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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________
Form 10-K
________________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from
to

Commission File No. 001-16427
________________________________________________________
Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Georgia 37-1490331
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
601 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(904438-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
TradingName of each exchange
Title of each classSymbol(s)on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareFISNew York Stock Exchange
Floating Rate Senior Notes due 2021FIS21BNew York Stock Exchange
0.125% Senior Notes due 2021FIS21CNew York Stock Exchange
1.700% Senior Notes due 2022FIS22BNew York Stock Exchange
0.125% Senior Notes due 2022FIS22CNew York Stock Exchange
0.750% Senior Notes due 2023FIS23ANew York Stock Exchange
1.100% Senior Notes due 2024FIS24ANew York Stock Exchange
2.602% Senior Notes due 2025FIS25ANew York Stock Exchange
0.625% Senior Notes due 2025FIS25BNew York Stock Exchange
1.500% Senior Notes due 2027FIS27New York Stock Exchange
1.000% Senior Notes due 2028FIS28New York Stock Exchange
2.250% Senior Notes due 2029FIS29New York Stock Exchange
2.000% Senior Notes due 2030FIS30New York Stock Exchange
3.360% Senior Notes due 2031FIS31New York Stock Exchange
2.950% Senior Notes due 2039FIS39New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
(Title of Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes      No 



Table of Contents
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act) Yes    No

As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by nonaffiliates was $82,928,591,927 based on the closing sale price of $134.09 on that date as reported by the New York Stock Exchange. For the purposes of the foregoing sentence only, all directors and executive officers of the registrant were assumed to be affiliates. The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock, $0.01 par value per share, was 621,128,642 as of February 17, 2021.

The information in Part III hereof is incorporated herein by reference to the registrant’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, to be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report.




FIDELITY NATIONAL INFORMATION SERVICES, INC.
2020 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
PART I
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risks
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
PART III
Item 10.
Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant
 
PART IV
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Signatures

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Unless stated otherwise or the context otherwise requires, all references to "FIS," "we," the "Company" or the "registrant" are to Fidelity National Information Services, Inc., a Georgia corporation, and its subsidiaries.

PART I
Item 1.     Business

Overview

FIS is a leading provider of technology solutions for merchants, banks, and capital markets firms globally. Our employees are dedicated to advancing the way the world pays, banks and invests by applying our scale, deep expertise and data-driven insights. We help our clients use technology in innovative ways to solve business-critical challenges and deliver superior experiences for their customers. Headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, FIS is a Fortune 500® company and is a member of Standard & Poor's 500® Index.

FIS is incorporated under the laws of the State of Georgia as Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. and our stock is traded under the trading symbol "FIS" on the New York Stock Exchange.

We have grown organically as well as through acquisitions, which have contributed critical solutions and services that complement or enhance our existing offerings, diversifying our revenue by client, geography and service offering, and opening new and profitable adjacent markets that align with our core solution strengths. FIS evaluates possible acquisitions that might contribute to our growth or performance on an ongoing basis. We also develop new solutions that enhance our client offerings. Following our acquisition of Worldpay, Inc. ("Worldpay"), on July 31, 2019, FIS is now a global leader in financial technology solutions and services for merchants, banks and capital markets. See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion of the Worldpay acquisition.

FIS reports its financial performance based on the following segments: Merchant Solutions ("Merchant"), Banking Solutions ("Banking"), Capital Market Solutions ("Capital Markets") and Corporate and Other. See "Segment Information" below for additional discussion of our solutions and customers. See also Notes 2, 4 and 22 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information about our revenue.

Competitive Strengths

We believe our competitive strengths include the following:

Brand. FIS has built a global highly-respected brand known for innovation and thought leadership in the financial services and merchant sectors.

Extensive Domain Expertise and Extended Portfolio Breadth. FIS' significant expertise in the markets and domains we serve has enabled us to bring to market a broad range of innovative software applications and service offerings. This broad portfolio of solutions includes a wide range of flexible service arrangements, from managed processing arrangements, either at the client site or hosted at an FIS location, including data centers or our private cloud, to traditional license and maintenance approaches. This broad solution set allows us to bundle tailored or integrated services to compete effectively.

Excellent and Long-term Relationships with Clients. A significant percentage of FIS' business with our clients relates to applications and services provided under multi-year, recurring contracts. The nature of these relationships allows us to develop close partnerships with these clients, resulting in high client retention rates. As the breadth of FIS' service offerings has expanded, we have found that our deep and broad access within our clients' organizations presents greater opportunities for cross-selling and up-selling solutions to our clients.

Modern and Cloud-based Technologies. FIS leverages the modern architectures of our software applications and our ability to integrate many of our services with the services of others to provide customized solutions that respond to individualized client needs. We have made significant investment in modernizing our platforms and solutions and in moving our server compute into our private cloud located in our strategic data centers, supplemented by public clouds in certain regions, to increase speed of delivery to clients and increase solution availability to industry-best levels.

Global Distribution and Scale. We are a global leader in many of the markets we serve, supported by a large, knowledgeable talent pool of employees around the world. Our worldwide presence and global scale enable us to
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leverage our array of solution offerings, client relationships, and modern infrastructure to drive revenue growth and operating efficiency.

Strategy

Our mission is to deliver superior solutions and services to our clients and to expand our client base to generate sustained revenue and earnings growth for our shareholders. Our strategy to achieve this goal is built on the following pillars:

Build, Buy, or Partner to Add Solutions to Win New Clients and Cross-sell to Existing Clients. We continue to invest in organic growth through internal software development as well as through acquisitions and equity investments that complement and extend our existing solutions and capabilities, providing us with additional solutions to cross sell existing clients and capture the interest of new clients. We also partner from time to time with other entities to provide comprehensive offerings to our clients and prospects. By investing in solution innovation, we continue to expand our value proposition to our clients and prospects.
Support Our Clients Through Innovation. Changing market dynamics, particularly in the areas of digital delivery, information security, and regulation, are transforming the way our clients operate, which is driving incremental demand for our integrated solutions and services built around our intellectual property. As clients and prospects evaluate technology, business process changes and vendor risks, our depth of services capabilities enable us to become involved earlier in their planning and design process and assist them as they manage through these changes.

Drive Efficiency and Scalability. We strive to improve the efficiency of our operations through investments in new technologies, processes and infrastructure modernization. We also leverage a one-to-many operating model for the majority of our solutions, which drives high incremental margins on revenue growth, while also providing cost-effective solutions for our clients.

Expand Client Relationships. Through our global sales force and strategic commercial partnerships, we drive growth through client additions and through the expansion of existing client relationships in support of our clients' growth ambitions. Our clients across our strategic global markets reach across the size spectrum from large enterprises and financial institutions, including global or multi-national clients, to small businesses and community or regional financial institutions.

Allocate Our Capital and Resources Strategically. As we make decisions with respect to building, buying or partnering to drive innovation in support of our clients, we prioritize the allocation of capital and other resources to the opportunities providing the highest client benefit and growth potential. We also continually review our portfolio of assets and businesses to assess their fit with our strategy and will from time to time decide to wind down or divest businesses or assets to redeploy capital to our areas of strategic focus. We believe that keeping our team and our capital strategically focused benefits our existing clients and our ability to win new clients.

Segment Information

As a result of the Company's acquisition of Worldpay, the Company reorganized its reportable segments in the quarter ended September 30, 2019, into Merchant, Banking, Capital Markets, and Corporate and Other. Reportable segments are organized based on solution offerings and target markets. The Company regularly assesses its portfolio of assets and reclassified certain non-strategic businesses from Merchant, Banking, and Capital Markets into Corporate and Other during the year ended December 31, 2020, and recast all prior-period segment information presented. These operations represented approximately 3% of 2020 revenue.

Our consolidated results generally do not reflect pronounced seasonality. However, revenues for each segment may reflect stronger or weaker quarters given the nature of our solutions offered. The Merchant business, in particular, is historically subject to seasonal fluctuations in revenue as a result of consumer spending patterns, with Merchant revenue being strongest in the fourth quarter and weakest in the first quarter. The novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic adversely impacted revenue particularly in Merchant from mid-March through the end of 2020 and has had some impact on seasonality seen in past years.

For information about current trends in market demand, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business Trends and Conditions."


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Revenue by Segment

The table below summarizes our revenue by reporting segment (in millions):
 202020192018
Merchant Solutions$3,767 $1,942 $208 
Banking Solutions5,944 5,592 5,416 
Capital Market Solutions2,440 2,318 2,258 
Corporate and Other401 481 541 
Total Consolidated Revenue$12,552 $10,333 $8,423 

Merchant Solutions ("Merchant")

The Merchant segment is focused on serving merchants of all sizes globally, enabling them to accept electronic payments, including card-based payments, contactless card and mobile wallet, originated at a physical point of sale, as well as card-not-present payments in eCommerce and mobile environments. Merchant services include all aspects of payment processing, including authorization and settlement, customer service, chargeback and retrieval processing, electronic payment transaction reporting and network fee and interchange management. Merchant also includes value-added services, such as security and fraud prevention solutions, advanced data analytics and information management solutions, foreign currency management and numerous funding options. Merchant serves clients in over 140 countries. Our Merchant clients are highly-diversified, including global enterprises, national retailers, and small- to medium-sized businesses. The Merchant segment utilizes broad and varied distribution channels, including direct sales forces and multiple referral partner relationships that provide us with a growing and diverse client base.

Our solutions in this segment include the following:

Merchant Acquiring. Our merchant acquiring solutions primarily provide point-of-sale payment processing for merchants of all sizes with a focus on large multi-national enterprises. Our solutions provide payment acceptance from various payment types, including but not limited to debit, credit, EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa), contactless and loyalty point redemption.

Integrated Payments. Our integrated payment solutions primarily leverage an independent software vendor ("ISV") partnership model where FIS provides the merchant acquiring capabilities for the ISV partner across several industry verticals and sub-verticals. These solutions also include merchant acquiring for payment facilitators ("PayFacs"), which consolidates multiple sub-merchant accounts under a master merchant identification number ("MID") account.

Global eCommerce. Our global eCommerce solutions provide card-not-present merchant acquiring capabilities to merchants looking to sell their goods and services digitally. Our platforms enable both domestic and international capabilities and can provide a customizable and scalable solution to our merchants with best-in-class authorization rates.

Banking Solutions ("Banking")

The Banking segment is focused on serving all sizes of financial institutions with core processing software, transaction processing software and complementary applications and services, many of which interact directly with the core processing applications. We sell these solutions and services on either a bundled or stand-alone basis. Clients in this segment include global financial institutions, U.S. regional and community banks, credit unions and commercial lenders, as well as government institutions and other commercial organizations. Banking serves clients in more than 100 countries. We provide our clients integrated solutions characterized by multi-year processing contracts that generate highly recurring revenue. The predictable nature of cash flows generated from the Banking segment provides opportunities for further investments in innovation, integration, information and security, and compliance in a cost-effective manner. The results in this segment included the Reliance Trust Company of Delaware business through its divestiture on December 31, 2018 and the Company's Brazilian Venture business through its divestiture as part of the joint venture unwinding transaction on December 31, 2018 (see Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements).


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Our solutions in this segment include the following:

Core Processing and Ancillary Applications. Our core processing software applications are designed to run banking processes for our financial institution clients, including deposit and lending systems, customer management, and other central management systems, serving as the system that clients use to maintain the primary records of their customer accounts. Our diverse selection of market-focused core systems enables FIS to compete effectively in a wide range of markets. We continue to invest in our core modernization efforts to further differentiate our offerings for the long term. We also offer a number of services that are ancillary to the primary applications listed above, including branch automation, back-office support systems and compliance support.

Digital, including Internet, Mobile and eBanking. Our comprehensive suite of retail delivery applications enables financial institutions to integrate and streamline customer-facing operations and back-office processes, thereby improving customer interaction across all channels (e.g., branch offices, internet, ATM, mobile, and call centers). FIS' focus on consumer access has driven significant market innovation in this area, with multi-channel and multi-host solutions and a strategy that provides tight integration of services and a seamless customer experience. We have been providing our large regional banking customers in the U.S. with Digital One, an integrated digital banking platform, and are now adding functionality and offering Digital One to our community bank clients. Digital One is integrated into several of the core banking platforms offered by FIS and is also offered to customers of non-FIS core banking systems.

Fraud, Risk Management and Compliance. Our decision solutions offer a spectrum of options that cover the account lifecycle from helping to identify qualified account applicants to managing existing customer accounts and fraud. Our applications include know-your-customer, new account decisioning and opening, account and transaction management, fraud management and collections. Our risk management services use our proprietary risk management models and data sources to assist in detecting fraud and assessing the risk of opening a new account. Our systems use a combination of advanced authentication procedures, predictive analytics, artificial intelligence modeling and proprietary and shared databases to assess and detect fraud risk for deposit transactions for financial institutions.

Electronic Funds Transfer and Network. Our electronic funds transfer and debit card processing businesses offer settlement and card management solutions for financial institution card issuers. We provide traditional ATM-based debit network access through NYCE, other branded networks, and emerging real-time payment alternatives. Our networks connect millions of cards and point-of-sale locations nationwide, providing consumers with secure, real-time access to their money. Also through our networks, clients such as financial institutions, retailers and independent ATM operators can capitalize on the efficiency, consumer convenience and security of electronic real-time payments, real-time account-to-account transfers, and strategic alliances such as surcharge-free ATM network arrangements.

Card and Retail Payment. Our card and retail payment technology and services allow clients to issue VISA®, MasterCard® or other payment network branded credit and debit cards or other electronic payment cards for use by both consumer and business accounts. Card transactions continue to increase as a percentage of total point-of-sale payments, which fuels continuing demand for card-related services. We offer EMV integrated circuit cards, often referred to as smart cards or chip cards, as well as a variety of stored-value card types and loyalty/reward programs, including our Premium Payback service that allows our financial institution customers to use loyalty points at a variety of merchant point-of-sale systems. Our integrated services range from card production and activation to processing to an extensive range of fraud management services and value-added loyalty programs designed to increase card usage and fee-based revenue for financial institutions and merchants. The majority of our programs are full service, including most of the operations and support necessary for an issuer to operate a credit card program. We do not make credit decisions for our card issuing clients. We are also a leading provider of prepaid card services, which include digital cards, gift cards and reloadable cards, with end-to-end solutions for development, processing and administration of stored-value programs, including government benefit programs. Our closed-loop gift card solutions and loyalty programs provide merchants compelling solutions to drive consumer loyalty.

Wealth and Retirement. We provide wealth and retirement solutions that help banks, trust companies, brokerage firms, insurance firms, retirement plan professionals, benefit administrators and independent advisors acquire, service and grow their client relationships. We provide solutions for client acquisition, transaction management, trust accounting and recordkeeping that can be deployed stand-alone or as part of an integrated wealth or retirement platform, or on an outsourced basis.

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Item Processing and Output Services. Our item processing services furnish financial institutions with the technology needed to capture data from checks, transaction tickets and other items; image and sort items; process exceptions through keying; and perform balancing, archiving and the production of statements. Our item processing services are performed at one of our multiple item processing centers located throughout the U.S. or on-site at client locations. Our extensive solutions include distributed (i.e., non-centralized) data capture, mobile deposit capture, check and remittance processing, fraud detection, and document and report management. Clients encompass banks and corporations of all sizes, from de novo banks to the largest financial institutions and corporations. We offer a number of output services that are ancillary to the primary solutions we provide, including print and mail capabilities, document composition software and solutions, and card personalization fulfillment services. Our print and mail services offer complete computer output solutions for the creation, management and delivery of print and fulfillment needs. We provide our card personalization fulfillment services for branded credit cards and branded and non-branded debit and prepaid cards.

Capital Market Solutions ("Capital Markets")

The Capital Markets segment is focused on serving global financial services clients with a broad array of buy- and sell-side solutions. Clients in this segment operate in more than 100 countries and include asset managers, buy- and sell-side securities brokerage and trading firms, insurers, private equity firms, and other commercial organizations. Our buy- and sell-side solutions include a variety of mission-critical applications for recordkeeping, data and analytics, trading, financing and risk management. Capital Markets clients purchase our solutions and services in various ways including licensing and managing technology "in-house," using consulting and third-party service providers, as well as procuring fully outsourced end-to-end solutions. Our long-established relationships with many of these financial and commercial institutions generate significant recurring revenue. We have made, and continue to make, investments in modern platforms; advanced technologies, such as cloud delivery, open APIs, machine learning and artificial intelligence; and regulatory technology to support our Capital Markets clients.

Our solutions in this segment include the following:

Securities Processing and Finance. Our offerings help financial institutions to increase the efficiency, transparency and control of their back-office trading operations, post-trade processing and settlement including derivative solutions, risk management, securities lending, syndicated lending, tax processing, and regulatory compliance. The breadth of our offerings also facilitates advanced business intelligence and market data distribution based on our extensive market data access.

Global Trading. Our trading solutions provide trade execution, data and network solutions to financial institutions, corporations and municipalities in North America, Europe and other global markets across a variety of asset classes. Our trade execution and network solutions help both buy- and sell-side firms improve execution quality, decrease overall execution costs and address today's trade connectivity challenges.

Asset Management and Insurance. We offer solutions that help institutional investors, insurance companies, hedge funds, private equity firms, fund administrators and securities transfer agents improve both investment decision-making and operational efficiency, while managing risk and increasing transparency. Our asset management solutions support every stage of the investment process, from research and portfolio management, to valuation, risk management, compliance, investment accounting, transfer agency and client reporting. Our insurance solutions help support front-office and back-office functions including actuarial risk calculations, policy administration and financial and investment accounting and reporting for a variety of insurance lines, including life and health, annuities and pensions, property and casualty, and reinsurance.

Corporate Liquidity. Our corporate liquidity solutions help chief financial officers and treasurers manage working capital by reducing risk and improving communication and response time between a company's buyers, suppliers, banks and other stakeholders. Our end-to-end collaborative financial management framework helps bring together receivables, treasury and payments for a single view of cash and risk, which helps our clients optimize business processes for enhanced liquidity management.

Corporate and Other

The Corporate and Other segment consists of corporate overhead expense, certain leveraged functions and miscellaneous expenses that are not included in the operating segments, as well as certain non-strategic businesses that we plan to wind down or sell. The overhead and leveraged costs relate to corporate marketing, corporate finance and accounting, human resources,
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legal, and amortization of acquisition-related intangibles and other costs, such as acquisition and integration expenses, that are not considered when management evaluates revenue-generating segment performance.

