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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 1-16411
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 80-0640649
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2980 Fairview Park Drive
Falls Church,Virginia22042
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(703) 280-2900
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockNOCNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
    Yes ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
    Yes ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large Accelerated Filer ☒     Accelerated Filer ☐
Non-accelerated Filer ☐    Smaller Reporting Company                 
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
    Yes     No ☒
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
As of April 24, 2023, 151,859,445 shares of common stock were outstanding.



NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 6.

i


NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.    Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts20232022
Sales
Product$7,271 $6,841 
Service2,030 1,956 
Total sales9,301 8,797 
Operating costs and expenses
Product5,727 5,380 
Service1,589 1,544 
General and administrative expenses1,038 976 
Total operating costs and expenses8,354 7,900 
Operating income947 897 
Other (expense) income
Interest expense(129)(133)
Non-operating FAS pension benefit132 376 
Other, net48 4 
Earnings before income taxes998 1,144 
Federal and foreign income tax expense156 189 
Net earnings$842 $955 
Basic earnings per share$5.52 $6.12 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, in millions152.6 156.0 
Diluted earnings per share$5.50 $6.10 
Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding, in millions153.2 156.6 
Net earnings (from above)$842 $955 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Change in cumulative translation adjustment2 (2)
Change in other, net (1)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax2 (3)
Comprehensive income$844 $952 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
-1-


NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
(Unaudited)
$ in millions, except par valueMarch 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$2,495 $2,577 
Accounts receivable, net2,061 1,511 
Unbilled receivables, net6,215 5,983 
Inventoried costs, net1,115 978 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets924 1,439 
Total current assets12,810 12,488 
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $7,448 for 2023 and $7,258 for 2022
8,838 8,800 
Operating lease right-of-use assets1,779 1,811 
Goodwill17,516 17,516 
Intangible assets, net364 384 
Deferred tax assets234 162 
Other non-current assets2,703 2,594 
Total assets$44,244 $43,755 
Liabilities
Trade accounts payable$2,136 $2,587 
Accrued employee compensation1,646 2,057 
Advance payments and billings in excess of costs incurred3,211 3,609 
Other current liabilities3,490 3,334 
Total current liabilities10,483 11,587 
Long-term debt, net of current portion of $1,082 for 2023 and $1,072 for 2022
13,770 11,805 
Pension and other postretirement benefit plan liabilities1,173 1,188 
Operating lease liabilities1,789 1,824 
Other non-current liabilities1,893 2,039 
Total liabilities29,108 28,443 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Shareholders’ equity
Preferred stock, $1 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
  
Common stock, $1 par value; 800,000,000 shares authorized; issued and outstanding: 2023—151,950,074 and 2022—153,157,924
152 153 
Paid-in capital  
Retained earnings15,135 15,312 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(151)(153)
Total shareholders’ equity15,136 15,312 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$44,244 $43,755 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions20232022
Operating activities
Net earnings$842 $955 
Adjustments to reconcile to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization298 303 
Stock-based compensation19 18 
Deferred income taxes(205)(201)
Net periodic pension and OPB income(76)(298)
Pension and OPB contributions(40)(36)
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(550)(246)
Unbilled receivables, net(232)(626)
Inventoried costs, net(137)(27)
Prepaid expenses and other assets(54)16 
Accounts payable and other liabilities(1,128)(732)
Income taxes payable, net576 361 
Other, net(15)25 
Net cash used in operating activities(702)(488)
Investing activities
Capital expenditures(309)(244)
Other, net (5)
Net cash used in investing activities(309)(249)
Financing activities
Net proceeds from issuance of long-term debt1,995  
Common stock repurchases(723)(318)
Cash dividends paid(270)(251)
Payments of employee taxes withheld from share-based awards(47)(48)
Other, net(26)(2)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities929 (619)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents(82)(1,356)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year2,577 3,530 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$2,495 $2,174 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts20232022
Common stock
Beginning of period$153 $156 
Common stock repurchased(1)(1)
Shares issued for employee stock awards and options 1 
End of period152 156 
Paid-in capital
Beginning of period  
End of period  
Retained earnings
Beginning of period15,312 12,913 
Common stock repurchased(726)(315)
Net earnings842 955 
Dividends declared(265)(246)
Stock compensation(28)(30)
End of period15,135 13,277 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
Beginning of period(153)(143)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax2 (3)
End of period(151)(146)
Total shareholders’ equity$15,136 $13,287 
Cash dividends declared per share$1.73 $1.57 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Unaudited)
1.    BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Principles of Consolidation and Reporting
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements (the “financial statements”) include the accounts of Northrop Grumman Corporation and its subsidiaries and joint ventures or other investments for which we consolidate the financial results (herein referred to as “Northrop Grumman,” the “company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”). Intercompany accounts, transactions and profits are eliminated in consolidation. Investments in equity securities and joint ventures where the company has significant influence, but not control, are accounted for using the equity method.
These financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP” or “FAS”) and in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim reporting. The financial statements include adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary by management for a fair presentation of the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Results reported in these financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the information contained in the company’s 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the first quarter of 2023, we changed the presentation of the components of other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax in the Unaudited condensed consolidated statement of earnings and comprehensive income. Prior period amounts have been recast to conform to current period presentation. This change in presentation had no impact on our previously reported comprehensive income in total.
Quarterly information is labeled using a calendar convention; that is, first quarter is consistently labeled as ending on March 31, second quarter as ending on June 30 and third quarter as ending on September 30. It is the company’s long-standing practice to establish actual interim closing dates using a “fiscal” calendar, in which we close our books on a Friday near these quarter-end dates in order to normalize the potentially disruptive effects of quarterly closings on business processes. This practice is only used at interim periods within a reporting year.
Accounting Estimates
Preparation of the financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingencies at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of sales and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates have been prepared using the most current and best available information; however, actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
Contract Estimates
We recognize changes in estimated contract sales or costs and the resulting changes in contract profit on a cumulative basis. Net estimate-at-completion (EAC) adjustments represent the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods; sales and operating margins in future periods are recognized as if the revised estimates had been used since contract inception. If it is determined that a loss is expected to result on an individual performance obligation, the entire amount of the estimable future loss, including an allocation of general and administrative expense, is charged against income in the period the loss is identified.
The following table presents the effect of aggregate net EAC adjustments:
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions, except per share data20232022
Revenue$62 $209 
Operating income46 173 
Net earnings(1)
36 137 
Diluted earnings per share(1)
0.23 0.87 
(1)Based on a 21 percent statutory tax rate.
EAC adjustments on a single performance obligation can have a significant effect on the company’s financial statements. When such adjustments occur, we generally disclose the nature, underlying conditions and financial impact of the adjustments. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recorded a $67 million favorable
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
EAC adjustment on the engineering, manufacturing and development (EMD) phase of the B-21 program at Aeronautics Systems. No such adjustments were material to the financial statements during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Backlog
Backlog represents the future sales we expect to recognize on firm orders received by the company and is equivalent to the company’s remaining performance obligations at the end of each period. It comprises both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is authorized and appropriated) and unfunded backlog. Unexercised contract options and indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts are not included in backlog until the time an option or IDIQ task order is exercised or awarded.
Company backlog as of March 31, 2023 was $77.5 billion. Of our March 31, 2023 backlog, we expect to recognize approximately 40 percent as revenue over the next 12 months and 65 percent as revenue over the next 24 months, with the remainder to be recognized thereafter.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
For each of the company’s contracts, the timing of revenue recognition, customer billings, and cash collections results in a net contract asset or liability at the end of each reporting period. Contract assets are equivalent to and reflected as Unbilled receivables in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position and are primarily related to long-term contracts where revenue recognized under the cost-to-cost method exceeds amounts billed to customers. Contract liabilities are equivalent to and reflected as Advance payments and billings in excess of costs incurred in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position. The amount of revenue recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 that was included in the contract liability balances at the beginning of each year was $1.7 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively.
