10-K 1 noc-12312016x10k.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________ 
FORM 10-K
_____________________ 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            Commission file number 1-16411
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DELAWARE
 
80-0640649
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
 
2980 Fairview Park Drive
Falls Church, Virginia
 
22042
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip code)
(703) 280-2900
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x
  
No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o
  
No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x
  
No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes x
  
No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
  
Accelerated filer o
  
Non-accelerated filer o
  
Smaller reporting company o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes o
  
No x
As of June 30, 2016, the aggregate market value of the common stock (based upon the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange) of the registrant held by non-affiliates was approximately $39.5 billion.
As of January 26, 2017, 174,599,406 shares of common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A for the 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.



NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 7A.
Item 8.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


i


 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 



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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


PART I
Item 1. Business
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
History
Northrop Grumman Corporation (herein referred to as “Northrop Grumman,” the “company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is a leading global security company. We offer a broad portfolio of capabilities and technologies that enable us to deliver innovative products, systems and solutions for applications that range from undersea to outer space and into cyberspace. We provide products, systems and solutions in autonomous systems; cyber; command, control, communications and computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR); strike; and logistics and modernization. We participate in many high-priority defense and government programs in the United States (U.S.) and abroad. We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, principally the Department of Defense (DoD) and intelligence community. We also conduct business with foreign, state and local governments, as well as commercial customers. For a discussion of risks associated with our operations, see Risk Factors.
The company originally was formed in Hawthorne, California in 1939, as Northrop Aircraft Incorporated and was reincorporated in Delaware in 1985, as Northrop Corporation. Northrop Aircraft Incorporated was a principal developer of flying wing technology, including the B-2 Spirit bomber. The company developed into one of the largest defense contractors in the world through a series of acquisitions, as well as organic growth. In 1994, we acquired Grumman Corporation (Grumman), after which time the company was renamed Northrop Grumman Corporation. Grumman was a premier military aircraft systems integrator and builder of the Lunar Module that first delivered humans to the surface of the moon. In 1996, we acquired the defense and electronics businesses of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, a world leader in the development and production of sophisticated radar and other electronic systems for the nation’s defense, civil aviation, and other U.S. and international applications. In 2001, we acquired Litton Industries, a global electronics and information technology company, and one of the nation's leading full service shipbuilders. Also in 2001, we acquired Newport News Shipbuilding, a leading designer and builder of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and submarines. In 2002, we acquired TRW Inc., a leading developer of military and civil space systems and payloads, as well as a leading global integrator of complex, mission-enabling systems and services. In 2011, we completed the spin-off to our shareholders of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. (HII). HII operates our former Shipbuilding business, comprised largely of a part of Litton Industries and Newport News Shipbuilding.
Organization
From time to time, we acquire or dispose of businesses and realign contracts, programs or businesses among and within our operating segments. Internal realignments are typically designed to leverage existing capabilities more fully and to enhance development and delivery of products and services. The operating results for all periods presented have been revised to reflect any such changes made through December 31, 2016. We are currently aligned in three operating sectors, which also comprise our reportable segments: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems and Technology Services. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements for further information.
AEROSPACE SYSTEMS
Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, California, is a leader in the design, development, integration and production of manned aircraft, autonomous systems, spacecraft, high-energy laser systems, microelectronics and other systems/subsystems. Aerospace Systems' customers, primarily the DoD and other U.S. Government agencies, use these systems in mission areas including intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), strike operations, communications, earth observation, space science and space exploration. The sector is reported in three business areas, which reflect our core capabilities: Autonomous Systems, Manned Aircraft and Space.
Autonomous Systems - designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates ISR autonomous systems for tactical and strategic missions. Key ISR programs include the Global Hawk system, a proven high-altitude long-endurance system providing near real-time high resolution imagery of large geographical areas; the Triton system providing real-time ISR over vast ocean and coastal regions; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) system for multinational theater operations; the Fire Scout system providing situational awareness and precision targeting support; and the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System demonstrating an unmanned combat air vehicle for carrier-based operations.
Manned Aircraft - designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates airborne C4ISR, long-range strike aircraft systems, tactical aircraft systems and directed energy systems. Key airborne C4ISR programs include the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye and Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS). Key long-range strike aircraft

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


programs include the B-21 Raider long-range strike bomber and modernization and sustainment services for the B-2 Spirit bomber. Tactical aircraft includes the design, development, manufacture and integration of F-35 Lightning II center fuselage and F/A-18 Super Hornet aft fuselage sections. Directed energy involves the design, development, and integration of laser weapon systems for air, ground, and sea platforms, and production of the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System for the U.S. Navy and international rotary wing customers.
Space - designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates spacecraft systems, subsystems, sensors and communications payloads in support of space C4ISR and science. Key programs include the James Webb Space Telescope, a large infrared telescope being built for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that will be deployed in space to study the origins of the universe; Advanced Extremely High Frequency payloads providing survivable, protected communications to U.S. forces; Space-Based Infrared System payloads providing data for missile surveillance, missile defense, technical intelligence and battlespace characterization; and restricted programs.
MISSION SYSTEMS
Mission Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland, is a leader in advanced end-to-end mission solutions and multifunction systems for DoD, intelligence community, international, federal civil and commercial customers. Major products and services include C4ISR systems; radar, electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) and acoustic sensors; electronic warfare systems; cyber solutions; space systems; intelligence processing systems; air and missile defense (AMD) integration; navigation; and shipboard missile and encapsulated payload launch systems. The sector is reported in three business areas, which reflect our core capabilities: Sensors and Processing, Cyber and ISR, and Advanced Capabilities.
Sensors and Processing - delivers products, systems and services that support ground-based and airborne fixed and rotary wing platforms with radar, electronic warfare, communications, command and control (C2), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), and situational awareness mission systems. Competencies include targeting, surveillance, air defense, and early warning & control radar systems; EO/IR and radio frequency (RF) self-protection, targeting and surveillance systems; electronic attack and electronic support systems; net-enabled battle management; communications and intelligence systems; digitized cockpits; and multi-sensor processing. Key programs include the Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) and air-to-ground sensors; Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN); F-35 fire control radar, Distributed Aperture System (DAS), and the Communications, Navigation and Identification (CNI) integrated avionics system; Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR); Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM); Common Infrared Countermeasures (CIRCM); Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR); and the UH-60V Black Hawk integrated mission equipment package.
Cyber and ISR - delivers products, systems and services that support full-spectrum cyber solutions, space-based payload and exploitation systems, space-based C2 and processing systems, and enterprise integration of multi-intelligence mission data across all domains. Competencies include cyber mission management; large-scale cyber solutions for national security applications; missile warning and defense systems; weather and satellite communications; ground software systems; and geospatial intelligence and data fusion, specializing in the collection, processing, and exploitation of data. Key programs include exploitation and cyber programs; operational services to the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT); worldwide IT coverage and support services through the Solutions for the Information Technology Enterprise (SITE); the Enterprise Application Development Integration and Sustainment (EADIS) program; and restricted programs.
Advanced Capabilities - provides integration and interoperability of net-enabled battle management, sensors, targeting and surveillance systems; air and missile defense C2; and global battlespace awareness. It also delivers products, systems and services that support maritime platforms and embedded Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for a range of platforms including ships, aircraft, spacecraft and weapons. Competencies include advanced AMD integration with land, air and space assets; shipboard missile and encapsulated payload launch systems; unmanned maritime vehicles and high-resolution undersea sensors; and inertial navigation systems. Key programs include the Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS); the Missile Defense Agency Joint National Integration Center Research and Development Contract (JRDC); Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system; Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block III; and Trident and Virginia-Class payload launch systems.
TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
Technology Services, headquartered in Herndon, Virginia, is a leading provider of logistics solutions supporting the full life cycle of platforms and systems for global defense and federal-civil customers. We deliver innovative,

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


technology-driven solutions and services to enable cost-effective improvements for customer mission effectiveness. We provide a full spectrum of offerings including software and system sustainment, modernization of platforms and associated subsystems, advanced training solutions, and integrated logistics support. The sector is reported in three business areas, which reflect our core capabilities: Global Logistics and Modernization; Advanced Defense Services; and System Modernization and Services.
Global Logistics and Modernization - provides global logistics support, sustainment, operations and modernization for more than 60 air, sea and ground systems and weapon system components. Competencies include aircraft, electronics and software sustainment and engineering; electronic warfare/attack and avionics/electronics subsystems modernization; supply chain management; deployed logistics support for manned and unmanned weapon systems; field services, on-going maintenance and technical assistance; and delivering rapid response in support of global customers. Portfolio capabilities are exhibited through: integration, delivery and global support of unmanned special mission aircraft solutions for platforms such as the MQ-5B Hunter, Global Hawk and Triton; subsystem and component-level depot repair for products such as AAQ-24, APN-241, and ALQ-135; missile sustainment and modernization solutions for products including the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Minuteman III; and weapon systems sustainment, refurbishment, overhaul, modernization and contractor logistics support for several unique low-density/high-demand platforms, including the B-2 Spirit bomber, KC-10, JSTARS, KC-30A and UK Airborne Warning and Control System.
Advanced Defense Services - provides advanced defense and security services, including cyber; network operations and security; system and software modernization; land forces sustainment; and training to strengthen the national security of the U.S. and its allies. Key programs include the Marine Corps Network Operations and Security Center, which provides network defense services for the U.S. Marine Corps including analysis of network traffic, identification of malicious and unauthorized activity, and response to intrusion incidents; Ministry of the National Guard Training Support, through our interest in a joint venture for which we consolidate the financial results, which provides equipment fielding, training and maintenance, simulator training and operations, tactical exercise development, logistics and operations support and English language training to the Ministry of the National Guard in Saudi Arabia; the Enterprise Military Housing program, the software application used for the management of government housing; and the Mission Command Training Program, the Army's leadership and staff training exercise program at the tactical and operational level.
System Modernization and Services - provides full life cycle information systems modernization and sustainment, primarily in support of civil government agencies. Key capabilities reside in areas of analytics, mission information processing, cyber and secure networking, and software development. In support of the modernization of civil agency mission critical and mission enabling information systems, extensive system and software development capabilities allow this unit to offer fraud detection and compliance services, data analysis and decision support tools, and software system sustainment services. This business provides services to U.S. Government healthcare agencies, including benefits systems administration, fraud prevention and payment modernization. To strengthen national security and federal law enforcement, we provide information sharing and analysis solutions as well as engineer sophisticated enterprise-wide solutions to design, build and manage resilient and secure IT infrastructures. Our capabilities provide proactive network monitoring and desktop optimization to control and reduce overall operating costs.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA AND SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS
For a more complete understanding of our business, see “Selected Financial Data.” For a more complete understanding of our segment financial information, see “Segment Operating Results” in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) and Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
CUSTOMER CONCENTRATION
Our largest customer is the U.S. Government. Sales to the U.S. Government accounted for 84 percent, 83 percent and 84 percent of sales during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. For further information on sales by customer category, see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements. No single program accounted for more than ten percent of total sales during any period presented. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion regarding risks related to customer concentration.
COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS
We compete with many companies in the defense, intelligence and federal markets. BAE Systems, Boeing, Booz Allen Hamilton, General Dynamics, Harris, L3 Technologies, Leidos, Leonardo, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and

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Thales are some of our primary competitors. Key characteristics of our industry include long operating cycles and intense competition, which is evident through the number of bid protests (competitor protests of U.S. Government procurement awards) and the number of competitors bidding on program opportunities.
It is common in the defense industry for work on major programs to be shared among a number of companies. A company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to another competitor, become a subcontractor to the ultimate prime contracting company. It is not unusual to compete for a contract award with a peer company and, simultaneously, perform as a supplier to or a customer of that same competitor on other contracts, or vice versa.
SEASONALITY
No material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal.
BACKLOG
At December 31, 2016, total backlog was $45.3 billion, compared with $35.9 billion at the end of 2015. For further information, see “Backlog” in MD&A.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We routinely apply for and own a number of U.S. and foreign patents related to the products and services we provide. We also develop and protect intellectual property as trade secrets. In addition to owning a large portfolio of proprietary intellectual property, we license some intellectual property rights to third parties and we license or otherwise obtain access to intellectual property from third parties. The U.S. Government typically holds licenses to patents developed in the performance of U.S. Government contracts and may use or authorize others to use the inventions covered by these patents for certain purposes. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion regarding risks related to intellectual property.
RAW MATERIALS
We have not experienced significant delays in the supply or availability of raw materials, nor have we experienced a significant price increase for raw materials. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion regarding risks related to raw materials.
EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
We believe that we maintain good relations with our approximately 67,000 employees. Approximately 2,500 are covered by 11 collective agreements in the U.S., of which we negotiated four renewals in 2016 and expect to negotiate one renewal in 2017. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion regarding risks related to employee relations.
REGULATORY MATTERS
Government Contract Security Restrictions
Certain classified programs with the U.S. Government are prohibited by the customer from being publicly discussed and are therefore generally referred to as “restricted” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated financial statements and financial information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect the operating results of our entire company, including restricted programs.
Contracts
We generate the majority of our business from long-term contracts with the U.S. Government for development, production and support activities. Unless otherwise specified in a contract, allowable and allocable costs are billed to contracts with the U.S. Government pursuant to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS). Examples of costs incurred by us and not billed to the U.S. Government in accordance with the FAR and CAS include, but are not limited to, certain legal costs, charitable donations, advertising costs, interest expense and unallowable employee compensation and benefits costs.
We monitor our contracts on a regular basis for compliance with our policies and procedures and applicable government regulations and laws to enhance compliance and consistent application for contracts with similar terms and conditions. In addition, costs incurred and allocated to contracts with the U.S. Government are routinely audited by the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA).

