S-1/A 1 pulmonxs-1a1.htm S-1/A Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 24, 2020.

Registration Statement No. 333-248635
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Amendment No. 1 to
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
PULMONX CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
3841
77-0424412
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
700 Chesapeake Drive
Redwood City, California 94063
1-650-364-0400
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Glendon E. French
Chief Executive Officer
Pulmonx Corporation
700 Chesapeake Drive
Redwood City, California 94063
1-650-364-0400
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Mark B. Weeks
Seth J. Gottlieb
Sepideh Mousakhani
Cooley LLP
3175 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304
(650) 843-5000
Derrick Sung, Ph.D.
Chief Financial Officer
Pulmonx Corporation
700 Chesapeake Drive
Redwood City, California 94063
(650) 364-0400
Ilir Mujalovic
Shearman & Sterling LLP
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10022
(212) 848-4000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, check the following box.  
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  


CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities To Be Registered
Amount To Be Registered(1)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Share(2)
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price(2)
Amount of Registration Fee(3)
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share7,666,667 $16.00 $122,666,672 $15,923 
(1)Includes 1,000,000 shares that the underwriters have an option to purchase.
(2)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(3)The registrant previously paid a registration fee of $11,196 in connection with a prior filing of this Registration Statement.
The registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus dated September 24, 2020
P R O S P E C T U S
          Shares
image391.jpg
Pulmonx Corporation
Common Stock
This is Pulmonx Corporation’s initial public offering. We are selling 6,666,667 shares of our common stock.
We expect the public offering price to be between $14.00 and $16.00 per share. Currently, no public market exists for the shares of our common stock. We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LUNG.”
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this and future filings. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 15 of this prospectus.
Per ShareTotal
Public offering price$$
Underwriting discount(1)$$
Proceeds, before expenses, to us$$
(1)    See “Underwriting” beginning on page 208 for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
The underwriters may also exercise their option to purchase up to an additional 1,000,000 shares of common stock from us, at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount, for 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The shares of common stock will be ready for delivery on or about                    , 2020.
BofA SecuritiesMorgan Stanley
StifelWells Fargo SecuritiesCanaccord Genuity
The date of this prospectus is                    , 2020


TABLE OF CONTENTS
We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of common stock offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
For investors outside the United States: We have not, and the underwriters have not, done anything that would permit this offering, or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.


PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights, and is qualified in its entirety by, the more detailed information and financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision.
Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Pulmonx,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar terms in this prospectus refer to Pulmonx Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Overview
We are a commercial-stage medical technology company that provides a minimally invasive treatment for patients with severe emphysema, a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our solution, which is comprised of the Zephyr Endobronchial Valve (Zephyr Valve), the Chartis Pulmonary Assessment System (Chartis System) and the StratX Lung Analysis Platform (StratX Platform), is designed to treat severe emphysema patients who, despite medical management, are still profoundly symptomatic and either do not want or are ineligible for surgical approaches. We estimate our solution currently addresses approximately 500,000 patients in the United States and 700,000 patients in select international markets, which represents a global market opportunity of approximately $12 billion.
We have a compelling body of clinical evidence with over 100 scientific articles published regarding the clinical benefits of Zephyr Valves, including in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet and the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Multiple randomized controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that patients selected with the Chartis System and successfully treated with Zephyr Valves have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life compared to medical management alone.
In June 2018, we received pre-market approval (PMA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a result of our breakthrough technology designation. The Zephyr Valve is now commercially available in more than 25 countries, with over 80,000 valves used to treat more than 20,000 patients through June 30, 2020. We have established reimbursement in major markets in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific and the Zephyr Valve has been included in treatment guidelines for COPD worldwide.
COPD and Emphysema: A Prevalent Disease with High Unmet Medical Needs
COPD refers to a group of lung diseases characterized by obstruction of airflow that interferes with normal breathing. In 2015, it affected approximately 175 million patients and was responsible for 3.2 million deaths globally. In the United States, COPD is the third leading cause of death and affected approximately 16 million Americans as of 2013. COPD is expected to be associated with approximately $49 billion in direct medical costs in 2020. Emphysema, a form of COPD, which accounts for approximately 25% of all COPD patients, is a debilitating and life-threatening disease that progressively destroys lung tissue, resulting in a diminishing ability to breathe and engage in the most basic daily activities, leading to a high mortality rate. The lung damage caused by emphysema is irreversible. As of 2018, approximately 3.8 million patients in the United States were diagnosed with emphysema, of which roughly 1.5 million have severe emphysema. Of these 1.5 million severe emphysema patients, we estimate that approximately 500,000 patients would qualify for treatment with our Zephyr Valves, and an additional number may be able to be treated in the future with other technologies under development by us if successfully developed and approved.
There are several treatment options for patients with emphysema, depending on the level of severity of the disease, ranging from medical management to more invasive surgical options. However, these treatment options have significant limitations for patients with severe emphysema. Initial treatment for emphysema is generally limited to
1

medications that primarily target airway obstruction and reduce inflammation, but do not address the underlying lung tissue destruction.
As the disease worsens, symptoms increase despite optimized drug therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation exercises and supplemental oxygen. Many patients become increasingly unable to engage in the most basic daily activities as a result of the persistent feeling of breathlessness and this reduces their overall health status each year. At this point, physicians may refer patients to thoracic surgeons for single or double lung transplantation, or for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), in which hyperinflated tissue is cut away and removed. These invasive surgical procedures involve substantial risk of complications, prolonged hospital stays and high mortality. In addition, many patients do not qualify for these procedures. We believe there is both an urgent clinical need and a strong market opportunity for a solution that is safe, effective and minimally invasive.
Our Solution
Our solution, which is comprised of the Zephyr Valve, Chartis System and StratX Platform, is designed to address the need for a more effective, minimally invasive treatment option for patients with severe emphysema, offering bronchoscopic lung volume reduction without surgery and its associated risks. It is used to treat patients who, despite medical management, are still profoundly symptomatic and either do not want or are ineligible for surgical approaches.
Zephyr Valves are indicated for bronchoscopic treatment of adult patients with hyperinflation associated with severe emphysema in regions of the lung that have little to no collateral ventilation. During the one-time bronchoscopic procedure, Zephyr Valves are placed in the airways to occlude the most diseased parts of the lung, allowing trapped air to escape until the lobe is reduced in size. The intended result is a reduction in lung volume and hyperinflation in the targeted lobe, allowing healthier parts of the lung to expand and take in more air. Patients who are successfully treated with the Zephyr Valve report improved breathing and the ability to go back to doing everyday tasks more easily. When combined with the Chartis System for informed patient selection and treatment planning, Zephyr Valves have been shown to have successful procedure rates of 84-90% in clinical trials.
We believe our solution provides the following important benefits:
Significant, durable improvements in lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life, demonstrated in a substantial body of clinical data;
Well-characterized safety profile, evidenced by the inclusion in global treatment recommendations and more than 20,000 patients treated globally with the Zephyr Valve;
High procedural success driven by innovative and effective patient assessment tools; and
Minimally invasive procedure typically lasting less than an hour.
Over 100 scientific articles have been published regarding the clinical benefits of Zephyr Valves, including multiple meta-analyses, review articles, cost-effectiveness analyses and risk-benefit analyses. The Zephyr Valve showed statistically significant improvements in lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life when compared to medical management alone in multiple randomized controlled clinical trials. Additionally, independent studies have demonstrated that Zephyr Valves deliver increases in the BODE Index (a multi-dimensional health status scoring system for patients with COPD) that have been associated with survival benefits.
The LIBERATE study, our pivotal study published in 2018, was a multicenter, multinational, randomized controlled clinical trial of Zephyr Valves that included 190 patients with severe emphysema and little to no collateral ventilation. All primary and secondary endpoints were statistically significant, including the proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant improvement in lung function as well as the mean improvements in exercise capacity, hyperinflation and quality of life. These outcomes were the result of a high rate of procedural success, with 84% of patients achieving a clinically meaningful reduction in treated lobe volume.
2

Our Success Factors
We believe the continued growth of our company will be driven by the following success factors:
Innovative, minimally invasive treatment paired with proprietary patient selection technology. We have developed the first FDA-approved implant, the Zephyr Valve, to reduce hyperinflation associated with severe emphysema, which received a breakthrough technology designation and pre-market approval. To enhance optimal outcomes with the Zephyr Valve, the Chartis System and the StratX Platform are designed to help physicians identify and treat those patients most likely to benefit from treatment with Zephyr Valves. We believe the combination of our innovative valve treatment and patient assessment tools represents a significant competitive advantage and our goal is to establish our solution as a standard of care for severe emphysema.
Addressing a large underserved market. We are addressing a large underserved market for patients with severe emphysema whose treatment options are limited. We believe our solution currently addresses approximately 500,000 patients in the United States and 700,000 patients in select international markets who have severe emphysema with hyperinflation and limited to no collateral ventilation, representing an approximately $12 billion global market opportunity. We have established significant momentum with our broad global commercial footprint across more than 25 countries and with a track record of more than 20,000 patients treated. Additionally, we have ongoing research and development efforts to further expand the addressable market of our products.
Compelling body of clinical evidence and inclusion in COPD guidance documents. The safety, effectiveness and clinical advantages of Zephyr Valves have been demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled clinical trials. The quality of evidence for treatment with endobronchial valves has been graded “A” by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has included this treatment as part of standard measures for COPD and recommended all qualifying patients be evaluated for eligibility.
Favorable coverage and established reimbursement. In the United States, our solution is reimbursed based on established Category I Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (PCS) codes and associated MS-DRG and APC payment groupings. Current reimbursement in the United States is generally sufficient to cover the hospital costs of the procedure and related inpatient care. Commercial payors, such as Aetna and Humana, have issued positive coverage policies for the Zephyr Valve, and United Healthcare no longer considers the procedure unproven or experimental. Medicare covers our solution for patients when medically necessary, and other commercial insurers are approving pre-authorization requests on a case-by-case basis. We estimate that roughly 75% of the potential Zephyr Valve patient population are Medicare/Medicaid beneficiaries, of which approximately 25% have managed Medicare/Medicaid and the remaining 50% have traditional Medicare/Medicaid. Approximately 25% of the potential Zephyr Valve patient population is under third-party commercial payor policies. Outside the United States, our solution is covered by major health systems across much of Europe, Australia and South Korea.
Comprehensive approach to market development and patient engagement. We have established a stepwise approach to market development across three key stakeholders in severe emphysema treatment: hospitals, physicians and patients. Our commercial organization is focused on working with pulmonary physicians and their hospitals to build emphysema centers of excellence where physicians are instructed in the workup of advanced COPD and perform bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using our solution. Our team works closely with all members of the hospital care team to help these centers efficiently incorporate our solution as a new service line. In addition, we are partnering with these centers to build awareness and referrals from primary care and other physicians who may be managing severe emphysema patients in the community. We build upon this approach with direct-to-patient marketing initiatives that help educate patients on the Zephyr Valve procedure and where it is available. We believe that this comprehensive
3

approach to engagement across multiple constituents will help to increase awareness of and demand for our solution.
Robust intellectual property portfolio. We own intellectual property that covers the Zephyr Valve and Chartis System. As of June 30, 2020, we held 33 U.S. patents and 82 international patents that include device, apparatus and method claims. In addition, we believe that our trade secrets, including manufacturing know-how, provide additional barriers to entry.
Our Growth Strategy
Our vision is to be a global leader in treating advanced lung disease and to have a transformational impact on the lives of patients. Our goal is to establish our solutions as the standard of care for the assessment and treatment of patients with severe COPD.
Key elements of our strategy to achieve this vision include:
Expanding our commercial organization in the United States to drive adoption of Zephyr Valves. As of June 30, 2020, we sold Zephyr Valves to more than 100 hospitals and had 42 sales territory managers in the United States. We plan to expand our commercial organization by recruiting and training talented sales territory managers in existing and new markets in the United States to help facilitate further adoption and broaden awareness of Zephyr Valves primarily among the approximately 800 pulmonologists performing interventional pulmonary procedures across approximately 500 high volume hospitals.
Collaborating with hospitals to address unmet patient needs. Our strategy is to identify regions with high unmet need, identify leading hospitals and work with champions of our solution to build emphysema centers of excellence.
Promoting awareness among patients, physicians and other healthcare providers. We intend to continue to promote awareness of our solution through training and educating patients, physicians, pulmonary rehabilitation centers, key opinion leaders and various medical societies on the proven clinical benefits of Zephyr Valves. In addition, we intend to continue to publish additional clinical data in various industry and scientific journals and online and to present at various industry conferences.
Continuing to invest in research and development to foster innovation and expand our addressable market. We intend to continue investing in existing and next generation technologies to address the needs of patients with severe COPD.
Expanding in existing and new international markets. We have established a leading international sales force in interventional pulmonology. We intend to continue expanding our team and seeking additional international regulatory clearances in order to more fully penetrate this global opportunity.
Driving profitability by scaling our business operations to achieve cost and production efficiencies. We plan to drive profitability and gross margin expansion by leveraging our manufacturing capacity to scale production volume, improve efficiencies and lower costs as we increase supply to meet the anticipated growing demands for our products.
We generated revenue of $32.6 million, with a gross margin of 68.8% and a net loss of $20.7 million, for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to revenue of $20.0 million, with a gross margin of 61.4% and a net loss of $18.5 million, for the year ended December 31, 2018. For the six months ended June 30, 2020, we generated revenue of $12.3 million, with a gross margin of 54.2% and a net loss of $19.1 million, compared to revenue of $13.1 million, with a gross margin of 66.0% and a net loss of $11.7 million, for the six months ended June 30, 2019. As of June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $229.6 million. We currently generate most of our revenue from the sales of Zephyr Valves and delivery catheters. We also generate a smaller amount of our revenue from our Chartis System, which is comprised of sales of the balloon catheters, usage fees and sales of the Chartis console. The
4

StratX Platform, while used to identify patients eligible for treatment with Zephyr Valves, does not independently generate any revenue for us.
Recent Developments
2020 Notes
In April 2020, we issued and sold convertible promissory notes in the aggregate principal amount of $33.0 million, or the 2020 Notes. We have the option to call up to an additional $33.0 million of 2020 Notes for a maximum aggregate amount of $66.0 million, subject to customary closing conditions, provided that any such call be for no less than $5.0 million on or prior to April 17, 2022. All unpaid interest and principal will be due and payable upon request of the majority of Lenders on or after the earlier of April 17, 2022 or an event of default. The 2020 Notes accrue interest at a rate equal to 2.0% above the Wall Street Journal Prime Rate. Upon the closing of this offering, the 2020 Notes, including accrued interest thereon, will automatically convert into a number of shares of common stock at a per share conversion price equal to the lesser of (i) 85% of the initial public offering price and (ii) $13.20 per share. See the section entitled "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations⸺Liquidity and Capital Resources; Plan of Operation⸺2020 Notes" and the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Assuming a closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020 and an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes will automatically convert into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering at a conversion price of $12.75 per share. Based on the conversions described above and the number of shares outstanding immediately after this offering described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Prospectus Summary—The Offering,” the shares of our common stock issued upon the conversion of the 2020 Notes will represent approximately 9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after the completion of this offering.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Since it was reported to have surfaced in December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread across the world and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 have intensified and governments around the world, including in the United States, Europe and Asia, have implemented severe travel restrictions, social distancing requirements, quarantines, stay-at-home orders and other significant restrictions which have also resulted in delay of clinical trials and FDA operations. As a result, the current COVID-19 pandemic has presented a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting our employees, including our sales force, hospitals, physicians, patients, communities and business operations, as well as contributing to significant volatility and negative pressure on the U.S. and world economy and in financial markets.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted our business, financial condition and results of operations by decreasing and delaying substantially all procedures performed using our products, and we expect the pandemic to continue to negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similar to the general trend in elective and other surgical procedures, the number of procedures performed using our products has decreased substantially as healthcare organizations across the globe have prioritized the treatment of patients with COVID-19 or have altered their operations to prepare for and respond to the pandemic. For example, in the United States, governmental authorities have recommended, and, in certain cases, required, that elective, specialty and other procedures and appointments be suspended or canceled to avoid non-essential patient exposure to medical environments and potential infection with COVID-19 and to focus limited resources and personnel capacity toward the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
5

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented a variety of measures intended to help us manage through its impact and position us to resume operations quickly and efficiently once these restrictions are lifted. These measures include:
Establishing safety protocols, facility enhancements, and work-from-home strategies to protect our employees;
Ensuring that our manufacturing and supply chain operations remain intact and operational, and building over four months of inventory;
Keeping our workforce intact and continuing to build our team, including expansion of our U.S. sales force from 32 representatives at the end of December 2019 to 42 representatives at the end of June 2020;
Continuing to focus on new account openings and implementing virtual physician and sales force training programs;
Accelerating our physician education programs and direct-to-patient marketing efforts through social media or other virtual forums;
Temporarily cutting over $2 million in discretionary spending in the second quarter of 2020;
Increasing our capital base by $33.0 million through a convertible debt offering with existing and new investors in April 2020; and
Continuing to invest in research and development activities in order to advance our AeriSeal clinical programs.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted the number of procedures using the Zephyr Valve as hospitals focus on COVID-19 and as patients postpone healthcare visits and treatments. Specifically, beginning in the second half of March, substantially all procedures using our products were postponed or cancelled as COVID-19 spread to the various regions across the globe where we conduct our business and sell our products. Unit volumes for our Zephyr Valves sold declined by approximately 55% for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared to the three month period ended March 31, 2020, reaching a year to date monthly low in April. However, beginning in May, we began to see signs of a recovery in our business, and by September 11, 2020 the total number of Zephyr Valves sold in the third quarter of 2020 through that date was approximately the same as the total number of Zephyr Valves sold during the three months ended March 31, 2020.
Although no assurance can be given that this trend will continue, we are encouraged by the signs of recovery of our business in the third quarter of 2020, and we believe the following key indicators are contributing to the stabilization of our business:
Continued opening of new accounts;
Strong physician participation in virtual trainings;
A strong patient pipeline evidenced by an increase in StratX report activity near to pre-COVID-19 levels, a rebound in patient calls into hospitals inquiring about our procedure, and a resumption of patient calls to our reimbursement support service; and
Hospitals and centers beginning to accept patients for elective procedures.
Despite the encouraging signs of recovery of our business, we believe the measures and challenges resulting from COVID-19 will likely continue for the duration of the pandemic, which is uncertain, and will continue to significantly reduce our revenue and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations
6

while the pandemic continues. As a result, we cannot assure you that our recent increase in the Zephyr Valves sold are indicative of future results or that we will not experience additional negative impacts associated with COVID-19, which could be significant. In particular, we believe the reduction in the backlog of patients who have cancelled or postponed their procedures in the second quarter of 2020 is significantly contributing to the number of procedures and Zephyr Valves sold in the third quarter of 2020 as hospitals and centers are beginning to accept patients for elective procedures. However, the number of Zephyr Valves sold in the future may decrease as the backlog of patients who have cancelled or postponed their procedures due to the pandemic is reduced. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted our business, financial condition and results of operations by significantly decreasing and delaying the number of procedures performed using our products, and we expect the pandemic to continue to negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, once the pandemic subsides, there may be a substantial backlog of patients seeking appointments with physicians and surgeries to be performed at hospitals relating to a variety of medical conditions, and as a result, patients seeking treatment with Zephyr Valves may have to navigate limited provider capacity. We believe this limited provider and hospital capacity could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations following the end of the pandemic. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity and spread of COVID-19 and the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others.
Our consolidated financial statements reflect judgments and estimates that could change in the future as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Strategy—A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, could adversely affect our business.”
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of before making an investment decision. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, should evaluate the specific factors set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary in deciding whether to invest in our common stock. These risks include, among others, the following:
We have a history of significant net losses, which we expect to continue, and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
We have limited experience marketing and selling our solution;
We currently rely on a single product, the Zephyr Valve, which can only be marketed for limited indications, and if we are not successful in commercializing the Zephyr Valve, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected;
Our business is dependent on hospital, physician and patient adoption of our solution as a treatment for severe emphysema. If hospitals, physicians or patients are unwilling to change current practices to adopt our solution, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
If we fail to receive access to hospital facilities, our sales may decrease;
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has adversely affected our business;
Use of the Zephyr Valve involves risks and may result in complications, including pneumothorax or death, and is contraindicated in certain patients, which may limit adoption and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
7

If we are unable to achieve and maintain adequate levels of coverage or reimbursement for our solution, or any future products we may seek to commercialize, or if patients are left with significant out-of-pocket costs, our commercial success may be severely hindered;
If we fail to retain marketing and sales personnel and, as we grow, fail to increase our marketing and sales capabilities or develop broad awareness of our solution in a cost-effective manner, we may not be able to generate revenue growth;
We have limited long-term data regarding the safety and effectiveness of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve. The only safety and effectiveness data of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve, is limited to one year following placement and we are required to conduct extension studies to follow up on safety and effectiveness out to five years;
We have limited experience manufacturing our products in significant commercial quantities and we face manufacturing risks that may adversely affect our ability to manufacture our products, reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide;
The sizes of the markets for our current and future products have not been established with precision and may be smaller than we estimate and may decline. Certain patients may not have regions of the lung with little to no collateral ventilation, making them poor candidates for the Zephyr Valve. In addition, if the overall rate of smokers continues to decline, this may eventually decrease the number of patients suffering from COPD and emphysema and, accordingly, who would benefit from our solution;
We expect to continue to incur net losses for the next several years and we expect to require substantial additional capital beyond the proceeds of this offering to finance our planned operations, which may include future equity and debt financings. This additional capital may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain additional financing when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, could force us to delay, limit, reduce or eliminate our commercialization, sales and marketing efforts, product development programs or other operations;
Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures raise substantial doubts about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern requires that we obtain sufficient funding to finance our operations;
Our products and operations are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad. If we fail to obtain and maintain necessary regulatory approvals for the Zephyr Valve and related products, or if approvals for future products and indications are delayed or not issued, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations; and
We may become a party to intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings that could be costly and could interfere with our ability to sell and market our products.
If we are unable to adequately address these and other risks we face, our business may be harmed.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (JOBS Act) and therefore we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and
8

proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or until we are no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company,” whichever is earlier. In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until those standards apply to private companies. We have not elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act, and, therefore, we will be subject to the same accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We may take advantage of certain of reduced disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these reduced disclosures for so long as our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
Corporate Information
We were initially incorporated under the laws of the State of California in December 1995 under the name Pulmonx. We reincorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in December 2013 under the name Pulmonx Corporation.
Our principal executive offices are located at 700 Chesapeake Drive, Redwood City, California 94063. Our telephone number is 1-650-364-0400. Our website address is www.pulmonx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.
“Pulmonx,” the Pulmonx logo, and other trademarks or service marks of Pulmonx Corporation appearing in this prospectus are the property of Pulmonx Corporation. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks, and service marks of others, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols.
9

