10-K 1 infn-12262015x10k.htm FORM 10-K 10-K

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
Form 10-K
 
 
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 26, 2015
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            
Commission file number: 001-33486
 
 
 
Infinera Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
77-0560433
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
140 Caspian Court
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(408) 572-5200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.001 Par Value
The NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer   x
Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨
Smaller reporting company  ¨
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)        
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 26, 2015, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $1,985,339,928 (based on the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on that date). Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each officer and director and each person who owns more than 5% or more of the outstanding common stock of the registrant have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. As of February 18, 2016, 141,389,267 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, were issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2016 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2016 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.




 



INFINERA CORPORATION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 26, 2015
Table of Contents
 
 
Page
 
Part I
 
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Part II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
Part III
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
Part IV
 
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules



Part I
 
ITEM 1.        BUSINESS
Overview
Infinera Corporation (“we,” "us," "our" or “Infinera”) provides optical transport networking equipment, software and services to telecommunications service providers, Internet content providers (“ICPs”), cable providers, wholesale and enterprise carriers, research and education institutions, and government entities (collectively, "Service Providers") across the globe. Optical transport networks are deployed by Service Providers facing significant demands for optical bandwidth prompted by increased use of high-speed Internet access, mobile broadband, high-definition video streaming services, business Ethernet services and cloud-based services.
We manufacture large-scale Indium Phosphide photonic integrated circuits ("PICs"), which are used as a key differentiating component inside our Intelligent Transport Network platforms. Our third generation PICs, commercially available since 2012, transmit and receive 500 Gigabits per second ("Gbps"), incorporating over 600 discrete optical functions into a pair of PICs. Our PICs are combined with our FlexCoherent processors to deliver coherent optical transmission and with high-performance Optical Transport Network (“OTN”) switching capabilities to offer Service Providers a unique combination of highly-scalable transmission capacity and easy to use bandwidth management tools to simplify transport network operations.
Similar to how silicon integrated circuits changed the dynamics of the computing industry by increasing computing performance and reliability while reducing physical size, power consumption and heat dissipation, we believe our PICs change the dynamics of the optical transport network industry by increasing optical performance and reliability while reducing physical size, power consumption and heat dissipation.
In 2014, we increased our addressable markets by introducing the Cloud Xpress platform for the metro cloud market. We enhanced our position in the cloud/data center interconnect (“DCI") market in 2015 by expanding our Cloud Xpress offering to now include 10 gigabit Ethernet (“GbE”), 40 GbE and 100 GbE client interfaces to meet customer specific requirements. We also introduced the XT-500, to provide a compact wavelength-division multiplexing (“WDM”) solution optimized for long-haul interconnect applications.
In the second half of 2015, we entered the metro market with the acquisition of Transmode AB (“Transmode”), a leader in metro packet-optical applications, and introduced the Infinera XTC-2 and XTC-2E products. We can now offer our customers a comprehensive portfolio addressing the metro market with 100G metro core/regional transport capabilities and packet-optical solutions optimized for fast growing applications including mobile fronthaul and backhaul, triple-play and cable broadband aggregation, and business Ethernet services with Metro Ethernet Forum (“MEF”) certification.
Our end-to-end packet-optical portfolio is designed to be managed with a single network management system. In addition to offering our traditional management system for WDM operations, we also provide solutions for enabling programmability of our Intelligent Transport Network with software defined networking (“SDN”) via the Infinera Open Transport Switch (“OTS”). This SDN platform can enable Service Providers to write software applications that can control the Intelligent Transport Network to more rapidly deliver innovative services with service level agreements while efficiently using their network resources.
The Infinera Intelligent Transport Network architecture enables Service Providers to scale network bandwidth, accelerate service innovation and simplify optical network operations. Service Providers across the globe rely on Infinera Intelligent Transport Networks to enable services that create rich end-user experiences based on efficient, high-bandwidth optical networking. Building on our leadership in long-haul, we now provide an end-to-end portfolio of packet-optical solutions for metro, DCI, long-haul and subsea networks.
We were incorporated in December 2000 and originally operated under the name “Zepton Networks.” We are incorporated in the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 140 Caspian Court, Sunnyvale, CA 94089. Our telephone number is (408) 572-5200.
“Infinera,” “Infinera DTN,” “Infinera DTN-X,” “ATN,” “Infinera Intelligent Transport Network,” “FlexCoherent,” "Infinera FlexILS" and “Infinera Instant Bandwidth” are trademarks or service marks of Infinera Corporation in the United States, certain other countries and /or the European Union. Any other trademarks or trade names mentioned are the property of their respective owners.

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Industry Background
Optical transport networking equipment carries digital information using light waves over fiber optic cables. With the advent of WDM systems, data is transmitted by using multiple wavelengths of light using different frequencies or colors over a single optical fiber. Service Providers deploy WDM systems to carry information between continents, across countries, between cities and within metropolitan areas, and in some cases all the way to the end user. Fiber optic networks are generally capable of carrying most types of communications traffic. We believe that a number of trends in the communications industry are driving demand for network bandwidth and ultimately will increase demand for optical transport networking systems. These trends include growth in bandwidth-intensive services like streaming high-definition video services, the proliferation of 4G and WiFi mobile broadband due to the availability of smartphones and tablets, and the growth of cloud services. As traffic grows, Service Providers add transmission bandwidth to existing optical networks or purchase and deploy additional systems to keep pace with bandwidth demands and service expansion.

Consumers and businesses increasingly rely on the cloud for their application needs. As cloud adoption increases, large network operators are reporting a magnification effect on incoming traffic, such that a single request from an end user can generate many times the amount of traffic between data centers than was contained in the original request. This server-to-server traffic is also called east-west traffic and this magnification effect is accelerating the deployment of high-bandwidth optical transport solutions to support cloud network infrastructures.
We deliver highly scalable optical networking solutions to support the growing demand for high bandwidth across various end-to-end network locations all the way from the high-capacity long-haul core to the metro access.
We believe that Service Providers seek the following solutions that will allow them to increase their revenue and/or expand their service offerings:
high-bandwidth solutions that scale optical transmission bandwidth to meet increasing demand;
efficient solutions that optimize performance and increase reliability while reducing physical space, power consumption and heat dissipation leading to lower operational expenses;
easy to use solutions that reduce the time and complexity of deploying new transmission bandwidth; and
improved integration between Internet Protocol equipment such as routers and optical transport networking equipment.

We believe that the Infinera Intelligent Transport Network architecture is uniquely enabled to deliver improvements in these areas compared to competitive WDM systems. We also believe that our Intelligent Transport Networks enable Service Providers to deploy scalable, high-bandwidth, optical transport network solutions that accelerate service innovation and simplify optical network operations.
Strategy
Our goal is to be the preeminent provider of optical transport networking systems to Service Providers around the world. Key aspects of our strategy to achieve this goal are as follows:
Proliferating our broader base of technologies into our existing customers as well as obtaining new customers. We have introduced multiple purpose built products to allow us to serve adjacent markets and also better serve our existing markets.
Enhancing our existing product portfolio for the metro, DCI, long-haul and subsea markets. We are enhancing existing products and building new products for specific markets, including metro aggregation, DCI, long-haul and subsea.
Continuing commitment to provide world-class support services to our customers. We believe that our lead in customer experience capabilities is a major differentiator. Our global customer service and technical support team is committed to making our customers successful by providing the highest quality support services to deploy, operate and maintain their networks.

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Maintaining and extending our technology lead. We intend to continually invest in key technologies such as our FlexCoherent processor, various forms of the PIC, application specific integrated circuits ("ASICs"), software and other key technology differentiators. We plan to incorporate the functionality of additional discrete functions into our PICs, and overall vertically integrated design, in order to continue to increase our technology lead. In addition, we intend to pursue the expansion of our digital and packet switching and bandwidth management capabilities in order to enhance the performance, scalability and economic advantages of our products.
Continuing investment in vertically integrated manufacturing activities. We believe that our vertical integration and manufacturing capabilities serve as competitive advantages from a technology, supply chain and financial perspective, and we plan to continue to invest in our next-generation PIC technologies.
Investing in Network Management System and SDN. We believe that we lead the industry in ease of use facilitated through our Infinera Management System suite of software products. We continue to invest in our software products, including adding new capabilities such as Infinera Instant Bandwidth control and extending the system across our entire portfolio with a goal of achieving end-to-end service provisioning and management. We are also seeing a trend in which Service Providers are looking for more programmable networks and we have added application programming interfaces to the Infinera Intelligent Transport Network architecture so they can be used by Service Providers to build more agile networks that can deliver competitive services.
Customers
Our customers include:
Tier-1 carriers for domestic and international networks;
Tier-2 and Tier-3 carriers;
ICP and cloud operators;
wholesale and enterprise carriers;
multiple system operators/cable companies; and
research and education/government entities.
We sell our products both directly to customers who are end users, and utilize channel partners that sell on our behalf. We believe one of our strengths is the diversity of our customer base as we generate annual revenues from each of the verticals listed above, and have multiple customers within each vertical that have historically spent significantly on our solutions. We do not have long-term sales commitments from our customers. Two customers each accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2015. These two customers accounted for 17% and 13%, respectively, of our revenue in 2015. One customer accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2014. Revenue from this customer accounted for 19% of our revenue in 2014. No individual customer accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2013.
Technology
Infinera Intelligent Transport Network Architecture
We were founded with a vision of enabling an infinite pool of intelligent bandwidth that the next communications infrastructure is built upon. We have focused our efforts, time and capital on developing multiple platforms based on our Intelligent Transport Network architecture, which enables Service Providers to create rich end-user experiences based on efficient, high-bandwidth transport by combining the following elements:
Scalability. The proliferation of data centers, rise of cloud computing, increasing consumption of video and growth in mobile access are fundamentally changing traffic characteristics in operator networks. The Infinera Intelligent Transport Network delivers 500Gbps FlexCoherent super-channels today and is designed to scale without compromise to enable terabit super-channels and terabit Ethernet in the future.

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Convergence. Networks are growing in complexity with the proliferation of chassis, network layers and fiber interconnects. Complexity increases the time it takes to plan and deploy network services and increases the cost of maintenance, operation, power, space and cooling. By combining packet and OTN switching functions with WDM, the Infinera Intelligent Transport Network is designed to reduce complexity while lowering overall network operating costs without compromising performance.
Automation. Network operators face intensifying competition to meet customer demand for immediate bandwidth needs and better visibility into the network. The Infinera Intelligent Transport Network features intelligent software control and open SDN application programming interfaces (“APIs”) to help simplify multi-layer provisioning. Furthermore, our Infinera Instant Bandwidth offering enables our customers to benefit from a “pay as you grow” model by instantly provisioning additional capacity when it is needed.
Infinera Photonic Integrated Circuits
We believe that our proprietary PICs and FlexCoherent processor are key components of our value proposition and competitive advantage. We manufacture and package our PICs at our own facilities for use exclusively with our Infinera DTN, DTN-X XTC-series, DTN-X XT-series and Cloud Xpress platforms. Our PICs are purpose built for diverse network locations and applications. As a leader in photonic integration, we have protected the intellectual property associated with our PIC manufacturing through a combination of trade secrets, patents and contractual protections. We believe that as a result of the combination of the multiple disciplines that were required to develop our PIC, together with the intellectual property protections that we have established, it will be difficult for others to duplicate the technology we have developed. We believe that large-scale photonic integration, using indium phosphide, enables significantly improved manufacturing economics for optical networking, allowing future optical transport cost reductions to be viably sustained on a cost curve defined by volume manufacturing efficiencies, greater functional integration, increased device density and manufacturing yield enhancements.
Infinera FlexCoherent Processor
Optical transmission is based on a number of technologies, namely: phase modulation, polarization multiplexing, coherent detection and advanced digital signal processing. These “coherent technologies” are used by network operators to enable higher data capacities to be transmitted over their existing optical fiber infrastructure, typically using the same or better design rules than those used for the previous generation. We have integrated proprietary coherent technologies onto our FlexCoherent processor based on advanced electronics, which works in conjunction with our large-scale PICs based on advanced photonics, to construct a single module for exceptional optical transport performance.
Super-Channels
The Infinera DTN-X XTC-10, DTN-X XTC-4 and Cloud Xpress platforms support five channels of 100Gbps capacity in a single line card or unit depending on the platform form-factor. This 500Gbps pool of bandwidth is managed as a single super-channel that can be deployed in a single operational motion. Competitive solutions would require the installation of discrete line modules or units, which in some cases could be as high as five, each turned up with its own operational motion, in order to achieve the same system capacity. Super-channels result in competitive advantages in the areas of space and power consumption, leading to lower operational costs and long-term system reliability, as well as significant reductions in time to install and repair.

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Integrated OTN Switching
OTN offers a highly-structured approach to service multiplexing and switching that enables customers to reduce operational costs and more efficiently utilize higher-capacity bandwidth in their networks. Historically, the OTN switching and WDM transport functions have been deployed by Service Providers in separate systems. Our unique PIC technology allows the Infinera DTN-X XTC-series platforms to fully integrate WDM transport and OTN switching capabilities in a single platform, without compromising overall system functionality or capacity. This results in an improved total cost of ownership for the customer. Further the integrated OTN switching capability along with GMPLS automation allows customers to deploy Fast Shared Mesh Protection, a new standards-based resiliency technique for networks to recover from local and network-wide multiple failures without the need to dedicate backup bandwidth for every active circuit. We implement this technology using a purpose built hardware acceleration chip included in every single card of the Infinera DTN-X XTC platform, ensuring a sub-50 milliseconds recovery.
Infinera Instant Bandwidth
Infinera Instant Bandwidth enables Service Providers to license the 500Gbps super-channel pool of bandwidth in 100Gbps increments. With the Infinera Instant Bandwidth technology, which is available with the Infinera DTN-X XTC-10, DTN-X XTC-4 and Cloud Xpress platforms, Service Providers can instantly provision an additional 100Gbps of transmission capacity on demand without the deployment of any incremental equipment. The Infinera Instant Bandwidth technology is uniquely enabled by our super-channel capability and PICs.
Infinera Packet Optical Transport
Our packet optical technologies included in both the Infinera DTN-X XTC series and the TM-series platforms offer the right amount of packet and optical switching integrated into efficient packet optical platforms. This enables service providers to support Ethernet and Multi-Protocol Label Switching (“MPLS”) packet transport, aggregation and service functions directly within optical WDM layer. Operators can build highly efficient router interconnects and bandwidth engineering capabilities within the transport layer, without having to send the traffic to the router layer for transit. Our Intelligent Transport Networks not only enhance network efficiency but also provide scalable bandwidth and performance for revenue-yielding MEF certified Carrier Ethernet and MPLS packet services.
Products and Services
Our product portfolio consists of the Infinera DTN-X family of platforms, the Infinera DTN platform, the Infinera Cloud Xpress platform, the Infinera TM-Series, the Infinera TG-Series and the Infinera ATN platform addressing subsea, long-haul and metro networks end-to-end. The emerging DCI application is a subset of the long-haul and metro application. We also provide software solutions including the Infinera OTS and Infinera Management Suite to increase the efficiency and optimization of the network.
Product Portfolio
Infinera DTN-X Family of Platforms
The Infinera DTN-X family consists of the XTC-10, XTC-4, XTC-2/2E and the XT-500. With the exception of the XTC-2/2E, these platforms are built on the 500Gbps PIC technology that integrates more than 600 discrete photonic functions delivering the world’s first 500Gbps super-channel, based on 100Gbps per channel. The XTC-2/2E is designed for the metro and smaller capacity long haul networks and uses an optimized 100G PIC. The DTN-X family is powered by cutting-edge electronics delivered by our FlexCoherent processor and supports Infinera Instant Bandwidth technology, which helps operators closely match service revenue to network operating costs.

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The Infinera DTN-X XTC series are multi-terabit packet optical transport platforms that integrate Ethernet and MPLS packet services with digital OTN switching and optical WDM transmission. The highest end XTC-10 platform provides fiber capacity of 9.5 Terabits per second ("Tbps") that is upgradeable to 25.6Tbps. The per-chassis capacity is 5Tbps today and is upgradable to 12Tbps per chassis and up to 260Tbps in a multi-bay configuration in the future. In most competitive solutions, network operators must make a choice between maximizing either the system’s transmission capacity or its switching capability. The Infinera XTC platforms combine switching with WDM transport without compromising the performance of either function. They support a broad range of Ethernet and OTN client interfaces for flexibility. The platforms are designed for subsea, long-haul, regional and metro mesh networks that require 100Gbps wavelengths. The XTC-4 supports 500 Gbps super-channels but is a half rack platform for more space constrained applications. The XTC-2/2E is the smallest platform designed for metro applications or lower capacity sites requiring 100Gbps dense WDM.
The Infinera DTN-X XT-500 is a compact platform that is just 2 rack units high with 500Gbps line-side capacity and a mix of 10/100GbE client interfaces. It provides high levels of reliability, low power consumption and operational simplicity. It integrates with the Infinera FlexILS line system and can be managed as a single node when combined with the XTC series. The platform is designed for long-haul networks that require 100Gbps wavelengths as well as long-haul DCI applications.
Infinera DTN Platform
The Infinera DTN platform is built on 100G PIC technology, integrating digital OTN switching with optical WDM transmission at 10Gbps wavelengths for a fiber capacity of 1.6Tbps and per-chassis capacity of 400Gbps. It supports a broad range of Ethernet and OTN client interfaces for flexibility. The platform is designed for subsea, long-haul and regional mesh networks that require 10Gbps wavelengths.
Infinera FlexILS Line System
The Infinera FlexILS line system platform connects various Infinera platforms over long distance fiber optic cable while providing switching, multiplexing, amplification and management channels. It supports up to 25.6Tbps of fiber capacity when used with the Infinera DTN-X platform. The platform supports a flexible grid architecture that enables more efficient use of the available optical spectrum. The modular super-channel FlexROADM component provides multi-degree optical switching and, when combined with other Infinera platforms featuring OTN and packet switching along with SDN and GMPLS based unified control plane, the solution provides multi-layer switching. Operators can now manage line-side capacity as a single pool of bandwidth for end-user client services ranging from 1Gbps up to 100Gbps.
Infinera TM-Series
The TM-Series carrier-grade packet-optical transport platform enables high performance metro networks with service-aware, application-specific capabilities. Supporting integrated packet-optical features, the TM-Series builds on key design philosophies such as low power, high density and high scalability. It offers advanced capabilities for 3G and 4G mobile infrastructure such as superior sync features for backhaul, WDM in cloud radio access network architecture and fronthaul. The platform supports the Intelligent WDM Passive Optical Network solution providing simple operations for Fiber to the X applications along with Intelligent SFPs for transparent delivery of SDH/SONET services over a packet-optical network. It provides error correction, OTN transport, Ethernet, MPLS-TP and optics, all on one packet optical transport switch module. It includes a fully backwards compatible terabit scale packet-optical transport switching with a rich set of MEF Carrier Ethernet 2.0 and MPLS-TP service options. The platform is designed for application-rich packet-optical metro and regional networks providing cable, mobile, broadband and business services that require 10Gbps and 100Gbps wavelengths.
Infinera TS-Series
The TG-Series is a family of passive optical WDM products. Designed for access applications, it fits in a wide range of applications from controlled environments in central offices to street cabinets or even underground enclosures such as manhole applications that require environmentally hardened products, such as fiber to the curb, fiber to the building and high-security access networks. The TG-Series is fully compatible and interoperable with the TM-Series.