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Our long-term contracts typically fall into one of two broad categories:
Cost-type contracts – Cost-type contracts include cost plus fixed fee, cost plus award fee and cost plus incentive fee contracts. Cost-type contracts provide generally for reimbursement of a contractor’s allowable costs incurred plus fee. As a result, cost-type contracts have less financial risk associated with unanticipated cost growth but generally lower profit margins than fixed-price contracts. Cost-type contracts typically require that the contractor use its best efforts to accomplish the scope of the work within some specified time and stated dollar limitation. Fees on cost-type contracts can be fixed in terms of dollar value or percentage of costs. Award and incentive fees are generally based on performance criteria such as cost, schedule, quality and/or technical performance. Award fees are determined and earned based on customer evaluation of the company's performance against contractual criteria, and are intended to provide motivation for excellence in contract performance. Incentive fees are generally based on cost and provide for an initially negotiated fee to be adjusted later, typically using a formula to measure performance against the associated criteria, based on the relationship of total allowable costs to total target costs. Award and incentive fees that can reasonably be estimated and are deemed reasonably assured are recorded over the performance period of the contract.
Fixed-price contracts – Firm fixed-price contracts include a specified scope of work for a price that is a pre-determined, negotiated amount and not generally subject to adjustment regardless of costs incurred by the contractor, absent changes in scope by the customer. As a result, fixed-price contracts have more financial risk associated with unanticipated cost growth, but generally provide the opportunity for higher profit margins than cost-type contracts. Certain fixed-price incentive fee contracts provide for reimbursement of the contractor’s allowable costs plus a fee up to a cost ceiling amount, typically through a cost-sharing ratio that affects profitability. These types of fixed-price incentive fee contracts effectively become firm fixed-price contracts once the cost-share ceiling is reached. Time-and-materials contracts are considered fixed-price contracts as they specify a fixed hourly rate for each labor hour charged.
Profit margins on our contracts may vary materially depending on, among other things, the contract type, contract phase (e.g., development, low rate production or mature production), negotiated fee arrangements, achievement of performance objectives, and cost, schedule and technical performance.
See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements and “Risk Factors.”
The following table summarizes sales for the year ended December 31, 2016, recognized by contract type and customer category:
($ in millions)
 
U.S.
Government(1)
 
International(2)
 
Other Customers(3)
 
Total
 
Percentage
of Total Sales
Cost-type contracts
 
$
12,665

 
$
698

 
$
106

 
$
13,469

 
55
%
Fixed-price contracts
 
7,908

 
2,507

 
624

 
11,039

 
45
%
Total sales
 
$
20,573

 
$
3,205

 
$
730

 
$
24,508

 
100
%
(1) 
Sales to the U.S. Government include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is the U.S. Government. Each of the company's segments derives substantial revenue from the U.S. Government.  
(2) International sales include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is an international customer. These sales include foreign military sales contracted through the U.S. Government, direct sales with governments outside the U.S. and commercial sales outside the U.S.
(3) Sales to Other Customers include sales to U.S. state and local governments and commercial sales in the U.S.  
Environmental
Our operations are subject to and affected by federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to protection of the environment. In 2010, we established goals for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and implementation of best management practices for water use and solid waste; those goals were achieved as of December 31, 2014. In 2015, we announced our 2020 environmental sustainability goals: to reduce absolute greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent from 2010 levels; to reduce potable water use by 20 percent from 2014 levels; and to achieve a 70 percent solid waste diversion rate (from landfills).

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We have incurred and expect to continue to incur capital and operating costs to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations and to achieve our environmental sustainability commitments. See “Risk Factors” and Notes 1 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
See "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance" for information about our executive officers.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
Our principal executive offices are located at 2980 Fairview Park Drive, Falls Church, Virginia 22042. Our telephone number is (703) 280-2900 and our home page is www.northropgrumman.com.
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and proxy statement for the annual shareholders’ meeting, as well as any amendments to those reports, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with the SEC. You can learn more about us by reviewing our SEC filings on the investor relations page of our website.
The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about SEC registrants, including Northrop Grumman Corporation.
References to our website and the SEC’s website in this report are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be viewed as, incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, such websites. Such information should not be considered a part of this report, unless otherwise expressly incorporated by reference in this report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows are subject to various risks, many of which are not exclusively within our control, that may cause actual performance to differ materially from historical or projected future performance. We encourage you to consider carefully the risk factors described below in evaluating the information contained in this report as the outcome of one or more of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We depend heavily on a single customer, the U.S. Government, for a substantial portion of our business. Changes in this customer’s priorities and spending could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our primary customer is the U.S. Government, from which we derived 84 percent, 83 percent and 84 percent of our sales during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively; we have a number of large programs and opportunities with the U.S. Air Force, in particular. The U.S. Government has been implementing significant reductions in government spending and other significant program changes. We cannot predict the impact on existing, follow-on, replacement or future programs from potential changes in priorities due to changes in defense spending levels, the threat environment, military strategy and planning and/or changes in social, economic or political priorities.
The U.S. Government generally has the ability to terminate contracts, in whole or in part, for its convenience or for default based on performance. In the event of termination for the U.S. Government’s convenience, contractors are generally protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contracts and profit on those costs up to the amount authorized under the contract, but not the anticipated profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. Termination by the U.S. Government of a contract due to default could require us to pay for re-procurement costs in excess of the original contract price, net of the value of work accepted from the original contract, as well as other damages. Termination of a contract due to our default could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, our ability to compete for other contracts and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
The U.S. Government also has the ability to stop work under a contract for a limited period of time for its convenience. It is possible that the U.S. Government could invoke this ability across a limited or broad number of contracts. In the event of a stop work order, contractors are typically protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contract to date and for costs associated with the temporary stoppage of work on the contract plus a reasonable fee. However, such temporary stoppages and delays could introduce inefficiencies and result in financial and other damages for which we may not be able to negotiate full recovery from the U.S. Government. They could also ultimately result in termination of a contract (or contracts) for convenience or reduced future orders.

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A significant shift in government priorities to programs in which we do not participate and/or reductions in funding for or the termination of programs in which we do participate, unless offset by other programs and opportunities, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Significant delays or reductions in appropriations for our programs and U.S. Government funding more broadly may negatively impact our business and programs and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
U.S. Government programs are subject to annual congressional budget authorization and appropriation processes. For many programs, Congress appropriates funds on a fiscal year basis even though the program performance period may extend over several years. Consequently, programs are often partially funded initially and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. If we incur costs in excess of funds obligated on a contract, we may be at risk for reimbursement of those costs unless and until additional funds are obligated to the contract. We cannot predict the extent to which total funding and/or funding for individual programs will be included, increased or reduced as part of the annual budget process ultimately approved by Congress and the President or in separate supplemental appropriations or continuing resolutions, as applicable. Laws and plans adopted by the U.S. Government relating to, along with pressures on and uncertainty surrounding the federal budget, potential changes in priorities and defense spending levels, sequestration, the appropriations process, use of continuing resolutions (with restrictions, e.g., on new starts) and the permissible federal debt limit, could adversely affect the funding for individual programs and delay purchasing or payment decisions by our customers. In the event government funding for our significant programs becomes unavailable, or is reduced or delayed, or planned orders are reduced, our contract or subcontract under such programs may be terminated or adjusted by the U.S. Government or the prime contractor.
On November 2, 2015, the President signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (the Budget Act). The Budget Act raised the statutory limit on the amount of permissible federal debt (the debt ceiling) until March 2017 and raised the sequester caps imposed by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (the Budget Control Act) by $80 billion, split equally between defense and non-defense discretionary spending in FY 2016 and FY 2017 ($50 billion in FY 2016 and $30 billion in FY 2017).
If the debt ceiling is breached, we may be required to continue to perform for some period of time on certain of our U.S. Government contracts even if the U.S. Government is unable to make timely payments. Unforeseen circumstances could cause an extended debt ceiling breach and have significant near and long-term consequences for our company, our employees, our suppliers and the defense industry.
On December 18, 2015, Congress passed and the President signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016, which provided funding for the U.S. Government for FY 2016, providing $1.1 trillion in discretionary funding for federal agencies through September 2016. The President signed a continuing resolution in September 2016, which was extended in December 2016, and provides funding for the U.S. Government at FY 2016 levels through April 28, 2017.
The budget environment, including sequestration as currently mandated, and uncertainty surrounding the appropriations processes, remain significant long-term risks. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding how future budget and program decisions will unfold, including the defense spending priorities of the incoming Administration and Congress, what challenges budget reductions (required by the Budget Control Act and otherwise) will present for the defense industry and whether an annual appropriations bill will be enacted for FY 2017. If an annual appropriations bill is not enacted for FY 2017 or beyond, the U.S. Government may continue to operate under a continuing resolution, restricting new contract or program starts and we may face a government shutdown of unknown duration. Adverse consequences from operating under a continuing resolution may be greater as the company has a higher percentage of development programs. We believe continued budget pressures would have serious negative consequences for the security of our country, the defense industrial base, including Northrop Grumman, and the customers, employees, suppliers, investors, and communities that rely on companies in the defense industrial base. It is likely budget and program decisions made in this environment would have long-term implications for our company and the entire defense industry.
Long-term funding for certain programs in which we participate may be reduced, delayed or cancelled. In addition, budget cuts globally could adversely affect the viability of our subcontractors and suppliers, and our employee base. While we believe that our business is well-positioned in areas that the DoD and other customers have indicated are areas of focus for future defense spending, the long-term impact of the Budget Control Act, other defense spending cuts, the debt ceiling and the ongoing fiscal debates remain uncertain.

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Significant delays or reductions in appropriations; long-term funding under a continuing resolution; an extended debt ceiling breach or government shutdown; and/or future budget and program decisions, among other items, may negatively impact our business and programs and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We are subject to various investigations, claims, disputes and litigation that could ultimately be resolved against us.
The size, nature and complexity of our business make us susceptible to investigations, claims, disputes and litigation, particularly those involving governments. We are and may become subject to investigations, claims, disputes and administrative, civil or criminal litigation globally and across a broad array of matters, including, but not limited to, government contracts, false claims, products liability, fraud, environmental, shareholder derivative actions, intellectual property, tax, export/import, anti-corruption, labor, health and safety, employee benefits and plans, including plan administration, and improper payments. These matters could divert financial and management resources; result in fines, penalties, compensatory, treble or other damages or non-monetary relief; and otherwise disrupt our business. Government regulations also provide that certain allegations against a contractor may lead to suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of export privileges for the company or one or more of its components. Suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on the company because of our reliance on government contracts and export authorizations. An investigation, claim, dispute or litigation, even if not substantiated or fully indemnified or insured, could also negatively impact our reputation among our customers and the public, and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance in the future. Investigations, claims, disputes or litigation could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our international business exposes us to additional risks.
Sales to customers outside the U.S. are an increasingly important component of our strategy. Our international business (including joint ventures) is subject to numerous political and economic factors, legal requirements, cross-cultural considerations and other risks associated with doing business globally. These risks differ in some respects from those associated with our U.S. business and our exposure to such risks may increase if our international business continues to grow as we anticipate.
Our international business is subject to both U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to import-export controls, technology transfer restrictions, repatriation of earnings, data privacy and protection, investment, exchange rates and controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other anti-corruption laws, the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act, labor and employment, works councils and other labor groups, taxes, environment, security restrictions and intellectual property. Failure by us, our employees, affiliates, partners or others with whom we work to comply with these laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil or criminal liabilities, including suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges. Our customers outside of the U.S. generally have the ability to terminate contracts for default based on performance. Termination of a contract due to default could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, our ability to compete for other contracts and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows. We also are subject to various non-U.S. procurement and other laws applicable to our industry. New regulations and requirements, or changes to existing ones in the various countries in which we operate can significantly increase our costs and risks of doing business internationally.
Changes in regulations, political leadership and environment, or security risks may dramatically affect our ability to conduct or continue to conduct business in international markets. Our international business may also be impacted by changes in foreign national policies and priorities, which may be influenced by changes in the threat environment, geopolitical uncertainties, government budgets, and economic and political factors more generally, any of which could impact funding for programs or delay purchasing decisions or customer payments. We also could be affected by the legal, regulatory and economic impacts of Britain’s exit from the European Union, the impact of which is not known at this time. Global economic conditions and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could further impact our business. For example, the tightening of credit in financial markets outside of the U.S. could adversely affect the ability of our customers and suppliers to obtain financing and could result in a decrease in or cancellation of orders for our products and services or impact the ability of our customers to make payments.
Our contracts with non-U.S. customers may also include terms and reflect legal requirements that create additional risks. They may include industrial cooperation agreements requiring specific in-country purchases, investments, manufacturing agreements or other financial obligations, known as offset obligations, and provide for significant penalties if we fail to meet such requirements. Our ability to sell products outside the U.S. could be adversely