The Offering
Common stock offered by us6,666,667 shares.
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering
30,718,953 shares (or 31,718,953 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).
Option to purchase additional sharesWe have granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 1,000,000 additional shares of our common stock at the public offering price less estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
Use of proceedsWe estimate the net proceeds to us from issuance and sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $88.0 million, or approximately $102.0 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and facilitate our future access to the capital markets. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to hire additional sales and marketing personnel and expand marketing programs in the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific to promote the sales of Zephyr Valves, to fund product development and research and development activities, in accordance with the terms of the Loan and Security Agreement (Oxford Agreement) with Oxford Finance LLC (Oxford) and based on the amount drawn thereunder, to pay a success fee of $1.9 million to Oxford on the closing of this offering and the remaining proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, including acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses or technologies, although we do not currently have any plans for any such acquisitions or investments. These expectations are subject to change. See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15 and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol“LUNG”
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering set forth in the table above is based on (i) 22,615,294 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, which includes (x) 17,856,229 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of all of our outstanding shares of preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and (y) the issuance of 2,650,773 shares of common stock in connection with the closing of this offering as a result of the automatic conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes plus accrued interest, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020, (ii) 1,436,992 shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020 and (iii) 6,666,667 shares of common stock offered by us in this offering.
Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus excludes the following:
3,490,688 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.69 per share, of which 1,436,992 shares of common stock were issued upon the exercise of options after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020;
10

834,871 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020 under our 2020 Stock Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.19 per share;
10,725 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Stock Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan becomes effective;
353,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that we expect to grant under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, to each of our non-employee directors and other employees and service providers at an exercise price equal to the initial public offering price of this offering;
3,600,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan; and
720,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering and will include provisions that automatically increase the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance thereunder each year.
Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus reflects and assumes the following:
a 10-for-1 reverse stock split of our common stock effected on September 22, 2020;
the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, into an aggregate of 17,856,229 shares of our common stock immediately upon the closing of this offering (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus);
the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in Delaware and the adoption of our amended and restated bylaws, each of which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering;
(i) the issuance of 2,650,773 shares of common stock in connection with the closing of this offering as a result of the automatic conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes, plus accrued interest, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus (a $1.00 increase in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share would decrease the number of shares of our common stock issued to 2,560,407 shares upon such conversion; a $1.00 decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share would increase the number of additional shares of our common stock issued to 2,840,116 shares upon such conversion), and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020; (ii) the reclassification of the derivative instrument upon the conversion of the 2020 Notes, the estimated $3.3 million credit to additional paid-in capital; and (iii) a charge of $6.4 million to the accumulated deficit with a corresponding credit to additional paid in capital due to the loss on extinguishment of 2020 Notes (assuming an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the range reflected on the cover of this prospectus);
no exercise of outstanding options after June 30, 2020; and
no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.
11

The number of shares of our common stock to be issued upon the conversion of all outstanding Series G-1 preferred stock depends in part on the initial public offering price of our common stock. The terms of our Series G-1 preferred stock provide that the ratio at which each share of such series converts into shares of our common stock in connection with this offering will increase if the initial public offering price is below $15.18 per share, which would result in additional shares of our common stock being issued upon conversion of our Series G-1 preferred stock immediately upon the closing of this offering. If the initial public offer price is equal to or greater than $15.18 per share, no additional shares of common stock will be issued upon conversion of our Series G-1 preferred stock immediately upon the closing of this offering. Based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, the 4,934,231 outstanding shares of our Series G-1 preferred stock will convert into an aggregate of 4,993,434 shares of our common stock immediately upon the closing of this offering. For illustrative purposes only, the table below shows the number of shares of our common stock that would be issuable upon conversion of the Series G-1 preferred stock at various initial public offering prices:
Assumed Initial Public Offering PriceApproximate Series G-1 Preferred Stock Conversion RatioCommon Stock Issuable upon Conversion of Series G-1 Preferred Stock
$14.001.08435,350,108
$15.001.0124,993,434
$16.0014,934,231
12

Summary Consolidated Financial Data
The summary consolidated statements of operations data presented below for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the summary consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and our summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal, recurring adjustments that are necessary for a fair presentation of the unaudited interim consolidated information. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future and our operating results for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2020 or any other interim periods or any future year or period.
When you read this summary consolidated financial data, it is important that you read it together with the historical consolidated financial statements and related notes to those statements, as well as “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Years Ended December 31,Six Months Ended June 30,
2018201920192020
(unaudited)
 (in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue$20,004 $32,595 $13,144 $12,291 
Cost of goods sold7,718 10,181 4,474 5,629 
Gross profit12,286 22,414 8,670 6,662 
Operating expenses:
Research and development6,991 6,049 3,047 2,991 
Selling, general and administrative20,347 34,203 15,558 21,301 
Total operating expenses27,338 40,252 18,605 24,292 
Loss from operations(15,052)(17,838)(9,935)(17,630)
Interest income21 432 143 89 
Interest expense(2,520)(2,317)(1,407)(1,811)
Other income (expense), net(916)(617)(373)421 
Net loss before tax(18,467)(20,340)(11,572)(18,931)
Income tax expense12 363 127 143 
Net loss$(18,479)$(20,703)$(11,699)$(19,074)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(1)
$(11.03)$(11.66)$(6.85)$(9.93)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(1)
1,674,779 1,776,110 1,709,097 1,921,073 
Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
$(1.14)$(0.91)
Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
18,133,760 20,804,441 
_______________
(1)For an explanation of the method used to calculate our historical and pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share and weighted average number of shares used in the computation of per share amounts, see Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements and Note 13 to our interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in the prospectus.
13

As of June 30, 2020
Actual
Pro forma(1)
Pro forma
as Adjusted(2)(3)
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$43,347 $43,347 $129,472 
Working capital(4)
46,918 47,269 134,449 
Total assets66,721 66,721 152,846 
Convertible notes29,310   
Derivative liabilities4,355 1,055  
Term loan16,723 16,723 16,723 
Credit agreement527 527 527 
Total liabilities64,887 31,926 30,871 
Convertible preferred stock207,599   
Accumulated deficit(229,577)(236,377)(237,197)
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity(205,765)34,795 121,975 
_______________
(1)The pro forma consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all shares of our preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 into an aggregate of 17,856,229 shares of our common stock (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) which resulted in the reclassification of the carrying value of our preferred stock to common stock and additional paid-in capital; (ii) the assumed conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate outstanding principal amount and $0.8 million accrued interest of the 2020 Notes into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $12.75 per share, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020; (iii) the reclassification of the derivative instrument upon the conversion of the 2020 Notes and the estimated $3.3 million credit to additional paid-in capital; (iv) a charge of $6.4 million to the accumulated deficit with a corresponding credit to additional paid in capital due to the loss on extinguishment of 2020 Notes (assuming an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the range reflected on the cover of this prospectus); and (v) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in connection with the closing of this offering.
(2)Reflects (i) the pro forma adjustments described in footnote (1); (ii) the issuance and sale of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us; and (iii) the payment of a $1.9 million success fee to Oxford in accordance with the terms of the Oxford Agreement, reflected as a derivative liability (see Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements).
(3)Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by $6.2 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase (decrease) the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity by $14.0 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information is illustrative only and we will adjust this information based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
(4)We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our interim condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities as of June 30, 2020.

14

RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding to invest in our common stock. Any of these events could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, ability to accomplish our strategic objectives or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
Summary Risk Factor
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk because our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, as described below. The principal factors and uncertainties that make investing in our common stock risky include, among others:
We have a history of significant net losses, which we expect to continue, and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
We have limited experience marketing and selling our solution;
We currently rely on a single product, the Zephyr Valve, which can only be marketed for limited indications, and if we are not successful in commercializing the Zephyr Valve, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected;
Our business is dependent on hospital, physician and patient adoption of our solution as a treatment for severe emphysema. If hospitals, physicians or patients are unwilling to change current practices to adopt our solution, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
If we fail to receive access to hospital facilities our sales may decrease;
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has adversely affected our business;
Use of the Zephyr Valve involves risks and may result in complications, including pneumothorax or death, and is contraindicated in certain patients, which may limit adoption and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
If we are unable to achieve and maintain adequate levels of coverage or reimbursement for our solution, or any future products we may seek to commercialize, or if patients are left with significant out-of-pocket costs, our commercial success may be severely hindered;
If we fail to retain marketing and sales personnel and, as we grow, fail to increase our marketing and sales capabilities or develop broad awareness of our solution in a cost-effective manner, we may not be able to generate revenue growth;
We have limited long-term data regarding the safety and effectiveness of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve. The only safety and effectiveness data of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve, is limited to one year following placement and we are required to conduct extension studies to follow up on safety and effectiveness out to five years;
We have limited experience manufacturing our products in significant commercial quantities and we face manufacturing risks that may adversely affect our ability to manufacture our products, reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide;
The sizes of the markets for our current and future products have not been established with precision and may be smaller than we estimate and may decline. Certain patients may not have regions of the lung with little to no collateral ventilation, making them poor candidates for the Zephyr Valve. In addition, if the overall rate of smokers continues to decline, this may eventually decrease the number of patients suffering from COPD and emphysema and, accordingly, who would benefit from our solution;
We expect to continue to incur net losses for the next several years and we expect to require substantial additional capital beyond the proceeds of this offering to finance our planned operations, which may
15

include future equity and debt financings. This additional capital may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain additional financing when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, could force us to delay, limit, reduce or eliminate our commercialization, sales and marketing efforts, product development programs or other operations;
Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures raise substantial doubts about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern requires that we obtain sufficient funding to finance our operations;
Our products and operations are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad. If we fail to obtain and maintain necessary regulatory approvals for the Zephyr Valve and related products, or if approvals for future products and indications are delayed or not issued, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations; and
We may become a party to intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings that could be costly and could interfere with our ability to sell and market our products.
Risks Related to Our Business and Strategy
We have a history of significant net losses, which we expect to continue, and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have incurred net losses since our inception. For the year ended December 31, 2019 and the six months ended June 30, 2020, we had net losses of $20.7 million and $19.1 million, respectively, and we expect to continue to incur additional losses. As of December 31, 2019 and the six months ended June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $210.5 million and $229.6 million, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant sales and marketing, research and development, regulatory and other expenses as we grow our sales force and expand our marketing efforts to increase adoption of our products, expand existing relationships with our customers, obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for our planned or future products, conduct clinical trials on our existing and planned or future products and develop new products or add new features to our existing products. In addition, we expect our general and administrative expenses to increase following this offering due to the additional costs associated with being a public company. The net losses that we incur may fluctuate significantly from period to period. We will need to generate significant additional revenue in order to achieve and sustain profitability. Even if we achieve profitability, we cannot be sure that we will remain profitable for any substantial period of time.
We have limited experience marketing and selling our solution.
We began commercializing our solution and the Zephyr Valve in the United States in 2018 and, through our predecessors, in Europe in 2003. Our limited commercialization experience and limited number of approved or cleared products make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future prospects. These factors also make it difficult for us to forecast our future financial performance and growth, and such forecasts are subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to successfully complete clinical trials and obtain pre-market approval or 510(k) clearance by the FDA for future planned products in the United States or in key international markets. Our commercialization efforts will depend on the efforts of our management and sales team, our third-party suppliers, physicians and hospitals, and general economic conditions, among other factors, including the following:
the effectiveness of our marketing and sales efforts in the United States and internationally;
our success in educating physicians and patients about the benefits, administration and use of the Zephyr Valves;
the acceptance by physicians, patients and payors of the safety and effectiveness of the Zephyr Valves, including the long-term data;
our third-party suppliers’ ability to supply the components of the Zephyr Valves in a timely manner, in accordance with our specifications and in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, and to remain in good standing with regulatory agencies;
16

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
the availability, perceived advantages, relative cost, relative safety and relative efficacy of alternative and competing therapies;
our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce our intellectual property rights in and to the Zephyr Valves;
the emergence of competing technologies and other adverse market developments, and our need to enhance the Zephyr Valves or develop new products to maintain market share in response to such competing technologies or market developments;
our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms, or at all, if needed to support the commercialization of the Zephyr Valves; and
our ability to achieve and maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements applicable to the Zephyr Valves.
If our assumptions regarding the risks and uncertainties we face, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change due to circumstances in our business or our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We currently rely on a single product, the Zephyr Valve, which can only be marketed for limited indications, and if we are not successful in commercializing the Zephyr Valve, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected.
Our business currently depends entirely on our ability to successfully commercialize the Zephyr Valve, as well as our overall solution, in a timely manner. We have no other therapeutic products currently approved for sale in the United States and we may never be able to develop additional marketable products or enhancements to the Zephyr Valve solution. Currently, our solution is only available to treat patients with severe emphysema in the United States and additional limited indications internationally where we have obtained the necessary regulatory approvals or clearances. Therefore, we are dependent on widespread market adoption of our solution for this limited use-case and we will continue to be dependent on this use-case for the foreseeable future. There can be no assurance that our solution will gain a substantial degree of market acceptance among specialty physicians, patients or healthcare providers. Our failure to successfully increase sales of our solution or develop solutions that address forms of COPD beyond severe emphysema and obtain any necessary regulatory approvals or clearances in connection therewith could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends in large part on the success of the Zephyr Valve. If we are unable to successfully market and sell the Zephyr Valves, as well as our overall solution, to patients with severe emphysema, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success will depend on our ability to bring awareness to our solution, and the Zephyr Valve in particular, and educate hospitals and physicians regarding the benefits of our solution over existing products and services and to encourage those parties to recommend our solution to their patients. Sales of Zephyr Valves and delivery catheters accounted for most of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 and six months ended June 30, 2020 and we expect that sales of Zephyr Valves and delivery catheters will continue to account for most of our revenue going forward. We do not know if our solution will be successful over the long term. Moreover, market acceptance may be hindered if physicians are not presented with compelling data demonstrating the efficacy of our solution compared to alternative procedures and technologies. Any studies we, or third parties which we sponsor, may conduct comparing our solution with alternative treatments for severe emphysema will be expensive, time consuming and may not yield positive results. Additionally, adoption will be directly influenced by a number of financial factors, including the ability of providers to obtain sufficient reimbursement from payors for deploying our solution. The safety, efficacy, performance and cost-effectiveness of our solution, on a stand-alone basis and relative to competing treatments and services, will determine the willingness of payors to cover the procedure. While we have established
17

positive coverage policies with major national private payors, such as Aetna and Humana, other commercial payors, such as the Blue Cross Blue Shield family of plans, do not currently consider our solution medically necessary. No matter the level of coverage by the commercial payor, each patient is generally considered on a case-by-case basis. In addition, Medicare, currently without a public coverage policy, covers our solution for patients when medically necessary on a case-by-case basis. Physicians may be reluctant to recommend our solution to patients covered by such plans with no specific policies because of the uncertainty surrounding reimbursement, rates and the administrative burden of interfacing with patients to answer their questions and support their efforts to obtain adequate reimbursement for our solution. If physicians do not adopt and recommend our solution, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is dependent on hospital, physician and patient adoption of our solution as a treatment for severe emphysema. If hospitals, physicians or patients are unwilling to change current practices to adopt our solution, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our primary strategy to grow our revenue is to take a stepwise approach to market development across key stakeholders in severe emphysema treatment, such as hospitals, physicians and patients. To succeed, our sales force must build deep relationships with pulmonary physicians to encourage them and their hospitals to develop emphysema centers of excellence, where physicians are instructed in the workup of advanced COPD and performance of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using our solution, that offer our solution as a treatment for severe emphysema. In addition, we utilize direct-to-patient marketing initiatives to increase demand through patient empowerment. While the number of hospitals incorporating our solution has increased in recent years, there is a significant group of hospitals and physicians who have not yet adopted our solution, and additional hospitals and physicians may choose not to adopt our solution for a number of reasons, including:
inadequate recruiting or training of talented sales force in existing and new markets to facilitate outreach and further adoption and awareness of Zephyr Valve;
lack of experience with our solution and the Zephyr Valve as a treatment alternative;
the failure of key opinion leaders to continue to provide recommendations regarding the Zephyr Valve, or to assure physicians, patients and healthcare payors of the benefits of the Zephyr Valve as an attractive alternative to other treatment options;
perceived inadequacy of evidence supporting clinical benefits or cost-effectiveness of our solution over existing alternatives;
a perception among some physicians of patients’ inability to tolerate the procedure required to implant our solution;
liability risks generally associated with the use of new products and procedures;
the training required to use new products;
lack of availability of adequate third-party payor coverage or reimbursement;
access to hospital bidding processes;
a decrease or delay in the number of procedures performed using our solution as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
competing products and alternatives; and
introduction of other novel alternative therapies to treat severe emphysema.
18

We focus our sales, marketing and training efforts primarily on pulmonologists. However, physicians from other disciplines, including primary care physicians, as well as other medical professionals, such as nurse practitioners, respiratory technicians, radiologists and community physicians, are often the initial point of contact for patients with severe emphysema.
These physicians and other medical professionals commonly screen and treat patients with severe emphysema, and are likely to recommend medical management, inhaled medications, pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen, or more invasive LVRS or lung transplantations. We believe that educating physicians in these disciplines and other medical professionals about the clinical merits and patient benefits of our solution as a minimally invasive treatment for severe emphysema is a key element of increasing the adoption of our solution. If additional physicians or other medical professionals do not adopt, or existing physician customers cease referring patients to, our solution for any reason, including those listed above, our ability to execute our growth strategy will be impaired, and it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, patients will not qualify for our solution if, among other potential reasons, their lung anatomy has collateral ventilation that does not allow for effective treatment with the Zephyr Valve. Patients may not adopt our solution if they are reluctant to undergo a minimally invasive procedure, if they are worried about potential adverse effects of our solution, such as infection, discomfort or weakness, or if they are unable to obtain adequate third-party coverage or reimbursement.
If we fail to receive access to hospital facilities, our sales may decrease.
In the United States, in order for physicians to use the Zephyr Valve, we expect that the hospital facilities where these physicians treat patients will typically require us to enter into purchasing contracts setting forth the terms and conditions under which the hospital facilities will purchase Zephyr Valves. This process can be lengthy and time-consuming and require extensive negotiations and management time, and potentially result in delays and increases to the sales cycle before we can sell the Zephyr Valve to these hospitals. In the European Union, certain institutions may require us to engage in a contract bidding process in the event that such institutions are considering making purchase commitments that exceed specified cost thresholds, which vary by jurisdiction. These processes are only open at certain periods of time, and we may not be successful in the bidding process. If we do not receive access to hospital facilities via these contracting processes or otherwise, or if we are unable to secure contracts or tender successful bids, our sales may decrease, and our operating results may be harmed. Furthermore, we may expend significant effort in these time-consuming processes and still may not obtain a purchase contract from such hospitals.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has adversely affected our business.
If a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease occurs in the United States or worldwide, our business may be adversely affected. In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified in Wuhan, China. Since then, SARS-CoV-2, and the resulting disease, COVID-19, has spread to most countries and all 50 states within the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted our business, financial condition and results of operations by decreasing and delaying substantially all procedures performed using our products, and we expect the pandemic to continue to negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similar to the general trend in elective and other surgical procedures, the number of procedures performed using our products has decreased substantially as healthcare organizations across the globe have prioritized the treatment of patients with COVID-19 or have altered their operations to prepare for and respond to the pandemic. For example, in the United States, governmental authorities have recommended, and in certain cases required, that elective, specialty and other procedures and appointments be suspended or canceled to avoid non-essential patient exposure to medical environments and potential infection with COVID-19 and to focus limited resources and personnel capacity toward the treatment of COVID-19 patients. We believe the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted the number of procedures using the Zephyr Valve as hospitals focus on COVID-19 and as patients postpone healthcare visits and treatments. Specifically, beginning in the second half of March, substantially all procedures using our products were postponed or cancelled as COVID-19 spread to the various
19

regions across the globe where we conduct our business and sell our products. Unit volumes for our Zephyr Valves sold declined by approximately 55% for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared to the three month period ended March 31, 2020, reaching a year to date monthly low in April. While we began to see signs of a recovery in our business beginning in May, and, by September 11, 2020, the total number of Zephyr Valves sold in the third quarter of 2020 through that date was approximately the same as the total number of Zephyr Valves sold during the three months ended March 31, 2020, no assurance can be given that this trend will continue. Further, our third fiscal quarter ends on September 30, 2020, and, accordingly, the information regarding unit volume of our Zephyr Valves sold in that quarter reflects our preliminary estimates for the third quarter through September 11, 2020. These preliminary estimates have not been reviewed by our independent registered public accounting firm and may vary from our final results, including due to sales of our Zephyr Valves for the remainder of the quarter, the completion of our financial closing procedures, final adjustments and other developments that may arise. Despite the encouraging signs of recovery of our business, we believe these measures and challenges will likely continue for the duration of the pandemic, which is uncertain, and will continue to significantly reduce our revenue and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations while the pandemic continues. As a result, we cannot assure you that our recent increase in the Zephyr Valves sold are indicative of future results or that we will not experience additional negative impacts associated with COVID-19, which could be significant. In particular, we believe the reduction in the backlog of patients who have cancelled or postponed their procedures in the second quarter of 2020 is significantly contributing to the number of procedures and Zephyr Valves sold in the third quarter of 2020 as hospitals and centers are beginning to accept patients for elective procedures. However, the number of Zephyr Valves sold in the future may decrease as the backlog of patients who have cancelled or postponed their procedures due to the pandemic is reduced. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted our business, financial condition and results of operations by significantly decreasing and delaying the number of procedures performed using our products, and we expect the pandemic to continue to negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, once the pandemic subsides, there may be a substantial backlog of patients seeking appointments with physicians and surgeries to be performed at hospitals relating to a variety of medical conditions, and as a result, patients seeking treatment with Zephyr Valves may have to navigate limited provider capacity. We believe this limited provider and hospital capacity could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations following the end of the pandemic.
Numerous state and local jurisdictions have imposed, and others in the future may impose, “shelter-in-place” orders, quarantines, executive orders and similar government orders and restrictions for their residents to control the spread of COVID-19. On March 19, 2020, the governor of California, where our headquarters are located, issued “stay at home” orders limiting non-essential activities, travel and business operations. Such orders or restrictions have resulted in reduced operations at our headquarters (including our manufacturing facility), work stoppages, slowdowns and delays, travel restrictions and cancellation of events and have restricted the efforts of our sales representatives, thereby significantly and negatively impacting our operations. Other disruptions or potential disruptions include restrictions on the ability of our sales representatives and other personnel to travel and access customers for training and case support; inability of our suppliers to manufacture components and parts and to deliver these to us on a timely basis, or at all; disruptions in our production schedule and ability to manufacture and assemble products; inventory shortages or obsolescence; delays in actions of regulatory bodies; delays in clinical trials and studies; diversion of or limitations on employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the operations of our business, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with groups of people; delays in growing or reductions in our sales organization, including through delays in hiring, lay-offs, furloughs or other losses of sales representatives; restrictions in our ability to ship our products to customers; business adjustments or disruptions of certain third parties, including suppliers, medical institutions and clinical investigators with whom we conduct business; negative impact on our customers’ credit profiles, which may adversely impact our future collection experience; and additional government requirements or other incremental mitigation efforts that may further impact our or our suppliers’ capacity to manufacture our products. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity and spread of COVID-19 and the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others.
While the potential economic impact brought by and the duration of any pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may be difficult to assess or predict, the widespread COVID-19 pandemic
20

