platform, see our risk factor in “Risk Factors - Payments Industry Regulation” in this Part I, Item 1A. Furthermore, the complexity of this payment technology requires careful management to address security vulnerabilities that are different from those faced on our core network. Operational difficulties, such as the temporary unavailability of our services or products, or security breaches on our real-time account-based payments network could cause a loss of business for these products and services, result in potential liability for us and adversely affect our reputation.
Working with new customers and end users as we expand our multi-rail solutions and integrated products and services can present operational and onboarding challenges, be costly and result in reputational damage if the new products or services do not perform as intended.
The payments markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid technological change, new product introductions, evolving industry standards and changing customer and consumer needs. In order to remain competitive and meet the needs of the payments markets, we are continually involved in developing complex multi-rail solutions and diversifying our integrated products and services. These efforts carry the risks associated with any diversification initiative, including cost overruns, delays in delivery and performance problems. These projects also carry risks associated with working with different types of customers, for example organizations such as corporations that are not financial institutions and non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”), and end users other than those we have traditionally worked with. These differences may present new operational challenges in the development and implementation of our new products or services. These new customers are typically less regulated, and as a result, enhanced infrastructure and monitoring is required.
Our failure to effectively design and deliver these multi-rail solutions and integrated products and services could make our other offerings less desirable to customers, or put us at a competitive disadvantage. In addition, if there is a delay in the implementation of our products or services or if our products or services do not perform as anticipated, or we are unable to adequately anticipate
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risks related to new types of customers, we could face additional regulatory scrutiny, fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations, as well as negatively impact our brand and reputation.
Information Security and Service Disruptions
Information security incidents or account data compromise events could disrupt our business, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.
Information security risks for payments and technology companies such as ours have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists and other external parties. These threats may derive from fraud or malice on the part of our employees or third parties, or may result from human error or accidental technological failure. These threats include cyber-attacks such as computer viruses, malicious code (including ransomware), phishing attacks or information security breaches and could lead to the misappropriation of consumer account and other information and identity theft. The advent of the global COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant rise in these types of threats due to a significant portion of our workforce working from home in a mostly remote environment.
Our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential, proprietary and other information and technology in our computer systems and networks, as well as the systems of our third-party providers. Our customers and other parties in the payments value chain, as well as account holders, rely on our digital technologies, computer systems, software and networks to conduct their operations. In addition, to access our integrated products and services, our customers and account holders increasingly use personal smartphones, tablet PCs and other mobile devices that may be beyond our control. We, like other financial technology organizations, routinely are subject to cyber-threats and our technologies, systems and networks, as well as the systems of our third-party providers, have been subject to attempted cyber-attacks. Because of our position in the payments value chain, we believe that we are likely to continue to be a target of such threats and attacks. Additionally, geopolitical events and resulting government activity could also lead to information security threats and attacks by affected jurisdictions and their sympathizers.
To date, we have not experienced any material impact relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. However, future attacks or breaches could lead to security breaches of the networks, systems (including third-party provider systems) or devices that our customers use to access our integrated products and services, which in turn could result in the unauthorized disclosure, release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of confidential, proprietary and other information (including account data information) or data security compromises. Such attacks or breaches could also cause service interruptions, malfunctions or other failures in the physical infrastructure or operations systems that support our businesses and customers (such as the lack of availability of our value-added services), as well as the operations of our customers or other third parties.  In addition, they could lead to damage to our reputation with our customers and other parties and the market, additional costs to us (such as repairing systems, adding new personnel or protection technologies or compliance costs), regulatory penalties, financial losses to both us and our customers and partners and the loss of customers and business opportunities. If such attacks are not detected immediately, their effect could be compounded.
Despite various mitigation efforts that we undertake, there can be no assurance that we will be immune to these risks and not suffer material breaches and resulting losses in the future, or that our insurance coverage would be sufficient to cover all losses. Our risk and exposure to these matters remain heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, our prominent size and scale and our role in the global payments and technology industries, our plans to continue to implement our digital and mobile channel strategies and develop additional remote connectivity solutions to serve our customers and account holders when and how they want to be served, our global presence, our extensive use of third-party vendors and future joint venture and merger and acquisition opportunities. As a result, information security and the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes and practices designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority for us. As cyber-threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Any of the risks described above could materially adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
In addition to information security risks for our systems, we also routinely encounter account data compromise events involving merchants and third-party payment processors that process, store or transmit payment transaction data, which affect millions of Mastercard, Visa, Discover, American Express and other types of account holders. Further events of this type may subject us to reputational damage and/or lawsuits involving payment products carrying our brands. Damage to our reputation or that of our brands resulting from an account data breach of either our systems or the systems of our customers, merchants and other third parties could decrease the use and acceptance of our integrated products and services. Such events could also slow or reverse the