Sales and Marketing

We have experienced sales personnel with expertise in particular solutions and markets as well as across our various client segments—Merchant, Banking and Capital Markets. We believe that focusing our expertise on clients in specific markets (e.g., global financial institutions, North American financial institutions, North American merchants, etc.) and tailoring integrated solution sets of particular value to participants in those markets enables us to leverage opportunities to cross-sell and up-sell. We target the majority of our potential clients via direct and/or indirect field sales, as well as inbound and outbound lead generation, telesales and virtual sales efforts.

Our global marketing team develops and leads the execution of the Merchant, Banking and Capital Markets strategic marketing plans in support of the segments' reputation and relationship building goals in addition to their revenue and profitability goals. Key components of our strategic plans include brand management and digital enablement; market and competitive research; capturing client preferences; thought leadership; integrated go-to-market programs; internal communications and readiness; journalist, social media and industry analyst relations; client events; trade shows; high-touch client programs; demand generation campaigns; account- and deal-based marketing programs; collateral development and management across digital and online channels; and the commercialization of new products to market.

Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks and Other Intellectual Property

In general, we own the intellectual property and proprietary rights that are necessary for the conduct of our business and important to our future success, including trademarks, trade names, trade secrets, copyrights and patents. We license certain items from third parties under arms-length agreements for varying terms, including some "open source" licenses. Although we acquired the trademarks and trade names used by SunGard as part of our 2015 acquisition of SunGard and its subsidiaries, we note that following the split-off of the Availability Services ("AS") business by SunGard in 2014, AS has the right to use the Sungard Availability Services name, which does not include the right to use the SunGard name or its derivatives.

We rely on a combination of contractual restrictions, internal security practices, patents, trade secrets, copyrights and applicable law to establish and protect our software, technology and expertise worldwide. We rely on trademark law to protect our rights in our brands. We intend to continue taking appropriate measures to protect our intellectual property rights, including by legal action when necessary and appropriate.

Competition

The markets for our solutions and services are intensely competitive. Depending on the business line, in our Merchant, Banking and Capital Markets segments, our primary competitors include internal technology or software development departments within financial institutions or other large companies, merchant acquirers, global eCommerce providers, global and regional companies providing payment services, third-party payment processors, securities exchanges, asset managers, card associations, clearing networks or associations, trust companies, independent computer services firms, companies that develop and deploy software applications, companies owned by global banks selling new competitive solutions, companies that provide customized development, implementation and support services, emerging technology innovators, and business process outsourcing companies. Many of these companies compete with us across multiple solutions, markets and geographies. Some of these competitors possess greater financial, sales and marketing resources than we do. Competitive factors impacting the success of our services across our segments include the quality of the technology-based application or service, application features and functions, ease of delivery and integration, the ability to maintain, enhance and support the applications or services, price and overall relationship management. We believe we compete favorably in each of these categories. In addition, we believe our domain expertise, combined with our ability to offer multiple applications, services and integrated solutions to individual clients, enhances our competitiveness against companies with more limited offerings. Our ability to innovate and scale digital payments and services during the COVID-19 pandemic has been a competitive advantage as well.

Research and Development

Our research and development activities primarily relate to the modernization of our proprietary core systems and the design and development of next generation digital solutions, processing systems, software applications and risk management platforms. We expect to continue our practice of investing an appropriate level of resources to maintain, enhance and extend the functionality of our proprietary systems and software applications, to develop new and innovative software applications and
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systems to address emerging technology trends in response to the needs of our clients and to enhance the capabilities of our outsourcing infrastructure. In addition, we intend to offer services compatible with new and emerging delivery channels.

As part of our research and development process, we evaluate current and emerging technology for compatibility with our existing and future software platforms. To this end, we engage with various hardware and software vendors in the evaluation of various infrastructure components. Where appropriate, we use third-party technology components in the development of our software applications and service offerings. In the case of nearly all of our third-party software, enterprise license agreements exist for the third-party component and either alternative suppliers exist or transfer rights exist to ensure the continuity of supply. As a result, we are not materially dependent upon any third-party technology components. Third-party software may be used for highly specialized business functions, which we may not be able to develop internally within time and budget constraints. Additionally, third-party software may be used for commodity-type functions within a technology platform environment. We work with our clients to determine the appropriate timing and approach to introducing technology or infrastructure changes to our applications and services. During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, we incurred research and development costs that were non-capitalizable of approximately 3% to 4% of revenue.

Government Regulation

Our services are subject to a broad range of complex federal, state, and international regulations and requirements, as well as requirements under the rules of self-regulatory organizations including, without limitation, federal truth-in-lending and truth-in-savings rules, state money transmission laws, state cybersecurity protection laws, data protection and privacy laws, usury laws, laws governing state trust charters, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Bank Service Company Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, the USA Patriot Act, the Internal Revenue Code, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Community Reinvestment Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Advisors Act of 1940 (the "1940 Act"), anti-corruption laws including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and U.K. Bribery Act, the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA"), the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ("FFIEC"), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), the Financial Conduct Authority in the U.K. ("FCA") and the Payment Systems Regulator in the U.K. ("PSR"), De Nederlandsche Bank ("DNB") in the Netherlands, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in Japan ("METI") and state financial services regulators (including enforcement of state cybersecurity laws). The compliance of our services and applications with these and other applicable laws and regulations depends on a variety of factors, including the manner in which our clients use them. In some cases, we are directly subject to regulatory oversight and examination. In other cases, our clients are contractually responsible for determining what is required of them under applicable laws and regulations and utilize our solutions and services to achieve compliance with those laws and regulations. In either case, the failure of our services to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in suspension or revocation of the permission-based regulatory licenses, restrictions on our ability to provide those services, the imposition of civil fines and/or criminal penalties, and/or reputational damage. Further, regulatory authorities have the power to, among other things, enjoin "unsafe or unsound" practices, require affirmative actions to correct any violation or practice, issue administrative orders that can be judicially enforced and direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets. We may be adversely affected by increased regulatory scrutiny or related negative publicity.

The principal areas of regulation impacting our business are the following:

Oversight by Banking Regulators. As a provider of electronic data processing and back-office services to financial institutions, FIS is subject to regulatory oversight and examination by the FFIEC, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC"), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ("FRB"), the National Credit Union Administration ("NCUA") and the CFPB as part of the Multi-Regional Data Processing Servicer ("MDPS") program. The MDPS program includes technology suppliers that provide mission critical applications for a large number of financial institutions that are regulated by multiple regulatory agencies. Periodic information technology examination assessments are performed using FFIEC Interagency guidelines to identify potential risks that could adversely affect serviced financial institutions, determine compliance with applicable laws and regulations that affect the services provided to financial institutions and ensure the services we provide to financial institutions do not create systemic risk to the banking system or impact the safe and sound operation of the financial institutions we process. In addition, independent auditors annually review several of our operations to provide reports on internal controls for our clients. We are also subject to review and examination by state and international regulatory authorities under state and foreign laws and rules that regulate many of the same activities that are described above, including electronic data processing, payments and back-office services for financial institutions and the use of consumer information.
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Our U.S.-based wealth and retirement business holds a charter in the state of Georgia which makes us subject to the regulatory compliance requirements of the Georgia Department of Banking and Finance. As a result, we are also authorized to provide trust services in various additional states subject to additional applicable state regulations.

Oversight by Securities Regulators. Our subsidiary that conducts our broker-dealer business in the U.S. is registered as a broker-dealer with the SEC, is a member of FINRA, and is registered as a broker-dealer in numerous states. Our broker-dealer is subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC. In addition, FINRA, a self-regulatory organization that is subject to oversight by the SEC, adopts and enforces rules governing the conduct, and examines the activities, of its member firms, including our broker-dealer. State securities regulators, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, and various exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, also have regulatory or oversight authority over our broker-dealer. Broker-dealers are subject to regulations that cover all aspects of the securities business, including sales methods, trade practices among broker-dealers, public and private securities offerings, use and safekeeping of customers’ funds and securities, capital structure, record keeping, the financing of customers’ purchases and the conduct and qualifications of directors, officers and employees. In particular, as a registered broker-dealer and member of a self-regulatory organization, we are subject to the SEC’s uniform net capital rule, Rule 15c3-1. Rule 15c3-1 specifies the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a significant part of a broker-dealer’s assets be kept in relatively liquid form. The SEC and various self-regulatory organizations impose rules that require notification when net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, limit the ratio of subordinated debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer and constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances. Additionally, the SEC’s uniform net capital rule imposes certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker-dealer from distributing or withdrawing capital and requiring prior notice to the SEC for certain withdrawals of capital.

Our subsidiaries also include an SEC-registered transfer agent. Our registered transfer agent is subject to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. These laws and regulations generally grant the SEC and other supervisory bodies broad administrative powers to address non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Sanctions that may be imposed for non-compliance with these requirements include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on engaging in certain activities for specified periods of time or for specified types of clients, the revocation of registrations, other censures and significant fines.

Subsidiaries engaged in activities outside the U.S. are regulated by various government agencies in the particular jurisdiction where they are chartered, incorporated and/or conduct their business activity. For example, pursuant to the U.K. Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 ("FSMA"), certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulations promulgated and administered by the FCA. The FSMA and rules promulgated thereunder govern all aspects of the U.K. investment business, including sales, research and trading practices, provision of investment advice, use and safekeeping of client funds and securities, regulatory capital, recordkeeping, margin practices and procedures, approval standards for individuals, anti-money laundering, periodic reporting and settlement procedures.

Payment Services Oversight. Our payment services business is a technology service provider to U.S. financial institutions and is, therefore, subject to oversight and examination by the FFIEC. Our payment services businesses are also subject to regulation, supervision, and enforcement authority of numerous governmental and regulatory bodies in the jurisdictions in which they operate, which include the CFPB, the DNB in the Netherlands, the METI in Japan, and the FCA and the PSR in the U.K. These various regulatory regimes require compliance in respect of many aspects of our payment services business including without limitation corporate governance and oversight functions, capital requirements, liquidity, safeguarding, fee regulation adherence, technology and cyber resilience, anti-money laundering and sanctions. Because the PSR is an economic regulator in the U.K., it has the power to issue directions in relation to the functioning of the card acquiring market in the U.K. Further, the European Commission is conducting a review of the Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on interchange fees for card-based payment transactions ("IFR") to examine the appropriateness of the levels of interchange fees, the level of entry of new players, new technology and the impact of innovative business models on the market. The European Union ("E.U.") has overall authority to enforce and establish new standards or guidance which may require banks and authorized payments providers in our Merchant business to modify current pricing and fee structures, and the E.U. could choose to exercise such authority prior to or after conclusion of such review.

Privacy and Data Protection. The Company is subject to an increasing number of privacy and data protection laws, regulations and directives globally (referred to collectively as "Privacy Laws"), many of which place restrictions on the
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Company's ability to efficiently transfer, access and use personal data across its business. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve.

Our financial institution clients operating in the U.S. are required to comply with privacy regulations imposed under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (referred to as "GLBA") and numerous similar state laws. GLBA and those state laws place restrictions on the use of non-public personal information. All financial institutions must disclose detailed privacy policies to their customers and offer them the opportunity to direct the financial institution not to share information with third parties. The regulations under GLBA, however, permit financial institutions to share information with non-affiliated parties who perform services for the financial institutions. As a provider of services to financial institutions, we are required to comply with the privacy laws and are bound by the same limitations on disclosure of the information received from our clients as apply to the financial institutions themselves. A determination that there have been violations of privacy laws could expose us to significant damage awards, fines and other penalties that could, individually or in the aggregate, materially harm our business and reputation.

In July 2016, the European Commission formally approved and adopted the EU-US Privacy Shield, providing a compliance framework for organizations to transfer personal data regarding citizens of the E.U. to the U.S. On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union ("CJEU") published its decision in the case of Data Protection Commissioner v Facebook Ireland Ltd, Maximilian Schrems (known as the "Schrems II" case). In Schrems II, the CJEU completely invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield, but the Standard Contractual Clauses ("SCC's") remain valid. While we had certified certain lines of business under the Privacy Shield, we have chosen to adopt E.U. SCC's published by the European Commission as the primary basis for the export of data from the E.U. to the U.S. and were not significantly affected by this decision. The European Data Protection Board ("EDPB") is working on regulatory guidance in light of Schrems II, but such guidance has not yet been finalized.

The E.U.'s General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), which became effective on May 25, 2018, applies to all organizations processing the personal data of individuals in the E.U., regardless of where such organization is based. The GDPR has heightened our data protection compliance obligations, impacted our businesses' collection, processing and retention of personal data and imposed stricter standards for reporting data breaches. The GDPR also imposes significant penalties for non-compliance.

The Company is also subject to the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), which came into effect on January 1, 2020, and provides California residents additional data protection rights including the right to be informed about the personal information collected by third parties and the use of that personal information. Further, certain operations of the Company became subject to the Brazilian General Personal Data Protection Act in August 2020. The Company has adopted a comprehensive global privacy program to assess and manage these evolving risks and continues to monitor new data privacy laws throughout the jurisdictions in which we do business, including data localization requirements in applicable jurisdictions.

In addition, our businesses are increasingly subject to laws and regulations relating to surveillance, encryption and data onshoring in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Compliance with these laws and regulations may require us to change our technology for information security, operational infrastructure, policies and procedures, which could be time-consuming and costly.

Money Transfer. Elements of our cash access and money transmission businesses are registered as a Money Services Business and are subject to the USA Patriot Act and reporting requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act and U.S. Treasury Regulations. These businesses may also be subject to certain state and local licensing requirements. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, state attorneys general, and other agencies have enforcement responsibility over laws relating to money laundering, currency transmission, and licensing. In applicable states, we have obtained money transmitter licenses. However, changes to state money transmission laws and regulations, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new or varying regulatory requirements, may result in the need for additional or expanded money transmitter licenses, additional capital allocations or changes in the way in which we deliver certain services.

We are also subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the U.S. Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (referred to as "OFAC"), which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, their governments, and in certain circumstances, their nationals, and with individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers, and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Similar anti-money laundering laws apply to movements of currency and payments through electronic
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transactions and to dealings with persons specified in lists maintained by the country equivalents to OFAC in several other countries. We have implemented policies, procedures, and internal controls that are designed to comply with the regulations and economic sanctions programs administered by OFAC, as well as all other applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations.

Consumer Reporting and Protection. Our decision solutions subsidiary, ChexSystems, maintains a database of consumer information used to provide various account opening services including credit scoring analysis and is subject to the Federal Fair Credit Reporting Act ("FCRA") and similar state laws. The FCRA regulates consumer reporting agencies ("CRAs"), including ChexSystems, and governs the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of information in the files of CRAs that engage in the practice of assembling or evaluating certain information relating to consumers for certain specified purposes. CRAs are required to follow reasonable procedures to assure maximum possible accuracy of information concerning the individual about whom the report relates and if a consumer disputes the accuracy of any information in the consumer’s file, to conduct a reasonable investigation within statutory timelines. The FCRA imposes many other requirements on CRAs and users of consumer report information. Regulatory enforcement of the FCRA is under the purview of the United States Federal Trade Commission, the CFPB, and state attorneys general, acting alone or in concert with one another. In furtherance of our objectives of data accuracy, fair treatment of consumers, protection of consumers' personal information, and compliance with these laws, we have made considerable investment to maintain a high level of security for our computer systems in which consumer data resides, and we maintain consumer relations call centers to facilitate accurate and timely handling of consumer requests for information and handling disputes. We also are focused on ensuring our operating environments safeguard and protect consumer's personal information in compliance with these laws.

Our consumer reporting and consumer-facing businesses are subject to CFPB Bulletin 2013-7 (a successor to the former Regulation AA - Unfair Deceptive Acts or Practices), which defines Unfair, Deceptive or Abusive Acts or Practices ("UDAAP"). This specific bulletin states that UDAAPs can cause significant financial injury to consumers, erode consumer confidence, and undermine fair competition in the financial marketplace. Original creditors and other covered persons and service providers under the Dodd-Frank Act involved in collecting debt related to any consumer financial product or service are subject to the prohibition against UDAAPs in the Dodd-Frank Act.

Debt Collection. Our collection services are subject to the Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and various state collection laws and licensing requirements. The Federal Trade Commission, as well as state attorneys general and other agencies, have enforcement responsibility over the collection laws, as well as the various credit reporting laws.

Anti-Corruption. FIS is subject to applicable anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, in the jurisdictions in which it operates. Anti-corruption laws generally prohibit offering, promising, giving, or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a government official or private party in order to influence official action or otherwise gain an unfair business advantage, such as to obtain or retain business. FIS has implemented policies, procedures, training and internal controls that are designed to comply with such laws, rules and regulations.

The foregoing list of laws and regulations to which our Company is subject is not exhaustive, and the regulatory framework governing our operations changes continuously. Enactment of new laws and regulations may increasingly affect the operations of our business, directly and indirectly, which could result in substantial regulatory compliance costs, litigation expense, adverse publicity, and/or loss of revenue.

Information Security

Globally, attacks on information technology systems continue to grow in frequency, complexity and sophistication. This is a trend we expect to continue. Such attacks have become a point of focus for individuals, businesses and governmental entities. The objectives of these attacks include, among other things, gaining unauthorized access to systems to facilitate financial fraud, disrupt operations, cause denial of service events, corrupt data, and steal non-public information. These circumstances present both a threat and an opportunity for FIS. As part of our business, we electronically receive, process, store and transmit a wide range of confidential information, including sensitive customer information and personal consumer data. We also operate payment, cash access and prepaid card systems.

FIS remains focused on making strategic investments in information security to protect our clients and our information systems. This includes both capital expenditures and operating expenses on hardware, software, personnel and consulting services. We also participate in industry and governmental initiatives to improve information security for our clients. Through
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the expertise we have gained with this ongoing focus and involvement, we have developed fraud, security, risk management and compliance solutions to target this growth opportunity in the financial services industry.

For more information on Information Security, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

Human Capital Management

Employee Population

As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 62,000 employees, including approximately 38,000 employees principally employed outside of the U.S. None of our U.S. workforce currently is unionized. Approximately 9,000 of our employees, primarily in Brazil and the U.K., are represented by labor unions or works councils.