has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, the recession and market correction resulting from the spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, has materially affected our business. Such economic recession could have a material adverse effect on our long-term business as hospitals curtail and reduce capital and overall spending. In addition, the current economic downturn is resulting in significant job losses and reductions in disposable income and if patients are unable to obtain or maintain health insurance policies, this may significantly impact their ability to pay for the procedures utilizing our products, further negatively impacting our business, financial condition and results of operations. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Use of our solution requires appropriate physician training, and inadequate training may lead to negative patient outcomes and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The successful implantation of the Zephyr Valve depends in part on the training and skill of the physician performing the procedure and on adherence to appropriate patient selection and proper techniques provided in training sessions conducted by our training faculty. For example, we train physicians to ensure correct patient selection and treatment planning using the StratX Platform and Chartis System, and proper placement of the Zephyr Valve. Physicians could experience difficulty with the technique necessary to successfully implant the valve and may not achieve the technical competency necessary to complete the training program, or they could fail to properly learn how to interpret our StratX Platform or Chartis System. Moreover, physicians rely on their previous medical training and experience when using our solution, and we cannot guarantee that all such physicians will have the necessary skills to properly identify ideal candidates and to perform the procedure. We do not control which physicians use our solution or how much training they receive, and physicians who have not completed our training sessions may nonetheless attempt to use our solution. If physicians implant the Zephyr Valve incorrectly, or do so in a manner that is inconsistent with its labeled indications, with components that are not our products, in patients who are not good candidates, or without adhering to or completing our training sessions, their patient outcomes may not be consistent with the outcomes achieved in our clinical trials. This result may negatively impact the perception of patient benefit and safety, and limit adoption of our solution as a treatment for severe emphysema and our products that facilitate the procedure, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we may experience difficulty growing the number of physicians who complete our training program if patient demand is low, if the length of time necessary to train each physician is longer than expected, if the capacity of our commercial organization to train physicians is less than expected or if we are unable to sufficiently grow our sales force. All these events would lead to fewer trained physicians qualified to implant the Zephyr Valve, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Use of the Zephyr Valve involves risks and may result in complications, including pneumothorax or death, and is contraindicated in certain patients, which may limit adoption and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The most common serious complications relating to the use of the Zephyr Valve include pneumothoraces, worsening of COPD symptoms, hemoptysis, pneumonia, dyspnea, respiratory failure and, in rare cases, death. Pneumothoraces occur when a lung collapses due to an air leak inside the lung and may result from rapid shifts in air volume in the chest as the target lobe deflates and the neighboring lobe expands following the Zephyr Valve treatment. A pneumothorax typically requires placement of a chest tube to manage the air leak. While most pneumothoraces can be readily managed with standard medical care, in rare cases they can be life-threatening, particularly if left untreated. In the event the pneumothorax does not resolve with standard management, one or more valves can be removed to re-inflate the lung; these are typically replaced later when the pneumothorax has resolved.
In our clinical trials, pneumothoraces occurred in 18-34% of patients treated with the Zephyr Valve, and in the LIBERATE study, 17% of the pneumothorax events required no intervention and resolved on their own. Patients who have had their pneumothoraces successfully treated had comparable outcomes to those who did not experience
21

a pneumothorax, other than that their hospital stays were extended by approximately a week compared to the three nights for patients without pneumothoraces.
In the LIBERATE study, the majority of pneumothoraces (76%) occurred within three days following a bronchoscopy procedure. During the Treatment Period (day of procedure to 45 days), there were a total of four deaths (3.1%) in the Zephyr Valve Group (which received Zephyr Valves plus medical management) and none in the Control Group (which received medical management alone). Three of the four deaths were deemed by the investigators to be definitely related to treatment with Zephyr Valves and the remaining one was deemed by the investigators to be probably related to treatment with Zephyr Valves. Each patient that died experienced pneumothorax, with three deaths directly attributed to the pneumothorax and the fourth death the result of respiratory failure, after the pneumothorax had resolved. Two of the pneumothorax-related deaths occurred early in the study when patients were being kept in the hospital for one night after the procedure. In order to more closely monitor patients, the study protocol was subsequently amended to keep patients in the hospital for five nights. Based on the full study data, current practice is to keep patients in the hospital for a minimum of three nights post-treatment. Post-hoc analysis has helped to identify risk factors for the group of patients at a higher risk of having a complex pneumothorax event (complex pneumothorax defined as requiring removal of all valves or resulting in death) should one occur. Such high-risk patients include those who are not treated in the most diseased lobe and have greater than 60% destruction of the untreated lung. All four patients who experienced a pneumothorax and died were within this high-risk group. This learning is incorporated in our physician training program for physicians to identify such high-risk patients and to consider alternative targets or other risk mitigation strategies. During the Longer-Term Period (46 days after procedure to 12 months), there was one death (0.8%) in the Zephyr Valve Group from a COPD exacerbation, deemed by the investigators not to be related to treatment with Zephyr Valves, and one cardiac arrhythmia related death in the Control Group (1.6%).
Outside of clinical trials, patients treated with the Zephyr Valve have also experienced serious complications, including pneumothoraces and death related to the Zephyr Valve.
Serious complications as a result of treatment with Zephyr Valves, and any increase in the rate of complications in or outside of clinical trials, could cause doctors, hospitals and patients to limit adoption of our solution and subject us to costly litigation, require us to pay substantial amounts of money to patients, delay, negatively impact or end our opportunity to receive or maintain regulatory approval to market our products, or require us to suspend or abandon our commercialization efforts, which may negatively impact adoption as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even in a circumstance in which we do not believe that a complication is related to the Zephyr Valve or treatment with the Zephyr Valve, the investigation into the circumstance may be time-consuming or inconclusive and may interrupt our sales efforts or impact and limit the type of regulatory approvals the Zephyr Valve receives or maintains and any related claims may negatively impact adoption as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, perceptions regarding the safety of the Zephyr Valve could be affected even if such complications are unrelated to the Zephyr Valve or treatment with the Zephyr Valve.
Further, our current products are contraindicated, and therefore should not be used, in certain patients, including those for whom bronchoscopic procedures are contraindicated, with evidence of active pulmonary infection, with known allergies to Nitinol (nickel-titanium) or its constituent metals (nickel or titanium) or silicone, who have not quit smoking, or with large bullae encompassing greater than 30% of either lung, and such contraindication may limit adoption and, as a result, negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to achieve and maintain adequate levels of coverage or reimbursement for our solution, or any future products we may seek to commercialize, or if patients are left with significant out-of-pocket costs, our commercial success may be severely hindered.
We currently derive substantially all of our revenue from the sale of our products to hospitals and distributors and expect this to continue for the foreseeable future. We primarily sell Zephyr Valves through a direct sales force that primarily engages with pulmonologists in the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific. Hospitals typically bill various third-party payors to cover all or a portion of the costs and fees associated with the procedures in which our solution
22

is used and bill patients for any deductibles or co-payments. As of June 30, 2020, commercial payors such as Aetna, Humana, Priority Health and Emblem Health have issued positive coverage policies for endobronchial valve procedures. United Healthcare removed the endobronchial valve codes from their non-covered list, and as such no longer considers the procedure unproven or experimental. Other commercial payors, such as many plans in the Blue Cross Blue Shield family of plans, do not yet consider our solution medically necessary. Medicare, currently without a public coverage policy, covers our solution for patients when medically necessary on a case-by-case basis, and other commercial insurers not described above are approving pre-authorization requests on a case-by-case basis.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have established guidelines for the coverage and reimbursement of certain products and procedures by Medicare. In general, in order to be reimbursed by Medicare, a healthcare procedure furnished to a Medicare beneficiary must be reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of an illness or injury, or to improve the functioning of a malformed body part. The methodology for determining coverage status and the amount of Medicare reimbursement varies based upon, among other factors, the setting in which a Medicare beneficiary received healthcare products and services. Any changes in federal legislation, regulations and policy affecting CMS coverage and reimbursement relative to the procedure using our products could have a material effect on our performance. While no national coverage determination (NCD) or local coverage determination (LCD) exists for endobronchial valves currently, CMS could develop an NCD, or one or more Medicare contractors could develop an LCD that either restricts coverage or restricts the patient population deemed appropriate for the treatment.
Physicians that insert the Zephyr Valve, or the hospitals for which they work, may be subject to reimbursement claim denials upon submission of the claim. Physicians or hospitals may also be subject to recovery of overpayments if a payor makes payment for the claim and subsequently determines that the payor’s coding, billing or coverage policies were not followed. Whenever possible, pre-authorization for coverage for the procedure is recommended before the procedure is performed. When pre-authorization is not obtained or not allowed, and the procedure is performed and not covered by third-party payors, physicians or hospitals typically directly bill patients enrolled with these third-party payors for the costs and fees associated with the procedures in which our products are used. Moreover, because there is often no separate reimbursement for supplies used in surgical procedures, the additional cost associated with the use of our solution can affect the profit margin of the hospital or surgery center where the procedure is performed. Some of our target physicians and hospitals may be unwilling to adopt our products in light of the additional associated cost. Further, any decline in the amount payors are willing to reimburse physicians and hospitals could make it difficult for existing physicians and hospitals to continue using or to adopt our solution and could create additional pricing pressure for us. If we are forced to lower the price we charge for our solution, our gross margins will decrease, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Outside of the United States, reimbursement levels vary significantly by country and by patient. Reimbursement is obtained from a variety of sources, including government sponsors, hospital budgets, or private health insurance plans, or combinations thereof. We have established reimbursement access in countries across Europe and Asia Pacific, including Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom and other countries. Even if we succeed in bringing our products to market in additional foreign countries, uncertainties regarding future healthcare policy, legislation and regulation, as well as private market practices, could affect our ability to sell our products in commercially acceptable quantities at acceptable prices.
Third-party payors, whether foreign or domestic, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In addition, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for procedures using our solution exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for procedures using our products can differ significantly from payor to payor. Payors continually review new and existing technologies for possible coverage and can, without notice, deny or reverse coverage for new or existing products and procedures. There can be no assurance that third-party payor policies will provide coverage for procedures in which our products are used. If we are not successful in reversing existing non-coverage policies, if third-party payors that currently cover or reimburse our products and related procedures reverse or limit their coverage in the future or if other third-party payors issue similar policies, this will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
23

Further, we believe that future coverage and reimbursement may be subject to increased restrictions, such as additional prior authorization requirements, both in the United States and in international markets. Third-party coverage and reimbursement for procedures using our solution or any of our products in development for which we may receive regulatory approval may not be available or adequate in either the United States or international markets, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Third-party payors and physicians who do not cover or use the Zephyr Valve may require additional clinical data prior to maintaining coverage of or adopting the Zephyr Valve.
Our success depends on physician and third-party payor acceptance of our solution as an effective treatment option for patients with severe emphysema. If physicians or payors do not find our body of published clinical evidence and data compelling or wish to wait for additional studies, they may choose not to use or provide coverage and reimbursement for our solution.
In addition, the long-term effects of use of the Zephyr Valve to treat severe emphysema are not yet known. Certain physicians, hospitals and payors may prefer to see longer-term safety and efficacy data published than we have produced. Further, we cannot provide assurance that any data that we or others may generate in the future will be consistent with that observed in our existing clinical studies.
If we fail to retain marketing and sales personnel and, as we grow, fail to increase our marketing and sales capabilities or develop broad awareness of our solution in a cost-effective manner, we may not be able to generate revenue growth.
We have limited experience marketing and selling our solution. We currently rely on our direct sales force to sell our solution in targeted geographic regions and distributors in certain regions outside the United States, and any failure to maintain and grow our direct sales force will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The members of our direct sales force are highly trained and possess substantial technical expertise, which we believe is critical in increasing adoption of our solution. The members of our U.S. sales force are at-will employees. The loss of these personnel to competitors, or otherwise, will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to retain our direct sales force personnel or replace them with individuals of equivalent technical expertise and qualifications, or if we are unable to successfully instill such technical expertise in replacement personnel, it may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In order to generate future growth, we plan to continue to expand and leverage our sales and marketing infrastructure to increase the number of customers and emphysema centers of excellence. Identifying and recruiting qualified sales and marketing personnel and training them on our solution, on applicable federal and state laws and regulations and on our internal policies and procedures requires significant time, expense and attention. It often takes several months or more before a sales representative is fully trained and productive. Our sales force may subject us to higher fixed costs than those of companies with competing techniques or products that utilize independent third parties, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage. It will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations if our efforts to expand and train our sales force do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue, and our higher fixed costs may slow our ability to reduce costs in the face of a sudden decline in demand for our solution. Any failure to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel, to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time or timely reduce fixed costs, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our solution will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our marketing efforts. We plan to dedicate significant resources to our marketing programs. It will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations if our marketing efforts and expenditures do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. In addition, we believe that developing and maintaining broad awareness of our solution in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving broad acceptance of our solution and expanding domestically and internationally. Promotion activities may not generate patient or physician awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the costs and expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote, maintain and protect our brand, we may fail to attract or retain the physician acceptance necessary to realize a
24

sufficient return on our brand building efforts, or to achieve the level of brand awareness that is critical for broad adoption of our solution.
We have limited long-term data regarding the safety and effectiveness of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve. The only safety and effectiveness data of our solution, including the Zephyr Valve, is limited to one year following placement and we are required to conduct extension studies to follow up on safety and effectiveness out to five years.
Although we have demonstrated the safety, effectiveness and clinical advantages of our solution in multiple clinical trials in approximately 450 patients selected using the Chartis System, the Zephyr Valve is still a relatively new treatment for severe emphysema. The long-term effects of using our solution in a large number of patients have not been studied and the results of short-term clinical use of such products do not necessarily predict long-term clinical benefits or reveal long-term adverse effects. We are required to conduct the LIBERATE extension study to follow up on safety and effectiveness out to five years. After the completion of the one-year follow up, 115 Zephyr Valve patients and 47 crossover patients (162 total patients) entered the LIBERATE extension study. The results of this extension study will not be available until February 2023. Our ability to interpret the data from this long-term follow-up of patients with this progressive disease may be limited by the fact that the matched control group exited the study after one year. The results of clinical trials of our solution conducted to date and ongoing or future studies and trials of our current, planned or future products may not be predictive of the results of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Our interpretation of data and results from our clinical trials do not ensure that we will achieve similar results in future clinical trials in other patient populations. In addition, pre-clinical and clinical data are often susceptible to various interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their products performed satisfactorily in pre-clinical studies and earlier clinical trials have nonetheless failed to replicate results in later clinical trials and subsequently failed to obtain marketing approval. Products in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy despite having progressed through nonclinical studies and earlier clinical trials.
The continuing development of our products depends upon our maintaining strong working relationships with physicians.
The research, development, marketing and sale of our current products and potential new and improved products or future product indications for which we receive regulatory clearance or approval depend upon our maintaining working relationships with physicians. We rely on these professionals to provide us with considerable knowledge and experience regarding the development, marketing and sale of our products. Physicians assist us in clinical trials and in marketing, and as researchers, product consultants and public speakers. If we cannot maintain our strong working relationships with these professionals and continue to receive their advice and input, the development and marketing of our products could suffer, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. At the same time, the medical device industry’s relationship with physicians is under increasing scrutiny by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG), the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), the state attorneys general and other foreign and domestic government agencies. Our failure to comply with requirements governing the industry’s relationships with physicians or an investigation into our compliance by the OIG, the DOJ, state attorneys general and other government agencies, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional information regarding the laws impacting our relationships with physicians and other healthcare professionals can be found below under “Risks Related to Government Regulation and Our Industry.”
We rely on third parties to perform certain aspects of the CT scan analysis within the StratX Platform.
We rely on third-party service providers to upload and analyze CT scan data on the StratX Platform. In order to make the StratX Platform available to physicians, we contract with a third-party cloud service. This third-party cloud service enables physicians to upload CT scan data while removing protected health information (PHI) of patients from that data, in case the physicians have, inadvertently, not removed the PHI themselves. We also contract with additional third-party service providers to analyze the CT scan data using their proprietary software, and provide
25

quantitative results via an easy-to-read report that we designed for our solution (StratX Lung Report). The StratX Lung Report is then made available to physicians in the third-party cloud service.
This service is critical and there are relatively few alternatives. These third-party service providers may be unwilling or unable to provide the necessary services reliably and at the levels we anticipate or that are required by the market. While these third-party service providers have generally met our demand for their services on a timely basis in the past, we cannot guarantee that they will in the future be able to meet our demand for their services, either because of acts of nature, the nature of our agreements or potential disputes with those service providers or our relative importance to them as a customer, and our service providers may decide in the future to discontinue or reduce the level of business they conduct with us. If we are required to change service providers for any reason, including due to any change in or termination of our relationships with these third parties, we may lose sales, experience delays, incur increased costs or otherwise experience impairment to our customer relationships. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to establish alternative relationships on similar terms, without delay or at all.
We depend on a limited number of single-source suppliers to manufacture our products, which makes us vulnerable to supply shortages and price fluctuations that could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on single-source suppliers for the components, sub-assemblies and materials for our products. These components, sub-assemblies and materials are critical and there are no or relatively few alternative sources of supply. These single-source suppliers may be unwilling or unable to supply the necessary materials and components or manufacture and assemble our products reliably and at the levels we anticipate or that are required by the market. While our suppliers have generally met our demand for their products and services on a timely basis in the past, we cannot guarantee that they will in the future be able to meet our demand for their products, either because of acts of nature, the nature of our agreements with those manufacturers or our relative importance to them as a customer, and our suppliers may decide in the future to discontinue or reduce the level of business they conduct with us. If we are required to change suppliers due to any change in or termination of our relationships with these third parties, or if our suppliers are unable to obtain the materials they need to produce our products at consistent prices or at all, we may lose sales, experience manufacturing or other delays, incur increased costs or otherwise experience impairment to our customer relationships. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to establish alternative relationships on similar terms, without delay or at all.
We have not qualified or obtained necessary regulatory approvals for additional suppliers for most of these components, sub-assemblies and materials, and we do not carry a significant inventory of these items. While we believe that alternative sources of supply may be available, we cannot be certain whether they will be available if and when we need them, or that any alternative suppliers would be able to provide the quantity and quality of components and materials that we would need to manufacture our products if our existing suppliers were unable to satisfy our supply requirements. To utilize other supply sources, we would need to identify and qualify new suppliers to our quality standards and obtain any additional regulatory approvals required to change suppliers, which could result in manufacturing delays and increase our expenses.
Although we require our third-party suppliers to supply us with components that meet our specifications and comply with applicable provisions of the FDA’s Quality System Regulation (QSR) and other applicable legal and regulatory requirements in our agreements and contracts, and we perform incoming inspection, testing or other acceptance activities to ensure the components meet our requirements, there is a risk that our suppliers will not always act consistent with our best interests, and may not always supply components that meet our requirements or supply components in a timely manner.
We have limited experience manufacturing our products in significant commercial quantities and we face manufacturing risks that may adversely affect our ability to manufacture our products, reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business strategy depends on our ability to manufacture our current and future products in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis to meet customer demand, while adhering to product quality standards, complying with
26

regulatory quality system requirements and managing manufacturing costs. We have a facility located in Redwood City, California, where we assemble, inspect, package, release and ship our products. We currently produce the Zephyr Valve and Chartis System at this facility, and we do not have redundant facilities. We also store finished goods at secondary facilities in Redwood City, California. If these facilities suffer damage, or a force majeure event, this could materially impact our ability to operate.
We are also subject to numerous other risks relating to our manufacturing capabilities, including:
quality and reliability of components, sub-assemblies and materials that we source from third-party suppliers, that are required to meet our quality specifications, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the products they supply;
our inability to secure components, sub-assemblies and materials in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities or on commercially reasonable terms;
our inability to maintain compliance with quality system requirements or pass regulatory quality inspections;
disruptions in our production schedule and ability to manufacture and assemble products due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
our failure to increase production capacity or volumes to meet demand;
our inability to design or modify production processes to enable us to produce future products efficiently or implement changes in current products in response to design or regulatory requirements; and
difficulty identifying and qualifying, and obtaining new regulatory approvals, for alternative suppliers for components in a timely manner.
These risks are likely to be exacerbated by our limited experience with our current products and manufacturing processes. As demand for our solution increases, we will have to invest additional resources to purchase components, sub-assemblies and materials, hire and train employees and enhance our manufacturing processes. If we fail to increase our production capacity efficiently, we may not be able to fill customer orders on a timely basis, our sales may not increase in line with our expectations and our operating margins could fluctuate or decline. In addition, even if future products in development share product features, components, sub-assemblies and materials with our existing products, the manufacture of these products may require modification of our current production processes or unique production processes, the hiring of specialized employees, the identification of new suppliers for specific components, sub-assemblies and materials or the development of new manufacturing technologies. It may not be possible for us to manufacture these products at a cost or in quantities sufficient to make these products commercially viable or to maintain current operating margins, all of which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results of operations will be materially harmed if we are unable to accurately forecast customer demand for our solution and manage our inventory.
To ensure adequate inventory supply, we must forecast inventory needs and manufacture the Zephyr Valve and Chartis System based on our estimates of future demand for our solution. Our ability to accurately forecast demand for our solution could be negatively affected by many factors, including our failure to accurately manage our expansion strategy, product introductions by competitors, an increase or decrease in customer demand for our solution or for products of our competitors, our failure to accurately forecast customer acceptance of new products, unanticipated changes in general market conditions or regulatory matters and weakening of economic conditions or consumer confidence in future economic conditions. Inventory levels in excess of customer demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs, which would cause our gross margin to be adversely affected and could impair the strength of our brand. Conversely, if we underestimate customer demand for our solution, our internal
27