Disaggregation of Revenue
See Note 9 for information regarding the company’s sales by customer type, contract type and geographic region for each of our segments. We believe those categories best depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of our revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the company received lease incentives for landlord funded leasehold improvements of $35 million related to a Space Systems real estate lease, which were recorded in PP&E and included in non-cash investing activities. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the company acquired $46 million of internal use software through long-term financing directly with the supplier. The software was recorded in PP&E as a non-cash investing activity and the related liability was recorded in long-term debt as a non-cash financing activity. Non-cash investing activities also include capital expenditures incurred but not yet paid of $43 million and $56 million as of March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, are as follows:
$ in millionsMarch 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Cumulative translation adjustment$(159)$(161)
Other, net8 8 
Total accumulated other comprehensive loss$(151)$(153)
Related Party Transactions
For all periods presented, the company had no material related party transactions.
Accounting Standards Updates
Accounting standards updates adopted and/or issued, but not effective until after March 31, 2023, are not expected to have a material effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position, annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
2.    EARNINGS PER SHARE, SHARE REPURCHASES AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON STOCK
Basic Earnings Per Share
We calculate basic earnings per share by dividing net earnings by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
Diluted Earnings Per Share
Diluted earnings per share include the dilutive effect of awards granted to employees under stock-based compensation plans. The dilutive effect of these securities totaled 0.6 million shares for each of the three month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
Share Repurchases
On January 25, 2021, the company’s board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $3.0 billion of the company’s common stock (the “2021 Repurchase Program”). Repurchases under the 2021 Repurchase Program commenced in October 2021. As of March 31, 2023, $10 million remained under this share repurchase authorization. By its terms, the 2021 Repurchase Program is set to expire when we have used all authorized funds for repurchases.
On January 24, 2022, the company’s board of directors authorized a new share repurchase program of up to an additional $2.0 billion in share repurchases of the company’s common stock (the “2022 Repurchase Program”). By its terms, repurchases under the 2022 Repurchase Program will commence upon completion of the 2021 Repurchase Program and will expire when we have used all authorized funds for repurchases. As of March 31, 2023, there have been no repurchases under the 2022 Repurchase Program, and the company’s total outstanding share repurchase authorization was $2.0 billion.
During the first quarter of 2023, the company entered into an accelerated share repurchase (ASR) agreement with Bank of America, N.A. (Bank of America) to repurchase $500 million of the company’s common stock as part of the 2021 and 2022 Repurchase Programs. Under the agreement, we made a payment of $500 million to Bank of America and received an initial delivery of 0.9 million shares valued at $400 million that were immediately canceled by the company. The remaining balance of $100 million is included as a reduction to Retained earnings on the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of financial position. The final number of shares to be repurchased will be based on the company's daily volume-weighted average share price during the term of the agreement, less a discount. The ASR is expected to be completed in the second quarter of 2023.
Share repurchases take place from time to time, subject to market conditions and management’s discretion, in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The company retires its common stock upon repurchase and, in the periods presented, has not made any purchases of common stock other than in connection with these publicly announced repurchase programs.
The table below summarizes the company’s share repurchases to date under the authorizations described above:
Shares Repurchased
(in millions)
Repurchase Program
Authorization Date
Amount
Authorized
(in millions)
Total
Shares Retired
(in millions)
Average 
Price
Per Share
(1)
Date CompletedThree Months Ended March 31
20232022
January 25, 2021$3,000 6.9 430.92 1.4 0.9 
January 24, 2022$2,000     
(1)Includes commissions paid.
Dividends on Common Stock
In May 2022, the company increased the quarterly common stock dividend 10 percent to $1.73 per share from the previous amount of 1.57 per share.