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Infinera Cloud Xpress Platform
The Infinera Cloud Xpress is a compact platform designed for DCI applications, built on the 500Gbps PIC technology with hyper-scale density, simplified operations and low power consumption. It provides 1Tbps of combined input and output capacity in just two rack units with flexible client interfaces of 10GbE, 40GbE and 100GbE. It is designed with a rack-and-stack form factor and a new software approach that enables it to easily plug into existing cloud provisioning systems using open SDN APIs, an approach similar to the server and storage infrastructure deployed in the cloud.
Infinera ATN Platform
The Infinera ATN is a small form-factor WDM platform for cost-effective add/drop and multi-service aggregation in metro networks supporting direct wavelength connectivity to the Infinera DTN platform.
Software and Services
Infinera Open Transport Switch
The Infinera OTS is a software platform that enables a high degree of abstraction and virtualization of the underlying Infinera platforms. The open and modular architecture of OTS allows it to easily integrate into a diverse array of customer applications through standard and secure APIs. OTS was purpose built with a modern IT mindset, and its lightweight approach and ability to rapidly innovate new features paves the way for operators to transform to a DevOps model of network development. The Hybrid Control Mode feature allows network operators to migrate to an SDN model without disturbing revenues from existing production services.
Infinera Management Suite
The Infinera Management Suite is a network management system used by network operators to manage all Infinera platforms in an integrated manner. The suite includes the Digital Node Administrator, a scalable, robust, feature-rich element management system, our Graphical Node Manager, an easy-to-use web-based management interface, our Network Planning System for offline graphical modeling, planning and configuration capabilities, and Transport Network Manager for TM-Series and TG-Series management.
Customer Support Services
In connection with our product offerings, we provide a comprehensive range of support services for all hardware and software products. These support services cover all phases of network ownership, from the initial installation through day-to-day maintenance activities and professional services. Our support services are designed to efficiently manage and maintain customer network operations in the face of today's ever-increasing demands for lower operational costs and minimized downtime.
Our support organization continues to scale and provide world-class services that successfully support customers in over 70 countries around the world. In addition, we continue to expand our services portfolio in order to meet the evolving needs of our customers.

Competition
Our current technologies and platforms support three transport equipment markets - long-haul/subsea, metro and DCI.
The optical transport networking equipment market for long-haul/subsea networks is highly competitive but has consolidated significantly over the last decade. The metro market is a highly competitive market that we entered in 2015 with the acquisition of Transmode and the introduction of the Infinera DTN-X XTC-2 and DTN-X XTC-2E. The metro cloud transport equipment market (also known as DCI) is a relatively new market that we expect to be highly competitive. Competition in the markets we serve is based on any one or a combination of the following factors:
price and other commercial terms;
functionality;
form factor or density;
power consumption;

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heat dissipation;
customer qualification testing;
existing business and customer relationships;
the ability of products and services to meet customers’ immediate and future network requirements;
installation and operation simplicity;
service and support;
scalability and investment protection; and
product lead times.
Competition in the optical transport equipment market is intense, and we expect such competition to increase. In the long-haul market, our main competitors include current WDM suppliers, such as Alcatel-Lucent (acquired by Nokia), Ciena, Coriant, Huawei and ZTE. In the metro market, we face the same competitors as in long-haul, plus Cisco, Adva, Arista and Fujitsu. In addition, there are also several smaller, but established, companies that offer one or more products that compete directly or indirectly with our offerings. In the DCI market, we believe we are one of the few companies shipping purpose built small form factor devices. Several other competitors including many named above have announced competing solutions that we expect to be shipping in 2016. In addition to the current competitors, other companies have, or may in the future develop, products that are or could be competitive with our products. In particular, if a competitor develops a photonic integrated circuit or another solution with similar and/or better functionality than our PICs, our business could be harmed. We also expect to encounter further consolidation in the markets in which we compete. Consolidation among our competitors could lead to a changing competitive landscape, capabilities and market share, which could harm our results of operations.

Some of our competitors have substantially greater name recognition and technical, financial and marketing resources along with better established relationships with service providers and other potential customers than we have. Many of our competitors have more resources and more experience in developing or acquiring new products and technologies and in creating market awareness for those products and technologies. In addition, many of our competitors have the financial resources to offer competitive products at aggressive pricing levels that could prevent us from competing effectively. Further, many of our competitors have built long-standing relationships with some of our prospective customers and have the ability to provide financing to customers and could, therefore, have an inherent advantage in selling products to those customers.
We also compete with low-cost producers from China, which can increase pricing pressure, and a number of smaller companies that provide competition for a specific product, customer segment or geographic market. These competitors often base their products on the latest commercially available technologies. Due to the narrower focus of their efforts, these competitors may achieve commercial availability of their products more quickly than we can and may provide attractive alternatives to our customers.

Sales and Marketing
We market and sell our products and related support services primarily through our direct sales force, supported by marketing and product management personnel. We also use distribution or support partners to enter new markets or when requested by a potential customer. Our sales team has significant previous experience with the buying process and sales cycles typical of high-value telecommunications products. We expect to continue to add sales and support employees as we grow our business.
The sales process for our products entails discussions with prospective customers, analyzing their networks and identifying how they can utilize our systems capabilities within their networks. This process requires developing strong customer relationships, and we expect to leverage our sales force and customer support capabilities to establish relationships with both domestic and international Service Providers.
Over the course of the sales cycle, Service Providers often test our products before buying. Prior to commercial deployment, the Service Provider will generally perform a field trial of our products. Upon successful completion, the Service Provider generally accepts the products installed in its network and may continue with commercial deployment of additional products. We anticipate that our sales cycle, from initial contact with a Service Provider through the signing of a purchase agreement, may, in some cases, take several quarters.

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Direct Sales ForceOur sales team sells directly to Service Providers worldwide. We maintain a sales presence throughout the United States, as well as in a number of international locations, including Argentina, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Russia and the United Kingdom. We continued to expand our sales force in 2015 to address new geographical markets and to support the sales of our expanded portfolio of products. Going forward, the addition of incremental sales headcount is expected to be success-based and in support of new customer accounts.
Indirect Sales ForceWe have and will continue to employ business consultants, resale partners and sales agents to assist in our sales efforts and to accelerate and strengthen our customer relationships. We expect to work with business partners to assist our customers in the sale, deployment and maintenance of our systems and have entered into distribution and resale agreements to facilitate the sale of our products.

Marketing and Product ManagementOur product management team is responsible for defining the product features and development plan required to maximize our success in the marketplace. Product management supports our sales efforts with product and application expertise. Our marketing team works to create demand for our products by communicating our value proposition and differentiation through direct customer interaction, public relations, attendance at tradeshows and other events, as well as programs via the Internet and other marketing channels.
Research and Development
Continued investment in research and development is critical to our business. To this end, we have assembled a team of engineers with expertise in various fields, including systems, sub-systems, software and components. Our research and development efforts are currently focused in Sunnyvale, California; Allentown, Pennsylvania; Beijing, China; Bangalore, India; Kanata, Canada; and Stockholm, Sweden. We have invested significant time and financial resources into the development and enhancement of new and existing products. We will continue to expand our product offerings and the capabilities of existing products in the future and plan to dedicate significant resources to these continued research and development efforts. We are continually increasing the scalability and software features of our current platforms. We are also working to develop new generations of PICs, and we intend to enable further integration in the Infinera Intelligent Transport Network architecture through continued research and development. We believe that these efforts will continue to allow us to be competitive in the markets we currently serve but will allow us to address adjacent markets to fuel our future growth.
Our research and development expenses were $180.7 million, $133.5 million and $124.8 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Employees
As of December 26, 2015, we had 2,056 employees. A total of 971 of those employees were located outside of the United States. None of our U.S. employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. Employees in certain foreign jurisdictions may be represented by local workers’ councils and/or collective bargaining agreements, as may be customary or required in those jurisdictions. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our employee relationships to be good.
Manufacturing
We have invested significant time and capital to develop and improve the manufacturing process that we use to produce and package our products. This includes significant investments in personnel, equipment and the facilities needed to manufacture and package our products in Sunnyvale, California and Allentown, Pennsylvania. We also have invested in automating our manufacturing process and in training and maintaining the quality of our manufacturing workforce. As a leader in the development of photonic integration, our manufacturing processes have been developed over several years and are protected through a combination of trade secrets, patents and contractual protections. We believe that the investments we have made towards the manufacturing and packaging of our products provide us with a significant competitive advantage. We also believe that our current manufacturing facilities can accommodate an increase in production capacity as our business continues to grow.

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            We also use contract manufacturers to assemble portions of our products. Each contract manufacturer procures components necessary to assemble the products in our forecast according to our specifications and bills of material. Despite outsourcing certain manufacturing operations for cost-effective scale and flexibility, we perform rigorous in-house quality control testing to ensure the reliability of our products. Our supply chain risk mitigation strategies are continuous and are institutionalized in our supply chain design for external manufacturing and for procurement of components. We currently have four contract manufacturers in five different countries, China, Malaysia, Mexico, Sweden and Thailand, as well as the capability to redirect manufacturing to U.S. qualified factories of two electronic manufacturing services partners.
Backlog
As of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, our total order backlog was approximately $87.1 million and $124.4 million, respectively. Our backlog is subject to future events that could cause the amount or timing of the related revenue to change, and, in certain cases, may be canceled without penalty. Orders in backlog may be fulfilled several quarters following receipt or may relate to multi-year support service obligations. As a result, we believe that backlog should not be viewed as an accurate indicator of future operating results for any particular period. A backlogged order may not result in revenue in a particular period, and the actual revenue may not be equal to our backlog amounts. Our presentation of backlog may not be comparable with that of other companies in our industry.
Intellectual Property
Our success as a company depends upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights and trademarks, as well as customary contractual protections.
We rely primarily on trade secret protection for our PIC and PIC manufacturing processes, including design, fabrication and testing of our PICs. However, there can be no assurances that trade secrets will be sufficient to provide us with a competitive advantage or that others have not or will not reverse engineer our designs or discover, develop or disclose the same or similar designs and manufacturing processes.
As of December 26, 2015, we held 343 U.S. patents and 80 international patents expiring between 2021 and 2035, and held 128 U.S. and 46 foreign pending patent applications. We do not know whether any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims.
We may not receive competitive advantages from the rights granted under our patents and other intellectual property. Any patents granted to us may be contested, circumvented or invalidated over the course of our business, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing these patents. Therefore, the exact effect of the protection of these patents cannot be predicted with certainty.
We believe that the frequency of assertions of patent infringement is increasing as patent holders, including entities that are not in our industry and who purchase patents as an investment or to monetize such rights by obtaining royalties, use such actions as a competitive tactic as well as a source of additional revenue. For example, we were recently involved in litigation for alleged patent infringement that was adjudicated in our favor. See the section set forth in Item 3. "Legal Proceedings" for additional information regarding this lawsuit. Any claim of infringement from a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against such claims, and could distract our management from running our business. Furthermore, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages. A judgment could also include an injunction or other court order that could prevent us from selling our products. In addition, we might be required to seek a license for the use of such intellectual property, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Alternatively, we may be required to develop non-infringing technology, which would require significant effort and expense and may ultimately not be successful.
In addition to trade secret and patent protections, we generally control access to and the use of our proprietary software and other confidential information. This protection is accomplished through a combination of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners, and through a combination of U.S. and international copyright laws. We incorporate a number of third party software programs into our products pursuant to license agreements.

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We license some of our software pursuant to agreements that impose restrictions on our customers’ ability to use such software, such as prohibiting reverse engineering and limiting the use of copies. We also seek to avoid disclosure of our intellectual property by relying on non-disclosure and assignment of intellectual property agreements with our employees and consultants that acknowledge our exclusive ownership of all intellectual property developed by the individual during the course of his or her work with us. The agreements also require that each person maintain the confidentiality of all proprietary information disclosed to them. Other parties may not comply with the terms of their agreements with us, and we may not be able to enforce our rights adequately against these parties. We also rely on contractual rights to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our products.
We incorporate open source software into our products. Although we monitor our use of open source software closely, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. In such event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, to re-engineer our products or to discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Environmental Matters
We are committed to maintaining compliance with all environmental laws and regulations applicable to our operations, products and services. Our business and operations are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that have been adopted with respect to the environment, including the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) Directive, Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RoHS”), and Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (“REACH”) regulations adopted by the European Union. Environmental regulation is increasing and we expect that our operations will be subject to additional environmental compliance requirements, which may expose us to additional costs. We are also subject to disclosure requirements related to the presence of "conflict minerals" in our products. To date, our compliance costs relating to environmental regulations have not resulted in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Business Segment Data and Our Foreign Operations
We operate in the single industry segment of optical transport networking systems. Information concerning revenue, results of operations and revenue by geographic area is set forth in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in Note 17, “Segment Information,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Information concerning identifiable assets is also set forth in Note 17, “Segment Information,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Information on risks attendant to our foreign operations is set forth below in Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Executive Officers
Our executive officers and their ages and positions as of December 26, 2015, are set forth below:
Name
Age
 
Position
Thomas J. Fallon
54
 
Chief Executive Officer and Director
David F. Welch, Ph.D.
55
 
Co-founder, President and Director
Brad Feller
42
 
Chief Financial Officer
Robert J. Jandro
60
 
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales
James L. Laufman
50
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Thomas J. Fallon has served as our Chief Executive Officer since January 2010 and as a member of our board of directors since July 2009. Mr. Fallon also served as our President from January 2010 to June 2013, and as our Chief Operating Officer from October 2006 to December 2009. From April 2004 to September 2006, Mr. Fallon served as our Vice President of Engineering and Operations. From August 2003 to March 2004, Mr.

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Fallon was Vice President, Corporate Quality and Development Operations at Cisco Systems, Inc., a networking and telecommunications company. From March 1991 to August 2003, Mr. Fallon served in a variety of functions at Cisco, including General Manager of the Optical Transport Business Unit and Vice President of Service Provider Manufacturing. Prior to joining Cisco, Mr. Fallon also served in various manufacturing roles at Sun Microsystems and Hewlett Packard. Mr. Fallon currently serves on one other public company board, Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc., a specialty finance company. Mr. Fallon also serves on the Engineering Advisory Board of the Cockrell School at the University of Texas. Mr. Fallon holds B.S.M.E. and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Texas at Austin.
David F. Welch, Ph.D. co-founded our company and has served as our President since June 2013 and as a member of our board of directors since October 2010. Dr. Welch has served as our Executive Vice President, Chief Strategy Officer from January 2004 to June 2013, as our Chief Development Officer/Chief Technology Officer from May 2001 to January 2005, as our Chief Marketing Officer from January 2005 to January 2009, and as a member of our board of directors from May 2001 to November 2006. Prior to joining us, Dr. Welch served in various executive roles, including as Chief Technology Officer of the Transmission Products Group of JDS Uniphase Corporation, an optical component company, and Chief Technology Officer and Vice President of Corporate Development of SDL Inc., an optical component company. Dr. Welch holds over 130 patents, and has been awarded the Optical Society of America's ("OSA") Adolph Lomb Medal, Joseph Fraunhofer Award, the John Tyndall Award and the IET JJ Thompson Medal for Achievement in Electronics, in recognition of his technical contributions to the optical industry. He is a Fellow of OSA and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Dr. Welch holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Delaware and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University.
Brad Feller was appointed as our Chief Financial Officer in March 2014 after joining us as Senior Vice President of Finance in January 2014. Prior to joining us, Mr. Feller served as Interim Chief Financial Officer of Marvell Technology Group Ltd., a fabless semiconductor company, from October 2012 to December 2013, and as Marvell's Vice President, Corporate Controller, from September 2008 to October 2012. Prior to Marvell, Mr. Feller served as Corporate Controller for Integrated Device Technology, Inc., a semiconductor company, from April 2005 to September 2008 and Financial Reporting Manager from October 2003 to April 2005. Prior to that, Mr. Feller served in various roles at Ernst & Young LLP in the technology practice. Mr. Feller is a certified public accountant (inactive) in the State of California and holds a B.S. degree in Business Administration from San Jose State University.