manufacturing team may not be able to deliver products to meet our requirements, and this could result in damage to our reputation and customer relationships. In addition, if we experience a significant increase in demand, additional supplies of raw materials or additional manufacturing capacity may not be available when required on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, or suppliers or may not be able to allocate sufficient capacity in order to meet our increased requirements, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We seek to maintain sufficient levels of inventory in order to protect ourselves from supply interruptions. As a result, we are subject to the risk that a portion of our inventory will become obsolete or expire, which could have a material adverse effect on our earnings and cash flows due to the resulting costs associated with the inventory impairment charges and costs required to replace such inventory.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter or period should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside our control and, as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, but not limited to:
the level of demand for our products and any future products, which may vary significantly;
expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize additional products and technologies;
the timing and cost of obtaining regulatory approvals or clearances for planned or future products or indications;
unanticipated pricing pressures;
the rate at which we grow our sales force and the speed at which newly hired salespeople become effective, and the cost and level of investment therein;
our ability to expand the geographic reach of our sales force;
the degree of competition in our industry and any change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or future partners;
coverage and reimbursement policies with respect to our products, and potential future products that compete with our products;
the timing and success or failure of pre-clinical studies or clinical trials for our products or any future products we develop or competing products;
positive or negative coverage in the media or clinical publications of our products or products of our competitors or our industry;
the timing of customer orders or medical procedures using our products and the number of available selling days in any quarterly period, which can be impacted by holidays, the mix of products sold and the geographic mix of where products are sold, including any related foreign currency impact;
seasonality, including possible seasonal slowing of demand for our products in the beginning and end of the year and summer months based on the elective nature of procedures performed using our products, and which may become more pronounced in the future as our business grows;
28

the ongoing and global impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had and may continue to have on our business and the number of patients treated with Zephyr Valves, or any other pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease;
the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research, development, licenses, regulatory approval, commercialization activities, acquisitions and other strategic transactions, or other significant events relating to our products, which may change from time to time;
the cost of manufacturing our products, which may vary depending on the quantity of production and the terms of our agreements with third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
the average number of Zephyr Valves used for a patient, pricing, discounts and incentives; and
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies.
The cumulative effects of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Further, our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for any future period, and quarterly results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other period, and accordingly should not be relied upon as indicative of future performance.
This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The sizes of the markets for our current and future products have not been established with precision and may be smaller than we estimate and may decline. Certain patients may not have regions of the lung with little to no collateral ventilation, making them poor candidates for the Zephyr Valve. In addition, if the overall rate of smokers continues to decline, this may eventually decrease the number of patients suffering from COPD and emphysema and, accordingly, who would benefit from our solution.
Our estimates of the annual total addressable markets for our current solution and products under development are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates, including, without limitation, the number of patients with severe emphysema treatable by our solution and the assumed prices at which we can sell our solution in markets that have not yet been established. While we believe our assumptions and the data underlying our estimates are reasonable, these assumptions and estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates may change at any time, thereby reducing the predictive accuracy of these underlying factors.
For example, certain of these patients may not have regions of the lung with little to no collateral ventilation, making them poor candidates for the Zephyr Valve. As a result, our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our current or future products may prove to be incorrect.
Further, cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of COPD and emphysema. It is estimated that smoking accounts for as many as 80% of COPD-related deaths and 38% of the nearly 16 million adults in the United States diagnosed with COPD report being current smokers. The overall rate of smoking among the U.S. adult population has been steadily declining from 42.4% in 1965 to a record low of 13.7% in 2018 and there are increased efforts to decrease the rate of smoking globally. If the overall rate of smokers continues to decline, this may eventually decrease the number of patients suffering from COPD and emphysema and, accordingly, who would benefit from our solution.
If the actual number of patients who would benefit from our solution, the price at which we can sell future products, or the annual total addressable market for our solution is smaller than we have estimated, it may impair our sales growth and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
29

Failure of a key information technology system, process, or site could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our information technology systems for the efficient functioning of our business, including the manufacture, distribution and maintenance of our products, as well as for accounting, data storage, compliance, purchasing and inventory management. We also depend on the information technology systems of third parties for the analysis, data storage and communication associated with the StratX Platform. We currently do not have redundant information technology systems. Our information technology systems, and those of third parties, may be subject to computer viruses, ransomware or other malware, attacks by computer hackers, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components thereof, power outages, damage or interruption from fires or other natural disasters, hardware failures, telecommunication failures and user errors, among other malfunctions. We, or the third parties we rely upon, could be subject to an unintentional event that involves a third party gaining unauthorized access to our or its systems, which could disrupt our operations, corrupt our data or result in release of our confidential information. Technological interruptions would disrupt our operations, including our ability to timely ship and track product orders, project inventory requirements, manage our supply chain and otherwise adequately service our customers or disrupt our customers’ ability use our products for treatments. Moreover, a disruption in access to the system that controls the StratX Platform would prevent physicians using our solution from receiving the StratX Lung Report indicating whether their patients are good candidates for the Zephyr Valve. In the event we experience significant disruptions, we may be unable to repair our systems in an efficient and timely manner. Accordingly, such events may disrupt or reduce the efficiency of our entire operation and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Currently, we carry business interruption coverage to mitigate certain potential losses but this insurance is limited in amount, and we cannot be certain that such potential losses will not exceed our policy limits. Further, we do not carry any cyber insurance, which may expose us to certain potential losses for damages or result in penalization with fines in an amount exceeding our resources. We are increasingly dependent on complex information technology to manage our infrastructure. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect and enhance our existing systems. Failure to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could result in additional liabilities.
We may from time to time be subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business or otherwise, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial disputes and employment claims made by our current or former employees. Claims may also be asserted by or on behalf of a variety of other parties, including government agencies, patients or vendors of our customers, or stockholders. For example, our Swiss subsidiary is currently party to a lawsuit with a former distributor outside the United States alleging that our Swiss subsidiary conducted unfair competitive practices and violated the exclusive distribution rights as a result of its termination of its distribution agreement. Our Swiss subsidiary is also currently party to a lawsuit with a former distributor outside the United States alleging that our Swiss subsidiary terminated the agreement without proper compensation. While we believe these claims are meritless and, if successful, we do not believe the impact of such claims will be material to the Company’s results of operations or financial position, an unfavorable outcome in this litigation could harm our business. Further, in the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities, and this risk is especially relevant to industries that experience significant stock price volatility. Any litigation involving us may result in substantial costs, operationally restrict our business, and may divert management’s attention and resources, which may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face the risk of product liability claims that would be expensive, divert management’s attention and harm our reputation and business. We may not be able to maintain adequate product liability insurance.
Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in the testing, manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. This risk exists even if a device is cleared or approved for commercial sale by the FDA and manufactured in facilities licensed and regulated by the FDA or an applicable foreign regulatory authority. The Zephyr Valve is designed to affect, and any future products will be designed to affect, important bodily
30

functions and processes. Any side effects, manufacturing defects, misuse or abuse associated with the Zephyr Valve could result in patient injury or death. The medical device industry has historically been subject to extensive litigation over product liability claims, and we cannot offer any assurance that we will not face product liability suits. As discussed under “Business—Clinical Trials and Results,” there were procedure-related deaths in our LIBERATE Study and we may be subject to product liability claims if the Zephyr Valve causes, or merely appears to have caused, patient injury or death. In addition, an injury that is caused by the activities of our suppliers, such as those who provide us with components and raw materials, may be the basis for a claim against us. Product liability claims may be brought against us by patients, physicians, or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with the Zephyr Valve, among others. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we will incur substantial liabilities and reputational harm. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:
costs of litigation;
distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;
the inability to commercialize our solution or new products;
decreased demand for our products;
damage to our business reputation;
product recalls or withdrawals from the market;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants; or
loss of sales.
While we may attempt to manage our product liability exposure by proactively recalling or withdrawing from the market any defective products, any recall or market withdrawal of our products may delay the supply of those products to our customers and may impact our reputation. We can provide no assurance that we will be successful in initiating appropriate market recall or market withdrawal efforts that may be required in the future or that these efforts will have the intended effect of preventing product malfunctions and the accompanying product liability that may result. Such recalls and withdrawals may also be used by our competitors to harm our reputation for safety or be perceived by patients as a safety risk when considering the use of our solution, either of which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which leaves us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.
We do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Although we have product liability and clinical study liability insurance that we believe is appropriate, this insurance is subject to deductibles and coverage limitations. Our current product liability insurance may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all, and, if available, coverage may not be adequate to protect us against any future product liability claims. If we are unable to obtain insurance at an acceptable cost or on acceptable terms or otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, we could be exposed to significant liabilities. A product liability claim, recall or other claim with respect to uninsured liabilities or for amounts in excess of insured liabilities could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not carry specific hazardous waste insurance coverage, and our property, casualty and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our clinical trials or regulatory approvals could be suspended. Additionally, we do not carry cyber
31

insurance, which may expose us to certain potential losses for damages or result in penalization with fines in an amount exceeding our resources.
We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, on our board committees or as executive officers. We do not know, however, if we will be able to maintain existing insurance with adequate levels of coverage. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our indebtedness may limit our flexibility in operating our business and negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and competitive position.
In April 2020, we issued and sold the 2020 Notes in the aggregate principal amount of $33.0 million. We have the option to call up to an additional $33.0 million of 2020 Notes for a maximum aggregate amount of $66.0 million, subject to customary closing conditions, provided that any such call be for no less than $5.0 million on or prior to April 17, 2022. All unpaid interest and principal will be due and payable upon request of the majority of Lenders on or after the earlier of April 17, 2022 or an event of default. The 2020 Notes accrue interest at a rate equal to 2.0% above the Wall Street Journal Prime Rate. Upon the closing of this offering, the 2020 Notes, including accrued interest thereon, will automatically convert into a number of shares of common stock at a per share conversion price equal to the lesser of (i) 85% of the initial public offering price and (ii) $13.20 per share. Assuming a closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020 and an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), the aggregate outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest under the 2020 Notes will automatically convert into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering at a conversion price of $12.75 per share. In February 2020, we terminated and paid off in full all amounts outstanding under the Oxford Agreement. In February 2020, we executed a Loan and Security Agreement (the CIBC Agreement) with Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), which provided us with the ability to borrow up to $32.0 million in debt financing. As of June 30, 2020, we have borrowed $17.0 million under the CIBC Agreement. See the sections entitled "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations⸺Liquidity and Capital Resources; Plan of Operation⸺2020 Notes", “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations⸺Liquidity and Capital Resources; Plan of Operation⸺CIBC Term Loan" and the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
In order to service this indebtedness and any additional indebtedness we may incur in the future, we need to generate cash from our operating activities. Our ability to generate cash is subject, in part, to our ability to successfully execute our business strategy, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings or other financings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness and fund our other liquidity needs. To the extent we are required to use cash from operations or the proceeds of any future financing to service our indebtedness instead of funding working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate purposes, we will be less able to plan for, or react to, changes in our business, industry and in the economy generally. This will place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less indebtedness.
In addition, the CIBC Agreement contains, and any agreements evidencing or governing other future indebtedness may contain, certain covenants that limit our ability to engage in certain transactions that may be in our long-term best interests. Subject to certain limited exceptions, these covenants limit our ability to, among other things:
convey, sell, lease, transfer, assign, dispose of or otherwise make cash payments consisting of all or any part of our business or property;
effect certain changes in our business, management, ownership or business locations;
32

merge or consolidate with, or acquire all or substantially all of the capital stock or assets of, any other company;
create, incur, assume or be liable for any additional indebtedness, or create, incur, allow or permit to exist any additional liens;
pay cash dividends on, make any other distributions in respect of, or redeem, retire or repurchase, any shares of our capital stock;
make certain investments;
enter into transactions with our affiliates; and
under certain circumstances, settle pending or threatened litigation for greater amounts than are disclosed to CIBC in writing from time to time.
While we have not previously breached and are not currently in breach of these or any of the other covenants contained in the CIBC Agreement, there can be no guarantee that we will not breach these covenants in the future. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events and factors beyond our control. In the event that we breach one or more covenants, our lender may choose to declare an event of default and require that we immediately repay all amounts outstanding, terminate any commitment to extend further credit and foreclose on the collateral granted to it to collateralize such indebtedness. The occurrence of any of these events could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our industry is highly competitive, and we may not be able to compete successfully with larger companies, companies with longer operating histories or more established products, or companies with greater resources.
Our industry is subject to rapid change from the introduction of new products and technologies and other activities of industry participants. Our goal is to establish our solution as a standard of care for severe emphysema. Existing treatments include medical management, LVRS, lung transplantation as well as other minimally invasive treatments. The major competitive products include the Spiration Valve System (Olympus Corporation) and the InterVapor System (Broncus Medical, Inc.; not approved for use in the United States). The Spiration Valve System is an endobronchial technology designed to offer patients with severe emphysema a minimally invasive treatment option for lung volume reduction by redirecting air away from diseased areas of the lung to healthier tissue so that patients may breathe easier. Like Zephyr Valves, the Spiration Valve System is indicated to treat patients with heterogeneous emphysema; however, the Spiration Valve System is contraindicated for patients with homogeneous emphysema. The InterVapor System offers a non-surgical and non-implant therapy developed for lung disease including emphysema and lung cancer where vapor ablation is simply the application of heated pure water to tissue. These technologies, other products that are in current clinical trials, new drugs or additional indications for existing drugs could demonstrate better safety, effectiveness, clinical results, lower costs or greater physician and patient acceptance.
We compete, or may compete in the future, against other companies which have longer operating histories, more established products and greater resources, which may prevent us from achieving significant market penetration or improved operating results. These companies enjoy several competitive advantages, including established relationships with pulmonologists who commonly treat patients with emphysema, significantly greater name recognition and significantly greater sales and marketing resources.
In addition to existing competitors, other larger and more established companies may acquire or in-license competitive products and could directly compete with us. These competitors may also try to compete with us on price both directly, through rebates and promotional programs to high volume physicians and coupons to patients, and indirectly, through attractive product bundling with complementary products that offer convenience and an effectively lower price compared to the total price of purchasing each product separately. Larger competitors may also be able to offer greater customer loyalty benefits to encourage repeat use of their products and finance a
33

sustained global advertising campaign to compete with commercialization efforts of our products. Our competitors may seek to discredit our products by challenging our short operating history or relatively limited number of scientific studies and publications. Smaller companies could also launch new or enhanced products and services that we do not offer and that could gain market acceptance quickly. Additionally, certain of our competitors may challenge our intellectual property, may develop additional competing or superior technologies and processes and compete more aggressively and sustain that competition over a longer period of time than we could. Our technologies and products may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by technological advances or entirely different approaches developed by one or more of our competitors. As more companies develop new intellectual property in our market, there is the possibility of a competitor acquiring patents or other rights that may limit our ability to update our technologies and products which may impact demand for our products.
We have increased the size of our organization and expect to further increase it in the future. If we are unable to manage the anticipated growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected.
Any growth that we experience in the future will require us to expand our sales personnel and manufacturing operations and general and administrative infrastructure. As a public company, we will need to support managerial, operational, financial and other resources. In addition to the need to scale our organization, future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on management, including the need to identify, recruit, train and integrate additional employees. Rapid expansion in personnel could mean that less experienced people manufacture, market and sell our solution, which could result in inefficiencies and unanticipated costs, reduced quality and disruptions to our operations. In addition, rapid and significant growth may strain our administrative and operational infrastructure. Our ability to manage our business and growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, it may be difficult for us to execute our business strategy and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As demand for our solution or any of our future products increases, we will need to continue to scale our capacity, expand customer service, billing and systems processes and enhance our internal quality assurance program. We cannot assure you that any increases in scale, related improvements and quality assurance will be successfully implemented or that appropriate personnel will be available to facilitate the growth of our business. Failure to implement necessary procedures, transition to new processes or hire the necessary personnel could result in higher costs of processing data or inability to meet increased demand. If we encounter difficulty meeting market demand, quality standards or physician expectations, our reputation will be harmed and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to continue to incur net losses for the next several years and we expect to require substantial additional capital beyond the proceeds of this offering to finance our planned operations, which may include future equity and debt financings. This additional capital may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain additional financing when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, could force us to delay, limit, reduce or eliminate our commercialization, sales and marketing efforts, product development programs or other operations.
Since inception, we have incurred significant net losses and expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. Since our inception, our operations have been financed primarily through private placements of equity securities, debt financing arrangements and sales of our products. As of June 30, 2020, we had $43.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, and an accumulated deficit of $229.6 million. Based on our current planned operations, we expect our cash and cash equivalents, together with available borrowings under the CIBC Agreement and the proceeds from this offering, will enable us to fund our operating expenses for at least the next twelve months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we currently expect.
We expect to continue to make substantial investments in clinical trials that are designed to provide clinical evidence of the safety and efficacy of our solution. We intend to continue to make significant investments in our sales and marketing organization by increasing the number of U.S. sales territory managers and expanding our international
34

sales and marketing programs to help promote awareness and increase adoption of our solution primarily among the approximately 800 pulmonologists performing interventional pulmonary procedures across approximately 500 high volume hospitals. In order to continue to grow our business, we will need to hire additional sales personnel to efficiently serve the market. We also expect to continue to make investments in research and development, regulatory affairs and clinical studies to develop future generations of our solution, broaden the addressable market and expand indications, support regulatory submissions and demonstrate the clinical efficacy of our solution. Moreover, we expect to incur additional expenses associated with operating as a public company, including legal, accounting, insurance, exchange listing and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) compliance, investor relations and other expenses. Because of these and other factors, we expect to continue to incur substantial net losses and negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the cost, timing and results of our clinical trials and regulatory reviews;
the cost and timing of establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
the terms and timing of any other collaborative, licensing and other arrangements that we may establish;
the timing, receipt and amount of sales from our current solution and potential future products;
the degree of success we experience in continuing to commercialize our solution;
the emergence of competing or complementary technologies;
the cost of preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights; and
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies, although we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.
We will require additional financing to fund working capital and pay our obligations. We may seek to raise any necessary additional capital through a combination of public or private equity offerings or debt financings. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in acquiring additional funding at levels sufficient to fund our operations or on terms favorable to us. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms when needed, we may be required to significantly reduce operating expenses, which may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we do raise additional capital through public or private equity or convertible debt offerings, the ownership interest of our existing stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect our stockholders’ rights. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. Additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all.
If the quality of our solution does not meet the expectations of physicians or patients, then our business and reputation may be harmed.
In the course of conducting our business, we must adequately address quality issues that may arise with our solution, including defects in third-party components included in our solution. Although we have established internal procedures designed to minimize risks that may arise from quality issues, there can be no assurance that we will be able to eliminate or mitigate occurrences of these issues and associated liabilities. In addition, even in the absence of quality issues, we may be subject to claims and liability if the performance of the Zephyr Valves does not live up to the expectations of physicians or patients as a result of the physician’s implantation of the valve. For example, a physician may improperly implant the Zephyr Valve. If the quality of our solution does not meet the expectations of
35

physicians or patients, then our business and reputation with those physicians or patients may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our facilities become damaged or inoperable, we will be unable to continue to research, develop and supply our solution which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations until we are able to secure a new facility and rebuild our inventory.
We do not have redundant facilities. We perform substantially all of our manufacturing, research and development and back office activity in a single location at our headquarters in Redwood City, California. We store our finished goods inventory at our headquarters and secondary facilities in Redwood City, California. Our facilities, equipment and inventory would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead time to repair or replace. The facilities will be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including, but not limited to, earthquakes, flooding, fire and power outages, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to perform our research, development and commercialization activities for some period of time. The inability to perform those activities, combined with the time it may take to rebuild our manufacturing capabilities, inventory of finished product, may result in the loss of customers or harm to our reputation. Although we possess insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and this insurance may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
Performance issues, service interruptions or price increases by our shipping carriers could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and harm our reputation and the relationship between us and the hospitals with which we work.
Expedited, reliable shipping is essential to our operations. We rely heavily on providers of transport services for reliable and secure point-to-point transport of the Zephyr Valve and Chartis System to our customers and for tracking of these shipments. Should a carrier encounter delivery performance issues such as loss, damage or destruction of any systems, it would be costly to replace such systems in a timely manner and such occurrences may damage our reputation and lead to decreased demand for our solution and increased cost and expense to our business. In addition, any significant increase in shipping rates could adversely affect our operating margins and results of operations. Similarly, strikes, severe weather, natural disasters or other service interruptions affecting delivery services we use would adversely affect our ability to process orders for the Zephyr Valve on a timely basis.
We depend on our senior management team and the loss of one or more key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends in part on our continued ability to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified management, clinical and other personnel. We are highly dependent upon our management team, particularly our Chief Executive Officer, and the rest of our senior management, and other key personnel. Although we have entered into employment letter agreements with all of our executive officers, each of them may terminate their employment with us at any time. The replacement of any of our key personnel likely would involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and could therefore negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we do not carry any key person insurance policies that could offset potential loss of service under applicable circumstances.
In addition, our research and development programs and clinical operations depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled engineers and medical researchers. We may not be able to attract or retain qualified engineers and medical researchers in the future due to the competition for qualified personnel. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than us. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources and, potentially, damages.
36

In addition, job candidates and existing employees, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area, often consider the value of the stock awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our stock awards declines, it may harm our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. Many of our employees have become or will soon become vested in a substantial amount of our common stock or a number of common stock options. Our employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares they own have significantly appreciated in value relative to the original purchase prices of the shares, or if the exercise prices of the options that they hold are significantly below the market price of our common stock, particularly after the expiration of the lock-up agreements described herein. Our future success also depends on our ability to continue to attract and retain additional executive officers and other key employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have significant international operations, and to successfully market and sell our products in such international markets we must address international business risks with which we have limited experience.
Sales in markets outside of the United States accounted for approximately 67.2% and 51.4% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. We currently focus our international sales and marketing efforts in Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. International sales are subject to a number of risks, including:
difficulties in staffing and managing our international operations;
increased competition as a result of more products and procedures receiving regulatory approval or otherwise free to market in international markets;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
export restrictions, trade regulations and foreign tax laws;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
foreign certification and regulatory clearance or approval requirements;
difficulties in developing effective marketing campaigns in unfamiliar foreign countries;
customs clearance and shipping delays;
political, social, and economic instability abroad, global health epidemics or other contagious diseases (including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic), terrorist attacks and security concerns in general;
preference for locally produced products;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value-added tax systems, tax inefficiencies related to our corporate structure, and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
differing payment and reimbursement regimes;
the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and different legal standards; and
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities.
37