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affected if we are unable to design our products for export on a cost effective basis or to obtain and retain all necessary export licenses and authorizations on a timely basis. We face risks related to our products that are approved for export, but may be subject to the U.S. Government changing or cancelling the export license after the product is ordered. Our ability to conduct business outside of the U.S. also depends on our ability to attract and retain sufficient qualified personnel with the skills and/or security clearances in the markets in which we do business.
The products and services we provide internationally, including those provided by subcontractors and joint ventures in which we have an interest, are sometimes in countries with unstable governments, economic or fiscal challenges, military or political conflicts and/or developing legal systems. This may increase the risk to our employees, subcontractors or other third parties, and/or increase the risk of a wide range of liabilities, as well as loss of property or damage to our products.
The occurrence and impact of these factors is difficult to predict, but one or more of them could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our reputation, our ability to do business and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows may be impacted by the improper conduct of employees, agents, subcontractors, suppliers, business partners or joint ventures in which we participate.
We have implemented policies, procedures, training and other compliance controls, and have negotiated terms designed to prevent misconduct by employees, agents or others working on our behalf or with us that would violate the applicable laws of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws governing improper payments to government officials, the protection of export controlled or classified information, cost accounting and billing, competition and data privacy. However, we cannot ensure that we will prevent all such misconduct committed by our employees, agents, subcontractors, suppliers, business partners or others working on our behalf or with us, and this risk of improper conduct may increase as we expand globally. In the ordinary course of our business we form and are members of joint ventures. We may be unable to prevent misconduct or other violations of applicable laws by these joint ventures (including their officers, directors and employees) or our partners. Improper actions by those with whom or through whom we do business (including our employees, agents, subcontractors, suppliers, business partners and joint ventures) could subject us to administrative, civil or criminal investigations and monetary and non-monetary penalties, including suspension and debarment, which could negatively impact our reputation and ability to conduct business and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We use estimates when accounting for contracts. Contract cost growth or changes in estimated contract revenues and costs could affect our profitability and our overall financial position.
Contract accounting requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract revenues and costs, and making assumptions regarding performance. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenues and costs at completion is complex and subject to many variables. Incentives, awards and/or penalties related to performance on contracts are considered in estimating revenue and profit rates when there is sufficient information to assess anticipated performance. Suppliers’ expected performance is also assessed and considered in estimating costs and profitability.
Our operating income can be adversely affected when we experience increased estimated contract costs. Reasons for increased estimated contract costs may include: design issues; changes in estimates of the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, including technical or quality issues or requests to perform additional work at the direction of the customer; production challenges, including those resulting from the availability and timeliness of customer funding, unavailability or reduced productivity of qualified and timely cleared labor or the effect of any delays in performance; the availability, performance, quality or financial strength of significant subcontractors; supplier issues, including the costs, timeliness and availability of materials and components; the effect of any changes in laws or regulations; actions deemed necessary for long-term customer satisfaction; and natural disasters or environmental matters. We may file requests for equitable adjustment or claims to seek recovery in whole or in part for our increased costs.
Our risk varies with the type of contract. Due to their nature, fixed-price contracts inherently tend to have more risk than cost type contracts. In 2016, approximately half of our sales were derived from fixed-price contracts. We typically enter into fixed-price contracts where costs can be more reasonably estimated based on actual experience, such as for mature production programs. In addition, our contracts contain provisions relating to cost controls and audit rights. If the terms specified in our contracts are not met, our profitability may be reduced and we may incur a

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loss. Our fixed-priced contracts may include fixed-price development work. This type of work is inherently more uncertain as to future events than production contracts, and, as a result, there is typically more variability in estimates of the costs to complete the development stage. As work progresses through the development stage into production, the risks associated with estimating the total costs of the contract are typically reduced. While management uses its best judgment to estimate costs associated with fixed-price development contracts, future events could result in either upward or downward adjustments to those estimates. Under cost type contracts, allowable costs incurred by the contractor are generally subject to reimbursement plus a fee. We often enter into cost type contracts for development programs with complex design and technical challenges. These cost type programs typically have award or incentive fees that are subject to uncertainty and may be earned over extended periods or towards the end of the contract. In these cases, the associated financial risks are primarily in recognizing profit, which ultimately may not be earned, or program cancellation if cost, schedule, or technical performance issues arise.
Because of the significance of the judgment and estimation processes described above, it is possible that materially different amounts could be obtained if different assumptions were used or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates, and the failure to prevail on claims for equitable adjustments could have a material adverse effect upon the profitability of one or more of the affected contracts and on our overall financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows. See “Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments” in MD&A.
Our earnings and profitability depend, in part, on subcontractor and supplier performance and financial viability as well as raw material and component availability and pricing.
We rely on other companies to provide raw materials and major components and subsystems for our products and to produce hardware elements and sub-assemblies, provide software and intellectual property, and perform some of the services we provide to our customers, and to do so in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Disruptions or performance problems caused by our subcontractors and suppliers, or a misalignment between our contractual obligations to our customers and our agreement with our subcontractors and suppliers, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers.
Our ability to perform our obligations on time could be adversely affected if one or more of our subcontractors or suppliers were unable to provide the agreed-upon products or materials or perform the agreed-upon services in a timely, compliant and cost-effective manner or otherwise to meet the requirements of the contract. Changes in economic conditions, including changes in defense budgets or credit availability, or other changes impacting a subcontractor or supplier (including changes in ownership or operations) could adversely affect the financial stability of our subcontractors and suppliers and/or their ability to perform. The inability of our suppliers to perform, or their inability to perform adequately, could also result in the need for us to transition to alternate suppliers, which could result in significant incremental cost and delay or the need for us to provide other resources to support our existing suppliers.
In connection with our U.S. Government contracts, we are required to procure certain materials, components and parts from supply sources approved by the customer. We also are facing increased and changing regulatory requirements, many of which apply to our subcontractors and suppliers. In some cases, there may be only one supplier for certain components. If a sole source supplier cannot meet our needs or is otherwise unavailable, we may be unable to find a suitable alternative.
Our procurement practices are intended to reduce the likelihood of our procurement of counterfeit, unauthorized or otherwise non-compliant parts or materials. We rely on our subcontractors and suppliers to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including regarding the parts or materials we procure from them; in some circumstances, we rely on certifications provided by our subcontractors and suppliers regarding their compliance. We also rely on our subcontractors and suppliers effectively to mitigate the risk of cyber and security threats or other disruptions with respect to the products and components they deliver to us and the information entrusted to them by us or our customers.
If we are unable to procure or experience significant delays in subcontractor or supplier deliveries of needed materials, components, intellectual property or parts; if our subcontractors or suppliers do not comply with all applicable laws and regulations; if the certifications we receive from them are inaccurate; or if what we receive is counterfeit or otherwise improper, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.

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Our business could be negatively impacted by cyber and other security threats or disruptions.
As a defense contractor, we face various cyber and other security threats, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information and networks; insider threats; threats to the safety of our directors, officers and employees; threats to the security of our facilities, infrastructure and supply chain; and threats from terrorist acts or other acts of aggression. Our customers and partners (including our supply chain and joint ventures) face similar threats. Although we utilize various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate the risk of these threats, there can be no assurance that these procedures and controls will be sufficient. These threats could lead to losses of sensitive information or capabilities; harm to personnel, infrastructure or products; financial liabilities and damage to our reputation.
Cyber threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, destructive malware, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, disruption or denial of service attacks, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in mission critical systems, unauthorized release of confidential, personal or otherwise protected information (ours or that of our employees, customers or partners), and corruption of data, networks or systems. In addition, we could be impacted by cyber threats or other disruptions or vulnerabilities found in products we use or in our partners’ or customers’ systems that are used in connection with our business. These events, if not prevented or effectively mitigated, could damage our reputation, require remedial actions and lead to loss of business, regulatory actions, potential liability and other financial losses.
We provide systems, products and services to various customers (government and commercial) who also face cyber threats. Our systems, products and services may themselves be subject to cyber threats and/or they may not be able to detect or deter threats, or effectively to mitigate resulting losses. These losses could adversely affect our customers and our company.
The impact of these factors is difficult to predict, but one or more of them could result in the loss of information or capabilities, harm to individuals or property, damage to our reputation, loss of business, contractual or regulatory actions and potential liabilities, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
As a U.S. Government contractor, we and our partners are subject to various procurement and other laws and regulations applicable to our industry and we could be adversely affected by changes in such laws and regulations or any negative findings by the U.S. Government as to our compliance with them. We also may be adversely affected by changes in our customers' business practices globally.
U.S. Government contractors (including their subcontractors and others with whom they do business) must comply with many significant procurement regulations and other specific legal requirements. These regulations and other requirements, although often customary in government contracts, increase our performance and compliance costs and risks and are regularly evolving. New laws, regulations or procurement requirements or changes to current ones (including, for example, regulations related to cybersecurity, recovery of employee compensation costs, counterfeit parts, anti-human trafficking, specialty metals and conflict minerals) can significantly increase our costs and risks and reduce our profitability.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. Government and its agencies, such as the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA), Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) and the DoD Inspector General. These agencies review performance under our contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards, as well as the adequacy of our systems and processes in meeting government requirements. Costs ultimately found to be unallowable or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed or must be refunded if already reimbursed. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties, sanctions, forfeiture of profits or suspension or debarment. Whether or not illegal activities are alleged, the U.S. Government has the ability to decrease or withhold certain payments when it deems systems subject to its review to be inadequate, with significant financial impact. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us or a business partner.
Our industry has experienced, and we expect it will continue to experience, significant changes to business practices globally as a result of an increased focus on affordability, efficiencies, business systems, recovery of costs and a reprioritization of available defense funds to key areas for future defense spending. As a result of certain of these initiatives, we have experienced and may continue to experience an increased number of audits and/or a lengthened period of time required to close open audits. For example, the thresholds for certain allowable costs in the U.S., including compensation costs, have been significantly reduced; the allowability of other types of costs are being

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challenged, debated and, in certain cases, modified, all with potentially significant financial costs to the company. In connection with these cost reduction initiatives, the U.S. Government is also pursuing alternatives to shift additional responsibility and performance risks to the contractor. The U.S. Government has been pursuing and may continue to pursue policies that could negatively impact our profitability. Changes in procurement practices favoring incentive-based fee arrangements, different award criteria, non-traditional contract provisions and government contract negotiation offers that indicate what our costs should be also may affect our profitability and predictability.
We (again, including our subcontractors and others with whom we do business) also are subject to and expected to perform in compliance with a vast array of federal laws related to our industry, including but not limited to the Truth in Negotiations Act, the False Claims Act, the Procurement Integrity Act, CAS, FAR, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act, the Close the Contractor Fraud Loophole Act and the FCPA. If we are found to have violated the law, or are found not to have acted responsibly, we may be subject to reductions of the value of contracts; contract modifications or termination; the withholding of payments from our customer; the loss of export privileges; civil and criminal liabilities; the assessment of penalties, fines, or compensatory, treble or other damages; or suspension or debarment.
If we or those with whom we do business do not comply with the laws, regulations and processes to which we are subject or if customer business practices change significantly, including with respect to the thresholds for allowable costs, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Competition within our markets and bid protests may affect our ability to win new contracts and result in reduced revenues and market share.
We operate in highly competitive markets and our competitors may have more extensive or specialized engineering, manufacturing, or marketing capabilities in some areas or financial capacity, or be willing to accept more risk or lower profitability in competing for contracts. We have seen, and anticipate we will continue to see, increased competition in some of our core markets, especially as a result of budget pressures for many customers, a continued focus on affordability and competition, and our own success in winning business. We are facing increasing competition in the U.S. and outside the U.S. from U.S., foreign and multinational firms. In some instances outside the U.S., foreign companies may receive loans, marketing subsidies and other assistance from their governments that may not be available to U.S. companies and foreign companies may be subject to fewer restrictions on technology transfer. Additionally, some customers, including the DoD, may turn to commercial contractors, rather than traditional defense contractors, for some products and services, or may utilize small business contractors or determine to source work internally rather than hiring a contractor.
We are also seeing a significant number of bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. Bid protests could result in contract modifications or the award decision being reversed and loss of the contract award. Even where a bid protest does not result in the loss of an award, the resolution can extend the time until the contract activity can begin, and delay earnings.
If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors, or prevail in protests, we may experience declines in future revenues and market share, which could, over time, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our ability to win new competitions and meet the needs of our customers depends, in part, on our ability to maintain a qualified workforce.
Our operating results are heavily dependent upon our ability to attract and retain sufficient personnel with requisite skills and/or security clearances. If qualified personnel are scarce or difficult to attract or retain or if we experience a high level of attrition, generally or in particular areas, or if such personnel are unable to obtain security clearances on a timely basis, we could experience higher labor, recruiting or training costs in order to attract and retain necessary employees.
Certain of our employees are covered by collective agreements. We generally have been able to renegotiate renewals to expiring agreements without significant disruption of operating activities. If we experience difficulties with renewals and renegotiations of existing collective agreements or if our employees pursue new collective representation, we could incur additional expenses and may be subject to work stoppages. Any such expenses or delays could adversely affect our programs served by employees who are covered by such agreements or representation.
If we are unable to attract and retain a qualified workforce, we may be unable to maintain our competitive position and our future success could be materially adversely affected.