Robert J. Jandro has served as our Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales, since May 2013. Prior to joining us, Mr. Jandro served as Vice President of Business Development of Openwater Software, Inc., a big data and analytics cloud company, from January 2008 to August 2012. From February 2004 to November 2006, Mr. Jandro served as Chief Executive Officer and President of Nsite Software, Inc., an early cloud company acquired by Business Objects. From March 2000 to August 2002, Mr. Jandro served as Executive Vice President of Global Sales and Services for ONI Systems, an optical networking company. Prior to that, Mr. Jandro worked at Oracle where he last served as the Group Vice President of Oracle’s Communications and Utilities Industries. Mr. Jandro holds a Masters of Management degree from Northwestern University’s Kellogg Graduate School of Management and a B.S. in Business from the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
James L. Laufman has served as our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since October 2014. Prior to joining us, Mr. Laufman served as Vice President and General Counsel of Marvell Semiconductor Inc. from October 2008 to October 2014. From September 1999 to October 2008. Mr. Laufman served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Integrated Device Technology, Inc. Prior to that, Mr. Laufman served as Senior Corporate Counsel for Quantum Corporation from January 1999 to September 1999. From November 1994 to December 1998, Mr. Laufman served as Vice President and General Counsel of Rohm Corporation. From December 1990 to November 1994, Mr. Laufman worked as an Associate Attorney at the Berliner Cohen and Popelka Allard law firms specializing in the litigation and resolution of commercial transaction matters. Mr. Laufman holds a B.S. in Business Administration, Finance (cum laude) from California State University, Chico and a J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law.
Available Information
Our website address is http://www.infinera.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K unless expressly noted. We file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which we make available on our website free of charge. These reports include

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Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to such reports, each of which is provided on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with or furnish them to the SEC. You can also read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549. You can obtain additional information about the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Set forth below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in other documents we file with the SEC, are risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because of the following factors, as well as other variables affecting our operating results, past financial performance should not be considered as a reliable indicator of future performance and investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
Our quarterly results may vary significantly from period to period, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below investor or analyst expectations.
Our quarterly results, in particular, our revenue, gross margins, operating expenses, operating margins and net income, have historically varied from period to period and may continue to do so in the future. In fiscal years prior to the fiscal year ended December 27, 2014, we had significant operating losses and there is no guarantee that we will be able to sustain profitability in the future. As of December 26, 2015, our accumulated deficit was $539.4 million. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Our budgeted expense levels are based, in large part, on our expectations of future revenue and the development efforts associated with that future revenue. Given the relatively fixed nature of our operating costs including those relating to our personnel and facilities, particularly for our engineering personnel, any substantial adjustment to our expenses to account for lower levels of revenue will be difficult to execute and may take significant time. Consequently, if our revenue does not meet projected levels in the short-term, our inventory levels and operating expenses would be high relative to revenue, resulting in potential operating losses. In addition, given the increase in the size of our business as a result of the acquisition of Transmode, our historical results may not be indicative of our combined operations going forward.
Factors that may contribute to fluctuations in our quarterly results, many of which are outside our control and may be difficult to predict, include:
fluctuations in demand, sales cycles and prices for products and services, including discounts given in response to competitive pricing pressures;
fluctuations in our customer, product or geographic mix, including the impact of new customer deployments, which typically carry lower gross margins;
changes in customers’ budgets for optical transport network equipment purchases and changes in their purchasing cycles;
the process of integrating the Transmode business with our business and the associated potential disruptions to our business;
how quickly, or at all, the market adopts our solutions, including in new markets like metro and DCI;
order cancellations or reductions or delays in delivery schedules by our customers;
our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses and the costs of components we purchase for our products;
our ability to maintain volumes and yields on products manufactured in our internal manufacturing facilities;
the timing of product releases or upgrades by us;
any significant changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including any new entrants, or customer or competitor consolidation;
readiness of customer sites for installation of our products;
availability of third party suppliers to provide contract engineering and installation services for us;
the timing of recognizing revenue in any given quarter, including the impact of revenue recognition standards and any future changes in U.S. GAAP or new interpretations of existing accounting rules;
the impact of a significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, severe weather, or tsunami or other flooding, as well as interruptions or shortages in the supply of utilities such as water and

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electricity, in a key location such as our Northern California facilities, which is located near major earthquake fault lines and in a designated flood zone; and
general economic conditions in domestic and international markets.
Many factors affecting our results of operations are beyond our control and make it difficult to predict our results for a particular quarter or to accurately predict future revenue beyond a one-quarter time horizon. If our revenue or operating results do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts or fall below any guidance we provide to the market, the price of our common stock may decline substantially.

Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, including growth related to the acquisition of Transmode, and if we do not effectively manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems, processes and controls, our operating results may be adversely affected.

We have experienced rapid growth and increased demand for our products over the last few years. Our employee headcount and number of end-customers have increased significantly, and we expect to continue to grow over the next year. For example, from the end of fiscal 2013 to the end of fiscal 2015, our headcount increased from 1,318 to 2,056 employees. The growth and expansion of our business and product and service offerings places a continuous significant strain on our management, and operational and financial resources. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems, and our ability to manage headcount and processes in an efficient manner.

We may not be able to successfully scale improvements to our enterprise resource planning system or implement or scale improvements to our other systems, processes and controls in an efficient or timely manner, or in a manner that does not negatively affect our operating results. In addition, our existing systems, processes and controls may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions or fraud. We may experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes and controls, or in connection with third-party software, which could disrupt existing customer relationships, cause us to lose customers, or increase our technical support costs. Our failure to improve our systems, processes and controls, or their failure to operate in the intended manner, may result in our inability to manage the growth of our business and to accurately forecast our revenue, expenses and earnings, or to prevent certain losses. Failure to manage any future growth effectively could result in increased costs, negatively impact our customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, and harm our operating results.
We may not be able to successfully integrate our business with the business of Transmode, and we may not be able to achieve the anticipated strategic benefits from our acquisition of Transmode.
The transaction to acquire Transmode was completed on August 20, 2015, and Transmode’s business became a part of our business as of that date. The integration of our company with Transmode has been and will continue to be a complex, costly and time-consuming process. The integration process will require substantial management time and attention, which may divert attention and resources from other important areas, including our existing business. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the course of integrating the respective businesses of Infinera and Transmode. In addition, we may not be able to fully realize the anticipated strategic benefits of the combination, which include the ability to achieve revenue synergies, increased negotiating leverage with third-party suppliers as a result of higher volumes, and, to a lesser extent, certain operating expense synergies expected from avoiding duplicative costs. The failure to successfully integrate the combined operations, including retention of key employees, could impact our ability to realize the full benefits of our acquisition of Transmode. If we are not able to achieve the anticipated strategic benefits of the combination, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and could adversely affect the market price of our common stock if the integration or the anticipated financial and strategic benefits of the acquisition are not realized as rapidly as, or to the extent anticipated by investors and analysts. Failure to achieve these anticipated benefits could result in increased costs and decreases in future revenue and/or net income following the acquisition.

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Our gross margin may fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and may be adversely affected by a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control.
Our gross margin fluctuates from period-to-period and varies by customer and by product. Over the past eight fiscal quarters, our gross margin has ranged from 41% to 47%. Our gross margin is likely to continue to fluctuate and will be affected by a number of factors, including:
the mix in any period of the types of customers purchasing our products as well as the product mix;
significant new customer deployments, often with a higher portion of lower margin common equipment as we deploy network footprint;
the volume of Infinera Instant Bandwidth licenses sold;
price discounts negotiated by our customers;
charges for excess or obsolete inventory;
changes in the price or availability of components for our products;
changes in our manufacturing costs, including fluctuations in yields and production volumes; and
increased warranty or repair costs.
It is likely that the average unit prices of our products will decrease over time in response to competitive pricing pressures, increased negotiated sales discounts, new product introductions by us or our competitors or other factors. In addition, some of our customer contracts contain clauses that require us to annually decrease the sales price of our products to these customers. In response, we will need to reduce the cost of our products through manufacturing efficiencies, design improvements and cost reductions. If these efforts are not successful or if we are unable to reduce our costs by more than the reduction in the price of our products, our revenue and gross margin will decline, causing our operating results to decline. Fluctuations in gross margin may make it difficult to manage our business and achieve or maintain profitability.
Aggressive business tactics by our competitors may harm our business.
The markets in which we compete are extremely competitive and this often results in aggressive business tactics by our competitors, including:
aggressively pricing their optical transport products and other portfolio products, including offering significant one-time discounts and guaranteed future price decreases;
offering optical products at a substantial discount or free when bundled together with the customers' router or wireless equipment purchases;
providing financing, marketing and advertising assistance to customers;
influencing customer requirements to emphasize different product capabilities, which better suit their products;
offering to repurchase our equipment from existing customers; and
asserting intellectual property rights.
The level of competition and pricing pressure tend to increase when competing for larger high-profile opportunities or during periods of economic weakness when there are fewer network build-out projects. If we fail to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, or if our current or future competitors continue or expand aggressive business tactics, including those described above, demand for our products could decline, we could experience delays or cancellations of customer orders, and/or we could be required to reduce our prices to compete in the market.

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Our ability to increase our revenue will depend upon continued growth of demand by consumers and businesses for additional network capacity and on the level and timing of capital spending by our customers.
Our future success depends on factors that increase the amount of data transmitted over communications networks and the growth of optical transport networks to meet the increased demand for optical capacity. These factors include the growth of mobility, video, cloud-based services, increased broadband connectivity and the continuing adoption of high-capacity, revenue-generating services. If demand for such bandwidth does not continue, or slows down, the need for increased bandwidth across networks and the market for optical transport networking equipment may not continue to grow and our product sales would be negatively impacted.

In addition, demand for our products depends on the level and timing of capital spending in optical networks by Service Providers as they construct, expand and upgrade the capacity of their optical networks. Capital spending is cyclical in our industry and spending by customers can change on short notice. Any future decisions by our customers to reduce capital spending, whether caused by weakening economic conditions, changes in government regulations relating to telecommunications and data networks, or other reasons, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we lose key personnel or fail to attract and retain additional qualified personnel when needed, our business may be harmed.
Our success depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our key management, engineering, sales and marketing, and finance personnel, many of whom would be difficult to replace. For example, senior members of our engineering team have unique technical experience that would be difficult to replace. We do not have long-term employment contracts or key person life insurance covering any of our key personnel. Because our products are complex, we must hire and retain a large number of highly trained customer service and support personnel to ensure that the deployment of our products does not result in network disruption for our customers. We believe our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to identify, attract and retain highly skilled managerial, engineering, sales, marketing, finance, and customer service and support personnel. Competition for these individuals is intense in our industry, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area where we are headquartered. We may not succeed in identifying, attracting and retaining appropriate personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel, the inability to identify, attract or retain qualified personnel in the future or delays in hiring qualified personnel, particularly engineers and sales personnel, could make it difficult for us to manage our business and meet key objectives, such as timely product introductions.
Any delays in the development and introduction of our products or in releasing enhancements to our existing products may harm our business.
Because our products are based on complex technology, including, in some cases, the development of next-generation PICs and specialized ASICs, we may experience unanticipated delays in developing, improving, manufacturing or deploying these products. The development process for our PICs is lengthy, and any modifications to our PICs, including the development of our next-generation PICs, entail significant development cost and risks.
At any given time, various new product introductions and enhancements to our existing products, including future products based on our next-generation PICs, are in the development phase and are not yet ready for commercial manufacturing or deployment. We rely on third parties, some of which are relatively early stage companies, to develop and manufacture components for our next-generation products, which can require custom development. The maturing process from laboratory prototype to customer trials, and subsequently to general availability, involves a significant number of simultaneous development efforts. These efforts often must be completed in a timely manner so that they may be introduced into the product development cycle for our systems, and include:
completion of product development, including the completion of any associated PIC development, such as our next-generation PICs, and the completion of associated module development, including modules developed by third parties;
the qualification and multiple sourcing of critical components;
validation of manufacturing methods and processes;

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extensive quality assurance and reliability testing and staffing of testing infrastructure;
validation of software; and
establishment of systems integration and systems test validation requirements.
Each of these steps, in turn, presents risks of failure, rework or delay, any one of which could decrease the speed and scope of product introduction and marketplace acceptance of our products. New generations of our PICs, specialized ASICs and intensive software testing are important to the timely introduction of new products and enhancements to our existing products, and are subject to these development risks. In addition, unexpected intellectual property disputes, failure of critical design elements, and a host of other development execution risks may delay, or even prevent, the introduction of new products or enhancements to our existing products. If we do not develop and successfully introduce or enhance products in a timely manner, our competitive position will suffer. In addition, if we do not develop and successfully introduce or enhance products in sufficient time so as to satisfy our customer’s expectations, we may lose future business from such customers and harm our reputation and our customer relationships, either of which would harm our business and operating results.
The markets in which we compete are highly competitive and we may not be able to compete effectively.
Competition in the optical transport networking equipment market is intense, and we expect such competition to increase. In the long-haul market, our main competitors include current WDM suppliers, such as Alcatel-Lucent (acquired by Nokia), Ciena Corporation, Coriant, Huawei and ZTE. In the metro market we face the same competitors as in long-haul, plus Cisco, Adva, Arista and Fujitsu. In addition, there are also several smaller, but established, companies that offer one or more products that compete directly or indirectly with our offerings. In the DCI market, we believe we are one of the few companies shipping purpose built small form factor devices. Several other competitors including many named above have announced competing solutions that we expect to be shipping in 2016.
Competition in the markets we serve is based on any one or a combination of the following factors:
price and other commercial terms;
functionality;
form factor or density;
power consumption;
heat dissipation;
customer qualification testing;
existing business and customer relationships;
the ability of products and services to meet customers’ immediate and future network requirements;
installation and operation simplicity;
service and support;
scalability and investment protection; and
product lead times.
In addition to the current competitors, other companies have, or may in the future develop, products that are or could be competitive with our products. In particular, if a competitor develops a photonic integrated circuit or another solution with similar and/or better functionality than our PICs, our business could be harmed. We also expect to encounter further consolidation in the markets in which we compete. Consolidation among our competitors could lead to a changing competitive landscape, capabilities and market share, which could harm our results of operations.

Some of our competitors have substantially greater name recognition and technical, financial and marketing resources along with better established relationships with Service Providers and other potential customers than we have. Many of our competitors have more resources and more experience in developing or

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acquiring new products and technologies and in creating market awareness for those products and technologies. In addition, many of our competitors have the financial resources to offer competitive products at aggressive pricing levels that could prevent us from competing effectively. Further, many of our competitors have built long-standing relationships with some of our prospective customers and have the ability to provide financing to customers and could, therefore, have an inherent advantage in selling products to those customers.
We also compete with low-cost producers from China that can increase pricing pressure on us and a number of smaller companies that provide competition for a specific product, customer segment or geographic market. These competitors often base their products on the latest commercially available technologies. Due to the narrower focus of their efforts, these competitors may achieve commercial availability of their products more quickly than we can and may provide attractive alternatives to our customers.
Our large customers have substantial negotiating leverage, which may require that we agree to terms and conditions that result in decreased revenue due to lower average selling prices and potentially higher cost of sales leading to lower gross margin, all of which would harm our operating results.
Substantial changes in the optical transport networking industry have occurred over the last few years. Many potential customers have experienced static or declining revenue. Many of our customers have substantial debt burdens, many have experienced financial distress, and some have gone out of business, been acquired by other service providers, or announced their withdrawal from segments of the business. Consolidation in the markets in which we compete has resulted in changes in the structure of the communications networking industry, with greater concentration of purchasing power in a small number of large service providers, cable operators and ICPs. The increased concentration among our customer base may also lead to increased competition for new network deployments and increased negotiating power for our customers. This may require us to decrease our average selling prices, which would have an adverse impact on our operating results.
Further, many of our customers are large Service Providers that have substantial purchasing power and leverage in negotiating contractual arrangements with us. Our customers have and may continue to seek advantageous pricing, payment and other commercial terms. We have and may continue to be required to agree to unfavorable commercial terms with these customers, including reducing the average selling price of our products or agreeing to extended payment terms in response to these commercial requirements or competitive pricing pressures. To maintain acceptable operating results, we will need to comply with these commercial terms, develop and introduce new products and product enhancements on a timely basis and continue to reduce our costs.
We must respond to rapid technological change and comply with evolving industry standards and requirements for our products to be successful.
The optical transport networking equipment market is characterized by rapid technological change, changes in customer requirements and evolving industry standards. We continually invest in research and development to sustain or enhance our existing products, but the introduction of new communications technologies and the emergence of new industry standards or requirements could render our products obsolete. Further, in developing our products, we have made, and will continue to make, assumptions with respect to which standards or requirements will be adopted by our customers and competitors. If the standards or requirements adopted by our prospective customers are different from those on which we have focused our efforts, market acceptance of our products would be reduced or delayed and our business would be harmed.
We are continuing to invest a significant portion of our research and development efforts in the development of our next-generation products. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the performance of their existing products and to introduce new products and technologies and to influence customers’ buying criteria so as to emphasize product capabilities that we do not, or may not, possess. To be competitive, we must properly anticipate future customer requirements and we must continue to invest significant resources in research and development, sales and marketing, and customer support. If we do not anticipate these future customer requirements and invest in the technologies necessary to enable us to have and to sell the appropriate solutions, it may limit our competitive position and future sales, which would have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. We may not have sufficient resources to make these investments and we may not be able to make the technological advances necessary to be competitive.