For example, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly decreased and may continue to have a negative impact on the sale of our products and the number of patients treated with our solution. The outbreak has also resulted in disruptions or restrictions on physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers from treating patients that are eligible for our products due to the uncertain health effects of the coronavirus on the respiratory system and resources that are diverted to prioritize treatment and containment of the coronavirus outbreak. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in business closures and disruptions that may continue to affect various suppliers of ancillary products used in the delivery of our product (e.g. gowns, face masks or gloves), including disruptions and restrictions on transportation of our products and could result in significant delays. In addition, a significant outbreak of coronavirus and other contagious diseases could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets worldwide, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products and impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If one or more of these risks are realized, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our history of recurring losses and anticipated expenditures raise substantial doubts about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern requires that we obtain sufficient funding to finance our operations.
We have incurred operating losses to date and it is possible we will never generate profit. We have concluded that substantial doubt exists regarding our ability to continue as a going concern. Our audited financial statements appearing at the end of this prospectus have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. These financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties related to our ability to operate on a going concern basis.
The report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 includes an explanatory paragraph indicating that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital when needed, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected, and we will need to significantly modify our operational plans to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to continue as a going concern, we might have to liquidate our assets and the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements. The inclusion of a going concern explanatory paragraph by our auditors, our lack of cash resources and our potential inability to continue as a going concern may materially adversely affect our share price and our ability to raise new capital or to enter into critical contractual relations with third parties due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations.
Security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or the physicians who use our solution and the patients they treat, or prevent us from assessing critical information and expose us to liability, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our reputation.
In the ordinary course of our business, we may become exposed to, or collect and store sensitive data, including procedure-based information and legally PHI, credit card, and other financial information, insurance information, and other potentially personally identifiable information. For example, we may fail to remove all PHI from CT scan data on the StratX Platform. We also store sensitive intellectual property and other proprietary business information. Although we are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable data security and privacy-related laws and regulations and we take measures to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or disclosure, our information technology (IT) and infrastructure, and other technology partners and providers, may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks by hackers or viruses or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. We rely extensively on IT systems, networks and services, including internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and tools, physical security systems and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, some of which are managed, hosted, provided or used
38

by third-parties or their vendors, to assist in conducting our business. A significant breakdown, invasion, corruption, destruction or interruption of critical information technology systems or infrastructure, by our workforce, others with authorized access to our systems or unauthorized persons could negatively impact operations. The use of cloud-based computing creates opportunities for the unintentional dissemination or intentional destruction of confidential information stored in our or our third-party providers’ systems, portable media or storage devices. For example, companies have recently experienced an increase in phishing and social engineering attacks from third-parties. We could also experience a business interruption, theft of confidential information or reputational damage from industrial espionage attacks, malware or other cyber-attacks, which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to data leakage, either internally or at our third-party providers and we do not carry cyber insurance, which may expose us to certain potential losses for damages or result in penalization with fines in an amount exceeding our resources. Although the aggregate impact on our operations and financial condition has not been material to date, we have occasionally been the target of events of this nature and expect them to continue as cybersecurity threats have been rapidly evolving in sophistication and becoming more prevalent in the industry. We are investing in protections and monitoring practices of our data and IT to reduce these risks and continue to monitor our systems on an ongoing basis for any current or potential threats. We cannot assure you, however, that our efforts will prevent breakdowns or breaches to our or our third-party providers’ databases or systems, and such breakdowns and breaches could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our reputation.
We may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third parties that may not result in the development of commercially viable products, product improvements or the generation of significant future revenues.
In the ordinary course of our business, we may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances, partnerships or other arrangements to develop new products or product improvements and to pursue new markets. Proposing, negotiating and implementing collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships may be a lengthy and complex process. Other companies, including those with substantially greater financial, marketing, sales, technology or other business resources, may compete with us for these opportunities or arrangements. We may not identify, secure, or complete any such transactions or arrangements in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, on acceptable terms or at all. We have limited institutional knowledge and experience with respect to these business development activities, and we may also not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction or arrangement. In particular, these collaborations may not result in the development of products that achieve commercial success or viable product improvements or result in significant revenues and could be terminated prior to developing any products.
Additionally, we may not be in a position to exercise sole decision making authority regarding the transaction or arrangement, which could create the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, and our future collaborators may have economic or business interests or goals that are, or that may become, inconsistent with our business interests or goals. It is possible that conflicts may arise with our collaborators, such as conflicts concerning the achievement of performance milestones, or the interpretation of significant terms under any agreement, such as those related to financial obligations or the ownership or control of intellectual property developed during the collaboration. If any conflicts arise with any future collaborators, they may act in their self-interest, which may be adverse to our best interest, and they may breach their obligations to us. In addition, we may have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that any future collaborators devote to our or their future products.
Disputes between us and our collaborators may result in litigation or arbitration which would increase our expenses and divert the attention of our management. Further, these transactions and arrangements will be contractual in nature and will generally be terminable under the terms of the applicable agreements and, in such event, we may not continue to have rights to the products relating to such transaction or arrangement or may need to purchase such rights at a premium. If we enter into in-bound intellectual property license agreements, we may not be able to fully protect the licensed intellectual property rights or maintain those licenses. Future licensors could retain the right to prosecute and defend the intellectual property rights licensed to us, in which case we would depend on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection for the licensed intellectual property. These licensors may determine not to pursue litigation against other companies or may pursue such litigation less aggressively than we would. Further, entering into such license agreements could impose various diligence,
39

commercialization, royalty or other obligations on us. Future licensors may allege that we have breached our license agreement with them, and accordingly seek to terminate our license, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects.
Unfavorable global economic conditions could negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, such as the global financial crisis of 2008, could result in a variety of risks to our business, including weakened demand for our solution, and our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. A weak or declining economy, including due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, could also strain our suppliers, possibly resulting in supply disruption, or cause our customers to delay making payments for our services. Any of the foregoing will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and we cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the economic climate and financial market conditions could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders and otherwise negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our current business, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. Accordingly, although we have no current commitments with respect to any acquisition or investment, we may in the future pursue the acquisition of, or joint ventures relating to, complementary businesses, applications or technologies instead of developing them ourselves. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various costs and expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. We may not be able to identify desirable acquisition targets or be successful in entering into an agreement with any particular target or obtain the expected benefits of any acquisition or investment.
We may not be able to successfully integrate acquired personnel, operations and technologies, or effectively manage the combined business following an acquisition. Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities, the use of our available cash, or the incurrence of debt, which will harm our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Consolidation in the healthcare industry or group purchasing organizations could lead to demands for price concessions, which may affect our ability to sell our products at prices necessary to support our current business strategies.
The commercial payor industry is undergoing significant consolidation. When payors combine their operations, the combined company may elect to reimburse our products at the lowest rate paid by any of the participants in the consolidation or use its increased size to negotiate reduced rates. If one of the payors participating in the consolidation does not reimburse for the Zephyr Valve and our solution at all, the combined company may elect not to reimburse for the same, which would adversely impact our operating results.
Our long-term growth depends on our ability to enhance our solution, expand our indications and develop and commercialize additional products. If we fail to identify, acquire and develop other products, we may be unable to grow our business.
It is important to our business that we continue to enhance the Zephyr Valve, Chartis System and StratX Platform and develop and introduce new products. Developing products is expensive and time-consuming and could divert
40

management’s attention away from our core business. The success of any new product offering or product enhancements to our solution will depend on several factors, including our ability to:
assemble sufficient resources to acquire or discover additional products;
properly identify and anticipate physician and patient needs;
develop and introduce new products and product enhancements in a timely manner;
avoid infringing upon the intellectual property rights of third parties;
demonstrate, if required, the safety and efficacy of new products with data from pre-clinical studies and clinical trials;
obtain the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals for expanded indications, new products or product modifications;
be fully FDA-compliant with marketing of new devices or modified products;
produce new products in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost;
provide adequate training to potential users of our products;
receive adequate coverage and reimbursement for procedures performed with our products; and
develop an effective and dedicated sales and marketing team.
If we are not successful in expanding our indications and developing and commercializing new products and product enhancements, our ability to increase our revenue may be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we may choose to focus our efforts and resources on a potential products or indication that ultimately prove to be unsuccessful, or to license or purchase a marketed product that does not meet our financial expectations. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities, be required to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other potential products or other diseases that may later prove to have greater commercial potential, or relinquish valuable rights to such potential products through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and products and product candidates that we identify for specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other products or product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to timely capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and products and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product or product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product or product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate.
41

We are subject to anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, as well as export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As we grow our international presence and global operations, we will be increasingly exposed to trade and economic sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the United States, the European Union and other governments and organizations. The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), and other federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). In addition, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 (Bribery Act) prohibits both domestic and international bribery, as well as bribery across both private and public sectors. An organization that fails to prevent bribery by anyone associated with the organization can be charged under the Bribery Act unless the organization can establish the defense of having implemented adequate procedures to prevent bribery. Under these laws and regulations, as well as other anti-corruption laws, anti-money laundering laws, export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations, various government agencies may require export licenses, may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries or with sanctioned persons or entities and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of these laws or regulations would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are in the process of enhancing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants and agents with the FCPA, OFAC restrictions, the Bribery Act and other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money-laundering and anti-terrorism laws and regulations. We cannot assure you, however, that our policies and procedures are or will be sufficient or that directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants and agents have not engaged and will not engage in conduct for which we may be held responsible, nor can we assure you that our business partners have not engaged and will not engage in conduct that could materially affect their ability to perform their contractual obligations to us or even result in our being held liable for such conduct. Violations of the FCPA, OFAC restrictions, the Bribery Act or other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism laws or regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results may be impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
A significant proportion of our sales are outside of the United States, and a majority of those are denominated in foreign currencies, which exposes us to foreign currency risks, including changes in currency exchange rates. We do not currently engage in any hedging transactions. If we are unable to address these risks and challenges effectively, our international operations may not be successful, and our business could be harmed.
Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and research and development credit may be limited.
In general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code) a corporation that undergoes an ownership change, generally defined as a greater than 50% change by value in its equity ownership over a three-year period, is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses (NOLs) and its research and development credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income. Our existing NOLs and research and development credit carryforwards may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we undergo an ownership change, our ability to utilize NOLs and research and development credit carryforwards could be further limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. In addition, our ability to deduct net interest expense may be limited if we have insufficient taxable income for the year during which the interest is incurred, and any carryovers of such disallowed interest would be subject to the limitation rules similar to those applicable to NOLs and other attributes. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which might be beyond our
42

control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. For these reasons, in the event we experience a change of control, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs, research and development credit carryforwards or disallowed interest expense carryovers, even if we attain profitability.
We may not be able to achieve or maintain satisfactory pricing and margins for our products.
Manufacturers of medical devices have a history of price competition, and we can give no assurance that we will be able to achieve satisfactory prices for our solution or maintain prices at the levels we have historically achieved. Any decline in the amount that payers reimburse our customers for the Zephyr Valve and related products could make it difficult for customers to continue using, or to adopt, our solution and could create additional pricing pressure for us. If we are forced to lower the price we charge for our solution, our gross margins will decrease, which will adversely affect our ability to invest in and grow our business. If we are unable to maintain our prices, or if our costs increase and we are unable to offset such increase with an increase in our prices, our margins could erode. We will continue to be subject to significant pricing pressure, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Governmental export or import controls could limit our ability to compete in foreign markets and subject us to liability if we violate them.
Our products may be subject to U.S. export controls. Governmental regulation of the import or export of our products, or our failure to obtain any required import or export authorization for our products, when applicable, will harm our international sales and adversely affect our revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of our products may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export of our products to some countries altogether. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. If we fail to comply with export and import regulations and such economic sanctions, we may be fined or other penalties could be imposed, including a denial of certain export privileges. Moreover, any new export or import restrictions, new legislation or shifting approaches in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or in the countries, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export our products to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell access to our products would likely negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Government Regulation and Our Industry
Our products and operations are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad. If we fail to obtain and maintain necessary regulatory approvals for the Zephyr Valve and related products, or if approvals for future products and indications are delayed or not issued, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Zephyr Valve is subject to extensive regulation by the FDA in the United States and by our Notified Body in the European Union. Government regulations specific to medical devices are wide ranging and govern, among other things:
product design, development, manufacture, and release;
laboratory, pre-clinical and clinical testing, labeling, packaging, storage and distribution;
product safety and efficacy;
premarketing clearance or approval;
service operations;
43

record keeping;
product marketing, promotion and advertising, sales and distribution;
post-marketing surveillance, including reporting of deaths or serious injuries and recalls and correction and removals;
post-market approval studies; and
product import and export.
Before a new medical device or service, or a new intended use for an existing product or service, can be marketed in the United States, a company must first submit and receive either 510(k) clearance or PMA from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. In the 510(k) clearance process, before a device may be marketed, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is substantially equivalent to a legally-marketed predicate device, which includes a device that has been previously cleared through the 510(k) process, a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 (pre-amendments device), a device that was originally on the U.S. market pursuant to an approved PMA and later down-classified, or a 510(k)-exempt device. To be substantially equivalent, the proposed device must have the same intended use as the predicate device, and either have the same technological characteristics as the predicate device or have different technological characteristics and not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness than the predicate device. Clinical data are sometimes required to support substantial equivalence.
In the process of obtaining PMA approval, which was required for the Zephyr Valve, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is safe and effective for its intended use based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, pre-clinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. The PMA process is typically required for devices that are deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices.
Either the 510(k) or PMA process can be expensive, lengthy and unpredictable. We may not be able to obtain any necessary clearances or approval or may be unduly delayed in doing so, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, even if we are granted regulatory clearances or approvals, they may include significant limitations on the indicated uses for the product, which may limit the market for the product. Although we have obtained PMA approval to market the Zephyr Valve, our approval can be revoked if safety or efficacy problems develop.
The FDA can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a device for many reasons, including:
our inability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or the applicable regulatory entity or notified body that our products are safe or effective for their intended uses;
the disagreement of the FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory body with the design or implementation of our clinical trials or the interpretation of data from pre-clinical studies or clinical trials;
serious and unexpected adverse device effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials;
the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be insufficient to support clearance or approval, where required;
our inability to demonstrate that the clinical and other benefits of the device outweigh the risks;
the manufacturing process or facilities we use may not meet applicable requirements; and
the potential for approval policies or regulations of the FDA or applicable foreign regulatory bodies to change significantly in a manner rendering our clinical data or regulatory filings insufficient for clearance or approval.
44

In order to sell our products in member countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), our products must comply with the essential requirements of the European Union Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC) (MDD) and the Active Implantable Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 90/385/EEC). Compliance with these requirements is a prerequisite to be able to affix the Conformité Européene (CE) mark to our products, without which they cannot be sold or marketed in the EEA. To demonstrate compliance with the essential requirements we must undergo a conformity assessment procedure, which varies according to the type of medical device and its classification. Except for low-risk medical devices (Class I non-sterile, non-measuring devices), where the manufacturer can issue an European Commission Declaration of Conformity based on a self-assessment of the conformity of its products with the essential requirements of the MDD, a conformity assessment procedure requires the intervention by a Notified Body. Depending on the relevant conformity assessment procedure, the Notified Body would typically audit and examine the technical file and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of our devices. The Notified Body issues a certificate of conformity following successful completion of a conformity assessment procedure conducted in relation to the medical device and its manufacturer and their conformity with the essential requirements. This certificate entitles the manufacturer to affix the CE mark to its medical devices after having prepared and signed a related EC Declaration of Conformity. If we fail to remain in compliance with applicable European laws and directives, we would be unable to continue to affix the CE mark to our products, which would prevent us from selling them within the EEA.
The FDA and state and international authorities have broad enforcement powers. Our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could result in enforcement action by any such agency, which may include any of the following sanctions:
adverse publicity, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;
repair, replacement, refunds, recall or seizure of our products;
operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production;
denial of our requests for regulatory clearance or premarket approval of new products or services, new intended uses or modifications to existing products or services;
withdrawal of regulatory clearance or premarket approvals that have already been granted; or
criminal prosecution.
If any of these events were to occur, it will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the regulatory environment may constrain or require us to restructure our operations, which may harm our revenue and operating results.
Healthcare laws and regulations change frequently and may change significantly in the future. We may not be able to adapt our operations to address every new regulation, and new regulations may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure you that a review of our business by courts or regulatory authorities would not result in a determination that adversely affects our revenue and operating results, or that the healthcare regulatory environment will not change in a way that restricts our operations. In addition, there is risk that the U.S. Congress may implement changes in laws and regulations governing healthcare service providers, including measures to control costs, or reductions in reimbursement levels, which may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The federal government is considering ways to change, and has changed, the manner in which healthcare services are paid for in the United States. CMS establishes Medicare payment levels for hospitals and physicians on an annual basis, which can increase or decrease payment to such entities. CMS, as well as insurers, have increased their efforts to control the cost, utilization and delivery of healthcare services. From time to time, the U.S. Congress has
45

considered and implemented changes in the CMS fee schedules in conjunction with budgetary legislation. Further reductions of reimbursement by CMS for services or changes in policy regarding coverage of tests or other services provided or other requirements for payment, such as prior authorization or a physician’s or qualified practitioner’s signature on test/service requisitions, may be implemented from time to time. Individual states may also enact legislation that impacts Medicaid payments to hospitals and physicians. Reductions in the reimbursement rates and changes in payment policies of other third-party payors may occur as well. Similar changes in the past have resulted in reduced payments as well as added costs and have added more complex regulatory and administrative requirements. Further changes in federal, state, local and third-party payor regulations or policies may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Actions by agencies regulating insurance or changes in other laws, regulations, or policies may also negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
On April 5, 2017, the European Parliament passed the Medical Devices Regulation (Regulation 2017/745), which repeals and replaces the MDD and the Active Implantable Medical Devices Directive. Unlike directives, which must be implemented into the national laws of the EEA member states, the regulations would be directly applicable, i.e., without the need for adoption of EEA member state laws implementing them, in all EEA member states and are intended to eliminate current differences in the regulation of medical devices among EEA member States. The Medical Devices Regulation, among other things, is intended to establish a uniform, transparent, predictable and sustainable regulatory framework across the EEA for medical devices and ensure a high level of safety and health while supporting innovation.
The Medical Devices Regulation will become applicable in 2021. Once applicable, the new regulations will among other things:
strengthen the rules on placing devices on the market and reinforce surveillance once they are available;
establish explicit provisions on manufacturers’ responsibilities for the follow-up of the quality, performance and safety of devices placed on the market;
improve the traceability of medical devices throughout the supply chain to the end-user or patient through a unique identification number;
set up a central database to provide patients, healthcare professionals and the public with comprehensive information on products available in the European Union; and
strengthen rules for the assessment of certain high-risk devices, such as implants, which may have to undergo an additional check by experts before they are placed on the market.
These modifications may have an effect on the way we conduct our business in the EEA.
Changes in funding for, or disruptions caused by global health concerns impacting, the FDA and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new products and services from being developed, cleared or approved or commercialized in a timely manner, which could negatively impact our business.
The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, statutory, regulatory, and policy changes and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.
Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new devices to be reviewed and/or approved or cleared by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example,
46

over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA employees and stop critical activities. Separately, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, on March 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to postpone inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities and products, and subsequently, on March 18, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to temporarily postpone routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities. Other regulatory authorities may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting business as usual or conducting inspections, reviews or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
A recall of our products, either voluntarily or at the direction of the FDA or another governmental authority, or the discovery of serious safety issues with our products that leads to corrective actions, could have a significant adverse impact on us.
The FDA and similar foreign governmental authorities have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture of a product or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. The FDA’s authority to require a recall must be based on an FDA finding that there is reasonable probability that the device would cause serious injury or death. Manufacturers may also, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found or withdraw a product to improve device performance or for other reasons. The FDA requires that certain classifications of recalls be reported to the FDA within ten working days after the recall is initiated. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, malfunctions, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Similar regulatory agencies in other countries have similar authority to recall devices because of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture that could endanger health. Any recall would divert management attention and financial resources and could cause the price of our stock to decline, expose us to product liability or other claims and harm our reputation with customers. A future recall announcement will harm our reputation with customers and negatively affect our sales. In addition, the FDA or a foreign governmental authority could take enforcement action for failing to report the recalls when they were conducted.
In addition, under the FDA’s medical device reporting regulations (MDRs), we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our product may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury. Repeated product malfunctions may result in a voluntary or involuntary product recall. We are also required to follow detailed recordkeeping requirements for all firm-initiated medical device corrections and removals, and to report such corrective and removal actions to FDA if they are carried out in response to a risk to health and have not otherwise been reported under the MDRs. Depending on the corrective action we take to redress a product’s deficiencies or defects, the FDA may require, or we may decide, that we will need to obtain new approvals or clearances for the device before we may market or distribute the corrected device. Seeking such approvals or clearances may delay our ability to replace the recalled devices in a timely manner. Moreover, if we do not adequately address problems associated with our devices, we may face additional regulatory enforcement action, including FDA warning letters, product seizure, injunctions, administrative penalties, or civil or criminal fines. We may also be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our sales as well as face significant adverse publicity or regulatory consequences, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including our ability to market our products in the future.
Any adverse event involving our products, whether in the United States or abroad, could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as defending ourselves in
47

a lawsuit, will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business and may harm our reputation and financial results.
We are subject to certain federal, state and foreign fraud and abuse laws, health information privacy and security laws and transparency laws, which, if violated, could subject us to substantial penalties and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The products and services we offer are highly regulated, and there can be no assurance that the regulatory environment in which we operate will not change significantly and adversely in the future. Our arrangements with physicians, hospitals and clinics may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other laws and regulations that may restrict the financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute our products and services. Federal and state healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to conduct business, include, without limitation:
federal and state laws and regulations regarding billing and claims payment applicable to our solution and regulatory agencies enforcing those laws and regulations;
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, any person from knowingly and willfully offering, soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal false claims laws, including the False Claims Act, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false claims, or knowingly using false statements, to obtain payment from the federal government;
federal criminal laws that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act (Open Payments), created under the Patient Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the Affordable Care Act) and its implementing regulations, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, biologicals and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to CMS, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to licensed physicians and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;
the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), and its implementing regulations, which impose certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on covered entities, including certain healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses, and their respective business associates that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity; HIPAA also created criminal liability for knowingly and willfully falsifying or concealing a material fact or making a materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;
the Federal Drug & Cosmetic Act (FDCA), which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices;
48

