10-Q 1 vmw-54201810xq.htm 10-Q Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
(Mark One)
þ
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended May 4, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period            from            to
Commission File Number 001-33622
_______________________________________________________
VMWARE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________________________________________
Delaware
94-3292913
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
3401 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, CA
94304
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(650) 427-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_____________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 þ
 
Accelerated filer
o
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
o
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 o
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  o    No  þ
As of June 1, 2018, the number of shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the registrant outstanding was 406,861,758, of which 106,861,758 shares were Class A common stock and 300,000,000 were Class B common stock.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VMware, vCloud, vSphere, NSX, VMware vSAN, VMware Cloud, Workspace ONE, Horizon, AirWatch, vRealize and VMware Cloud Foundation are registered trademarks or trademarks of VMware or its subsidiaries in the United States and other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.


2


PART I
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
VMware, Inc.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(amounts in millions, except per share amounts, and shares in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
Revenue(2):
 
 
 
License
$
774

 
$
641

Services
1,234

 
1,124

Total revenue
2,008

 
1,765

Operating expenses(3):
 
 
 
Cost of license revenue
45

 
39

Cost of services revenue
251

 
250

Research and development
453

 
421

Sales and marketing
706

 
579

General and administrative
169

 
151

Realignment and loss on disposition
2

 
64

Operating income
382

 
261

Investment income
48

 
23

Interest expense
(34
)
 
(7
)
Other income (expense), net
779

 
4

Income before income tax
1,175

 
281

Income tax provision
233

 
36

Net income
$
942

 
$
245

Net income per weighted-average share, basic for Classes A and B
$
2.33

 
$
0.60

Net income per weighted-average share, diluted for Classes A and B
$
2.29

 
$
0.59

Weighted-average shares, basic for Classes A and B
404,968

 
408,431

Weighted-average shares, diluted for Classes A and B
410,932

 
414,018

__________
 
 
 
(1)   Adjusted to reflect the retrospective adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”).
(2)   Includes related party license revenue of $167 million and $113 million and related party services revenue of $204 million and $140 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, respectively (refer to Note C).
(3)    Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 
 
Cost of license revenue
$

 
$
1

Cost of services revenue
11

 
14

Research and development
84

 
82

Sales and marketing
46

 
48

General and administrative
20

 
18

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


VMware, Inc.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions)
(unaudited)
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
Net income
$
942

 
$
245

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Changes in market value of available-for-sale securities:
 
 
 
Unrealized gains (losses), net of tax provision (benefit) of ($5) and $5
(15
)
 
8

Reclassification of (gains) losses realized during the period, net of tax benefit of $— for all periods

 
1

Net change in market value of available-for-sale securities
(15
)
 
9

Changes in market value of effective foreign currency forward contracts:
 
 
 
Unrealized gains (losses), net of tax provision of $— for all periods
(9
)
 
5

Reclassification of (gains) losses realized during the period, net of tax provision of $— for all periods

 
1

Net change in market value of effective foreign currency forward contracts
(9
)
 
6

Total other comprehensive income (loss)
(24
)
 
15

Total comprehensive income, net of taxes
$
918

 
$
260

__________
 
 
 
(1)   Adjusted to reflect the retrospective adoption of Topic 606.
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

4


VMware, Inc.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in millions, except per share amounts, and shares in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018(1)
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
7,101

 
$
5,971

Short-term investments
5,529

 
5,682

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $2 and $2
1,001

 
1,394

Due from related parties, net
181

 
532

Other current assets
289

 
257

Total current assets
14,101

 
13,836

Property and equipment, net
1,098

 
1,074

Other assets
1,710

 
924

Deferred tax assets
48

 
227

Intangible assets, net
535

 
548

Goodwill
4,596

 
4,597

Total assets
$
22,088

 
$
21,206

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
126

 
$
15

Accrued expenses and other
1,141

 
1,357

Unearned revenue
3,370

 
3,438

Total current liabilities
4,637

 
4,810

Notes payable to Dell
270

 
270

Long-term debt
3,966

 
3,964

Unearned revenue
2,386

 
2,401

Income tax payable
957

 
954

Other liabilities
212

 
183

Total liabilities
12,428

 
12,582

Contingencies (refer to Note K)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Class A common stock, par value $.01; authorized 2,500,000 shares; issued and outstanding 106,434 and 103,776 shares
1

 
1

Class B convertible common stock, par value $.01; authorized 1,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding 300,000 shares
3

 
3

Additional paid-in capital
992

 
844

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(54
)
 
(15
)
Retained earnings
8,718

 
7,791

Total stockholders’ equity
9,660

 
8,624

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
22,088

 
$
21,206

__________
 
 
 
(1)   Adjusted to reflect the retrospective adoption of Topic 606.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

5


VMware, Inc.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017(1)
Operating activities:
 
 
 
Net income
$
942

 
$
245

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
156

 
136

Stock-based compensation
161

 
163

Deferred income taxes, net
180

 
2

Unrealized (gain) loss on equity securities, net
(776
)
 

Loss on disposition
1

 
63

Loss on disposition of assets, revaluation and impairment

 
3

Loss on Dell stock purchase

 
2

Changes in assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
393

 
321

Other current assets and other assets
(136
)
 
(66
)
Due to/from related parties, net
351

 
(34
)
Accounts payable
101

 
59

Accrued expenses and other liabilities
(215
)
 
(42
)
Income taxes payable
20

 
15

Unearned revenue
(83
)
 
(90
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
1,095

 
777

Investing activities:
 
 
 
Additions to property and equipment
(61
)
 
(49
)
Purchases of available-for-sale securities
(391
)
 
(506
)
Sales of available-for-sale securities
148

 
548

Maturities of available-for-sale securities
371

 
418

Purchases of strategic investments
(2
)
 
(6
)
Proceeds from disposition of assets
2

 

Business combinations, net of cash acquired
(26
)
 

Net cash paid on disposition of a business
(2
)
 

Net cash provided by investing activities
39

 
405

Financing activities:
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
91

 
7

Repurchase of common stock

 
(425
)
Shares repurchased for tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock
(94
)
 
(120
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(3
)
 
(538
)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
1,131

 
644

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the period
6,003

 
3,239

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the period
$
7,134

 
$
3,883

Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
$
63

 
$
9

Cash paid for taxes, net
42

 
27

Non-cash items:
 
 
 
Changes in capital additions, accrued but not paid
$
11

 
$
5

__________
 
 
 
(1)   Adjusted to reflect the retrospective adoption of Topic 606 and ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash (Topic 230). The adoption of Topic 606 had no impact to net cash provided by or used in operating, investing and financing activities.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

6


VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
A. Overview and Basis of Presentation
Company and Background
VMware, Inc. (“VMware” or the “Company”) pioneered the development and application of virtualization technologies with x86 server-based computing, separating application software from the underlying hardware. Information technology (“IT”) driven innovation is disrupting markets and industries. Technologies emerge faster than organizations can absorb, creating increasingly complex environments. To take on this challenge, businesses need a flexible and secure digital foundation. VMware provides compute, cloud, mobility, networking and security infrastructure software to businesses that provides a flexible digital foundation for the applications that empower businesses to serve their customers globally.
Accounting Principles
The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
VMware adopted Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash (Topic 230), effective February 3, 2018 using retrospective application. As part of the adoption, certain prior period amounts have been adjusted or reclassified within the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim financial reporting. In the opinion of management, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments and accruals, for a fair statement of VMware’s condensed consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows for the periods presented. Results of operations are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year 2019. Certain information and footnote disclosures typically included in annual consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. Accordingly, these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in VMware’s Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2018. 
Effective September 7, 2016, Dell Technologies Inc. (“Dell”) (formerly Denali Holding Inc.) acquired EMC Corporation (“EMC”), VMware’s parent company, including EMC’s majority control of VMware (the “Dell Acquisition”). As of May 4, 2018, Dell controlled 81.4% of VMware’s outstanding common stock and 97.6% of the combined voting power of VMware’s outstanding common stock, including 31 million shares of VMware’s Class A common stock and all of VMware’s Class B common stock.
As VMware is a majority-owned and controlled subsidiary of Dell, its results of operations and financial position are consolidated with Dell’s financial statements. Transactions prior to the effective date of the Dell Acquisition represent transactions only with EMC and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Management believes the assumptions underlying the condensed consolidated financial statements are reasonable. However, the amounts recorded for VMware’s intercompany transactions with Dell and its consolidated subsidiaries may not be considered arm’s length with an unrelated third party. Therefore, the condensed consolidated financial statements included herein may not necessarily reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows had VMware engaged in such transactions with an unrelated third party during all periods presented. Accordingly, VMware’s historical financial information is not necessarily indicative of what the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows will be in the future if and when VMware contracts at arm’s length with unrelated third parties for products and services the Company receives from and provides to Dell.
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of VMware and subsidiaries in which VMware has a controlling financial interest. All intercompany transactions and account balances between VMware and its subsidiaries have been eliminated in consolidation. Transactions with Dell and its consolidated subsidiaries are generally settled in cash and are classified on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows based upon the nature of the underlying transaction.

7

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Use of Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Estimates are used for, but not limited to, trade receivable valuation, marketing development funds and rebates, useful lives assigned to fixed assets and intangible assets, valuation of goodwill and definite-lived intangibles, income taxes, stock-based compensation and contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant Accounting Policies
During May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). In 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10 and ASU 2016-12, which provided interpretive clarifications on the guidance in Topic 606 (collectively, “Topic 606”). The updated revenue standard replaced all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP and established common principles for recognizing revenue for all industries. It also provided guidance on the accounting for costs to fulfill or obtain a customer contract. The core principle underlying the updated standard is the recognition of revenue based on consideration expected to be entitled from the transfer of goods or services to a customer. VMware adopted Topic 606 on a full retrospective basis effective February 3, 2018, consequently, previously reported amounts were adjusted to reflect the adoption of Topic 606.
Significant accounting policies applicable to revenue recognition and deferred commissions have been updated to reflect the adoption of Topic 606. There were no other changes to the VMware’s significant accounting policies described in the Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2018 that have had a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes.
Revenue Recognition
VMware derives revenue primarily from licensing software under perpetual licenses or consumption-based contracts, related software maintenance and support, training, consulting services and hosted services. VMware accounts for a contract with a customer if all criteria defined by the guidance are met, including collectibility of consideration is probable. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of licenses or services to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration VMware expects to receive in exchange for those licenses or services. Control of a promised good or service may be transferred to a customer either at a point in time or over time, which affects the timing of revenue recognition. VMware’s contracts with customers may include a combination of licenses and services that are accounted for as distinct performance obligations. Certain contracts include third-party offerings and revenue may be recognized net of the third-party costs, based upon an assessment as to whether VMware had control of the underlying third-party offering. Revenue is recognized net of any taxes invoiced to customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.
License Revenue
VMware generally sells its license software through distributors, resellers, system vendors, systems integrators and through its direct sales force. Performance obligations related to license revenue, including the license portion of term licenses, represent functional intellectual property under which a customer has the right to use the software license. The license provides significant standalone functionality and is a separate performance obligation from the maintenance and support, and professional services sold by VMware. On-premises license revenue is recognized at a point in time, upon delivery and transfer of control of the underlying license to the customer.
License revenue from on-premises license software sold to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) is recognized when the sale occurs. Revenue is recognized upon reporting by the OEMs of their sales, and for the period where information of the underlying sales has not been made available, revenue is recognized based upon estimated sales.
VMware Cloud Provider Program (“VCPP”) partners rent on-premises licenses from VMware, and the rental fee is recognized as license revenue upon consumption. Generally, contracts with VCPP partners include cancellation rights. License revenue is based upon reported consumption by VCPP partners and includes estimates for the period when consumption information has not been made available.
License revenue also includes an allocated portion of hosted services, which is recognized as revenue based on delivery over time.
Services Revenue
VMware’s services revenue generally consists of software maintenance and support, professional services and an allocated portion of hosted services. Software maintenance and support offerings entitle customers to receive major and minor product

8

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

upgrades on a when-and-if-available basis, and technical support. Maintenance and support services are comprised of multiple performance obligations including updates, upgrades to licenses and technical support. While separate performance obligations are identified within maintenance and support services, the underlying performance obligations generally have a consistent continuous pattern of transfer to a customer during the term of a contract. Maintenance and support services revenue is recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract duration.
Professional services include design, implementation, training and consulting services. Professional services performed by VMware represent distinct performance obligations as they do not modify or customize licenses sold and such services are not highly interdependent or highly interrelated to licenses sold such that a customer would not be able to use the licenses without the professional services. Revenue from fixed fee professional services engagements is recognized as the project is being completed as progress against the contractual deliverables of the project can be reasonably estimated. As a practical expedient, VMware recognizes revenue from professional services engagements invoiced on a time and materials basis as the hours are incurred based on VMware’s right to invoice amounts for performance completed to date.
VMware’s hosted services consist of certain software offerings sold as a service-based technology without the customer’s ability to take possession of the software over the subscription term. Currently, hosted services are recognized as revenue equally in both license and services over time as customers consume the services or ratably over the term of the subscription, commencing upon provisioning of the service.
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
VMware enters into revenue contracts with multiple performance obligations in which a customer may purchase combinations of licenses, maintenance and support, training, consulting services, hosted services and rights to future products and services. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, VMware allocates total transaction value to the identified underlying performance obligations based on relative standalone selling price (“SSP”). VMware typically estimates SSP of services based on observable transactions when the services are sold on a standalone basis and those prices fall within a reasonable range. VMware utilizes the residual approach to estimate SSP of license as the licenses are not sold standalone and the same products are sold to different customers at a broad range of prices which are highly variable.
Deferred Commissions
Sales commissions, including the employer portion of payroll taxes, earned by VMware's sales force are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract, and are deferred and generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected period of benefit. The expected period of benefit is determined using the contract term or underlying technology life, if renewals are expected and the renewal commission is not commensurate with the initial commission. Sales commissions related to software maintenance and support renewals are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the contractual renewal period.
U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
The United States (“U.S.”) Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”) introduced significant changes to U.S. income tax law, including a reduction of the U.S. statutory corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%. During December 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“SAB 118”), which allows recognition of provisional tax amounts during a measurement period not to extend beyond one year of the enactment date. Due to the timing of the enactment and the complexity involved in applying the provisions of the 2017 Tax Act, VMware has made reasonable estimates for these effects and recorded provisional amounts on its condensed consolidated financial statements for the three months ended May 4, 2018. The Company expects to complete its analysis within the measurement period permitted under SAB 118.
The Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) provisions of the 2017 Tax Act require VMware to include in its U.S. income tax return foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. VMware has not elected its accounting policy as to the implementation of the GILTI provisions but plans to do so within the measurement period permitted under SAB 118. VMware recognized the tax impacts associated with GILTI as a current expense on its condensed consolidated statements of income during the three months ended May 4, 2018.
New Accounting Pronouncements
ASU No. 2016-02, Leases
During February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires a lessee to recognize a lease liability for the obligation to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset for the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The updated standard also requires additional disclosure regarding leasing

9

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

arrangements. It is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and requires a modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted. VMware is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, and expects that most of its lease commitments will be subject to the updated standard and recognized as lease liabilities and right-of-use assets upon adoption.
B. Revenue
Full Retrospective Adoption
The adoption of Topic 606 impacted VMware’s previously reported results as follows (tables in millions):
 
Three Months Ended May 5, 2017
 
As Reported
 
Topic 606 Adjustments
 
As Adjusted
Selected Captions from the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
License
$
610

 
$
31

 
$
641

Services
1,126

 
(2
)
 
1,124

Total revenue
1,736

 
29

 
1,765

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
586

 
(7
)
 
579

Realignment and loss on disposition
51

 
13

 
64

Operating income
238

 
23

 
261

Income before income tax
258

 
23

 
281

Income tax provision
26

 
10

 
36

Net income
232

 
13

 
245

 
February 2, 2018
 
As Reported
 
Topic 606 Adjustments
 
As Adjusted
Selected Captions from the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts
$
1,312

 
$
82

 
$
1,394

Other current assets
237

 
20

 
257

Other assets
323

 
601

 
924

Deferred tax assets
346

 
(119
)
 
227

Accrued expenses and other
1,241

 
116

 
1,357

Unearned revenue
6,250

 
(411
)
 
5,839

Other liabilities
152

 
31

 
183

Retained earnings
6,943

 
848

 
7,791

The adoption of Topic 606 had no impact to net cash provided by or used in operating, investing and financing activities on VMware’s condensed consolidated statements of cash flows during the three months ended May 5, 2017.
Receivables
VMware records a receivable when an unconditional right to consideration exists and transfer of control has occurred, such that only the passage of time is required before payment of consideration is due. Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers.
Payment terms vary based on license or service offerings and payment is generally required within 30 to 45 days from date of invoicing. Certain performance obligations may require payment before delivery of the license or service to the customer.

10

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Contract Assets
A contract asset is recognized when a conditional right to consideration exists and transfer of control has occurred. Contract assets include fixed fee professional services where transfer of services has occurred in advance of the Company's right to invoice. Contract assets are classified as accounts receivables upon invoicing. Contract assets are included in other current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Contract assets were $20 million and $27 million as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, respectively. Contract asset balances will fluctuate based upon the timing of transfer of services, billings and customer’s acceptance of contractual milestones.
Contract Liabilities
Contract liabilities consist of unearned revenue, which is generally recorded when VMware has the right to invoice or payments have been received for undelivered products or services. Refer to Note L for further information.
Customer Deposits
Customer deposits include prepayments from customers related to amounts received for contracts that include cancellation rights. Purchased credits eligible for redemption of VMware’s hosted services (“cloud credits”) are included in customer deposits until the cloud credit is consumed or is contractually committed to a specific hosted service. Cloud credits are redeemable by the customer for the gross value of the hosted offering. Upon contractual commitment for a hosted service, the net value of the cloud credits that are expected to be recognized as revenue as the obligation is fulfilled will be classified as unearned revenue.
As of May 4, 2018, customer deposits related to customer prepayments and cloud credits of $186 million were included in accrued expenses and other and $25 million were included in other long-term liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of February 2, 2018, customer deposits related to customer prepayments were $126 million and were included in accrued expenses and other on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred Commissions
Deferred commissions are classified as current or non-current based on the duration of the expected period of benefit. Deferred commissions, including employer portion of payroll taxes, included in other current assets as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018 was not significant. Deferred commissions included in other assets was $650 million and $638 million as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, respectively.
For the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, amortization expense for deferred commissions was $67 million and $51 million, respectively, and was included in sales and marketing on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
Upon adoption of Topic 606, VMware recognized an impairment on its deferred commission of $13 million during the three months ended May 5, 2017, relating to the sales of vCloud Air services. VMware completed the sale of its vCloud Air business (“vCloud Air”) to OVH US LLC (“OVH”) during the second quarter of fiscal 2018.
C. Related Parties
The information provided below includes a summary of the transactions entered into with Dell and Dell’s consolidated subsidiaries, including EMC (collectively, “Dell”).
Transactions with Dell
VMware and Dell engaged in the following ongoing intercompany transactions, which resulted in revenue and receipts and unearned revenue for VMware:
Pursuant to OEM and reseller arrangements, Dell integrates or bundles VMware’s products and services with Dell’s products and sells them to end users. Dell also acts as a distributor, purchasing VMware’s standalone products and services for resale to end-user customers through VMware-authorized resellers. Revenue under these arrangements is presented net of related marketing development funds and rebates paid to Dell. In addition, VMware provides professional services to end users based upon contractual agreements with Dell.
Dell purchases products and services from VMware for its internal use.
Pursuant to an ongoing distribution agreement, VMware acts as the selling agent for certain products and services of Pivotal Software, Inc. (“Pivotal”), a subsidiary of Dell, in exchange for an agency fee. Under this agreement, cash is collected from the end user by VMware and remitted to Pivotal, net of the contractual agency fee.

11

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Dell purchases VMware products and services directly from VMware, as well as through VMware’s channel partners. Information about VMware’s revenue and receipts, and unearned revenue from such arrangements, for the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
Revenue and Receipts
 
Unearned Revenue
 
Three Months Ended
 
As of
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2018
Reseller revenue
$
360

 
$
249

 
$
1,311

 
$
1,236

Internal-use revenue
7

 
4

 
6

 
12

Agency fee revenue
4

 

 

 

VMware and Dell engaged in the following ongoing intercompany transactions, which resulted in costs to VMware:
VMware purchases and leases products and purchases services from Dell.
From time to time, VMware and Dell enter into agreements to collaborate on technology projects, and VMware pays Dell for services provided to VMware by Dell related to such projects and Dell also provides funding for such projects.
In certain geographic regions where VMware does not have an established legal entity, VMware contracts with Dell subsidiaries for support services and support from Dell personnel who are managed by VMware. The costs incurred by Dell on VMware’s behalf related to these employees are charged to VMware with a mark-up intended to approximate costs that would have been incurred had VMware contracted for such services with an unrelated third-party. These costs are included as expenses on VMware’s condensed consolidated statements of income and primarily include salaries, benefits, travel and occupancy expenses. Dell also incurs certain administrative costs on VMware’s behalf in the U.S. that are recorded as expenses on VMware’s condensed consolidated statements of income.
From time to time, VMware invoices end users on behalf of Dell for certain services rendered by Dell. Cash related to these services is collected from the end user by VMware and remitted to Dell.
Information about VMware’s costs from such arrangements during the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017
Purchases and leases of products and purchases of services
$
49

 
$
36

Dell subsidiary support and administrative costs
28

 
29

VMware also purchases Dell products through Dell’s channel partners. Purchases of Dell products through Dell’s channel partners were not significant during the periods presented.
From time to time, VMware and Dell also enter into joint marketing and product development arrangements, for which both parties may incur costs.
Dell Financial Services (“DFS”)
DFS provided financing to certain of VMware’s end customers based on the customer’s discretion. Upon acceptance of the financing arrangement by both VMware’s end customer and DFS, amounts classified as trade accounts receivable are reclassified to due from related parties, net on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Revenue recognized on transactions financed through DFS was recorded net of financing fees, which were $16 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018. Financing fees during the three months ended May 5, 2017 were not significant.
Tax Sharing Agreement with Dell
Payments made to Dell pursuant to a tax sharing agreement were not significant during the three months ended May 4, 2018. There were no payments to Dell pursuant to the tax sharing agreement during the three months ended May 5, 2017.
Payments from VMware to Dell under the tax sharing agreement relate to VMware’s portion of federal income taxes on Dell’s consolidated tax return as well as state tax payments for combined states. The timing of the tax payments due to and from

12

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

related parties is governed by the tax sharing agreement. The amounts that VMware pays to Dell for its portion of federal income taxes on Dell’s consolidated tax return differ from the amounts VMware would owe on a separate tax return basis and the difference is recognized as a component of additional paid-in capital, generally in the period in which the consolidated return is filed. The difference between the amount of tax calculated on a separate tax return basis and the amount of tax calculated pursuant to the tax sharing agreement that was recorded in additional paid-in capital during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017 was not significant.
Due To/From Related Parties, Net
Amounts due to and from related parties, net as of the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018
Due to related parties
$
134

 
$
106

Due from related parties
315

 
638

Due from related parties, net
$
181

 
$
532

 
 
 
 
Income tax due to related parties
$
804

 
$
781

Amounts included in due from related parties, net, excluding DFS and tax obligations, are generally settled in cash within 60 days of each quarter-end.
Stock Purchase Arrangements with Dell
From time to time, VMware enters into stock purchase arrangements with Dell. The following table summarizes purchases of VMware Class A common stock from Dell during the three months ended May 5, 2017, pursuant to stock purchase agreements entered into on December 15, 2016 and March 29, 2017 (aggregate purchase price in millions, shares in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 5,
 
2017
Aggregate purchase price
$
357

Class A common shares repurchased(1)
4,161

Weighted-average price per share
$
85.85

(1) The aggregate number of shares purchased was determined based upon a volume-weighted average price during a defined period, less an agreed upon discount.
There were no purchases of VMware Class A common stock from Dell during the three months ended May 4, 2018.
Notes Payable to Dell
On January 21, 2014, VMware entered into a note exchange agreement with its parent company providing for the issuance of three promissory notes in the aggregate principal amount of $1,500 million, which consisted of outstanding principal due on the following dates: $680 million due May 1, 2018, $550 million due May 1, 2020 and $270 million due December 1, 2022.
On August 21, 2017, VMware repaid two of the notes payable to Dell in the aggregate principal amount of $1,230 million, representing repayment of the note due May 1, 2018 at par value and repayment of the note due May 1, 2020 at a discount. The remaining note payable of $270 million due December 1, 2022 may be prepaid without penalty or premium.
Interest is payable quarterly in arrears, at the annual rate of 1.75%. Interest expense recognized during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017 was not significant.

13

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Pivotal
As of February 2, 2018, VMware had a 20% ownership interest in Pivotal, and the investment was accounted for using the cost method. The value of the investment included on the condensed consolidated balance sheets was $20 million as of February 2, 2018. Prior to Pivotal’s initial public offering on April 20, 2018, VMware’s previously held preferred shares were converted to shares of non-trading Class B common stock, resulting in VMware having an 18% ownership interest and a 24% voting interest in Pivotal. As a result of Pivotal’s initial public offering, VMware’s investment in Pivotal was adjusted to its fair value of $801 million, and VMware recognized a gain of $781 million in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income. VMware also recognized a discrete tax impact of $179 million related to its book and tax basis difference on the investment in Pivotal, net of the reversal of the previously recorded valuation allowance. Refer to Note I for further discussion.
D. Definite-Lived Intangible Assets, Net
During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, VMware completed four asset acquisitions, in which the Company acquired certain intangible assets classified as completed technology. The aggregate purchase price of the intangible assets acquired was $26 million.
As of the periods presented, definite-lived intangible assets consisted of the following (amounts in tables in millions):
 
May 4, 2018
 
Weighted-Average Useful Lives
(in years)
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Net Book Value
Purchased technology
6.4
 
$
752

 
$
(472
)
 
$
280

Leasehold interest
34.9
 
149

 
(30
)
 
119

Customer relationships and customer lists
7.8
 
177

 
(79
)
 
98

Trademarks and tradenames
8.4
 
70

 
(33
)
 
37

Other
7.5
 
3

 
(2
)
 
1

Total definite-lived intangible assets
 
 
$
1,151

 
$
(616
)
 
$
535

 
February 2, 2018
 
Weighted-Average Useful Lives
(in years)
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Net Book Value
Purchased technology
6.4
 
$
750

 
$
(466
)
 
$
284

Leasehold interest
34.9
 
149

 
(29
)
 
120

Customer relationships and customer lists
7.8
 
177

 
(74
)
 
103

Trademarks and tradenames
8.4
 
70

 
(31
)
 
39

Other
5.7
 
5

 
(3
)
 
2

Total definite-lived intangible assets
 
 
$
1,151

 
$
(603
)
 
$
548

Amortization expense on definite-lived intangible assets was $39 million and $32 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, respectively.

14

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Based on intangible assets recorded as of May 4, 2018 and assuming no subsequent additions, dispositions or impairment of underlying assets, the remaining estimated annual amortization expense over the next five fiscal years and thereafter is expected to be as follows (table in millions):
Remainder of 2019
$
113

2020
128

2021
74

2022
58

2023
36

Thereafter
126

Total
$
535

E. Realignment and Loss on Disposition
Disposition of VMware vCloud Air Business
On April 4, 2017, VMware announced the sale of vCloud Air to OVH. The loss recognized in connection with this transaction was $64 million and was included in realignment and loss on disposition on the condensed consolidated statements of income. The loss of $64 million included the impairment of deferred commissions resulting from the retrospective adoption of Topic 606, which was $13 million during the three months ended May 5, 2017. VMware completed the sale of vCloud Air to OVH during the second quarter of fiscal 2018.
F. Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during the period, as calculated using the treasury stock method. Potentially dilutive securities primarily include unvested restricted stock units, including performance stock units, and stock options, including purchase options under VMware’s employee stock purchase plan. Securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share if their effect would be anti-dilutive. VMware uses the two-class method to calculate net income per share as both classes share the same rights in dividends, therefore basic and diluted earnings per share are the same for both classes.
The following table sets forth the computations of basic and diluted net income per share during the periods presented (table in millions, except per share amounts and shares in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017
Net income
$
942

 
$
245

Weighted-average shares, basic for Classes A and B
404,968

 
408,431

Effect of other dilutive securities
5,964

 
5,587

Weighted-average shares, diluted for Classes A and B
410,932

 
414,018

Net income per weighted-average share, basic for Classes A and B
$
2.33

 
$
0.60

Net income per weighted-average share, diluted for Classes A and B
$
2.29

 
$
0.59


15

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

The following table sets forth the weighted-average common share equivalents of Class A common stock that were excluded from the diluted net income per share calculations during the periods presented, because their effect would have been anti-dilutive (shares in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017
Anti-dilutive securities:
 
 
 
Employee stock options

 
895

Restricted stock units
177

 
44

Total
177

 
939

G. Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
Cash, cash equivalents and investments as of the periods presented consisted of the following (tables in millions):
 
May 4, 2018
 
Cost or Amortized Cost
 
Unrealized Gains
 
Unrealized Losses
 
Aggregate Fair Value
Cash
$
413

 
$

 
$

 
$
413

Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money-market funds
$
6,621

 
$

 
$

 
$
6,621

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
67

 

 

 
67

Total cash equivalents
$
6,688

 
$

 
$

 
$
6,688

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government and agency obligations
$
956

 
$

 
$
(9
)
 
$
947

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
4,402

 
1

 
(48
)
 
4,355

Foreign governments and multi-national agency obligations
97

 

 
(1
)
 
96

Mortgage-backed securities
107

 

 
(3
)
 
104

Total short-term investments(1)
$
5,562

 
$
1

 
$
(61
)
 
$
5,502

(1) Short-term investments on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of May 4, 2018 includes the marketable equity investment carried at fair value. Refer to Note I for further information.

16

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

 
February 2, 2018
 
Cost or Amortized Cost
 
Unrealized Gains
 
Unrealized Losses
 
Aggregate Fair Value
Cash
$
423

 
$

 
$

 
$
423

Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money-market funds
$
5,460

 
$

 
$

 
$
5,460

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
88

 

 

 
88

Total cash equivalents
$
5,548

 
$

 
$

 
$
5,548

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government and agency obligations
$
965

 
$

 
$
(8
)
 
$
957

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
4,503

 
1

 
(31
)
 
4,473

Foreign governments and multi-national agency obligations
99

 

 
(1
)
 
98

Mortgage-backed securities
123

 

 
(2
)
 
121

Marketable available-for-sale equity securities
15

 
18

 

 
33

Total short-term investments
$
5,705

 
$
19

 
$
(42
)
 
$
5,682

VMware evaluated its available-for-sale investments as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018 for other-than-temporary declines in fair value and did not consider any to be other-than-temporarily impaired. The realized gains and losses on investments during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017 were not significant.
Unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments, which have been in a net loss position for less than twelve months as of the periods presented, were classified by sector as follows (table in millions):
 
May 4, 2018
 
February 2, 2018
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Losses
U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
$
3,097

 
$
(37
)
 
$
3,100

 
$
(22
)
As of the periods presented, unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments in the other investment categories, which have been in a net loss position for less than twelve months, were not significant.
Unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments, which have been in a net loss position for twelve months or greater as of the periods presented, were classified by sector as follows (table in millions):
 
May 4, 2018
 
February 2, 2018
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair Value
 
Unrealized
Losses
U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities
$
670

 
$
(11
)
 
$
693

 
$
(9
)
As of the periods presented, unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments in the other investment categories, which have been in a net loss position for twelve months or greater, were not significant.

17

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Contractual Maturities
The contractual maturities of fixed income securities included in short-term investments on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and held as of May 4, 2018, consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
Amortized
Cost Basis
 
Aggregate
Fair Value
Due within one year
$
2,392

 
$
2,384

Due after 1 year through 5 years
3,010

 
2,963

Due after 5 years through 10 years
91

 
88

Due after 10 years
69

 
67

Total fixed income securities
$
5,562

 
$
5,502

Restricted Cash
During November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, for which restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents is included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The updated standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and requires a full retrospective transition method. VMware adopted ASU 2016-18 during the first quarter of fiscal 2019 and has applied the standard retrospectively to all periods presented. The adoption of ASU 2016-18 did not have a significant impact on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended May 5, 2017.
The following table provides a reconciliation of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, current portion of restricted cash and non-current portion of restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods presented (table in millions):
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018
Cash and cash equivalents
$
7,101

 
$
5,971

Restricted cash within other current assets
24

 
22

Restricted cash within other assets
9

 
10

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
$
7,134

 
$
6,003

Amounts included in restricted cash primarily relate to certain employee-related benefits, as well as amounts related to installment payments to certain employees as part of acquisitions, subject to the achievement of specified future employment conditions.
H. Debt
Long-term Debt
On August 21, 2017, VMware issued three series of unsecured senior notes (“Senior Notes”) pursuant to a public debt offering. The proceeds from the issuance were $3,961 million, net of debt discount of $9 million and debt issuance costs of $30 million.

18

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

The carrying value of the Senior Notes as of the periods presented were as follows (amounts in millions):
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
Effective Interest Rate
 
2018
 
2018
 
Long-term debt:
 
 
 
 
 
2.30% Senior Note Due August 21, 2020
$
1,250

 
$
1,250

 
2.56%
2.95% Senior Note Due August 21, 2022
1,500

 
1,500

 
3.17%
3.90% Senior Note Due August 21, 2027
1,250

 
1,250

 
4.05%
Total principal amount
4,000

 
4,000

 
 
Less: unamortized discount
(8
)
 
(8
)
 
 
Less: unamortized debt issuance costs
(26
)
 
(28
)
 
 
Net carrying amount
$
3,966

 
$
3,964

 
 
Interest is payable semiannually in arrears, on February 21 and August 21 of each year. During the three months ended May 4, 2018, $32 million of interest expense, which included amortization of discount and issuance costs, was recognized on the condensed consolidated statements of income. The discount and issuance costs are amortized over the term of the Senior Notes on a straight-line basis, which approximates the effective interest method.
The Senior Notes are redeemable in whole at any time or in part from time to time at VMware’s option, subject to a make-whole premium. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain change-of-control triggering events and certain downgrades of the ratings on the Senior Notes, VMware may be required to repurchase the notes at a repurchase price equal to 101% of the aggregate principal plus any accrued and unpaid interest on the date of purchase. The Senior Notes rank equally in right of payment with VMware’s other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. The Senior Notes also include restrictive covenants that, in certain circumstances, limit VMware’s ability to create certain liens, to enter into certain sale and leaseback transactions and to consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of VMware’s assets.
Refer to Note C for information regarding the notes payable to Dell.
Revolving Credit Facility
On September 12, 2017, VMware entered into an unsecured credit agreement establishing a revolving credit facility (“Credit Facility”) with a syndicate of lenders that provides the Company with a borrowing capacity of up to $1,000 million, which may be used for general corporate purposes. Commitments under the Credit Facility are available for a period of five years, which may be extended, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, by up to two one-year periods. As of May 4, 2018, there were no outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility. The credit agreement contains certain representations, warranties and covenants. Commitment fees, interest rates and other terms of borrowing under the Credit Facility may vary based on VMware’s external credit ratings. The amount paid in connection with the ongoing commitment fee, which is payable quarterly in arrears, was not significant during the three months ended May 4, 2018.
I. Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured and Recorded at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
Certain financial assets and liabilities are measured at fair value on a recurring basis. VMware determines fair value using the following hierarchy:
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 - Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are noted as being active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
VMware’s fixed income securities were primarily classified as Level 2, with the exception of some of the U.S. Government and agency obligations that were classified as Level 1. Additionally, VMware’s Level 2 classification included forward contracts, notes payable to Dell and the Senior Notes.

19

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

As of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, VMware’s Level 2 investment securities were generally priced using non-binding market consensus prices that were corroborated by observable market data, quoted market prices for similar instruments, or pricing models such as discounted cash flow techniques.
VMware did not have any significant assets or liabilities that were classified as Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy for the periods presented, and there have been no transfers between fair value measurement levels during the periods presented.
The following tables set forth the fair value hierarchy of VMware’s cash equivalents, short-term investments and derivatives that were required to be measured at fair value as of the periods presented (tables in millions):
 
May 4, 2018
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 


Money-market funds
$
6,621

 
$

 
$
6,621

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities

 
67

 
67

Total cash equivalents
$
6,621

 
$
67

 
$
6,688

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government and agency obligations
$
679

 
$
268

 
$
947

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities

 
4,355

 
4,355

Foreign governments and multi-national agency obligations

 
96

 
96

Mortgage-backed securities

 
104

 
104

Marketable equity securities
27

 

 
27

Total short-term investments
$
706

 
$
4,823

 
$
5,529


 
February 2, 2018
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
Money-market funds
$
5,460

 
$

 
$
5,460

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities

 
88

 
88

Total cash equivalents
$
5,460

 
$
88

 
$
5,548

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government and agency obligations
$
684

 
$
273

 
$
957

U.S. and foreign corporate debt securities

 
4,473

 
4,473

Foreign governments and multi-national agency obligations

 
98

 
98

Mortgage-backed securities

 
121

 
121

Marketable available-for-sale equity securities
33

 

 
33

Total short-term investments
$
717

 
$
4,965

 
$
5,682

The notes payable to Dell and the Senior Notes were not adjusted to fair value. The fair value of the notes payable to Dell was approximately $245 million and $246 million as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, respectively. The fair value of the Senior Notes was approximately $3,829 million and $3,863 million as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, respectively. Fair value for both the notes payable to Dell and the Senior Notes was estimated primarily based on observable market interest rates (Level 2 inputs).
VMware offers a deferred compensation plan for eligible employees, which allows participants to defer payment for part or all of their compensation. The net impact to the condensed consolidated statements of income is not significant since changes in the fair value of the assets substantially offset changes in the fair value of the liabilities. As such, assets and liabilities associated with this plan have not been included in the above tables. Assets associated with this plan were the same as the liabilities at approximately $66 million and $60 million as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, respectively, and are included in other assets and other liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

20

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Equity securities
During January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”), which requires equity investments with readily determinable fair values (other than those accounted for under the equity method or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value for certain equity investments recognized in other income (expenses), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
Securities Carried at Fair Value
VMware holds an equity security, which is publicly traded and measured at fair value using quoted prices for identical assets in an active market (Level 1). Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01, unrealized gains or losses on this equity security were recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Effective February 3, 2018, VMware adopted ASU 2016-01 and reclassified the unrealized gain on this security of $11 million to retained earnings as a cumulative-effect adjustment on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized gains and losses are now recognized in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income. As of May 4, 2018, the fair value of this equity security was $27 million and was included in short-term investments on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The unrealized loss recognized during the three months ended May 4, 2018 was not significant.
Based upon VMware’s voting interest in Pivotal, VMware elected the fair value option of accounting because it believes that fair value is the most relevant measurement for this investment. Consequently, VMware recognized a gain of $781 million in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income to adjust its investment in Pivotal to its fair value of $801 million. The fair value was determined using the quoted market price of Pivotal’s Class A common stock as of May 4, 2018, adjusted for the impact of lack of marketability and superior voting rights (Level 2). Financial information of Pivotal is made publicly available and is not considered material for purposes of disclosure for the three months ended May 4, 2018.
Securities Without a Readily Determinable Fair Value
VMware’s equity securities also include investments in privately held companies, which do not have a readily determinable fair value. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01, VMware accounted for these equity securities at cost less impairment and recorded realized gains and losses on securities sold or impaired in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income. As of February 2, 2018, equity securities accounted for under the cost method had a carrying value of $146 million.
Upon adoption of ASU 2016-01, VMware elected to measure these equity securities at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar security of the same issuer. As of May 4, 2018, these equity securities had a carrying value of $126 million and were included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. All gains and losses on these equity securities, whether realized or unrealized, are recognized in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
J. Derivatives and Hedging Activities
VMware conducts business on a global basis in multiple foreign currencies, subjecting the Company to foreign currency risk. To mitigate a portion of this risk, VMware utilizes hedging contracts as described below, which potentially expose the Company to credit risk to the extent that the counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreements. VMware manages counterparty risk by seeking counterparties of high credit quality, by monitoring credit ratings and credit spreads of, and other relevant public information about its counterparties. VMware does not, and does not intend to, use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Cash Flow Hedges
To mitigate its exposure to foreign currency fluctuations resulting from certain operating expenses denominated in certain foreign currencies, VMware enters into forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedging instruments as the accounting criteria for such designation are met. Therefore, the effective portion of gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of these instruments is initially reported in accumulated other comprehensive loss on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and is subsequently reclassified to the related operating expense line item on the condensed consolidated statements of income in the same period that the underlying expenses are incurred. During the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, the effective portion of gains or losses reclassified to the condensed consolidated statements of income was not significant. Interest charges or “forward points” on VMware’s forward contracts are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recorded in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income as incurred.

21

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

These forward contracts have contractual maturities of twelve months or less, and as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, outstanding forward contracts had a total notional value of $240 million and $318 million, respectively. The notional value represents the gross amount of foreign currency that will be bought or sold upon maturity of the forward contract.
During the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, all cash flow hedges were considered effective.
Forward Contracts Not Designated as Hedges
VMware has established a program that utilizes forward contracts to offset the foreign currency risk associated with net outstanding monetary asset and liability positions. These forward contracts are not designated as hedging instruments under applicable accounting guidance, and therefore all changes in the fair value of the forward contracts are reported in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
These forward contracts have a contractual maturity of one month, and as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018, outstanding forward contracts had a total notional value of $676 million and $1,020 million, respectively. The notional value represents the gross amount of foreign currency that will be bought or sold upon maturity of the forward contract.
During the three months ended May 4, 2018, VMware recognized a gain of $30 million related to the settlement of forward contracts. The loss recognized during the three months ended May 5, 2017 was not significant. Gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
The combined gains and losses related to the settlement of forward contracts and the underlying foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities were not significant during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017. Net gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
K. Contingencies
Litigation
On August 10, 2015, the Company received a subpoena from the California Attorney General’s office (“California AG”), following the Company’s settlement with the Department of Justice and the General Services Administration during June 2015. In this matter, the California AG is investigating the accuracy of the Company’s sales practices with departments and agencies within the State of California. The Company held an initial meeting with the California AG’s representatives on November 5, 2015, and thereafter provided certain requested documents to the California AG. The Company did not receive any further communications from the California AG until the fall of 2017. Since then, the California AG and the Company have exchanged communications regarding the legal bases for the allegations, and the Company has provided additional information requested by the California AG. In January 2018, the California AG advised the Company that it was ready to further discuss the matter. The Company is unable at this time to reasonably assess whether or to what extent it may be found liable and believes a loss is not considered probable and is not estimable.
On March 4, 2015, Christoph Hellwig, a software developer who alleged that software code he wrote is used in a component of the Company’s vSphere product, filed a lawsuit against VMware in the Hamburg Regional Court in Germany alleging copyright infringement for failing to comply with the terms of the open source General Public License v.2 (“GPL v.2”). On July 8, 2016, the German court issued a written decision dismissing Mr. Hellwig’s lawsuit. Mr. Hellwig has appealed this decision and both parties have filed their initial opening appellate briefs. No hearing schedule has yet been set by the appellate court. The Company intends to continue vigorously defending itself against this lawsuit.
While VMware believes that it has valid defenses against each of the above legal matters, given the unpredictable nature of legal proceedings, an unfavorable resolution of one or more legal proceedings, claims, or investigations could have a material adverse effect on VMware’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
VMware accrues for a liability when a determination has been made that a loss is both probable and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. If only a range can be estimated and no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other amount, an accrual is recorded for the minimum amount in the range. Significant judgment is required in both the determination that the occurrence of a loss is probable and is reasonably estimable. In making such judgments, VMware considers the impact of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. Legal costs are generally recognized as expense when incurred.
VMware is also subject to other legal, administrative and regulatory proceedings, claims, demands and investigations in the ordinary course of business or in connection with business mergers and acquisitions, including claims with respect to commercial, contracting and sales practices, product liability, intellectual property, employment, corporate and securities law, class action, whistleblower and other matters. From time to time, VMware also receives inquiries from and has discussions with government entities and stockholders on various matters. As of May 4, 2018, amounts accrued relating to these other

22

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

matters arising as part of the ordinary course of business were considered not material. VMware does not believe that any liability from any reasonably foreseeable disposition of such claims and litigation, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
L. Unearned Revenue and Remaining Performance Obligations
Unearned Revenue
Unearned revenue as of the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018
Unearned license revenue
$
157

 
$
184

Unearned software maintenance revenue
5,024

 
5,082

Unearned professional services revenue
575

 
573

Total unearned revenue
$
5,756

 
$
5,839

Unearned license revenue is primarily related to the allocated portion of VMware's SaaS offerings and is generally recognized over time as customers consume the services or ratably over the term of the subscription, commencing upon provisioning of the service.
Unearned software maintenance revenue is attributable to VMware’s maintenance contracts and is generally recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract duration. The weighted-average remaining term as of May 4, 2018 was approximately two years. In addition, unearned software maintenance revenue also includes the allocated portion of VMware’s SaaS offerings. Unearned professional services revenue results primarily from prepaid professional services and is generally recognized as the services are performed.
Unearned revenue on current quarter billings was $1,210 million and revenue recognized during the three months ended May 4, 2018, from amounts previously classified as unearned revenue, was $1,215 million and did not include revenue for performance obligations that were fully satisfied upon delivery, such as on-premises license.
During the three months ended May 4, 2018, cloud credits totaling $77 million were reclassified from unearned revenue to customer deposits, due to the addition of third-party offerings that would be recognized net of associated cost upon redemption of cloud credits.
Revenue recognized during the three months ended May 5, 2017, from amounts previously classified as unearned revenue, was $1,128 million and did not include revenue for performance obligations that were fully satisfied upon delivery, such as on-premises license.
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations represent the aggregate amount of the transaction price in contracts allocated to performance obligations not delivered, or partially undelivered, as of the end of the reporting period. Remaining performance obligations include unearned revenue, multi-year contracts with future installment payments and certain unfulfilled orders against accepted customer contracts at the end of any given period.
As of May 4, 2018, the aggregate transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations was $6,125 million. Approximately 60% is expected to be recognized as revenue over the next 12 months and the remainder thereafter. VMware applied the practical expedient to not disclose the amount of transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations for periods prior to adoption of Topic 606.
M. Stockholders’ Equity
VMware Stock Repurchases
VMware purchases stock from time to time in open market transactions, subject to market conditions. The timing of any repurchases and the actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including VMware’s stock price, cash requirements for operations and business combinations, corporate, legal and regulatory requirements and other market and economic conditions. VMware is not obligated to purchase any shares under its stock repurchase programs. Purchases can be discontinued at any time VMware believes additional purchases are not warranted. From time to time, VMware also purchases stock in private transactions, such as those with Dell. All shares repurchased under VMware’s stock repurchase programs are retired.

23

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

During August 2017, VMware’s board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1,000 million of Class A common stock through August 31, 2018. As of May 4, 2018, the cumulative authorized amount remaining for stock repurchases was $876 million.
There were no repurchases of VMware Class A common stock during the three months ended May 4, 2018.
The following table summarizes stock repurchase activity, including shares purchased from Dell, during the three months ended May 5, 2017 (aggregate purchase price in millions, shares in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 5,
 
2017
Aggregate purchase price(1)
$
357

Class A common shares repurchased
4,161

Weighted-average price per share
$
85.85

(1) The aggregate purchase price of repurchased shares is classified as a reduction to additional paid-in capital.
VMware Restricted Stock
VMware’s restricted stock primarily consists of restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards, which have been granted to employees. The value of an RSU grant is based on VMware’s stock price on the date of grant. The shares underlying the RSU awards are not issued until the RSUs vest. Upon vesting, each RSU converts into one share of VMware Class A common stock.
VMware’s restricted stock also includes performance stock unit (“PSU”) awards, which have been granted to certain VMware executives and employees. The PSU awards include performance conditions and, in certain cases, a time-based or market-based vesting component. Upon vesting, PSU awards convert into VMware’s Class A common stock at various ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 shares per PSU, depending upon the degree of achievement of the performance or market-based target designated by each award. If minimum performance thresholds are not achieved, then no shares are issued.
The following table summarizes restricted stock activity since February 3, 2018 (units in thousands):
 
Number of Units
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
(per unit)
Outstanding, February 3, 2018
17,360

 
$
78.62

Granted
1,263

 
124.26

Vested
(2,210
)
 
73.38

Forfeited
(504
)
 
77.67

Outstanding, May 4, 2018
15,909

 
83.00

The aggregate vesting date fair value of VMware restricted stock that vested during the three months ended May 4, 2018 was $290 million. As of May 4, 2018, restricted stock representing 15.9 million shares of VMware’s Class A common stock were outstanding, with an aggregate intrinsic value of $2,137 million based on VMware’s closing stock price as of May 4, 2018.
Net excess tax benefits
Net excess tax benefits recognized in connection with stock-based awards are included in the income tax provision on the condensed consolidated statements of income. Net excess tax benefits recognized during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017 were $27 million and $31 million, respectively.

24

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The changes in components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) during the periods presented were as follows (tables in millions):
 
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Available-for-Sale Securities
 
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Forward Contracts
 
Total
Balance, February 2, 2018
$
(15
)
 
$

 
$
(15
)
Adjustments related to adoption of ASU 2016-01 and 2018-02
(15
)
 

 
(15
)
Unrealized gains (losses), net of tax (benefit) of ($5), $— and ($5)
(15
)
 
(9
)
 
(24
)
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to the condensed consolidated statements of income, net of tax benefit of $—

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss), net
(15
)
 
(9
)
 
(24
)
Balance, May 4, 2018
$
(45
)
 
$
(9
)
 
$
(54
)
 
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Available-for-Sale Securities
 
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Forward Contracts
 
Total
Balance, February 3, 2017
$
(6
)
 
$
2

 
$
(4
)
Unrealized gains (losses), net of tax provision of $5, $— and $5
8

 
5

 
13

Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to the condensed consolidated statements of income, net of taxes of $—
1

 
1

 
2

Other comprehensive income (loss), net
9

 
6

 
15

Balance, May 5, 2017
$
3

 
$
8

 
$
11

Unrealized gains and losses on VMware’s available-for-sale securities are reclassified to investment income on the condensed consolidated statements of income in the period that such gains and losses are realized.
The effective portion of gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of forward contracts designated as cash flow hedging instruments is reclassified to its related operating expense line item on the condensed consolidated statements of income in the same period that the underlying expenses are incurred. The amounts recorded to their related operating expense functional line items on the condensed consolidated statements of income were not significant to the individual functional line items during the periods presented.
During October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (Topic 740) (“ASU 2016-16”), which requires entities to recognize at the transaction date the income tax consequences of intra-entity asset transfers. The updated standard is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and requires a modified retrospective transition method.
Effective February 3, 2018, VMware adopted ASU 2016-16 on a modified retrospective basis. Historically, VMware transferred intellectual property between its legal entities and the income tax consequences were recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and recognized to tax provision over a period of time. VMware recorded the cumulative-effect adjustment of $27 million to retained earnings on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets as of the beginning of the period of adoption. Subsequent to adoption, any transfers of intellectual property between VMware’s legal entities will be recorded on the condensed consolidated statements of income in the period that the transfer occurs.

25

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

During February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“ASU 2018-02”), which allows companies to reclassify stranded tax effects resulting from the 2017 Tax Act from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. ASU 2018-02 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted, and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the 2017 Tax Act is recognized.
Effective February 3, 2018, VMware early adopted ASU 2018-02 and elected to reclassify income tax effects due to the 2017 Tax Act from accumulated other comprehensive loss to retained earnings on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets in the period of adoption. The impact of the reclassification of stranded tax effects was not significant.
N. Segment Information
VMware operates in one reportable operating segment, thus all required financial segment information is included in the condensed consolidated financial statements. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and assessing performance. VMware’s chief operating decision maker allocates resources and assesses performance based upon discrete financial information at the consolidated level.
Revenue by type during the periods presented was as follows (table in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017
Revenue:
 
 
 
License
$
774

 
$
641

Services:
 
 
 
Software maintenance
1,077

 
979

Professional services
157

 
145

Total services
1,234

 
1,124

Total revenue(1)
$
2,008

 
$
1,765

(1) Includes revenue derived from VMware’s Hybrid Cloud computing subscription and SaaS offerings, which was $210 million and $168 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, respectively. Hybrid Cloud Computing offerings consisted primarily of VCPP revenue.
Revenue by geographic area during the periods presented was as follows (table in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
2018
 
2017
United States
$
938

 
$
890

International
1,070

 
875

Total
$
2,008

 
$
1,765

Revenue by geographic area is based on the ship-to addresses of VMware’s customers. No individual country other than the U.S. accounted for 10% or more of revenue during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017.
Long-lived assets by geographic area, which primarily include property and equipment, net, as of the periods presented were as follows (table in millions):
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018
United States
$
806

 
$
784

International
114

 
117

Total
$
920

 
$
901


26

VMware, Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
(unaudited)

No individual country other than the U.S. accounted for 10% or more of these assets as of May 4, 2018 and February 2, 2018.

27


ITEM 2.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following management’s discussion and analysis is provided in addition to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and notes to assist in understanding our results of operations and financial condition. Financial information as of May 4, 2018 should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements for the year ended February 2, 2018 contained in our Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2018. Multiple accounting standards were adopted during the three months ended May 4, 2018, which resulted in adjustments or reclassifications of amounts previously reported. Refer to the Notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further discussion.
Period-over-period changes are calculated based upon the respective underlying, non-rounded data. We refer to our fiscal years ended February 1, 2019 and February 2, 2018 as “fiscal 2019” and “fiscal 2018,” respectively. Unless the context requires otherwise, we are referring to VMware, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries when we use the terms “VMware,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us.”
Overview
We pioneered the development and application of virtualization technologies with x86 server-based computing, separating application software from the underlying hardware. Information technology (“IT”) driven innovation is disrupting markets and industries. Technologies emerge faster than organizations can absorb them, creating increasingly complex environments. To take on this challenge, businesses need a flexible and secure digital foundation. We provide compute, cloud, mobility, networking and security infrastructure software to businesses that provides a flexible digital foundation for the applications that empower businesses to serve their customers globally.
Over the years, we have increased our product and solution offerings beyond compute virtualization to include offerings that allow organizations to manage IT resources across private clouds and complex multi-cloud, multi-device environments by leveraging synergies across three product categories: Software-Defined Data Center (“SDDC”), Hybrid Cloud Computing and End-User Computing (“EUC”). Our portfolio supports and addresses the four key IT priorities of our customers: modernizing data centers, integrating public clouds, empowering digital workspaces and transforming security.
We sell our solutions using enterprise agreements (“EAs”) or as part of our non-EA, or transactional, business. EAs are comprehensive volume license offerings, offered both directly by us and through certain channel partners that also provide for multi-year maintenance and support. We continue to experience strong renewals, including renewals of our EAs, resulting in additional license sales of both our existing and newer products and solutions.
SDDC or Software-Defined Data Center
Our SDDC technologies form the foundation of our customers’ private cloud environments and provide the capabilities for our customers to extend their private cloud to the public cloud and to help them run, manage, secure and connect all their applications across all clouds and devices. During the three months ended May 4, 2018, we continued to see broad-based strength of our SDDC solutions. While sales from our management products increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018, future sales growth rate may fluctuate period to period, depending largely upon the extent to which management products are included in our particular larger EAs.
Hybrid Cloud Computing
Our overarching cloud strategy contains three key components: (i) continue to expand beyond compute virtualization in the private cloud; (ii) extend the private cloud into the public cloud; and (iii) connect and secure endpoints across a range of public clouds. During the three months ended May 4, 2018, Hybrid Cloud Computing was primarily comprised of VMware Cloud Provider Program (“VCPP”) and also includes VMware Cloud Services, which enable customers to run, manage, connect and secure their applications across private and public clouds.
During the three months ended May 4, 2018, revenue growth in our Hybrid Cloud Computing offerings was primarily driven by our VCPP offerings. VMware Cloud on AWS is currently available in certain geographies, and we expect to continue expanding into additional regions.
End-User Computing
Our EUC solution consists of VMware Workspace ONE (“Workspace ONE”), our digital workspace platform, which includes VMware AirWatch (“AirWatch”) and VMware Horizon. Our AirWatch business model includes an on-premises solution that we offer through the sale of perpetual licenses and software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions. Workspace ONE continued to be our primary growth driver within our EUC product group during the three months ended May 4, 2018.

28


Dell Synergies
During the three months ended May 4, 2018, we continued joint marketing, sales, branding and product development efforts with Dell Technologies Inc. (“Dell”) and other Dell Technologies companies to enhance the collective value we deliver to our mutual customers. As a result of our collective business built with Dell, we have experienced synergies benefiting our sales during the three months ended May 4, 2018.
Results of Operations
Approximately 70% of our sales are denominated in the United States (“U.S.”) dollar, however, in certain countries we also invoice and collect in the following currencies: euro; British pound; Japanese yen; Australian dollar; and Chinese renminbi. In addition, we incur and pay operating expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, our financial statements, including our revenue, operating expenses, unearned revenue and the resulting cash flows derived from the U.S. dollar equivalent of foreign currency transactions, are affected by foreign exchange fluctuations.
Revenue
Our revenue during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions): 
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
License
$
774

 
$
641

 
$
134

 
21
%
Services:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Software maintenance
1,077

 
979

 
98

 
10

Professional services
157

 
145

 
11

 
8

Total services
1,234

 
1,124

 
109

 
10

Total revenue
$
2,008

 
$
1,765

 
$
243

 
14

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
938

 
$
890

 
$
48

 
5
%
International
1,070

 
875

 
195

 
22

Total revenue
$
2,008

 
$
1,765

 
$
243

 
14

(1) Fiscal 2018 amounts have been adjusted to reflect the impact of our retrospective adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”), effective February 3, 2018.
Revenue from our Hybrid Cloud Computing offerings consisted primarily of VCPP, and revenue from our SaaS offerings consisted primarily of our AirWatch mobile solution within Workspace ONE. VCPP revenue is included in license revenue and SaaS revenue is allocated equally between license and services revenue. Hybrid Cloud Computing, together with our SaaS offerings, increased to approximately 10% of our total revenue during the three months ended May 4, 2018 from greater than 9% of our total revenue during the three months ended May 5, 2017.
License revenue relating to the sale of perpetual licenses that are part of a multi-year contract is generally recognized upon delivery of the underlying license, whereas revenue derived from our Hybrid Cloud Computing and SaaS offerings is recognized on a consumption basis or over a period of time.
License Revenue
License revenue during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017 benefited from broad-based growth across our diverse portfolio, including our core SDCC solutions driven in part by strength in our management products and continued growth of our VCPP offering, and in all geographies. Strength in our renewal business, including EAs, also contributed to license revenue growth during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017.
Services Revenue
During the three months ended May 4, 2018, software maintenance revenue continued to benefit from strong renewals of our EAs, maintenance contracts sold in previous periods and additional maintenance contracts sold in conjunction with new software license sales. In each period presented, customers purchased, on a weighted-average basis, approximately three years of support and maintenance with each new license purchased.

29


Professional services revenue increased 8% during the three months ended May 4, 2018 as compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017. We have continued our focus on solution deployments, including our VMware NSX (“NSX”) products, which contributed to the increase in professional services revenue. We continue to focus on enabling our partners to deliver professional services for our solutions and as such, our professional services revenue may vary as we continue to leverage our partners. Timing of service engagements will also impact the amount of professional services revenue we recognize during a period.
Unearned Revenue
Unearned revenue as of the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions): 
 
May 4,
 
February 2,
 
2018
 
2018(1)
Unearned license revenue
$
157

 
$
184

Unearned software maintenance revenue
5,024

 
5,082

Unearned professional services revenue
575

 
573

Total unearned revenue
$
5,756

 
$
5,839

(1) Fiscal 2018 amounts have been adjusted to reflect the impact of our retrospective adoption of Topic 606, effective February 3, 2018.
Unearned license revenue is primarily related to the allocated portion of our SaaS offerings and is generally recognized over time as customers consume the services or ratably over the term of the subscription, commencing upon provisioning of the service.
Unearned software maintenance revenue is attributable to our maintenance contracts and is generally recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract duration. The weighted-average remaining term as of May 4, 2018 was approximately two years. In addition, unearned software maintenance revenue also includes the allocated portion of our SaaS offerings. Unearned professional services revenue results primarily from prepaid professional services and is generally recognized as the services are performed.
Remaining Performance Obligations and Backlog
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations represent the aggregate amount of the transaction price in contracts allocated to performance obligations not delivered, or partially undelivered, as of the end of the reporting period. Remaining performance obligations include unearned revenue, multi-year contracts with future installment payments and certain unfulfilled orders against accepted customer contracts at the end of any given period.
As of May 4, 2018, the aggregate transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations was $6,125 million. Approximately 60% is expected to be recognized as revenue over the next 12 months and the remainder thereafter.
Backlog
Backlog is comprised of unfulfilled purchase orders or unfulfilled executed agreements received at the end of a given period and is net of related estimated rebates and marketing development funds. As of May 4, 2018, our total backlog was $301 million, generally consisting of licenses, maintenance and services. Our backlog related to licenses was $122 million, which we generally expect to deliver and recognize as revenue during the following quarter. Backlog totaling $65 million as of May 4, 2018, is excluded from the remaining performance obligations because such contracts are subject to cancellation until fulfillment of the performance obligation occurs. As of February 2, 2018, our total backlog was $285 million, generally consisting of licenses, maintenance and services. Our backlog related to licenses was $99 million.
The amount and composition of backlog will fluctuate period to period, and backlog is managed based upon multiple considerations, including product and geography. We do not believe the amount of backlog is indicative of future sales or revenue or that the mix of backlog at the end of any given period correlates with actual sales performance of a particular geography or particular products and services.
Cost of License Revenue, Cost of Services Revenue and Operating Expenses
Our cost of services revenue and operating expenses primarily reflected increasing cash-based employee-related expenses, driven by incremental growth in salaries and headcount across most of our income statement expense categories during the three months ended May 4, 2018. We expect increases in cash-based employee-related expenses to continue.

30


Cost of License Revenue
Cost of license revenue primarily consists of the cost of fulfillment of our software, royalty costs in connection with technology licensed from third-party providers and amortization of intangible assets. The cost of fulfillment of our software includes personnel costs and related overhead associated with the physical and electronic delivery of our software products.
Cost of license revenue during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Cost of license revenue
$
45

 
$
38

 
$
6


17
 %
Stock-based compensation

 
1

 

 
(54
)
Total expenses
$
45

 
$
39

 
$
6

 
16

% of License revenue
6
%
 
6
%
 
 
 
 
Cost of license revenue increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017 primarily due to an increase in amortization of intangible assets.
Cost of Services Revenue
Cost of services revenue primarily includes the costs of personnel and related overhead to physically and electronically deliver technical support for our products and hosted services and to provide professional services. Additionally, cost of services revenue includes depreciation of equipment supporting our service offerings.
Cost of services revenue during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Cost of services revenue
$
240

 
$
236

 
$
3

 
1
 %
Stock-based compensation
11

 
14

 
(2
)
 
(17
)
Total expenses
$
251

 
$
250

 
$
1

 

% of Services revenue
20
%
 
22
%
 
 
 
 
Cost of services revenue was relatively flat during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses include the personnel and related overhead associated with the development of our product software and service offerings. We continue to invest in our key growth areas, including NSX and VMware vSAN, while also investing in areas that we expect to be significant growth drivers in future periods.
Research and development expenses during the periods presented were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Research and development
$
369

 
$
339

 
$
30

 
9
%
Stock-based compensation
84

 
82

 
2

 
2

Total expenses
$
453

 
$
421

 
$
32

 
7

% of Total revenue
23
%
 
24
%
 
 
 
 
Research and development expenses increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017. The increase was primarily due to growth in cash-based employee-related expenses of $37 million, driven by incremental growth in headcount and salaries.

31


Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses include personnel costs, sales commissions and related overhead associated with the sale and marketing of our license and services offerings, as well as the cost of product launches and marketing initiatives. A significant portion of our sales commissions are deferred and recognized over the expected period of benefit.
Sales and marketing expenses during the periods presented were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Sales and marketing
$
660

 
$
531

 
$
131

 
25
 %
Stock-based compensation
46

 
48

 
(4
)
 
(8
)
Total expenses
$
706

 
$
579

 
$
127

 
22

% of Total revenue
35
%
 
33
%
 
 
 
 
(1) Fiscal 2018 amounts have been adjusted to reflect the impact of our retrospective adoption of Topic 606, effective February 3, 2018.
Sales and marketing expenses increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017. The increase was primarily due to growth in cash-based employee-related expenses of $86 million, driven by incremental growth in headcount and salaries, as well as higher commission costs, resulting from increased sales volume and headcount. The increase was also driven by an increase in costs incurred for sales enablement-based initiatives of $30 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018 and fluctuations in the exchange rates for foreign currencies in which we incur expenses.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses include personnel and related overhead costs to support the business. These expenses include the costs associated with finance, human resources, IT infrastructure and legal, as well as expenses related to corporate costs and initiatives, including certain charitable donations to the VMware Foundation.
General and administrative expenses during the periods presented were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
General and administrative
$
149

 
$
133

 
$
16

 
12
%
Stock-based compensation
20

 
18

 
3

 
15

Total expenses
$
169

 
$
151

 
$
18

 
12

% of Total revenue
8
%
 
9
%
 
 
 
 
General and administrative expenses increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017, but remained relatively consistent as a percentage of total revenue.
Realignment and Loss on Disposition
Realignment expenses and loss on disposition during the periods presented were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Realignment and loss on disposition
$
2

 
$
64

 
$
(62
)
 
(97
)%
% of Total revenue
%
 
4
%
 
 
 
 
(1) Fiscal 2018 amounts have been adjusted to reflect the impact of our retrospective adoption of Topic 606, effective February 3, 2018.
On April 4, 2017, we announced the sale of our vCloud Air business (“vCloud Air”) to OVH US LLC (“OVH”). The loss recognized in connection with this transaction was $64 million and included the impairment of deferred commissions resulting from the retrospective adoption of Topic 606, which was $13 million during the three months ended May 5, 2017. Losses recognized on the disposition of vCloud Air included the impairment of fixed assets identified as part of the sale, as well as the

32


costs associated with certain transition services, which primarily included employee-related expenses and costs associated with data-center colocation services. Transition services are to be provided over a period of 18 months, starting from the date of the sale. We completed the sale of vCloud Air to OVH during the second quarter of fiscal 2018.
Investment Income
Investment income during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Investment income
$
48

 
$
23

 
$
26

 
112
%
% of Total revenue
2
%
 
1
%
 
 
 
 
Investment income increased during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017, primarily driven by increased interest income earned on our short-term investments resulting from higher yields and higher invested balances.
Interest expense
Interest expense during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Interest expense
$
34

 
$
7

 
$
27

 
413
%
% of Total revenue
2
%
 
%
 
 
 
 
On August 21, 2017, we issued three series of unsecured senior notes (“Senior Notes”) pursuant to a public debt offering in the aggregate amount of $4,000 million. Upon closing, a portion of the net proceeds from the offering was used to repay two of the notes payable to Dell in the aggregate principal amount of $1,230 million. Interest expense increased by $27 million during the three months ended May 4, 2018 compared to the three months ended May 5, 2017, due to the issuance of the Senior Notes, offset in part by a reduction in interest expense on the notes payable to Dell. We expect interest expense for fiscal 2019 to be approximately $130 million.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income (expense), net during the periods presented was as follows (dollars in millions):
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
May 4,
 
May 5,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Other income (expense), net
$
779

 
$
4

 
$
774

 
19375
%
% of Total revenue
39
%
 
%
 
 
 
 
Upon adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”), the carrying value of our non-marketable equity securities is adjusted to fair value based upon observable transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer or impairment (referred to as the measurement alternative). All gains and losses on non-marketable equity securities, realized and unrealized, are recognized in other income (expense), net on the condensed consolidated statements of income. As a result of Pivotal Software, Inc’s (“Pivotal”) initial public offering, we recognized an unrealized gain of $781 million, during the three months ended May 4, 2018 related to our investment in Pivotal.
The fair value of our investment is determined primarily using the quoted market price of Pivotal’s Class A common stock. As a result, any volatility in Pivotal’s publicly traded Class A common stock introduces a degree of variability to our condensed consolidated statements of income.
Income Tax Provision
Our quarterly effective income tax rate is based on our estimated annual income tax rate forecast and discrete tax items recognized in the period. Our quarterly effective income tax rate was 19.8% and 12.8% during the three months ended

33


May 4, 2018 and May 5, 2017, respectively. Our effective income tax rate for the three months ended May 4, 2018 increased primarily due to the discrete tax impacts of $179 million related to our book and tax basis difference on the investment in Pivotal, net of the reversal of the previously recorded valuation allowance. Our estimated annual effective income tax rate for fiscal 2019 decreased when compared to the annual effective income tax rate for fiscal 2018 primarily due to the reduction in the U.S. statutory corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% for fiscal 2019 partially offset by the expected increase due to Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income provisions of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”).
Due to the timing of the enactment and the complexity involved in applying the provisions of the 2017 Tax Act, we made reasonable estimates for the related tax effects and recorded provisional amounts on our consolidated financial statements for fiscal 2018. As we complete our analysis of the 2017 Tax Act, collect and prepare necessary data, and interpret any additional guidance issued by the U.S. Treasury Department, the Internal Revenue Service, and other standard-setting bodies and relevant authorities, we may make adjustments to provisional amounts that we recorded that may materially impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which the adjustments are made.
We are included in Dell’s consolidated tax group for U.S. federal income tax purposes and will continue to be included in Dell’s consolidated group for periods in which Dell beneficially owns at least 80% of the total voting power and value of our combined outstanding Class A and Class B common stock as calculated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The percentage of voting power and value calculated for U.S. federal income tax purposes may differ from the percentage of outstanding shares beneficially owned by Dell due to the greater voting power of our Class B common stock as compared to our Class A common stock and other factors. Each member of a consolidated group during any part of a consolidated return year is jointly and severally liable for tax on the consolidated return of such year and for any subsequently determined deficiency thereon. Should Dell’s ownership fall below 80% of the total voting power or value of our outstanding stock in any period, then we would no longer be included in the Dell consolidated group for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and our U.S. federal income tax would be reported separately from that of the Dell consolidated group.
Although our results are included in the Dell consolidated return for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our income tax provision, including provisional estimates of taxes relating to the 2017 Tax Act, is calculated primarily as though we were a separate taxpayer. However, under certain circumstances, transactions between us and Dell are assessed using consolidated tax return rules.
Our future effective tax rate will depend upon the proportion of our income before provision for income taxes earned in the U.S. and in jurisdictions with a tax rate lower than the U.S. statutory rate. Our non-U.S. earnings are primarily earned by our subsidiaries organized in Ireland where the rate of taxation is lower than our U.S. tax rate, and as such, our annual effective tax rate can be significantly affected by the composition of our earnings in the U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rate may also be affected by such factors as changes in tax laws, changes in our business or statutory rates, changing interpretation of existing laws or regulations, the impact of accounting for stock-based compensation and the recognition of excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies within the income tax provision in the period in which they occur, the impact of accounting for business combinations, changes in the composition of earnings in the U.S. compared with other regions in the world and overall levels of income before tax, changes in our international organization, as well as the expiration of statute of limitations and settlements of audits.
Our Relationship with Dell
As of May 4, 2018, Dell controlled 31 million shares of Class A common stock and all 300 million shares of Class B common stock, representing 81.4% of our total outstanding shares of common stock and 97.6% of the combined voting power of our outstanding common stock. For a description of related risks, refer to “Risks Related to Our Relationship with Dell” in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
The information provided below includes a summary of the transactions entered into with Dell and Dell’s consolidated subsidiaries, including EMC Corporation (collectively, “Dell”). Transactions prior to September 7, 2016 reflect transactions only with EMC Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Transactions with Dell
We engaged with Dell in the following ongoing intercompany transactions, which resulted in revenue and receipts and unearned revenue for us:
Pursuant to OEM and reseller arrangements, Dell integrates or bundles our products and services with Dell’s products and sells them to end users. Dell also acts as a distributor, purchasing our standalone products and services for resale to end-user customers through VMware-authorized resellers. Revenue under these arrangements is presented net of related marketing development funds and rebates paid to Dell. In addition, we provide professional services to end users based upon contractual agreements with Dell.

34


Dell purchases products and services from us for its internal use.
Pursuant to an ongoing distribution agreement, we act as the selling agent for certain products and services of Pivotal, a subsidiary of Dell, in exchange for an agency fee. Under this agreement, cash is collected from the end user by us and remitted to Pivotal, net of the contractual agency fee.
Dell purchases our products and services directly from us, as well as through our channel partners. Information about our revenue and receipts, and unearned revenue from such arrangements, for the periods presented consisted of the following (table in millions):
 
Revenue and Receipts
 
Unearned Revenue