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The manufacturing process for our PICs is very complex and the partial or complete loss of our manufacturing facility, or a reduction in yields or an inability to scale capacity to meet customer demands could harm our business.
The manufacturing process for our PICs and certain components of our products is very complex. In the event that any of the manufacturing facilities utilized to build these components were fully or partially destroyed, as a result of fire, water damage, or otherwise, it would limit our ability to produce our products. Because of the complex nature of our manufacturing facilities, such loss would take a considerable amount of time to repair or rebuild. The partial or complete loss of any of our manufacturing facilities, or an event causing the interruption in our use of such facility for any extended period of time would cause our business, financial condition and operating results to be harmed.
Minor deviations in the PIC manufacturing process can cause substantial decreases in yields and, in some cases, cause production to be suspended. In the past, we have had significant variances in our PIC yields, including production interruptions and suspensions and may have continued yield variances, including additional interruptions or suspensions in the future. We expect our manufacturing yield for our next-generation PICs to be lower initially and increase as we achieve full production. Poor yields from our PIC manufacturing process or defects, integration issues or other performance problems in our products could limit our ability to satisfy customer demand requirements, and could damage customer relations and cause business reputation problems, harming our business and operating results.
Our inability to obtain sufficient manufacturing capacity to meet demand, either in our own facilities or through foundry or similar arrangements with third parties, could harm our relationships with our customers, our business and our operating results.
We are dependent on sole source and limited source suppliers for several key components, and if we fail to obtain these components on a timely basis, we will not meet our customers’ product delivery requirements.
We currently purchase several key components for our products from single or limited sources. In particular, we rely on our own production of certain components of our products, such as PICs, and on third parties as sole source suppliers for certain of the components of our products, including ASICs, field-programmable gate arrays, processors, and other semiconductor and optical components. We have increased our reliance on third parties to develop and manufacture components for certain products, some of which require custom development. We purchase these components on a purchase order basis and have no long-term contracts with many of these sole source or limited source suppliers. If any of our sole source or limited source suppliers suffer from capacity constraints, lower than expected yields, deployment delays, work stoppages or any other reduction or disruption in output, they may be unable to meet our delivery schedule which could result in lost revenue, additional product costs and deployment delays that could harm our business and customer relationships. Further, our suppliers could enter into exclusive arrangements with our competitors, refuse to sell their products or components to us at commercially reasonable prices or at all, go out of business or discontinue their relationships with us. We may be unable to develop alternative sources for these components.
The loss of a source of supply, or lack of sufficient availability of key components, could require us to redesign products that use such components, which could result in lost revenue, additional product costs and deployment delays that could harm our business and customer relationships. In addition, if we do not receive critical components for our products in a timely manner, we will be unable to deliver those components to our contract manufacturer in a timely manner and would, therefore, be unable to meet our prospective customers’ product delivery requirements. In the past, we have experienced delivery delays because of lack of availability of components or reliability issues with components that we were purchasing. In addition, some of our suppliers have gone out of business, merged with another supplier, or limited their supply of components to us, which may cause us to experience longer than normal lead times and supply delays. We may in the future experience a shortage of certain components as a result of our own manufacturing issues, manufacturing issues at our suppliers or contract manufacturers, capacity problems experienced by our suppliers or contract manufacturers, strong demand in the industry for such components, or other disruptions in our supply chain. Global macroeconomic conditions are likely to continue to create pressure on us and our suppliers to accurately project overall component demand and manufacturing capacity. These supplier disruptions may continue to occur in the future, which could limit our ability to produce our products and cause us to fail to meet a customer’s delivery

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requirements. Any failure to meet our customers’ product delivery requirements could harm our reputation and our customer relationships, either of which would harm our business and operating results.
If we fail to accurately forecast demand for our products, we may have excess or insufficient inventory, which may increase our operating costs, decrease our revenue and harm our business.
We are required to generate forecasts of future demand for our products several months prior to the scheduled delivery to our prospective customers. This requires us to make significant investments before we know if corresponding revenue will be recognized. Lead times for materials and components, including ASICs, that we need to order for the manufacture of our products vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. In the past, we have experienced lengthening in lead times for certain components. If the lead times for components are lengthened, we may be required to purchase increased levels of such components to satisfy our delivery commitments to our customers.

If we overestimate market demand for our products and, as a result, increase our inventory in anticipation of customer orders that do not materialize, we will have excess inventory, which could result in increased risk of obsolescence and significant inventory write-downs. Furthermore, this will result in reduced production volumes and our fixed costs will be spread across fewer units, increasing our per unit costs. If we underestimate demand for our products, we will have inadequate inventory, which could slow down or interrupt the manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and our ability to recognize revenue. In addition, we may be unable to meet our supply commitments to customers, which could result in a loss of certain customer opportunities or a breach of our customer agreements resulting in payment of damages.
We are dependent on a small number of key customers for a significant portion of our revenue and the loss of, or a significant reduction in, orders from one or more of our key customers would reduce our revenue and harm our operating results.
A relatively small number of customers account for a large percentage of our revenue. For example, for fiscal 2015, two customers accounted for approximately 30% of our total revenue. As a result, our business will be harmed if any of our key customers do not generate as much revenue as we forecast, stop purchasing from us, or substantially reduce their orders to us. In addition, our business will be harmed if we fail to maintain our competitive advantage with our key customers. While we view our diverse customer base across multiple customer verticals as a strength and expect greater overall customer diversification as a result of our acquisition of Transmode, we expect a relatively small number of customers to continue to account for a large percentage of revenue from period to period.
Our ability to continue to generate revenue from our key customers will depend on our ability to maintain strong relationships with these customers and introduce new products that are desirable to these customers at competitive prices, and we may not be successful at doing so. In most cases, our sales are made to these customers pursuant to standard purchase agreements rather than long-term purchase commitments, and orders may be canceled or reduced readily. In the event of a cancellation or reduction of an order, we may not have enough time to reduce operating expenses to minimize the effect of the lost revenue on our business. Our operating results will continue to depend on our ability to sell our products to our key customers.
If our contract manufacturers do not perform as we expect, our business may be harmed.
We rely on third party contract manufacturers to perform a portion of the manufacturing of our products, and our future success will depend on our ability to have sufficient volumes of our products manufactured in a cost-effective and quality-controlled manner. We have engaged third parties to manufacture certain elements of our products at multiple contract manufacturing sites located around the world but do not have long-term agreements in place with some of our manufacturers and suppliers that will guarantee product availability, or the continuation of particular pricing or payment terms. There are a number of risks associated with our dependence on contract manufacturers, including:
reduced control over delivery schedules, particularly for international contract manufacturing sites;
reliance on the quality assurance procedures of third parties;
potential uncertainty regarding manufacturing yields and costs;

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potential lack of adequate capacity during periods of high demand;
potential uncertainty related to the use of international contract manufacturing sites;
limited warranties on components;
potential misappropriation of our intellectual property; and
potential manufacturing disruptions (including disruptions caused by geopolitical events, military actions or natural disasters).
Any of these risks could impair our ability to fulfill orders. Our contract manufacturers may not be able to meet the delivery requirements of our customers, which could decrease customer satisfaction and harm our product sales. If our contract manufacturers are unable or unwilling to continue manufacturing our products or components of our products in required volumes or our relationship with any of our contract manufacturers is discontinued for any reason, we would be required to identify and qualify alternative manufacturers, which could cause us to be unable to meet our supply requirements to our customers and result in the breach of our customer agreements. Qualifying a new contract manufacturer and commencing volume production is expensive and time-consuming and if we are required to change or qualify a new contract manufacturer, we could lose revenue and damage our customer relationships.
If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could incur significant expense to enforce our rights.
We depend on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of methods to protect our intellectual property, including limiting access to certain information, and utilizing trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection. The steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may be inadequate to preclude misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, and our ability to police such misappropriation, unauthorized disclosure or infringement is uncertain, particularly in countries outside of the United States. This is likely to become an increasingly important issue as we expand our operations and product development into countries that provide a lower level of intellectual property protection. We do not know whether any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims, and even if patents are issued, they may be contested, circumvented or invalidated. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with a competitive advantage, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop similar or superior technologies to our own now or in the future.
Protecting against the unauthorized use of our products, trademarks and other proprietary rights is expensive, difficult, time consuming and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity or scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation could result in substantial cost and diversion of management resources, either of which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.
Claims by others that we infringe their intellectual property could harm our business.
Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. In particular, many leading companies in the optical transport networking industry, including our competitors, have extensive patent portfolios with respect to optical transport networking technology. We expect that infringement claims may increase as the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur. From time to time, third parties may assert exclusive patent, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property rights to technologies and related standards that are important to our business or seek to invalidate the proprietary rights that we hold. Competitors or other third parties have, and may continue to assert claims or initiate litigation or other proceedings against us or our manufacturers, suppliers or customers alleging infringement of their proprietary rights, or seeking to invalidate our proprietary rights, with respect to our products and technology. In addition, we have had certain patent licenses with third parties that have not been renewed, and if we cannot successfully renew these licenses, we could face claims of infringement. In the event that we are unsuccessful in defending against any such claims, or

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any resulting lawsuit or proceedings, we could incur liability for damages and/or have valuable proprietary rights invalidated.
Any claim of infringement from a third party, even one without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, and could distract our management from running our business. Furthermore, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages. A judgment could also include an injunction or other court order that could prevent us from offering our products. In addition, we might be required to seek a license for the use of such intellectual property, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Alternatively, we may be required to develop non-infringing technology, which would require significant effort and expense and may ultimately not be successful. Any of these events could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Competitors and other third parties have and may continue to assert infringement claims against our customers and sales partners. Any of these claims would require us to initiate or defend potentially protracted and costly litigation on their behalf, regardless of the merits of these claims, because we generally indemnify our customers and sales partners from claims of infringement of proprietary rights of third parties. If any of these claims succeed, we may be forced to pay damages on behalf of our customers or sales partners, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We incorporate open source software into our products. Although we monitor our use of open source software closely, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. In such event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, to re-engineer our products or to discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
The trading price of our common stock has been volatile and is likely to be volatile in the future.
The trading prices of our common stock and the securities of other technology companies have been and may continue to be highly volatile. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock include:
variations in our operating results;
announcements of technological innovations, new services or service enhancements, strategic alliances or agreements by us or by our competitors;
the gain or loss of customers;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
changes in the estimates of our future operating results or external guidance on those results or changes in recommendations or business expectations by any securities analysts that elect to follow our common stock;
our ability to integrate Transmode’s business with our business efficiently;
mergers and acquisitions by us or by our competitors;
market conditions in our industry, the industries of our customers and the economy as a whole; and
adoption or modification of regulations, policies, procedures or programs applicable to our business.
In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition or operating results. The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. Each of these factors, among others, could harm the value of your investment in our common stock. Some companies that have had volatile market prices for their securities have had securities class action lawsuits filed against them. If a suit were filed against us, regardless of its merits or outcome, it could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources.

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Unfavorable macroeconomic and market conditions may adversely affect our industry, business and gross margin.
Our business depends on the overall demand for additional bandwidth capacity and on the economic health and willingness of our customers and potential customers to make capital commitments to purchase our products and services. As a result of macroeconomic or market uncertainty, we may face new risks that we have not yet identified. In addition, a number of the risks associated with our business, which are disclosed in these risk factors, may increase in likelihood, magnitude or duration.
In the past, unfavorable macroeconomic and market conditions have resulted in sustained periods of decreased demand for optical communications products. These conditions may also result in the tightening of credit markets, which may limit or delay our customers’ ability to obtain necessary financing for their purchases of our products. A lack of liquidity in the capital markets or the continued uncertainty in the global economic environment may cause our customers to delay or cancel their purchases, increase the time they take to pay or default on their payment obligations, each of which would negatively affect our business and operating results. Continued weakness and uncertainty in the global economy could cause some of our customers to become illiquid, delay payments or adversely affect our collection of their accounts, which could result in a higher level of bad debt expense. In addition, currency fluctuations could negatively affect our international customers’ ability or desire to purchase our products.
Challenging economic conditions have from time to time contributed to slowdowns in the telecommunications industry in which we operate. Such slowdowns may result in:
reduced demand for our products as a result of constraints on capital spending by our customers;
increased price competition for our products, not only from our competitors, but also as a result of our customer’s or potential customer’s utilization of inventoried or underutilized products, which could put additional downward pressure on our near term gross profits;
risk of excess or obsolete inventories;
excess manufacturing capacity and higher associated overhead costs as a percentage of revenue; and
more limited ability to accurately forecast our business and future financial performance.
A lack of liquidity and economic uncertainty may adversely affect our suppliers or the terms on which we purchase products from these suppliers. It may also cause some of our suppliers to become illiquid. Any of these impacts could limit our ability to obtain components for our products from these suppliers and could adversely impact our supply chain or the delivery schedule to our customers. This also could require us to purchase more expensive components, or re-design our products, which could cause increases in the cost of our products and delays in the manufacturing and delivery of our products. Such events could harm our gross margin and harm our reputation and our customer relationships, either of which could harm our business and operating results.
Product performance problems, including undetected errors in our hardware or software, or deployment delays could harm our business and reputation.
The development and production of products with high technology content is complicated and often involves problems with software, components and manufacturing methods. Complex hardware and software systems, such as our products, can often contain undetected errors when first introduced or as new versions are released. In addition, errors associated with components we purchase from third parties, including customized components, may be difficult to resolve. We have experienced issues in the past in connection with our products, including failures due to the receipt of faulty components from our suppliers. We suspect that errors, including potentially serious errors, may be found from time to time in our products. Our products may suffer degradation of performance and reliability over time.
If reliability, quality or network monitoring problems develop, a number of negative effects on our business could result, including:
delays in our ability to recognize revenue;
costs associated with fixing software or hardware defects or replacing products;

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high service and warranty expenses;
delays in shipments;
high inventory excess and obsolescence expense;
high levels of product returns;
diversion of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts;
delays in collecting accounts receivable;
payment of liquidated damages, performance guarantees or similar penalties;
reduced orders from existing customers; and
declining interest from potential customers.
Because we outsource the manufacturing of certain components of our products, we may also be subject to product performance problems as a result of the acts or omissions of third parties.
From time to time, we encounter interruptions or delays in the activation of our products at a customer’s site. These interruptions or delays may result from product performance problems or from issues with installation and activation, some of which are outside our control. If we experience significant interruptions or delays that we cannot promptly resolve, the associated revenue for these installations may be delayed or confidence in our products could be undermined, which could cause us to lose customers and fail to add new customers.
Our debt obligations may adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital and will be a burden on our future cash flows and cash resources, particularly if these obligations are settled in cash upon maturity or sooner upon an event of default.
In May 2013, we issued $150.0 million of 1.75% convertible senior notes due June 1, 2018 (the "Notes"). The degree to which we are leveraged could have important consequences, including, but not limited to, the following:
our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, litigation, general corporate or other purposes may be limited;
a substantial portion of our future cash balance may be dedicated to the payment of the principal of our indebtedness as we have the intention to pay the principal amount of the Notes in cash upon conversion if specified conditions are met or when due, such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business; and
if, upon any conversion of the Notes we are required to satisfy our conversion obligation with shares of our common stock or if a make-whole fundamental change occurs, our existing stockholders’ interest in us would be diluted.
Our ability to meet our payment obligations under our debt instruments depends on our future cash flow performance. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors, as well as other factors that may be beyond our control. There can be no assurance that our business will generate positive cash flow from operations, or that additional capital will be available to us, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our debt payment obligations and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we were unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, we may be unable to meet our debt payment obligations. As a result, we may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, less able to withstand competitive pressures and less flexible in responding to changing business and economic conditions.
We may issue additional shares of our common stock in connection with the conversion of the Notes, and thereby dilute our existing stockholders and potentially adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
In the event that some or all of the Notes are converted into common stock, the ownership interests of existing stockholders will be diluted, and any sales in the public market of any shares of our common stock

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issuable upon such conversion of the Notes could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock. In addition, the anticipated conversion of the Notes could depress the market price of our common stock.

The make-whole fundamental change provisions of the Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
If a make-whole fundamental change such as an acquisition of our company occurs prior to the maturity of the Notes, under certain circumstances, the conversion rate for the Notes will increase such that additional shares of our common stock will be issued upon conversion of the Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change. The increase in the conversion rate will be determined based on the date on which the make-whole fundamental change occurs or becomes effective and the price paid (or deemed paid) per share of our common stock in such transaction. This increase will be dilutive to our existing stockholders. Our obligation to increase the conversion rate upon the occurrence of a make-whole fundamental change may, in certain circumstances, delay or prevent a takeover of us that might otherwise be beneficial to our stockholders.
The acquisition of Transmode may not be accretive to our earnings and may cause dilution to our earnings per share, which may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
We currently anticipate that the acquisition will be accretive to our earnings per share in the fiscal year 2016. This expectation is based on preliminary estimates that may materially change. We may encounter additional integration-related costs, fail to realize the benefits anticipated in the acquisition or be subject to other factors that adversely affect preliminary estimates. Any of these factors could delay or significantly reduce the expected accretive effect of the acquisition and contribute to a decrease in the price of our common stock.
If we need additional capital in the future, it may not be available to us on favorable terms, or at all.
Our business requires significant capital. We have historically relied on outside debt or equity financing as well as cash flow from operations to fund our operations, capital expenditures and expansion. We may require additional capital from equity or debt financings in the future to fund our operations or respond to competitive pressures or strategic opportunities. We have a history of significant operating losses, including a net loss of $32.1 million for 2013. In the event that we require additional capital, we may not be able to secure timely additional financing on favorable terms, or at all. The terms of any additional financing may place limits on our financial and operating flexibility. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution in their percentage ownership of our company, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, if and when we require it, our ability to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be limited and our business will be harmed.
Our sales cycle can be long and unpredictable, which could result in an unexpected revenue shortfall in any given quarter.
Our products can have a lengthy sales cycle, which can extend from six to twelve months and may take even longer for larger prospective customers. Our prospective customers conduct significant evaluation, testing, implementation and acceptance procedures before they purchase our products. We incur substantial sales and marketing expenses and expend significant management effort during this time, regardless of whether we make a sale.
Because the purchase of our equipment involves substantial cost, most of our customers wait to purchase our equipment until they are ready to deploy it in their network. As a result, it is difficult for us to accurately predict the timing of future purchases by our customers. In addition, product purchases are often subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals and unplanned administrative processing and other delays. If sales expected from customers for a particular quarter are not realized in that quarter or at all, our revenue will be negatively impacted.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that may harm our operating results, some of which may be enhanced following our acquisition of Transmode.
Sales of our products into international markets are an important part of our business and these international sales, particularly in the EMEA region, are expected to increase as a result of the Transmode acquisition. During the fiscal years 2015, 2014 and 2013, we derived approximately 32%, 29% and 36%,

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respectively, of our revenue from customers outside of the United States. We expect that significant management attention and financial resources will be required for our international activities over the foreseeable future as we continue to expand our international presence, including as a result of our acquisition of Transmode. We have a limited history and experience selling our products into developing international markets, such as Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin America. Furthermore, in some countries, our success in selling our products and growing revenue will depend in part on our ability to form relationships with local partners. Our inability to identify appropriate partners or reach mutually satisfactory arrangements for international sales of our products could impact our ability to maintain or increase international market demand for our products. In addition, many of the companies we compete against internationally have greater name recognition and a more substantial sales and marketing presence.
We have sales and support personnel in numerous countries worldwide. In addition, we have established development centers in Canada, China, India and Sweden, and expect to continue to increase hiring of personnel for these facilities. There is no assurance that our reliance upon development resources in international locations will enable us to achieve meaningful cost reductions or greater resource efficiency.
Our international operations are subject to inherent risks, and our future results could be adversely affected by a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
greater difficulty in collecting accounts receivable and longer collection periods;
difficulties of managing and staffing international offices, and the increased travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with multiple international locations;
political, social and economic instability, including wars, terrorism, political unrest, boycotts, curtailment of trade and other business restrictions;
tariff and trade barriers and other regulatory requirements or contractual limitations on our ability to sell or develop our products in certain foreign markets;
less effective protection of intellectual property than is afforded to us in the United States or other developed countries;
local laws and practices that favor local companies, including business practices that we are prohibited from engaging in by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations;
potentially adverse tax consequences; and
effects of changes in currency exchange rates, particularly relative increases in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar versus other currencies that could negatively affect our financial results and cash flows.
International customers may also require that we comply with certain testing or customization of our products to conform to local standards. The product development costs to test or customize our products could be extensive and a material expense for us.
Our international operations are subject to increasingly complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations, including but not limited to anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act and equivalent laws in other jurisdictions, antitrust or competition laws, and data privacy laws, among others. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our reputation, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, our business, and our operating results. Although we have implemented policies, procedures and training designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no complete assurance that any individual employee, contractor or agent will not violate our policies. Additionally, the costs of complying with these laws (including the costs of investigations, auditing and monitoring) could also adversely affect our current or future business.
As we continue to expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with our international operations. Our failure to manage any of these risks could harm our international operations and reduce our international sales.