Health and Safety

The health and safety of our employees is a key priority. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we activated our company-wide Pandemic Plan. We equipped more than 95% of our workforce with the necessary technology and connectivity to work remotely. We instituted safety protocols and procedures throughout our facilities for essential employees who continued to work on site. In addition, we expanded our employee benefits to include telemedicine, paid time off for employees impacted by COVID-19 to deal with personal illness or have time off to care for family members, and to expand FIS Cares globally to assist our colleagues in need. The Company also offers webinars and other online resources to enable employees to focus on their physical, emotional, and social well-being.

Corporate Culture

Our culture stems from embracing our corporate values as we work together to win as one team, lead with integrity and strive to be the change for our colleagues, clients and communities. The Company believes that inclusion and diversity are at the core of our corporate values. The diversity of our workforce helps us use our collective strengths to innovate and deliver the best products and solutions for our clients. Our Board of Directors and senior leaders are united in championing inclusion and diversity within our workforce through their leadership in prioritizing equality and diversity in our human resource decision making throughout the Company. The Company sponsors Inclusion Networks, which are led by employees who share common backgrounds and experiences. These groups support their members while promoting the Company's overall goal of fostering an inclusive work environment. Current FIS Inclusion Networks include Women, Black, Latinx, Disability, LGBTQ+, Rising Professionals, Veterans, and Working Families, and we have added a governance layer of an Inclusion and Diversity Council which includes participation and leadership by senior executives of the Company. The Chief Executive Officer and the Chief People Officer regularly update the Company's Board of Directors on human capital management and inclusion and diversity initiatives.

Talent Management

Our colleagues are primary stakeholders in our organization, and we are strategic in attracting talent that adds to our collective strengths to innovate and deliver an exemplary client experience. We have an inclusive culture where employees receive the development needed to grow their careers and deliver high-quality outcomes. Our practices include a comprehensive performance feedback culture that includes quarterly performance reviews, access to a variety of online and self-paced learning resources, as well as virtual and face-to-face development offerings, targeted development programs for high-potential and senior management employees, opportunities to apply for open roles to move within the Company and executive-level succession planning.

Available Information

Our website address is www.fisglobal.com. We make our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, available, free of charge, on that website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish them to the SEC. Our Corporate Governance Policy and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are also available on our website and are available in print, free of charge, to any shareholder who mails a request to the Corporate Secretary, Fidelity National Information Services, Inc., 601 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32204 USA. Other corporate governance-related documents can be found at our website as well. However, the information found on our website is not a part of this or any other report.
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Item 1A.     Risk Factors

In addition to the normal risks of business, we are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those listed below and others described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the risks described herein could result in a significant adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response thereto impact our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and are difficult to predict.

Global health concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic and related government actions taken to reduce the spread of the virus have been weighing on the macroeconomic environment, and the pandemic has significantly increased economic uncertainty and reduced economic activity, including consumer and business spending.

The pandemic has continued to result in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place or total lock-down orders and business limitations and shutdowns. Governments around the globe have taken steps to mitigate some of the more severe anticipated economic effects of the virus, but there can be no assurance that such steps will be effective or achieve their desired results in a timely fashion.

As U.S. and foreign governmental authorities imposed social distancing, shelter-in-place or total lock-down orders, spending declined, most notably in discretionary spending verticals, including travel, airlines and restaurants, resulting in a rapid deterioration in payments volume and transaction trends on a worldwide basis beginning in March 2020, which adversely impacted revenue in our payments businesses that earn transaction-based fees. As such restrictions eased in the second and third quarters, spending increased, and the impact on our transaction-based fees rebounded in our Banking and Merchant segments, except for areas such as travel and hospitality, which remained largely restricted. In the fourth quarter, some restrictions were re-imposed based upon a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic in many areas of the U.S. and Europe, which resulted in an adverse impact on payments volumes and transactions over those anticipated following the easing of restrictions in the prior two quarters. In addition, we have experienced some slowdown in corporate decision-making on sales and implementation of our solutions, as well as on software licenses and professional services. These changes in spending affected our business, results of operations and financial condition starting in the second quarter of 2020 through the end of the year and will likely continue to have such an impact, although the magnitude and duration of their ultimate effect is not possible to predict. The distribution of vaccines against COVID-19 beginning in late December could curtail the impact of the pandemic in 2021, although the timing remains uncertain.

We may experience additional pandemic-related financial impacts due to a number of operational factors, including:
increased risk of merchant and card issuer failures and credit settlement and chargeback risk;
increased risk of meeting client service contractual obligations due to government lock-down or other orders where it is not possible to provide certain client-facing services from home or to promptly transfer them to other locations, causing potential loss of revenue or contractual penalties due to failure to meet service level requirements as well as potential legal disputes and associated costs regarding force majeure or other related contract defenses;
increased cyber and payment fraud risk related to COVID-19, as cybercriminals attempt to profit from the disruption, given increased online banking, e-commerce and other online activity;
challenges to the availability and reliability of our solutions and services due to changes to normal operations, including the possibility of one or more clusters of COVID-19 cases occurring at our data centers, contact centers or operations centers, affecting our employees or affecting the systems or employees of our clients or other third parties on which we depend;
an increased volume of unanticipated client and regulatory requests for information and support, or additional regulatory requirements, which could require additional resources and costs to address, including, for example, government initiatives to reduce or eliminate payments costs or fees to merchants;
continued incremental costs directly related to COVID-19, although their magnitude is uncertain; and
the general impact of recession and instability of markets across the globe.

The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices (including restricting employee travel, developing social distancing plans for our employees and cancelling physical participation in meetings, events and conferences and replacing them, where possible, with virtual meetings, events and conferences). There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate all of the risks posed by the virus or will otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities. Further, the ability of our senior management and employees to get to work has been disrupted across multiple locations, whether in their
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own offices or at client sites, due, among other things, to government work and travel restrictions, including mandatory shutdowns. Where appropriate and plausible under local conditions, we have moved the work from affected locations. Most of our employees are currently working remotely, where they may not be as effective.

In addition, we have extended at times during 2020 higher-than-usual levels of credit to our merchant clients as part of funds settlement in connection with payments to their customers, for, among other things, refunds for cancelled trips and events. If the speed of repayments to us by our merchant clients is substantially slower than expected over an extended period of time, or if our merchant clients cease operations such that we are unable to collect on the credit advanced by us for these payments or for any chargeback liability, it could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and are difficult to predict, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. We may experience materially adverse impacts to our business as a result of the pandemic's global economic impact, including the availability of credit and our ability to comply with the covenants of our credit agreement, adverse impacts on our liquidity, the ability to meet our deleveraging targets, and any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. Such impacts may also have a material effect on one or more of the estimates and assumptions used to evaluate goodwill impairment and could result in future goodwill impairment. Additionally, COVID-19 may have a material effect on our ability to pay our quarterly dividends at current levels or at all, although it has not yet.

There are no comparable recent events that provide guidance as to the effect the spread and duration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic may have, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the pandemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of the impacts on our business, our operations or the global economy as a whole. However, the impacts of the pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, liquidity or financial condition and heighten many of our known risks described in the remainder of this "Risk Factors" section.

Security breaches or attacks, or our failure to comply with information security laws or regulations or industry security requirements, could harm our business by disrupting delivery of services and damaging the reputation of FIS and could result in a breach of one or more client contracts.
FIS electronically receives, processes, stores and transmits sensitive business information of its clients. In addition, FIS collects personal consumer data, such as names and addresses, social security numbers, driver's license numbers, cardholder data and payment history records. Such information is necessary to support our clients' transaction processing and to conduct our check authorization and collection businesses. The uninterrupted operation of information systems, as well as the confidentiality of the customer/consumer information that resides on such systems, is critical to the successful operation of FIS. For that reason, cybersecurity is one of the principal operational risks FIS faces as a provider of services to financial institutions. If FIS fails to maintain an adequate security infrastructure, adapt to emerging security threats, or implement sufficient security standards and technology to protect against security breaches, the confidentiality of the information FIS secures could be compromised. Unauthorized access to the computer systems or databases of FIS could result in the theft or publication of confidential information, the deletion or modification of records, damages from legal actions from clients and/or their customers, or otherwise cause interruptions in FIS' operations and damage to its reputation. These risks are greater with increased information transmission over the internet, the increasing level of sophistication posed by cyber criminals, nation state-sponsored cyber attacks and the integration of FIS systems with those of acquired companies such as Worldpay.

As a provider of services to financial institutions and a provider of card processing services, FIS is bound by the same limitations on disclosure of the information FIS receives from clients as apply to the clients themselves. If FIS fails to comply with these regulations and industry security requirements, it could be exposed to damages from legal actions from clients and/or their customers, governmental proceedings, governmental notice requirements, and the imposition of significant fines or prohibitions on card processing services. In addition, if more restrictive privacy laws, rules or industry security requirements are adopted in the future on the federal or state level, or by a specific industry body, they could have an adverse impact on FIS through increased costs or restrictions on business processes.

Any inability to prevent security or privacy breaches, or the perception that such breaches may occur, could cause existing clients to lose confidence in FIS systems and terminate their agreements with FIS, inhibit FIS' ability to attract new clients, result in increasing regulation, or bring about other adverse consequences from the government agencies that regulate FIS.

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Entity mergers or consolidations and business failures in the banking and financial services industry could adversely affect our business by eliminating some of our existing and potential clients and making us more dependent on a more limited number of clients.

There has been and continues to be substantial consolidation activity in the banking and financial services industry. In addition, certain financial institutions that experienced negative operating results, including some of our clients, have failed. These consolidations and failures reduce our number of potential clients and may reduce our number of existing clients, which could adversely affect our revenue, even if the events do not reduce the aggregate activities of the consolidated entities. Further, if our clients or our partners across any of our businesses fail and/or merge with or are acquired by other entities that are not our clients or our partners, or that use fewer of our services, they may discontinue or reduce use of our services. It is also possible that larger financial institutions resulting from consolidations would have greater leverage in negotiating terms or could decide to perform in-house some or all of the services we currently provide or could provide. Any of these developments could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we fail to innovate or adapt our services to changes in technology or in the marketplace, or if our ongoing efforts to upgrade or implement our technology are not successful, we could lose clients, or our clients could lose customers, and we could have difficulty attracting new clients for our services.

The markets for our services are characterized by constant technological changes, frequent introductions of new services and evolving industry standards. Our future success will be significantly affected by our ability to enhance our current solutions and develop and introduce new solutions and services that address the increasingly sophisticated needs of our clients and their customers. In addition, as more of our revenue and market demand shifts to software as a service ("SaaS"), business process as a service ("BPaaS"), cloud, and new emerging technologies, the need to keep pace with rapid technology changes becomes more acute. These initiatives carry the risks associated with any new solution development effort, including cost overruns, delays in delivery and implementation, and performance issues. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in developing, marketing and selling new solutions or enhancements that meet these changing demands. Any of these developments could have an adverse impact on our future revenue and/or business prospects.

We operate in a competitive business environment; if we are unable to compete effectively, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The market for our services is intensely competitive. Our competitors in Banking and Capital Markets vary in size and in the scope and breadth of the solutions and services they offer. Some of our competitors have substantial resources. We face direct competition from third parties, and because many of our larger potential clients have historically developed their key applications in-house and therefore view their system requirements from a make-versus-buy perspective, we also often compete against our potential clients' in-house capacities. In addition, the markets in which we compete have recently attracted increasing competition from smaller start-ups with emerging technologies which are receiving increasing investments, global banks (and businesses controlled by combinations of global banks) and global internet companies that are introducing competitive solutions and services into the marketplace, particularly in the payments area. Emerging technologies and increased competition may also have the effect of unbundling bank solutions and result in displacing solutions we are currently providing from our legacy systems. International competitors are also now targeting and entering the U.S. market with greater force. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors or that the competitive pressures we face in the markets in which we operate will not materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In the Merchant business, our competitors include financial institutions and well-established payment processing companies. In this business, our U.S. competitors that are financial institutions or are affiliated with financial institutions may not incur the sponsorship costs we incur for registration with the payment networks. Accordingly, these competitors may be able to offer more attractive fees to our current and prospective clients or other services that we do not provide. Competition could result in a loss of existing clients and greater difficulty attracting new clients. Furthermore, if competition causes us to reduce the fees we charge in order to attract or retain clients, there is no assurance we can successfully control our costs in order to maintain our profit margins. One or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations.

FIS is currently facing new competitive pressure from non-traditional payment processors and other parties entering the payments industry, which may compete in one or more of the functions performed in processing merchant transactions. These competitors have significant financial resources and robust networks and are highly regarded by consumers. If these competitors gain a greater share of total electronic payments transactions, or if we are unable to successfully react to changes in
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the industry spurred by the entry of these new market participants, then it could have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations. See "Item 1. Business, Competition."

Global economic, political and other conditions, including business cycles and consumer confidence, may adversely affect our clients or trends in consumer spending, which may adversely impact the demand for our services and our revenue and profitability.

A significant portion of our revenue is derived from transaction processing fees. The global transaction processing industries depend heavily upon the overall level of consumer, business and government spending. Any change in economic factors, including a sustained deterioration in general economic conditions or consumer confidence, particularly in the U.S., or increases in interest rates in key countries in which we operate may adversely affect consumer spending, consumer debt levels and credit and debit card usage, and as a result, adversely affect our financial performance by reducing the number or average purchase amount of transactions that we service.

When there is a slowdown or downturn in the economy, a drop in stock market levels or trading volumes, or an event that disrupts the financial markets, our business and financial results, particularly with respect to our Capital Markets segment, may suffer for a number of reasons. Customers may react to worsening conditions by reducing their capital expenditures in general or by specifically reducing their information technology spending. In addition, customers may curtail or discontinue trading operations, delay or cancel information technology projects, or seek to lower their costs by renegotiating vendor contracts. Moreover, competitors may respond to market conditions by lowering prices and attempting to lure away our customers to lower cost solutions. Any further protective trade policies or actions taken by the U.S. may also result in other countries reducing, or making more expensive, services permitted to be provided by U.S.-based companies. If any of these circumstances remain in effect for an extended period of time, there could be a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Our results may fluctuate from period to period because of the lengthy and unpredictable sales cycle for our software, changes in our mix of licenses and services, activity by competitors, and customer budgeting, operational requirements or renewal cycles.

Particularly with respect to our Capital Markets segment, our operating results may fluctuate from period to period and be difficult to predict in a particular period due to the timing and magnitude of software license sales and other factors. We offer a number of our software solutions on a license basis, which means that the customer has the right to run the software on its own or a third party's hardware. We generally recognize license revenue when the license contract is signed, the software is delivered, and the term has begun. The value of the license often depends on a number of customer-specific factors, such as the number of customer locations, users or accounts. The sales cycle for a software license may be lengthy and take unexpected turns. Thus, it is difficult to predict when software sales will occur or how much revenue they will generate. Because there are few incremental costs associated with software sales, our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year due to the timing and magnitude of software sales. Conversion of clients from licenses to BPaaS solutions, while resulting in longer-term contracts, may result in uneven short-term results as one-time license fees are replaced by recurring revenue. Our results may also vary as a result of pricing pressures, increased cost of equipment, the evolving and unpredictable markets in which our solutions and services are sold, changes in accounting principles, and competitors' new solutions or services.

Failure to obtain new clients or renew client contracts on favorable terms could adversely affect results of operations and financial condition.

We may face pricing pressure in obtaining and retaining our clients. Larger clients in particular may use their value and negotiating leverage to seek price reductions from us when they renew a contract, when a contract is extended, or when the client's business has significant volume changes. Larger clients may also reduce services if they decide to move services in-house. Further, our smaller and mid-size clients may also exert pricing pressure, particularly upon renewal, due to competition or other economic needs or pressures being experienced by the client. On some occasions, this pricing pressure results in lower revenue from a client than we had anticipated based on our previous agreement with that client. This reduction in revenue could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our business and operating results could be adversely affected if we experience business interruptions, errors or failure in connection with our or third-party information technology and communication systems and other software and hardware used in connection with our business, if we experience defects or design errors in the software solutions we offer, or more generally, if the third-party vendors we rely upon are unwilling or unable to provide the services we need to effectively operate our business.

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Many of our services are based on sophisticated software and computing systems, and we may encounter delays when developing new technology solutions and services. Further, the technology solutions underlying our services have occasionally contained, and may in the future contain, undetected errors or defects when first introduced or when new versions are released. In addition, we may experience difficulties in installing or integrating our technologies on platforms used by our clients, or our clients may cancel a project after we have expended significant effort and resources to complete an installation. Finally, our systems and operations could be exposed to damage or interruption from fire, natural disaster, power loss, telecommunications failure, unauthorized entry and computer viruses. Defects in our technology solutions, errors or delays in the processing of electronic transactions, or other difficulties could result in (i) interruption of business operations; (ii) delay in market acceptance; (iii) additional development and remediation costs; (iv) diversion of technical and other resources; (v) loss of clients; (vi) negative publicity; or (vii) exposure to liability claims. Any one or more of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we attempt to limit our potential liability through controls, including system redundancies, security controls, application development and testing controls, and disclaimers and limitation-of-liability provisions in our license and client agreements, we cannot be certain that these measures will always be successful in preventing disruption or limiting our liability.

Further, most of the solutions we offer are very complex software systems that are regularly updated. No matter how careful the design and development, complex software often contains errors and defects when first introduced and when major new updates or enhancements are released. If errors or defects are discovered in current or future solutions, then we may not be able to correct them in a timely manner, if at all. In our development of updates and enhancements to our software solutions, we may make a major design error that makes the solution operate incorrectly or less efficiently. The failure of software to properly perform could result in the Company and its clients being subjected to losses or liability, including censures, fines, or other sanctions by the applicable regulatory authorities, and we could be liable to parties who are financially harmed by those errors. In addition, such errors could cause the Company to lose revenue, lose clients or damage its reputation.

Our Merchant business has made progress toward implementation of a new proprietary global acquiring platform project begun by Worldpay. As we continue to implement this project, through the migration of existing merchant customers and onboarding of new merchant customers to the platform, the scale and complexity associated with this project presents the increased potential for service level delays or disruptions in the processing of transactions, telecommunications failures or other difficulties. Such delays or disruptions could result in reputational harm, loss of business and increased operational or technological costs.