the federal physician self-referral prohibition, commonly known as the Stark Law;
state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and
similar healthcare laws and regulations in the European Union and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers and laws governing the privacy and security of certain protected information, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which imposes obligations and restrictions on the collection and use of personal data relating to individuals located in the European Union (including health data).
The Affordable Care Act was enacted in 2010. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, amended the intent requirement of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and criminal healthcare fraud statutes, including those created under HIPAA. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it. In addition, the Affordable Care Act provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act.
To enforce compliance with the healthcare regulatory laws, certain enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Responding to investigations can be time and resource-consuming and can divert management’s attention from the business. Additionally, as a result of these investigations, healthcare providers and entities may have to agree to additional compliance and reporting requirements as part of a consent decree or corporate integrity agreement. Any such investigation or settlement could increase our costs or otherwise negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even an unsuccessful challenge or investigation into our practices could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to.
Although we have adopted policies and procedures designed to comply with these laws and regulations and conduct internal reviews of our compliance with these laws, our activities, including those relating to the reporting of discount and rebate information and other information affecting federal, state and third-party reimbursement of our products (such as our patient reimbursement support program) and the sale and marketing of our products, may be subject to scrutiny by under these laws. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors, it is possible that some of our activities could be subject to challenge under one or more such laws. The growth of our business and sales organization and our expansion outside of the United States may increase the potential of violating these laws or our internal policies and procedures. Any action brought against us for violation of these or other laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal, state and foreign laws described above or any other current or future fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including significant criminal, civil, and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment for individuals, exclusion from participation in government programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, imprisonment, contractual damages, reputation harm and disgorgement and we could be required to curtail or cease our operations. Any of the foregoing consequences will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we modify the Zephyr Valve, we may need to seek additional clearances or approvals, which, if not granted, would prevent us from selling our modified products.
In the United States, the Zephyr Valve is marketed pursuant to a PMA order issued by the FDA. Any modifications to a PMA-approved device that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, including significant design and
49

manufacturing changes, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, manufacture, design, components, or technology requires approval of a new PMA application or PMA supplement. However, certain changes to a PMA-approved device do not require submission and approval of a new PMA or PMA supplement and may only require notice to FDA in a PMA 30-Day Notice, Special PMA Supplement - Changes Being Effected or PMA Annual Report. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer’s decision. The FDA may not agree with our decisions regarding whether new approvals are necessary. If the FDA disagrees with our determination and requires us to seek new PMA approvals for modifications to our previously approved products for which we have concluded that new approvals are unnecessary, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified product until we obtain clearance or approval, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties. Furthermore, our products could be subject to recall if the FDA determines, for any reason, that our products are not safe or effective or that appropriate regulatory submissions were not made. Delays in receipt or failure to receive approvals, the loss of previously received approvals, or the failure to comply with any other existing or future regulatory requirements, could reduce our sales, profitability and future growth prospects.
Failure to comply with post-marketing regulatory requirements could subject us to enforcement actions, including substantial penalties, and might require us to recall or withdraw a product from the market.
Even though we have obtained approval for the Zephyr Valve, we are subject to ongoing and pervasive regulatory requirements governing, among other things, the manufacture, marketing, advertising, medical device reporting, sale, promotion, registration, and listing of devices. For example, we must submit periodic reports to the FDA as a condition of PMA approval. These reports include safety and effectiveness information about the device after its approval. Failure to submit such reports, or failure to submit the reports in a timely manner, could result in enforcement action by the FDA. Following its review of the periodic reports, the FDA might ask for additional information or initiate further investigation.
In addition, the PMA approval for the Zephyr Valve was subject to several conditions of approval, including extended follow-up of the pre-market study cohort and post market study. Though we believe we have complied with these conditions to date, any failure to comply with the conditions of approval could result in the withdrawal of PMA approval and the inability to continue to market the device. Failure to conduct the required studies in accordance with Institutional Review Board (IRB) and informed consent requirements, or adverse findings in these studies, could also be grounds for withdrawal of approval of the PMA.
The regulations to which we are subject are complex and have become more stringent over time. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on our ability to continue or expand our operations, higher than anticipated costs, or lower than anticipated sales. Even after we have obtained the proper regulatory approval to market a device, we have ongoing responsibilities under FDA regulations and applicable foreign laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA, state or foreign regulatory authorities, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If treatment guidelines for severe emphysema or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign and seek new marketing authorization from the FDA for one or more of our products.
If treatment guidelines for severe emphysema changes or the standard of care for this condition evolves, we may need to redesign the applicable product and seek new approvals from the FDA. Our PMA approvals from the FDA are based on current treatment guidelines. If treatment guidelines change so that different treatments become desirable, the clinical utility of one or more of our products could be diminished and will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we or our suppliers fail to comply with the FDA’s QSR or the European Union Medical Devices Directive, our manufacturing or distribution operations could be delayed or shut down and our revenue could suffer.
Our manufacturing and design processes and those of our third-party suppliers are required to comply with the FDA’s QSR and the European Union Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC) (MDD), both of
50

which cover procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, storage and shipping of Zephyr Valves. We are also subject to similar state requirements and licenses, and to ongoing International Organization for Standardization (ISO) compliance in all operations, including design, manufacturing, and service, to maintain our CE Mark. In addition, we must engage in extensive recordkeeping and reporting and must make available our facilities and records for periodic unannounced inspections by governmental agencies, including the FDA, state authorities, European Union Notified Bodies and comparable agencies in other countries. If we fail a regulatory inspection, our operations could be disrupted and our manufacturing interrupted. Failure to take adequate corrective action in response to an adverse regulatory inspection could result in, among other things, a shutdown of our manufacturing or product distribution operations, significant fines, suspension of marketing clearances and approvals, seizures or recalls of our device, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, our key component suppliers may not currently be or may not continue to be in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, which may result in manufacturing delays for our product and cause our revenue to decline.
We are registered with the FDA as a manufacturer. The FDA has broad post-market and regulatory enforcement powers. We are subject to unannounced inspections by the FDA and the Food and Drug Branch of the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) to determine our compliance with the QSR and other regulations at our manufacturing facility, and these inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of our suppliers. Our design facilities in Redwood City, California were most recently audited by the FDA in November 2016 and no observations resulting in a warning letter were identified. We believe that we are in compliance, in all material respects, with the QSR.
We also maintain a certificate of registration for the design, manufacture, service, and distribution of our product from British Standards Institution (BSI) in the Netherlands, our European Notified Body. Most recently, BSI completed an ISO 13485 surveillance audit of our design, manufacturing and service operations in April 2020 and we believe that we are in compliance, in all material respects, with the MDD.
We can provide no assurance that we will continue to remain in compliance with the QSR or MDD. If the FDA, CDPH or BSI inspect any of our facilities and discover compliance problems, we may have to cease manufacturing and product distribution until we can take the appropriate remedial steps to correct the audit findings. Taking corrective action may be expensive, time consuming and a distraction for management and if we experience a delay at our manufacturing facility, we may be unable to produce our solutions, which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The misuse or off-label use of our solution will harm our image in the marketplace, result in injuries that lead to product liability suits or result in costly investigations and sanctions by regulatory bodies if we are deemed to have engaged in the promotion of these uses, any of which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our solution has been approved by the FDA for specific indications. We train our marketing and direct sales force to not promote our products for uses outside of the FDA-approved indications for use, known as “off-label” uses. We cannot, however, prevent a physician from using our products off-label, when in the physician’s independent professional medical judgment, he or she deems it appropriate. There may be increased risk of injury to patients if physicians attempt to use our products off-label. Furthermore, the use of our products for indications other than those approved by the FDA or any foreign regulatory body may not effectively treat such conditions, which will harm our reputation in the marketplace among physicians and patients.
Physicians may also misuse our products or use improper techniques if they are not adequately trained, potentially leading to injury and an increased risk of product liability. If our products are misused or used with improper technique, we may become subject to costly litigation by our customers or their patients. Product liability claims could divert management’s attention from our core business, be expensive to defend, and result in sizable damage awards against us that may not be covered by insurance. In addition, if the FDA or any foreign regulatory body determines that our promotional materials or training constitute promotion of an off-label use, it could request that
51

we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our business activities to constitute promotion of an off-label use, which could result in significant penalties, including, but not limited to, criminal, civil and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, and the curtailment of our operations. Any of these events will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.
We may be subject to regulatory or enforcement actions if we engage in improper marketing or promotion of our products.
Our educational and promotional activities and training methods must comply with FDA and other applicable laws, including the prohibition of the promotion of a medical device for a use that has not been cleared or approved by the FDA. Use of a device outside of its cleared or approved indications is known as “off-label” use. Physicians may use our products off-label in their professional medical judgment, as the FDA does not restrict or regulate a physician’s choice of treatment within the practice of medicine. However, if the FDA determines that our educational and promotional activities or training constitutes promotion of an off-label use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of warning letters, untitled letters, fines, penalties, injunctions, or seizures, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation and financial results. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our educational and promotional activities or training methods to constitute promotion of an off-label use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. In that event, our reputation could be damaged, and adoption of the products could be impaired. Although our policy is to refrain from statements that could be considered off-label promotion of our products, the FDA or another regulatory agency could disagree and conclude that we have engaged in off-label promotion. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action, such as federal prosecution under the federal civil False Claims Act, if they consider our business activities constitute promotion of an off-label use, which could result in significant penalties, including, but not limited to, criminal, civil or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. In addition, the off-label use of our products may increase the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims are expensive to defend and could divert our management’s attention, result in substantial damage awards against us, and harm our reputation.
The clinical trial process required to obtain regulatory approvals is lengthy and expensive with uncertain outcomes. If clinical studies of our future products do not produce results necessary to support regulatory clearance or approval in the United States or, with respect to our current or future products, elsewhere, we will be unable to expand the indications for or commercialize these products and may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the commercialization of those products.
We have obtained PMA approval for the Zephyr Valve. In order to obtain PMA approval for a device, the sponsor must conduct well-controlled clinical trials designed to assess the safety and efficacy of the product candidate. Conducting clinical trials is a complex and expensive process, can take many years, and outcomes are inherently uncertain. We incur substantial expense for, and devote significant time to, clinical trials but cannot be certain that the trials will ever result in commercial revenue. We may experience significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after earlier clinical trials showed promising results, and failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. Any of our products may malfunction or may produce undesirable adverse effects that could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials. We, the FDA, or another regulatory authority may suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time to avoid exposing trial participants to unacceptable health risks.
Successful results of pre-clinical studies are not necessarily indicative of future clinical trial results, and predecessor clinical trial results may not be replicated in subsequent clinical trials. Additionally, the FDA may disagree with our interpretation of the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, or may find the clinical trial design, conduct
52

or results inadequate to prove safety or efficacy, and may require us to pursue additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, which could further delay the clearance or approval of our products. The data we collect from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may not be sufficient to support FDA clearance or approval, and if we are unable to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our future products in our clinical trials, we will be unable to obtain regulatory clearance or approval to market our products.
In addition, we may estimate and publicly announce the anticipated timing of the accomplishment of various clinical, regulatory and other product development goals, which are often referred to as milestones. These milestones could include the obtainment of the right to affix the CE mark in the European Union; the submission to the FDA of an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application to commence a pivotal clinical trial for a new product candidate; the enrollment of patients in clinical trials; the release of data from clinical trials; and other clinical and regulatory events. The actual timing of these milestones could vary dramatically compared to our estimates, in some cases for reasons beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will meet our projected milestones and if we do not meet these milestones as publicly announced, the commercialization of our products may be delayed and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
Clinical trials are necessary to support PMA applications and may be necessary to support PMA supplements for modified versions of our marketed device products. This would require the enrollment of large numbers of suitable subjects, which may be difficult to identify, recruit and maintain as participants in the clinical trial. Adverse outcomes in the post-approval studies could also result in restrictions or withdrawal of approval of the PMA. We will likely need to conduct additional clinical studies in the future to support new indications for our products or for approvals or clearances of new product lines, or for the approval of the use of our products in some foreign countries. Clinical testing is difficult to design and implement, can take many years, can be expensive and carries uncertain outcomes. The initiation and completion of any of these studies may be prevented, delayed, or halted for numerous reasons. We may experience a number of events that could adversely affect the costs, timing or successful completion of our clinical trials, including:
we may be required to submit an IDE application to the FDA, which must become effective prior to commencing human clinical trials, and the FDA may reject our IDE application and notify us that we may not begin investigational trials;
regulators and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree as to the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
regulators, IRBs or other reviewing bodies may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial, or to conduct or continue a clinical trial at a prospective or specific trial site;
we may not reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (CROs) and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;
the number of subjects or patients required for clinical trials may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be insufficient or slower than we anticipate, and the number of clinical trials being conducted at any given time may be high and result in fewer available patients for any given clinical trial, or patients may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
our third-party contractors, including those manufacturing products or conducting clinical trials on our behalf, may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
53

we might have to suspend or terminate clinical trials for various reasons, including a finding that the subjects are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
we may have to amend clinical trial protocols or conduct additional studies to reflect changes in regulatory requirements or guidance, which we may be required to submit to an IRB or regulatory authority for re-examination;
regulators, IRBs, or other parties may require or recommend that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including safety signals or noncompliance with regulatory requirements;
the cost of clinical trials may be greater than we anticipate;
clinical sites may not adhere to the clinical protocol or may drop out of a clinical trial;
we may be unable to recruit a sufficient number of clinical trial sites;
regulators, IRBs, or other reviewing bodies may fail to approve or subsequently find fault with our manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party supplier with which we enter into agreement for clinical and commercial supplies, the supply of devices or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials may be insufficient, inadequate or not available at an acceptable cost, or we may experience interruptions in supply;
approval policies or regulations of the FDA or applicable foreign regulatory agencies may change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval; and
our current or future products may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics.
Patient enrollment in clinical trials and completion of patient follow-up depend on many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the trial protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial, patient compliance, competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new treatments that may be approved for the indications we are investigating. For example, patients may be discouraged from enrolling in our clinical trials if the trial protocol requires them to undergo extensive post-treatment procedures or follow-up to assess the safety and efficacy of a product candidate, or they may be persuaded to participate in contemporaneous clinical trials of a competitor’s product candidate or provider’s competing clinical trial. In addition, patients participating in our clinical trials may drop out before completion of the trial or experience adverse medical events unrelated to our products. Delays in patient enrollment or failure of patients to continue to participate in a clinical trial may delay commencement or completion of the clinical trial, cause an increase in the costs of the clinical trial and delays, or result in the failure of the clinical trial.
Clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with the laws and regulations of the FDA and other applicable regulatory authorities’ legal requirements, regulations or guidelines, and are subject to oversight by these governmental agencies and IRBs at the medical institutions where the clinical trials are conducted. In addition, clinical trials must be conducted with supplies of our devices produced under current good manufacturing practice, or Current Good Manufacturing Practices, requirements and other regulations. Furthermore, we may rely on CROs, and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and we may have limited influence over their actual performance. We depend on our collaborators and on medical institutions and CROs to conduct our clinical trials in compliance with good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements. To the extent our collaborators or the CROs fail to enroll participants for our clinical trials, fail to conduct the study to GCP standards or are delayed for a significant time in the execution of trials, including achieving full enrollment, we may be affected by increased costs, program delays or both. In addition, clinical trials that are conducted in countries outside the United States may subject us to further delays and expenses as a result of increased shipment costs, additional
54

regulatory requirements and the engagement of non-U.S. CROs, as well as expose us to risks associated with clinical investigators who are unknown to the FDA, and different standards of diagnosis, screening and medical care.
Even if our future products are cleared or approved in the United States, commercialization of our products in foreign countries would require clearance or approval by regulatory authorities in those countries. Clearance or approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from, and greater than, those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials. Any of these occurrences could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our products may cause or contribute to adverse medical events or be subject to failures or malfunctions that we are required to report to the FDA, and if we fail to do so, we would be subject to sanctions that could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are required to file various reports with the FDA and European regulators, including reports required by the MDRs that require that we report to the regulatory authorities if our solutions may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur and we have filed such reports in the past. The timing of our obligation to report is triggered by the date we become aware of the adverse event as well as the nature of the event. We may fail to report adverse events of which we become aware within the prescribed timeframe. We may also fail to recognize that we have become aware of a reportable adverse event, especially if it is not reported to us as an adverse event or if it is an adverse event that is unexpected or removed in time from the use of the product. If these reports are not filed in a timely manner, regulators may impose sanctions and we may be subject to product liability or regulatory enforcement actions, all of which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we initiate a correction or removal for the Zephyr Valve to reduce a risk to health posed by it, we would be required to submit a publicly available correction and removal report to the FDA and, in many cases, similar reports to other regulatory agencies. This report could be classified by the FDA as a device recall which could lead to increased scrutiny by the FDA, other international regulatory agencies and our customers regarding the quality and safety of our solutions. Furthermore, the submission of these reports could be used by competitors against us and cause physicians to delay or cancel prescriptions, which will harm our reputation.
If we assess a potential quality issue or complaint as not requiring either field action or notification, respectively, regulators may review documentation of that decision during a subsequent audit. If regulators disagree with our decision, or take issue with either our investigation process or the resulting documentation, regulatory agencies may impose sanctions and we may be subject to regulatory enforcement actions, including warning letters, all of which will negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we do not obtain and maintain international regulatory registrations or approvals for our products, we will be unable to market and sell our products outside of the United States.
Sales of our products outside of the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements that vary widely from country to country. In addition, the FDA regulates exports of medical devices from the United States. While the regulations of some countries may not impose barriers to marketing and selling our products or only require notification, others require that we obtain the approval of a specified regulatory body. Complying with foreign regulatory requirements, including obtaining registrations or approvals, can be expensive and time-consuming, and we may not receive regulatory approvals in each country in which we plan to market our products, or we may be unable to do so on a timely basis. The time required to obtain registrations or approvals, if required by other countries, may be longer than that required for FDA approval, and requirements for such registrations, clearances or approvals may significantly differ from FDA requirements. If we modify our products, we may need to apply for additional regulatory approvals before we are permitted to sell the modified product. In addition, we may not continue to meet the quality and safety standards required to maintain the authorizations that we have received. If we are unable to maintain our authorizations in a particular country, we will no longer be able to sell the applicable product in that country.
55

Regulatory approval by the FDA does not ensure registration, clearance or approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and registration, clearance or approval by one or more foreign regulatory authorities does not ensure registration, clearance or approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining registration or regulatory clearance or approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others.
Healthcare reform measures could hinder or prevent the commercial success of our solutions.
In the United States, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system in ways that will harm our future revenues and profitability and the demand for our solutions. Federal and state lawmakers regularly propose and, at times, enact legislation that would result in significant changes to the healthcare system, some of which are intended to contain or reduce the costs of medical products and services. Current and future legislative proposals to further reform healthcare or reduce healthcare costs may limit coverage of or lower reimbursement for the procedures associated with the use of our products. The cost containment measures that payers and providers are instituting and the effect of any healthcare reform initiative implemented in the future could impact our revenue from the sale of our products. For example, the Affordable Care Act contains a number of provisions, including those governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement changes and fraud and abuse measures, all of which will impact existing government healthcare programs and will result in the development of new programs. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, imposed an excise tax of 2.3% on the sale of most medical devices, including ours, and any failure to pay this amount could result in the imposition of an injunction on the sale of our products, fines and penalties. However, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated this medical device excise tax effective January 1, 2020.
There remain judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act, as well as efforts by the Trump administration to repeal or replace certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed several Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the Affordable Care Act. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act such as removing penalties, starting January 1, 2019, for not complying with the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to carry health insurance and delaying the implementation of certain fees mandated by the Affordable Care Act. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the individual mandate was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the Affordable Care Act are invalid as well. On March 2, 2020, the United States Supreme Court granted the petitions for writs of certiorari to review this case, and has allotted one hour for oral arguments, which are expected to occur in the fall. It is unclear how such litigation and other efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act will impact the Affordable Care Act and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. For example, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, included reductions to CMS payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, which was signed into law in March 2020 and is designed to provide financial support and resources to individuals and businesses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, and extended the sequester by one year, through 2030. Additionally, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, among other things, reduced CMS payments to several providers, including hospitals, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
The current presidential administration and Congress may continue to pursue significant changes to the current healthcare laws. We face uncertainties that might result from modifications or repeal of any of the provisions of the
56

Affordable Care Act, including as a result of current and future executive orders and legislative actions. The impact of those changes on us and potential effect on the medical device industry as a whole is currently unknown. Any changes to the Affordable Care Act are likely to have an impact on our results of operations, and may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot predict what other healthcare programs and regulations will ultimately be implemented at the federal or state level or the effect of any future legislation or regulation in the United States may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare will harm:
our ability to set a price that we believe is fair for the Zephyr Valve;
our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability; and
the availability of capital.
Changes in healthcare policy could increase our costs and subject us to additional regulatory requirements that may interrupt commercialization of our current and future solutions. Changes in healthcare policy could increase our costs, decrease our revenue and impact sales of and reimbursement for our current and future products. Further, it is possible that additional governmental action is taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the Trump administration issued an executive order on August 3, 2020 directing CMS to propose a regulation extending Medicare coverage for certain telemedicine services provided to certain Medicare beneficiaries beyond the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. CMS is required to propose the regulation within sixty (60) days of the issuance of the executive order.
Legal, political and economic uncertainty surrounding the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union may be a source of instability in international markets, create significant currency fluctuations, adversely affect our operations in the United Kingdom and pose additional risks to our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Following the result of a referendum in 2016, the United Kingdom left the European Union on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit. Pursuant to the formal withdrawal arrangements agreed between the United Kingdom and the European Union, the United Kingdom will be subject to a transition period until December 31, 2020 (Transition Period), during which European Union rules will continue to apply. Negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union are expected to continue in relation to the customs and trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union following the expiry of the Transition Period.
Lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which European Union rules and regulations to replace or replicate, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws and employment laws, could decrease foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom, increase costs, depress economic activity and restrict access to capital. Possible changes to the rules and regulations relating to quality, safety and efficacy of products, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of products could materially impact the regulatory regime with respect to products and approval of any product candidates in the United Kingdom or the European Union and we may be forced to restrict or delay efforts to sell our products or seek regulatory approval of product candidates in the United Kingdom and/or the European Union, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend on any agreements (or lack thereof) between the United Kingdom and the European Union and, in particular, any arrangements for the United Kingdom to retain access to European Union markets following the expiry of the Transition Period.
57

We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal and contractual obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and we are subject to consumer protection laws that regulate our consumer-facing practices and prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
We are subject to diverse laws and regulations relating to data privacy and security, including, in the United States, HIPAA and, in the European Union and the EEA, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). New privacy rules are being enacted in the United States and globally, and existing ones are being updated and strengthened. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) took effect on January 1, 2020 and creates individual privacy rights for California consumers and increases the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal information.
The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Complying with these numerous, complex and often changing regulations is expensive and difficult, and failure to comply with any privacy laws or data security laws or any security incident or breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized use or disclosure of sensitive or confidential patient or consumer information, whether by us, one of our business associates or another third-party, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including but not limited to: investigation costs, material fines and penalties; compensatory, special, punitive and statutory damages; litigation; consent orders regarding our privacy and security practices; requirements that we provide notices, credit monitoring services or credit restoration services or other relevant services to impacted individuals; adverse actions against our licenses to do business; and injunctive relief.
The privacy laws in the European Union have also been significantly reformed. On May 25, 2018, the GDPR entered into force and became directly applicable in all European Union member states. The GDPR implements more stringent operational requirements than its predecessor legislation. For example, the GDPR requires us to make more detailed disclosures to data subjects, requires disclosure of the legal basis on which we can process personal data, makes it harder for us to obtain valid consent for processing, require the appointment of data protection officers when sensitive personal data, such as health data, is processed on a large scale, provides more robust rights for data subjects, introduces mandatory data breach notification through the European Union, imposes additional obligations on us when contracting with service providers and requires us to adopt appropriate privacy governance including policies, procedures, training and data audit. If we do not comply with our obligations under the GDPR, we could be exposed to fines of up to the greater of €20 million or up to 4% of our total global annual revenue in the event of a significant breach. In addition, we may be the subject of litigation or adverse publicity, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Although there are legal mechanisms to allow for the transfer of personal data from the United Kingdom, EEA and Switzerland to the United States, uncertainty about compliance with such data protection laws remains and such mechanisms may not be available or applicable with respect to the personal data processing activities necessary to research, develop and market our products and services. For example, legal challenges in Europe to the mechanisms allowing companies to transfer personal data from the EEA to the United States could result in further limitations on the ability to transfer personal data across borders, particularly if governments are unable or unwilling to reach new or maintain existing agreements that support cross-border data transfers, such as the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Frameworks, or the Privacy Shield Frameworks. Specifically, on July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union invalidated Decision 2016/1250 which had deemed the protection provided by the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework adequate under EU privacy law, specifically under the GDPR. To the extent that we or any of our vendors, contractors, or consultants have been relying on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework, we will not be able to do so in the future, which could increase our costs and may limit our ability to process personal data from the EU. The same decision also cast doubt on the ability to use one of the primary alternatives to the Privacy Shield Frameworks, namely, the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, to lawfully transfer personal data from Europe to the United States and most other countries. At present, there are few if any viable alternatives to the Privacy Shield Frameworks and the Standard Contractual Clauses for the foregoing purposes.
58

Further, Brexit has created uncertainty with regard to data protection regulation in the United Kingdom. In particular, while the Data Protection Act of 2018, that implements and complements the GDPR achieved Royal Assent on May 23, 2018 and is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the EEA to the United Kingdom will remain lawful under the GDPR. During the period of “transition” (i.e., until December 31, 2020), EU law will continue to apply in the United Kingdom, including the GDPR, after which the GDPR will be converted into UK law. Beginning in 2021, the United Kingdom will be a “third country” under the GDPR. We may, however, incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under the GDPR and privacy laws of the applicable EU Member States and the United Kingdom in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.
We cannot assure you that our third-party service providers with access to our or our customers’, suppliers’, trial patients’ and employees’ personally identifiable and other sensitive or confidential information in relation to which we are responsible will not breach contractual obligations imposed by us, or that they will not experience data security breaches or attempts thereof, which could have a corresponding effect on our business, including putting us in breach of our obligations under privacy laws and regulations, which could in turn adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that our contractual measures and our own privacy and security-related safeguards will protect us from the risks associated with the third-party processing, storage and transmission of such information. Increasing use of social media could also give rise to liability, breaches of data security or reputational damage.
Moreover, complying with the various cybersecurity or privacy laws that are applicable to us could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Any failure to comply could result in government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with data protection laws, or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend, could result in adverse publicity and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We face potential liability related to the privacy of health information we obtain.
Most healthcare providers, including hospitals from which we obtain patient health information, are subject to privacy and security regulations promulgated under HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH. We are not currently classified as a covered entity or business associate under HIPAA and thus are not subject to its requirements or penalties. However, any person may be prosecuted under HIPAA’s criminal provisions either directly or under aiding-and-abetting or conspiracy principles. Consequently, depending on the facts and circumstances, we could face substantial criminal penalties if we knowingly receive individually identifiable health information from a HIPAA-covered healthcare provider or research institution that has not satisfied HIPAA’s requirements for disclosure of individually identifiable health information. In addition, we may maintain sensitive personally identifiable information, including health information, that we receive throughout the clinical trial process, in the course of our research collaborations, and directly from individuals (or their healthcare providers) who enroll in our patient reimbursement support programs. As such, we may be subject to state laws requiring notification of affected individuals and state regulators in the event of a breach of personal information, which is a broader class of information than the health information protected by HIPAA. Our clinical trial programs outside the United States may implicate international data protection laws, including the European Union Data Protection Directive and legislation of the European Union member states implementing it.
Our activities outside the United States impose additional compliance requirements and generate additional risks of enforcement for noncompliance. Failure by third-party contractors to comply with the strict rules on the transfer of personal data outside of the European Union into the United States may result in the imposition of criminal and administrative sanctions on such collaborators, which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, certain health privacy laws, data breach notification laws, consumer protection laws and genetic testing laws may apply directly to our operations or those of our collaborators and may impose restrictions on our collection, use and dissemination of individuals’ health information.
59

Moreover, patients about whom we or our collaborators obtain health information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may have statutory or contractual rights that limit our ability to use and disclose the information. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to ensure ongoing compliance with applicable privacy and data security laws. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we or third-party contractors or consultants fail to comply with applicable federal, state or local regulatory requirements, we could be subject to a range of regulatory actions that could affect our or our contractors’ ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates and could harm or prevent sales of any affected products that we are able to commercialize, or could substantially increase the costs and expenses of developing, commercializing and marketing our products. Any threatened or actual government enforcement action could also generate adverse publicity and require that we devote substantial resources that could otherwise be used in other aspects of our business.
Our employees, consultants, and other commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.
We are exposed to the risk that our employees, consultants, and other commercial partners and business associates may engage in fraudulent or illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or other unauthorized activities that violate the regulations of the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such regulators, manufacturing standards, healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and internationally or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry, including the sale of medical devices, are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees, consultants and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Whether or not we are successful in defending against such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees and reputational harm, and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations.
Compliance with environmental laws and regulations could be expensive, and the failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to significant liability.
Our research, development and manufacturing operations involve the use of hazardous substances, and we are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations relating to the storage, use, handling, generation, manufacture, treatment, discharge and disposal of hazardous substances. Our products may also contain hazardous substances, and they are subject laws and regulations relating to labeling requirements and to their sale, collection, recycling, treatment, storage and disposal. Compliance with these laws and regulations may be expensive and noncompliance could result in substantial fines and penalties. Environmental laws and regulations also impose liability for the remediation of releases of hazardous substances into the environment and for personal injuries resulting from exposure to hazardous substances, and they can give rise to substantial remediation costs and to third-party claims, including for property damage and personal injury. Liability under environmental laws and regulations can be joint and several and without regard to fault or negligence, and they tend to become more stringent over time, imposing greater compliance costs and increased risks and penalties associated with violations. We cannot assure you that violations of these laws and regulations, or releases of or exposure to hazardous
60

substances, will not occur in the future or have not occurred in the past, including as a result of human error, accidents, equipment failure or other causes. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations, and liabilities that may be imposed for violating them, or for remediation obligations or responding to third-party claims, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may become a party to intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings that could be costly and could interfere with our ability to sell and market our products.
The medical device industry has been characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual property rights, and companies in the industry have used intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage. It is possible that U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications or trademarks controlled by third parties may be alleged to cover our products, or that we may be accused of misappropriating third parties’ trade secrets. Additionally, our products include components that we purchase from vendors, and may include design components that are outside of our direct control. Our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in patent portfolios, trade secrets, trademarks, and competing technologies, may have applied for or obtained, or may in the future apply for or obtain, patents or trademarks that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make, use, sell or export our products or to use our technologies or product names. Moreover, in recent years, individuals and groups that are non-practicing entities, commonly referred to as patent trolls, have purchased patents and other intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement in order to extract settlements. From time to time, we may receive threatening letters, notices or invitations to license, or may be the subject of claims that our products and business operations infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others. The defense of these matters can be time consuming, costly to defend in litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand and cause us to incur significant expenses or make substantial payments. Vendors from whom we purchase hardware or software may not indemnify us in the event that such hardware or software is accused of infringing a third-party’s patent or trademark or of misappropriating a third-party’s trade secret.
Since patent applications are confidential for a period of time after filing, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file any patent application related to our products. Competitors may also contest our patents, if issued, by showing the patent examiner that the invention was not original, was not novel or was obvious. In litigation, a competitor could claim that our patents, if issued, are not valid for a number of reasons. If a court agrees, we would lose our rights to those challenged patents. Because we have not conducted a formal freedom to operate analysis for patents related to our products, we may not be aware of issued patents that a third party might assert are infringed by one of our current products or future product candidates, which could materially impair our ability to commercialize our products or product candidates. Even if we diligently search third-party patents for potential infringement by our products or product candidates, we may not successfully find patents that our products or product candidates may infringe. If we are unable to secure and maintain freedom to operate, others could preclude us from commercializing our products or product candidates.
In addition, we may in the future be subject to claims by our former employees or consultants asserting an ownership right in our patents, patent applications or other intellectual property, as a result of the work they performed on our behalf. Although we generally require all of our employees and consultants and any other partners or collaborators who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to assign or grant similar rights to their inventions to us, we cannot be certain that we have executed such agreements with all parties who may have contributed to our intellectual property, nor can we be certain that our agreements with such parties will be upheld in the face of a potential challenge, or that they will not be breached, for which we may not have an adequate remedy.
61

Any lawsuits relating to intellectual property rights could subject us to significant liability for damages and invalidate our proprietary rights. Any potential intellectual property litigation also could force us to do one or more of the following:
stop making, selling or using products or technologies that allegedly infringe the asserted intellectual property;
lose the opportunity to license our intellectual property to others or to collect royalty payments based upon successful protection and assertion of our intellectual property rights against others; incur significant legal expenses;
pay substantial damages or royalties to the party whose intellectual property rights we may be found to be infringing;
pay the attorney’s fees and costs of litigation to the party whose intellectual property rights we may be found to be infringing;
redesign those products or technologies that contain the allegedly infringing intellectual property, which could be costly, disruptive and infeasible; and
attempt to obtain a license to the relevant intellectual property from third parties, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, or from third parties who may attempt to license rights that they do not have.
In addition, if we are found to willfully infringe third-party patents or trademarks or to have misappropriated trade secrets, we could be required to pay treble damages in addition to other penalties. Although patent, trademark, trade secret, and other intellectual property disputes in the medical device area have often been settled through licensing or similar arrangements, costs associated with such arrangements may be substantial and could include ongoing royalties. We may be unable to obtain necessary licenses on satisfactory terms, if at all. If we do not obtain necessary licenses, we may not be able to redesign our products to avoid infringement.
Any litigation or claim against us, even those without merit and even those where we prevail, may cause us to incur substantial costs, and could place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management from our core business and harm our reputation. If we are found to infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, we could be required to pay substantial damages (which may be increased up to three times of awarded damages) or substantial royalties and could be prevented from selling our products unless we obtain a license or are able to redesign our products to avoid infringement. Any such license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to redesign our products in a way that would not infringe the intellectual property rights of others. We could encounter delays in product introductions while we attempt to develop alternative methods or products. If we fail to obtain any required licenses or make any necessary changes to our products or technologies, we may have to withdraw existing products from the market or may be unable to commercialize one or more of our products.
In addition, we generally indemnify our customers with respect to infringement by our products of the proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties may assert infringement claims against our customers. These claims may require us to initiate or defend protracted and costly litigation on behalf of our customers, regardless of the merits of these claims. If any of these claims succeed or settle, we may be forced to pay damages or settlement payments on behalf of our customers or may be required to obtain licenses for the products they use. If we cannot obtain all necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, our customers may be forced to stop using our products.
Similarly, interference or derivation proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may be necessary to determine priority with respect to our patents, patent applications, trademarks or trademark applications. We may also become involved in other proceedings, such as reexamination, inter parties review, derivation or opposition proceedings before the USPTO or other jurisdictional body relating to
62

our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others. Adverse determinations in a judicial or administrative proceeding or failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from manufacturing our products or using product names, which would have a significant adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, we may file lawsuits or initiate other proceedings to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful. Competitors may infringe our issued patents or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their intellectual property. In addition, in a patent or other intellectual property infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent or other intellectual property of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims or other intellectual property narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents or other intellectual property do not cover the technology in question. Furthermore, even if our patents or other intellectual property are found to be valid and infringed, a court may refuse to grant injunctive relief against the infringer and instead grant us monetary damages or ongoing royalties. Such monetary compensation may be insufficient to adequately offset the damage to our business caused by the infringer’s competition in the market. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents or other intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, which could adversely affect our competitive business position, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success will depend on our, and any of our current and future licensors’, ability to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights.
In order to remain competitive, we must develop, maintain and protect the proprietary aspects of our brands, technologies and data. We rely on a combination of contractual provisions, confidentiality procedures and patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws to protect the proprietary aspects of our brands, technologies and data. These legal measures afford only limited protection, and competitors or others may gain access to or use our intellectual property and proprietary information. Our success will depend, in part, on preserving our trade secrets, maintaining the security of our data and know-how and obtaining and maintaining other intellectual property rights by us and our current and future licensors. We, and our current and future licensors, may not be able to obtain or maintain intellectual property or other proprietary rights necessary to our business or in a form that provides us with a competitive advantage.
In addition, our trade secrets, data and know-how could be subject to unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure to unauthorized parties, despite our efforts to enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, clients and other vendors who have access to such information, and could otherwise become known or be independently discovered by third parties. Our intellectual property, including trademarks, could be challenged, invalidated, infringed, and circumvented by third parties, and our trademarks could also be diluted, declared generic or found to be infringing on other marks. If any of the foregoing occurs, we could be forced to re-brand our products, resulting in loss of brand recognition and requiring us to devote resources to advertising and marketing new brands, and suffer other competitive harm. Third parties may also adopt trademarks similar to ours, which could harm our brand identity and lead to market confusion. Failure to obtain and maintain intellectual property rights necessary to our business and failure to protect, monitor and control the use of our intellectual property rights could negatively impact our ability to compete and cause us to incur significant expenses. The intellectual property laws and other statutory and contractual arrangements in the United States and other jurisdictions we depend upon may not provide sufficient protection in the future to prevent the infringement, use, violation or misappropriation of our trademarks, data, technology and other intellectual property and services, and may not provide an adequate remedy if our intellectual property rights are infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated.
We rely, in part, on our ability to obtain, maintain, expand, enforce, and defend the scope of our intellectual property portfolio or other proprietary rights, including the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make in connection with the licensing, filing, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights. The process of applying for and obtaining a patent is expensive, time consuming and complex, and we may not be
63

able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner, or in all jurisdictions where protection may be commercially advantageous, or we may not be able to protect our proprietary rights at all. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may be able to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. In addition, the issuance of a patent does not ensure that it is valid or enforceable, so even if we obtain patents, they may not be valid or enforceable against third parties. Our patent applications may not result in issued patents and our patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology.
The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain, and we cannot ensure that:
any of our patents, or any of our pending patent applications, if issued, will include claims having a scope sufficient to protect our products;
any of our pending patent applications will issue as patents;
we will be able to successfully commercialize our products on a substantial scale, if approved, before our relevant patents we may have expire;
we were the first to make the inventions covered by each of our patents and pending patent applications;
we were the first to file patent applications for these inventions;
others will not develop similar or alternative technologies that do not infringe our patents; any of our patents will be found to ultimately be valid and enforceable;
any patents issued to us will provide a basis for an exclusive market for our commercially viable products, will provide us with any competitive advantages or will not be challenged by third parties;
we will develop additional proprietary technologies or products that are separately patentable; or
our commercial activities or products will not infringe upon the patents of others.
Moreover, even if we are able to obtain patent protection, such patent protection may be of insufficient scope to achieve our business objectives. Issued patents may be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented. Decisions by courts and governmental patent agencies may introduce uncertainty in the enforceability or scope of patents owned by or licensed to us. Furthermore, the issuance of a patent does not give us the right to practice the patented invention. Third parties may have blocking patents that could prevent us from marketing our own products and practicing our own technology. Alternatively, third parties may seek approval to market their own products similar to or otherwise competitive with our products. In these circumstances, we may need to defend or assert our patents, including by filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid, unenforceable or not infringed; competitors may then be able to market products and use manufacturing and analytical processes that are substantially similar to ours. Even if we have valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our other proprietary information, our business and competitive position may be harmed.
In addition to patent protection, we also rely on other proprietary rights, including protection of trade secrets, and other proprietary information that is not patentable or that we elect not to patent. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect, and some courts are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. To maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and proprietary information, we rely heavily on confidentiality provisions that we have in contracts with our employees, consultants, collaborators and others upon the commencement of their relationship with us. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have
64

or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. We may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge or other trade secrets by such third parties, despite the existence generally of these confidentiality restrictions. These contracts may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information. There can be no assurance that such third parties will not breach their agreements with us, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or independently developed by competitors. Despite the protections we do place on our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, monitoring unauthorized use and disclosure of our intellectual property is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights will be adequate. In addition, the laws of many foreign countries will not protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may be unable to prevent our proprietary technology from being exploited abroad, which could affect our ability to expand to international markets or require costly efforts to protect our technology.
We also license rights to use certain proprietary information and technology from third parties. The use of such proprietary information and technology is therefore subject to the obligations of the applicable license agreement between us and the owner. For example, the software we developed for the Chartis System includes the use of open source software that is subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable open source software licenses that grant us permission to use such software. The owner of any such proprietary information or technology also might not enforce or otherwise protect its rights in the proprietary information or technology with the same vigilance that we would, which would allow competitors to use such proprietary information and technology without having to adhere to a license agreement with the owner.
To the extent our intellectual property or other proprietary information protection is incomplete, we are exposed to a greater risk of direct competition. A third party could, without authorization, copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology, or develop similar technology. Our competitors could purchase our products and attempt to replicate some or all of the competitive advantages we derive from our development efforts or design around our protected technology. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could substantially harm the value of our products, brand and business. The theft or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information could reduce the differentiation of our products and harm our business, the value of our investment in development or business acquisitions could be reduced and third parties might make claims against us related to losses of their confidential or proprietary information. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, it is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology or product or otherwise obtain access to our unpatented technology, and in such cases, we could not assert any trade secret rights against such parties. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our trade secret rights and related confidentiality and nondisclosure provisions. If we fail to obtain or maintain trade secret protection, or if our competitors obtain our trade secrets or independently develop technology or products similar to ours or competing technologies or products, our competitive market position could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, some courts are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets and agreement terms that address non-competition are difficult to enforce in many jurisdictions and might not be enforceable in certain cases.
We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and other confidential information by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, agreements or security measures may be breached and detecting the disclosure or misappropriation of confidential information and enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated confidential information is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. Further, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for any breach.
65

Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non‑compliance with these requirements.
The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. In addition, periodic maintenance fees on issued patents often must be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies over the lifetime of the patent. While an unintentional lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non‑compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non‑payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our products, we may not be able to stop a competitor from marketing products that are the same as or similar to our products, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
A company may attempt to commercialize competing products utilizing our proprietary design, trademarks or tradenames in foreign countries where we do not have any patents or patent applications and where legal recourse may be limited. This may have a significant commercial impact on our foreign business operations.
Filing, prosecuting and defending patents or trademarks on our current and future products in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. The requirements for patentability and trademarking may differ in certain countries, particularly developing countries. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from utilizing our inventions and trademarks in all countries outside the United States. Competitors may use our technologies or trademarks in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent or trademark protection to develop or market their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent and trademark protection, but enforcement on infringing activities is inadequate. These products or trademarks may compete with our products or trademarks, and our patents, trademarks or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trademarks and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents and trademarks or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent and trademarks rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents and trademarks at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent or trademark applications at risk, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, certain countries in Europe and certain developing countries, including India and China, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In those countries, we may have limited remedies if our patents are infringed or if we are compelled to grant a license to our patents to a third party, which could materially diminish the value of those patents. This could limit our potential revenue opportunities. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we own or license. Finally, our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be adversely affected by unforeseen changes in foreign intellectual property laws.
We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have misappropriated the intellectual property of a third party, including trade secrets or know-how, or are in breach of non-competition or non-solicitation agreements
66

with our competitors and third parties may claim an ownership interest in intellectual property we regard as our own.
Many of our employees and consultants were previously employed at or engaged by other medical device, biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Some of these employees, consultants and contractors, may have executed proprietary rights, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements in connection with such previous employment. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the intellectual property, proprietary information, know-how or trade secrets of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have, inadvertently or otherwise, misappropriated the intellectual property or disclosed the alleged trade secrets or other proprietary information, of these former employers or competitors.
Additionally, we may be subject to claims from third parties challenging our ownership interest in intellectual property we regard as our own, based on claims that our employees or consultants have breached an obligation to assign inventions to another employer, to a former employer, or to another person or entity. Litigation may be necessary to defend against any other claims, and it may be necessary or we may desire to enter into a license to settle any such claim; however, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If our defense to those claims fails, in addition to paying monetary damages, a court could prohibit us from using technologies or features that are essential to our products, if such technologies or features are found to incorporate or be derived from the trade secrets or other proprietary information of the former employers. An inability to incorporate technologies or features that are important or essential to our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and may prevent us from selling our products. In addition, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and could be a distraction to management. Any litigation or the threat thereof may adversely affect our ability to hire employees or contract with independent sales personnel. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our products, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our existing and future products.
Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. In 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (Leahy-Smith Act) was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and also may affect patent litigation. These also include provisions that switched the United States from a first-to-invent system to a first-to-file system, allow third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and set forth additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent by the USPTO administered post grant proceedings. Under a first-to-file system, assuming the other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application generally will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether another inventor had made the invention earlier. The USPTO recently developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, only became effective in 2013. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. The Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, patent reform legislation may pass in the future that could lead to additional uncertainties and increased costs surrounding the prosecution, enforcement and defense of our patents and applications. Furthermore, the U.S. Supreme Court and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit have made, and will likely continue to make, changes in how the patent laws of the United States are interpreted. Similarly, foreign courts have made, and will likely continue to make, changes in how the patent laws in their respective jurisdictions are interpreted. We cannot
67

predict future changes in the interpretation of patent laws or changes to patent laws that might be enacted into law by U.S. and foreign legislative bodies. Those changes may materially affect our patents or patent applications and our ability to obtain additional patent protection in the future.
The failure of third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory and other obligations could adversely affect our business.
We rely on suppliers, vendors, outsourcing partners, consultants, alliance partners and other third parties to research, develop, manufacture and commercialize our products and manage certain parts of our business. Using these third parties poses a number of risks, such as: (i) they may not perform to our standards or legal requirements; (ii) they may not produce reliable results; (iii) they may not perform in a timely manner; (iv) they may not maintain confidentiality of our proprietary information; (v) disputes may arise with respect to ownership of rights to technology developed with our partners; and (vi) disagreements could cause delays in, or termination of, the research, development or commercialization of our products or result in litigation or arbitration. Moreover, some third parties are located in markets subject to political and social risk, corruption, infrastructure problems and natural disasters, in addition to country-specific privacy and data security risk given current legal and regulatory environments. Failure of third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory and other obligations may materially affect our business.
If our trademarks and tradenames are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets and our business may be adversely affected.
We rely on trademarks, service marks, tradenames and brand names to distinguish our products from the products of our competitors and have registered or applied to register these trademarks. We have not yet registered certain of our trademarks, including “CHARITE” in Germany, and as a result we sell certain products using names that may not be protected or may be subject to third party challenges for infringement of such third party’s trademarks. We cannot assure you that our trademark applications will be approved. During trademark registration proceedings, we may receive rejections. Although we are given an opportunity to respond to those rejections, we may be unable to overcome such rejections. In addition, in proceedings before the USPTO and comparable agencies in many foreign jurisdictions, third parties are given an opportunity to oppose pending trademark applications and to seek to cancel registered trademarks. Opposition or cancellation proceedings may be filed against our trademarks, and our trademarks may not survive such proceedings. In the event that our trademarks are successfully challenged, we could be forced to rebrand our products, which could result in loss of brand recognition and could require us to devote resources towards advertising and marketing new brands. At times, competitors may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. Certain of our current or future trademarks may become so well known by the public that their use becomes generic and they lose trademark protection. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Patent terms may not be able to protect our competitive position for an adequate period of time with respect to our current or future technologies.
Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the standard patent term is typically 20 years after filing. Various extensions may be available. Even so, the life of a patent and the protection it affords are limited. As a result, our patent portfolio provides us with limited rights that may not last for a sufficient period of time to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. For example, given the large amount of time required for the research, development, testing and regulatory review of implantable medical devices, patents protecting our products might expire before or shortly after they are commercialized.
Extensions of patent term may be available, but there is no guarantee that we would succeed in obtaining any particular extension-and no guarantee any such extension would confer patent term for a sufficient period of time to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. In the United States, 35 U.S. Code § 156 Extension of patent term, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the normal expiration of the
68

patent, which is limited to the approved indication (or any additional indications approved during the period of extension). A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond 14 years from the date of product approval; only one patent may be extended; and extension is available for only those claims covering the approved device, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it. We have applied for such an extension however, the applicable authorities, including the FDA and the USPTO in the United States, and any equivalent regulatory authority in other countries, may not agree with our assessment of whether such extensions are available, and may refuse to grant extensions to any patents we obtain, or may grant more limited extensions than we request. An extension may not be granted or may be limited where there is, for example, a failure to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failure to apply within applicable deadlines, failure to apply before expiration of relevant patents, or some other failure to satisfy applicable requirements. If this occurs, our competitors may be able to launch their products earlier by taking advantage of our investment in development and clinical trials along with our clinical and pre-clinical data. This could have a material adverse effect on our business and ability to achieve profitability.
Risks Related to This Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile and the value of our common stock may decline.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate or decline substantially as a result of a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control or are related in complex ways, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations;
variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts or investors;
changes in the pricing we offer our customers;
changes in our projected operating and financial results;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our solution;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions, or new offerings;
publicity associated with issues related to our solution;
our involvement in litigation;
future sales of our common stock or other securities, by us or our stockholders, as well as the anticipation of lock-up releases;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
the trading volume of our common stock;
changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market;
general economic, regulatory, and market conditions, including economic recessions or slowdowns;
changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems; and
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights.
69

In addition, the trading prices for common stock of other medical device companies have been highly volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which the pandemic may impact our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.
Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory, and market conditions, may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. In addition, given the relatively small expected public float of shares of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the trading market for our shares may be subject to increased volatility. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention.
There has been no prior market for our common stock. An active market may not develop or be sustainable and investors may not be able to resell their shares at or above the initial public offering price.
There has been no public market for our common stock prior to this offering. The initial public offering price for our common stock will be determined through negotiations between the underwriters and us and may vary from the market price of our common stock following this offering. If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above the initial public offering price, if at all. An active or liquid market in our common stock may not develop after this offering or, if it does develop, it may not be sustainable.
You will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the shares of common stock you purchase in this offering.
The initial public offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of $10.93 per share, or $10.60 per share if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, representing the difference between our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the sale of common stock in this offering and the initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. See “Dilution.” If outstanding options or warrants are exercised in the future, you will experience additional dilution.
Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase capital stock could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
We may issue additional securities following the closing of this offering. Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase our capital stock could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders. We may sell common stock, convertible securities, and other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, investors may be materially diluted. New investors in such subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock.
We will have broad discretion in the use of proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return.
We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. Investors may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the proceeds may not yield any return on your investment. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Our failure to apply the net proceeds of this offering effectively could impair our ability to pursue our growth strategy or could require us to raise additional capital. In addition, pending their use, the proceeds of this offering may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that may lose value.
70

Participation in this offering by our existing stockholders and their affiliated entities may reduce the public float for our common stock.
To the extent certain of our existing stockholders and their affiliated entities participate in this offering, such purchases would reduce the non-affiliate public float of our shares, meaning the number of shares of our common stock that are not held by officers, directors and principal stockholders. A reduction in the public float could reduce the number of shares that are available to be traded at any given time, thereby adversely impacting the liquidity of our common stock and depressing the price at which you may be able to sell shares of common stock purchased in this offering.
Additional sales of our common stock by existing stockholders in the public market could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock by existing stockholders in the public market following the closing of this offering, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock.
Based on shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020, upon the closing of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of 29,281,961 shares of common stock, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares and no exercise of outstanding options or warrants, and after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of our preferred stock into 17,856,229 shares of common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and the issuance of 2,650,773 shares of common stock in connection with the closing of this offering as a result of the automatic conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes plus accrued interest, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020. All of our executive officers and directors and substantially all of our other existing security holders are subject to lock-up agreements that restrict their ability to transfer shares of our common stock, stock options, and other securities convertible into, exchangeable for, or exercisable for our common stock during the period ending on, and including, the 180th day after the date of this prospectus, subject to certain limited exceptions. BofA Securities, Inc. and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC may, in their discretion, with or without notice, permit our stockholders who are subject to these lock-up agreements to sell shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements. After the lock-up agreements expire, all 22,615,294 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 (including 2,650,773 shares of common stock issued on conversion of the 2020 Notes based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020) will become eligible for sale, of which 6,251,662 shares held by directors, executive officers, and other affiliates will be subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act), and various vesting agreements.
In addition, as of June 30, 2020, there were 3,490,688 shares of common stock subject to outstanding options. We intend to register all of the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, and upon exercise of settlement of any options or other equity incentives we may grant in the future, for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares will be able to be freely sold in the public market upon issuance as permitted by any applicable vesting requirements, subject to the lock-up agreements described above. The shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of these shares will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent such options or warrants are exercised, subject to the lock-up agreements described above and compliance with applicable securities laws.
Holders of 18,717,681 shares of our common stock, including shares issuable upon the conversion of outstanding shares of preferred stock, have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements for the public resale of the common stock issuable upon conversion of such shares or to include such shares in registration
71

statements that we may file on our behalf or for other stockholders. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting.”
Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions. 
Based on our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 and including the shares to be sold in this offering, upon the closing of this offering, our executive officers, directors and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our common stock will, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 53% of our outstanding common stock (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock, and including (i) 2,650,773 shares of common stock issued on conversion of the 2020 Notes based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020, (ii) the automatic conversion of all shares of our preferred stock into 17,856,229 shares of common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and (iii) 1,436,992 shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020). These stockholders, acting together, will be able to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors and any merger or other significant corporate transactions. The interests of this group of stockholders may not coincide with the interests of other stockholders.
Some of these persons or entities may have interests different than yours. For example, because many of these stockholders purchased their shares at prices substantially below the price at which shares are being sold in this offering and have held their shares for a longer period, they may be more interested in selling our company to an acquirer than other investors, or they may want us to pursue strategies that deviate from the interests of other stockholders.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish unfavorable or inaccurate research about our business, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.
Our stock price and trading volume will be heavily influenced by the way analysts and investors interpret our financial information and other disclosures. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, delay publishing reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, regardless of accuracy, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. We expect that only a limited number of analysts will cover our company following our initial public offering. If the number of analysts that cover us declines, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline.
Even if our common stock is actively covered by analysts, we do not have any control over the analysts or the measures that analysts or investors may rely upon to forecast our future results. Over-reliance by analysts or investors on any particular metric to forecast our future results may result in forecasts that differ significantly from our own.
Regardless of accuracy, unfavorable interpretations of our financial information and other public disclosures could have a negative impact on our stock price. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates, for any of the reasons discussed above or otherwise, or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or change their opinion of our common stock, our stock price would likely decline.
72

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and may be restricted by the terms of any then-current credit facility. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” and our compliance with the reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we expect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Section 404) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We have not elected to use the extended transition period under the JOBS Act which would have allowed us to delay implementing new accounting standards, and, therefore, we will be subject to the same accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We may take advantage of certain of reduced disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these reduced disclosures for so long as our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We expect such expenses to further increase after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Global Select Market, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Furthermore, the senior members of our management team do not have significant experience with operating a public company. As a result, our management and other personnel will have to devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a public company or the timing of such costs.
As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
We will be required, pursuant to Section 404 to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any
73

material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC following the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We have not yet commenced the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation required under Section 404, and we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing, and any required remediation in a timely fashion once initiated. Our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we will need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and compile the system and process documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404.
During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the exchange on which our shares of common stock are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents to be in effect upon the closing of this offering and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws to be in effect upon the closing of this offering may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws will include provisions that:
authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights, and preferences determined by our board of directors that may be senior to our common stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
establish that our board of directors is divided into a number of classes, with each class serving staggered terms;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;
provide that our directors may be removed for cause only upon the vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock;
74

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum; and
require the approval of our board of directors or the holders of at least a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation.
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an interested stockholder. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our management could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect at the closing of this offering will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect at the closing of this offering will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) is the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law for:
any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;
any action asserting a claim against us arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law;
our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; and
any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.
These provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any claim for which the federal district courts of the United States have exclusive jurisdiction. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such actions under the Securities Act and an investor cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims and there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a forum selection provision as written in connection with claims arising under the Securities Act. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be in effect upon the closing of this offering will further provide that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation described above. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant
75

additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions.
We believe these provisions may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws by chancellors and judges, as applicable, particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, all of which could seriously harm our business.
76

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy, plans, and objectives of management for future operations and statements that are necessarily dependent upon future events are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “should,” “will,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including risks described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.
You should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We cannot assure you that the events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our ability to design, develop, manufacture and market innovative products to treat patients with challenging medical conditions, particularly those with COPD and emphysema;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
our expected future growth, including growth in international sales;
our expected future growth of our sales and marketing organization;
the size and growth potential of the markets for our products, and our ability to serve those markets;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our products;
coverage and reimbursement for procedures performed using our products;
the performance of third parties in connection with the development of our products, including third-party suppliers;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval or clearance of our products on expected timelines;
our plans to research, develop and commercialize our products and any other approved or cleared product;
77

our ability to retain and hire our senior management and other highly qualified personnel;
the development, regulatory approval, efficacy and commercialization of competing products and technologies in our industry;
our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act;
our ability to develop and maintain our corporate infrastructure, including our internal controls;
our use of proceeds from this offering;
our financial performance and capital requirements; and
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products, as well as our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
78

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA
We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data used throughout this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research, as well as from independent market research, industry and general publications and surveys, governmental agencies and publicly available information in addition to research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Internal estimates are derived from publicly available information released by industry analysts and third-party sources, our internal research and our industry experience, and are based on assumptions made by us based on such data and our knowledge of our industry and market, which we believe to be reasonable. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In addition, while we believe the industry, market and competitive position data included in this prospectus is reliable and based on reasonable assumptions, such data involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties or by us.
79

USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from our issuance and sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $88.0 million, or approximately $102.0 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $6.2 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. A 1,000,000 share increase or decrease in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $14.0 million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and facilitate our future access to the capital markets. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as follows:
approximately $45 million to hire additional sales and marketing personnel and expand marketing programs in the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific to promote the sales of Zephyr Valves;
approximately $15 million to fund product development and research and development activities;
in accordance with the terms of the Oxford Agreement and based on the amount drawn thereunder, to pay a success fee of $1.9 million to Oxford on the closing of this offering; and
the remaining proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, including acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses or technologies, although we do not currently have any plans for any such acquisitions or investments.
The expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the proceeds of this offering or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. Accordingly, our management will have significant flexibility in applying the net proceeds of this offering. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the growth of our business. Pending their use, we intend to invest the net proceeds of this offering in a variety of capital-preservation investments, including short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing, investment-grade securities and U.S. government securities.
80

DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business and, therefore, we do not anticipate declaring or paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our results of operations, capital requirements, financial condition, prospects, contractual arrangements, any limitations on payment of dividends present in our current and future debt agreements and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. We are subject to covenants under our loan agreements that place restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.
81

CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of June 30, 2020:
on an actual basis;
on a pro forma basis to reflect (1) the automatic conversion of all shares of our preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 into an aggregate of 17,856,229 shares of our common stock which resulted in the reclassification of the carrying value of our preferred stock to common stock and additional paid-in capital, which will occur in connection with the closing of this offering; (2) the assumed conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate outstanding principal amount and $0.8 million accrued interest of the 2020 Notes into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock in connection with the closing of this offering at a conversion price of $12.75 per share, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020; (3) the reclassification of the derivative instrument upon the conversion of the 2020 Notes and the estimated $3.3 million credit to additional paid-in capital; (4) a charge of $6.4 million to the accumulated deficit with a corresponding credit to additional paid in capital due to the loss on extinguishment of 2020 Notes (assuming an initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the range reflected on the cover of this prospectus); and (5) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in connection with the closing of this offering; and
on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (1) the pro forma items described immediately above; (2) the issuance and sale of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us; and (3) the payment of a $1.9 million success fee to Oxford in accordance with the terms of the Oxford Agreement, reflected as a derivative liability.
Our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this table together with “Use of Proceeds,” “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
82

As of June 30, 2020
ActualPro forma
Pro forma
as
Adjusted(1)
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share
amounts)
Cash and cash equivalents$43,347 $43,347 $129,472 
Term loan$16,723 $16,723 $16,723 
Convertible notes29,310   
Credit agreement527 527 527 
Derivative liabilities4,355 1,055  
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; 228,743,387 shares authorized, 17,797,026 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted207,599   
Stockholders’ (deficit) equity:
Common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 300,000,000 shares authorized, 2,108,292 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 200,000,000 shares authorized, 22,615,294 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; 200,000,000 shares authorized, 29,281,961 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted 2 22 29 
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, actual; 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted
   
Additional paid-in capital22,195 269,535 357,528 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss1,615 1,615 1,615 
Accumulated deficit(229,577)(236,377)(237,197)
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity$(205,765)$34,795 $121,975 
Total capitalization$52,749 $53,100 $139,225 
_______________
(1)Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity and total capitalization by $6.2 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase (decrease) the number of shares we are offering. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 in the number of shares we are offering would increase (decrease) the amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets and total stockholders’ equity by $14.0 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information is illustrative only and we will adjust this information based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 22,615,294 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, which includes (i) 17,856,229 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of all of our outstanding shares of preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and (ii) the issuance of 2,650,773 shares of common stock in connection with the closing of this offering as a result of the automatic conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes plus accrued interest, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the
83

midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020, and excludes:
3,490,688 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.69 per share, of which 1,436,992 shares of common stock were issued upon the exercise of options after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020;
834,871 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020 under our 2020 Stock Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.19 per share;
10,725 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Stock Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan becomes effective;
353,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that we expect to grant under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, to each of our non-employee directors and other employees and service providers at an exercise price equal to the initial public offering price of this offering;
3,600,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan; and
720,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering and will include provisions that automatically increase the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance thereunder each year.
84

DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after the closing of this offering.
As of June 30, 2020, our historical net tangible book deficit was $208.6 million, or $98.92 per share of our common stock. Our historical net tangible book deficit represents our total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets and goodwill) less our total liabilities and our preferred stock that is not included in equity. Our historical net tangible book value per share represents historical net tangible book value divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020.
Our pro forma net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 was $32.0 million, or $1.41 per share of common stock. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, after giving effect to (i) the automatic conversion of 17,856,229 shares of preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 immediately upon the closing of this offering (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus); (ii) the assumed conversion of the $33.0 million aggregate outstanding principal amount and $0.8 million accrued interest of the 2020 Notes into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock in connection with the closing of this offering at a conversion price of $12.75 per share, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020; and (iii) the reclassification of the derivative instrument upon the conversion of the 2020 Notes and the estimated $3.3 million credit to additional paid-in capital.
Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value represents our pro forma net tangible book value, plus the effect of the sale of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been $119.2 million, or $4.07 per share of our common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $2.66 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $10.93 per share to investors participating in this offering. We determine dilution per share to investors participating in this offering by subtracting pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed initial public offering price per share paid by investors participating in this offering.
The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis to new investors:
Assumed initial public offering price per share $15.00 
Historical net tangible book (deficit) value per share as of June 30, 2020$(98.92)
Pro forma change in historical net tangible book deficit per share attributable to the pro forma transactions described in the preceding paragraphs$100.33 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020$1.41 
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributed to new investors participating in this offering
$2.66 
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
$4.07 
Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering
$10.93 
85

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and will change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Each $1.00 increase in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share by $0.23 per share and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.77 per share, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each $1.00 decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share by $0.28 per share and decrease the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.72 per share, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares we are offering. A 1,000,000 share increase in the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share by $0.33 and decrease the dilution per share to investors participating in this offering by $0.33, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A 1,000,000 share decrease in the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would decrease the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.35 and increase the dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering by $0.35, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after estimated deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual initial offering price to public and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
If the underwriters exercise their option in full to purchase 1,000,000 additional shares of our common stock in this offering, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of our common stock would increase to $4.40 per share, representing an immediate increase to existing stockholders of $0.33 per share and an immediate dilution of $10.60 per share to investors participating in this offering, in each case, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after estimated deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The following table summarizes as of June 30, 2020, on the pro forma as adjusted basis described above, the number of shares of our common stock, the total consideration and the average price per share (1) paid to us by our existing stockholders and (2) to be paid by investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Shares PurchasedTotal Consideration
Weighted-
Average Price
NumberPercent
Amount
(in thousands)
PercentPer Share
Existing stockholders22,615,294 77.23 %$261,296 72.32 %$11.55 
New investors6,666,667 22.77 %$100,000 27.68 %$15.00 
Total29,281,961 100 %$361,296 100 %
If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, the number of shares of our common stock held by existing stockholders would be reduced to 74.68% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering, and the number of shares of common stock held by new investors purchasing
86

common stock in this offering would be increased to 25.32% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.
The outstanding share information in the table above is based on 22,615,294 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, which includes (i) 17,856,229 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of all of our outstanding shares of preferred stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020 (assuming a conversion ratio equal to approximately 1.0120 shares of common stock for each share of Series G-1 preferred stock based on an assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and (ii) the conversion of the 2020 Notes plus accrued interest thereon into 2,650,773 shares of our common stock based on the assumed initial public offering price of $15.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and an assumed closing date of this offering and conversion date of October 2, 2020, in connection with the closing of this offering and excludes:
3,490,688 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.69 per share, of which 1,436,992 shares of common stock were issued upon the exercise of options after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020;
834,871 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after June 30, 2020 through September 23, 2020 under our 2020 Stock Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.19 per share;
10,725 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Stock Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan becomes effective;
353,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options that we expect to grant under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, to each of our non-employee directors and other employees and service providers at an exercise price equal to the initial public offering price of this offering;
3,600,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering, as well as any annual automatic evergreen increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan; and
720,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective prior to the closing of this offering and will include provisions that automatically increase the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance thereunder each year.
To the extent any of the outstanding options described above are exercised, new options are issued or we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.
87

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
The selected consolidated statements of operations data presented below for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the selected consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and our selected consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal, recurring adjustments that are necessary for a fair presentation of the unaudited interim consolidated information. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future and our operating results for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 or any other interim periods or any future year or period.
When you read this selected consolidated financial and other data, it is important that you read it together with the historical consolidated financial statements and related notes to those statements, as well as “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Years Ended December 31,Six Months Ended June 30,
2018201920192020
(unaudited)
 (in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue$20,004 $32,595 $13,144 $12,291 
Cost of goods sold7,718 10,181 4,474 5,629 
Gross profit12,286 22,414 8,670 6,662 
Operating expenses:
Research and development6,991 6,049 3,047 2,991 
Selling, general and administrative20,347 34,203 15,558 21,301 
Total operating expenses27,338 40,252 18,605 24,292 
Loss from operations(15,052)(17,838)(9,935)(17,630)
Interest income21 432 143 89 
Interest expense(2,520)(2,317)(1,407)(1,811)
Other income (expense), net(916)(617)(373)421 
Net loss before tax(18,467)(20,340)(11,572)(18,931)
Income tax expense12 363 127 143 
Net loss$(18,479)$(20,703)$(11,699)$(19,074)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(1)
$(11.03)$(11.66)$(6.85)$(9.93)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(1)
1,674,779 1,776,110 1,709,097 1,921,073 
Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
$(1.14)$(0.91)
Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share, basic and diluted (unaudited)(1)
18,133,760 20,804,441 
_______________
(1)For an explanation of the method used to calculate our historical and pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share, and weighted average number of shares used in the computation of per share amounts, see Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in the prospectus.
88

As of December 31, As of June 30,
201820192020
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities$4,124 $28,347 $43,347 
Working capital(1)
3,236