3.    INCOME TAXES
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions20232022
Federal and foreign income tax expense$156 $189 
Effective income tax rate15.6 %16.5 %
The first quarter 2023 effective tax rate (ETR) decreased to 15.6 percent from 16.5 percent principally due to higher current year ETR benefits associated with research credits and FDII deductions as well as favorable returns on tax-exempt marketable securities, partially offset by higher interest expense on unrecognized tax benefits. The company’s first quarter 2023 ETR includes benefits of $40 million for research credits and $15 million for foreign
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
derived intangible income (FDII). The company’s first quarter 2022 ETR included benefits of $41 million for research credits and $15 million for FDII.
Taxes receivable, which are included in Prepaid expenses and other current assets in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position, were $274 million as of March 31, 2023 and $850 million as of December 31, 2022.
The company has recorded unrecognized tax benefits related to our methods of accounting associated with the timing of revenue recognition and related costs and the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which includes related final revenue recognition regulations issued in December 2020 under IRC Section 451(b) and procedural guidance issued in August 2021. As of March 31, 2023, we have approximately $1.7 billion in unrecognized tax benefits, including $572 million related to our position on IRC Section 451(b). If these matters, including our position on IRC Section 451(b), are unfavorably resolved, there could be a material impact on our future cash flows. It is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months our unrecognized tax benefits related to these matters may increase by approximately $120 million. Additionally, it is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months, unrecognized tax benefits claimed primarily related to California state apportionment in the company’s 2007 to 2016 tax years may decline by up to $100 million through administrative resolution with the California Franchise Tax Board.
Our current unrecognized tax benefits, which are included in Other current liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position, were $769 million and $728 million as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, with the remainder of our unrecognized tax benefits included within Other non-current liabilities.
We file income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and in various state and foreign jurisdictions. The Northrop Grumman 2014-2020 federal tax returns and refund claims related to its 2007-2016 federal tax returns are currently under Internal Revenue Service (IRS) examination. During the second quarter of 2022, the company’s 2014-2016 federal income tax returns and refund claims related to its 2007-2016 federal tax returns reverted back from IRS Appeals to IRS examination for additional factual review.
4.    FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The company holds a portfolio of marketable securities to partially fund non-qualified employee benefit plans. A portion of these securities are held in common/collective trust funds and are measured at fair value using net asset value (NAV) per share as a practical expedient; therefore, they are not required to be categorized in the fair value hierarchy table below. Marketable securities are included in Other non-current assets in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position.
The company’s derivative portfolio consists primarily of foreign currency forward contracts. Where model-derived valuations are appropriate, the company utilizes the income approach to determine the fair value using internal models based on observable market inputs.
The following table presents the financial assets and liabilities the company records at fair value on a recurring basis identified by the level of inputs used to determine fair value:
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
$ in millionsLevel 1Level 2Level 3TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3Total
Financial Assets
Marketable securities$316 $ $8 $324 $310 $1 $8 $319 
Marketable securities valued using NAV10 13 
Total marketable securities316  8 334 310 1 8 332 
Derivatives 5  5  7  7 
The notional value of the company’s foreign currency forward contracts at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was $237 million and $221 million, respectively. The portion of notional value designated as a cash flow hedge at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was $88 million and $87 million, respectively.
The derivative fair values and related unrealized gains/losses at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were not material.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
There were no transfers of financial instruments into or out of Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and commercial paper approximates fair value.
Long-term Debt
The estimated fair value of long-term debt was $14.4 billion and $12.1 billion as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. We calculated the fair value of long-term debt using Level 2 inputs, based on interest rates available for debt with terms and maturities similar to the company’s existing debt arrangements. The current portion of long-term debt is recorded in Other current liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position.
Unsecured Senior Notes
In February 2023, the company issued $2.0 billion of unsecured senior notes for general corporate purposes, which may include debt repayment (including our 3.25% senior notes due in 2023), share repurchases, and working capital, as follows:
$1.0 billion of 4.70% senior notes due 2033 (the “2033 Notes”) and
$1.0 billion of 4.95% senior notes due 2053 (the “2053 Notes”).