In addition, we generally depend on a number of third parties, both in the United States and internationally, to supply elements of our systems, computers, research and market data, connectivity, communication network infrastructure, other equipment and related support and maintenance. We cannot be certain that any of these third parties will be able to continue providing these services to effectively meet our evolving needs. If our vendors, or in certain cases vendors of our customers, fail to meet their obligations, provide poor or untimely service, or we are unable to make alternative arrangements for the provision of these services, then we may in turn fail to provide our services or to meet our obligations to our customers, and our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
    
Federal, state and foreign rules may result in business changes for certain of our businesses and clients; these have had, and further could have, an adverse effect on our financial condition, revenue, results of operations, or prospects for future growth and overall business.

The Dodd-Frank Act represented a comprehensive overhaul of the regulations governing the financial services industry within the U.S. The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB and provided the CFPB with rulemaking authority with respect to certain federal consumer protection statutes as well as examination and supervisory authority over consumer reporting agencies, including ChexSystems.

The CFPB continues to establish rules and regulations for regulating financial and non-financial institutions and providers to those institutions to ensure adequate protection of consumer privacy and to ensure consumers are not impacted by deceptive business practices. These rules and regulations govern our clients or potential clients and also govern certain of our businesses.  These regulations have resulted, and may further result, in the need for FIS to make capital investments to modify our solutions and services to facilitate our clients' and potential clients' compliance, as well as to deploy additional processes or reporting to comply with these regulations. The new Biden administration in Washington has projected that it may expand the reach of this agency. In the future, we may be subject to additional expense to ensure continued compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to investigate, defend and/or remedy actual or alleged violations. Further, requirements of these regulations have resulted, and could further result, in changes in our business practices, our clients' business practices and those of other marketplace participants that may alter the delivery of services to consumers, which have impacted, and could further impact, the demand for our software and services as well as alter the types or volume of transactions that we process on behalf of our
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clients. As a result, these requirements, or proposed or future requirements, could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, revenue, results of operations, prospects for future growth and overall business.

The New York Department of Financial Services has enacted rules that require covered financial institutions to establish and maintain cybersecurity programs. These rules subject FIS to additional regulation and require us to adopt additional business practices that could also require additional capital expenditures or impact our operating results. Changes to state money transmission laws and regulations, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new or varying regulatory requirements, may result in the need for additional money transmitter licenses. These changes could result in increased costs of compliance, as well as fines or penalties.

One of our subsidiaries is an SEC registered broker-dealer in the U.S. and is subject to the financial and operational rules of FINRA, and others are authorized by the FCA to conduct certain regulated business in the U.K. Domestic and foreign regulatory and self-regulatory organizations, such as the SEC, FINRA, and the FCA, can, among other things, fine, censure, issue cease-and-desist orders against, and suspend or expel a broker-dealer or its officers or employees for failure to comply with the many laws and regulations that govern brokerage activities. Regulations affecting the brokerage industry may change, which could adversely affect our financial results.

We are exposed to certain risks relating to the execution services provided by our brokerage operations to our customers and counterparties, which include other broker-dealers, active traders, hedge funds, asset managers, and other institutional and non-institutional clients. These risks include, but are not limited to, customers or counterparties failing to pay for or deliver securities, trading errors, the inability or failure to settle trades, and trade execution system failures. As trading in the U.S. securities markets has become more automated, the potential impact of a trading error or a rapid series of errors caused by a computer or human error or a malicious act has become greater. In our other businesses, we generally can disclaim liability for trading losses that may be caused by our software, but in our brokerage operations, we may not be able to limit our liability for trading losses or failed trades even when we are not at fault. As a result, we may suffer losses that are disproportionately large compared to the relatively modest profit contributions of our brokerage operations.

Moreover, the legislative and regulatory landscape for financial crimes compliance continues to evolve, and any failure to comply with such laws could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. Financial crimes laws may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and impose inconsistent or conflicting requirements. Complying with varying jurisdictional requirements could increase the costs and complexity of compliance and associated recordkeeping costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.

The Company is subject to regulation, supervision, and enforcement authority of numerous governmental and regulatory bodies in the jurisdictions in which it operates.

Because the Company is a technology service provider to U.S. financial institutions, it is subject to regular oversight and examination by the Federal Banking Agencies ("FBA"), each of which is a member of the FFIEC, an inter-agency body of federal banking regulators. The FBA have broad discretion in the implementation, interpretation and enforcement of banking and consumer protection laws and use the FFIEC's uniform principles, standards and report forms in their review of bank service providers like FIS. A failure to comply with these laws, or a failure to meet the supervisory expectations of the banking regulators, could result in adverse action against the Company. The regulators have the power to, among other things, enjoin "unsafe or unsound" practices; require affirmative actions to correct any violation or practice; issue administrative orders that can be judicially enforced; direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets; and assess civil money penalties.

The Company is also subject to ongoing supervision by regulatory and governmental bodies across the world, including economic and conduct regulators, such as the FCA and PSR in the U.K., the DNB in the Netherlands, and regulatory and governmental bodies responsible for issuing anti-money laundering, anti-bribery, and global economic sanctions regulations. These various regulatory regimes require compliance across many aspects of our merchant activities in respect of capital requirements, safeguarding, training, authorization and supervision of personnel, systems, processes and documentation. We also have business operations that store, process or transmit consumer information or have direct relationships with consumers that are obligated to comply with regulations, including, but not limited to, the FCRA, the Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and applicable privacy requirements. In addition, our wealth and retirement business holds a charter in the state of Georgia, which exposes us to further regulatory compliance requirements of the Georgia Department of Banking and Finance. The U.S. wealth and retirement business is required to hold certain levels of regulatory capital as defined by the state banking regulator in Georgia. In the U.K., our Merchant business, as well as our Platform Securities and broker-dealer businesses, are regulated by the FCA and are also subject to further regulatory capital requirements.

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If we fail to comply with relevant regulations, then we risk reputational damage, potential civil and criminal sanctions, fines or other action imposed by regulatory or governmental authorities, including the potential suspension or revocation of the permission-based regulatory licenses which authorize the Company to provide core services to customers. We are also involved, from time to time, in regulatory investigations, reviews and proceedings (both formal and informal) by regulatory authorities regarding our businesses, certain of which may result in adverse settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. This could result in an adverse effect on FIS' business, reputation and customer relationships, which in turn could adversely affect its financial position and performance.

Many of our clients are subject to a regulatory environment and to industry standards that may change in a manner that reduces the types or volume of solutions or services we provide or may reduce the type or number of transactions in which our clients engage, and therefore reduce our revenue.

Our clients are subject to a number of government regulations and industry standards with which our services must comply. Our clients must ensure that our services and related solutions work within the extensive and evolving regulatory and industry requirements applicable to them. Federal, state, foreign or industry authorities could adopt laws, rules or regulations affecting our clients' businesses that could lead to increased operating costs and could reduce the convenience and functionality of our services, possibly resulting in reduced market acceptance. In addition, action by regulatory authorities relating to credit availability, data usage, privacy, or other related regulatory developments could have an adverse effect on our clients and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, revenue, results of operations, prospects for future growth and overall business. Elimination of regulatory requirements could also adversely affect the sales of our solutions designed to help clients comply with complex regulatory environments.

Our revenue relating to all aspects of the sale of services to members of Visa, MasterCard and other payment networks is dependent upon our continued certification and sponsorship, and the loss or suspension of certification or sponsorship could adversely affect our business.

In order to provide our card processing services, we must be certified (including applicable sponsorship) by Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover and other similar organizations. These certifications are dependent upon our continued adherence to the standards of the issuing bodies and sponsoring member banks. The member financial institutions, some of which are our competitors, set the standards with which we must comply. If we fail to comply with these standards we could be fined, our certifications could be suspended, or our registration could be terminated. The suspension or termination of our certifications, or any changes in, or the enforcement of, the rules and regulations governing or relating to the businesses of Visa, MasterCard or other payment networks, could result in a reduction in revenue or increased costs of operation for us, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In order to provide merchant transaction processing services in the U.S. and certain other jurisdictions, we are registered through our bank sponsorships with the Visa, MasterCard and other payment networks as service providers for member institutions. As a result, FIS and many of its clients are subject to payment network rules. If FIS or its associated participants do not comply with the payment network requirements, the payment networks could seek to fine FIS, suspend FIS or terminate its registrations. Our Merchant business has occasionally received notices of noncompliance and fines, which have typically related to excessive chargebacks by a merchant or data security failures on the part of a merchant. If FIS is unable to recover fines from, or pass through costs to, its merchants or other associated participants, then FIS would experience a financial loss. The termination of its registration, or any changes in the payment network rules that would impair FIS' registrations, could require the Company to stop providing payment network services to the Visa, MasterCard or other payment networks, which would have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations.

Outside of the U.S., our Merchant business primarily provides acquiring and processing services directly through international credit and debit card networks run by Visa, MasterCard and other payment networks. In order to access the card networks, the Company must maintain the relevant jurisdictional operating licenses or memberships. In some markets where it is not feasible or possible for the Company to have a direct acquiring license with a card network, we have a relationship with a local financial institution sponsor. As part of the Company's registration with card networks (either directly or indirectly through local sponsors), the Company is subject to operating rules, including mandatory technology requirements, promulgated by the card networks that could subject the Company and its customers to a variety of fines and penalties, as well as suspension and termination of membership or access.

These agreements in the U.S. and elsewhere with bank sponsors give such sponsors substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices in our Merchant business, including our solicitation, application and qualification procedures for merchants and the terms of our agreements with merchants. Our financial institution sponsors' discretionary actions under these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of
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operations. We also rely on various financial institutions to provide clearing services in connection with our settlement activities. Without these sponsorships or clearing services agreements in our Merchant business, we would not be able to process Visa, MasterCard and other payment network transactions or settle transactions in relevant markets, including the U.S., which would have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, FIS' financial results could be adversely affected if the costs associated with such sponsorships or clearing services agreements increase.

Changes in the contracts, rules or standards of networks, or relevant legal or regulatory scrutiny of pricing practices, could adversely affect FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, card and debit networks increase the interchange fees that they charge. At their sole discretion, our financial institution sponsors have the right to pass any increases in interchange and other fees on to us, and they have consistently done so in the past. While we are generally permitted under the contracts with our merchants to pass these fee increases along to our merchants through corresponding increases in our processing fees, if we cannot continue to do so due to contractual or regulatory requirements or competitive pressures, the inability to pass through such fees could have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, in order to access the card networks directly, as our Merchant business does primarily outside the U.S., we must pay card network membership fees, which are subject to change from time to time, and which we may be unable to pass along to our merchant clients, potentially resulting in FIS absorbing a portion or all of such increases in the future.

Furthermore, the rules and regulations of the various card associations and networks prescribe certain capital requirements. Any increase in the capital level required would further limit our use of capital for other purposes. Moreover, as payment networks become more dependent on proprietary technology, modify their technological approach or operating practices, and/or seek to provide value added services to issuers and merchants, there is heightened risk that rules and standards may be governed by their own self-interest, or the self-interest of third parties with influence over them, which could materially impact FIS' competitive position and operations.

Interchange fees and pricing practices have been receiving significant legal and regulatory scrutiny worldwide. The resulting changes that could occur from proposed regulations or other forms of enforcement could alter the fees charged by us, card associations and debit networks worldwide. Such changes could have an adverse impact on our business or financial condition and results of operations.

Privacy laws and regulations have required and will further require FIS to adopt new business practices and contractual provisions in existing and new contracts which may require transitional and incremental expenses which may impact our future operating results.
New privacy laws, such as the GDPR in the E.U., continue to develop in unpredictable ways. The Company is also subject to the California Consumer Privacy Act and the Brazilian General Personal Data Protection Act. Failure to comply with these new laws could result in significant penalties, damage to our brand and loss of business. The Company has incurred, and will continue to incur, costs to comply with these new laws. There are also several additional privacy laws being considered by state legislatures, the federal legislature and countries around the world; as a result, a more substantial compliance effort with varying regimes in different jurisdictions is considered probable in the future, which will increase the costs and complexities of the business. Moreover, privacy laws may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and impose inconsistent or conflicting requirements. Complying with varying jurisdictional requirements could increase the costs and complexity of compliance and associated recordkeeping costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business and incur additional costs. Data localization requirements in evolving data protection laws could also increase the cost and alter the approach to housing data around the world. In addition, our businesses are increasingly subject to laws and regulations relating to surveillance, encryption and data onshoring in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Compliance with these laws and regulations may require us to change our technology for information security, operational infrastructure, policies and procedures, which could be time-consuming and costly.

High profile payment card industry or digital banking security breaches could impact consumer payment behavior patterns in the future and reduce our card payment transaction volumes.

We are unable to predict whether or when high profile card payment or digital banking security breaches will occur and if they occur, whether consumers will transact less on their payment cards or reduce their digital banking service. If consumers transact less on cards issued by our clients or reduce digital banking services and we are not able to adapt to offer our clients alternative technologies, then our revenue and related earnings could be adversely affected.

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Misappropriation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights or a finding that our patents are invalid could impair our competitive position.

Our ability to compete depends in some part upon our proprietary solutions and technology. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our services or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary or challenge the validity of our patents with governmental authorities. Policing unauthorized use of our proprietary rights is difficult. We cannot make any assurances that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation of technology or that the agreements entered into for that purpose will be enforceable. Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright, and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our applications and services are made available online. Misappropriation of our intellectual property or potential litigation concerning such matters could have an adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. As we increase our international business, we are subject to further risks of misappropriation of our intellectual property risks in countries which have laws which are less protective of intellectual property or are enforced in a less protective manner.

If our applications or services are found to infringe the proprietary rights of others, then we may be required to change our business practices and may also become subject to significant costs and monetary penalties.

As our information technology applications and services develop, we are increasingly subject to infringement claims. Any claims, whether with or without merit, could (i) be expensive and time-consuming to defend; (ii) result in an injunction or other equitable relief which could cause us to cease making, licensing or using applications that incorporate the challenged intellectual property; (iii) require us to redesign our applications, if feasible; (iv) divert management's attention and resources; and (v) require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or pay damages resulting from any infringing use.

Some of our solutions contain "open source" software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could adversely affect our business.

We use a limited amount of software licensed by its authors or other third parties under so-called "open source" licenses and may continue to use such software in the future. Some of these licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the open source software and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties certain rights of further use. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner. Additionally, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. or other courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on origin of the software. We have established processes to help alleviate these risks, including a review process for screening requests from our development organizations for the use of open source, but we cannot be sure that all open source is submitted for approval prior to use in our solutions. In addition, many of the risks associated with usage of open source cannot be eliminated, and could, if not properly addressed, adversely affect our business.

Lack of system integrity, fraudulent payments, credit quality, and undetected errors related to funds settlement or the availability of clearing services could result in a financial loss.

We settle funds on behalf of financial institutions, other businesses and consumers and receive funds from clients, card issuers, payment networks and consumers on a daily basis for a variety of transaction types. Transactions facilitated by us include debit card, credit card, electronic bill payment transactions, banking payments and check clearing that supports consumers, financial institutions and other businesses. These payment activities rely upon the technology infrastructure that facilitates the verification of activity with counterparties, the facilitation of the payment as well as the detection or prevention of fraudulent payments. If our continuity of operations, integrity of processing, or ability to detect or prevent fraudulent payments were compromised, this could result in a financial loss to us. In addition, we rely on various financial institutions to provide Automated Clearing House ("ACH") services in support of funds settlement for certain of our solutions. If we are unable to obtain such ACH services in the future, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations. In addition, we may issue credit to consumers, financial institutions or other businesses as part of the funds settlement. A default on this credit by a counterparty could result in a financial loss to us. Furthermore, if one of our clients for which we facilitate settlement suffers a fraudulent event due to a deficiency in their controls, we may suffer a financial loss if the client does not have sufficient capital to cover the loss.

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Fraud by merchants or others could have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations.

In our Merchant business, we face potential liability for fraudulent electronic payment transactions initiated by merchants, third parties or other associated participants. Examples of merchant fraud include when a merchant or other party knowingly accepts payment by a stolen or counterfeit credit, debit or prepaid card, card number or other credentials; records a false sales transaction utilizing a stolen or counterfeit card or credentials; processes an invalid card; or intentionally fails to deliver the merchandise or services sold in an otherwise valid transaction. In the event a dispute between a cardholder and a merchant is not resolved in favor of the merchant, the transaction is normally charged back to the merchant, and the purchase price is credited or otherwise refunded to the cardholder and FIS is required to collect from the merchant. Failure to effectively manage risk and prevent fraud or other criminal activity could increase FIS' chargebacks or other liability. Increases in chargebacks or other liabilities due to merchant failures or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on FIS' business, financial condition and results of operations.

The U.K.'s exit from membership in the E.U. could cause disruption to and create uncertainty surrounding our business.

Our Merchant business has a significant amount of business in, and services clients in, the U.K. We also have other business and operations in the U.K. and the E.U. The U.K. left the E.U. ("Brexit") on January 31, 2020, pursuant to the terms of a withdrawal agreement concluded between the U.K. Government and the Council of the E.U. The withdrawal agreement included a transition period until December 31, 2020, during which time the U.K. followed the E.U.'s rules and regulations and remained in the single market and customs union while the future terms of the U.K.’s relationship with the E.U. were being negotiated. That transition period has now ended. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the E.U. announced they had struck a new bilateral trade and cooperation deal governing the future relationship between the U.K. and the E.U. (the "Trade and Cooperation Agreement"), which sets out the principles of the relationship between the E.U. and the U.K. following the end of the transition period. The Trade and Cooperation Agreement was formally approved by the 27 Member States of the E.U. on December 29, 2020, and was formally approved by the U.K. Parliament on December 30, 2020. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the European Commission has proposed to apply the Trade and Cooperation Agreement on a provisional basis for a limited time until February 28, 2021, by which time the Trade and Cooperation Agreement must be approved by the European Parliament.