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trend toward electronic payments. In addition to reputational concerns, the cumulative impact of multiple account data compromise events could increase the impact of the fraud resulting from such events by, among other things, making it more difficult to identify consumers. Moreover, while most of the lawsuits resulting from account data breaches do not involve direct claims against us and while we have releases from many issuers and acquirers, we could still face damage claims, which, if upheld, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Such events could have a material adverse impact on our transaction volumes, results of operations and prospects for future growth, or increase our costs by leading to additional regulatory burdens being imposed on us.
Service disruptions that cause us to be unable to process transactions or service our customers could materially affect our overall business and results of operations.
Our transaction switching systems and other offerings have experienced in limited instances and may continue to experience interruptions as a result of technology malfunctions, fire, weather events, power outages, telecommunications disruptions, terrorism, workplace violence, accidents or other catastrophic events (including those related to climate change). Our visibility in the global payments industry may also put us at greater risk of attack by terrorists, activists, or hackers who intend to disrupt our facilities and/or systems. Additionally, we rely on third-party service providers for the timely transmission of information across our global data network. Inadequate infrastructure in lesser-developed markets could also result in service disruptions, which could impact our ability to do business in those markets. If one of our service providers fails to provide the communications capacity or services we require, as a result of natural disaster, operational disruptions, terrorism, hacking or any other reason, the failure could interrupt our services. Although we maintain a enterprise resiliency program to analyze risk, assess potential impacts, and develop effective response strategies, we cannot ensure that our business would be immune to these risks, because of the intrinsic importance of our switching systems to our business, any interruption or degradation could adversely affect the perception of the reliability of products carrying our brands and materially adversely affect our overall business and our results of operations.
Stakeholder Relationships
Losing a significant portion of business from one or more of our largest customers could lead to significant revenue decreases in the longer term, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and our results of operations.
Many of our customer relationships are not exclusive. Our customers can reassess their future commitments to us subject to the terms of our contracts, and they separately may develop their own services that compete with ours. Our business agreements with these customers may not ultimately reduce the risk inherent in our business that customers may terminate their relationships with us in favor of relationships with our competitors, or for other reasons, or might not meet their contractual obligations to us.
In addition, a significant portion of our revenue is concentrated among our five largest customers. Loss of business from any of our large customers could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Exclusive/near exclusive relationships certain customers have with our competitors may have a material adverse impact on our business.
While we have exclusive, or nearly-exclusive, relationships with certain of our customers to issue payment products, other customers have similar exclusive, or nearly-exclusive, relationships with our competitors. These relationships may make it difficult or cost-prohibitive for us to do significant amounts of business with these customers to increase our revenues. In addition, these customers may be more successful and may grow faster than the customers that primarily issue our payment products, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Furthermore, we earn substantial revenue from customers with nearly-exclusive relationships with our competitors. Such relationships could provide advantages to the customers to shift business from us to the competitors with which they are principally aligned. A significant loss of our existing revenue or transaction volumes from these customers could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Consolidation amongst our customers could materially and adversely affect our overall business and results of operations.
Our customers’ industries have undergone substantial, accelerated consolidation in the past. These consolidations have included customers with a substantial Mastercard portfolio being acquired by institutions with a strong relationship with a competitor. If significant consolidation among customers were to continue, it could result in the substantial loss of business for us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects. In addition, one or more of our customers could seek to merge with, or acquire, one of our competitors, and any such transaction could also have a material adverse impact on our overall business. Consolidation could also produce a smaller number of large customers, which could increase their bargaining power and lead to lower prices and/or more favorable terms for our customers. These developments could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
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Our business significantly depends on the continued success and competitiveness of our issuing and acquiring customers and, in many jurisdictions, their ability to effectively manage or help manage our brands.
While we work directly with many stakeholders in the payments system, including merchants, governments, fintechs and large digital companies and other technology companies, we are, and will continue to be, significantly dependent on our relationships with our issuers and acquirers and their respective relationships with account holders and merchants to support our programs and services. Furthermore, we depend on our issuing partners and acquirers to continue to innovate to maintain competitiveness in the market. We do not issue cards or other payment devices, extend credit to account holders or determine the interest rates or other fees charged to account holders. Each issuer determines these and most other competitive payment program features. In addition, we do not establish the discount rate that merchants are charged for acceptance, which is the responsibility of our acquiring customers. As a result, our business significantly depends on the continued success and competitiveness of our issuing and acquiring customers and the strength of our relationships with them. In turn, our customers’ success depends on a variety of factors over which we have little or no influence, including economic conditions in global financial markets or their disintermediation by competitors or emerging technologies, as well as regulation. If our customers become financially unstable, we may lose revenue or we may be exposed to settlement risk. See our risk factor in “Risk Factors - Settlement and Third-Party Obligations” in this Part I, Item 1A with respect to how we guarantee certain third-party obligations for further discussion.
With the exception of the United States and a select number of other jurisdictions, most in-country (as opposed to cross-border) transactions conducted using Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus cards are authorized, cleared and settled by our customers or other processors. Because we do not provide domestic switching services in these countries and do not, as described above, have direct relationships with account holders, we depend on our close working relationships with our customers to effectively manage our brands, and the perception of our payments system, among consumers in these countries. We also rely on these customers to help manage our brands and perception among regulators and merchants in these countries, alongside our own relationships with them. From time to time, our customers may take actions that we do not believe to be in the best interests of our payments system overall, which may materially and adversely impact our business.
Merchants’ continued focus on acceptance costs may lead to additional litigation and regulatory proceedings and increase our incentive program costs, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
Merchants are important constituents in our payments system. We rely on both our relationships with them, as well as their relationships with our issuer and acquirer customers, to continue to expand the acceptance of our integrated products and services. We also work with merchants to help them enable new sales channels, create better purchase experiences, improve efficiencies, increase revenues and fight fraud. In the retail industry, there is a set of larger merchants with increasingly global scope and influence. We believe that these merchants are having a significant impact on all participants in the global payments industry, including Mastercard. Some large merchants have supported the legal, regulatory and legislative challenges to interchange fees that Mastercard has been defending, including the U.S. merchant litigations. Some merchants are increasingly asking regulators to review and potentially regulate our own network fees, in addition to interchange. See our risk factor in “Risk Factors – Other Regulation” in this Part I, Item 1A with respect to payments industry regulation, including interchange fees. The continued focus of merchants on the costs of accepting various forms of payment, including in connection with the growth of digital payments, may lead to additional litigation and regulatory proceedings.
Certain larger merchants are also able to negotiate incentives from us and pricing concessions from our issuer and acquirer customers as a condition to accepting our products. We also make payments to certain merchants to incentivize them to create co-branded payment programs with us. As merchants consolidate and become even larger, we may have to increase the amount of incentives that we provide to certain merchants, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Competitive and regulatory pressures on pricing could make it difficult to offset the costs of these incentives. Additionally, if the rate of merchant acceptance growth slows our business could suffer.
Our work with governments exposes us to unique risks that could have a material impact on our business and results of operations.
As we increase our work with national, state and local governments, both indirectly through financial institutions and with them directly as our customers, we may face various risks inherent in associating or contracting directly with governments. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Governmental entities typically fund projects through appropriated monies. Changes in governmental priorities or other political developments, including disruptions in governmental operations, could impact approved funding and result in changes in the scope, or lead to the termination, of the arrangements or contracts we or financial institutions enter into with respect to our payment products and services.