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Many of our contracts contain performance obligations that require innovative design capabilities, are technologically complex, require state-of-the-art manufacturing expertise or are dependent upon factors not wholly within our control. Failure to meet our contractual obligations could adversely affect our profitability, reputation and future prospects.
We design, develop and manufacture technologically advanced and innovative products and services, which are applied by our customers in a variety of environments. Problems and delays in development or delivery, or system failures, as a result of issues with respect to design, technology, intellectual property rights, labor, inability to achieve learning curve assumptions, inability to manage effectively a broad array of programs, manufacturing materials or components could prevent us from meeting requirements and create significant risk and liabilities. Similarly, failures to perform on schedule or otherwise to fulfill our contractual obligations could negatively impact our financial position, reputation and ability to win future business.
In addition, our products cannot be tested and proven in all situations and are otherwise subject to unforeseen problems. Examples of unforeseen problems that could negatively affect revenue, schedule and profitability include loss on launch or flight of spacecraft, loss of aviation platforms, premature failure of products that cannot be accessed for repair or replacement, problems with design, quality and workmanship, country of origin of procured materials, delivery of subcontractor components or services and degradation of product performance. These failures could result, either directly or indirectly, in loss of life or property. Among the factors that may affect revenue and profitability could be inaccurate cost estimates, design issues, human factors, unforeseen costs and expenses not covered by insurance or indemnification from the customer, diversion of management focus in responding to unforeseen problems, loss of follow-on work, and, in the case of certain contracts, repayment to the government customer of contract cost and fee payments we previously received.
Certain contracts, primarily involving space satellite systems, contain provisions that entitle the customer to recover fees in the event of failure of the system upon launch or subsequent deployment for less than a specified period of time. Under such terms, we could be required to forfeit fees previously recognized and/or collected.
If we are unable to meet our obligations, including due to issues regarding the design, development or manufacture of our products or services, or we experience launch, platform or satellite system failures, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, our ability to compete for other contracts and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Environmental matters, including unforeseen costs associated with compliance and remediation efforts, and government and third party claims, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our operations are subject to and affected by a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including as they may be changed over time. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations requires, and is expected to continue to require, significant operating and capital costs. We may be subject to substantial fines, penalties and criminal sanctions for violations. If we are found to be in violation of the Federal Clean Air Act or the Clean Water Act, the facility or facilities involved in the violation could be placed by the Environmental Protection Agency on a list maintained by the General Services Administration of facilities that generally cannot be used in performing on U.S. Government contracts until the violation is corrected.
We incur, and expect to continue to incur, substantial remediation costs related to the cleanup of pollutants previously released into the environment. Stricter or different enforcement of existing laws and regulations; new laws, regulations or cleanup requirements; discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination; imposition of fines, penalties, compensatory or other damages (including natural resource damages); a determination that certain environmental costs are unallowable; rulings on allocation or insurance coverage; and/or the insolvency or other inability or unwillingness of other parties to pay their share of such costs could require us to incur significant additional costs in excess of those anticipated.
We also are and may become a party to various legal proceedings and disputes involving government and private parties (including class actions) relating to alleged impacts from pollutants released into the environment. These matters could result in compensatory or other damages, determinations on allowability or insurance coverage, fines, penalties, and non-monetary relief.
We are engaged in remediation activities relating to environmental conditions allegedly resulting from historic operations at the former United States Navy and Grumman facilities in Bethpage, New York. We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, substantial remediation costs related to environmental conditions in Bethpage. We are and may become a party to various legal proceedings and disputes related to remediation and/or alleged

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environmental impacts in Bethpage, including with federal and state entities, local municipalities and water districts, insurance carriers and class action plaintiffs. These matters could result in fines, penalties, compensatory or other damages (including natural resource damages), determinations on allocation, allowability and coverage, and non-monetary relief. 
In addition, government and private parties could seek to hold us responsible for liabilities or obligations related to former operations that have been divested or spun-off (including our former shipbuilding business) and/or for which other parties have agreed to be responsible and/or to indemnify us, directly or indirectly. The indemnity related rights we have may not be sufficient to protect us against such liabilities.
The impact of these factors is difficult to predict, but one or more of them could harm our reputation and business and have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our business is subject to disruption caused by natural and/or environmental disasters that could adversely affect our profitability and our overall financial position.
We have significant operations located in regions that may be exposed to earthquakes, damaging storms and other natural disasters. Our business also may be subject to environmental disasters. Our subcontractors and suppliers are also subject to natural and environmental disasters that could affect their ability to deliver or perform under a contract. Although preventative measures may help to mitigate damage, the damage and disruption resulting from natural and environmental disasters may be significant.
Natural and environmental disasters could also disrupt our and our subcontractors’ and suppliers’ workforce and the critical industrial infrastructure needed for normal business operations.
If insurance or other risk transfer mechanisms are unavailable or insufficient to recover all costs or if we experience a significant disruption to our business due to a natural or environmental disaster, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our insurance coverage, customer indemnifications or other liability protections may be unavailable or inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of or be unable to pay for material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and overall financial position.
We endeavor to obtain insurance agreements from financially solid, highly rated counterparties in established markets to cover significant risks and liabilities (including, for example, natural disasters and product liability). Not every risk or liability can be insured, and for risks that are insurable, the policy limits and terms of coverage reasonably obtainable in the market may not be sufficient to cover all actual losses or liabilities incurred. Even if insurance coverage is available, we may not be able to obtain it at a price or on terms acceptable to us. Disputes with insurance carriers, including over policy terms, reservation of rights, the applicability of coverage (including exclusions), compliance with provisions (including notice) and/or the insolvency of one or more of our insurers may significantly affect the amount or timing of recovery.
In some circumstances we may be entitled to certain legal protections or indemnifications from our customers through contractual provisions, laws, regulations or otherwise. However, these protections are not always available, are typically subject to certain terms or limitations, including the availability of funds, and may not be sufficient to cover all losses or liabilities incurred.
If insurance coverage, customer indemnifications and/or other legal protections are not available or are not sufficient to cover our risks or losses, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We provide products and services related to hazardous and high risk operations, which subjects us to various environmental, regulatory, financial, reputational and other risks.
We provide products and services related to hazardous and high risk operations. Among other such operations, our products and services are used in nuclear-related activities (including nuclear-powered platforms) and used in support of nuclear-related operations of third parties. In addition, certain of our products are provided with space launch services. These activities subject us to various extraordinary risks, including potential liabilities relating to nuclear-related incidents; to the harmful effects on the environment and human health that may result from nuclear-related activities, operations or incidents, as well as the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials; and to failed launches of spacecraft. We may be subject to reputational harm and potential liabilities arising out of a nuclear or launch incident, among others, whether or not the cause was within our control. Under some circumstances, the U.S. Government and prime contractors provide for certain indemnification and other protection under certain of our government related contracts, including pursuant to, or in connection with, Public Law 85-804,

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the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act and the Terrorism Risk Insurance Reauthorization Act, for certain risks.
In addition, our customers may otherwise use our products and services in connection with hazardous activities, or in ways that can be unusually hazardous or risky, creating potential liabilities to our customers and/or our company as the provider of such products and services. In the event of an incident, if our customers fail to use our products properly or if our products or services do not operate as intended, we could be subject to reputational harm and potential liabilities.
If there was a nuclear incident or other nuclear-related damages, an incident related to launch activities or an incident or other damages related to or caused by the use of our products and services in connection with hazardous activities or risks, and if indemnification or other protection was not available to cover our losses and liabilities, it could adversely affect our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Pension and medical liabilities and related expenses recorded in our financial statements may fluctuate significantly depending upon future investment performance of plan assets, changes in actuarial assumptions, and legislative or other regulatory actions.
A substantial portion of our current and retired employee population is covered by pension and other post-retirement benefit plans. Defined benefit pension and medical liabilities and related expenses as recorded in our financial statements are primarily dependent upon future investment performance of plan assets and various assumptions, including discount rates applied to future payment obligations, mortality assumptions, estimated long-term rates of return on plan assets, rates of future cost growth and trends for future costs. In addition, funding requirements for benefit obligations of our pension and other post-retirement benefit plans, including Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation premiums for certain of our defined benefit plans, and our health and welfare plans are subject to legislative and other government regulatory actions.
In accordance with government regulations, pension plan cost recoveries under our U.S. Government contracts may occur in different periods from when those pension costs are recognized for financial statement purposes or when pension funding is made. These timing differences could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows. The cost accounting rules have been revised in order to partially harmonize the measurement and period of assignment of defined benefit pension plan costs allocable to U.S. Government contracts and the minimum required contribution under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), as amended by the Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006. These rules better align, but do not eliminate, mismatches between ERISA funding requirements and CAS pension costs for U.S. Government CAS covered contracts.
Future investment performance of plan assets and changes in assumptions associated with our pension and other post-retirement benefit plans could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Changes in future business conditions could cause business investments and/or recorded goodwill and other long-lived assets to become impaired, resulting in substantial losses and write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
Although we currently have significant excess fair value of our reporting units over their respective carrying values, goodwill accounts for approximately half of our total assets. Market-based inputs to the calculations in our goodwill impairment test, such as weighted average cost of capital and terminal value (based on market comparisons) could change significantly from our current assumptions. We continue to monitor the recoverability of the carrying value of our goodwill and other long-lived assets. Significant write-offs of goodwill or other long-lived assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and/or results of operations.
We may be unable fully to exploit or adequately to protect intellectual property rights, which could materially affect our ability to compete, our reputation and our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
To perform on our contracts and to win new business, we depend on our ability to develop, protect and exploit our intellectual property and also to access the intellectual property of others under reasonable terms. We may not be able adequately to exploit, protect or access intellectual property and the conduct of our customers, competitors and suppliers may make it more difficult for us to do so.
We own many forms of intellectual property, including U.S. and foreign patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets and we license or otherwise obtain access to various intellectual property rights of third parties. The U.S. Government and certain foreign governments hold licenses or other rights to certain intellectual property that we

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develop in performance of government contracts, and may seek to use or authorize others to use such intellectual property, including in competition with us. Governments have increased certain efforts to assert or obtain more extensive rights in intellectual property, which could decrease our ability to exploit certain of our intellectual property rights and to compete. Governments have also declined at times to make intellectual property of others available to us under acceptable terms.
We also rely significantly upon proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how. We typically seek to protect this information, including by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees and other parties such as consultants and subcontractors. These agreements and other measures may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets and other proprietary information. In the event of an infringement of such intellectual property rights, a breach of a confidentiality agreement or divulgence of proprietary information, we may not have adequate legal remedies. In addition, our trade secrets or other proprietary information may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.
In some instances, our ability to seek, win or perform contracts may require us to access and use third party intellectual property. This may require that the government or our customer is willing and able to provide rights to such third party intellectual property, or that we are able to negotiate directly to obtain necessary rights on reasonable terms.
Our intellectual property is subject to challenge, invalidation, misappropriation or circumvention by third parties. Our use of intellectual property licensed or otherwise obtained from third parties is also subject to challenge. Litigation to determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert management’s attention away from other aspects of our business. Moreover, the laws concerning intellectual property rights vary among countries and the protection provided to our intellectual property by foreign laws and courts may not be the same as the remedies available under U.S. law.
If we are unable adequately to exploit our intellectual property rights, to protect our intellectual property rights against infringement or third party claims, or to obtain rights to intellectual property of others, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, ability to compete for and perform on contracts, financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to develop new products and new technologies and maintain technologies, facilities and equipment to win new competitions and meet the needs of our customers.
Many of the markets in which we operate are characterized by rapidly changing technologies. The product, program and service needs of our customers change and evolve regularly. Our success in the competitive defense industry depends upon our ability to develop technologically advanced, innovative and cost-effective products and services and market these products and services to our customers in the U.S. and internationally. Our success depends on our continued access to assured suppliers of important technologies and components. Our success also depends on our ability to provide the people, technologies, facilities, equipment and financial capacity needed to deliver those products and services with maximum efficiency. If we fail to maintain our competitive position, we could lose a significant amount of future business to our competitors, which would negatively impact our ability to generate favorable financial results and maintain market share.
If we are unable to develop new products and technologies, we may be unable to maintain our competitive position and our future success could be materially adversely affected.
Unanticipated changes in our tax provisions or exposure to additional tax liabilities could affect our profitability and cash flow.
We are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. Changes in applicable U.S. or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including the possibility of retroactive effect, could affect our tax expense and profitability. For example, a change in the U.S. corporate tax rate would result in a remeasurement of our net deferred tax assets through the income tax provision because our deferred tax assets are measured at the current statutory tax rate. In addition, the final determination of any tax audits or related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Changes in our tax provision or an increase in our tax liabilities, whether due to changes in applicable law and regulations, the interpretation or application thereof, changes in the tax rate or a final determination of tax audits or litigation, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND PROJECTIONS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the information we are incorporating by reference contain statements, other than statements of historical fact, that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “could,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “believe,” “estimate,” “outlook,” “anticipate,” “trends,” “goals” and similar expressions generally identify these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements relating to our future financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows. Forward-looking statements are based upon assumptions, expectations, plans and projections that we believe to be reasonable when made, but which may change over time. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and inherently involve a wide range of risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Specific risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those identified under “Risk Factors” and other important factors disclosed in this report and from time to time in our other filings with the SEC.
You are urged to consider the limitations on, and risks associated with, forward-looking statements and not unduly rely on the accuracy of forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date this report is first filed or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
Item 2. Properties
At December 31, 2016, we had approximately 34 million square feet of floor space at 442 separate locations, primarily in the U.S., for manufacturing, warehousing, research and testing, administration and various other uses. At December 31, 2016, we leased to third parties approximately 260,000 square feet of our owned and leased facilities.
At December 31, 2016, we had major operations at the following locations:
Aerospace Systems
Azusa, Carson, El Segundo, Manhattan Beach, Mojave, Palmdale, Redondo Beach and San Diego, CA; Melbourne and St. Augustine, FL; Devens, MA; and Moss Point, MS.
Mission Systems
Huntsville, AL; McClellan, Redondo Beach, San Diego, San Jose, Sunnyvale and Woodland Hills, CA; Aurora and Colorado Springs, CO; Apopka, FL; Rolling Meadows, IL; Annapolis, Annapolis Junction, Elkridge, Halethorpe, Linthicum and Sykesville, MD; Bethpage and Williamsville, NY; Beavercreek and Cincinnati, OH; Salt Lake City, UT; and Chantilly, Charlottesville, Fairfax, McLean and Richmond, VA. Locations outside the U.S. include Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
Technology Services
Sierra Vista, AZ; Warner Robins, GA; Lake Charles, LA; Baltimore, MD; and Chester and Herndon, VA. Locations outside the U.S. include Australia and France.
Corporate
Falls Church and Lebanon, VA and Irving, TX.
The following is a summary of our floor space at December 31, 2016:
Square feet (in thousands)
 
Owned
 
Leased
 
U.S. Government
Owned/Leased
 
Total
Aerospace Systems
 
6,756

 
6,610

 
2,019

 
15,385

Mission Systems
 
8,783

 
5,583

 

 
14,366

Technology Services
 
414

 
2,845

 
1

 
3,260

Corporate
 
657

 
444

 

 
1,101

Total
 
16,610

 
15,482

 
2,020

 
34,112

We maintain our properties in good operating condition and believe that the productive capacity of our properties is adequate to meet current contractual requirements and those for the foreseeable future.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We have provided information about certain legal proceedings in which we are involved in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements.
We are a party to various investigations, lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings, including government investigations and claims, that arise in the ordinary course of our business. These types of matters could result in fines; penalties; compensatory, treble or other damages; or non-monetary relief. Government regulations also provide that certain allegations against a contractor may lead to suspension or debarment from future government contracts or suspension of export privileges for the company or one or more of its components. Suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on the company because of our reliance on government contracts and authorizations. The nature of legal proceedings is such that we cannot assure the outcome of any particular matter. However, based on information available to us to date and other than as noted in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements, we do not believe that the outcome of any matter currently pending against the company is likely to have a material adverse effect on the company's consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2016, its annual results of operations and/or cash flows. For further information on the risks we face from existing and future investigations, lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings, please see “Risk Factors.”
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
No information is required in response to this item.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
COMMON STOCK
We have 800,000,000 shares authorized at a $1 par value per share, of which 175,068,263 shares and 181,303,083 shares were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
PREFERRED STOCK
We have 10,000,000 shares authorized at a $1 par value per share, of which no shares were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
MARKET INFORMATION
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol NOC.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the intraday high and low prices of our common stock as reported in the consolidated reporting system for the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transactions.
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
Low - High
 