We refer to the 2033 Notes and the 2053 Notes, together, as the “notes.” Interest on the notes is payable semi-annually in arrears. The notes are generally subject to redemption, in whole or in part, at the company’s discretion at any time, or from time to time, prior to maturity at a redemption price equal to the greater of 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed or an applicable “make-whole” amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
5.    INVESTIGATIONS, CLAIMS AND LITIGATION
The company is engaged in remediation activities relating to environmental conditions allegedly resulting from historic operations at the former United States Navy and Grumman facilities in Bethpage, New York. For over 20 years, the company has worked closely with the United States Navy, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), the New York State Department of Health and other federal, state and local governmental authorities, to address legacy environmental conditions in Bethpage. In December 2019, the State of New York issued an Amended Record of Decision seeking to impose additional remedial requirements beyond measures the company previously had been taking. In December 2020, the parties reached a tentative agreement regarding the steps the company would take to implement the State’s Amended Record of Decision and to resolve certain potential other claims, including for natural resource damages. On September 22, 2021, the State of New York issued for public comment a new consent decree reflecting the agreement. On December 7, 2021, the public comment period closed. On August 3, 2022, the court approved the consent decree. We have also reached agreements with the Department of Defense and the Bethpage and South Farmingdale Water Districts to resolve claims involving these parties. Those agreements have also been approved by the courts as necessary. The company continues to be involved in related disputes with the Towns of Oyster Bay and Hempstead.
We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, as included in Note 6, substantial remediation costs related to the legacy Bethpage environmental conditions. It is also possible that applicable remediation standards and other requirements to which we are subject may continue to change, and that our costs may increase materially. In addition to disputes and legal proceedings related to environmental conditions and remediation at the site, we are a party to various individual lawsuits and a putative class action alleging personal injury and property damage in the Eastern District of New York. The filed individual lawsuits have been stayed, pending a court decision on class certification. We are also a party, and may become a party, to other lawsuits brought by or against insurance carriers, and by other individual plaintiffs and/or putative classes, as well as other parties. We cannot at this time predict or reasonably estimate the potential cumulative outcomes or ranges of possible liability of these Bethpage lawsuits.
In June 2018, the FTC issued a Decision and Order enabling the company’s acquisition of OATK to proceed and providing generally for the company to continue to make solid rocket motors available to competing missile primes on a non-discriminatory basis. The company has taken and continues to take robust actions to help ensure compliance with the terms of the Order. Similarly, the Compliance Officer, appointed under the Order, and the FTC have taken and continue to take various actions to oversee compliance. In October 2019, the company received a civil investigative demand (CID) from the FTC requesting certain information relating to a potential issue regarding the company’s compliance with the Order in connection with a then pending missile competition. The company promptly provided information in response to the request. In late 2021, the company resumed discussions with staff at the FTC regarding our response and their views on compliance issues. More recently, the company received and is
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
responding to a follow-on CID. We cannot predict the outcome of those discussions, but we do not believe they are likely to have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2023, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows. We believe the company has been and continues to be in compliance with the Order.
The company received from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) a criminal subpoena on December 9, 2022, and a civil investigative demand on February 2, 2023, both seeking information regarding financial and cost accounting and controls that appears focused on the interest rate assumptions the company used to determine our CAS pension expense, which we have previously discussed in Note 6 below. The company is engaging with the government and responding to the requests. We cannot at this point predict the outcome of this matter.