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We may be adversely affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
A portion of our sales and expenses stem from countries outside of the United States, and are in currencies other than U.S. dollars, and therefore subject to foreign currency fluctuation. We expect the acquisition of Transmode to increase our sales and expenses that are denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Accordingly, fluctuations in foreign currency rates could have a material impact on our financial results in future periods. We may enter into other financial contracts to reduce the impact of foreign currency fluctuations. We currently enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts to reduce the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on accounts receivable. These forward contracts reduce the impact of currency exchange rate movements on certain transactions, but do not cover all foreign-denominated transactions and therefore do not entirely eliminate the impact of fluctuations in exchange rates that could negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.
We are required to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The provisions of the act require, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. Preparing our financial statements involves a number of complex processes, many of which are done manually and are dependent upon individual data input or review. These processes include, but are not limited to, calculating revenue, deferred revenue and inventory costs. While we continue to automate our processes and enhance our review and put in place controls to reduce the likelihood for errors, we expect that for the foreseeable future, many of our processes will remain manually intensive and thus subject to human error.

Any acquisitions we make could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition and operations.
We have made strategic acquisitions of businesses, technologies and other assets in the past, such as the recently completed acquisition of Transmode. The expansion of our business through acquisitions allows us to complement our technological capabilities and address new markets. In the event of any future acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, or they may be viewed negatively by customers, financial markets or investors and we could:
issue stock that would dilute our current stockholders’ percentage ownership;
incur debt and assume other liabilities;
use a substantial portion of our cash resources; or
incur amortization expenses related to other intangible assets and/or incur large and immediate write-offs.
Acquisitions can result in adverse tax consequences, warranty or product liability exposure related to acquired assets, additional stock-based compensation expense, and write-up of acquired inventory to fair value. In addition, we may record goodwill and other purchased intangible assets in connection with an acquisition and incur impairment charges in the future. If our actual results, or the plans and estimates used in future impairment analyses, are less favorable than the original estimates used to assess the recoverability of these assets, we could incur additional impairment charges.
Acquisitions also involve numerous risks that could disrupt our ongoing business and distract our management team, including:
problems integrating the acquired operations, technologies or products with our own;
diversion of management’s attention from our core business;
adverse impact on overall company operating results;
adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;
risks associated with entering new markets; and
loss of key employees.
Our failure to adequately manage the risks associated with an acquisition could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

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Unforeseen health, safety and environmental costs could harm our business.
Our manufacturing operations use substances that are regulated by various federal, state and international laws governing health, safety and the environment, including the WEEE, RoHS and REACH regulations adopted by the European Union. If we experience a problem with complying with these regulations, it could cause an interruption or delay in our manufacturing operations or could cause us to incur liabilities for any costs related to health, safety or environmental remediation. We could also be subject to liability if we do not handle these substances in compliance with safety standards for storage and transportation and applicable laws. If we experience a problem or fail to comply with such safety standards, our business, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.
We are subject to governmental regulations that could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to export control laws that limit which products we sell and where and to whom we sell our products. These export control laws also limit our ability to conduct product development activities in certain countries. In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain technologies and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Changes in our products or changes in import and export regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our products throughout their global systems or, in some cases, prevent the import and export of our products to certain countries altogether. Any change in import and export regulations or related legislation, shift in approach to the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Failure to comply with these and similar laws on a timely basis, or at all, decreased use of our products or any limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our product or manufacturing standards could also be impacted by new or revised environmental rules and regulations or other social initiatives. For instance, the SEC adopted new disclosure requirements in 2012 relating to the sourcing of certain minerals from the Democratic Republic of Congo and certain other adjoining countries. Those rules, which required reporting for the first time in calendar 2014, could adversely affect our costs, the availability of minerals used in our products and our relationships with customers and suppliers.
The Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) has jurisdiction over the entire U.S. communications industry and, as a result, our products and our U.S. customers are subject to FCC rules and regulations. Current and future FCC regulations, including regulations on net neutrality or generally affecting communications services, our products or our customers’ businesses could negatively affect our business. In addition, international regulatory standards could impair our ability to develop products for international customers in the future. Moreover, many jurisdictions are evaluating or implementing regulations relating to cybersecurity, privacy and data protection, which can affect the market and requirements for networking and communications equipment. Delays caused by our compliance with regulatory requirements could result in postponements or cancellations of product orders. Further, we may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining any regulatory approvals that may, in the future, be required to operate our business. Any failure to obtain such approvals could harm our business and operating results.
Natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other catastrophic events could harm our operations.
Our headquarters and the majority of our infrastructure, including our PIC fabrication manufacturing facility, are located in Northern California, an area that is susceptible to earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters. Further, a terrorist attack aimed at Northern California or at the United States energy or telecommunications infrastructure could hinder or delay the development and sale of our products. In the event that an earthquake, terrorist attack or other man-made or natural catastrophe were to destroy any part of our facilities, or certain of our contract manufacturers’ facilities, destroy or disrupt vital infrastructure systems or interrupt our operations for any extended period of time, our business, financial condition and operating results would be harmed.


29


Security incidents, such as data breaches and cyber-attacks, could compromise our intellectual property and proprietary or confidential information and cause significant damage to our business and reputation.
In the ordinary course of our business, we maintain sensitive data on our networks, including data related to our intellectual property and data related to our business, customers and business partners, which is considered proprietary or confidential information. We believe that companies in the technology industry have been increasingly subject to a wide variety of security incidents, cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access. While the secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business and reputation, our network and storage applications may be subject to unauthorized access by hackers or breached due to operator error, malfeasance or other system disruptions. It may be difficult to anticipate or immediately detect such security incidents or data breaches and the damage caused as a result. Accordingly, a data breach, cyber-attack, or unauthorized access or disclosure of our information, could compromise our intellectual property and reveal proprietary or confidential business information. In addition, these security incidents could also cause us to incur significant remediation costs and expenses, disrupt key business operations, subject us to liability and divert attention of management and key information technology resources, any of which could cause significant harm to our business and reputation.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company and may affect the trading price of our common stock.
We are a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which apply to us, may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:
authorize the issuance of “blank check” convertible preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to thwart a takeover attempt;
establish a classified board of directors, as a result of which the successors to the directors whose terms have expired will be elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the third annual meeting following their election;
require that directors only be removed from office for cause and only upon a supermajority stockholder vote;
provide that vacancies on the board of directors, including newly-created directorships, may be filled only by a majority vote of directors then in office rather than by stockholders;
prevent stockholders from calling special meetings; and
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, requiring all actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders.


30


ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable. 

ITEM 2.        PROPERTIES
    
Our headquarters are located in Sunnyvale, California. We lease facilities in North America, Europe and Asia. The following is a summary of the locations, functions and approximate square footage of those facilities as of December 26, 2015:
Location
Function
Square
Footage
Sunnyvale, CA
Corporate headquarters and manufacturing
261,000

Allentown, PA
Manufacturing and research and development
44,000

Annapolis Junction, MD
Research and development, service and support
12,000

Carrollton, TX
Sales, service and support
5,000

Bangalore, India
Software development
111,000

Beijing, China
Research and development
22,000

Kanata, Canada
Research and development
8,000

Stockholm, Sweden
Research and development, sales, service and support
78,000

London, United Kingdom
Sales, service and support
6,000

Hong Kong, China
Sales, service and support
2,000

Tokyo, Japan
Sales and support
2,000

The above leases expire between 2016 and 2023. We intend to add new facilities or to expand existing facilities as we add employees, and we believe that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed to accommodate any such expansion of our operations. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our business needs through the next 12 months.

ITEM 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Cambrian Science Patent Infringement Litigation
On July 12, 2011, we were notified by Level 3 that Cambrian filed suit against Level 3 and six other defendants, including Cox Communications, Inc., XO Communications, LLC, Global Crossing Limited, 360Networks (USA), Inc., Integra Telecom, Inc. and IXC, Inc. dba Telekenex (collectively, the “Defendants”) in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California alleging infringement of patent no. 6,775,312 (the “'312 Patent”) and requesting damages for such alleged infringement (the “Cambrian Claim”). The nature of the Cambrian Claim involves allegations of infringement of the '312 Patent resulting from the Defendants’ use of certain products and systems in the Defendants’ networks, including the Infinera DTN platform. On August 24, 2011, Cambrian amended the complaint to name us as a defendant. We assumed the defense of the Cambrian Claim and filed an answer to Cambrian’s complaint on September 21, 2011, in which we denied infringement of the '312 Patent and raised other defenses. Cambrian filed a second amended complaint on October 6, 2011, which included many of the same allegations as in the original complaint. We filed our answer to the second amended complaint on October 21, 2011, in which we maintained the same denials and defenses as in our initial answer. On December 23, 2011, we filed a motion requesting that the court stay the case with respect to each of the above-noted customer Defendants. Cambrian filed its opposition to our motion on December 30, 2011. Our request was denied in the court’s decision on March 7, 2012. We presented evidence on the appropriate meanings of relevant key words used in the patent claims during a claim construction hearing on November 20, 2012.

On June 17, 2013, the court issued an order regarding claim construction, in which the court agreed with almost all of our proposed claim constructions. On October 17, 2013, the parties met for a court-mandated

31


mediation. On April 24, 2014, we filed two motions for summary judgment relating to non-infringement and Cambrian’s claim to an earlier date of invention. The court held a hearing on the summary judgment motions on June 9, 2014. On July 2, 2014, the court granted our motion for summary judgment on non-infringement and entered a final judgment of non-infringement of the '312 Patent.
On August 1, 2014, Cambrian filed a notice of appeal regarding the ruling of non-infringement to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (“CAFC”), and Cambrian’s appeal brief was filed on November 6, 2014. We filed our responsive brief on January 5, 2015, arguing that the CAFC should affirm the lower court’s finding of non-infringement, and on February 2, 2015, Cambrian filed their reply brief. Oral argument of this appeal took place on May 5, 2015. On June 29, 2015, the CAFC affirmed the court’s claim construction and grant of summary judgment of non-infringement. We have not received notice of any further filings since the CAFC affirmation and believe the judgment of non-infringement to be final.

ITEM 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.

32


PART II

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “INFN.” The following table sets forth, for the time periods indicated, the high and low sales prices of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. 
 
High
 
Low
Fourth Quarter 2015
$
22.85

 
$
16.98

Third Quarter 2015
$
25.24

 
$
18.35

Second Quarter 2015
$
22.95

 
$
17.58

First Quarter 2015
$
19.70

 
$
13.00

Fourth Quarter 2014
$
15.74

 
$
9.15

Third Quarter 2014
$
11.84

 
$
8.32

Second Quarter 2014
$
9.65

 
$
7.89

First Quarter 2014
$
10.14

 
$
6.96

As of February 18, 2016, there were 103 registered holders of record of Infinera’s common stock. A substantially greater number of holders of Infinera common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends on common stock in the near future.

33


STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return provided stockholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends, if any) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each of the indexes on December 25, 2010 and its relative performance is tracked through December 26, 2015. The NASDAQ Telecommunications Index contains securities of NASDAQ-listed companies classified according to the Industry Classification Benchmark as Telecommunications and Telecommunications Equipment. They include providers of fixed-line and mobile telephone services, and makers and distributors of high-technology communication products. This graph is not deemed to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and the graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any prior or subsequent filing by Infinera under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Infinera Corporation, the NASDAQ Composite Index,
and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index
*$100 invested on December 25, 2010 in our common stock or December 31, 2010 in the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index, with reinvestment of all dividends, if any. Indexes calculated on month-end basis.


34


ITEM 6.        SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
You should read the following selected consolidated historical financial data below in conjunction with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We derived the statements of operations data for the years ended December 26, 2015, December 27, 2014 and December 28, 2013 and the balance sheet data as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014 from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We derived the statements of operations data for the years ended December 29, 2012 and December 31, 2011 and the balance sheet data as of December 28, 2013, December 29, 2012 and December 31, 2011 from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have not declared or distributed any cash dividends. 
 
Years Ended
 
December 26,
2015
 
December 27,
2014
 
December 28,
2013
 
December 29,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Revenue
$
886,714

 
$
668,079

 
$
544,122

 
$
438,437

 
$
404,877

Gross profit
$
403,477

 
$
288,304

 
$
218,639

 
$
157,569

 
$
165,491

Net income (loss)
$
50,950

 
$
13,659

 
$
(32,119
)
 
$
(85,330
)
 
$
(81,744
)
Net income (loss) attributable to Infinera Corporation
$
51,413

 
$
13,659

 
$
(32,119
)
 
$
(85,330
)
 
$
(81,744
)
Net income (loss) per common share attributable to Infinera Corporation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.39

 
$
0.11

 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
(0.78
)
Diluted
$
0.36

 
$
0.11

 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
(0.78
)
Weighted average number of shares used in computing basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
133,259

 
123,672

 
117,425

 
110,739

 
105,432

Diluted
143,171

 
128,565

 
117,425

 
110,739

 
105,432

Total cash and cash equivalents, investments and restricted cash
$
356,479

 
$
390,816

 
$
365,313

 
$
187,554

 
$
253,116

Cost-method investment
$
14,500

 
$
14,500

 
$
9,000

 
$
9,000

 
$
9,000

Intangible assets, net
$
156,319

 
$
361

 
$
416

 
$
470

 
$
621

Goodwill
$
191,560

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Total assets
$
1,226,294

 
$
818,016

 
$
700,926

 
$
528,170

 
$
531,704

Long-term debt, net
$
125,440

 
$
116,894

 
$
109,164

 
$

 
$

Common stock and additional paid-in capital
$
1,300,441

 
$
1,077,351

 
$
1,025,781

 
$
930,730

 
$
877,034

Infinera stockholders' equity
$
762,151

 
$
481,907

 
$
417,810

 
$
356,136

 
$
387,803

Noncontrolling interest
$
14,910

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Total stockholders’ equity
$
777,061

 
$
481,907

 
$
417,810

 
$
356,136

 
$
387,803



35


ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include our expectations regarding revenue, gross margin, expenses, cash flows and other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations and personnel; statements related to the integration of Transmode; factors that may affect our operating results; anticipated customer activity; statements concerning new products or services, including new product costs, and delivery dates; statements related to capital expenditures; statements related to future economic conditions, performance, market growth or our sales cycle; statements related to our convertible senior notes; statements related to the effects of litigation on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows; statements related to the timing and impact of transfer pricing reserves or our effective tax rate; statements as to industry trends and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts or statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," or "will," and similar expressions or variations. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You should review these risk factors for a more complete understanding of the risks associated with an investment in our securities. Such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. We disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our “Selected Financial Data” included in Item 6 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
We provide optical transport networking equipment, software and services to Service Providers across the globe. Optical transport networks are deployed by Service Providers facing significant demands for optical bandwidth prompted by increased use of high-speed Internet access, mobile broadband, high-definition video streaming services, business Ethernet services and cloud-based services.
We manufacture large-scale Indium Phosphide PICs, which are used as a key differentiating component inside our Intelligent Transport Network platforms. The Infinera Intelligent Transport Network architecture enables Service Providers to scale network bandwidth, accelerate service innovation and simplify optical network operations. Service Providers across the globe rely on Infinera Intelligent Transport Networks to enable services that create rich end-user experiences based on efficient, high-bandwidth optical networking. Late in 2014, building on our leadership in long-haul and sub-sea networks, we introduced the Cloud Xpress, targeting the DCI market, which we believe will be a rapidly growing market as cloud infrastructures continue to evolve.

On August 20, 2015, we successfully completed our public offer to the shareholders of Transmode, acquiring 95.8% of the outstanding common shares and voting interest in Transmode. Transmode is a metro packet-optical networking company based in Stockholm, Sweden. The combination of the two companies brings together a complementary set of customers, products and technologies into one company. With the acquisition of Transmode and the introduction of the Infinera XTC-2/2E during 2015, we now provide an end-to-end portfolio of packet-optical solutions for metro, DCI, long-haul and subsea networks. We believe we are well positioned to address the changing requirements of our growing and diverse customer base.

We primarily sell our products through our direct sales force, with a small portion sold indirectly through resellers. We derived 93%, 95% and 92% of our revenue from direct sales to customers for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. We expect to continue generating a substantial majority of our revenue from direct sales in the future.

We are headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with employees located throughout the Americas, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. We expect to continue to add personnel in the United States and

36


internationally to develop our products, provide additional sales support for key market verticals and emerging geographic regions, and invest in personnel to allow our business to scale to support our expanded business opportunities.

2015 Financial and Business Performance
We continued our transformation to a multi-market company in 2015 by adding metro and DCI to our core long-haul business. We grew total revenue by 33% compared to 2014 including revenue from Transmode in the post-acquisition period. Organically, excluding the partial year of Transmode revenues, our revenues grew in the mid-20% range in 2015, marking the third consecutive year we have grown significantly faster than the overall WDM market. We also continued to expand our gross margin and operating margin in 2015, demonstrating the leverage we have achieved from our vertical integration, the value proposition of our Intelligent Transport Network and our commitment to prudent expense management.