Low - High
First Quarter
 
$175.00 - $200.78
 
$141.58 - $172.30
Second Quarter
 
198.75 - 223.42
 
152.44 - 166.55
Third Quarter
 
206.69 - 224.12
 
152.31 - 176.83
Fourth Quarter
 
212.02 - 253.80
 
168.26 - 193.99
HOLDERS
The approximate number of common stockholders was 24,427 as of January 26, 2017.
DIVIDENDS
Quarterly dividends per common share for the most recent two years are as follows:
 
 
2016
 
2015
First Quarter
 
$
0.80

 
$
0.70

Second Quarter
 
  
0.90

 
  
0.80

Third Quarter
 
  
0.90

 
  
0.80

Fourth Quarter
 
  
0.90

 
  
0.80

Total
 
$
3.50

 
$
3.10


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS
The table below summarizes our repurchases of common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2016:
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average 
Price
Paid per
Share(1)
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased under the
Plans or Programs
($ in millions)
October 1, 2016 - October 28, 2016
662,750

 
$
217.46

 
662,750

 
$
2,970

October 29, 2016 - November 25, 2016
464,130

 
237.83

 
464,130

 
2,860

November 26, 2016 - December 31, 2016
592,600

 
237.65

 
592,600

 
2,719

Total
1,719,480

 
$
229.92

 
1,719,480

 
$
2,719

(1) 
Includes commissions paid.
Share repurchases take place from time to time, subject to market conditions and management's discretion, in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The company retires its common stock upon repurchase and, in the periods presented, has not made any purchases of common stock other than in connection with these publicly announced repurchase programs.
See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on our share repurchase programs.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Comparison of Cumulative Five Year Total Return
Among Northrop Grumman Corporation, the S&P 500 Index,
and the S&P Aerospace & Defense Index
noc1231201chartx57030a01a016.jpg
(1)
Assumes $100 invested at the close of business on December 31, 2011, in Northrop Grumman Corporation common stock, Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense Index.
(2)
The cumulative total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.
(3)
The S&P Aerospace & Defense Index is comprised of Arconic, Inc., The Boeing Company, General Dynamics Corporation, L3 Technologies, Inc., Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Raytheon Company, Rockwell Collins, Inc., Textron, Inc., TransDigm Group and United Technologies Corporation.
(4)
The total return is weighted according to market capitalization of each company at the beginning of each year.
(5)
This graph is not deemed to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The data presented in the following table is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements and other information.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government(1)
 
$
20,573

 
$
19,458

 
$
20,085

 
$
21,278

 
$
22,268

International(2)
 
3,205

 
3,339

 
3,045

 
2,493

 
2,085

Other Customers(3)
 
730

 
729

 
849

 
890

 
865

Total sales
 
24,508

 
23,526

 
23,979

 
24,661

 
25,218

Operating income
 
3,193

 
3,076

 
3,196

 
3,123

 
3,130

Net earnings
 
2,200

 
1,990

 
2,069

 
1,952

 
1,978

Basic earnings per share
 
$
12.30

 
$
10.51

 
$
9.91

 
$
8.50

 
$
7.96

Diluted earnings per share
 
12.19

 
10.39

 
9.75

 
8.35

 
7.81

Cash dividends declared per common share
 
3.50

 
3.10

 
2.71

 
2.38

 
2.15

Year-End Financial Position
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets(4)
 
$
25,614

 
$
24,424

 
$
26,545

 
$
26,351

 
$
26,527

Notes payable to banks and long-term debt(4)
 
7,070

 
6,496

 
5,901

 
5,900

 
3,919

Other long-term obligations(5)
 
7,667

 
7,059

 
7,520

 
4,018

 
7,043

Financial Metrics
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
2,813

 
$
2,162

 
$
2,593

 
$
2,483

 
$
2,640

Free cash flow(6)
 
1,893

 
1,691

 
2,032

 
2,119

 
2,309

Other Information
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Company-sponsored research and development expenses
 
$
705

 
$
712

 
$
569

 
$
507

 
$
520

Total backlog
 
45,339

 
35,923

 
38,199

 
37,033

 
40,809

Square footage at year-end (in thousands)
 
34,112

 
34,392

 
34,264

 
34,500

 
35,053

Number of employees at year-end
 
67,000

 
65,000

 
64,300

 
65,300

 
68,100

(1) 
Sales to the United States (U.S.) Government include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is the U.S. Government. Each of the company's segments derives substantial revenue from the U.S. Government.  
(2) 
International sales include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is an international customer. These sales include foreign military sales contracted through the U.S. Government, direct sales with governments outside the U.S. and commercial sales outside the U.S.  
(3) 
Sales to Other Customers include sales to U.S. state and local governments and commercial sales in the U.S.  
(4) 
Prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation due to our adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. As a result, we now present capitalized debt issuance costs as a reduction in the carrying amount of long-term debt. This change resulted in a reclassification of other non-current assets to long-term debt, which reduced our previously reported total assets and total liabilities as of each period end date.
(5) 
Other long-term obligations include pension and other post-retirement benefit plan liabilities, deferred compensation, unrecognized tax benefits, environmental liabilities and other long-term obligations.
(6) 
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP measure defined as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures, and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We use free cash flow as a key factor in our planning for, and consideration of, acquisitions, stock repurchases, and the payment of dividends. This measure may be useful to investors and other users of our financial statements as a supplemental measure of our cash performance, but should not be considered in isolation, as a measure of residual cash flow available for discretionary purposes, or as an alternative to operating results presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP” or “FAS”). See “Liquidity and Capital Resources” – “Free Cash Flow” in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (MD&A) for more information on this measure, including a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by operating activities.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
OVERVIEW
Global Security and Economic Environment
The U.S. and its allies face a global security environment of heightened tensions and instability, threats from state and non-state actors as well as terrorist organizations, emerging nuclear tensions and diverse regional security concerns. Global threats persist across all domains, from undersea to space to cyber. The market for defense products, services and solutions globally continues to be driven by these complex and evolving security challenges, considered in the broader context of political and socioeconomic priorities.
Global economic growth is expected to remain in the low single digits in 2017, reflecting the impact of and uncertainty surrounding geopolitical tensions globally and financial market volatility. The global economy may also be affected by Britain’s exit from the European Union, the impact of which is not known at this time. Global economic conditions could impact customer purchasing decisions. 
U.S. Political and Economic Environment
In the U.S., there is an uncertain political environment with a new Administration and a new Congress. The U.S. continues to face substantial fiscal and economic challenges, which affect funding for its discretionary and non-discretionary budgets. Part I of the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Budget Control Act) provided for a reduction in planned defense budgets by at least $487 billion over a ten year period. Part II mandated substantial additional reductions, through a process known as “sequestration,” which took effect in March 2013.
On November 2, 2015, the President signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (the Budget Act). The Budget Act raised the debt ceiling until March 2017 and raised the sequester caps imposed by the Budget Control Act by $80 billion, split equally between defense and non-defense discretionary spending in the Government's FY 2016 and FY 2017 ($50 billion in FY 2016 and $30 billion in FY 2017). Sequestration spending caps under the Budget Control Act could reduce defense spending again in FY 2018.
On December 18, 2015, Congress passed and the President signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016, which provided funding for the U.S. Government for FY 2016, providing $1.1 trillion in discretionary funding for federal agencies through September 2016. The FY 2016 DoD budget was approximately $580 billion (including $58 billion for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO)), which represented an approximately four percent increase relative to DoD funding for FY 2015.
On February 9, 2016, the President delivered his FY 2017 budget to Congress. The FY 2017 budget reflected the FY 2017 spending caps established in the Budget Act and requested $583 billion for the DoD’s annual budget, including $59 billion for OCO. The President signed a continuing resolution in September 2016, which was extended in December 2016 and provides funding for the U.S. Government at FY 2016 levels through April 28, 2017.
The federal budget and debt ceiling are expected to continue to be the subject of considerable debate, which could have a significant impact on defense spending broadly and the company's programs in particular. Additionally, both the incoming Administration and the new Congress have offered plans to reform the federal income tax code, along with other significant policy initiatives, some of which could have an impact on the company.
For further information on the risks we face from the current political and economic environment, see “Risk Factors.”
Operating Performance Assessment and Reporting
We manage and assess our business based on our performance on contracts and programs (typically large contracts or two or more closely-related contracts). We recognize sales from our portfolio of long-term contracts primarily using the cost-to-cost method of percentage of completion accounting, but in some cases we utilize the units-of-delivery method of percentage of completion accounting. As a result, sales tend to fluctuate in concert with costs incurred and units delivered across our large portfolio of contracts. Due to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) rules that govern our U.S. Government business and related Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), most types of costs are allocable to U.S. Government contracts. As such, we do not focus on individual cost groupings (such as manufacturing, engineering and design labor costs, subcontractor costs, material costs, overhead costs and general and administrative (G&A) costs), as much as we do on total contract cost, which is the key driver of our sales and operating income.
In evaluating our operating performance, we look primarily at changes in sales and operating income. Where applicable, significant fluctuations in operating performance attributable to individual contracts or programs, or changes in a specific cost element across multiple contracts, are described in our analysis. Based on this approach

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

and the nature of our operations, the discussion of results of operations below first focuses on our three segments before distinguishing between products and services. Changes in sales are generally described in terms of volume, deliveries or other indicators of sales activity. Changes in margins are generally described in terms of performance and contract mix. For purposes of this discussion, volume generally refers to increases or decreases in sales or cost from production/service activity levels or delivery rates. Performance generally refers to non-volume related changes in profitability. Contract mix refers to changes in the ratio of contract type, lifecycle, customer or other non-performance impacts on contract profitability.
CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS
Selected financial highlights are presented in the table below:
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions, except per share amounts
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016

2015
Sales
$
24,508

 
$
23,526

 
$
23,979

 
4
 %
 
(2
)%
Operating costs and expenses
21,315

 
20,450

 
20,783

 
4
 %
 
(2
)%
Operating income
3,193

 
3,076

 
3,196

 
4
 %
 
(4
)%
Operating margin rate
13.0
%
 
13.1
%
 
13.3
%
 
 
 
 
Federal and foreign income tax expense
723

 
800

 
868

 
(10
)%
 
(8
)%
Effective income tax rate
24.7
%
 
28.7
%
 
29.6
%
 
 
 
 
Net earnings
2,200

 
1,990

 
2,069

 
11
 %
 
(4
)%
Diluted earnings per share
12.19

 
10.39

 
9.75

 
17
 %
 
7
 %
Sales
2016 Sales increased $982 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2015, primarily due to higher sales at Aerospace Systems and Mission Systems.
2015Sales decreased $453 million, or 2 percent, as compared with 2014, primarily due to lower sales on U.S. Government contracts across the company, partially offset by an increase in international sales at Aerospace Systems.
See “Revenue Recognition” in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on sales by customer category.
See “Segment Operating Results” for further information by segment and “Product and Service Analysis” for product and service detail.
Operating Costs and Expenses and Operating Margin Rate
Operating costs and expenses primarily include labor, material, subcontractor and overhead costs, and are generally allocated to contracts as incurred. Operating margin rate is defined as operating income as a percentage of sales. In accordance with industry practice and the regulations that govern cost accounting requirements for government contracts, most general management and corporate expenses incurred at the segment and corporate locations are considered allowable and allocable costs. Allowable and allocable G&A costs, including independent research and development (IR&D) and bid and proposal costs, are allocated on a systematic basis to contracts in progress.
Operating costs and expenses comprise the following:
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Product costs
$
11,002

 
$
10,333

 
$
10,431

 
6
%
 
(1
)%
Service costs
7,729

 
7,551

 
7,947

 
2
%
 
(5
)%
G&A
2,584

 
2,566

 
2,405

 
1
%
 
7
 %
Operating costs and expenses
$
21,315

 
$
20,450

 
$
20,783

 
4
%
 
(2
)%
Operating costs and expenses as a % of sales
87.0
%
 
86.9
%
 
86.7
%
 
 
 
 
G&A as a % of sales
10.5
%
 
10.9
%
 
10.0
%
 
 
 
 
2016 Operating costs and expenses as a percentage of sales increased slightly in 2016 as compared with 2015, which reduced our operating margin rate to 13.0 percent from 13.1 percent in the prior year period. The decrease in