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement provides clarity in respect of the intended shape of the future relationship between the U.K. and the E.U. and some detailed matters of trade and cooperation. However, there remain unavoidable uncertainties related to Brexit, and although the potential impact of Brexit on our business cannot be fully assessed until the new relationship between the U.K. and E.U. is developed and defined, and the U.K. negotiates, concludes and implements successor trading arrangements with other countries, Brexit is likely to result in ongoing political, legal and economic uncertainty in the U.K. and wider European markets. Such uncertainty could cause volatility in currency exchange rates, in interest rates, and in E.U., U.K. or worldwide political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in political institutions, regulatory agencies, and financial markets, and may cause clients to closely monitor their costs and reduce their spending on our solutions and services.

In particular, the economies of the U.K. and E.U. Member States, and individual businesses operating in one or more of those jurisdictions, may be adversely affected by the restrictions on the ability to provide cross-border services from the U.K. into the E.U. and vice versa, the introduction of non-tariff (and, in the future, potentially tariff) barriers, customs checks and/or duties, changes in tax (including withholding tax), restrictions on the movements of employees and restrictions on the transfer of personal data. In addition, there are likely to be changes in the legal rights and obligations of commercial parties across all industries, particularly in the services sector (including financial services), following the U.K.'s exit from the E.U. despite the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. Any delays with the approval of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement by the European Parliament, its potentially problematic provisions or its potentially uncertain interpretation could adversely and significantly affect European or worldwide economic or market conditions and may contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets, and could lead to legal uncertainty and divergent national laws and regulations. Any of these effects of Brexit, and others which cannot be anticipated, could adversely affect our business, business opportunities, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

Our business is subject to the risks of international operations, including movements in foreign currency exchange rates.

The international operations of FIS represented approximately 24% of our total 2020 revenue and are largely conducted in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar, including the British Pound Sterling, Euro, Brazilian Real, and Indian Rupee. As a result of the Worldpay acquisition, FIS has significantly expanded its international presence by offering merchant acquiring, including eCommerce, services outside of the U.S., including in the U.K. and E.U. countries, where Worldpay's principal non-U.S.
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operations are currently located. Our business and financial results could be adversely affected due to a variety of factors, including the following:
changes in a specific country or region's political and cultural climate or economic condition, including change in governmental regime;
unexpected or unfavorable changes in foreign laws, regulatory requirements and related interpretations;
difficulty of effective enforcement of contractual provisions in local jurisdictions;
inadequate intellectual property protection in foreign countries;
trade-protection measures, import or export licensing requirements such as Export Administration Regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Commerce and fines, penalties or suspension or revocation of export privileges;
trade sanctions imposed by the U.S. or other governments with jurisdictional authority over our business operations;
the effects of applicable and potentially adverse foreign tax law changes;
significant adverse changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
lesser enforcement of intellectual property laws and protections internationally;
longer accounts receivable cycles;
managing a geographically dispersed workforce;
trade treaties, tariffs or agreements that could adversely affect our ability to do business in affected countries; and
compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") and the Office of Foreign Assets Control regulations, particularly in emerging markets.

As we expand our international operations, more of our clients may pay us in foreign currencies. Conducting business in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar subjects us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates that can negatively impact our results, period to period, including relative to analyst estimates or guidance. Our primary exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates relates to foreign currencies in Europe, including the U.K., Brazil and parts of Asia. The U.S. Dollar value of our net investments in foreign operations, the periodic conversion of foreign-denominated earnings to the U.S. Dollar (our reporting currency), and our results of operations and, in some cases, cash flows, could be adversely affected in a material manner by movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These risks could cause an adverse effect on the business, financial position and results of operations of the Company.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-bribery, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws in various countries around the world. The FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar applicable laws generally prohibit companies, as well as their officers, directors, employees and third-party intermediaries, business partners and agents, from making improper payments or providing other improper things of value to government officials or other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires that U.S. public companies maintain books and records that fairly and accurately reflect transactions and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls.

We conduct business in many foreign countries, including a number of countries with developing economies, and many of our employees, third-party intermediaries and agents in such countries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies, state owned or affiliated entities and other third parties where we may be held liable if they take actions in violation of these laws, even if we do not explicitly authorize them. Although our policies and procedures require compliance with these laws and are designed to facilitate compliance with these laws, we do business in many countries all over the world and cannot assure that our employees, contractors or agents somewhere in the world will not take actions in violation of applicable laws or our policies, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.

In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees, contractors or agents have or may have violated such laws, we may be required to investigate or to have outside counsel investigate the relevant facts and circumstances. Detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations can be extensive and require a significant diversion of time, resources and attention from senior management. Further, we cannot assure that any such investigation will successfully uncover all relevant facts and circumstances. Any violation of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act or other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, and criminal or civil sanctions, penalties and fines, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.


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We have businesses in emerging markets that may experience significant economic volatility.

We have operations in emerging markets, primarily in Latin America, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa. These emerging market economies tend to be more volatile than the more established markets we serve in North America and Europe, which could add volatility to our future revenue and earnings.

Acts of war or terrorism, international conflicts, political instability, natural disasters, or widespread outbreak of an illness could negatively affect various aspects of our business, including our workforce and our business partners, make it more difficult and expensive to meet our obligations to our customers, and result in reduced revenue from our customers.

Our global operations are susceptible to global events, including acts or threats of war or terrorism, international conflicts, political instability and natural disasters. We are also susceptible to a widespread outbreak of an illness or other health issue, such as the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. These events can spread to different locations across the globe and can have an adverse effect on the global economy, reducing consumer and corporate spending upon which our revenue depends. Individual employees can become ill, quarantined, or otherwise unable to work and/or travel due to health reasons or governmental restrictions. Some of our operations are in countries where the effects of a widespread illness could be magnified due to health care systems that are less well-developed than in the U.S. The occurrence of any of these events, including the potential future effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, could have an adverse effect on our business results and financial condition.

Failure to attract and retain skilled technical employees or senior management personnel could harm our ability to grow.

Our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly-skilled technical personnel. Because the development of our solutions and services requires knowledge of computer hardware, operating system software, system management software and application software, our technical personnel must be proficient in a number of disciplines. Competition for such technical personnel is intense, and our failure to hire and retain talented personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our future growth will also require sales and marketing, financial and administrative personnel to develop and support new solutions and services, to enhance and support current solutions and services and to expand operational and financial systems. There can be no assurance that we will be able to attract and retain the necessary personnel to accomplish our growth strategies, and we may experience constraints that could adversely affect our ability to satisfy client demand in a timely fashion.

Our ability to maintain compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations and to manage and monitor the risks facing our business relies upon the ability to maintain skilled compliance, security, risk and audit professionals. Competition for such skill sets is intense, and our failure to hire and retain talented personnel could have an adverse effect on our internal control environment and impact our operating results.

Our senior management team has significant experience in the financial services industry and the loss of this leadership could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Further, the loss of this leadership may have an adverse impact on senior management's ability to provide effective oversight and strategic direction for all key functions within the Company, which could impact our future business, operating results and financial condition.

We are the subject of various legal proceedings that could have an adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.

We are involved in various litigation matters in the ordinary course of business, including in some instances class-action cases and patent infringement litigation. If we are unsuccessful in our defense of litigation matters, we may be forced to pay damages and/or change our business practices, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Unfavorable resolution of tax contingencies or unfavorable future tax law changes could adversely affect our tax expense.

Our tax returns and positions are subject to review and audit by federal, state, local and international taxing authorities. An unfavorable outcome to a tax audit could result in higher tax expense and could negatively impact our effective tax rate, financial position, results of operations and cash flows in the current and/or future periods. Unfavorable future tax law changes could result in negative impacts. In addition, tax-law amendments in the U.S. and other jurisdictions could significantly impact how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed. Although we cannot predict whether or in what form such legislation will pass, if enacted it could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.


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A material weakness in our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on us.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to adequately mitigate risk of fraud. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and adequately mitigate risk of fraud, our reputation and operating results could be harmed. Internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the Company's annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. A material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting could adversely impact our ability to provide timely and accurate financial information. If we are unable to report financial information timely and accurately or to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures, we could adversely affect our business prospects.

Risks Related to Business Combinations and Ventures

Strategic transactions, including acquisitions and divestitures, involve significant risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Strategic acquisitions and divestitures we have made in the past, and may make in the future, present significant risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. These risks include the following:
Difficulty in evaluating potential acquisitions, including the risk that our due diligence does not identify or fully assess valuation issues, potential liabilities or other acquisition risks;
Difficulty and expense in integrating newly acquired businesses and operations, including combining solution and service offerings, and in entering into new markets in which we are not experienced, in an efficient and cost-effective manner while maintaining adequate standards, controls and procedures, and the risk that we encounter significant unanticipated costs or other problems associated with integration;
Difficulty and expense in consolidating and rationalizing IT infrastructure and integrating acquired software;
Challenges in achieving strategic objectives, cost savings and other benefits expected from acquisitions;
Risk that our markets do not evolve as anticipated and that the strategic acquisitions and divestitures do not prove to be those needed to be successful in those markets;
Risk that acquired systems expose us to cybersecurity and other data security risks;
Costs to reach appropriate standards to protect against cybersecurity and other data security risks or timeline to achieve such standards may exceed those estimated in diligence;
Risk that acquired companies are subject to new regulatory regimes or oversight where we have limited experience that may result in additional compliance costs and potential regulatory penalties;
Risk that we assume or retain, or that companies we have acquired have assumed or retained or otherwise become subject to, significant liabilities that exceed the limitations of any applicable indemnification provisions or the financial resources of any indemnifying parties;
Risk that indemnification related to businesses divested or spun-off that we may be required to provide or otherwise bear may be significant and could negatively impact our business;
Risk of exposure to potential liabilities arising out of applicable state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws and legal distribution requirements from spin-offs in which we or companies we have acquired were involved;
Risk that we may be responsible for U.S. federal income tax liabilities related to acquisitions or divestitures;
Risk that we are not able to complete strategic divestitures on satisfactory terms and conditions, including non-competition arrangements applicable to certain of our business lines, or within expected time frames;
Potential loss of key employees or customers of the businesses acquired or to be divested; and
Risk of diverting the attention of senior management from our existing operations.

We have substantial goodwill and other intangible assets recorded as a result of acquisitions, and a severe or extended economic downturn could cause these assets to become impaired, requiring write-downs that would reduce our operating income.

As of December 31, 2020, goodwill aggregated to $53.3 billion, or 64% of total assets, and intangible assets with finite useful lives aggregated to $13.9 billion, or 17% of total assets. Current accounting rules require goodwill to be assessed for
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impairment at least annually or whenever changes in circumstances indicate potential impairment and require intangible assets with finite useful lives to be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstance include significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, a significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization, and negative industry or economic trends. We recorded $94 million in goodwill impairment related to certain non-strategic businesses in the Corporate and Other segment during the fourth quarter of 2020. No other impairment was identified during the year ended December 31, 2020, for goodwill and other intangible assets. If worldwide or U.S. economic conditions decline significantly with negative impacts to bank spending and consumer behavior, or if other business or market changes impact our outlook, then the carrying amount of our goodwill and other intangible assets may no longer be recoverable, and we may be required to record an impairment charge, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations. We will continue to monitor the fair value of our goodwill and other intangible assets as well as our market capitalization and the impact of any economic downturn on our business to determine if there is an impairment in future periods.


 
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Our existing debt levels and future levels under existing facilities and debt service requirements may adversely affect FIS, including our financial condition or business flexibility and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness.

As of December 31, 2020, we had total debt of approximately $20.0 billion. This level of debt or any increase in our debt level could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and operational flexibility, including the following: (i) the debt level may cause us to have difficulty borrowing money in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes; (ii) our debt level may limit operational flexibility and our ability to pursue business opportunities and implement certain business strategies; (iii) some of our debt has a variable rate of interest, which exposes us to the risk of increased interest rates; (iv) we have a higher level of debt than some of our competitors or potential competitors, which may cause a competitive disadvantage and may reduce flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions, including increased competition and vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; (v) there are significant maturities on our debt that we may not be able to repay at maturity or that may be refinanced at higher rates; and (vi) if we fail to satisfy our obligations under our outstanding debt or fail to comply with the financial or other restrictive covenants contained in the indenture governing our senior notes, or our credit facility, an event of default could result that could cause all of our debt to become due and payable.

We may be adversely affected by changes in LIBOR reporting practices or the method in which LIBOR is determined.

As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding approximately $251 million of borrowings under our Revolving Credit Facility, an interest rate swap with a $1.0 billion notional amount designated as a fair value hedge, and a cross-currency interest rate swap with a $206 million notional amount designated as a net investment hedge that are indexed to the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"). On July 27, 2017, the FCA announced its intention to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for calibration of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. On November 30, 2020, the ICE Benchmark Administration Limited announced its plan to extend the date that most U.S. LIBOR values would cease being computed from December 31, 2021 to June 30, 2023. It is not possible to predict the further effect of the rules or policies of the FCA, any changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined, or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the U.K., the E.U. or elsewhere. Any such developments may cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past, or cease to exist. In addition, any other legal or regulatory changes made by the FCA, ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the European Money Markets Institute (formerly Euribor-EBF), the European Commission or any other successor governance or oversight body, or future changes adopted by such body, in the method by which LIBOR is determined or the transition from LIBOR to a successor benchmark rate may result in, among other things, a sudden or prolonged increase or decrease in LIBOR, a delay in the publication of LIBOR, and changes in the rules or methodologies in LIBOR, which may discourage market participants from continuing to administer or to participate in LIBOR's determination, and, in certain situations, could result in LIBOR no longer being determined and published. If a published U.S. Dollar LIBOR rate is unavailable after 2021, the interest rates on our debt which is indexed to LIBOR will be determined using various alternative methods, any of which may result in interest obligations which are more than, or do not otherwise correlate over time with, the payments that would have been made on such debt if U.S. Dollar LIBOR were available in its current form. Further, the same costs and risks that may lead to the discontinuation or unavailability of U.S. Dollar LIBOR may make one or more of the alternative methods impossible or impracticable to determine. Any of these proposals or consequences could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs.

Our Euro- and GBP-denominated indebtedness has increased in recent years; accordingly, we have increased exposure to fluctuations in the Euro-USD and GBP-USD exchange rates, which could negatively affect our cost to service or refinance our Euro- and GBP-denominated debt securities.
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In recent years, our indebtedness denominated in Euro or GBP has significantly increased as a result of our issuance of senior notes of varying maturities and our issuance of Euro-denominated commercial paper. At December 31, 2020, the Company had outstanding approximately €7.8 billion aggregate principal amount of Euro-denominated senior notes, approximately €702 million aggregate principal amount of Euro-denominated commercial paper and approximately £1.9 billion aggregate principal amount of GBP-denominated senior notes, or the combined equivalent of approximately $12.9 billion aggregate principal amount.
Following the acquisition of Worldpay, we have increased our revenue and cash flows denominated in Euro and GBP. Although we currently have substantial available cash flows in excess of the projected debt service requirements on our existing Euro and GBP-denominated debt, we cannot assure that we will be always be able to continue generating earnings in Euros and GBP in amounts sufficient, taking into account the funding requirements and other needs of our business, to make payments of interest and/or repayment of principal on our Euro and GBP senior debt, or to permit us to economically borrow in those currencies if needed to refinance our existing Euro and GBP debt. If our cash flows in Euros or GBP are insufficient for such purposes, we may need to exchange U.S. Dollars or funds in other currencies to make such payments, which could result in increased costs to us in the event of adverse changes in currency exchange rates. We have utilized and expect to continue to utilize foreign currency forward contracts and other hedges on a limited basis in an effort to mitigate currency risk, but we cannot assure that such hedging arrangements will be effective or will remain available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, we cannot predict economic and market conditions (including prevailing interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates) at the applicable times when our various series of Euro and GBP senior debt are scheduled to mature, nor can there be any assurance that we would be able to refinance any series of our Euro and GBP senior debt in those currencies on acceptable terms at any such time, all of which could have an adverse financial impact on us.
Rising interest rates could increase our borrowing costs.

Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates to our short-term commercial paper borrowings, Revolving Credit Facility and interest rate derivatives. In the future, we may have additional borrowings under existing or new variable-rate debt. Increases in interest rates on variable-rate debt would increase our interest expense. A rising interest rate environment could increase the cost of refinancing existing debt and incurring new debt, which could have an adverse effect on our financing costs.

Credit ratings, if lowered below investment grade, would adversely affect our cost of funds and liquidity.

The Company maintains investment grade credit ratings from the major U.S. rating agencies on its senior unsecured debt (S&P BBB, Moody's Baa2, Fitch BBB), as well as its commercial paper program (S&P A-2, Moody's P-2, Fitch F2). Failure to maintain investment grade rating levels could adversely affect the Company's cost of funds and liquidity and access to certain capital markets but would not have an adverse effect on the Company's ability to access its existing Revolving Credit Facility. Please note that a security rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities, that it may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization, and that each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.

Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information

The statements contained in this Form 10-K or in our other documents or in oral presentations or other management statements that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the U.S. federal securities laws. Statements that are not historical facts, including statements about anticipated financial outcomes, including any earnings guidance or projections of the Company, projected revenue or expense synergies, business and market conditions, outlook, foreign currency exchange rates, deleveraging plans, expected dividends and share repurchases, the Company's sales pipeline and anticipated profitability and growth, as well as other statements about our expectations, beliefs, intentions, or strategies regarding the future, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, are forward-looking statements. In many cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as "may," "will," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "potential," or "continue," or the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. These statements relate to future events and our future results and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are based on management's beliefs as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management.