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Our work with governments subjects us to U.S. and international anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act. A violation and subsequent judgment or settlement under these laws could subject us to substantial monetary penalties and damages and have a significant reputational impact.
Working or contracting with governments, either directly or via our financial institution customers, can subject us to heightened reputational risks, including extensive scrutiny and publicity, as well as a potential association with the policies of a government as a result of a business arrangement with that government. Any negative publicity or negative association with a government entity, regardless of its accuracy, may adversely affect our reputation.
Settlement and Third-Party Obligations
Our role as guarantor, as well as other contractual obligations, expose us to risk of loss or illiquidity.
We are a guarantor of certain third-party obligations, including those of certain of our customers. In this capacity, we are exposed to credit and liquidity risk from these customers and certain service providers. We may incur significant losses in connection with transaction settlements if a customer fails to fund its daily settlement obligations due to technical problems, liquidity shortfalls, insolvency or other reasons. Concurrent settlement failures of more than one of our larger customers or of several of our smaller customers either on a given day or over a condensed period of time may exceed our available resources and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We have significant contractual indemnification obligations with certain customers. Should an event occur that triggers these obligations, such an event could materially and adversely affect our overall business and result of operations.
Global Economic and Political Environment
Global economic, political, financial and societal events or conditions could result in a material and adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
Adverse economic trends in key countries in which we operate may adversely affect our financial performance. Such impact may include, but is not limited to, the following:
Customers mitigating their economic exposure by limiting the issuance of new Mastercard products and requesting greater incentive or greater cost stability from us
Consumers and businesses lowering spending, which could impact domestic and cross-border spend
Government intervention (including the effect of laws, regulations and/or government investments on or in our financial institution customers), as well as uncertainty due to changing political regimes in executive, legislative and/or judicial branches of government, that may have potential negative effects on our business and our relationships with customers or otherwise alter their strategic direction away from our products
Tightening of credit availability that could impact the ability of participating financial institutions to lend to us under the terms of our credit facility
Additionally, we switch substantially all cross-border transactions using Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus-branded cards and generate a significant amount of revenue from cross-border volume fees and fees related to switched transactions. Revenue from switching cross-border and currency conversion transactions for our customers fluctuates with the levels and destinations of cross-border travel and our customers’ need for transactions to be converted into their base currency. Cross-border activity has, and may continue to be, adversely affected by world geopolitical, economic, health, weather and other conditions. These include COVID-19, as well as the threat of terrorism and separate outbreaks of flu, viruses and other diseases (any of which could result in future epidemics or pandemics), as well as major environmental and extreme weather events, including those related to climate change. As governments, investors and other stakeholders face pressure to address climate change and other sustainability matters, these stakeholders may express new expectations, focus investments and require additional disclosures in ways that cause significant shifts in commerce and consumption behaviors. The impact of and uncertainty that could result from any of these events or factors could ultimately decrease cross-border activity. Additionally, any regulation of interregional interchange fees could also negatively impact our cross-border activity. In each case, decreased cross-border activity could decrease the revenue we receive.
Our operations as a global payments network rely in part on global interoperable standards to help facilitate safe and simple payments. To the extent geopolitical events result in jurisdictions no longer participating in the creation or adoption of these standards, or the creation of competing standards, the products and services we offer could be negatively impacted.
Any of these developments could have a material adverse impact on our overall business and results of operations.
34 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART I
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Adverse currency fluctuations and foreign exchange controls could negatively impact our results of operations.
During 2021, approximately 68% of our revenue was generated from activities outside the United States. This revenue (and the related expense) could be transacted in a non-functional currency or valued based on a currency other than the functional currency of the entity generating the revenues. Resulting exchange gains and losses are included in our net income. Our risk management activities provide protection with respect to adverse changes in the value of only a limited number of currencies and are based on estimates of exposures to these currencies.
In addition, some of the revenue we generate outside the United States is subject to unpredictable currency fluctuations including devaluation of currencies where the values of other currencies change relative to the U.S. dollar. If the U.S. dollar strengthens compared to currencies in which we generate revenue, this revenue may be translated at a materially lower amount than expected. Furthermore, we may become subject to exchange control regulations that might restrict or prohibit the conversion of our other revenue currencies into U.S. dollars, such as what we have experienced in Venezuela.
The occurrence of currency fluctuations or exchange controls could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Brand and Reputational Impact
Negative brand perception may materially and adversely affect our overall business.
Our brands and their attributes are key assets of our business. The ability to attract consumers to our branded products and retain them depends upon the external perception of us and our industry. Our business may be affected by actions taken by our customers, merchants or other organizations that impact the perception of our brands or the payments industry in general. From time to time, our customers may take actions that we do not believe to be in the best interests of our brands, such as creditor practices that may be viewed as “predatory”. Moreover, adverse developments with respect to our industry or the industries of our customers or other companies and organizations that use our products and services (including certain legally permissible but high- risk merchant categories, such as alcohol, tobacco, firearms and adult content) may also, by association, impair our reputation, or result in greater public, regulatory or legislative scrutiny. We have also been pursuing the use of social media channels at an increasingly rapid pace. Under some circumstances, our use of social media, or the use of social media by others as a channel for criticism or other purposes, could also cause rapid, widespread reputational harm to our brands by disseminating rapidly and globally actual or perceived damaging information about us, our products or merchants or other end users who utilize our products. To the extent any of our published sustainability metrics are subsequently viewed as inaccurate or we are unable to execute on our sustainability initiatives, we may be viewed negatively by consumers, investors and other stakeholders concerned about these matters. Also, as we are headquartered in the United States, a negative perception of the United States could impact the perception of our company, which could adversely affect our business. Any of the above issues could have a material and adverse effect to our overall business.
Lack of visibility of our brand in our products and services, or in the products and services of our partners who use our technology, may materially and adversely affect our business.
As more players enter the global payments ecosystem, the layers between our brand and consumers and merchants increase. In order to compete with other powerful consumer brands that are also becoming part of the consumer payment experience, we often partner with those brands on payment solutions. These brands include large digital companies and other technology companies who are our customers and use our networks to build their own acceptance brands. In some cases, our brand may not be featured in the payment solution or may be secondary to other brands. Additionally, as part of our relationships with some issuers, our payment brand is only included on the back of the card. As a result, our brand may either be invisible to consumers or may not be the primary brand with which consumers associate the payment experience. This brand invisibility, or any consumer confusion as to our role in the consumer payment experience, could decrease the value of our brand, which could adversely affect our business.

MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 35


PART I
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Talent and Culture
We may not be able to attract, hire and retain a highly qualified and diverse workforce, or maintain our corporate culture, which could impact our ability to grow effectively.
Our performance largely depends on the talents and efforts of our employees, particularly our key personnel and senior management. We may be unable to retain or to attract highly qualified employees. The market for key personnel is highly competitive, particularly in technology and other skill areas significant to our business. Additionally, changes in immigration and work permit laws and visa regulations and related enforcement have made it difficult for employees to work in, or transfer among, jurisdictions in which we have operations and could impair our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. Moreover, as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, a significant portion of our workforce is working in either a remote or hybrid environment. Such environments may continue after the pandemic due to potential resulting trends, and could impact the quality of our corporate culture, as well as our ability to attract and retain talent. Failure to attract, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and diverse employee talent, or to maintain a corporate culture that fosters innovation, creativity and teamwork could harm our overall business and results of operations.
We rely on key personnel to lead with integrity and decency. To the extent our leaders behave in a manner that is not consistent with our values, we could experience significant impact to our brand and reputation, as well as to our corporate culture.
Acquisitions
Our efforts to enter into acquisitions, strategic investments or entry into new businesses could be impacted or prevented by regulatory scrutiny and could otherwise result in issues that could disrupt our business and harm our results of operations or reputation.
We continue to evaluate our strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, products or technologies, as well as acquiring interests in related joint ventures or other entities. As we do so, we face increasing regulatory scrutiny with respect to antitrust and other considerations that could impact these efforts. We also face competition for acquisition targets due to the nature of the market for technology companies. As a result, we could be prevented from successfully completing such acquisitions in the future. If we are not successful in these efforts, we could lose strategic opportunities that are dependent, in part, on inorganic growth.
To the extent we do make these acquisitions, we may not be able to successfully partner with or integrate them, despite original intentions and focused efforts. In addition, such an integration may divert management’s time and resources from our core business and disrupt our operations. Moreover, we may spend time and money on acquisitions or projects that do not meet our expectations or increase our revenue. To the extent we pay the purchase price of any acquisition in cash, it would reduce our cash reserves available to us for other uses, and to the extent the purchase price is paid with our stock, it could be dilutive to our stockholders. Furthermore, we may not be able to successfully finance the business following the acquisition as a result of costs of operations, including any litigation risk which may be inherited from the acquisition.
Any acquisition or entry into a new business could subject us to new regulations, both directly as a result of the new business as well as in the other existing parts of our business, with which we would need to comply. This compliance could increase our costs, and we could be subject to liability or reputational harm to the extent we cannot meet any such compliance requirements. Additionally, targets that we acquire may have data practices that do not initially conform to our privacy and data protection standards and data governance model, which could lead to regulatory scrutiny and reputational harm. Our expansion into new businesses could also result in unanticipated issues which may be difficult to manage.
Class A Common Stock and Governance Structure
Provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law could be considered anti-takeover provisions and have an impact on change-in-control.
Provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law could be considered anti-takeover provisions, including provisions that could delay or prevent entirely a merger or acquisition that our stockholders consider favorable. These provisions may also discourage acquisition proposals or have the effect of delaying or preventing entirely a change in control, which could harm our stock price. For example, subject to limited exceptions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation prohibits any person from beneficially owning more than 15% of any of the Class A common stock or any other class or series of our stock with general voting power, or more than 15% of our total voting power. In addition:
our stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors
our stockholders are not entitled to act by written consent
36 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART I
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
any representative of a competitor of Mastercard or of Mastercard Foundation is disqualified from service on our board of directors
Mastercard Foundation’s substantial stock ownership, and restrictions on its sales, may impact corporate actions or acquisition proposals favorable to, or favored by, the other public stockholders.
As of February 8, 2022, Mastercard Foundation owned 105,091,311 shares of Class A common stock, representing approximately 10.8% of our general voting power. Mastercard Foundation may not sell or otherwise transfer its shares of Class A common stock prior to May 1, 2027, except to the extent necessary to satisfy its charitable disbursement requirements, for which purpose earlier sales are permitted and have occurred. Mastercard Foundation is permitted to sell all of its remaining shares after May 1, 2027, subject to certain conditions. The directors of Mastercard Foundation are required to be independent of us and our customers. The ownership of Class A common stock by Mastercard Foundation, together with the restrictions on transfer, could discourage or make more difficult acquisition proposals favored by the other holders of the Class A common stock. In addition, because Mastercard Foundation is restricted from selling its shares for an extended period of time, it may not have the same interest in short or medium-term movements in our stock price as, or incentive to approve a corporate action that may be favorable to, our other stockholders.
Item 1B. Unresolved staff comments
Not applicable.
Item 2. Properties
We own our corporate headquarters, located in Purchase, New York, and our principal technology and operations center, located in O’Fallon, Missouri. As of December 31, 2021, Mastercard and its subsidiaries owned or leased commercial properties throughout the U.S. and other countries around the world, consisting of corporate and regional offices, as well as our operations centers.
We believe that our facilities are suitable and adequate for the business that we currently conduct. However, we periodically review our space requirements and may acquire or lease new space to meet the needs of our business and address climate-related impacts, or consolidate and dispose of facilities that are no longer required.
Item 3. Legal proceedings
Refer to Note 13 (Accrued Expenses and Accrued Litigation) and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 37


PART I
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Information about our executive officers
(as of February 11, 2022)
Name
Current Position
AgePrevious Mastercard ExperiencePrevious Business Experience
Ajay Bhalla
President, Cyber and
Intelligence Solutions
since November 2018
56
President, Enterprise Security Solutions (2014-2018)
President, Digital Gateway Services (2011-2013)
President, South Asia and Southeast Asia (2008-2011)
Various senior leadership positions, including President, Southeast Asia; Country Manager, Singapore and Head of Marketing, Southeast Asia; Vice President
Various leadership positions at HSBC and Xerox Corporation
Ann Cairns
Vice Chairman
since June 2018
65
President, International (2011-2018)
Managing director, Alvarez & Marsal
CEO, ABN AMRO
Senior corporate and investment banking roles at Citigroup