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

operating margin rate was driven by lower segment margin rates, as described in “Segment Operating Results,” and a $32 million decrease in our net FAS/CAS pension adjustment, partially offset by a $137 million reduction in unallocated corporate expenses, as described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
2015Operating costs and expenses as a percentage of sales increased in 2015 as compared with 2014, which reduced our operating margin rate to 13.1 percent from 13.3 percent in the prior year period. The decrease in operating margin rate was driven by $179 million of lower segment operating income, as described in “Segment Operating Results,” and $21 million in higher unallocated corporate expenses, partially offset by a $79 million increase in our net FAS/CAS pension adjustment, as described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements.
2016G&A as a percentage of sales decreased to 10.5 percent in 2016 from 10.9 percent in 2015, principally due to higher sales volume.
2015 G&A as a percentage of sales increased to 10.9 percent in 2015 from 10.0 percent in 2014, principally due to an increase in IR&D as we continue to invest in future business opportunities.
For further information regarding product and service sales and costs, see the “Product and Service Analysis” section that follows “Segment Operating Results.”
Operating Income
We define operating income as sales less operating costs and expenses, which includes G&A.
2016Operating income increased $117 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2015, primarily due to a $137 million reduction in unallocated corporate expenses and higher sales volume, partially offset by a $32 million decrease in our net FAS/CAS pension adjustment and lower segment margin rates.
2015 – Operating income decreased $120 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2014, primarily due to the lower sales volume described above and the absence in 2015 of a $75 million benefit realized in 2014 in connection with agreements reached with the U.S. Government to settle certain claims relating to use of the company's intellectual property and a terminated program.
Federal and Foreign Income Taxes
2016 – Our effective tax rate for 2016 was 24.7 percent, as compared with 28.7 percent in 2015. The lower rate is principally due to $85 million of excess tax benefits related to employee share-based payment transactions recognized in 2016 resulting from the adoption of ASU No. 2016-09, as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, a $40 million benefit recognized in connection with resolution of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) examination of the company’s 2007-2011 tax returns and a $33 million benefit recognized in connection with the repatriation of earnings from certain of our foreign subsidiaries described in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements. These benefits were partially offset by a $58 million decrease in research credits, which were principally a result of credits recorded in 2015 that were claimed on our prior year tax returns. While discrete tax benefits in each year have reduced our effective tax rate below the statutory rate, these items are not indicative of a longer-term trend. On an ongoing basis (excluding impacts associated with ASU No. 2016-09 and assuming no changes in federal tax legislation), we expect an effective tax rate of approximately 30 percent due principally to recurring tax benefits associated with the manufacturing deduction and research credits.
2015 – Our effective tax rate for 2015 was 28.7 percent, as compared with 29.6 percent in 2014. This reduction was driven by a $76 million increase in research credits primarily resulting from credits claimed on our prior year tax returns, partially offset by a $51 million benefit recorded in 2014 for the partial resolution of the IRS examination of our 2007-2009 tax returns.
Net Earnings
2016 – Net earnings for 2016 increased $210 million, or 11 percent, as compared with 2015, primarily due to the higher operating income and lower effective tax rate discussed above.
2015 – Net earnings for 2015 decreased $79 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2014, primarily due to lower operating income and higher interest expense, partially offset by the lower effective tax rate described above.
Diluted Earnings Per Share
2016 – Diluted earnings per share for 2016 increased $1.80, or 17 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase is primarily due to the 11 percent increase in net earnings discussed above and a 6 percent reduction in weighted-average shares outstanding resulting from shares repurchased during 2015 and 2016.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

2015 – Diluted earnings per share for 2015 increased $0.64, or 7 percent, as compared with 2014. The increase is primarily due to a 10 percent reduction in weighted-average diluted shares outstanding resulting from shares repurchased in 2014 and 2015, partially offset by the 4 percent decline in net earnings discussed above.
SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS
Basis of Presentation
At December 31, 2016, the company was aligned in three operating sectors, which are also our reportable segments: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, and Technology Services. Effective January 1, 2016, the company streamlined our sectors from four to three as described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements. For a more complete description of each segment’s products and services, see “Business.”
We present our sectors in the following business areas, which are reported in a manner reflecting core capabilities:
Aerospace Systems
 
Mission Systems
 
Technology Services
Autonomous Systems
 
Sensors and Processing
 
Global Logistics and Modernization
Manned Aircraft
 
Cyber and ISR
 
Advanced Defense Services
Space
 
Advanced Capabilities
 
System Modernization and Services
This section discusses segment sales, operating income and operating margin rates. A reconciliation of segment operating income to total operating income is provided below.
Segment Operating Income and Margin Rate
Segment operating income, as reconciled in the Reconciliation of Segment Operating Income to Total Operating Income table below, is a non-GAAP measure that reflects total earnings from our three segments including allocated pension expense recognized under CAS, and excluding unallocated corporate items and FAS pension expense. This measure may be useful to investors and other users of our financial statements as a supplemental measure in evaluating the financial performance and operational trends of our sectors.
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Segment operating income
$
2,935

 
$
2,920

 
$
3,099

 
1
%
 
(6
)%
Segment operating margin rate
12.0
%
 
12.4
%
 
12.9
%
 
 
 
 
2016 - Segment operating income for 2016 increased $15 million, or 1 percent, as compared with 2015 as a result of higher sales volume, which more than offset the lower segment operating margin rate. Segment operating margin rate decreased to 12.0 percent from 12.4 percent in 2015 principally due to a lower segment margin rate at Aerospace Systems.
2015 - Segment operating income for 2015 decreased $179 million, or 6 percent, as compared with 2014 and segment operating margin rate decreased to 12.4 percent from 12.9 percent in 2014. The decrease in segment operating income was principally due to lower sales volume and the absence in 2015 of the $75 million in settlements described above and a benefit of approximately $45 million from lower 2014 CAS costs due to passage of the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014 (HATFA). The absence in 2015 of the noted settlements and HATFA benefits was the primary driver of the lower 2015 operating margin rate.

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Reconciliation of Segment Operating Income to Total Operating Income - The table below reconciles segment operating income to total operating income by including the impact of net FAS/CAS pension adjustments, as well as unallocated corporate expenses (certain corporate-level expenses, which are not considered allowable or allocable under applicable CAS or the FAR). See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on the net FAS/CAS pension adjustment and unallocated corporate expenses.
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Segment operating income
$
2,935

 
$
2,920

 
$
3,099

 
1
 %
 
(6
)%
     CAS pension expense
847

 
703

 
384

 
20
 %
 
83
 %
     Less: FAS pension expense
(531
)
 
(355
)
 
(115
)
 
50
 %
 
209
 %
Net FAS/CAS pension adjustment
316

 
348

 
269

 
(9
)%
 
29
 %
Unallocated corporate expenses
(53
)
 
(190
)
 
(169
)
 
(72
)%
 
12
 %
Other
(5
)
 
(2
)
 
(3
)
 
150
 %
 
(33
)%
Total operating income
$
3,193

 
$
3,076

 
$
3,196

 
4
 %
 
(4
)%
Net EAC Adjustments - We record changes in estimated contract earnings at completion (net EAC adjustments) using the cumulative catch-up method of accounting. Net EAC adjustments can have a significant effect on reported sales and operating income and the aggregate amounts are presented in the table below:
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Favorable EAC adjustments
$
765

 
$
924

 
$
922

Unfavorable EAC adjustments
(271
)
 
(344
)
 
(258
)
Net EAC adjustments
$
494

 
$
580

 
$
664

Net EAC adjustments by segment are presented in the table below:
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Aerospace Systems
$
263

 
$
352

 
$
359

Mission Systems
191

 
169

 
295

Technology Services
69

 
68

 
32

Eliminations
(29
)
 
(9
)
 
(22
)
Net EAC adjustments
$
494

 
$
580

 
$
664

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Sales
$
10,828

 
$
9,940

 
$
9,910

 
9
%
 
 %
Operating income
1,236

 
1,205

 
1,285

 
3
%
 
(6
)%
Operating margin rate
11.4
%
 
12.1
%
 
13.0
%
 
 
 
 
2016 - Aerospace Systems sales for 2016 increased $888 million, or 9 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase was due to higher volume on Manned Aircraft and Autonomous Systems programs. Manned Aircraft sales increased primarily due to higher restricted volume, increased F-35 deliveries and production ramp-up on the E-2D program. These increases were partially offset by lower B-2 volume and fewer F/A-18 deliveries. Autonomous Systems sales increased primarily due to higher volume on the Triton and Global Hawk programs, partially offset by ramp-down of the NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) program. Space sales include higher volume on restricted programs, partially offset by lower volume on the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) program.
Operating income for 2016 increased $31 million, or 3 percent, and includes a gain of $45 million associated with the sale of a property. Higher sales volume and improved performance on Space and Autonomous Systems programs

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were more than offset by lower margins on Manned Aircraft programs, principally due to changes in contract mix and the timing of risk reductions. Operating margin rate decreased to 11.4 percent from 12.1 percent primarily due to the lower margins on Manned Aircraft programs, partially offset by improved performance on Space and Autonomous Systems programs.
2015 - Aerospace Systems sales for 2015 were comparable to the prior year. Sales in 2014 included the $75 million in settlements described above. Excluding the settlements, sales for 2015 increased $105 million, or 1 percent, as compared to 2014. The increase is primarily due to higher volume on Autonomous Systems and Space programs, partially offset by lower volume on Manned Aircraft programs. Autonomous Systems sales reflect higher volume on a number of programs, including Global Hawk, partially offset by lower volume on the Fire Scout and NATO AGS programs. Sales in Manned Aircraft declined principally due to fewer F/A-18 deliveries, as that program ramps down, and lower volume on restricted programs, partially offset by the transition to full rate production on the E-2D program and increased deliveries on the F-35 program. Space sales include higher volume on restricted programs, partially offset by lower volume on the AEHF program.
Operating income for 2015 decreased $80 million, or 6 percent, and operating margin rate decreased to 12.1 percent from 13.0 percent. Lower operating income and margin rate in 2015 were primarily due to the benefits recognized in 2014 associated with the settlements described above.
MISSION SYSTEMS
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Sales
$
10,928

 
$
10,674

 
$
11,001

 
2
%
 
(3
)%
Operating income
1,445

 
1,410

 
1,557

 
2
%
 
(9
)%
Operating margin rate
13.2
%
 
13.2
%
 
14.2
%
 
 
 
 
2016 - Mission Systems sales for 2016 increased $254 million, or 2 percent, as compared with 2015 due to higher volume on Sensors and Processing and Advanced Capabilities programs, partially offset by lower volume on Cyber and ISR programs. Sensors and Processing sales increased primarily due to higher volume on communications programs, including the Joint Counter Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Device Electronic Warfare program; increased restricted volume and ramp-up on the G/ATOR program. These increases were partially offset by lower volume on international programs. Advanced Capabilities sales increased primarily due to higher volume on restricted, maritime systems and marine systems programs. Cyber and ISR sales reflect lower volume on space programs.
Operating income for 2016 increased $35 million, or 2 percent, due to the higher sales volume described above and a $21 million gain associated with the sale of a commercial cyber security product business, partially offset by a $49 million forward loss provision recorded on an Advanced Capabilities program principally due to cost growth for changes impacting fixed-price options, which may not be fully recovered through additional contract value. Operating margin rate for 2016 was consistent with the same period in 2015 and reflects improved performance on Sensors and Processing programs, partially offset by lower margins on Advanced Capabilities programs.
2015 - Mission Systems sales for 2015 decreased $327 million, or 3 percent, as compared with 2014. The decrease was due to lower volume across the sector. Advanced Capabilities sales decreased primarily due to the impact of in-theater force reductions, lower volume on the Consolidated Afloat Network and Enterprise Services program and completion of the Ground Combat Vehicle contract. These decreases were partially offset by higher volume on marine systems and missile defense programs. The decrease in Cyber and ISR sales is primarily due to lower volume on restricted programs, partially offset by higher volume on cyber solutions programs. Sensors and Processing sales decreased primarily due to ramp-down on an international program and lower volume on the LITENING program. These decreases were partially offset by ramp-up on the G/ATOR program and higher volume on fixed wing avionics and C4ISR programs.
Operating income for 2015 decreased $147 million, or 9 percent. Operating margin rate decreased to 13.2 percent from 14.2 percent. Operating income and margin rate for 2015 decreased primarily due to business mix changes, which resulted in lower volume for mature fixed-price production programs and higher volume for cost-type development programs, as well as less favorable performance on Sensors and Processing and Advanced Capabilities programs.

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TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Sales
$
4,825

 
$
4,819

 
$
4,902

 
 %
 
(2
)%
Operating income
512

 
514

 
461

 
 %
 
11
 %
Operating margin rate
10.6
%
 
10.7
%
 
9.4
%
 
 
 
 
2016 - Technology Services sales for 2016 were slightly higher than the prior year and reflect higher volume on System Modernization and Services programs, partially offset by lower volume on Advanced Defense Services and Global Logistics and Modernization programs. System Modernization and Services sales increased primarily due to higher volume on U.S. Government health programs. Advanced Defense Services sales declined primarily due to the completion of several programs in 2015, partially offset by higher volume on the Saudi Arabian Ministry of National Guard Training Support program (through our interest in a joint venture for which we consolidate the financial results). Global Logistics and Modernization sales decreased principally due to lower volume on the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) program, partially offset by higher volume on the KC-10 program. The increase in KC-10 volume is not indicative of a longer-term trend as we expect KC-10 sales will be winding down in 2017 as our contract nears completion.
Operating income and margin rate for 2016 were comparable to the prior year.
2015 - Technology Services sales for 2015 decreased $83 million, or 2 percent, as compared with 2014. The decrease is principally due to lower volume on Global Logistics and Modernization and System Modernization and Services programs. The decrease in Global Logistics and Modernization is mainly due to ramp-down activities on the ICBM program, partially offset by higher volume on intercompany restricted work. System Modernization and Services sales reflect lower volume across a number of programs, partially offset by higher volume on the Total Information Processing Support Services and Social Security Administration IT Support Services programs.
Operating income for 2015 increased $53 million, or 11 percent, and operating margin rate increased to 10.7 percent from 9.4 percent. The increase in operating income and margin rate in 2015 reflects improved performance, partially offset by the decline in sales volume described above and lower income from an unconsolidated joint venture than in the prior year period.
PRODUCT AND SERVICE ANALYSIS
The following table presents product and service sales and operating costs and expenses by segment:
 
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Segment Information:
 
Sales
 
Operating Costs and Expenses
 
Sales
 
Operating Costs and Expenses
 
Sales
 
Operating Costs and Expenses
Aerospace Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
 
$
8,868

 
$
7,837

 
$
7,976

 
$
7,025

 
$
7,970

 
$
6,906

Service
 
1,960

 
1,755

 
1,964

 
1,710

 
1,940

 
1,719

Mission Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
 
6,471

 
5,588

 
6,448

 
5,532

 
6,505

 
5,478

Service
 
4,457

 
3,895

 
4,226

 
3,732

 
4,496

 
3,966

Technology Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
 
320

 
292

 
358

 
339

 
329

 
356

Service
 
4,505

 
4,021

 
4,461

 
3,966

 
4,573

 
4,085

Segment Totals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Product
 
$
15,659

 
 $
13,717

 
$
14,782

 
$
12,896

 
$
14,804

 
$
12,740

Total Service
 
10,922

 
9,671

 
10,651

 
9,408

 
11,009

 
9,770

Intersegment eliminations
 
(2,073
)
 
(1,815
)
 
(1,907
)
 
(1,698
)
 
(1,834
)
 
(1,630
)
Total Segment(1)
 
$
24,508

 
$
21,573

 
$
23,526

 
$
20,606

 
$
23,979

 
$
20,880

(1) 
A reconciliation of segment operating income to total operating income, is included in “Segment Operating Results.”