Actual results, performance or achievement could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties to which forward-looking statements are subject include the following, without limitation:
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the outbreak or recurrence of COVID-19 and measures to reduce its spread, including the impact of governmental or voluntary actions such as business shutdowns and stay-at-home orders;
the duration, including any recurrence, of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts, including the general impact of an economic recession, reductions in consumer and business spending, and instability of the financial markets across the globe;
the economic and other impacts of COVID-19 on our clients which affect the sales of our solutions and services and the implementation of such solutions;
the risk of losses in the event of defaults by merchants (or other parties) to which we extend credit in our card settlement operations or in respect of any chargeback liability, either of which could adversely impact liquidity and results of operations;
changes in general economic, business and political conditions, including those resulting from COVID-19 or other pandemics, intensified international hostilities, acts of terrorism, changes in either or both the U.S. and international lending, capital and financial markets and currency fluctuations;
the risk that the Worldpay transaction will not provide the expected benefits or that we will not be able to achieve the revenue synergies anticipated;
the risk that other acquired businesses will not be integrated successfully or that the integration will be more costly or more time-consuming and complex than anticipated;
the risk that cost savings and other synergies anticipated to be realized from other acquisitions may not be fully realized or may take longer to realize than expected;
the risks of doing business internationally;
the effect of legislative initiatives or proposals, statutory changes, governmental or other applicable regulations and/or changes in industry requirements, including privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations;
the risks of reduction in revenue from the elimination of existing and potential customers due to consolidation in, or new laws or regulations affecting, the banking, retail and financial services industries or due to financial failures or other setbacks suffered by firms in those industries;
changes in the growth rates of the markets for our solutions;
failures to adapt our solutions to changes in technology or in the marketplace;
internal or external security breaches of our systems, including those relating to unauthorized access, theft, corruption or loss of personal information and computer viruses and other malware affecting our software or platforms, and the reactions of customers, card associations, government regulators and others to any such events;
the risk that implementation of software, including software updates, for customers or at customer locations or employee error in monitoring our software and platforms may result in the corruption or loss of data or customer information, interruption of business operations, outages, exposure to liability claims or loss of customers;
the reaction of current and potential customers to communications from us or regulators regarding information security, risk management, internal audit or other matters;
the risk that 2020 election results in the U.S. may result in additional regulation and additional regulatory and tax costs;
competitive pressures on pricing related to the decreasing number of community banks in the U.S., the development of new disruptive technologies competing with one or more of our solutions, increasing presence of international competitors in the U.S. market and the entry into the market by global banks and global companies with respect to certain competitive solutions, each of which may have the impact of unbundling individual solutions from a comprehensive suite of solutions we provide to many of our customers;
the failure to innovate in order to keep up with new emerging technologies, which could impact our solutions and our ability to attract new, or retain existing, customers;
an operational or natural disaster at one of our major operations centers;
failure to comply with applicable requirements of payment networks or changes in those requirements;
fraud by merchants or bad actors; and
other risks detailed elsewhere in the "Risk Factors" section of this report and in our other filings with the SEC.

Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Except as required by applicable law or regulation, we do not undertake (and expressly disclaim) any obligation and do not intend to publicly update or review any of our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

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Item 2.    Properties

FIS' corporate headquarters is located at 601 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida. In addition, FIS owns or leases support centers, data processing facilities and other facilities at approximately 150 locations. We believe our facilities and equipment are generally well maintained and are in good operating condition. We believe that the equipment we own and our various facilities are adequate for our present and foreseeable business needs.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

In the ordinary course of business, the Company is involved in various pending and threatened litigation matters related to its business and operations, some of which include claims for punitive or exemplary damages. The Company believes no such currently pending or threatened actions are likely to have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial position. With respect to litigation in which the Company is involved generally, please note the following:

These matters raise difficult and complicated factual and legal issues and are subject to many uncertainties and complexities.

The Company reviews all of its litigation on an ongoing basis and follows the authoritative provision for accounting for contingencies when making accrual and disclosure decisions. A liability must be accrued if (a) it is probable that a liability has been incurred and (b) the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. If one of these criteria has not been met, disclosure is required when there is at least a reasonable possibility that a material loss may be incurred. When assessing reasonably possible and probable outcomes, the Company bases decisions on the assessment of the ultimate outcome following all appeals. Legal fees associated with defending litigation matters are expensed as incurred.

See Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for information about certain legal matters and indemnifications and warranties.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "FIS."

As of January 31, 2021, there were approximately 10,746 shareholders of record of our common stock.
We currently expect to continue to pay quarterly dividends. However, the amount, declaration and payment of future dividends is at the discretion of the Board of Directors and depends on, among other things, our investment opportunities, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, and other factors that may be considered relevant by our Board of Directors, including legal and contractual restrictions. In January 2021, the Board of Directors approved a dividend increase of 11% to $0.39 per share per quarter beginning with the first quarter of 2021. A regular quarterly dividend of $0.39 per common share is payable on March 26, 2021, to shareholders of record as of the close of business on March 12, 2021.

Item 12 of Part III contains information concerning securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans.

The existing plan authorizing share repurchases approved by the Board of Directors in 2017 expired as of December 31, 2020. Management temporarily suspended share repurchases during 2020 as a result of the Worldpay transaction to accelerate debt repayment. In January 2021, our Board of Directors approved a new share repurchase program under which it authorized the Company to repurchase up to 100 million shares of our common stock at management's discretion from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions and through Rule 10b5-1 plans. The new repurchase program has no expiration date and may be suspended for periods, amended or discontinued at any time.

The graph below compares the cumulative 5-year total return of holders of Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.'s common stock with the cumulative total returns of the S&P 500 index and S&P Supercap Data Processing & Outsourced
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Services index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock and in each index (including reinvestment of dividends) was $100 on December 31, 2015, and tracks it through December 31, 2020.

fis-20201231_g1.jpg
 12/1512/1612/1712/1812/1912/20
Fidelity National Information Services, Inc.100.00126.64159.61176.08241.54248.20
S&P 500100.00111.96136.40130.42171.49203.04
S&P Supercap Data Processing & Outsourced Services100.00108.12150.73171.58247.35307.17
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

The selected financial data set forth below constitutes historical financial data of FIS and should be read in conjunction with "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

On January 2, 2020, FIS acquired a majority interest in Virtus Partners ("Virtus"). The results of operations and financial position of Virtus are included in the consolidated financial statements since the date of acquisition.

On July 31, 2019, we completed the Worldpay acquisition. The results of operations and financial position of Worldpay are included in the consolidated financial statements since the date of acquisition.
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Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted the new leases accounting standard, Topic 842, as described further in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Recent Accounting Pronouncements." Amounts for the years ended prior to December 31, 2019, were not recast to reflect application of the new accounting standard; therefore, our assets and liabilities for those years are not presented on the same accounting basis. This new standard had no effect on our results of operations or cash flows.

On December 31, 2018, we completed the sale of the Reliance Trust Company of Delaware business, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $19 million. The results of operations of the Reliance Trust Company of Delaware business are included through the date of divestiture.

On September 28, 2018, FIS entered into an agreement with Banco Bradesco to unwind the Brazilian Venture. The transaction closed on December 31, 2018. As a result of the transaction, the Brazilian Venture spun-off certain assets of the business that also provide services to non-Bradesco clients to a new wholly-owned FIS subsidiary. Also as a result of the transaction, Banco Bradesco owns 100% of the entity that previously housed the Brazilian Venture and its remaining assets that relate to card processing for Banco Bradesco, which Banco Bradesco will perform internally. In the third quarter of 2018, FIS incurred impairment charges of $95 million related to the expected disposal, including impairments of its contract intangible asset, goodwill and its assets held for sale to fair value less cost to sell. Upon closing of the transaction, FIS recorded an additional pre-tax loss of $12 million related to the business divested, removed FIS' noncontrolling interest balance of $90 million, and recorded a $57 million increase to additional paid in capital for the business spun-off into the new wholly-owned FIS subsidiary. The transaction did not meet the standard necessary to be reported as discontinued operations; therefore, the impairment loss, pre-tax loss and related prior period earnings remain reported within earnings from continuing operations.

Effective August 31, 2018, FIS sold substantially all the assets of the Certegy Check Services business unit in North America, resulting in a pre-tax loss of $54 million, including goodwill distributed through the sale of business of $43 million. The results of operations of the Certegy Check Services business unit in North America are included through the date of divestiture.

On July 31, 2017, FIS closed on the sale of a majority ownership stake in its Capco consulting business and risk and compliance consulting business for cash proceeds of approximately $469 million, resulting in a pre-tax loss of $41 million. As a result of the sale, FIS holds a noncontrolling ownership stake in Cardinal Holdings ("Cardinal"), which operates the Capco consulting business. FIS records the ownership stake in Cardinal as an equity method investment. For periods prior to the sale, the Capco consulting business and risk and compliance consulting business are included within operating income; for periods subsequent to the sale, the results of operations are included in equity method investment earnings (loss) outside of operating income.

On February 1, 2017, FIS completed the sale of the Public Sector and Education ("PS&E") business for $850 million, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $85 million. The results of operations of the PS&E business are included through the date of divestiture.

We have engaged in share repurchases in the periods presented. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, we repurchased a total of approximately 3.9 million shares for $400 million, 12.0 million shares for $1,215 million and 1.1 million shares for $105 million, respectively. There were no share repurchases in 2020 and 2016.

The effective tax rate for the 2020 period includes a one-time net remeasurement of certain deferred tax liabilities due to the increase in the U.K. corporate statutory tax rate from 17% to 19% enacted on July 22, 2020. The effective tax rate for the 2019 period included a detriment of $44 million due to non-deductible executive stock compensation primarily driven by acceleration of heritage Worldpay stock compensation awards and the accrual of additional stock compensation due to reaching certain Worldpay synergy targets and a detriment of $21 million due to the post-acquisition combined state income tax rates. The effective tax rate for the 2018 period included the impact of the reduction in the U.S. federal income tax rate from 35% to 21% due to tax reform enacted December 22, 2017. The effective tax rate for the 2017 period included a net benefit of $761 million related to tax reform items including $48 million of tax credits due to tax planning strategies implemented in the fourth quarter and a net detriment of $180 million due to the book basis in excess of the tax basis of certain businesses sold during the year. The effective tax rate for the 2016 period did not include a net benefit for the recognition of excess tax benefit for stock compensation as the effective date of ASU 2016-09 was for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016.

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 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019201820172016
  (In millions, except per share data) 
Statement of Earnings Data:     
Revenue$12,552 $10,333 $8,423 $8,668 $8,831 
Cost of revenue8,348 6,610 5,569 5,794 5,895 
Gross profit4,204 3,723 2,854 2,874 2,936 
Selling, general and administrative expenses3,516 2,667 1,301 1,442 1,707 
Asset impairments136 87 95 — — 
Operating income552 969 1,458 1,432 1,229 
Total other income (expense), net(286)(556)(354)(456)(392)
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity method investment earnings (loss)266 413 1,104 976 837 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes96 100 208 (321)291 
Equity method investment earnings (loss)(6)(10)(15)(3)— 
Earnings from continuing operations, net of tax164 303 881 1,294 546 
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax— — — — 
Net earnings164 303 881 1,294 547 
Net (earnings) loss attributable to noncontrolling interest(6)(5)(35)(33)(22)
Net earnings attributable to FIS common stockholders$158 $298 $846 $1,261 $525 
Net earnings per share-basic from continuing operations attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.26 $0.67 $2.58 $3.82 $1.61 
Net earnings (loss) per share-basic from discontinued operations attributable to FIS common stockholders— — — — — 
Net earnings per share-basic attributable to FIS common stockholders *$0.26 $0.67 $2.58 $3.82 $1.61 
Weighted average shares outstanding-basic619 445 328 330 326 
Net earnings per share-diluted from continuing operations attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.25 $0.66 $2.55 $3.75 $1.59 
Net earnings (loss) per share-diluted from discontinued operations attributable to FIS common stockholders— — — — — 
Net earnings per share-diluted attributable to FIS common stockholders *$0.25 $0.66 $2.55 $3.75 $1.59 
Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted627 451 332 336 330 
Amounts attributable to FIS common stockholders:     
Earnings from continuing operations, net of tax$158 $298 $846 $1,261 $524 
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax— — — — 
Net earnings attributable to FIS common stockholders$158 $298 $846 $1,261 $525 

* Amounts may not sum due to rounding.

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 As of December 31,
 20202019201820172016
 (In millions, except per share data)
Balance Sheet Data:
     
Cash and cash equivalents$1,959 $1,152 $703 $665 $683 
Goodwill53,268 52,242 13,545 13,730 14,178 
Intangible assets, net13,928 15,798 3,132 3,885 4,590 
Total assets83,842 83,806 23,770 24,526 26,026 
Total debt20,015 20,192 8,985 8,763 10,478 
Total FIS stockholders' equity49,300 49,440 10,215 10,711 9,675 
Noncontrolling interest13 16 109 104 
Total equity49,313 49,456 10,222 10,820 9,779 
Cash dividends declared per share$1.40 $1.40 $1.28 $1.16 $1.04 

Selected Quarterly Financial Data

Selected unaudited quarterly financial data is as follows:
 Quarter Ended
 March 31June 30September 30December 31
 (In millions, except per share data)
2020    
Revenue$3,078 $2,962 $3,197 $3,316 
Gross profit989 916 1,093 1,206 
Earnings (loss) before income taxes and equity method investment earnings (loss)(11)32 143 102 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to FIS common stockholders15 19 20 103 
Net earnings (loss) per share-basic attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.02 $0.03 $0.03 $0.17 
Net earnings (loss) per share-diluted attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.02 $0.03 $0.03 $0.16 
2019    
Revenue$2,057 $2,112 $2,822 $3,341 
Gross profit676 708 984 1,355 
Earnings before income taxes and equity method investment earnings (loss)188 199 209 (183)
Net earnings attributable to FIS common stockholders148 154 154 (158)
Net earnings per share-basic attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.46 $0.48 $0.30 $(0.26)
Net earnings per share-diluted attributable to FIS common stockholders$0.45 $0.47 $0.29 $(0.26)



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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following section discusses management's view of the financial condition and results of operations of FIS and its consolidated subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, unless otherwise noted.

This section should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes of FIS included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements. See "Forward-Looking Information" and "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report for a discussion of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these forward-looking statements that could cause future results to differ materially from those reflected in this section.

Business Trends and Conditions

Our revenue is primarily derived from a combination of technology and processing services, payment transaction fees, professional services and software license fees. While we are a global company and do business around the world, the majority of our revenue is generated by clients in the U.S. The majority of our international revenue is generated by clients in the U.K., Germany, Australia, Canada, Brazil and India. The majority of our revenue has historically been recurring and has been provided under multi-year Banking and Capital Markets contracts that contribute relative stability to our revenue stream. These services, in general, are considered critical to our clients' operations. Although Merchant has a lesser percentage of multi-year contracts, substantially all of its revenue is recurring. A considerable portion of our Merchant recurring revenue, and to a lesser extent a portion of our Banking and Capital Markets recurring revenue, is derived from transaction processing fees that fluctuate with the number or value of transactions processed, among other variable measures, associated with consumer, commercial and capital markets activity. Professional services revenue is typically non-recurring, though recognition often occurs over time rather than at a point in time. Sales of software licenses are typically non-recurring with point-in-time recognition and are less predictable.

COVID-19 continued to impact our financial results in the fourth quarter of 2020. In certain locations, where government lockdowns and shelter-in-place orders have been tightened, consumer spending impacting our Merchant payments volume, and related transaction revenue has been adversely impacted after partially recovering in the third quarter of 2020. Certain discretionary spending verticals, including travel, airlines and restaurants, continue to be significantly impacted. The Company's revenue continues to be impacted by reduced payment processing volumes within our Merchant segment and, to a lesser extent, transaction volume within our Banking segment.

We have seen some slowdown in customer decision-making on sales and implementation of our solutions, as well as on software licenses and professional services. These delays, due largely to client caution, have adversely affected our business, results of operations and financial condition in the fourth quarter of 2020 and could continue, although the magnitude and duration of their ultimate effect is not possible to predict and has not been material to date. We have continued to prioritize investments in solutions that help address the needs of our clients in order to increase the Company's potential to resume strong revenue growth following the pandemic.

In response to COVID-19, we are continuing to take several actions to manage discretionary expenses, including reducing office space, prohibiting most travel and reducing incentive compensation, as well as accelerating automation and functional alignment across the organization. These actions reduced such expenses by approximately $300 million in 2020. Of this amount, approximately $220 million relates to reduced incentive compensation for 2020, which we do not anticipate occurring with respect to 2021 incentive compensation.

Our extension of higher-than-usual levels of credit to our merchant clients as part of funds settlement in connection with payments to their customers, for, among other things, refunds for cancelled trips and events lessened as the year progressed, although increasing government lockdown orders in the fourth quarter could adversely impact credit extensions and chargebacks. We are exposed to losses if our merchant customers are unable to repay the credit we have extended or to fund their liability for chargebacks due to closure, insolvency, bankruptcy or other reasons. This increase in extended credit or potential liability for chargebacks did not have a material impact on our liquidity for the three- and twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2020, although certain of our merchant clients have ceased doing business, at least for a period of time, and we continue to monitor their impact on our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.

We continue to assist financial institutions in migrating to outsourced integrated technology solutions to improve their profitability and address increasing and ongoing regulatory requirements. As a provider of outsourcing solutions, we benefit from multi-year recurring revenue streams, which help moderate the effects of broader year-to-year economic and market
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changes that otherwise might have a larger impact on our results of operations. We believe our integrated solutions and outsourced services are well-positioned to address this outsourcing trend across the markets we serve. However, delays in implementation of our solutions caused by the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic may temporarily slow future revenue growth to an extent not yet determined.

Over the last five years, we have moved approximately 73% of our server compute, primarily in North America, to our FIS cloud located in our strategic data centers, and our goal is to increase that percentage to 80% by the end of 2021. This allows us to further enhance security for our clients' data and increases the flexibility and speed with which we can provide solutions and services to our clients, eventually at lesser cost. Concurrently, we have continued to consolidate our data centers, closing seven data centers in 2019 and an additional six data centers in 2020. Our consolidation has generated a savings for the Company as of year-end 2020 of approximately $240 million in run-rate annual expense reduction since the program's inception in mid-2016. We plan to close and consolidate approximately seven more data centers by the end of 2021, which should result in additional run rate annual expense reduction of approximately $10 million.

We continue to invest in modernization, innovation and integrated solutions and services to meet the demands of the markets we serve and compete with global banks, financial and other technology providers, and emerging technology innovators. We invest both organically and through investment opportunities in companies building complementary technologies in the financial services space. Our internal efforts in research and development activities have related primarily to the modernization of our proprietary core systems in each of our segments, design and development of next generation digital and innovative solutions and development of processing systems and related software applications and risk management platforms. We have increased our investments in these areas in each of the last three years. Our innovation efforts have recently resulted in bringing to market our Modern Banking Platform that is among the first cloud-native core banking solutions. We expect to continue our practice of investing an appropriate level of resources to maintain, enhance and extend the functionality of our proprietary systems and existing software applications, to develop new and innovative software applications and systems to address emerging technology trends in response to the needs of our clients and to enhance the capabilities of our outsourcing infrastructure.