Gilberto Caldart
Vice Chairman, Senior Client Partnerships and Relationships
since January 2022
62
President, International (2018-2021)
President, Latin America and Caribbean region (2013-2018)
Division President, South Latin America/Brazil (2008-2013)
Various leadership positions at Citigroup, including Country Business Manager, Brazil
Michael Fraccaro
Chief People Officer
since July 2016
56
Executive Vice President, Human Resources, Global Products and Solutions (2014-2016)
Senior Vice President, Human Resources, Global Products and Solutions (2012-2014)
Various executive-level human resources positions at HSBC Group, Hong Kong (2000-2012)
Various senior human resources positions in banking and financial services in Australia and the Middle East
Michael Froman
Vice Chairman and President, Strategic Growth
since April 2018
59
Mr. Froman joined the Company in 2018 in his current role
U.S. Trade Representative in the Executive Office of President Obama (2013-2017)
Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for International Economic Policy (2009-2013)
Various senior leadership positions at Citigroup, including CEO, CitiInsurance and COO of Citigroup’s alternative investments business
38 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART I
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Name
Current Position
AgePrevious Mastercard ExperiencePrevious Business Experience
Linda Kirkpatrick
President, North America
since January 2021
45
President, U.S. Issuers (2020)
Executive Vice President, Merchants and Acceptance (2016-2020)
Senior Vice President, Core Merchants (2013-2016)
Senior Vice President, Franchise Development (2011-2013)
Vice President, U.S. Region (2008-2011)
Vice President, Investor Relations
Edward McLaughlin
President, Operations and Technology
since May 2017
56
Chief Information Officer (2016-2017)
Chief Emerging Payments Officer (2010-2015)
Various senior leadership roles, including Chief Franchise Development Officer and Senior Vice President, Bill Payment and Healthcare
Group Vice President, Product and Strategy, Metavante Corporation
Co-Founder and CEO, Paytrust, Inc.
Sachin Mehra
Chief Financial Officer
since April 2019
51
Chief Financial Operations Officer (2018-2019)
Executive Vice President, Commercial Products (2015-2018)
Executive Vice President and Business Financial Officer, North America (2013-2015)
Corporate Treasurer (2010-2013)
Various senior positions at Hess Corporation, including Vice President and Treasurer
Various senior treasury and finance positions, General Motors Corporation and GMAC
Michael Miebach
President and Chief Executive Officer since January 2021
54
President (2020)
Chief Product Officer (2016-2020)
President, Middle East and Africa (2010-2015)
Managing Director, Middle East and North Africa and Managing Director, Sub-Saharan Africa, Barclays Bank PLC
Various executive positions at Citigroup in Germany, Austria, U.K. and Turkey
Tim Murphy
Chief Administrative Officer
since April 2021
54
General Counsel (2014-2021)
Chief Product Officer (2009-2014)
Various senior leadership roles, including President, U.S. Region; Executive Vice President, Customer Business Planning and Analysis; and Senior Vice President and Associate General Counsel
Associate, Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen and Hamilton, New York and London
Raja Rajamannar
Chief Marketing and Communications Officer and President, Healthcare
since January 2016
60
Chief Marketing Officer (2013-2015)
Executive Vice President-Senior Business and Chief Transformation Officer, Anthem (formerly, WellPoint, Inc.) (2012- 2013)
Senior Vice President and Chief Innovation and Marketing Officer, Humana Inc. (2009-2012)
Various management positions at Citigroup, including Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer-Citi Global Cards

MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 39


PART I
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Name
Current Position
AgePrevious Mastercard ExperiencePrevious Business Experience
Raj Seshadri
President, Data and Services
since January 2020
56
President, U.S. Issuers (2016-2019)
Managing Director, Head of iShares U.S. Wealth Advisory business, BlackRock (2014-2016)
Managing Director, Global Marketing Officer of iShares, BlackRock, Inc. (2012-2014)
Various leadership positions at Citigroup, U.S. Trust Company and McKinsey & Company, Inc.
Kevin Stanton
Chief Transformation Officer
since January 2020
60
Chief Services Officer (2018-2019)
President, Mastercard Advisors (2010-2017)
Various senior leadership roles, including President, Canada; Senior Vice President, Strategy and Market Development; and Vice President, Senior Counsel and North America Region Counsel
Vice President, Counsel, Shawmut National Corporation
Rich Verma
General Counsel and Head of Global Public Policy
since April 2021
53
Executive Vice President of Global Public Policy and Regulatory Affairs (2020-2021)
Vice Chairman & Partner, The Asia Group (2017-2020)
U.S. Ambassador to India (2014-2017)
Assistant Secretary of State (2009-2011)
Member, Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism (2008)
National Security Advisor to Senate Majority Leader, Harry Reid
 (2002-2007)
Craig Vosburg
Chief Product Officer
since January 2021
54
President, North America (2016-2020)
Chief Product Officer (2014-2015)
Executive Vice President, U.S. Market Development (2010-2014)
Various senior leadership roles, including Head of Mastercard Advisors, U.S. and Canada and Head of Mastercard Advisors, Southeast Asia, Greater China and South Asia/Middle East/Africa

Senior member-financial services practice, Bain & Company and A.T. Kearney
Vice president, CoreStates Financial Corporation

40 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART II
Item 6. Reserved



PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUES PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Item 5. Market for registrant’s common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Our Class A common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MA”. At February 8, 2022, we had 71 stockholders of record for our Class A common stock. We believe that the number of beneficial owners is substantially greater than the number of record holders because a large portion of our Class A common stock is held in “street name” by brokers.
There is currently no established public trading market for our Class B common stock. There were approximately 240 holders of record of our non-voting Class B common stock as of February 8, 2022, constituting approximately 0.8% of our total outstanding equity.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph and table below compare the cumulative total stockholder return of Mastercard’s Class A common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Financials for the five-year period ended December 31, 2021. The graph assumes a $100 investment in our Class A common stock and both of the indices and the reinvestment of dividends. Mastercard’s Class B common stock is not publicly traded or listed on any exchange or dealer quotation system.
Comparison of cumulative five-year total return
ma-20211231_g24.jpg
Total returns to stockholders for each of the years presented were as follows:
Base periodIndexed Returns
For the Years Ended December 31,
Company/Index201620172018201920202021
Mastercard$100.00 $147.68 $185.07 $294.55 $353.98 $358.07 
S&P 500 100.00 121.83 116.49 153.17 181.35 233.41 
S&P 500 Financials100.00 122.18 106.26 140.40 138.02 186.38 

42 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUES PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Dividend Declaration and Policy
On November 30, 2021, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.49 per share paid on February 9, 2022 to holders of record on January 7, 2022 of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. On February 8, 2022, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.49 per share payable on May 9, 2022 to holders of record on April 8, 2022 of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Subject to legally available funds, we intend to continue to pay a quarterly cash dividend on our outstanding Class A common stock and Class B common stock. However, the declaration and payment of future dividends is at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, available cash and current and anticipated cash needs.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the fourth quarter of 2021, we repurchased a total of 3.7 million shares for $1.3 billion at an average price of $342.86 per share of Class A common stock. See Note 16 (Stockholders' Equity) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for further discussion with respect to our share repurchase programs. The following table presents our repurchase activity on a cash basis during the fourth quarter of 2021:
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share
(including
commission cost)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
Dollar Value of
Shares that may yet
be Purchased under
the Plans or
Programs 1
October 1 – 311,282,075 $351.18 1,282,075 $4,752,404,601 
November 1 – 301,126,537 340.52 1,126,537 12,368,795,391 
December 1 – 311,312,321 336.75 1,312,321 11,926,866,431 
Total3,720,933 342.86 3,720,933 
1Dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the share repurchase programs is as of the end of the period.
2In November 2021 and December 2020, our Board of Directors approved share repurchase programs authorizing us to repurchase up to $8.0 billion and $6.0 billion respectively, of our Class A common stock under each plan.
Item 6. [Reserved]


MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 43


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Item 7. Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes of Mastercard Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Mastercard International Incorporated (“Mastercard International”) (together, “Mastercard” or the “Company”), included elsewhere in this Report. Percentage changes provided throughout “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” were calculated on amounts rounded to the nearest thousand. For discussion related to the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, please see Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Business Overview
Mastercard is a technology company in the global payments industry that connects consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments, digital partners, businesses and other organizations worldwide, enabling them to use electronic forms of payment instead of cash and checks. We make payments easier and more efficient by providing a wide range of payment solutions and services using our family of well-known and trusted brands, including Mastercard®, Maestro® and Cirrus®. We operate a multi-rail payments network that provides choice and flexibility for consumers and merchants. Through our unique and proprietary core global payments network, we switch (authorize, clear and settle) payment transactions. We have additional payment capabilities that include automated clearing house (“ACH”) transactions (both batch and real-time account-based payments). Using these capabilities, we offer integrated payment products and services and capture new payment flows. Our value-added services include, among others, cyber and intelligence solutions to allow all parties to transact easily and with confidence, as well as other services that provide proprietary insights, drawing on our principled use of consumer and merchant data. Our franchise model sets the standards and ground-rules that balance value and risk across all stakeholders and allows for interoperability among them. Our payment solutions are designed to ensure safety and security for the global payments ecosystem.
Mastercard is not a financial institution. We do not issue cards, extend credit, determine or receive revenue from interest rates or other fees charged to account holders by issuers, or establish the rates charged by acquirers in connection with merchants’ acceptance of our products. In most cases, account holder relationships belong to, and are managed by, our customers.
COVID-19
In 2021, our growth rates, which are at various stages of recovery, increased as compared to the respective year ago period as consumer and business spend recovers and we lap the initial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The following tables provide a summary of trends in our key metrics for 2021 and 2020 as compared to the respective year ago periods:
2021 Quarter ended Year ended December 31, 2021
March 31June 30September 30
December 31
Increase/(Decrease)
Gross dollar volume (local currency basis)%33 %20 %23 %21 %
Cross-border volume (local currency basis)(17)%58 %52 %53 %32 %
Switched transactions%41 %25 %27 %25 %
2020 Quarter endedYear ended December 31, 2020
March 31June 30September 30
December 31
Increase/(Decrease)
Gross dollar volume (local currency basis)%(10)%%%— %
Cross-border volume (local currency basis)(1)%(45)%(36)%(29)%(29)%
Switched transactions13 %(10)%%%%
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in the first quarter of 2020, continues to have negative effects on the global economy. The pandemic has affected business activity, adversely impacting consumers, our customers, suppliers and business partners, as well as our workforce. Variants of the virus have emerged, resulting in a resurgence of infections that have affected regions at different times. New variants may emerge with similar results. The extent to which the resurgence and severity of infections has affected regions is impacted by the ongoing global administration of vaccines and the availability of therapeutic

44 MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
treatments in those locations. Governments, businesses and consumers continue to react to the changing conditions, tightening or loosening safety measures or voluntarily making personal safety decisions, as applicable, based on the current environment of their location.
We continue to monitor the effects of the pandemic and the related impact on our business. The full extent to which the pandemic, and measures and actions taken by stakeholders in response, affect our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic and its impact on the global economy, which are uncertain, and cannot be predicted at this time.
Financial Results Overview
The following table provides a summary of our key GAAP operating results, as reported: 
Year ended December 31,2021
Increase/
(Decrease)
2020
Increase/
(Decrease)
202120202019
($ in millions, except per share data)
Net revenue$18,884 $15,301 $16,883 23%(9)%
Operating expenses$8,802 $7,220 $7,219 22%—%
Operating income$10,082 $8,081 $9,664 25%(16)%
Operating margin53.4 %52.8 %57.2 %0.6 ppt(4.4) ppt
Income tax expense$1,620 $1,349 $1,613 20%(16)%
Effective income tax rate15.7 %17.4 %16.6 %(1.7) ppt0.8 ppt
Net income$8,687 $6,411 $8,118 35%(21)%
Diluted earnings per share$8.76 $6.37 $7.94 38%(20)%
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding992 1,006 1,022 (1)%(2)%
The following table provides a summary of our key non-GAAP operating results1, adjusted to exclude the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments, Special Items (which represent litigation judgments and settlements and certain one-time items) and the related tax impacts on our non-GAAP adjustments. In addition, we have presented growth rates, adjusted for the impact of currency:
Year ended December 31,2021
 Increase/(Decrease)
2020
Increase/(Decrease)
202120202019As adjustedCurrency-neutralAs adjustedCurrency-neutral
($ in millions, except per share data)
Net revenue$18,884 $15,301 $16,883 23%22%(9)%(8)%
Adjusted operating expenses$8,627 $7,147 $7,219 21%19%(1)%(1)%
Adjusted operating margin54.3 %53.3 %57.2 %1.0 ppt1.2 ppt(4.0) ppt(3.7) ppt
Adjusted effective income tax rate15.4 %17.2 %17.0 %(1.8) ppt(1.8) ppt0.2 ppt0.3 ppt
Adjusted net income$8,333 $6,463 $7,937 29%28%(19)%(17)%
Adjusted diluted earnings per share$8.40 $6.43 $7.77 31%30%(17)%(16)%
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
1 See “Non-GAAP Financial Information” for further information on our non-GAAP adjustments and the reconciliation to GAAP reported amounts.