Two customers each accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2015. These two customers accounted for 17% and 13%, respectively, of our revenue in 2015. One customer accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2014. Revenue from this customer accounted for 19% of our revenue in 2014. No individual customer accounted for over 10% of our revenue in 2013.
Future Business and Industry Trends
Across the broader market, we believe we have good opportunity to increase revenue in 2016 based on driving the growth of Cloud Xpress, achieving traction from new products, the inclusion of a full year of Transmode revenues including cross-selling synergies, and capacity adds to our 100G footprint in the long-haul market. Our focus on revenue growth will be complemented with continued efforts to drive cost improvements across all of our products and services. With respect to operating expenses, we will need to increase our investment levels in the short-term to more closely align with our growing market opportunity across long-haul, metro and DCI. We have not scaled our operating expenses at the same rate as our revenue growth over the past several years as our revenue growth has exceeded our expectations. Over a longer period of time, we believe that with sustained revenue growth, we can further leverage our vertically-integrated manufacturing model, which combined with the introduction of additional purpose built products, the ability to continue to sell incremental bandwidth capacity into deployed networks and expense management, can result in improved profitability and cash flow.

Our goal is to be the preeminent provider of optical transport networking systems to Service Providers around the world. Our revenue growth will depend on the continued acceptance of our products, growth of communications traffic and the proliferation of next-generation bandwidth-intensive services, which are expected to drive the need for increased levels of bandwidth.

Our near-term quarter-over-quarter revenue may likely be volatile and may be impacted by several factors including general economic and market conditions, time-to-market development and market acceptance of new products, acquisitions of new customers and the timing of large product deployments.


37


Results of Operations
Revenue
The following table sets forth, for periods presented, certain consolidated statements of operations information (in thousands, except percentages): 
 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 26,
2015
 
% of total
revenue
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total
revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
769,230

 
87
%
 
$
572,276

 
86
%
 
$
196,954

 
34
%
Services
117,484

 
13
%
 
95,803

 
14
%
 
21,681

 
23
%
Total revenue
$
886,714

 
100
%
 
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
218,635

 
33
%
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
436,916

 
49
%
 
$
340,856

 
51
%
 
$
96,060

 
28
%
Services
46,321

 
5
%
 
38,919

 
6
%
 
7,402

 
19
%
Total cost of revenue
$
483,237

 
54
%
 
$
379,775

 
57
%
 
$
103,462

 
27
%
Gross profit
$
403,477

 
46
%
 
$
288,304

 
43
%
 
$
115,173

 
40
%

 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total
revenue
 
December 28,
2013
 
% of total
revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
572,276

 
86
%
 
$
465,424

 
86
%
 
$
106,852

 
23
%
Services
95,803

 
14
%
 
78,698

 
14
%
 
17,105

 
22
%
Total revenue
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
544,122

 
100
%
 
$
123,957

 
23
%
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
340,856

 
51
%
 
$
295,715

 
54
%
 
$
45,141

 
15
%
Services
38,919

 
6
%
 
29,768

 
6
%
 
9,151

 
31
%
Total cost of revenue
$
379,775

 
57
%
 
$
325,483

 
60
%
 
$
54,292

 
17
%
Gross profit
$
288,304

 
43
%
 
$
218,639

 
40
%
 
$
69,665

 
32
%
2015 Compared to 2014. Product revenue increased by $197.0 million, or 34%, in 2015 from 2014. The increase was primarily driven by continued momentum associated with the Infinera DTN-X platform through both new network builds and capacity adds to existing networks. Additionally, we benefited from the inclusion of revenue from Transmode's metro products since the acquisition, which occurred during the third quarter of 2015. In 2015, we also experienced significant growth in revenue associated with our Cloud Xpress platform, which was introduced during the fourth quarter of 2014. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in sales of the DTN platform, reflecting the continued shift to 100Gbps network deployments.
Services revenue increased by $21.7 million, or 23%, in 2015 from 2014. The increase was primarily due to higher on-going support services as we continued to grow our installed base. Additionally, during 2015, we experienced higher levels of deployment services as customers built new networks utilizing our teams’ expertise. Our services revenue also benefited from the inclusion of Transmode's services revenue since the acquisition.
2014 Compared to 2013. Total product revenue increased by $106.9 million, or 23%, in 2014 from 2013. This increase was primarily driven by the continued strong market adoption of the Infinera DTN-X platform as our customers continued to deploy our products to meet the growing bandwidth needs of their networks. The

38


increase in Infinera DTN-X platform revenue was partially offset by a reduction in sales of the Infinera DTN platform.
Services revenue increased by $17.1 million, or 22%, in 2014 from 2013 due to higher levels of deployment services as customers built new networks utilizing our teams’ expertise as well as higher on-going support services as we continued to grow our installed base.
The following table summarizes our revenue by geography and sales channel for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages): 
 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 26,
2015
 
% of total revenue
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Total revenue by geography
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
$
602,433

 
68
%
 
$
476,172

 
71
%
 
$
126,261

 
27
%
International
284,281

 
32
%
 
191,907

 
29
%
 
92,374

 
48
%
 
$
886,714

 
100
%
 
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
218,635

 
33
%
Total revenue by sales channel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct
$
825,952

 
93
%
 
$
633,619

 
95
%
 
$
192,333

 
30
%
Indirect
60,762

 
7
%
 
34,460

 
5
%
 
26,302

 
76
%
 
$
886,714

 
100
%
 
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
218,635

 
33
%

 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total revenue
 
December 28,
2013
 
% of total revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Total revenue by geography
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
$
476,172

 
71
%
 
$
345,734

 
64
%
 
$
130,438

 
38
 %
International
191,907

 
29
%
 
198,388

 
36
%
 
(6,481
)
 
(3
)%
 
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
544,122

 
100
%
 
$
123,957

 
23
 %
Total revenue by sales channel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct
$
633,619

 
95
%
 
$
501,375

 
92
%
 
$
132,244

 
26
 %
Indirect
34,460

 
5
%
 
42,747

 
8
%
 
(8,287
)
 
(19
)%
 
$
668,079

 
100
%
 
$
544,122

 
100
%
 
$
123,957

 
23
 %
    
2015 Compared to 2014. Domestic revenue increased by $126.3 million, or 27%, during 2015 compared to 2014, primarily driven by customers in our wholesale and enterprise carrier and ICP verticals. Many of our largest customers are based in this region, including our two greater than 10% of revenue customers for the year.
International revenue increased by $92.4 million, or 48%, during 2015 compared to 2014. In 2015, growth in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region was primarily driven by customers in our wholesale and enterprise carrier and ICP verticals, and the inclusion of revenue from Transmode’s metro products across various verticals since the acquisition. Within the Other Americas region, during 2015, we experienced significant growth with our wholesale and enterprise carrier customers expanding into the Latin America region, as well as continued traction with multiple carriers based in this region.
Within the Asia Pacific and Japan region, we also had strong growth in 2015 compared to 2014 primarily within the subsea markets as customers expand their footprints.
The acquisition of Transmode considerably broadens our application base with both existing as well as new customers, and enables us to offer an end-to-end product portfolio addressing the long-haul, metro cloud and metro aggregation markets. We believe that the Infinera DTN-X platform is well positioned across our diverse customer base, as existing customers continue to build new networks and add capacity to existing

39


networks and as we win opportunities to deploy our products with new customers. In addition, we gained strong momentum with our Cloud Xpress platform in 2015 and expect that to continue as the DCI market continues to expand. We continue to see strong demand across multiple regions and customer verticals. We currently expect overall revenue in the first quarter of 2016 to be lower on a sequential basis compared to the prior quarter due to seasonal weakness within the industry as customers take additional time to finalize their capital expenditure budgets well into the quarter.
2014 Compared to 2013. Domestic revenue increased by $130.4 million, or 38%, during 2014 compared to 2013. Our revenue in North America continued to grow as many of our largest customers, including a Tier-1 carrier and the ICPs, are based in this region. International revenue decreased by $6.5 million, or 3%, during 2014 compared to 2013. International revenue decreased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue during 2014 primarily due to lower demand and reduced spending by Service Providers in Europe in light of the challenging economic conditions in that region. In 2014, our revenue increased in the Latin America region through the use of indirect sales partners.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
2015 Compared to 2014. Gross margin increased to 46% in 2015 from 43% in 2014. Gross margin increased primarily as a result of financial leverage gained from our vertically integrated operating model. As volumes continue to grow, we are able to spread our fixed manufacturing costs over a much broader base of units. In addition, we continued to see an increased level of capacity additions to existing customer networks both in the form of line card additions and additional licenses under the Infinera Instant Bandwidth program. These capacity additions carry a higher gross margin profile than the footprint builds of new networks. These increases were partially offset by the impact of purchase accounting adjustments of $13.3 million.
2014 Compared to 2013. Gross margin increased to 43% in 2014 from 40% in 2013. This increase was due to a combination of the following: financial leverage gained from our vertically integrated operating model as volumes continue to grow and we are able to spread a primarily fixed cost over a much broader base of units; yield improvements in our manufacturing operation; and the composition of our revenue included an improved ratio of capacity additions to existing networks versus new network builds.
We currently expect that gross margin in the first quarter of 2016 will be relatively consistent as compared to the prior quarter as we continue to deliver value to our customers and execute on our financial operating model.
Operating Expenses
The following table summarizes our operating expenses for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):  
 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 26,
2015
 
% of total
revenue
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total
revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Research and development
$
180,703

 
20
%
 
$
133,484

 
20
%
 
$
47,219

 
35
%
Sales and marketing
101,398

 
11
%
 
79,026

 
12
%
 
22,372

 
28
%
General and administrative
61,640

 
7
%
 
48,452

 
7
%
 
13,188

 
27
%
Total operating expenses
$
343,741

 
38
%
 
$
260,962

 
39
%
 
$
82,779

 
32
%
 
 
Years Ended
 
 
 
 
 
December 27,
2014
 
% of total
revenue
 
December 28,
2013
 
% of total
revenue
 
Change
 
% Change
Research and development
$
133,484

 
20
%
 
$
124,794

 
23
%
 
$
8,690

 
7
%
Sales and marketing
79,026

 
12
%
 
72,778

 
14
%
 
6,248

 
9
%
General and administrative
48,452

 
7
%
 
45,253

 
8
%
 
3,199

 
7
%
Total operating expenses
$
260,962

 
39
%
 
$
242,825

 
45
%
 
$
18,137

 
7
%

40


    
The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense included in our operating expenses for the periods presented (in thousands): 
 
Years Ended
 
December 26,
2015
 
December 27,
2014
 
December 28,
2013
Research and development
$
11,055

 
$
8,927

 
$
10,900

Sales and marketing
8,081

 
7,477

 
7,624

General and administration
7,354

 
6,383

 
5,956

Total
$
26,490

 
$
22,787

 
$
24,480

Research and Development Expenses
2015 Compared to 2014. Research and development expenses increased $47.2 million, or 35%, in 2015 from 2014 primarily due to increased personnel costs of $23.8 million as a result of incremental headcount to support our expanding product roadmap. In addition, we had increased spending on prototype and other engineering materials of $12.8 million in 2015 compared to 2014, as we further enhanced our product portfolio to ensure we deliver on our next generation platforms. During 2015, we also incurred increased costs of outside professional services of $7.1 million and higher discretionary spending of $3.5 million to support our growing business compared to 2014. The inclusion of the Transmode business increased research and development expenses by $10.1 million in 2015.
2014 Compared to 2013. Research and development expenses increased $8.7 million, or 7%, in 2014 from 2013 primarily due to increased compensation expenses of $6.9 million related to higher bonus expense in connection with the improved financial results and increased headcount to allow us to execute to our product roadmap. In addition, we had increased facilities and depreciation costs of $3.0 million, increased costs of professional outside services of $2.1 million to support Cloud Xpress development activities, and increased other discretionary spending of $0.7 million in order to support our growing business. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in prototype and non-recurring engineering expense of $2.0 million due to timing of certain projects and decreased stock-based compensation expense of $2.0 million due to lower equity activity as compared to 2013.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
2015 Compared to 2014. Sales and marketing expenses increased $22.4 million, or 28%, in 2015 from 2014 primarily driven by increased personnel costs of $11.7 million as a result of higher sales commissions and incremental headcount to support the continued expansion of our business into new markets and customer verticals. We also had increased discretionary spending of $2.6 million, amortization of intangible assets of $2.2 million, prototype and lab trial spending of $2.0 million, and other marketing expenses of $3.9 million. The inclusion of the Transmode business during 2015 increased sales and marketing expense by $12.1 million.
2014 Compared to 2013. Sales and marketing expenses increased $6.2 million, or 9%, in 2014 from 2013 primarily due to increased compensation expenses of $3.6 million from higher headcount to support the continued expansion of our business and higher sales commissions associated with revenue growth that was higher than our plan for the year. We also had increased travel, trade show and other marketing related expenses of $2.0 million and other discretionary spending of $0.9 million in order to support our growing business. These increases were partially offset by lower lab trial and related expenses of $1.5 million.
General and Administrative Expenses
2015 Compared to 2014. General and administrative expenses increased $13.2 million, or 27%, in 2015 from 2014. During 2015, the increases were primarily due to acquisition-related expenses related to the Transmode acquisition of $6.8 million. Additionally, we incurred increased personnel costs of $4.6 million driven by incremental headcount and higher discretionary spending of $1.7 million to support our growing business. The inclusion of the Transmode business increased general and administrative expenses by $2.2 million.
2014 Compared to 2013. General and administrative expenses increased $3.2 million, or 7%, in 2014 from 2013 primarily due to higher compensation expenses of $2.7 million due to an increase in headcount as we continue to expand our team to support our growing business. In addition, we had increased equipment and

41


software expenses and other discretionary spending of $1.0 million. These increases were partially offset by decreased depreciation expense of $0.5 million.
    
Other Income (Expense), Net
 
Years Ended
 
December 26,
2015
 
December 27,
2014
 
December 28,
2013
 
(In thousands)
Interest income
$
1,837

 
$
1,456

 
$
923

Interest expense
(11,941
)
 
(11,021
)
 
(6,061
)
Other gain (loss), net
2,399

 
(1,365
)
 
(1,141
)
Total other income (expense), net
$
(7,705
)
 
$
(10,930
)
 
$
(6,279
)
2015 Compared to 2014. Interest income increased mainly due to a higher average investment balance due to cash generated from the business during the year. Interest expense for 2015 increased by $0.9 million due to an increase of amortization of discount and issuance costs related to the $150.0 million of 1.75% convertible senior notes (the "Notes"). Other gain (loss), net, for 2015 mainly comprised of $1.3 million of gains due to foreign currency exchange rate changes and a $1.1 million gain primarily from foreign currency forward contracts that we entered into to hedge currency exposures associated with the cash portion of the offer to acquire Transmode. Other gain (loss), net, for 2014 mainly comprised of $1.4 million of losses due to foreign currency exchange rate changes.
2014 Compared to 2013. Interest income increased mainly due to a higher average investment balance due to having the proceeds from the Notes for the full year and cash generated from the business. Interest expense for 2015 and 2014 consisted of amortization of debt discount costs, debt issuance costs and contractual interest expense related to the Notes issued in May 2013. See Note 11, “Convertible Senior Notes,” to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information. Other gain (loss), net for 2014 was mainly comprised of $1.4 million of losses due to foreign currency exchange rate changes. Other gain (loss), net for 2013 included $1.4 million of losses due to foreign currency exchange, partially offset by a gain of $0.2 million from auction rate securities (“ARS”) sold.
Income Tax Provision
We recognized income tax expense of $1.1 million on income before income taxes of $52.0 million, $2.8 million on income before income taxes of $16.4 million and $1.7 million on loss before income taxes of $30.5 million in fiscal years 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The resulting effective tax rates were 2.1%, 16.8% and (5.4)% for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The 2015 and 2014 effective tax rates differ from the expected statutory rate of 35% based upon the utilization of unbenefited U.S. loss carryforwards, offset by state income taxes and foreign taxes provided on foreign subsidiary earnings. The decrease in 2015 tax expense compared to 2014 tax expense relates to the tax benefit of acquisition related amortization expenses and charges, offset by higher state income taxes because of the profitable position of our U.S. operations, additional tax reserves and an increase in taxable foreign profits in certain jurisdictions. The tax expense for 2014 was greater than 2013 due to higher income and associated taxes as well as increases in state taxes as a result of income that could not be offset by loss carryforwards. The 2013 effective tax rate reflects unbenefited current U.S. losses and foreign taxes provided on our profitable foreign subsidiaries.
Because of our significant loss carryforward position and corresponding full valuation allowance, in all periods, we have not been subject to federal or state tax on its U.S. income because of the availability of loss carryforwards, with the exception of amounts for certain states’ taxes for which the losses are limited by statute or amount in 2014 and more significantly in 2015. If these losses and other tax attributes become fully utilized, our taxes will increase significantly to a more normalized, expected rate on U.S. earnings. The release of transfer pricing reserves in the future will have a beneficial impact to tax expense, but the timing of the impact depends on factors such as expiration of the statute of limitations or settlements with tax authorities. No significant releases are expected in the near future based on information available at this time.

42


The valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014 was $169.2 million and $199.7 million, respectively. The net change in the valuation allowance were decreases of $30.5 million and $3.0 million for the years ended December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, respectively.
The realization of tax benefits of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future levels of taxable income, of an appropriate character, in the periods the items are scheduled to be deductible or taxable. Based on the available objective evidence, management does not believe it is more likely than not that the domestic net deferred tax assets will be realizable. Accordingly, we have provided a full valuation allowance against our domestic deferred tax assets, net of deferred tax liabilities, as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014.

Even though we have been profitable in recent quarters, we must consider other positive and negative evidence, including our forecasts of taxable income over the applicable carryforward periods, our current financial performance, our market environment, and other factors in evaluating the need for a full or partial valuation allowance against its net U.S. deferred tax assets. Management has concluded that it was not more likely than not that we would be able to utilize those deferred tax assets in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, the domestic net deferred tax assets were fully reserved with a valuation allowance. We intend to maintain the remaining valuation allowance until sufficient further positive evidence exists to support a reversal of, or decrease, in the existing valuation allowance. To the extent that we determine that deferred tax assets are realizable on a more likely than not basis, and adjustment is needed, that adjustment will be recorded in the period that the determination is made and would generally decrease the valuation allowance and record a corresponding benefit to earnings.