The company is a party to various other investigations, lawsuits, arbitration, claims, enforcement actions and other legal proceedings, including government investigations and claims, that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The nature of legal proceedings is such that we cannot assure the outcome of any particular matter. However, based on information available to the company to date, the company does not believe that the outcome of any of these other matters pending against the company is likely to have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2023, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
6.    COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
U.S. Government Cost Claims and Contingencies
From time to time, the company is advised of claims by the U.S. government concerning certain potential disallowed costs, plus, at times, penalties and interest. When such findings are presented, the company and U.S. government representatives engage in discussions to enable the company to evaluate the merits of these claims, as well as to assess the amounts being claimed. Where appropriate, provisions are made to reflect the company’s estimated exposure for such potential disallowed costs. Such provisions are reviewed periodically using the most recent information available. The company believes it has adequately reserved for disputed amounts that are probable and reasonably estimable, and that the outcome of any such matters would not have a material adverse effect on its unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2023, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
In 2019, the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) raised questions about an interest rate assumption used by the company to determine our CAS pension expense. On June 1, 2020, DCMA provided written notice that the assumptions the company used during the period 2013-2019 were potentially noncompliant with CAS. We submitted a formal response on July 31, 2020, which we believed demonstrates the appropriateness of the assumptions used. On November 24, 2020, DCMA replied to the company’s response, disagreeing with our position and requesting additional input, which we provided on February 22, 2021. We have continued to exchange correspondence and engage with DCMA and DoD on this matter, including responding to requests for and providing additional information. As noted in Note 5 above, the company received from the the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) a criminal subpoena on December 9, 2022 and a civil investigative demand on February 2, 2023, both seeking information that appears related to the interest rate assumptions at issue in our discussions with DCMA. The company is engaging with the government and responding to the requests. We cannot at this point predict the outcome of this matter. The company is also continuing to engage with DCMA/DoD. As previously described, the sensitivity to changes in interest rate assumptions makes it reasonably possible the outcome of the DCMA matter could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows, although we are not currently able to estimate a range of any potential loss.
B-21 Low-Rate Initial Production Options
In 2015, the U.S. Air Force awarded to Northrop Grumman the B-21 contract, including a base contract for engineering, manufacturing, and design (EMD) and five low-rate initial production (LRIP) options. The EMD phase of the program is largely cost type and began at contract award. The LRIP options are largely fixed price and are expected to be awarded and executed over the next decade. In the first quarter of 2023, we reviewed our estimated cost to complete the LRIP phase of the B-21 program. Principally due to the company’s estimate of the impact macroeconomic factors may have on our cost to complete the LRIP options, as well as ongoing discussions with our suppliers and our customer, we continue to believe it is reasonably possible one or more of the LRIP options could be performed at a loss and the range of such loss across the five LRIP options is between $0 and $1.2 billion. As we
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
do not currently believe a loss is probable on any of the LRIP options, we have not recognized any such loss in our financial results for the period ended March 31, 2023.
Environmental Matters
The table below summarizes the amount accrued for environmental remediation costs, management’s estimate of the amount of reasonably possible future costs in excess of accrued costs and the deferred costs expected to be recoverable through overhead charges on U.S. government contracts as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
$ in millions
Accrued Costs(1)(2)
Reasonably Possible Future Costs in Excess of Accrued Costs(2)
Deferred Costs(3)
March 31, 2023$570 $357 $498 
December 31, 2022565 353 486 
(1) As of March 31, 2023, $200 million is recorded in Other current liabilities and $370 million is recorded in Other non-current liabilities.
(2) Estimated remediation costs are not discounted to present value. The reasonably possible future costs in excess of accrued costs do not take into consideration amounts expected to be recoverable through overhead charges on U.S. government contracts.
(3) As of March 31, 2023, $181 million is deferred in Prepaid expenses and other current assets and $317 million is deferred in Other non-current assets. These amounts are evaluated for recoverability on a routine basis.
Although management cannot predict whether (i) new information gained as our environmental remediation projects progress, (ii) changes in remediation standards or other requirements to which we are subject, or (iii) other changes in facts and circumstances will materially affect the estimated liability accrued, we do not anticipate that future remediation expenditures associated with our currently identified projects will have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2023, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
Financial Arrangements
In the ordinary course of business, the company uses standby letters of credit and guarantees issued by commercial banks and surety bonds issued principally by insurance companies to guarantee the performance on certain obligations. At March 31, 2023, there were $367 million of stand-by letters of credit and guarantees and $79 million of surety bonds outstanding.