MASTERCARD 2021 FORM 10-K 45


PART II
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Key highlights for 2021 as compared to 2020 were as follows:
Net revenue
GAAPNon-GAAP
(currency-neutral)
Net revenue increased 22% on a currency-neutral basis, which includes 2 percentage points of growth from acquisitions. The remaining increase was primarily due to:
up 23%up 22%
     - Gross dollar volume growth of 21% on a local currency basis
     - Cross-border volume growth of 32% on a local currency basis
     - Switched transactions growth of 25%
     - Other revenues increased 32%, or 31% on a currency-neutral basis, which
     includes 8 percentage points of growth due to acquisitions. The remaining growth
     was driven primarily by our Cyber & Intelligence and Data & Services solutions.
These increases to net revenue were partially offset by:
     - Rebates and incentives growth of 32%, or 31% on a currency-neutral basis,
     primarily due to increased volumes and transactions and new and renewed deals.
Operating expensesAdjusted
operating expenses
GAAPNon-GAAP
(currency-neutral)
Adjusted operating expenses increased 19% on a currency-neutral basis, which includes 7 percentage points of growth due to acquisitions. The remaining increase was primarily due to higher personnel costs, increased spending on advertising and marketing and increased data processing costs.
up 22%up 19%
Effective income tax rate
Adjusted effective income tax rate
GAAPNon-GAAP
(currency-neutral)
The adjusted effective income tax rate of 15.4% was lower than prior year, primarily due to the recognition of U.S. tax benefits, the majority of which were discrete, resulting from a higher foreign derived intangible income deduction and greater utilization of foreign tax credits in the U.S. In addition, a more favorable geographic mix of earnings in 2021 contributed to our lower effective tax rate. These benefits were partially offset by a lower discrete tax benefit related to share-based payments in 2021.
15.7%15.4%
Other 2021 financial highlights were as follows:
We generated net cash flows from operations of $9.5 billion.
We completed the acquisitions of businesses for total consideration of $4.7 billion.
We repurchased 16.5 million shares of our common stock for $5.9 billion and paid dividends of $1.7 billion.
We completed debt offerings for an aggregate principal amount of $2.1 billion.
Non-GAAP Financial Information
Non-GAAP financial information is defined as a numerical measure of a company’s performance that excludes or includes amounts so as to be different than the most comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). Our non-GAAP financial measures exclude the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments which includes mark-to-market fair value adjustments, impairments and gains and losses upon disposition and the related tax impacts. Our non-GAAP financial measures also exclude the impact of special items, where applicable, which represent litigation judgments and settlements and certain one-time items, as well as the related tax impacts (“Special Items”). Our non-GAAP financial measures for the comparable periods exclude the impact of the following:
Gains and Losses on Equity Investments
During 2021, 2020 and 2019, we recorded net gains of $645 million ($497 million after tax, or $0.50 per diluted share), $30 million ($15 million after tax, or $0.01 per diluted share) and $167 million ($124 million after tax, or $0.12 per diluted share), respectively. These net gains were primarily related to unrealized fair market value adjustments on marketable and nonmarketable equity securities. In addition, in 2021, net gains also included realized gains on sales of marketable equity securities.

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Special Items
Litigation provisions
During 2021, we recorded pre-tax charges of $94 million ($74 million after tax, or $0.07 per diluted share) related to litigation settlements and estimated attorneys’ fees with U.K. and Pan-European merchants.
During 2020, we recorded pre-tax charges of $73 million ($67 million after tax, or $0.07 per diluted share) related to litigation provisions which included pre-tax charges of:
$45 million related to a legal matter associated with our prepaid cards in the U.K., and
$28 million related to estimated attorneys’ fees and litigation settlements with U.K. and Pan-European merchants.
Indirect tax matter
During 2021, we recorded a pre-tax charge of $88 million ($69 million after tax, or $0.07 per diluted share) to resolve a foreign indirect tax matter for 2015 through the current period and the related interest.
Tax act
During 2019, we recorded a $57 million net tax benefit ($0.06 per diluted share), which included a $30 million benefit related to a reduction to the 2017 one-time deemed repatriation tax on accumulated foreign earnings (the transition tax) resulting from final tax regulations issued in 2019 and a $27 million benefit related to additional foreign tax credits which can be carried back under transition rules.
See Note 7 (Investments), Note 20 (Income Taxes) and Note 21 (Legal and Regulatory Proceedings) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 for further discussion. We excluded these items because management evaluates the underlying operations and performance of the Company separately from these recurring and non-recurring items.
We believe that the non-GAAP financial measures presented facilitate an understanding of our operating performance and provide a meaningful comparison of our results between periods. We use non-GAAP financial measures to, among other things, evaluate our ongoing operations in relation to historical results, for internal planning and forecasting purposes and in the calculation of performance-based compensation.
Currency-neutral Growth Rates
We present growth rates adjusted for the impact of currency, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. Currency-neutral growth rates are calculated by remeasuring the prior period’s results using the current period’s exchange rates for both the translational and transactional impacts on operating results. The impact of currency translation represents the effect of translating operating results where the functional currency is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency. The impact of the transactional currency represents the effect of converting revenue and expenses occurring in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The impact of the related realized gains and losses resulting from our foreign exchange derivative contracts designated as cash flow hedging instruments is recognized in the respective financial statement line item on the statement of operations when the underlying forecasted transactions impact earnings. We believe the presentation of currency-neutral growth rates provides relevant information to facilitate an understanding of our operating results.
The translational and transactional impact of currency and the related impact of our foreign exchange derivative contracts designated as cash flow hedging instruments (“Currency impact”) has been excluded from our currency-neutral growth rates and has been identified in our drivers of change impact tables. See “Foreign Currency - Currency Impact” for further information on our currency impacts and “Financial Results - Revenue and Operating Expenses” for our drivers of change impact tables.
Net revenue, operating expenses, operating margin, other income (expense), effective income tax rate, net income and diluted earnings per share adjusted for the impact of gains and losses on our equity investments, Special Items and/or the impact of currency, are non-GAAP financial measures and should not be relied upon as substitutes for measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following tables reconcile our reported financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP to the respective non-GAAP adjusted financial measures:
Year ended December 31, 2021
 Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income

(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$8,802 53.4 %$225 15.7 %$8,687 $8.76 
(Gains) losses on equity investments****(645)(0.5)%(497)(0.50)
Litigation provisions(94)0.5 %**0.1 %74 0.07 
Indirect tax matter(82)0.4 %0.1 %69 0.07 
Non-GAAP$8,627 54.3 %$(413)15.4 %$8,333 $8.40 
Year ended December 31, 2020
 Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income
(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$7,220 52.8 %$(321)17.4 %$6,411 $6.37 
(Gains) losses on equity investments****(30)(0.1)%(15)(0.01)
Litigation provisions(73)0.5 %**(0.1)%67 0.07 
Non-GAAP$7,147 53.3 %$(351)17.2 %$6,463 $6.43 
Year ended December 31, 2019
 Operating
expenses
Operating
margin
Other
income
(expense)
Effective
income
tax rate
 Net
income
 Diluted
earnings
per share
($ in millions, except per share data)
Reported - GAAP$7,219 57.2 %$67 16.6 %$8,118 7.94 
(Gains) losses on equity investments****(167)(0.2)%(124)(0.12)
Tax act******0.6 %(57)(0.06)
Non-GAAP$7,219 57.2 %$(100)17.0 %$7,937 $7.77 
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
** Not applicable