As of December 26, 2015, we had net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $255.7 million for federal tax purposes and $160.3 million for state tax purposes. The carryforward balance reflects expected utilization of both federal and state net operating losses for the year ended December 26, 2015. Federal net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in 2025 while California losses will expire in 2016. Additionally, we have federal and California research and development credits available to reduce future income taxes payable of approximately $31.5 million and $33.7 million, respectively. Infinera Canada Inc., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary, has Scientific Research and Experimental Development Expenditures (“SRED”) credits available of $1.7 million to offset future Canadian income tax payable. The federal research credits will begin to expire in the year 2022 if not utilized and the California research credits have no expiration date. Canadian SRED credits will begin to expire in the year 2030 if not fully utilized.
    
Net operating loss carryforwards of $78.7 million and $57.8 million for federal and state purposes, respectively, have not been included in the deferred tax asset table above as these net operating loss carryforwards are attributable to excess tax benefits from equity award settlements. Under current accounting guidance, these tax benefits will not be recognized in the financial statements until they result in a reduction to taxes payable, at which point, the tax benefits will be reflected in stockholder’s equity. During the fiscal year ended December 26, 2015, we recognized $0.8 million of excess tax benefits which resulted in a credit to stockholder’s equity. 

Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the amount of benefit from net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may be impaired or limited in certain circumstances. Events which cause limitations in the amount of net operating losses that we may utilize in any one year include, but are not limited to, a cumulative ownership change of more than 50 percent as defined over a three-year testing period. As of December 26, 2015, we had determined that while ownership changes had occurred in the past, the resulting limitations were not significant enough to impact the utilization of the tax attributes against our taxable profits earned to date.
    
In determining future taxable income, we make assumptions to forecast federal, state and international operating income, the reversal of temporary differences, and the implementation of any feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. The assumptions require significant judgment regarding the forecasts of future taxable income, and are consistent with our income forecasts used to manage our business.

43


Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Years Ended
 
December 26, 2015
 
December 27, 2014
 
December 28, 2013
 
(In thousands)
Net cash flow provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
133,176

 
$
35,963

 
$
35,180

Investing activities
$
(91,475
)
 
$
(96,059
)
 
$
(180,800
)
Financing activities
$
20,983

 
$
22,861

 
$
166,110

 
 
Years Ended
 
December 26, 2015
 
December 27, 2014
 
(In thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
149,101

 
$
86,495

Short-term and long-term investments
202,068

 
298,861

Long-term restricted cash
5,310

 
5,460

 
$
356,479

 
$
390,816

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments consist of highly-liquid investments in certificates of deposits, money market funds, commercial paper, corporate bonds and U.S. treasuries. Long-term investments primarily consist of corporate bonds. The restricted cash balance amounts are primarily pledged as collateral for certain stand-by and commercial letters of credit related to customer proposal guarantees, value added tax licenses and property leases.
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $133.2 million for 2015, $36.0 million for 2014 and $35.2 million for 2013.    
Net income for 2015 was $51.0 million, which included non-cash charges of $80.1 million, compared to a net income of $13.7 million for 2014, which included non-cash charges of $66.5 million. Net loss for 2013 was $32.1 million, which included non-cash charges of $62.3 million.
Net cash provided by working capital was $2.1 million for 2015. Accounts receivables increased by $16.0 million primarily due to the timing of invoicing in the period and inventory levels increased by $17.1 million to support the higher expected demand including multiple new products. Accounts payable increased by $19.2 million primarily reflecting the volume of the business and timing of payments during the period. Accrued warranty increased by $10.8 million due to general warranty reserves, the incremental cost to support the increased installed base and higher repair costs.
Net cash used to fund working capital was $44.2 million for 2014. Accounts receivables increased by $54.0 million primarily due to higher revenue levels and the timing of invoicing of network deployments and collections during the period. Inventory levels increased by $25.5 million to support the higher expected demand. Accounts payable increased by $18.8 million primarily reflecting increased inventory purchases and timing of payments during the period. Accrued liabilities increased by $11.9 million primarily reflecting higher levels of compensation related accruals.

44


Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities for 2015 was $91.5 million. Investing activities during 2015 included the payment of $144.4 million in connection with the acquisition of Transmode and net proceeds of $93.8 million associated with purchases, maturities and sales of investments during the year as we rearranged our portfolio to fund the acquisition. In addition, we spent $42.0 million on capital expenditures to support our growing business. Finally, we realized $1.1 million of gain from foreign currency exchange forward contracts.
Net cash used in investing activities for 2014 was $96.1 million. This included net cash used of $65.9 million associated with purchases, maturities and sales of investments and $23.1 million of capital expenditures. We also invested an additional $5.5 million in an existing cost-method equity investment during 2014.
Net cash used in investing activities for 2013 was $180.8 million. This included net cash used of $159.7 million associated with purchases, maturities, calls and sales of investments and $21.1 million of capital expenditures. The increase in net cash used in investing activities as compared to 2012 primarily related to the investment of the proceeds received from the issuance of the Notes.
Financing Activities
Net proceeds from financing activities were $21.0 million, $22.9 million and $166.1 million for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Financing activities primarily included net proceeds from the exercise of stock options and purchase of shares under our employee stock purchase plan ("ESPP"). These proceeds were offset by the minimum tax withholdings paid on behalf of employees for net share settlements of restricted stock units. Financing activities for 2013 also included net proceeds from the issuance of the Notes of $144.5 million.
Liquidity
We believe that our current cash, cash equivalents and investments, together with cash generated from operations, exercise of employee stock options and purchases under our ESPP will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for working capital and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months, including any cash we will be required to expend as part of the Transmode related squeeze-out proceedings. For more information regarding the squeeze-out proceedings, see Note 6, "Business Combination," to the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. If these sources of cash are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements beyond 12 months, we may require additional capital from equity or debt financings to fund our operations, to respond to competitive pressures or strategic opportunities, or otherwise. We may not be able to secure timely additional financing on favorable terms, or at all. The terms of any additional financing may place limits on our financial and operating flexibility. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution in their percentage ownership of us, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock.
In May 2013, we issued the Notes, which will mature on June 1, 2018, unless earlier purchased by us or converted. Interest is payable semi-annually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year, commencing December 1, 2013. The net proceeds from the Notes issuance were approximately $144.5 million and were intended to be used for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
During the three months ended December 26, 2015, the closing price of our common stock exceeded 130% of the applicable conversion price of the Notes on at least 20 of the last 30 consecutive trading days of the quarter; therefore, holders of the Notes may convert their notes during the first quarter of 2016. Any conversion of the Notes prior to their maturity or acceleration of the repayment of the Notes could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, business, results of operations and financial condition. Should the closing price conditions be met during the 30 consecutive trading days prior to the end of the first quarter of 2016 or a future quarter, the Notes will be convertible at their holders’ option during the immediately following quarter. Under current market conditions, we do not expect the Notes will be converted in the short-term.
Upon conversion, it is our intention to pay cash equal to the lesser of the aggregate principal amount or the conversion value of the Notes. For any remaining conversion obligation, we intend to pay cash, shares of common stock or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at our election. As of December 26, 2015, long-term debt, net, was $125.4 million as of December 26, 2015, which represents the liability component of the $150.0 million principal balance, net of $24.6 million debt discount. The debt discount is currently being

45


amortized over the remaining term until maturity of the Notes on June 1, 2018. Any future redemption or conversion of the Notes could impact the timing of the repayment of these Notes.
As of December 26, 2015, contractual obligations related to the Notes are payments of $2.6 million due each year from 2016 through 2017 and $151.3 million due in 2018. These amounts represent principal and interest cash payments over the term of the Notes. Any future redemption or conversion of the Notes could impact the amount or timing of our cash payments. For more information regarding the Notes, see Note 11, “Convertible Senior Notes,” to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
As of December 26, 2015, we had $274.7 million of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, including $57.6 million of cash and cash equivalents held by our foreign subsidiaries. Our cash in foreign locations is used for operational and investing activities in those locations, and we do not currently have the need or the intent to repatriate those funds to the United States. Our policy with respect to undistributed foreign subsidiaries’ earnings is to consider those earnings to be indefinitely reinvested. If we were to repatriate these funds, we would be required to pay U.S. taxes on such amounts, however, due to our significant net operating loss carryforward position for both federal and state tax purposes, as well as the full valuation allowance provided against our U.S. and state net deferred tax assets, we would currently be able to offset any such tax obligations in their entirety. However, foreign withholding taxes may be applicable.
Contractual Obligations
The following is a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 26, 2015:  
 
 
 
Payments Due by Period
 
Total
 
Less than
1 year
 
1 - 3
years
 
3 - 5
years
 
More than
5 years
 
(In thousands)
Purchase obligations(1)
$
137,439

 
$
135,889

 
$
1,550

 
$

 
$

Operating leases(2)
50,396

 
10,619

 
20,071

 
16,606

 
3,100

Convertible senior notes, including interest
156,563

 
2,625

 
153,938

 

 

Total contractual obligations(3)
$
344,398

 
$
149,133

 
$
175,559

 
$
16,606

 
$
3,100

 
 
(1) 
We have service agreements with our major production suppliers under which we are committed to purchase certain parts.
(2) 
We lease facilities under non-cancelable operating lease agreements. These leases have varying terms, predominantly no longer than ten years each and contain leasehold improvement incentives, rent holidays and escalation clauses that range from one to 10 years. In addition, some of these leases have renewal options for up to five years. We also have contractual commitments to remove leasehold improvements and return certain properties to a specified condition when the leases terminate. At the inception of a lease with such conditions, we record an asset retirement obligation liability and a corresponding capital asset in an amount equal to the estimated fair value of the obligation. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life of the asset. An assumption of lease renewal where a renewal option exists is used only when the renewal has been determined to be reasonably assured. The estimated useful life of leasehold improvements is one to ten years.
(3) 
Tax liabilities of $2.9 million related to uncertain tax positions are not included in the table because we are unable to determine the timing of settlement if any, of these future payments with a reasonably reliable estimate.
We had $5.2 million of standby letters of credit outstanding as of December 26, 2015. These consisted of $3.1 million related to a customer proposal guarantee, $1.2 million related to a value added tax license and $0.9 million related to property leases. We had $5.0 million of standby letters of credit outstanding as of December 27, 2014. These consisted of $3.0 million related to a value added tax license, $1.3 million related to a customer proposal guarantee and $0.7 million related to property leases.

46


Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 26, 2015, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These accounting principles require us to make certain estimates, assumptions and judgments that can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods presented. Significant estimates, assumptions and judgments made by management include revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, inventory valuation, accrued warranty, fair value measurement of investments and accounting for income taxes. Management believes that the estimates, assumptions and judgments upon which they rely are reasonable based upon information available to them at the time that these estimates and judgments are made. To the extent there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our consolidated financial statements will be affected.
Revenue Recognition
Substantially all of our product sales are sold in combination with installation, deployment and software support services. Periodically, our product sales are also sold with spares management, on-site hardware replacement services or training. Software support services, generally delivered over a one-year period, are comprised of software warranty or software subscription service. Software warranty provides customers with maintenance releases during the warranty support period. Software subscription service includes software warranty and additionally provides customers with rights to receive unspecified software product upgrades released during the support period.
Spares management and on-site hardware replacement services include the replacement of defective units at customer sites in accordance with specified service level agreements and are generally delivered over a one-year period. Training services include the right to a specified number of instructor-led or web based training classes, and installation and deployment services may include customer site assessments, equipment installation and testing. These services are generally delivered over a 90-120 day period.
We recognize product revenue when all of the following have occurred: (1) we have entered into a legally binding arrangement with the customer; (2) delivery has occurred, which is when product title and risk of loss have transferred to the customer; (3) customer payment is deemed fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
We allocate revenue to each element in our multiple-element arrangements based upon their relative selling prices. We determine the selling price for each deliverable based on a selling price hierarchy. The selling price for a deliverable is based on its vendor specific objective evidence ("VSOE") if available, third party evidence (“TPE”) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price (“ESP”) if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. Revenue allocated to each element is then recognized when the basic revenue recognition criteria for that element has been met.
VSOE of selling price is used in the selling price allocation in all instances where it exists. VSOE of selling price for products and services is determined when a substantial majority of the selling prices fall within a reasonable range when sold separately. In certain instances, we are not able to establish VSOE for all deliverables in an arrangement with multiple elements. This mainly occurs where insufficient standalone sales transactions have occurred or where pricing for that element has not been consistent.
TPE of selling price can be established by evaluating largely interchangeable competitor products or services in standalone sales to similarly situated customers. As our products contain a significant element of proprietary technology and the solution offered differs substantially from that of competitors, it is typically difficult to obtain the reliable standalone competitive pricing necessary to establish TPE.

47


ESP represents the best estimate of the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service was sold on a standalone basis. We determine ESP for a product or service by considering multiple factors including, but not limited to market conditions, competitive landscape, gross margin objectives and pricing practices. The determination of ESP is made through formal approval by our management, taking into consideration the overall go-to-market pricing strategy.
As our go-to-market strategies evolve, we may modify our pricing practices in the future, which could result in changes in selling prices, including both VSOE and ESP. As a result, our future revenue recognition for multiple element arrangements could differ from that recorded in the current period. We regularly review VSOE, TPE, and ESP and maintain internal controls over the establishment and update of these inputs.
We limit the amount of revenue recognition for delivered elements to the amount that is not contingent on the future delivery of products or services, future performance obligations or subject to customer-specified return or refund privileges. We evaluate each deliverable in an arrangement to determine whether they represent separate units of accounting.
We have a limited number of software offerings which are not required to deliver the tangible product’s essential functionality and can be sold separately. Revenue from sales of these software products and related post-contract support will continue to be accounted for under software revenue recognition rules. Our multiple-element arrangements may therefore have a software deliverable that is subject to the existing software revenue recognition guidance. The revenue for these multiple-element arrangements is allocated to the software deliverable and the non-software deliverables based on the relative selling prices of all of the deliverables in the arrangement using the hierarchy in the revenue recognition accounting guidance. Revenue related to these software offerings are not expected to be significant.
Services revenue includes software subscription services, installation and deployment services, spares management, on-site hardware replacement services, extended software warranty and extended hardware warranty services, and training. Revenue from software subscription, spares management, on-site hardware replacement services and extended software and hardware warranty contracts is deferred and is recognized ratably over the contractual support period, which is generally one year. Revenue related to training and installation and deployment services is recognized as the services are completed.
Contracts and customer purchase orders are generally used to determine the existence of an arrangement. In addition, shipping documents and customer acceptances, when applicable, are used to verify delivery and transfer of title. Revenue is recognized only when title and risk of loss pass to customers and when the revenue recognition criteria have been met. In instances where acceptance of the product occurs upon formal written acceptance, revenue is recognized only after such written acceptance has been received. We assess whether the fee is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms associated with the transaction. Payment terms to customers generally range from net 30 to 120 days from invoice, which are considered to be standard payment terms. However, payment terms greater than 120 days but less than or equal to one year from invoice may be considered standard if payment is supported by an irrevocable commercial letter of credit issued by a creditworthy bank or if the letter of credit has been accepted and confirmed by a creditworthy bank. In the event payment terms are provided that differ from our standard business practices, the fees are deemed to not be fixed or determinable and, therefore, revenue is not recognized until the fees become fixed or determinable which we believe is when they are legally due and payable. We assess our ability to collect from our customers based primarily on the creditworthiness and past payment history of the customer.
For sales to resellers, the same revenue recognition criteria apply. It is our practice to identify an end-user prior to shipment to a reseller. We do not offer rights of return or price protection to our resellers.
Shipping charges billed to customers are included in product revenue and related shipping costs are included in product cost. We report revenue net of any required taxes collected from customers and remitted to government authorities, with the collected taxes recorded as current liabilities until remitted to the relevant government authority.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period (generally the vesting period) under the straight-line amortization method.

48


We estimate the fair value of the stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing formula and a single option award approach. For new-hire grants, options typically vest with respect to 25% of the shares one year after the option’s vesting commencement date and the remainder ratably on a monthly basis over three years, commencing one year after the vesting commencement date. For annual refresh grants, options typically vest ratably on a monthly basis over three years.
We make a number of estimates and assumptions in determining stock-based compensation related to options including the following:
The expected forfeiture rate is estimated based on our historical forfeiture data and compensation costs are recognized only for those equity awards expected to vest. The estimation of the forfeiture rate requires judgment, and to the extent actual forfeitures differ from expectations, changes in estimate will be recorded as an adjustment in the period when such estimates are revised. Actual results may differ substantially from the estimates. We record stock-based compensation expense to adjust estimated forfeiture rates to actual.
The expected term represents the weighted-average period that the stock options are expected to be outstanding prior to being exercised. The expected term is estimated based on our historical data on employee exercise patterns and post vesting termination behavior to estimate expected exercises over the contractual term of grants.
Expected volatility of our stock has been historically based on the weighted-average implied and historical volatility of Infinera and its peer group. The peer group is comprised of similar companies in the same industrial sector. As we gained more historical volatility data, the weighting of our own data in the expected volatility calculation associated with options gradually increased to 100% by 2013.
We estimate the fair value of the rights to acquire stock under our ESPP using the Black-Scholes option pricing formula. Our ESPP provides for consecutive six-month offering periods and we use our own historical volatility data in the valuation of ESPP shares.
We account for the fair value of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) using the closing market price of our common stock on the date of grant. For new-hire grants, RSUs typically vest ratably on an annual basis over four years. For annual refresh grants, RSUs typically vest ratably on an annual basis over three years.
We granted performance stock units ("PSUs") to our executive officers and senior management in 2013, 2014 and 2015 as part of our annual refresh grant process. These PSUs entitle our executive officers and senior management to receive a number of shares of the Company's common stock based on its stock price performance compared to a specified target composite index for the same period. These PSUs vest over the span of one year, two years, and three years and the number of shares to be issued upon vesting ranges from 0 to 1.5 times the number of PSUs granted depending on the relative performance of the Company's common stock price compared to the target composite index. This performance metric is classified as a market condition.
We use a Monte Carlo simulation model to determine the fair value of PSUs on the date of grant. The Monte Carlo simulation model is based on a discounted cash flow approach, with the simulation of a large number of possible stock price outcomes for our stock and the target composite index. The use of the Monte Carlo simulation model requires the input of a number of assumptions including expected volatility of our stock price, expected volatility of target composite index, correlation between changes in our stock price and changes in the target composite index, risk-free interest rate, and expected dividends as applicable. Expected volatility of our stock is based on the weighted-average historical volatility of our stock. Expected volatility of target composite index is based on the historical data. Correlation is based on the historical relationship between our stock price and the target composite index average. The risk-free interest rate is based upon the treasury zero-coupon yield appropriate for the term of the PSU as of the grant date. The expected dividend yield is zero for us as we do not expect to pay dividends in the future. The expected dividend yield for the target composite index is the annual dividend yield expressed as a percentage of the composite average of the target composite index on the grant date.
In addition, certain other PSUs granted to our executive officers, senior management and certain employees will only vest upon the achievement of specific financial or operational performance criteria.