Commercial Paper
The company maintains a commercial paper program that serves as a source of short-term financing with capacity to issue unsecured commercial paper notes up to $2.5 billion. At March 31, 2023, there were no commercial paper borrowings outstanding.
Credit Facilities
The company maintains a five-year senior unsecured credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of $2.5 billion (the “2022 Credit Agreement”) that matures in August 2027 and is intended to support the company's commercial paper program and other general corporate purposes. Commercial paper borrowings reduce the amount available for borrowing under the 2022 Credit Agreement. At March 31, 2023, there were no borrowings outstanding under this facility.
The 2022 Credit Agreement contains generally customary terms and conditions, including covenants restricting the company’s ability to sell all or substantially all of its assets, merge or consolidate with another entity or undertake other fundamental changes and incur liens. The company also cannot permit the ratio of its debt to capitalization (as set forth in the credit agreement) to exceed 65 percent.
At March 31, 2023, the company was in compliance with all covenants under its credit agreements.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
7.    RETIREMENT BENEFITS
The cost to the company of its pension and other postretirement benefit (OPB) plans is shown in the following table:
 Three Months Ended March 31
Pension
Benefits
OPB
$ in millions2023202220232022
Components of net periodic benefit cost (benefit)
Service cost$59 $92 $1 $2 
Interest cost392 284 17 12 
Expected return on plan assets(524)(660)(21)(28)
Net periodic benefit cost (benefit)$(73)$(284)$(3)$(14)
Employer Contributions
The company sponsors defined benefit pension and OPB plans, as well as defined contribution plans. We fund our defined benefit pension plans annually in a manner consistent with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended by the Pension Protection Act of 2006.
Contributions made by the company to its retirement plans are as follows:
 Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions20232022
Defined benefit pension plans$29 $26 
OPB plans11 10 
Defined contribution plans215 199 
8.    STOCK COMPENSATION PLANS AND OTHER COMPENSATION ARRANGEMENTS
Stock Awards
The following table presents the number of restricted stock rights (RSRs) and restricted performance stock rights (RPSRs) granted to employees under the company’s long-term incentive stock plan and the grant date aggregate fair value of those stock awards for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31
in millions20232022
RSRs granted0.1 0.1 
RPSRs granted0.1 0.2 
Grant date aggregate fair value$100 $88 
RSRs typically vest on the third anniversary of the grant date, while RPSRs generally vest and pay out based on the achievement of certain performance metrics over a three-year period.
Cash Awards
The following table presents the minimum and maximum aggregate payout amounts related to cash units (CUs) and cash performance units (CPUs) granted to employees in the periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions20232022
Minimum aggregate payout amount$34 $32 
Maximum aggregate payout amount191 182 
CUs typically vest and settle in cash on the third anniversary of the grant date, while CPUs generally vest and pay out in cash based on the achievement of certain performance metrics over a three-year period.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
9.    SEGMENT INFORMATION
The following table presents sales and operating income by segment:
Three Months Ended March 31
$ in millions20232022
Sales
Aeronautics Systems$2,515 $2,703 
Defense Systems1,376 1,283 
Mission Systems2,563 2,497 
Space Systems3,350 2,855 
Intersegment eliminations(503)(541)
Total sales9,301 8,797 
Operating income
Aeronautics Systems237 307 
Defense Systems160 155 
Mission Systems360 385 
Space Systems313 261 
Intersegment eliminations(68)(71)
Total segment operating income1,002 1,037 
FAS/CAS operating adjustment(21)(46)
Unallocated corporate expense(34)(94)
Total operating income$947 $897 
FAS/CAS Operating Adjustment
For financial statement purposes, we account for our employee pension plans in accordance with FAS. However, the cost of these plans is charged to our contracts in accordance with applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements. The FAS/CAS operating adjustment reflects the difference between CAS pension expense included as cost in segment operating income and the service cost component of FAS expense included in total operating income.