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Product Sales and Costs
2016 - Product sales for 2016 increased $877 million, or 6 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase was primarily driven by higher product sales at Aerospace Systems due to higher restricted volume, increased F-35 deliveries and production ramp-up on the E-2D program.
Product costs for 2016 increased $821 million, or 6 percent, as compared to 2015, consistent with the change in product sales described above.
2015 - Product sales for 2015 were comparable with 2014. Sales in 2014 included the $75 million in settlements at Aerospace Systems as described above and sales in 2015 reflect lower product sales at Mission Systems and higher product sales at Technology Services. The decrease at Mission Systems was primarily due to ramp-down on an international program and lower product sales on certain Cyber and ISR programs, partially offset by higher F-35 volume. The increase at Technology Services was primarily due to higher volume on intercompany restricted work.
Product costs for 2015 increased $156 million, or 1 percent, as compared to 2014. The increase was primarily due to higher product costs at Aerospace Systems and Mission Systems due to lower performance and changes in business mix.
Service Sales and Costs
2016 - Service sales for 2016 increased $271 million, or 3 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase was primarily driven by higher volume on several Cyber and ISR and Sensors and Processing service programs at Mission Systems.
Service costs for 2016 increased $263 million, or 3 percent, as compared with 2015, consistent with the change in service sales described above and reflects higher service margins at Mission Systems, partially offset by lower service margins at Aerospace Systems.
2015 - Service sales for 2015 decreased $358 million, or 3 percent, as compared with 2014. The decrease was primarily due to lower service sales at Mission Systems and Technology Services. The decrease at Mission Systems was primarily due to lower volume on certain Advanced Capabilities and unmanned aircraft systems programs, including the impact of in-theater force reductions. The decrease at Technology Services was primarily due to lower service sales on certain SMS programs.
Service costs for 2015 decreased $362 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2014, consistent with the change in service sales described above.
BACKLOG
Total backlog includes both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is authorized and appropriated) and unfunded backlog. Unexercised contract options and indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts are not included in backlog until the time the option or IDIQ task order is exercised or awarded. For multi-year service contracts with non-U.S. Government customers having no stated contract values, backlog includes only the amounts committed by the customer. Backlog is converted into sales as costs are incurred or deliveries are made.
Backlog consisted of the following at December 31, 2016 and 2015:
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
$ in millions
 
Funded
 
Unfunded
 
Total
Backlog
 
Total
Backlog
 
% Change in 2016
Aerospace Systems
 
$
9,419

 
$
17,891

 
$
27,310

 
$
18,014

 
52
 %
Mission Systems
 
9,301

 
4,414

 
13,715

 
13,254

 
3
 %
Technology Services
 
3,446

 
868

 
4,314

 
4,655

 
(7
)%
Total backlog
 
$
22,166

 
$
23,173

 
$
45,339

 
$
35,923

 
26
 %
Approximately $18.2 billion of the $45.3 billion total backlog at December 31, 2016 is expected to be converted into sales in 2017.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We endeavor to ensure the most efficient conversion of operating income into cash for deployment in our business and to maximize shareholder value through cash deployment activities. In addition to our cash position, we use various financial measures to assist in capital deployment decision-making, including cash provided by operating activities and free cash flow, a non-GAAP measure described in more detail below.

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As of December 31, 2016, we had cash and cash equivalents of $2.5 billion, of which $182 million was held outside of the U.S. by foreign subsidiaries. Cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from operating activities, supplemented by borrowings under credit facilities and/or in the capital markets, if needed, are expected to be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. Capital expenditure commitments were $657 million at December 31, 2016, and are expected to be paid with cash on hand.
Operating Cash Flow
The table below summarizes the key components of cash flow provided by operating activities:
 
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net earnings
 
$
2,200

 
$
1,990

 
$
2,069

Non-cash items(1)
 
585

 
1,035

 
731

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trade working capital
 
(240
)
 
(564
)
 
(121
)
Retiree benefits
 
393

 
(263
)
 
(17
)
Other, net
 
(125
)
 
(36
)
 
(69
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
2,813

 
$
2,162

 
$
2,593

(1) 
Includes depreciation and amortization, stock based compensation expense (including related excess tax benefits in 2015 and 2014) and deferred income taxes.
2016 – Net cash provided by operating activities for 2016 increased by $651 million, or 30 percent, as compared with 2015, principally due to a $500 million voluntary pre-tax pension contribution ($325 million after-tax) made in the first quarter of 2015, changes in trade working capital and an increase in net earnings during 2016, partially offset by an increase in net income tax payments.
2015 – Net cash provided by operating activities for 2015 decreased by $431 million, or 17 percent, as compared with 2014, principally due to changes in trade working capital and a $500 million voluntary pre-tax pension contribution ($325 million after-tax) made in the first quarter of 2015, partially offset by lower net tax payments.
Free Cash Flow
Free cash flow, as reconciled in the table below, is a non-GAAP measure defined as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures, and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We use free cash flow as a key factor in our planning for, and consideration of, acquisitions, stock repurchases, and the payment of dividends. This measure may be useful to investors and other users of our financial statements as a supplemental measure of our cash performance, but should not be considered in isolation, as a measure of residual cash flow available for discretionary purposes, or as an alternative to operating results presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
The table below reconciles net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow:
 
 
Year Ended December 31
 
% Change in
$ in millions
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
2,813

 
$
2,162

 
$
2,593

 
30
%
 
(17
)%
Less: Capital expenditures
 
(920
)
 
(471
)
 
(561
)
 
95
%
 
(16
)%
Free cash flow
 
$
1,893

 
$
1,691

 
$
2,032

 
12
%
 
(17
)%
2016 Free cash flow for 2016 increased $202 million, or 12 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase was principally driven by the higher net cash provided by operating activities described above, partially offset by higher capital expenditures in 2016 reflecting $239 million for the purchase of facilities previously leased by Mission Systems and increased capital investment at Aerospace Systems.
2015 Free cash flow for 2015 decreased $341 million, or 17 percent, as compared with 2014. The decrease was principally driven by the lower net cash provided by operating activities described above, partially offset by a reduction in capital expenditures.

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Investing Cash Flow
2016 - Net cash used in investing activities for 2016 increased $374 million, or 87 percent, as compared with 2015. The increase was principally due to the higher capital expenditures described above, partially offset by proceeds from the sale of a property at Aerospace Systems and the sale of a commercial cyber security business at Mission Systems.
2015 - Net cash used in investing activities for 2015 decreased $214 million, or 33 percent, as compared with 2014. The decrease was principally due to lower capital expenditures and the 2014 acquisition of Qantas Defence Services Pty Limited.
Financing Cash Flow
2016 - Net cash used in financing activities during 2016 decreased $1.5 billion, or 45 percent, as compared with 2015, principally due to $1.6 billion lower share repurchases, $149 million higher net proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt and $135 million of borrowings under our credit facilities, partially offset by $321 million in debt repayments.
2015 - Net cash used in financing activities during 2015 was comparable with the prior year period and reflects an increase in share repurchases and dividends, offset by $600 million of net proceeds from our issuance of unsecured senior notes in 2015.
Credit Facilities and Unsecured Senior Notes - In December 2016, the company issued $750 million of unsecured senior notes and used a portion of the net proceeds to fund redemption of $200 million of the company's existing debt. We expect to use the remaining net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including potential pension plan funding and working capital. See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on our credit facilities and unsecured senior notes.
Financial Arrangements - See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on our use of standby letters of credit and guarantees.
Other Sources of Capital - We believe we can obtain additional capital, if necessary for long-term liquidity, from such sources as the public or private capital markets, the sale of assets, sale and leaseback of operating assets, and leasing rather than purchasing new assets. We have an effective shelf registration statement on file with the SEC, which allows us to access capital in a timely manner.
Share Repurchases - See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for further information on our share repurchase programs.
Contractual Obligations
At December 31, 2016, we had contractual commitments to repay debt with interest, make payments under operating leases, settle obligations related to agreements to purchase goods and services and make payments on various other liabilities. Payments due under these obligations and commitments, and the estimated timing of those payments, are as follows:
$ in millions
 
Total
 
2017
 
2018- 2019
 
2020- 2021
 
2022 and beyond
Long-term debt
 
$
7,097

 
$
12

 
$
1,420

 
$
834

 
$
4,831

Interest payments on long-term debt
 
4,039

 
296

 
585

 
509

 
2,649

Operating leases
 
892

 
257

 
317

 
158

 
160

Purchase obligations(1)
 
8,748

 
5,009

 
2,398

 
1,271

 
70

Other long-term liabilities(2)
 
1,096

 
289

 
342

 
144

 
321

Total contractual obligations
 
$
21,872

 
$
5,863

 
$
5,062

 
$
2,916

 
$
8,031

 
(1) 
A “purchase obligation” is defined as an agreement to purchase goods or services that is enforceable and legally binding on us and that specifies all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum, or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. These amounts are primarily comprised of open purchase order commitments to suppliers and subcontractors pertaining to funded contracts.
(2) 
Other long-term liabilities, including their current portions, primarily consist of total accrued environmental reserves, deferred compensation and other miscellaneous liabilities, of which $119 million is related to environmental reserves recorded in other current liabilities. It excludes obligations for uncertain tax positions of $142 million, as the timing of such payments, if any, cannot be reasonably estimated.

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The table above excludes estimated minimum funding requirements for retirement and other post-retirement benefit plans, as set forth by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, as amended (ERISA). For further information about future minimum contributions for these plans, see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements. Further details regarding long-term debt and operating leases can be found in Notes 9 and 11, respectively, to the consolidated financial statements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES, ESTIMATES, AND JUDGMENTS
Our consolidated financial statements are based on U.S. GAAP, which require us to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements. We employ judgment in making our estimates in consideration of historical experience, currently available information and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from our estimates and assumptions, and any such differences could be material to our consolidated financial statements. We believe the following accounting policies are critical to the understanding of our consolidated financial statements and require the use of significant management judgment in their application. For a summary of our significant accounting policies, see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
Due to the long-term nature of our contracts, we generally recognize revenue using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting as work on our contracts progresses, which requires us to make reasonably dependable estimates regarding the design, manufacture and delivery of our products and services. In accounting for these contracts, we utilize either the cost-to-cost or the units-of-delivery method of percentage-of-completion accounting, with cost-to-cost being the predominant method.
Contract sales may include estimated amounts not contractually agreed to or yet funded by the customer, including cost or performance incentives (such as award and incentive fees), un-priced change orders, contract claims and requests for equitable adjustment (REAs). Further, as contracts are performed, change orders can be a regular occurrence and may be un-priced until negotiated with the customer. Un-priced change orders, contract claims (including change orders unapproved as to both scope and price) and REAs are included in estimated contract sales when management believes it is probable the un-priced change order, claim and/or REA will result in additional contract revenue and the amount can be reliably estimated based on the facts and circumstances known to us at the time.
Our cost estimation process is based on the professional knowledge of our engineering, program management and financial professionals, and draws on their significant experience and judgment. We prepare EACs for our contracts and calculate an estimated contract operating margin based on estimated contract sales and cost. Since contract costs are typically incurred over a period of several years, estimation of these costs requires the use of judgment. Factors considered in estimating the cost of the work to be completed include our historical performance, the availability, productivity and cost of labor, the nature and complexity of work to be performed, the effect of change orders, availability and cost of materials, components and subcontracts, the effect of any delays in performance and the level of indirect cost allocations.
We generally review and reassess our sales, cost and profit estimates for each significant contract at least annually or more frequently as determined by the occurrence of events, changes in circumstances and evaluations of contract performance to reflect the latest reliable information available. Changes in estimates of contract sales and cost are frequent. The company performs on a broad portfolio of long-term contracts, including the development of complex and customized military platforms and systems, as well as advanced electronic equipment and software, that often include technology at the forefront of science. Changes in estimates occur for a variety of reasons, including changes in contract scope, the resolution of risk at lower or higher cost than anticipated, unanticipated risks affecting contract costs, performance issues with our subcontractors or suppliers, changes in indirect cost allocations, such as overhead and G&A costs, and changes in estimated award and incentive fees. Identified risks typically include technical, schedule and/or performance risk based on our evaluation of the contract effort. Similarly, the changes in estimates may include identified opportunities for operating margin improvement.
For the impacts of changes in estimates on our consolidated statement of earnings and comprehensive income (loss), see “Consolidated Operating Results” and Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.
Retirement Benefits
Overview – The determination of projected benefit obligations and the fair value of plan assets for our pension and other post-retirement plans requires the use of estimates and actuarial assumptions. We perform an annual review of our actuarial assumptions in consultation with our actuaries. As we determine changes in the assumptions are