49


Accounting for Income Taxes
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We estimate actual current tax expense together with assessing temporary differences resulting from different treatment of items, such as accruals and allowances not currently deductible for tax purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our consolidated balance sheets. In general, deferred tax assets represent future tax benefits to be received when certain expenses previously recognized in our consolidated statements of operations become deductible expenses under applicable income tax laws or loss or credit carryforwards are utilized. Accordingly, realization of our deferred tax assets is dependent on future taxable income within the respective jurisdictions against which these deductions, losses and credits can be utilized within the applicable future periods.
We must assess the likelihood that some portion or all of our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income within the respective jurisdictions, and to the extent we believe that recovery does not meet the “more-likely-than-not” standard, we must establish a valuation allowance. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. At December 26, 2015, we have been profitable for seven consecutive quarters beginning with the second quarter of 2014. Despite this trend, we must consider other positive and negative evidence, including our forecasts of taxable income over the applicable carryforward periods, our current financial performance, our market environment, and other factors in evaluating the need for a full or partial valuation allowance against our net U.S. deferred tax assets. At December 26, 2015, we believed that it was more likely than not, that we would not be able to utilize our deferred tax assets in the future. Accordingly, the domestic net deferred tax assets were fully reserved with a valuation allowance. To the extent that we determine that deferred tax assets are realizable on a more likely than not basis, and adjustment is needed, that adjustment will be recorded in the period that the determination is made and would generally decrease the valuation allowance and record a corresponding benefit to earnings.
Fair Value Measurement of Investments
Pursuant to the accounting guidance for fair value measurements and its subsequent updates, fair value is defined as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities required or permitted to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which it would transact and it considers assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
Valuation techniques used by us are based upon observable and unobservable inputs. Observable or market inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect our assumptions about market participant assumptions based on best information available. Observable inputs are the preferred source of values. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
 
Level 1
 
 
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
 
 
 
 
 
Level 2
 
 
Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
 
 
 
 
 
Level 3
 
 
Prices or valuations that require management inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
We measure our cash equivalents, foreign currency exchange forward contracts and debt securities at fair value and classifies our securities in accordance with the fair value hierarchy. Our money market funds and U.S. treasuries are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy and are valued based on quoted prices in active markets for identical securities.

50


We classify our certificates of deposit, commercial paper, U.S. agency notes, corporate bonds and foreign currency exchange forward contracts within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy as follows:
Certificates of Deposit
We review market pricing and other observable market inputs for the same or similar securities obtained from a number of industry standard data providers. In the event that a transaction is observed for the same or similar security in the marketplace, the price on that transaction reflects the market price and fair value on that day. In the absence of any observable market transactions for a particular security, the fair market value at period end would be equal to the par value. These inputs represent quoted prices for similar assets or these inputs have been derived from observable market data.
Commercial Paper
We review market pricing and other observable market inputs for the same or similar securities obtained from a number of industry standard data providers. In the event that a transaction is observed for the same or similar security in the marketplace, the price on that transaction reflects the market price and fair value on that day and then follows a revised accretion schedule to determine the fair market value at period end. In the absence of any observable market transactions for a particular security, the fair market value at period end is derived by accreting from the last observable market price. These inputs represent quoted prices for similar assets or these inputs have been derived from observable market data accreted mathematically to par.

U.S. Agency Notes
We review trading activity and pricing for our U.S. agency notes as of the measurement date. When sufficient quoted pricing for identical securities is not available, we use market pricing and other observable market inputs for similar securities obtained from a number of industry standard data providers. These inputs represent quoted prices for similar assets in active markets or these inputs have been derived from observable market data.
Corporate Bonds
We review trading activity and pricing for each of the corporate bond securities in our portfolio as of the measurement date and determines if pricing data of sufficient frequency and volume in an active market exists in order to support Level 1 classification of these securities. If sufficient quoted pricing for identical securities is not available, we obtain market pricing and other observable market inputs for similar securities from a number of industry standard data providers. In instances where multiple prices exist for similar securities, these prices are used as inputs into a distribution-curve to determine the fair market value at period end.
Foreign Currency Exchange Forward Contracts
As discussed in Note 5, “Derivative Instruments,” to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, we mainly hold non-speculative foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge certain foreign currency exchange exposures. We estimate the fair values of derivatives based on quoted market prices or pricing models using current market rates. Where applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, credit risk, foreign exchange rates, and forward and spot prices for currencies.
During 2013, we disposed of our remaining ARS. As of December 26, 2015, none of our existing securities were classified as Level 3 securities.

51


Inventory Valuation
Inventories consist of raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods and are stated at standard cost adjusted to approximate the lower of actual cost (first-in, first-out method) or market. Market value is based upon an estimated selling price reduced by the estimated cost of disposal. The determination of market value involves numerous judgments including estimated average selling prices based upon recent sales volumes, industry trends, existing customer orders, current contract price, future demand and pricing and technological obsolescence of our products.
Inventory that is obsolete or in excess of our forecasted demand or is anticipated to be sold at a loss is written down to its estimated net realizable value based on historical usage and expected demand. In valuing our inventory costs and deferred inventory costs, we considered whether the utility of the products delivered or expected to be delivered at less than cost, primarily comprised of common equipment, had declined. We concluded that, in the instances where the utility of the products delivered or expected to be delivered was less than cost, it was appropriate to value the inventory costs and deferred inventory costs at cost or market, whichever is lower, thereby recognizing the cost of the reduction in utility in the period in which the reduction occurred or can be reasonably estimated. We have, therefore, recognized inventory write-downs as necessary in each period in order to reflect inventory at the lower of cost or market.
We consider whether we should accrue losses on firm purchase commitments related to inventory items. Given that the net realizable value of common equipment is below contracted purchase price, we have also recorded losses on these firm purchase commitments in the period in which the commitment is made. When the inventory parts related to these firm purchase commitments are received, that inventory is recorded at the purchase price less the accrual for the loss on the purchase commitment.
Accrued Warranty
We warrant that our products will operate substantially in conformity with product specifications. Upon delivery of our products, we provide for the estimated cost to repair or replace products that may be returned under warranty. Our hardware warranty periods generally range from one to five years from date of acceptance for hardware and 90 days for software warranty. The hardware warranty accrual is based on actual historical returns and cost of repair experience and the application of those historical rates to our in-warranty installed base. The provision for warranty claims fluctuates depending upon the installed base of products and the failure rates and costs of repair associated with these products under warranty. Furthermore, our costs of repair vary based on repair volume and our ability to repair, rather than replace, defective units. In the event that actual product failure rates and costs to repair differ from our estimates, revisions to the warranty provision are required. Consequently, we regularly assess the adequacy of our warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary. In addition, we have software warranty support obligations and the costs associated with providing these software warranties have been insignificant to our consolidated financial statements to date.
Business Combinations
Accounting for acquisitions requires our management to estimate the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired, which involves a number of judgments, assumptions, and estimates that could materially affect the timing or amounts recognized in our financial statements. The items involving the most significant assumptions, estimates, and judgments include determining the fair value of the following:
Intangible assets, including valuation methodology, estimations of future cash flows, and discount rates, as well as the estimated useful life of the intangible assets;
the acquired company’s brand, as well as assumptions about the period of time the acquired brand will continue to be used;
deferred tax assets and liabilities, uncertain tax positions, and tax-related valuation allowances, which are initially estimated as of the acquisition date;
While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year following the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill.

52


Impairment of Intangible Assets and Goodwill
Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. We have elected to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of its single reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our single reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the two-step goodwill impairment test will be performed. The first step, identifying a potential impairment, compares the fair value of its single reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, the second step will be performed; otherwise, no further step is required. The second step, measuring the impairment loss, compares the implied fair value of the goodwill with the carrying amount of the goodwill. Any excess of the goodwill carrying amount over the implied fair value is recognized as an impairment loss. We evaluate events and changes in circumstances that could indicate carrying amounts of purchased intangible assets may not be recoverable. When such events or changes in circumstances occur, we assess the recoverability of these assets by determining whether or not the carrying amount will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the total of the future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of an asset, we record an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, “Significant Accounting Policies,” to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements including the respective expected dates of adoptions and effects on us.

ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Foreign Currency Risk
We operate in international markets, which expose us to market risk associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and various foreign currencies, the most significant of which is the euro. Historically, the majority of our revenue contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, with the most significant exception being in Europe, where we invoice primarily in euros. Additionally, a portion of our expenses, primarily the cost of personnel for research and development, sales and sales support to deliver technical support on our products and professional services, and the cost to manufacture, are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the Indian rupee, euro, Swedish krona and British pound. Revenue resulting from selling in local currencies and costs incurred in local currencies are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations that can affect our operating income. As exchange rates vary, operating income may differ from expectations.
We enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts to reduce the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on accounts receivable and restricted cash denominated in currencies other than our functional currency. As a result, we do not expect a significant impact to our results from a change in exchange rates on foreign denominated accounts receivable balances in the near-term. Our foreign currency denominated accounts receivables are generally offset by our foreign currency exchange forward contracts. Accordingly, the effect of an immediate adverse change in foreign exchange rates on these transactions at December 26, 2015 would not be material to our results of operations or financial condition.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
We had cash and cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments and short-term and long-term restricted cash totaling $356.5 million and $390.8 million as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, respectively. As of December 26, 2015, we have invested in certificates of deposit, money market funds, commercial paper, U.S. agency notes, corporate bonds and U.S. treasuries. The unrestricted cash and cash equivalents are held for working capital purposes. We do not enter into investments for speculative purposes. We believe that we do not have any material exposure to changes in the fair value as a result of changes in interest rates. Declines in interest rates, however, will reduce future investment income. If overall interest rates fell by 10% in 2015 and 2014, our interest income would have declined approximately $0.2 million and $0.1 million, respectively, assuming consistent investment levels.

53


Market Risk and Market Interest Risk
Holders may convert the Notes prior to maturity upon the occurrence of certain circumstances. Upon conversion, we will pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election.
As of December 26, 2015, the fair value of the Notes was $234.4 million. The fair value was determined based on the quoted bid price of the Notes in an over-the-counter market on December 24, 2015. The fair value of the Notes is subject to interest rate risk, market risk and other factors due to the convertible feature. The fair value of the Notes will generally increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair value of the Notes will generally increase as our common stock price increases and will generally decrease as our common stock price declines in value. The interest and market value changes affect the fair value of the Notes but do not impact our financial position, cash flows or results of operations due to the fixed nature of the debt obligation. Additionally, we do not carry the Notes at fair value. We present the fair value of the Notes for required disclosure purposes only.     
See Note 11, “Convertible Senior Notes,” to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.


54


ITEM 8.        FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
Page
Reports of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Operations
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


55


Report of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Infinera Corporation
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Infinera Corporation as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 26, 2015. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15. These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Infinera Corporation at December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 26, 2015, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, present fairly in all material respects the information set forth therein.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Infinera Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2015, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 23, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
/s/    ERNST & YOUNG LLP        
San Jose, California
February 23, 2016

56



Report of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Infinera Corporation
We have audited Infinera Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2015, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). Infinera Corporation’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
As indicated in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Controls over Financial Reporting, management's assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of Transmode AB, which is included in the 2015 consolidated financial statements of Infinera Corporation and constituted approximately 5% of consolidated net revenue for the year ended December 26, 2015 and approximately 7% of consolidated total assets and 2% of consolidated net assets (excluding goodwill and acquired intangibles) as of December 26, 2015. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of Infinera Corporation also did not include an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of Transmode AB.
In our opinion, Infinera Corporation maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2015, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Infinera Corporation as of December 26, 2015 and December 27, 2014, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 26, 2015 of Infinera Corporation and our report dated February 23, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
/s/    ERNST & YOUNG LLP        
San Jose, California
February 23, 2016

57


INFINERA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except par values)
 
December 26, 2015
 
December 27, 2014
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
149,101

 
$
86,495

Short-term investments
125,561

 
239,628

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $630 in 2015 and $38 in 2014
186,243

 
154,596

Inventory
174,699

 
146,500

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
29,511

 
24,636

Total current assets
665,115

 
651,855

Property, plant and equipment, net
110,861

 
81,566

Intangible assets
156,319

 
361

Goodwill
191,560

 

Long-term investments
76,507

 
59,233

Cost-method investment
14,500

 
14,500

Long-term restricted cash
5,310

 
5,460

Other non-current assets
6,122

 
5,041

Total assets
$
1,226,294

 
$
818,016

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
92,554

 
$
61,533

Accrued expenses
33,736

 
26,441

Accrued compensation and related benefits
49,887

 
38,795

Accrued warranty
17,889

 
12,241

Deferred revenue
42,977

 
35,321

Total current liabilities
237,043

 
174,331

Long-term debt, net
125,440

 
116,894

Accrued warranty, non-current
20,955

 
14,799

Deferred revenue, non-current
13,881

 
10,758

Deferred tax liability, non-current
35,731

 
2,132

Other long-term liabilities
16,183

 
17,195

Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value
Authorized shares—25,000 and no shares issued and outstanding

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value
Authorized shares—500,000 in 2015 and 2014
Issued and outstanding shares—140,197 in 2015 and 126,160 in 2014
140

 
126

Additional paid-in capital
1,300,301

 
1,077,225

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
1,123

 
(4,618
)
Accumulated deficit
(539,413
)
 
(590,826
)
Total Infinera Corporation stockholders’ equity
762,151

 
481,907

Noncontrolling interest
14,910

 

Total stockholders' equity
777,061

 
481,907

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
1,226,294

 
$
818,016

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

58


INFINERA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
Years Ended
 
December 26, 2015
 
December 27, 2014
 
December 28, 2013
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
769,230

 
$
572,276

 
$
465,424

Services
117,484

 
95,803

 
78,698

Total revenue
886,714

 
668,079

 
544,122

Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of product
436,916

 
340,856

 
295,715

Cost of services
46,321

 
38,919

 
29,768

Total cost of revenue
483,237

 
379,775

 
325,483

Gross profit
403,477

 
288,304

 
218,639

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
180,703

 
133,484

 
124,794

Sales and marketing
101,398

 
79,026

 
72,778

General and administrative
61,640

 
48,452

 
45,253

Total operating expenses
343,741

 
260,962

 
242,825

Income (loss) from operations
59,736

 
27,342

 
(24,186
)
Other income (expense), net:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
1,837

 
1,456

 
923

Interest expense
(11,941
)
 
(11,021
)
 
(6,061
)
Other gain (loss), net
2,399

 
(1,365
)
 
(1,141
)
Total other income (expense), net
(7,705
)
 
(10,930
)
 
(6,279
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
52,031

 
16,412

 
(30,465
)
Provision for income taxes
1,081

 
2,753

 
1,654

Net income (loss)
50,950

 
13,659

 
(32,119
)
Less: Loss attributable to noncontrolling interest
(463
)
 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Infinera Corporation
$
51,413

 
$
13,659

 
$
(32,119
)
Net income (loss) per common share attributable to Infinera Corporation:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.39

 
$
0.11

 
$
(0.27
)
Diluted
$
0.36

 
$
0.11

 
$
(0.27
)
Weighted average shares used in computing net income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
133,259

 
123,672

 
117,425

Diluted
143,171

 
128,565

 
117,425



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


59


INFINERA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
 
 
Years Ended
 
December 26, 2015
 
December 27, 2014
 
December 28, 2013
Net income (loss)
$
50,950

 
$
13,659

 
$
(32,119
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Reclassification of realized gain on auction rate securities

 

 
(166
)
Unrealized gain (loss) on all other available-for-sale investments
(62
)
 
(320
)
 
(140
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment
5,803

 
(812
)
 
(952
)
Net change in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
5,741

 
(1,132
)
 
(1,258
)
Less: Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest
(463
)
 

 

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Infinera Corporation
$
57,154

 
$
12,527

 
$
(33,377
)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


60


INFINERA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
For the Years Ended December 28, 2013, December 27, 2014 and December 26, 2015
(In thousands)
 
 
Common Stock
 
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
Total
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Balance at December 29, 2012
 
112,461

 
$
112

 
930,618

 
$
(2,228
)
 
$
(572,366
)
 
$
356,136

Stock options exercised
 
2,217

 
2

 
14,616

 

 

 
14,618

ESPP shares issued
 
1,656

 
2

 
8,557

 

 

 
8,559

Shares withheld for tax obligations
 
(223
)
 

 
(1,544
)
 

 

 
(1,544
)
Restricted stock units released
 
3,754

 
4

 
(4
)
 

 

 

Warrants exercised
 
22

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation
 

 

 
30,077

 

 

 
30,077

Conversion option related to convertible senior notes, net of allocated costs
 

 

 
43,341

 

 

 
43,341

Comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain on auction rate securities classified as available-for-sale investments
 

 

 

 
(166
)
 

 
(166
)
Unrealized gain on all other available-for-sale investments
 

 

 

 
(140
)
 

 
(140
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment
 

 

 

 
(952
)
 

 
(952
)
Net loss
 

 

 

 

 
(32,119
)
 
(32,119
)
Total comprehensive loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(33,377
)
Balance at December 28, 2013
 
119,887

 
$
120

 
$
1,025,661

 
$
(3,486
)
 
$
(604,485
)
 </