Unallocated Corporate Expense
Unallocated corporate expense includes the portion of corporate costs not considered allowable or allocable under the applicable FAR and CAS requirements, and therefore not allocated to the segments, such as changes in deferred state income taxes and a portion of management and administration, legal, environmental, compensation, retiree benefits, advertising and other corporate unallowable costs. Unallocated corporate expense also includes costs not considered part of management’s evaluation of segment operating performance, such as amortization of purchased intangible assets and the additional depreciation expense related to the step-up in fair value of property, plant and equipment acquired through business combinations, as well as certain compensation and other costs.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
Disaggregation of Revenue
Sales by Customer TypeThree Months Ended March 31
20232022
$ in millions$
%(3)
$
%(3)
Aeronautics Systems
U.S. government(1)
$2,108 84 %$2,292 85 %
International(2)
331 13 %343 13 %
Other customers11  %3  %
Intersegment sales65 3 %65 2 %
Aeronautics Systems sales2,515 100 %2,703 100 %
Defense Systems
U.S. government(1)
803 59 %775 60 %
International(2)
388 28 %293 23 %
Other customers16 1 %16 1 %
Intersegment sales169 12 %199 16 %
Defense Systems sales1,376 100 %1,283 100 %
Mission Systems
U.S. government(1)
1,935 75 %1,794 72 %
International(2)
376 15 %433 17 %
Other customers15 1 %24 1 %
Intersegment sales237 9 %246 10 %
Mission Systems sales2,563 100 %2,497 100 %
Space Systems
U.S. government(1)
3,166 95 %2,708 94 %
International(2)
71 2 %72 3 %
Other customers81 2 %44 2 %
Intersegment sales32 1 %31 1 %
Space Systems sales3,350 100 %2,855 100 %
Total
U.S. government(1)
8,012 86 %7,569 86 %
International(2)
1,166 13 %1,141 13 %
Other customers123 1 %87 1 %
Total Sales$9,301 100 %$8,797 100 %
(1) Sales to the U.S. government include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is the U.S. government. Each of the company’s segments derives substantial revenue from the U.S. government.
(2) International sales include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is an international customer. These sales include foreign military sales contracted through the U.S. government.
(3) Percentages calculated based on total segment sales.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
Sales by Contract TypeThree Months Ended March 31
2023 2022
$ in millions$
%(1)
$
%(1)
Aeronautics Systems
Cost-type$1,231 50 %$1,276 48 %
Fixed-price1,219 50 %1,362 52 %
Intersegment sales65 65 
Aeronautics Systems sales2,515 2,703 
Defense Systems
Cost-type423 35 %336 31 %
Fixed-price784 65 %748 69 %
Intersegment sales169 199 
Defense Systems sales1,376 1,283 
Mission Systems
Cost-type961 41 %835 37 %
Fixed-price1,365 59 %1,416 63 %
Intersegment sales237 246 
Mission Systems sales2,563 2,497 
Space Systems
Cost-type2,446 74 %1,983 70 %
Fixed-price872 26 %841 30 %
Intersegment sales32 31 
Space Systems sales3,350 2,855 
Total
Cost-type5,061 54 %4,430 50 %
Fixed-price4,240 46 %4,367 50 %
Total Sales$9,301 $8,797 
(1)Percentages calculated based on external customer sales.
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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        
Sales by Geographic RegionThree Months Ended March 31
20232022
$ in millions$
%(2)
$
%(2)
Aeronautics Systems    
United States$2,119 87 %$2,295 87 %
Asia/Pacific147 6 %190 7 %
Europe174 7 %137 5 %
All other(1)
10  %16 1 %
Intersegment sales65 65 
Aeronautics Systems sales2,515 2,703 
Defense Systems
United States819 67 %791 73 %
Asia/Pacific117 10 %105 10 %
Europe128 11 %101 9 %
All other(1)
143 12 %87 8 %
Intersegment sales169 199 
Defense Systems sales1,376 1,283 
Mission Systems
United States1,950 83 %1,818 81 %
Asia/Pacific92 4 %139 6 %
Europe