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

warranted, or as a result of plan amendments, future pension and other post-retirement benefit expense and our projected benefit obligation could increase or decrease. The principal estimates and assumptions that have a significant effect on our consolidated financial position and annual results of operations are the discount rate, cash balance crediting rate, expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, estimated fair market value of plan assets, and mortality rate of those covered by our pension and other post-retirement benefit plans.
Discount Rate – The discount rate represents the interest rate that is used to determine the present value of future cash flows currently expected to be required to settle our pension and other post-retirement benefit obligations. The discount rate is generally based on the yield of high-quality corporate fixed-income investments. At the end of each year, we determine the discount rate using a theoretical bond portfolio model of bonds rated AA or better to match the notional cash outflows related to projected benefit payments for each of our significant benefit plans. Taking into consideration the factors noted above, our weighted-average composite pension discount rate was 4.19 percent at December 31, 2016, and 4.53 percent at December 31, 2015.
The effects of a hypothetical change in the discount rate may be nonlinear and asymmetrical for future years as the discount rate changes and the accounting corridor is applied. The accounting corridor is a defined range within which amortization of net gains and losses is not required and is equal to 10 percent of the greater of plan assets or benefit obligations. Holding all other assumptions constant, an increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the December 31, 2016 discount rate assumption would have the following estimated effects on 2016 pension and other post-retirement benefit obligations and 2017 expected pension and other post-retirement expense:
$ increase/(decrease) in millions
25 Basis Point Decrease in Rate
 
25 Basis Point Increase in Rate
Pension expense
$
96

 
$
(92
)
Other post-retirement benefit expense
1

 
(1
)
Pension obligation
1,027

 
(974
)
Other post-retirement benefit obligation
56

 
(53
)
Cash Balance Crediting Rate - A portion of the company’s pension obligation and resulting pension expense is based on a cash balance formula, where participants’ hypothetical account balances are accumulated over time with pay-based credits and interest. Interest is credited monthly using the 30-Year Treasury bond rate. The interest crediting rate is part of the cash balance formula and independent of actual pension investment earnings. The cash balance crediting rate tends to move in concert with the discount rate but has an offsetting effect on pension benefit obligations and pension expense in comparison to the discount rate. Although current 30-Year Treasury bond rates are near historically low levels, we expect such bond rates to rise in the future. The cash balance crediting rate assumption has therefore been set to its current level of 3.1 percent as of December 31, 2016, growing to 3.6 percent by 2022. Holding all other assumptions constant, an increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the December 31, 2016 cash balance crediting rate assumption would have the following estimated effects on 2016 pension benefit obligations and 2017 expected pension expense:
$ increase/(decrease) in millions
25 Basis Point Decrease in Rate
 
25 Basis Point Increase in Rate
Pension expense
$
(26
)
 
$
27

Pension obligation
(132
)
 
134


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

Expected Long-Term Rate of Return on Plan Assets – The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets (EROA) assumption reflects the average rate of net earnings we expect on current and future benefit plan investments. EROA is a long-term assumption, which we review annually and adjust to reflect changes in our long-term view of expected market returns and/or significant changes in our plan asset investment policy. Due to the inherent uncertainty of this assumption, we consider multiple data points at the measurement date including historical asset returns, the plan’s target asset allocation, and third party projection models of expected long-term returns for each of the plans’ strategic asset classes. In addition to the data points themselves, we consider trends in the data points, including changes from the prior measurement date. The EROA assumptions we use for pension benefits are consistent with those used for other post-retirement benefits; however, we reduce the EROA for other post-retirement benefit plans to allow for the impact of tax on investment earnings, as certain Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trusts are taxable.
While historical market returns are not necessarily predictive of future market returns, given our long history of plan performance supported by the stability in our investment mix, investment managers, and active asset management, we believe our actual historical performance is a reasonable metric to consider when developing our EROA. Our average annual rate of return from 1976 to 2016 is 11.1 percent and our 20-year rolling average rate of return is 8.2 percent, each determined on an arithmetic basis. Our 2016 asset returns were approximately 7.7 percent.
With regard to the company's investment policy, during 2016, the Benefit Plans Investment Committee reviewed and re-affirmed the major asset class allocations. Our asset allocation is approximately 45% equities, 35% fixed-income and 20% alternatives and we are not currently contemplating significant changes to that investment mix. For further information on plan asset investments, see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
Consistent with our past practice, we obtained long-term capital market forecasting models from several third parties and, using our target asset allocation, developed an expected rate of return on plan assets from each model. We considered not only the specific returns projected by those third party models, but also changes in the models year-to-year when developing our EROA.
For determining FAS expense in 2016 and 2015, we assumed an expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets of 8.0 percent for both 2016 and 2015 and an expected long-term rate of return on other post-retirement benefit plan assets of 7.7 percent and 7.6 percent, respectively. For 2017 FAS expense, we have assumed an expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets of 8.0 percent and 7.7 percent on other post-retirement benefit plans. Holding all other assumptions constant, an increase or decrease of 25 basis points in our December 31, 2016 EROA assumption would have the following estimated effects on 2017 pension and other post-retirement benefit expense:
$ increase/(decrease) in millions
25 Basis Point Decrease
 
25 Basis Point Increase
Pension expense
$
59

 
$
(59
)
Other post-retirement benefit expense
3

 
(3
)
Estimated Fair Market Value of Plan Assets – For certain plan assets where the fair market value is not readily determinable, such as real estate, private equity, hedge funds and opportunistic investments, estimates of fair value are determined using the best information available. Estimated fair values on these plan assets are based on redemption values and net asset values, as well as valuation methodologies that include third party appraisals, comparable transactions, discounted cash flow valuation models and public market data.
Mortality Rate – Mortality assumptions are used to estimate life expectancies of plan participants. In October 2014, the Society of Actuaries (SOA) issued updated mortality tables and a mortality improvement scale, which reflected longer life expectancies than previously projected. In October 2015, the SOA issued an updated mortality improvement scale which further refined the previous scale based on additional data and which generally contained lower mortality improvement projections. In October 2016, the SOA issued another updated mortality improvement scale which generally contained lower mortality improvement projections than the prior scales. In consideration of this information, we studied our historical mortality experience and developed an expectation for continued future mortality improvements based on the most recent SOA table, but with a long-term improvement rate of 0.75% versus 1.0% assumed by the SOA. Based on this data, we updated the mortality assumptions used in calculating our pension and post-retirement benefit obligations recognized at December 31, 2016, and the amounts estimated for our 2017 pension and post-retirement benefit expense.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

For further information regarding our pension and post-retirement benefits, see “Risk Factors” and Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
Litigation, Commitments and Contingencies
We are subject to a range of claims, disputes, investigations, lawsuits, overhead cost claims, environmental matters, income tax matters and administrative proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. Estimating liabilities and costs associated with these matters requires judgment based upon the professional knowledge and experience of management. We determine whether to record a reserve and, if so, what amount based on consideration of the facts and circumstances of each matter as then known to us. Determinations regarding whether to record a reserve and, if so, of what amount, reflect management's assessment regarding what is likely to occur; they do not necessarily reflect what management believes should occur. The ultimate resolution of any such exposure to us may vary materially from earlier estimates as further facts and circumstances develop or become known to us.
Environmental Matters - We are subject to environmental laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do or have done business. Factors that could result in changes to the assessment of probability, range of reasonably estimated costs and environmental accruals include: modification of planned remedial actions; changes in the estimated time required to conduct remedial actions; discovery of more or less extensive (or different) contamination than anticipated; information regarding the potential causes and effects of contamination; results of efforts to involve other responsible parties; financial capabilities of other responsible parties; changes in laws and regulations, their interpretation or application; contractual obligations affecting remediation or responsibilities; and improvements in remediation technology.
For further information on litigation, commitments and contingencies, see “Risk Factors” and Note 1, Note 10 and Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements.
Goodwill
Overview – We allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses to the underlying tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their respective fair values, with the excess recorded as goodwill. Such fair value assessments require judgments and estimates that can be affected by contract performance and other factors over time, which may cause final amounts to differ materially from original estimates. Adjustments to the fair value of purchased assets and liabilities after the initial measurement period are recognized in net earnings.
Impairment Testing – We test for impairment of goodwill annually at each of our reporting units, which comprise our operating segments. The results of our annual goodwill impairment tests as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, indicated that the estimated fair value of each reporting unit substantially exceeded its respective carrying value. There were no impairment charges recorded in the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.
In addition to performing an annual goodwill impairment test, we may perform an interim impairment test if events occur or circumstances change that suggest goodwill in any of our reporting units may be impaired. Such indicators may include, but are not limited to, the loss of significant business, significant reductions in federal government appropriations or other significant adverse changes in industry or market conditions.
When testing goodwill for impairment, we compare the fair values of each of our reporting units to their respective carrying values. To determine the fair value of our reporting units, we primarily use the income approach based on the cash flows that the reporting unit expects to generate in the future, consistent with our operating plans. This income valuation method requires management to project sales, operating expenses, working capital, capital spending and cash flows for the reporting units over a multi-year period, as well as to determine the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) used as a discount rate and terminal value assumptions. The WACC takes into account the relative weights of each component of our consolidated capital structure (equity and debt) and represents the expected cost of new capital adjusted as appropriate to consider lower risk profiles associated with longer-term contracts and barriers to market entry. The terminal value assumptions are applied to the final year of the discounted cash flow model. We use industry multiples (including relevant control premiums) of operating earnings to corroborate the fair values of our reporting units determined under the market valuation method of the income approach.
Impairment assessment inherently involves management judgments as to assumptions about expected future cash flows and the impact of market conditions on those assumptions. Due to the many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’ fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, differences in assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

OTHER MATTERS
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2016, we had no significant off-balance sheet arrangements other than operating leases. For a description of our operating leases, see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
EQUITY RISK
We are exposed to market risk with respect to our portfolio of trading and available-for-sale marketable securities with a fair value of $330 million at December 31, 2016. These securities are exposed to market volatilities, changes in price and interest rates.
INTEREST RATE RISK
We are exposed to interest rate risk on variable-rate short-term borrowings under our credit facilities for which there was £110 million (the equivalent of approximately $135 million as of December 31, 2016) outstanding at December 31, 2016. At December 31, 2016, we have $7.1 billion of long-term debt, primarily consisting of fixed-rate debt, with a fair value of approximately $7.6 billion. The terms of our fixed-rate debt obligations do not generally allow investors to demand payment of these obligations prior to maturity. Therefore, we do not have significant exposure to interest rate risk for our fixed-rate debt; however, we do have exposure to fair value risk if we repurchase or exchange long-term debt prior to maturity.
FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK
In certain circumstances, we are exposed to foreign currency risk. We enter into foreign currency forward contracts to manage a portion of the exchange rate risk related to receipts from customers and payments to suppliers denominated in foreign currencies. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. At December 31, 2016, foreign currency forward contracts with a notional amount of $147 million were outstanding. At December 31, 2016, a 10 percent unfavorable foreign exchange rate movement would not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
INFLATION RISK
We have generally been able to anticipate increases in costs when pricing our contracts. Bids for longer-term firm fixed-price contracts typically include assumptions for labor and other cost escalations in amounts that historically have been sufficient to cover cost increases over the period of performance.


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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Falls Church, Virginia
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Northrop Grumman Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income (loss), changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Northrop Grumman Corporation and subsidiaries at December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, based on the criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated January 30, 2017 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

/s/
Deloitte & Touche LLP
 
McLean, Virginia
 
January 30, 2017


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts
 
2016

2015

2014
Sales
 








Product
 
$
14,738


$
13,966


$
14,015

Service
 
9,770


9,560


9,964

Total sales
 
24,508


23,526


23,979

Operating costs and expenses
 








Product
 
11,002


10,333


10,431

Service
 
7,729


7,551


7,947

General and administrative expenses
 
2,584


2,566


2,405

Operating income
 
3,193


3,076


3,196

Other (expense) income
 








Interest expense
 
(301
)

(301
)

(282
)
Other, net
 
31


15


23

Earnings before income taxes
 
2,923


2,790


2,937

Federal and foreign income tax expense
 
723


800


868

Net earnings
 
$
2,200


$
1,990


$
2,069

 
 








Basic earnings per share
 
$
12.30


$
10.51


$
9.91

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, in millions
 
178.9


189.4


208.8

Diluted earnings per share
 
$
12.19


$
10.39


$
9.75

Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding, in millions
 
180.5


191.6


212.1

 
 








Net earnings (from above)
 
$
2,200


$
1,990


$
2,069

Other comprehensive (loss) income
 








Change in unamortized benefit plan costs, net of tax benefit (expense) of $89 in 2016, ($45) in 2015 and $1,423 in 2014
 
(175
)

75


(2,316
)
Change in cumulative translation adjustment
 
(50
)

(41
)

(59
)
Other, net
 
(1
)

2


3

Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
 
(226
)

36


(2,372
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
 
$
1,974


$
2,026


$
(303
)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION


                        

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION 
 
 
December 31
$ in millions
 
2016
 
2015
Assets
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
2,541

 
$
2,319

Accounts receivable, net
 
3,299

 
2,841

Inventoried costs, net
 
816

 
807

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
200

 
367

Total current assets
 
6,856

 
6,334

Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $4,831 in 2016 and $4,849 in 2015
 
3,588

 
3,064

Goodwill
 
12,450

 
12,460

Deferred tax assets
 
1,462

 
1,409

Other non-current assets
 
1,258

 
1,157

Total assets
 
$
25,614

 
$
24,424

 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
 
Trade accounts payable
 
$
1,554

 
$
1,282

Accrued employee compensation
 
1,342

 
1,195

Advance payments and amounts in excess of costs incurred
 
1,471

 
1,537

Other current liabilities
 
1,263

 
1,443

Total current liabilities
 
5,630

 
5,457

Long-term debt, net of current portion of $12 in 2016 and $110 in 2015
 
7,058

 
6,386

Pension and other post-retirement benefit plan liabilities
 
6,818

 
6,172

Other non-current liabilities
 
849

 
887

Total liabilities
 
20,355

 
18,902

 
 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)
 


 


 
 
 
 
 
Shareholders’ equity
 
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $1 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
 

 

Common stock, $1 par value; 800,000,000 shares authorized; issued and outstanding: 2016—175,068,263 and 2015—181,303,083
 
175

 
181

Retained earnings
 
10,630

 
10,661

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
 
(5,546
)