We have invested in the development of new solutions by establishing the position of the Chief Growth Officer in 2020 and building staff within that office. This office prioritizes development and investment in new solutions in collaboration with our segment leaders, including investment in fintech venture opportunities with innovative new solutions.
FIS continues to carefully monitor the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as conditions continue to evolve. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the Company has taken several actions to protect its employees while maintaining business continuity, including implementing its comprehensive Pandemic Plan. The Pandemic Plan includes site-specific plans as well as travel restrictions, medical response protocols, work-from-home strategies and enhanced cleaning within our locations. As a critical infrastructure provider for the global economy, FIS continues to operate around the world to serve our clients.

The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices (including restricting employee travel, developing social distancing plans for our employees and cancelling physical participation in meetings, events and conferences), and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or as we determine are in the best interests of our employees, clients and business partners. Where government lockdowns have prohibited or slowed down certain functions at specific locations, FIS has outfitted employees to provide services from home or transferred work to other locations. Nearly 95% of our employees remain in a work-from-home status and have been effectively outfitted to continue to provide all necessary services to our clients. We continued this work-from-home status in most locations since the impact of the pandemic began in mid-March 2020 through the end of the year, as the safety of our employees is a top priority. Additionally, for its employees, the Company has expanded sick leave for employees affected by COVID-19, expanded telemedicine internationally, provided special pay for certain employees involved in critical infrastructure who could not work from home, and expanded its FIS Cares program to benefit employees in need around the world.

Consumer preference continues to shift from traditional branch banking services to digital banking solutions, and our clients seek to provide a single integrated banking experience through their branch, mobile, internet and voice banking channels. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to be accelerating digitization of banking and payment services by requiring, in many cases, banks and bank customers to transact through digital channels. We have been providing our large regional banking customers in the U.S. with Digital One, an integrated digital banking platform, and are now adding functionality and offering Digital One to our community bank clients to provide a consistent, omnichannel experience for consumers of banking services across self-service channels like mobile banking and online banking, as well as supporting channels for bank staff operating in bank branches and contact centers. The uniform customer experience extends to support a broad range of financial services including opening new accounts, servicing of existing accounts, money movement services, and personal financial
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management, as well as other consumer, small business and commercial banking capabilities. Digital One is integrated into several of the core banking platforms offered by FIS and is also offered to customers of non-FIS core banking systems.
We anticipate consolidation within the banking industry will continue, primarily in the form of merger and acquisition activity among financial institutions, which we believe as a whole is detrimental to the profitability of the financial technology industry. However, consolidation resulting from specific merger and acquisition transactions may be beneficial to our business. When consolidations of financial institutions occur, merger partners often operate systems obtained from competing service providers. The newly formed entity generally makes a determination to migrate its core and payments systems to a single platform. When a financial institution processing client is involved in a consolidation, we may benefit by their expanding the use of our services if such services are chosen to survive the consolidation and to support the newly combined entity. Conversely, we may lose revenue if we are providing services to both entities, or if a client of ours is involved in a consolidation and our services are not chosen to survive the consolidation and to support the newly combined entity. It is also possible that larger financial institutions resulting from consolidation may have greater leverage in negotiating terms or could decide to perform in-house some or all of the services that we currently provide or could provide. We seek to mitigate the risks of consolidations by offering other competitive services to take advantage of specific opportunities at the surviving company.

As a result of the Worldpay acquisition completed on July 31, 2019, FIS is now a global leader in the merchant solutions industry, with differentiated solutions throughout the payments market, including capabilities in global eCommerce, integrated payments, and enterprise payments and data security solutions in business-to-business ("B2B") payments. These solutions bring together advanced payments technologies at each stage of the transaction life cycle. The Worldpay acquisition broadened our solution portfolio, enabling us to significantly expand our merchant acquiring solutions, including our capabilities in the growing eCommerce and integrated payment segments of the market, which are in demand among our merchant clients as they look for ways to integrate technology into their business models. The combination also favorably impacts our business mix with a greater concentration in higher growth and higher margin services. The Worldpay acquisition significantly increased our revenue as well as our amortization expense for acquired intangibles and our acquisition, integration and other costs. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our merchant processing revenue has been adversely impacted, particularly in the discretionary spending areas of travel, airlines, and restaurants, and we expect revenue will continue to be adversely impacted until the economic effects and government, company, and public travel restrictions due to the pandemic subside around the world.

Following the Worldpay acquisition, we are focused on completing post-merger integration to achieve potential incremental revenue opportunities and expense efficiencies created by the combination of the two companies. We have a history of successfully integrating the operations and technology platforms of acquired companies, including winding down legacy environments and consolidating platforms from other acquisitions into our environment. Based on prior integration experience, we developed integration plans to achieve the potential benefits created by the Worldpay acquisition. As of the end of 2020, our achievement of revenue synergies remains on track to meet or exceed our current targets driven by successful cross-sell of our heritage Premium Payback solution into heritage Worldpay clients and by leveraging our heritage Worldpay sales and distribution teams, expanding on our existing relationships with financial institutions to establish merchant referral agreements and optimizing our network routing capabilities. We have also exceeded our original target for expense synergies, as we have successfully integrated organizational structures, reduced corporate overhead and achieved cost savings within our operating environment, and expect to continue to achieve additional expense synergies during 2021.

We continue to see demand for innovative solutions in the payments market that will deliver faster, more convenient payment solutions in mobile channels, internet applications and cards. The payment processing industry is adopting new technologies, developing new solutions and services, evolving new business models and being affected by new market entrants and by an evolving regulatory environment. As merchants and financial institutions respond to these changes by seeking services to help them enhance their own offerings to consumers, including the ability to accept card-not-present ("CNP") payments in eCommerce and mobile environments as well as contactless cards and mobile wallets at the point-of-sale, FIS believes that payment processors will seek to develop additional capabilities in order to serve clients' evolving needs. To facilitate this expansion, we believe that payment processors will need to enhance their technology platforms so they can deliver these capabilities and differentiate their offerings from other providers. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to be accelerating digitization of payment services by requiring, in many cases, businesses and consumers to transact through digital channels.

We believe that these market changes present both an opportunity and a risk for us, and we cannot predict which emerging technologies or solutions will be successful. However, FIS believes that payment processors, like FIS, that have scalable, integrated business models, provide solutions across the payment processing value chain and utilize broad distribution capabilities will be best positioned to enable emerging alternative electronic payment technologies. Further, FIS believes that its depth of capabilities and breadth of distribution will enhance its position as emerging payment technologies are adopted by merchants and other businesses. FIS' ability to partner with non-financial institution enterprises, such as mobile payment
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providers and internet, retail and social media companies, could create attractive growth opportunities as these new entrants seek to become more active participants in the development of alternative electronic payment technologies and to facilitate the convergence of retail, online, mobile and social commerce applications.

Globally, attacks on information technology systems continue to grow in frequency, complexity and sophistication. This is a trend we expect to continue. Such attacks have become a point of focus for individuals, businesses and governmental entities. The objectives of these attacks include, among other things, gaining unauthorized access to systems to facilitate financial fraud, disrupt operations, cause denial of service events, corrupt data, and steal non-public information. These circumstances present both a threat and an opportunity for FIS. As part of our business, we electronically receive, process, store and transmit a wide range of confidential information, including sensitive customer information and personal consumer data. We also operate payment, cash access and prepaid card systems.

FIS remains focused on making strategic investments in information security to protect our clients and our information systems. These investments include both capital expenditures and operating expense related to hardware, software, personnel and consulting services. We also participate in industry and governmental initiatives to improve information security for our clients. Through the expertise we have gained with this ongoing focus and involvement, we have developed fraud, security, risk management and compliance solutions to target this growth opportunity in the financial services industry.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The accounting policies described below are those we consider critical in preparing our consolidated financial statements. These policies require management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures with respect to contingent liabilities and assets at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for a more detailed description of the significant accounting policies that have been followed in preparing our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Recognition

The Company generates revenue in a number of ways, including from the delivery of account- or transaction-based processing, SaaS, BPaaS, cloud offerings, software licensing, software-related services and professional services. Our contracts frequently contain non-standard terms that require judgment to determine the appropriate impact on revenue recognition. We are frequently a party to multiple concurrent contracts with the same client. These situations require judgment to determine whether the individual contracts should be combined or evaluated separately for purposes of revenue recognition. In making this determination, we consider the timing of negotiating and executing the contracts, whether the different elements of the contracts are negotiated as a package with a single commercial objective, whether the solutions or services promised in the contracts are a single performance obligation, and whether any of the payment terms of the contracts are interrelated. Our individual contracts also frequently include multiple promised solutions or services. At contract inception, we assess the solutions and services promised in our contracts with customers and identify a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a solution or service (or bundle of solutions or services) that is distinct - i.e., if a solution or service is separately identifiable from other items in the bundled package and if a customer can benefit from it on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer. We must apply judgment in these circumstances in determining whether individual promised solutions or services can be considered distinct or should instead be combined with other promised solutions or services in the contract. We recognize revenue when or as we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control of a solution or service to a customer. We must use judgment to determine whether revenue is measured at a point in time or over time, to determine when the customer obtains control for performance obligations satisfied at a point in time and to determine the appropriate measure of progress for performance obligations satisfied over time. Judgment is also required in estimating and allocating variable consideration to one or more, but not all, performance obligations in a contract, determining the standalone selling prices of each performance obligation, and allocating the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation in a contract.

Due to the large number, broad nature and average size of individual contracts we are party to, the impact of judgments and assumptions that we apply in recognizing revenue for any single contract is not likely to have a material effect on our consolidated operations or financial position. However, the broader accounting policy assumptions that we apply across similar contracts or classes of clients could significantly influence the timing and amount of revenue recognized in our historical and future results of operations or financial position.


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Capitalized Software Development Costs

Capitalized software development costs require judgment in determining when costs should be capitalized, the appropriate period over which to amortize the capitalized costs, and whether there is impairment of unamortized capitalized costs. We capitalize software development costs when technological feasibility of the software has been established (for software to be marketed) or at the beginning of application development (for internal-use software). In determining useful lives for amortization, we consider historical results and technological trends that may influence the estimate. Useful lives for capitalized software development costs typically range from three to 10 years.

The Company assesses the recorded value of capitalized software development costs for impairment on a regular basis by comparing the carrying value to the estimated future cash flows to be generated by the underlying software asset (net realizable value analysis for software to be marketed). There are inherent uncertainties in determining the expected useful life or cash flows to be generated from capitalized software development costs. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded $87 million in asset impairments, primarily related to certain software to be marketed. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2018, respectively, we have not had more than minimal charges for impairments of software. While we have not historically experienced significant changes in these balances due to changes in estimates, our results of operations could be subject to such changes in the future.

Purchase Accounting

We allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction at their estimated fair values. The estimates used to determine the fair value of long-lived assets, such as intangible assets and software, are complex and require a significant amount of management judgment. We typically engage third-party valuation specialists to assist us in making fair value determinations. The third-party valuation specialists generally use discounted cash flow models, which require internally-developed assumptions, to determine the acquisition fair value of customer relationship intangible assets and developed technology software assets. Assumptions for customer relationship asset valuations typically include forecasted revenue attributable to existing customer contracts and relationships, estimated annual attrition, forecasted EBITDA margin, and estimated weighted average cost of capital and discount rates. Assumptions for software asset valuations typically include forecasted revenue attributable to the software assets, obsolescence rates, estimated royalty rates and estimated weighted average cost of capital and discount rates.

While we use our best estimates and assumptions to determine the fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statements of earnings.

We are also required to estimate the useful lives of intangible assets to determine the amount of acquisition-related intangible asset amortization expense to record in future periods. The determination of asset lives affects our results of operations as different types of assets have different useful lives, and certain assets may be considered to have indefinite useful lives. We periodically review the estimated useful lives assigned to our finite-lived intangible assets to determine whether such estimated useful lives continue to be appropriate.

See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements for discussion of the Virtus acquisition in 2020 and Worldpay acquisition in 2019. We had no significant business combinations during 2018.

Goodwill

Goodwill was $53.3 billion and $52.2 billion as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Company assesses goodwill for impairment by reporting unit on an annual basis during the fourth quarter or more frequently if circumstances indicate potential impairment. Our reporting units are the same as our primary operating segments, with additional reporting units for certain non-strategic businesses within the Corporate and Other segment. Goodwill impairment assessments require a significant amount of management judgment, and a meaningful change in one or more of the underlying forecasts, estimates, or assumptions used in testing goodwill for impairment could result in a material impact on the Company's results of operations and financial position. Based on the results of our assessments for 2020, $94 million of goodwill related to certain non-strategic businesses within the Corporate and Other segment was impaired. For all other reporting units for all periods presented, goodwill was not impaired.

When performing a qualitative assessment, we consider events and circumstances to determine if it is more likely than not that a reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, including factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and
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market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance, events affecting the reporting unit or Company as a whole, including a sustained decrease in stock price. We examine those factors most likely to affect each reporting unit's fair value.

When performing a quantitative assessment, we typically engage third-party valuation specialists to assist us in determining the fair value of the reporting unit based on a weighted average of multiple valuation techniques, typically a combination of an income approach and a market approach. The income approach calculates a value based upon the present value of estimated future cash flows, while the market approach uses earnings multiples of similarly situated guideline public companies. The income approach involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions regarding forecasted revenue, growth rates, operating margins, capital expenditures, and other factors used to calculate estimated future cash flows. In addition, risk-adjusted discount rates and future economic and market conditions and other assumptions are applied. The market approach involves the selection of guideline public companies and earnings multiples considering factors such as markets of operation, solutions offered, and risk profiles.

For each of 2019 and 2018, we began our annual assessment with the qualitative assessment and concluded that it remained more likely than not that the fair value of each of our reporting units continued to exceed the carrying amounts. For 2020, we began our annual assessment for the Banking Solutions and Capital Market Solutions reporting units with qualitative assessments and concluded that that it remained more likely than not that the fair value of each of the reporting units continued to exceed their respective carrying amounts. Based on the qualitative assessment performed for these reporting units, and because there was a substantial excess of fair value over carrying amount in our previous third-party valuations performed in 2015 for Banking Solutions- and Capital Market Solutions-related businesses, we believe the likelihood of obtaining materially different results based on a change of assumptions is low.

For Merchant Solutions, we began our 2020 annual assessment with a quantitative assessment due to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our Merchant Solutions business and its primary operations being recently acquired as part of the Worldpay acquisition. As a result of the assessment, the fair value of the reporting unit was estimated to be in excess of carrying amount by approximately 4%. The fair value was determined with the assistance of third-party valuation specialists, using an equal weighting of the income and market approaches based on an evaluation of the availability and relevance of guideline public companies having similar risks, participating in similar markets, and providing similar solutions for their customers.

For the income approach to estimating the fair value of the Merchant Solutions reporting unit, we estimated future cash flows using internal forecasts, which were developed considering historical operating performance, expected economic conditions and industry and market trends, including the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic and expected impact of planned business initiatives. At the end of the forecast period, we used a long-term growth rate to determine the terminal value based on an evaluation of the minimum expected terminal growth rate of the Merchant Solutions reporting unit, as well as broader economic considerations such as inflation and foreign exchange rates. Due to the inherent uncertainties involved in making estimates and assumptions, actual results may differ from those determined based on our forecasts.

In computing the present value of estimated future cash flows, we used a risk-adjusted discount rate based on an assessment of the weighted average cost of capital calculation for the Merchant Solutions reporting unit and relevant guideline public companies. We believe the discount rate used is commensurate with the risks and uncertainties inherent in the Merchant Solutions business and in our internally developed forecasts, but the rate is subject to change in future periods based on changes in the U.S. Treasury rate, inflation, and other factors.

The estimated fair value of the Merchant Solutions reporting unit was derived from the valuation techniques described above, incorporating forecasts and assumptions. The estimated fair value of the Merchant Solutions reporting unit is sensitive to changes in these forecasts and assumptions, and such changes could impact the determination of goodwill impairment. We performed sensitivity analyses around certain assumptions in order to assess the reasonableness of the assumptions and the resulting estimated fair value. For example, a hypothetical 100-basis-point increase in the discount rate yielded an estimated fair value for the Merchant Solutions reporting unit below its carrying amount.

Given the results of the Merchant Solutions reporting unit quantitative assessment, the reporting unit is at risk for future goodwill impairment as it is reasonably possible that, among other factors, future developments related to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our Merchant Solutions business, such as an extended duration of the pandemic and/or government-imposed shutdowns, prolonged economic downturn or recession, or lack of governmental support for recovery, could have a material impact on one or more of the estimates and assumptions used to evaluate goodwill impairment and could result in future goodwill impairment.


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Related-Party Transactions

We are a party to certain historical related-party agreements as discussed in Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements.

Factors Affecting Comparability

For information regarding factors affecting comparability, see "Item 6. Selected Financial Data." As a result of the transactions noted in Item 6. Selected Financial Data, our financial position, results of operations, earnings per share and cash flows in the periods covered by the consolidated financial statements may not be directly comparable.

Consolidated Results of Operations

This section generally discusses fiscal year 2020 compared to 2019. Discussions of fiscal year 2019 compared to 2018 not included herein can be found in Part II, "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 23, 2020.
Year ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change% Change
(In millions)
Revenue$12,552 $10,333 $2,219 21 %
Cost of revenue(8,348)(6,610)(1,738)26 
Gross profit4,204 3,723 481 13 
Gross profit margin33 %36 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses(3,516)(2,667)(849)32 
Asset impairments(136)(87)(49)56 
Operating income552 969 (417)(43)
Operating margin%%

Revenue

Revenue increased primarily due to incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition. Revenue was adversely impacted by reduced payment processing volumes within our Merchant Solutions segment and, to a lesser extent, transaction volume within our Banking Solutions segment, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. See Segment Results of Operations below for more detailed explanation.

Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit and Gross Profit Margin

Gross profit increased primarily due to the revenue variances noted above. Gross profit margin decreased primarily due to higher acquired intangible asset amortization expense, partially offset by higher margin revenue from the Worldpay acquisition.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased primarily due to incremental Worldpay corporate and infrastructure expenses and higher acquisition, integration and other costs. These increases were partially offset by lower discretionary spending during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Asset Impairments

During 2020, the Company recorded asset impairments totaling $136 million related to goodwill for certain non-strategic businesses and to certain long-lived assets related to reducing office space. During 2019, the Company recorded asset impairments totaling $87 million primarily related to certain software resulting from the Company's net realizable value analysis.


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Operating Income and Operating Margin

The annual change in operating income resulted from the revenue and cost variances noted above. The operating margin during 2020 was negatively impacted by higher acquired intangible asset amortization expense, higher acquisition, integration and other costs and asset impairments of $136 million. The operating margin during 2019 was negatively impacted by higher acquired intangible asset amortization expense, higher acquisition, integration and other costs and asset impairments of $87 million.

Total Other Income (Expense), Net
Year ended December 31,
20202019$ Change% Change
Other income (expense):(In millions) 
Interest expense, net$(334)$(337)$(1)%
Other income (expense), net48 (219)267 (122)
Total other income (expense), net$(286)$(556)270 (49)

The decrease in interest expense, net is primarily due to a lower weighted average interest rate on the outstanding debt throughout the year, notwithstanding the increase in outstanding debt as a result of the Worldpay acquisition, partially offset by a decrease in interest income as compared to the prior year that included interest income on the proceeds from the Worldpay acquisition-related debt issuances prior to closing.

Other income (expense), net for 2020 primarily represents the fair value adjustment on certain non-operating assets and liabilities, foreign currency transaction remeasurement gains and losses and the pending settlement amount of the Reliance Trust claims, which is further described in Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements.

Other income (expense), net for 2019 primarily includes a pre-tax charge of approximately $217 million in tender premiums and fees and the write-off of previously capitalized debt issuance costs on the early redemption of approximately $3.0 billion in aggregate principal amount of our senior notes as well as approximately $33 million of acquisition financing costs related to the acquisition of Worldpay. These items were partially offset by the non-cash foreign currency gain on non-hedged Euro- and Pound Sterling-denominated notes issued to finance the Worldpay acquisition, during the period from the date of issue of the notes to the date of the acquisition.

Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
Year ended December 31,
20202019$ Change% Change
(In millions)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes$96 $100 $(4)(4)%
Effective tax rate36 %24 %

The effective tax rate for the 2020 period includes a one-time net remeasurement of certain deferred tax liabilities due to the increase in the U.K. corporate statutory tax rate from 17% to 19% enacted on July 22, 2020. The effective tax rate for 2019 includes a detriment of $44 million due to non-deductible executive stock compensation primarily driven by acceleration of converted heritage Worldpay stock compensation awards and the accrual of additional stock compensation due to reaching certain Worldpay synergy targets and a detriment of $21 million due to the post-acquisition combined state income tax rates.

Segment Results of Operations

FIS reports its financial performance based on the following segments: Merchant Solutions, Banking Solutions, Capital
Market Solutions, and Corporate and Other. The Company reclassified certain non-strategic businesses from Merchant Solutions, Banking Solutions, and Capital Market Solutions into Corporate and Other during the year ended December 31, 2020, and recast all prior-period segment information presented.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net earnings (loss) before net interest expense, net other income (expense), income tax provision (benefit), equity method investment earnings (loss), depreciation and amortization, and excludes certain costs and other transactions that management deems non-operational in nature. This measure is reported to the chief operating decision maker for purposes of making decisions about allocating resources to the segments and assessing their performance. For this
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reason, Adjusted EBITDA, as it relates to our segments, is presented in conformity with FASB ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting. The non-operational items affecting the segment profit measure generally include purchase accounting adjustments; acquisition, integration and certain other costs and asset impairments. Adjusted EBITDA also excludes incremental and direct costs resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. These costs and adjustments are recorded in the Corporate and Other segment for the periods discussed below. Adjusted EBITDA for the respective segments excludes the foregoing costs and adjustments. Financial information, including details of Adjusted EBITDA, for each of our segments is set forth in Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements.

Merchant Solutions
Years ended December 31,$ Change% Change
2020 vs2019 vs2020 vs2019 vs
 2020201920182019201820192018
 (In millions)
Revenue$3,767 $1,942 $208 $1,825 $1,734 94 %NM
Adjusted EBITDA$1,752 $967 $45 785 922 81 NM
Adjusted EBITDA margin46.5 %49.8 %21.6 %
Adjusted EBITDA margin basis points change(330)NM

Year ended December 31, 2020:

Revenue increased primarily due to incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition totaling $1,834 million, including a favorable foreign currency impact of less than 1%, driven by a weaker U.S. Dollar versus the British Pound Sterling. Revenue was adversely impacted by declines in payment processing volumes in certain discretionary spending verticals, including travel, airlines and restaurants, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The increase in adjusted EBITDA primarily resulted from the incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition. The decrease in adjusted EBITDA margin was due to decreasing volumes of high-margin services as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Year ended December 31, 2019:

Revenue increased primarily due to incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition totaling $1,722 million.

Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin increased primarily due to the incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition at a higher margin.

Banking Solutions
Years ended December 31,$ Change% Change
2020 vs2019 vs2020 vs2019 vs
 2020201920182019201820192018
 (In millions)
Revenue$5,944 $5,592 $5,416 $352 $176 %%
Adjusted EBITDA$2,556 $2,402 $2,192 154 210 10 
Adjusted EBITDA margin43.0 %43.0 %40.5 %
Adjusted EBITDA margin basis points change— 250 

Year ended December 31, 2020:

Revenue increased primarily due to incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition contributing 4% and other items contributing an aggregate of 5%. Other items in Banking Solutions revenue were attributable to increased demand for our core and digital banking offerings and COVID-19 pandemic-related programs including recurring revenue due to card production and prepaid card services and non-recurring revenue due to Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") loan processing. Banking Solutions revenue was also adversely impacted by lower issuer processing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These items were partially offset by (1) a decrease in non-recurring revenue from Latin America payments contributing less than (1%); (2) a
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decrease in termination fees contributing less than (1%); and (3) an unfavorable foreign currency impact to growth contributing less than (1%), primarily driven by a stronger U.S. Dollar versus the Brazilian Real and Indian Rupee.

Adjusted EBITDA increased primarily due to the revenue variances noted above. Adjusted EBITDA margin was flat primarily due to lower-margin revenue mix offset by discretionary expense management.

Year ended December 31, 2019:

Revenue increased primarily due to (1) incremental revenue from the Worldpay acquisition contributing 3%; (2) increased termination fees contributing less than 1%; and (3) other items contributing an aggregate of 4% due in part to license and professional services growth in the wealth and retirement business, strong network and back-office volumes, and growth in the card production business. These items were partially offset by the unwinding of the Brazilian Venture offset in part by the new commercial agreement with Banco Bradesco and growth in Latin America payments contributing (3%) and the reduction in revenue from the sale of Reliance Trust Company of Delaware business contributing less than (1%). Banking Solutions had an unfavorable foreign currency impact contributing less than (1%), driven primarily by a stronger U.S. Dollar versus the Brazilian Real, Euro and British Pound.

Adjusted EBITDA increased primarily due to the revenue variances noted above. Adjusted EBITDA margin increased primarily due to positive revenue mix, the addition of higher margin Worldpay revenue, and the unwinding of lower margin Brazilian Venture revenue.

Capital Market Solutions
Years ended December 31,$ Change% Change
2020 vs2019 vs2020 vs2019 vs
 2020201920182019201820192018
 (In millions)
Revenue$2,440 $2,318 $2,258 $122 $60 %%
Adjusted EBITDA$1,147 $1,073 $1,024 74 49 
Adjusted EBITDA margin47.0 %46.3 %45.4 %
Adjusted EBITDA margin basis points change70 90 

Year ended December 31, 2020:

Revenue increased primarily due to the purchase of a majority interest in Virtus Partners contributing 3% and strong managed services growth contributing 2%. Revenue also benefited from a favorable foreign currency impact contributing less than 1%, primarily driven by a weaker U.S. Dollar versus the Euro and the Swedish Krona.

Adjusted EBITDA increased primarily due to the revenue impacts mentioned above. Adjusted EBITDA margin increased primarily due to ongoing expense initiatives and discretionary expense management.

Year ended December 31, 2019:

Revenue increased primarily due to strong managed services growth, contributing 1%, and the remaining revenue contributing 2% primarily due to increased demand for risk and compliance offerings. These items were partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency impact contributing less than (1%), primarily driven by a stronger U.S. Dollar versus the British Pound Sterling and Swedish Krona.
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin increased due to continued cost management.


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Corporate and Other
Years ended December 31,$ Change% Change
2020 vs2019 vs2020 vs2019 vs
 2020201920182019201820192018
 (In millions)
Revenue$401 $481 $541 $(80)$(60)(17)%(11)%
Adjusted EBITDA$(195)$(238)$(128)43 (110)(18)86 

The Corporate and Other segment results consist of selling, general and administrative expenses and depreciation and intangible asset amortization not otherwise allocated to the reportable segments. Corporate and Other also includes operations from non-strategic businesses.

Year ended December 31, 2020:

Revenue decreased primarily due to client attrition in certain of our non-strategic businesses.

Adjusted EBITDA increased primarily due to lower discretionary expenses during the COVID-19 pandemic and operating expense synergy cost actions, partially offset by adjusted EBITDA decline in non-strategic businesses.

Year ended December 31, 2019:

Revenue decreased primarily due to the sale of the Certegy Check Services business unit in North America during the third quarter of 2018.

Adjusted EBITDA decreased primarily due to incremental Worldpay corporate and infrastructure expenses and increased corporate health care and other benefit plan expenses.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Requirements

Our ongoing cash requirements include operating expenses, income taxes, tax receivable obligations, mandatory debt service payments, capital expenditures, stockholder dividends, regulatory requirements, working capital and timing differences in settlement-related assets and liabilities and may include discretionary debt repayments, share repurchases and business acquisitions. Our principal sources of funds are cash generated by operations and borrowings, including the capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility, the U.S. commercial paper program and the Euro-commercial paper program discussed in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $4,600 million of available liquidity, including $1,959 million of cash and cash equivalents and $2,641 million of capacity available under its Revolving Credit Facility. Approximately $1,443 million of cash and cash equivalents is held by our foreign entities. The majority of our cash and cash equivalents represents net deposits-in-transit at the balance sheet dates and relates to daily settlement activity and regulatory requirements. Debt outstanding totaled $20.0 billion, with an effective weighted average interest rate of 1.7%.

The Company's liquidity continued to improve throughout the year as compared to the onset of the pandemic. Additionally, the volume of consumer refunds continued to decline, thereby reducing the higher-than-usual levels of credit that were extended at the onset of the pandemic to our merchant clients as part of the funds settlement process. Our liquidity could be impacted if economic conditions deteriorate or as a result of governmental measures that might be imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Company remains committed to reducing its leverage incurred in the Worldpay acquisition while ensuring ample liquidity and expects to reach its target leverage in 2021.
We expect that cash and cash equivalents plus cash flows from operations over the next 12 months will be sufficient to fund our operating cash requirements, capital expenditures and mandatory debt service payments.
We currently expect to continue to pay quarterly dividends. However, the amount, declaration and payment of future dividends is at the discretion of our Board of Directors and depends on, among other things, our investment opportunities,
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results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, the duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and other factors that may be considered relevant by our Board of Directors, including legal and contractual restrictions. Additionally, the payment of cash dividends may be limited by covenants in certain debt agreements. In January 2021, the Board of Directors approved a dividend increase of 11% to $0.39 per share per quarter beginning with the first quarter of 2021. A regular quarterly dividend of $0.39 per common share is payable on March 26, 2021, to shareholders of record as of the close of business on March 12, 2021.

The existing plan authorizing share repurchases approved by the Board of Directors in 2017 expired as of December 31, 2020. Management temporarily suspended share repurchases during 2020 as a result of the Worldpay transaction to accelerate debt repayment. In January 2021, our Board of Directors approved a new share repurchase program under which it authorized the Company to repurchase up to 100 million shares of our common stock at management's discretion from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions and through Rule 10b5-1 plans. The new repurchase program has no expiration date and may be suspended for periods, amended or discontinued at any time.

Cash Flows from Operations

Cash flows from operations were $4,442 million, $2,410 million and $1,993 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our net cash provided by operating activities consists primarily of net earnings, adjusted to add back depreciation and amortization. Cash flows from operations increased $2,032 million in 2020 and $417 million in 2019. The 2020 increase in cash flows from operations is primarily due to increased cash flow from the Worldpay operations, including the timing of settlement activity, partially offset by Worldpay integration-related expenses and lower net earnings from the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2019 increase in cash flows from operations is primarily due to increased cash flow due to the Worldpay acquisition, partially offset by the timing of working capital and Worldpay acquisition transaction- and integration-related expenses. The 2018 period included U.S. federal estimated income tax payments normally due in the third and fourth quarters of 2017 that were paid during the first quarter of 2018 due to the Hurricane Irma Relief Program.

Capital Expenditures and Other Investing Activities

Our principal capital expenditures are for software (purchased and internally developed) and additions to property and equipment. We invested approximately $1,129 million, $828 million and $622 million in capital expenditures (excluding other financing obligations for certain hardware and software) during 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect to continue investing in property and equipment, purchased software and internally developed software to support our business.

In 2020 and 2019, we used $469 million and $6,629 million of cash (net of cash acquired, including restricted cash) primarily for the Virtus acquisition and for the Worldpay acquisition, respectively. See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.

Financing

For more information regarding the Company's debt and financing activity, see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

Contractual Obligations

FIS' long-term contractual obligations generally include its long-term debt, interest on long-term debt, lease payments on certain of its property and equipment and payments for certain purchase commitments and other obligations. The following table summarizes FIS' significant contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2020 (in millions):
Payments Due in
Less than1-33-5More than
Type of ObligationTotal1 YearYearsYears5 Years
Long-term debt (1)$17,383 $1,314 $4,177 $3,258 $8,634 
Interest (2)2,906 315 598 495 1,498 
Operating leases665 159 232 136 138 
Purchase commitments (3) 791 335 397 59 — 
Obligations under TRA (4)532 85 379 68 — 
Total$22,277 $2,208 $5,783 $4,016 $10,270 
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(1)The principal amounts assume no changes in currency rates for our notes denominated in Euro and GBP. See Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements for more details.
(2)The calculations above assume that (a) applicable margins and commitment fees remain constant; (b) all floating-rate debt is priced at the rates in effect as of December 31, 2020; (c) no refinancing occurs at debt maturity; (d) only mandatory debt repayments are made; (e) no new hedging transactions are effected; and (f) there are no currency effects.
(3)Includes obligations principally related to software, maintenance support, and telecommunication and network services as well as to third-party processors to provide gateway authorization and other processing services. Also includes the capital obligation related to the construction of our new headquarters.
(4)Obligation represents estimated Tax Receivable Agreement ("TRA") payments to Fifth Third Bank. See Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for more details.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

FIS does not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15 ("ASU 2018-15"), Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This ASU clarifies that implementation costs incurred by customers in cloud computing arrangements should be deferred and recognized over the term of the arrangement if those costs would be capitalized by the customer in a software licensing arrangement under the internal-use software guidance. FIS adopted ASU 2018-05 on January 1, 2020, using the prospective approach. The adoption of this new standard did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurements on Credit Losses of Financial Instruments. This ASU was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (collectively, "Topic 326"). The primary objectives of Topic 326 are to implement new methodology for calculating credit losses on financial instruments, such as trade receivables, based on lifetime expected credit losses and to broaden the types of information companies must use when calculating the estimated losses. The new guidance also applies to contract assets arising from contracts with customers. FIS adopted Topic 326 on January 1, 2020, using the modified retrospective approach and recorded an immaterial cumulative effect adjustment in retained earnings as of January 1, 2020.

Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted

No other new accounting pronouncement issued or effective during the fiscal year had or is expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or disclosures.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risks

Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks primarily from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. Such risks may be exacerbated by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We periodically use certain derivative financial instruments, including interest rate swaps and foreign currency forward contracts, to manage interest rate and foreign currency risk. We do not use derivatives for trading purposes, to generate income or to engage in speculative activity.

Interest Rate Risk

In addition to existing cash balances and cash provided by operating activities, we use fixed-rate and variable-rate debt to finance our operations. We are exposed to interest rate risk on these debt obligations and related interest rate swaps.

Our fixed-rate senior notes (as included in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements) represent the majority of our fixed-rate long-term debt obligations as of December 31, 2020. The carrying value, excluding the fair value of the interest rate swaps described below and unamortized discounts, of our senior notes was $17.0 billion as of December 31, 2020. The fair value of our senior notes was approximately $18.6 billion as of December 31, 2020. The potential reduction in fair value of the senior notes from a hypothetical 10 percent increase in market interest rates would not be material to the overall fair value of the debt.
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Our variable-rate risk principally relates to borrowings under our U.S. commercial paper program, Euro-commercial paper program, Revolving Credit Facility, Senior Euro Floating Rate Notes (as included in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements) and interest rate swaps on our fixed-rate long-term debt. At December 31, 2020, our weighted average cost of debt was 1.7% with a weighted-average maturity of 5.4 years; 74% of our debt was fixed-rate and the remaining 26% of our debt was variable-rate. A 100 basis-point increase in the weighted average interest rate on our variable-rate debt would have increased our 2020 annual interest expense by $51 million. We performed the foregoing sensitivity analysis based solely on the principal amount of our variable-rate debt as of December 31, 2020. This sensitivity analysis does not take into account any changes that occurred in the prior 12 months or that may take place in the next 12 months in the amount of our outstanding debt. Further, this sensitivity analysis assumes the change in interest rates is applicable for an entire year. For comparison purposes, based on principal amounts of variable-rate debt outstanding as of December 31, 2019, and calculated in the same manner as set forth above, an increase of 100 basis points in the weighted average interest rate would have increased our annual interest expense by approximately $45 million.

As of December 31, 2020, the following interest rate swaps converting the interest rate exposure on our Senior Euro Notes due July 2024 and our Senior USD Notes due May 2029 from fixed to variable are outstanding (in millions):
Bank paysFIS pays
Effective DateMaturity DateNotionalfixed rate ofvariable rate of
December 21, 2018July 15, 2024