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following tables represent the reconciliation of our growth rates reported under GAAP to our non-GAAP growth rates:
Year Ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Increase/(Decrease)
Net revenue Operating expensesOperating marginEffective income tax rate Net income Diluted earnings per share
Reported - GAAP23 %22 %0.6  ppt(1.7) ppt35 %38 %
(Gains) losses on equity investments **  **  ** (0.4) ppt(7)%(8)%
Litigation provisions ** — %—  ppt0.1 ppt— %— %
Indirect tax matter ** (1)%0.4 ppt0.1 ppt%%
Non-GAAP23 %21 %1.0  ppt(1.8) ppt29 %31 %
Currency impact 1
(1)%(2)%0.2  ppt— ppt(1)%(1)%
Non-GAAP - currency-neutral22 %19 %1.2 ppt (1.8) ppt28 %30 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Increase/(Decrease)
Net revenue Operating expensesOperating marginEffective income tax rate Net income Diluted earnings per share
Reported - GAAP(9)%— %(4.4) ppt0.8  ppt(21)%(20)%
(Gains) losses on equity investments******— ppt%%
Litigation provisions**(1)%0.5 ppt(0.1) ppt%%
Tax act******(0.6) ppt%%
Non-GAAP(9)%(1)%(4.0) ppt0.2 ppt(19)%(17)%
Currency impact 1
%— %0.3 ppt0.2 ppt%%
Non-GAAP - currency-neutral(8)%(1)%(3.7) ppt0.3 ppt(17)%(16)%
Note: Tables may not sum due to rounding.
** Not applicable
1See “Non-GAAP Financial Information” for further information on Currency impact.
Key Metrics
In addition to the financial measures described above in “Financial Results Overview”, we review the following metrics to evaluate and identify trends in our business, measure our performance, prepare financial projections and make strategic decisions. We believe that the key metrics presented facilitate an understanding of our operating and financial performance and provide a meaningful comparison of our results between periods. 
Gross Dollar Volume (“GDV”)1 measures dollar volume of activity on cards carrying our brands during the period, on a local currency basis and U.S. dollar-converted basis. GDV represents purchase volume plus cash volume and includes the impact of balance transfers and convenience checks; “purchase volume” means the aggregate dollar amount of purchases made with Mastercard-branded cards for the relevant period; and “cash volume” means the aggregate dollar amount of cash disbursements and includes the impact of balance transfers and convenience checks obtained with Mastercard-branded cards for the relevant period. Information denominated in U.S. dollars relating to GDV is calculated by applying an established U.S. dollar/local currency exchange rate for each local currency in which our volumes are reported. These exchange rates are calculated on a quarterly basis using the average exchange rate for each quarter.  We report period-over-period rates of change in purchase volume and cash volume on the basis of local currency information, in order to eliminate the impact of changes in the value of currencies against the U.S. dollar in calculating such rates of change.
Cross-border Volume2 measures cross-border dollar volume initiated and switched through our network during the period, on a local currency basis and U.S. dollar-converted basis, for all Mastercard-branded programs.
Switched Transactions2 measures the number of transactions switched by Mastercard, which is defined as the number of transactions initiated and switched through our network during the period.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Operating Margin measures how much profit we make on each dollar of sales after our operating costs but before other income (expense) and income tax expense. Operating margin is calculated by dividing our operating income by net revenue.
1    Data used in the calculation of GDV is provided by Mastercard customers and is subject to verification by Mastercard and partial cross-checking against information provided by Mastercard’s transaction switching systems. All data is subject to revision and amendment by Mastercard or Mastercard’s customers.
2    Growth rates are normalized to eliminate the effects of differing switching and carryover days between periods. Carryover days are those where transactions and volumes from days where the Company does not clear and settle are processed. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we began clearing and settling transactions and volumes on a daily basis.
Foreign Currency
Currency Impact
Our primary revenue functional currencies are the U.S. dollar, euro, Brazilian real and the British pound. Our overall operating results are impacted by currency translation, which represents the effect of translating operating results where the functional currency is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency.
Our operating results are also impacted by transactional currency. The impact of the transactional currency represents the effect of converting revenue and expense transactions occurring in a currency other than the functional currency. Changes in currency exchange rates directly impact the calculation of gross dollar volume (“GDV”) and gross euro volume (“GEV”), which are used in the calculation of our domestic assessments, cross-border volume fees and certain volume-related rebates and incentives. In most non-European regions, GDV is calculated based on local currency spending volume converted to U.S. dollars using average exchange rates for the period. In Europe, GEV is calculated based on local currency spending volume converted to euros using average exchange rates for the period. As a result, certain of our domestic assessments, cross-border volume fees and volume-related rebates and incentives are impacted by the strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar versus non-European local currencies and the strengthening or weakening of the euro versus other European local currencies. For example, our billing in Australia is in the U.S. dollar, however, consumer spend in Australia is in the Australian dollar. The currency transactional impact of converting Australian dollars to our U.S. dollar billing currency will have an impact on the revenue generated. The strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar is evident when GDV growth on a U.S. dollar-converted basis is compared to GDV growth on a local currency basis. In 2021, GDV on a U.S. dollar-converted basis increased 21.9%, while GDV on a local currency basis increased 20.5% versus 2020. In 2020, GDV on a U.S. dollar-converted basis decreased 1.9%, while GDV on a local currency basis increased 0.1% versus 2019. Further, the impact from transactional currency occurs in transaction processing revenue, other revenue and operating expenses when the local currency of these items is different than the functional currency of the entity.
Through December 31, 2020, our approach to managing transactional currency exposure consisted of hedging a portion of anticipated revenues impacted by transactional currencies by entering into foreign exchange derivative contracts, and recording the related changes in fair value in general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statement of operations. During the first quarter of 2021, we started to formally designate certain newly-executed foreign exchange derivative contracts, which meet the established accounting criteria, as cash flow hedges. Gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value of these designated contracts are deferred in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and subsequently recognized in the respective component of net revenue when the underlying forecasted transactions impact earnings.
Foreign Exchange Activity
We incur foreign currency gains and losses from remeasuring monetary assets and liabilities, including settlement assets and obligations, that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. To manage this foreign exchange risk, we may enter into foreign exchange derivative contracts to economically hedge the foreign currency exposure of a portion of our nonfunctional monetary assets and liabilities. The gains or losses resulting from changes in fair value of these contracts are intended to reduce the potential effect of the underlying hedged exposure and are recorded net within general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statement of operations. The impact of this foreign exchange activity, including the related hedging activities, has not been eliminated in our currency-neutral results.
Our foreign exchange risk management activities are discussed further in Note 23 (Derivative and Hedging Instruments) to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8.
Risk of Currency Devaluation
We are exposed to currency devaluation in certain countries. In addition, we are subject to exchange control regulations that restrict the conversion of financial assets into U.S. dollars. While these revenues and assets are not material to us on a consolidated basis, we can be negatively impacted should there be a continued and sustained devaluation of local currencies relative to the U.S. dollar and/or a continued and sustained deterioration of economic conditions in these countries.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALY