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FLUOR CORPORATION INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                  to                           
Commission file number:1-16129
FLUOR CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 33-0927079
(State or other jurisdiction of (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization) Identification No.)
6700 Las Colinas Boulevard  
Irving,Texas 75039
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
469-398-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per shareFLRNew York Stock Exchange
1.750% Senior Notes due 2023FLR 23New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o    No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerþAccelerated fileroNon-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No þ
As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2.5 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 31, 2022, 141,434,771 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share, were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
DocumentParts Into Which Incorporated
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 5, 2022.Part III


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FLUOR CORPORATION
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021
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Glossary of Terms
The definitions and abbreviations set forth below apply to the indicated terms used throughout this filing.
Abbreviation/TermDefinition
2021 10-KAnnual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021
ABOAccumulated benefit obligation
AOCIAccumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
Cont OpsContinuing operations
CPSConvertible preferred stock
COVIDCoronavirus pandemic
DB planDefined benefit pension plan
DC planDefined contribution pension plan
Disc OpsDiscontinued operations
DOEU.S. Department of Energy
EPCEngineering, procurement and construction
EPSEarnings per share
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934
FEMAU.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
FluorFluor Corporation
FTCForeign tax credit
G&AGeneral and administrative expense
GAAPAccounting principles generally accepted in the United States
GILTIGlobal Intangible Low-Taxed Income
ICFRInternal control over financial reporting
LNGLiquefied natural gas
NCINoncontrolling interests
NMNot meaningful
NOLNet operating loss
NRCU.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NuScaleNuScale Power, LLC
OCIOther comprehensive income (loss)
PBOProjected benefit obligation
PP&EProperty, plant and equipment
RSURestricted stock units
RUPORemaining unsatisfied performance obligations
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
SGIStock growth incentive awards
SMRSmall modular reactor
StorkStork Holding B.V. and subsidiaries; Acquired by Fluor in 2016
VDIValue driver incentive
VIEVariable interest entity
Forward-Looking Information
From time to time, we make certain comments and disclosures in reports and statements, including this 2021 10-K, or statements are made by its officers or directors, that, while based on reasonable assumptions, may be forward-looking in nature. Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, a "safe harbor" may be provided to us for certain of these
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forward-looking statements. We caution readers that forward-looking statements, including disclosures which use words such as "will, "may," "could," "should" "believes," "anticipates," "plans," "expects," "intends," "estimates," "projects," "potential," "continue" and similar statements are subject to various future risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results of operations to differ materially from expectations.
Any forward-looking statements that we may make are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those anticipated by us. Any forward-looking statements are subject to the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results of operations, financial condition, cost reductions, acquisitions, dispositions, financing transactions, operations, expansion, consolidation and other events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.
We are subject to known risks and to potentially unknown risks. While most risks affect only future cost or revenue anticipated by us, some risks may relate to accruals that have already been reflected in earnings. Our failure to receive payments of expected amounts or the incurrence of liabilities in excess of amounts recorded, could result in charges against future earnings. As a result, the reader is cautioned to recognize and consider the inherently uncertain nature of forward-looking statements and not to place undue reliance on them.
These factors include those referenced or described in this 2021 10-K (including in "Item 1A. — Risk Factors"). We cannot control all risks and uncertainties, and in many cases, we cannot predict the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements. You should consider these risks and uncertainties when you are evaluating us and deciding whether to invest in our securities. Except as otherwise required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Defined Terms
Except as the context otherwise requires, the terms "Fluor" or the "Registrant" as used herein are references to Fluor Corporation and its predecessors and references to the "company," "we," "us," or "our" as used herein shall include Fluor Corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and joint ventures.
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PART I
Item 1.    Business
Fluor Corporation was incorporated in Delaware in September, 2000. However, through our predecessors, we have been in business for over a century.
Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "FLR".
Fluor Corporation is a holding company that owns many subsidiaries, as well as interests in joint ventures. Acting through these entities, we are one of the larger global professional services firms providing EPC, fabrication and modularization, and project management services, on a global basis. We provide these services to our clients in a diverse set of industries worldwide including production and fuels, chemicals, LNG, nuclear project services, infrastructure, advanced technologies, life sciences and mining and metals. We are also a service provider to the U.S. federal government and governments abroad.
During the first quarter of 2021, we began operating our business through four segments. These segments include: Energy Solutions, Urban Solutions, Mission Solutions and Other. Fluor Constructors International, Inc., which is organized and operates separately from the rest of our business, provides unionized management and construction services in the United States and Canada, both independently and as a subcontractor on projects for Fluor.
In January 2021, we outlined four strategic priorities for driving value creation for our shareholders:
Drive growth across our portfolio, by growing markets outside of the traditional oil and gas sector, including energy transition, advanced technology and life sciences, high-demand metals, infrastructure and nuclear and civil, defense and intelligence for governments;
Pursue contracts with fair and balanced commercial terms, focusing on more favorable, risk-adjusted agreements that reward Fluor for value;
Reinforce financial discipline, maintaining a solid balance sheet by generating predictable cash flow and earnings; and
Foster a high-performance culture with purpose, by advancing our diversity, equity and inclusion efforts and promoting social progress and sustainability.
In 2021, we completed a number of transactions in support of our strategic priorities. In May 2021, we sold the North American portion of our construction equipment business, AMECO. Additionally, in May 2021, we issued 600,000 shares of Series A 6.5% cumulative perpetual CPS in a private transaction. We used the majority of the net proceeds of this offering to complete a tender offer in which we purchased a cumulative $483 million of our outstanding 2023 and 2024 Notes. In 2021, we also redeemed $26 million of outstanding 2023 and 2024 Notes in open market transactions. For further information on these transactions please see Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2021, we announced that NuScale, in which we are the majority investor, signed a merger agreement with Spring Valley Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company ("Spring Valley"). Spring Valley is acquiring an approximately 20% interest in NuScale. The proposed transaction is anticipated to close in the first half of 2022, subject to customary closing conditions. Upon completion of the merger, we estimate that we will own approximately 60-70% of the combined company and expect that we will continue to consolidate it.
Competitive Strengths
As a world-class provider of technical and professional services, we believe that we bring capital efficient business solutions that combine excellence in execution, safety, cost containment and experience to our clients. In that regard, we believe that our business advantages and global positioning provide us with significant competitive strengths:
Safety. One of our core values is our constant focus on safety. Maintaining a safe and secure workplace is a key business driver for us and our clients. In our experience, whether in an office or at a jobsite, a safe environment decreases risks, provides for the well-being of all workers, enhances morale, improves productivity, reduces project cost and generally improves client relations. We believe that our commitment to safety is one of our most distinguishing features.
Global Execution Platform. As one of the larger publicly traded EPC companies, we have a global footprint with employees located throughout the world. Our global presence enables us to build local relationships to capitalize on opportunities as well as mobilize quickly to project sites around the world and to draw on our local knowledge and talent
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pools. We continue to form strategic alliances with local partners, leverage our supply chain expertise and emphasize local training programs. We also provide services from our distributed execution centers on a cost-efficient basis.
Excellence in Execution. We believe that our ability to execute, maintain and manage complex projects, large or small and often in geographically challenging locations, gives us a distinct competitive advantage. We strive to complete our projects meeting or exceeding all client specifications. We have continued to shift toward data-driven execution, which we expect will enhance our ability to meet our clients' needs.
Market Diversity. We serve multiple markets across a broad spectrum of industries around the globe. Our market diversity helps to mitigate the impact of the cyclicality in the markets we serve and allows us to strive for more consistent growth. We believe that maintaining a good mixture within our entire business portfolio permits us to both focus on our more stable business markets and to capitalize on cyclical markets when the timing is appropriate.
Client Relationships. We actively pursue relationships with new clients while also building on our long-term relationships with existing clients. We believe that long-term relationships with existing clients serve us well by allowing us to better understand and be more responsive to their requirements. Regardless of whether our clients are new or have been with us for many decades, our ability to successfully foster relationships is a key strength.
Risk Management. We believe we have the ability to assess, mitigate and manage project risk, especially in difficult locations or circumstances. We have an experienced management team, and utilize a systematic and disciplined approach towards identifying, assessing and managing risks. We believe that our risk management approach helps us control costs and meet clients' schedules.
Sustainability. Our sustainability mission envisions meeting the needs of our clients while conducting business in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. We consistently apply prudent governance principles to the benefit of current and future generations, thereby creating value for all stakeholders. Every day, we help clients safeguard the environment, conserve energy, protect lives, and strengthen the economies and social structures of communities in which our employees work and live.
General Operations
Our services fall into five broad categories (outlined below). Our services can range from basic consulting activities, often at the early stages of a project, to complete design-build, operations and maintenance contracts.
In engineering and design, we develop solutions to address our clients’ most complex problems. Our engineering services range from traditional engineering disciplines such as piping, mechanical, electrical, control systems, civil, structural and architectural to advanced engineering specialties including process engineering, chemical engineering, simulation, integrated automation processes and interactive 3-D modeling. Through our design solutions, we can provide clients with varied offerings which can include front-end engineering, conceptual design, estimating, feasibility studies, permitting, process simulation, technology and licensing evaluation, scope definition and siting.
Our procurement offerings include procurement and supply chain solutions aimed at improving product quality and performance while also reducing project cost and schedule. Our clients draw upon our global sourcing and supply expertise, global purchasing power, technical knowledge, processes, systems and experienced global resources. Our procurement activities include strategic sourcing, material management, contracts management, buying, expediting, supplier quality inspection and logistics.
In construction, we mobilize, execute, commission and demobilize projects on a self-perform and subcontracted basis. Generally, we are responsible for the completion of a project, often in difficult locations and under challenging circumstances. We are frequently designated as program manager, and serve as such in cases where the client has facilities in multiple locations, complex phases in a single project location, or a large-scale investment in one facility.
We also provide a variety of fabrication and modularization services, including integrated engineering and modular fabrication and assembly, as well as modular construction and asset support services to clients around the globe from our joint venture yards. By operating our own yards in key regions of the world, we help our clients achieve cost and schedule savings by reducing on-site craft needs and shifting work to inherently safer and more controlled work environments.
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We offer operations and maintenance services intended to improve the performance and extend the life of our clients’ facilities. This may include the global delivery of services to include facility management, technical facility operations, plant readiness, commissioning, start-up and maintenance technology, small capital projects, turnaround and outage services and recapitalization of facilities and infrastructure. Among other things, we can provide key management, staffing and management skills to clients on-site at their facilities. These activities also include routine and outage/turnaround maintenance services, general maintenance and asset management, emissions reduction technologies and services, and restorative, repair, predictive and prevention services.
Project management involves managing all aspects of the effort to deliver projects on schedule and within budget, and is critical on every project. We are often hired as the overall program manager on large complex projects where various contractors and subcontractors are involved and multiple activities need to be integrated to ensure the success of the overall project. Our services include logistics, development of project execution plans, detailed schedules, cost forecasts, progress tracking and reporting, and the integration of EPC efforts. Project management is accountable to the client to deliver the safety, functionality and financial performance requirements of the project.
Business Segments
Energy Solutions
Our Energy Solutions segment focuses on opportunities in the production and fuels, chemicals, LNG and nuclear project services markets. We provide solutions to the energy transition markets, including asset decarbonization, carbon capture, renewable fuels, waste-to-energy, green chemicals, hydrogen, nuclear power and other low-carbon energy sources. At the same time, we continue to serve the traditional oil, gas and petrochemical industries with full project life-cycle services, including expansion and modernization projects as well as sustaining capital work. While we perform work on projects that range greatly in size and scope, we believe that one of our distinguishing features is our global strength and experience to perform very large projects in difficult locations. As energy and chemicals projects have become more challenging geographically, geopolitically or otherwise, we believe that clients will continue to look to us to manage their complex projects based on our size, strength, global reach, experience, technical expertise and proven track record.
With each specific project, our role can vary. We may be involved in providing front-end engineering, program management and final design services, construction management services, self-perform construction, or oversight of other contractors, and we may also assume responsibility for the procurement of materials, equipment and subcontractors. We have the capacity to design, fabricate and construct new facilities, upgrade, modernize and expand existing facilities, and rebuild facilities following fires and explosions. We also provide consulting services ranging from feasibility studies to process assessments to project finance structuring.
In production and fuels, we execute projects for the oil and gas production, processing and refining industries, including an increasing component of energy transition. In the upstream sector, our typical projects involve the production, processing and transporting of oil and gas, including the development of infrastructure associated with major new fields and pipelines. We are also involved in offshore production facilities and in gas processing projects. In the downstream sector, our clients have been modernizing and modifying existing refineries to increase capacity, improve margins and improve environmental performance. We are active in the repurposing of existing refining facilities for the production of renewable fuels. We are also focused on other transition markets, such as carbon capture and sequestration, blue and green hydrogen, ammonia and other low carbon solutions, as an increasing number of clients and countries implement stronger sustainable energy goals.
We have been very active for several decades in the chemicals and petrochemicals market, with major projects in the ethylene-based markets as well as in a variety of specialty chemicals. The most active markets have been in the United States, Middle East and Asia, where there is significant demand for chemical products. We are also active in battery chemicals projects and we are engaging with clients on implementing lower carbon solutions on their existing and new facilities.
We have participated in a wide variety of LNG developments, including liquefaction, floating LNG facilities and regasification terminals. Our work in LNG has included feasibility studies, technology evaluations, technical audits, process equipment optimization and selection, basic design, project specifications development, permitting support, front-end engineering and design, detailed EPC and start-up assistance.
In the nuclear project services market, we provide a full range of services for small modular reactor technologies and operations support for existing nuclear power facilities and managing waste. Through our relationship with NuScale, we can offer a complete project solution for carbon free power by utilizing NuScale's proprietary SMR technology, a market that is gaining significant momentum with the push to more sustainable energy sources.
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Urban Solutions
Our Urban Solutions segment provides EPC and project management services to the advanced technologies, life sciences, mining and metals, and infrastructure industries, as well as professional staffing services.
For the advanced technologies market, we provide program management and EPC services to a wide variety of companies on a global basis. Our experience spans a wide variety of market segments, including advanced materials, data storage and computing, fast-moving consumer goods, food and beverage, semiconductors, smart batteries and specialty products. We specialize in designing projects that incorporate lean manufacturing concepts while also satisfying client sustainability goals.
In life sciences, we provide front end studies and EPC services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical devices and animal health industries. We also specialize in providing validation and commissioning services where we not only bring new facilities into production, but we also extend the life, or improve efficiencies, of existing facilities. We believe the ability to complete projects on a large-scale basis, especially in a business where time to market is critical, enables us to better serve our clients and is a key competitive advantage.
In mining and metals, we provide a full range of services to our clients who produce a variety of commodities, including bauxite, copper, gold, iron ore, diamond, alumina, aluminum and phosphates. We have the experience required to support the increasing demand for battery metals, including lithium, platinum and nickel, due to urbanization and the transition to clean energy. We also serve the fertilizer industry and provide services in the downstream metals market. Our services include conceptual and feasibility studies through detailed EPC, commissioning and startup support. Many of these opportunities are being developed in remote and logistically challenging environments, such as the Andes Mountains, Western Australia and Africa. We believe we are one of the few companies with the size, regional presence and experience to execute large scale mining and metals projects in these difficult and remote locations.
We are an industry leader in developing infrastructure projects such as roads, highways, bridges and rail for governments, with particular interest in large, complex projects. We provide a broad range of services including consulting, design, planning, financial structuring, engineering and construction. We also provide long-term operation and maintenance services for transit and highway projects. Our projects may involve the use of public/private partnerships, which allow us to develop and finance deals in concert with public entities for projects such as toll roads and rail lines that would not have otherwise been undertaken with public funding alone. Continuing urbanization and the replacement and expansion of aging infrastructure in North America continues to drive project opportunities.
Historically, we have also offered a full range of services to the power industry including EPC, program management, startup and commissioning and technical services to utilities, independent power producers, original equipment manufacturers and other third parties. In recent years, this has become an increasingly smaller component of our business, though some projects remain in our portfolio.
The segment's staffing services are provided through TRS Staffing Solutions®. TRS is a global enterprise of staffing specialists that provides the company and third-party clients with technical, professional and craft resources either on a contract or permanent placement basis.
Mission Solutions
Mission Solutions is a provider of high-end technical solutions to the U.S. and other governments. The segment's nuclear and civil business holds a tier 1 position with differentiated expertise in managing complex national security missions across the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration. We deliver solutions for nuclear security and operations, nuclear waste management and laboratory management. Additionally, we are an industry leader in nuclear remediation at governmental facilities providing site management, environmental remediation, and decommissioning of facilities and have been successful in addressing environmental and regulatory challenges associated with legacy and operational nuclear sites. We also provide services to commercial nuclear clients. In civil services, we are a partner to FEMA for disaster recovery and are one of their top contractors.
In defense, we deliver operations and maintenance, global logistics, EPC, life support and operations of mission critical facilities across U.S. military service organizations. We can rapidly mobilize people and equipment to deliver solutions across the globe and in the harshest environments. We believe we can deliver the solutions to our military clients no matter how remote the location or how quickly services are required. From life support and logistics services for special forces across Africa, to building and managing facilities for Afghan evacuees in the U.S., to building a runway on Ascension Island, we believe we have the people, tools and skills to provide services that are unmatched among our peers.
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For our intelligence clients, we have more than 600 cleared personnel providing critical infrastructure solutions such as data center management, operations and maintenance of secure facilities and technology platform services. We construct and renovate secure facilities for the intelligence community in more than 20 countries, and support both enduring and contingency missions. We believe we are trusted by our clients to ensure their mission success.
Other
Our Other segment includes the operations of NuScale, in which we are the majority investor. NuScale has developed an NRC standard design approved SMR technology, which we believe will be a leader in the development of light water, passively safe SMRs, providing us with significant future project opportunities.
Discontinued Operations
The sale of the North American portion of our AMECO equipment business was completed in May 2021. In the first quarter of 2021, we also committed to a plan to sell our Stork business. Both Stork and the remaining AMECO operations are reported as Disc Ops for all periods presented.
AMECO provides integrated construction equipment, tool, scaffolding and fleet service solutions to the company and third-party clients in a focused number of locations around the world for construction projects and client production assets. Stork provides asset maintenance and asset integrity services to the oil and gas, chemicals, life sciences, power, mining and metals, consumer products and manufacturing industries.
Other Matters
Backlog
Backlog represents the total amount of revenue we expect to record in the future based upon contracts that have been awarded to us. Backlog is stated in terms of gross revenues and may include significant estimated amounts of third-party, subcontracted and pass-through costs.
Backlog in the engineering and construction industry is a measure of the value of work to be performed on contracts already awarded and those in progress.
December 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(in millions)
Energy Solutions$9,324 $11,021 
Urban Solutions7,048 9,224 
Mission Solutions2,562 2,899 
Total Backlog(1)(2)
$18,934 $23,144 
_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)The temporary staffing business in the Urban Solutions segment does not report backlog or new awards based on the nature of its business. For projects related to proportionately consolidated joint ventures, we include only our percentage ownership of each joint venture's backlog.
(2)Includes backlog of $1.1 billion and $1.8 billion for projects in a loss position as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

(in millions)December 31, 2021December 31, 2020
North America$12,235 $16,398 
Asia Pacific (including Australia)1,049 1,543 
Europe2,251 2,550 
Central and South America2,899 1,825 
Middle East and Africa500 828 
Total Backlog$18,934 $23,144 

Although backlog reflects business that we consider to be firm, cancellations, deferrals or scope adjustments may occur. Backlog is adjusted to reflect any known project cancellations, revisions to project scope and cost, foreign currency exchange
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fluctuations and project deferrals, as appropriate. The terms and conditions of some contracts include elements of both lump-sum and reimbursable contracts. Also, certain contracts may be converted from reimbursable to lump-sum. Due to additional factors outside of our control, such as changes in project schedules, we cannot accurately predict the exact timing that our December 31, 2021 backlog will be earned as revenue. Accordingly, backlog is not necessarily indicative of future earnings or revenues and no assurances can be provided that we will ultimately realize revenue on our backlog.
The following table sets forth our changes in consolidated backlog:
 20212020
 (in millions)
Backlog at beginning of year$23,144 $29,392 
New awards8,753 7,459 
Adjustments and cancellations, net(1)
(633)331 
Work performed(12,330)(14,038)
Backlog at end of year$18,934 $23,144 
(1)     During 2021, we removed $2 billion from backlog due to the cancellation of a steel project and a chemicals project.
In 2022, we expect to perform approximately 50% of our total backlog reported as of December 31, 2021, which is in line with the last three years.
Types of Contracts
While the basic terms and conditions of the contracts that we perform may vary considerably, we typically perform our work under two types of contracts: (a) reimbursable contracts and (b) lump-sum or guaranteed maximum contracts. In some markets, we are seeing hybrid contracts containing both lump-sum and reimbursable elements. As of December 31, 2021, the following table summarizes contract type within our ending backlog:
 December 31, 2021
 (in millions)(percentage)
Reimbursable$6,760 36 %
Lump-Sum and Guaranteed Maximum12,174 64 %

In accordance with industry practice, most of our contracts are subject to termination at the discretion of our client. In such situations, our contracts typically provide for the payment of fees earned through the date of termination and the reimbursement of costs incurred including demobilization costs.
Under reimbursable contracts, the client reimburses us based upon negotiated rates and pays us a pre-determined fee, or a fee based upon a percentage of the cost incurred in completing the project. Our profit may be in the form of a fee, a simple markup applied to labor cost incurred in performing the contract, or a combination of the two. The fee element may also vary. The fee may be an incentive fee based upon achieving certain performance factors, milestones or targets; it may be a fixed amount in the contract; or it may be based upon a percentage of the cost incurred. In some cases, reimbursable contracts may be converted into lump-sum contracts.
Our Mission Solutions segment, primarily acting as a prime contractor or a major subcontractor for a number of government programs, generally performs its services under reimbursable contracts subject to applicable statutes and regulations. In many cases, these contracts include incentive fee arrangements. The programs may span many years and may be implemented by awards under multiple contracts. Some of our government contracts are known as indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (“IDIQ”) agreements. Under these arrangements, we work closely with the government to define the scope and amount of work required based upon an estimate of the maximum amount that the government desires to spend. While the scope is often not initially fully defined or does not require any specific amount of work, once the project scope is determined, additional work may be awarded to us without the need for further competitive bidding.
Under lump-sum contracts, we typically bid based upon specifications provided by the client. This type of contracting presents risks because it requires us to predetermine the work to be performed, the project execution schedule and all costs associated with the work. Another type of lump-sum contract is a negotiated fixed-price contract, under which we are selected as contractor first, and then we negotiate price with the client. Negotiated fixed-price contracts frequently occur in single-responsibility arrangements where we perform some of the work before negotiating the total price for the project. Another type of lump-sum contract is a unit price contract under which we are paid a set amount for every “unit” of work
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performed. If we perform well under these types of contracts, we can benefit from cost savings. However, if the project does not proceed as originally planned, we may not be able to recover cost overruns except in certain situations.
Guaranteed maximum price contracts are reimbursable contracts except that the total fee plus the total cost cannot exceed an agreed upon guaranteed maximum price. We can be responsible for some or all of the total cost of the project if the cost exceeds the guaranteed maximum price. Where the total cost is less than the negotiated guaranteed maximum price, we may receive the benefit of the cost savings based upon a negotiated agreement with the client.
Some of our contracts, regardless of type, may operate under joint ventures or other teaming arrangements. Typically, we enter into these arrangements with reputable companies with whom we have worked previously. These arrangements are generally made to strengthen our market position or technical skills, or where the size, scale or location of the project directs the use of such arrangements.
Competition
We are one of the world’s larger providers of engineering, procurement, construction, fabrication and modularization, operations, maintenance and asset integrity, and project management services. The markets served by our business are highly competitive and, for the most part, require substantial resources and highly skilled and experienced technical personnel. A large number of companies compete against us, including U.S.-based companies such as AECOM, Amentum Services, Inc., Bechtel Group, Inc., EMCOR Group, Inc., Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., KBR, Inc., Kiewit Corporation, Granite Construction, Inc. and Quanta Services, Inc., and international-based companies such as ACS Actividades de Construccion y Servicios, Balfour Beatty plc, Chiyoda Corporation, Hyundai Engineering & Construction Company, Ltd., JGC Corporation, McDermott International, Inc., Petrofac Limited, SNC-Lavalin Group, Inc., Samsung Engineering, Stantec Inc., Technip Energies N.V., Wood Group plc, and WorleyParsons Limited.
Competition for our Energy Solutions and Urban Solutions segments is based on an ability to provide the design, engineering, planning, management and project execution skills required to complete complex projects in a safe, timely and cost-efficient manner. We believe our engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction business derives its competitive strength from our market diversity, excellence in execution, reputation for quality, technology, cost-effectiveness, worldwide procurement capability, project management expertise, geographic coverage, ability to meet client requirements by performing construction on either a union or an open shop basis, ability to execute complex projects of varying sizes, strong safety record and lengthy experience with a wide range of services and technologies.
In Urban Solutions, temporary staffing is a highly fragmented market with over 1,000 companies competing globally. The key competitive factors in this business line are price, service, quality, client relationships, breadth of service and the ability to identify and retain qualified personnel and geographic coverage.
In our Mission Solutions segment, key competitive factors are primarily centered on performance, qualified personnel and the ability to provide the design, engineering, planning, management and project execution skills required to complete complex projects in a safe, timely, cost-efficient and compliant manner.
Raw Materials
The principal products we use in our business include structural steel, metal plate, concrete, cable and various electrical and mechanical components. These products and components are subject to raw material (aluminum, copper, nickel, iron ore, etc.) availability and pricing fluctuations, which we monitor on a regular basis. We have access to numerous global supply sources; however, the availability and cost of these products, components and raw materials may vary significantly from year to year due to various factors including the logistics market, client demand, producer capacity, inflation, market conditions and specific material shortages.
Compliance with Government Regulations, Including Environmental, Safety and Health Matters
We provide services at sites throughout the world. Work at some of these sites involves activities related to nuclear facilities, hazardous waste, hydrocarbon production, distribution and transport, the military and infrastructure. Some of our work can be performed adjacent to environmentally sensitive locations such as wetlands, lakes and rivers. We also contract with governments to remediate hazardous materials, including chemical agents, as well as to decontaminate and decommission nuclear sites. These activities can require us to manage, handle, remove, treat, transport and dispose of toxic, radioactive or hazardous substances, and are subject to many environmental, health and safety laws and regulations.
We believe that we are compliant with all environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. We further believe that any accruals with respect to future environmental costs are adequate and that any future costs will not have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations. Some factors, however, could result in additional expenditures or the provision of additional accruals in expectation of such expenditures. These include the imposition of more stringent
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requirements under environmental laws or regulations, new developments or changes regarding site cleanup costs or the allocation of such costs among potentially responsible parties, or a determination that we are potentially responsible for the release of hazardous substances at sites other than those currently identified.
Human Capital Management
We have built a high-performance culture with purpose and foster a diverse and inclusive workplace as a business imperative because people are our single greatest asset. A high performance culture, where everyone is treated fairly and respectfully and has equal access to opportunities based on capabilities and performance, regardless of background, raises both the individual and collective performance of our company. Our culture drives employee engagement, productivity and a sustainable competitive advantage.
The following summarizes our human capital information as of December 31, 2021:
 Number of
Employees
Salaried Employees19,529 
Craft and Hourly Employees18,477 
TRS Agency2,576 
Total40,582 
The number of craft and hourly employees can vary in relation to the number, size and phase of execution of our projects. We have employees in the following regions:
Region% of Global Workforce
North America36 %
Europe, Africa and Middle East21 %
Central and South America32 %
Asia Pacific (includes Australia)11 %
Health and Safety
Safety is one of our core values. We are committed to taking care of our employees and preventing injuries in our offices and project locations. Our robust programs and procedures help us mitigate the hazards inherent in the work we do. We are committed to fostering a caring, preventative culture founded on proactive action by engaged employees. We call this Safer TogetherSM. Our 2021 safety performance (calculated in accordance with OSHA record keeping requirements) resulted in a total case incident rate of 0.37 with COVID cases included (or 0.33 with COVID cases excluded), which both outperformed our goal of less than 0.40 (excluding COVID cases) and well below the comparable industry benchmarks.
In response to COVID, we implemented a number of measures to protect the well-being of our employees and mitigate COVID transmission within our offices and on our projects. In 2020, we established a global COVID task force and implemented actions to empower remote working, restrict non-essential business travel, enhance sanitation at our offices and project sites, and other return-to-work measures. In 2021, the global COVID task force continued to provide guidance for our sites and offices as the pandemic progressed and regulations changed in various locations. We promoted our existing employee assistance program to support employee well-being with a focus on mental health. We also issued an updated workplace flexibility policy for our employees who are not required to be onsite or in the office.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We are committed to advancing Diversity, Equity and Inclusion ("DE&I"). We believe that every voice matters, and we value DE&I at every level of our organization. We encourage diversity of cultures, innovation and perspectives as we build inclusive, high-performance teams. We listen actively, respect one another and foster an environment with a sense of pride and belonging. We engage and partner with stakeholders who represent and support gender, generation, sexual orientation, mental and physical ability, race and ethnic diversity. We encourage knowledge sharing among our employees and stakeholders.
We are focused on delivering four key impact pillars to advance DE&I:
Champion an inclusive culture;
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Recruit, develop and retain talent;
Enhance employee experience; and
Improve social progress and impact.
We work with a variety of outreach, community and education organizations, including a range of universities. In 2021, we added three historically Black colleges and universities ("HBCUs") to Fluor’s Global University Sponsorship Program ("GUSP"). We announced that we will provide up to $1 million, including matching donations over three years, to North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, Prairie View A&M University in Texas and Tuskegee University in Alabama.
We are committed to strengthening our talent pipeline by expanding diversity in recruiting. We post our job openings internally and externally to reach a broad, diverse pool of candidates from all backgrounds. We have implemented a balanced slate candidate selection practice, which enables the identification of diverse candidates for positions across our offices and business lines.
We have established six regional inclusion councils to drive region-specific diversity and inclusion. In addition, we currently have four employee resource groups ("ERGs"): Black Employee Alliance (“BEA”), Emerging Leaders Group ("ELG"), Graduates Advancing to Professionalism ("GAP") and Growing Representation & Opportunity for Women ("GROW"). ERGs are a critical component of strengthening our culture of inclusion by encouraging employee engagement, attracting and retaining talent and offering allyship of shared identity individuals to share new ideas, insights and perspectives.
Development Opportunities
One of our top priorities is to provide ongoing training and development for our employees through multiple venues, including Fluor University, our online learning platform. Employees can select from among a wide variety of self-paced, online, virtual and instructor-led training courses. Topics range from our internally developed Fluor University courses focused on discipline-specific training, to commercially available technical learning and general knowledge topics, such as leadership, business acumen, communication and inclusive management. In 2021, our employees earned more than 55,000 credit hours through Fluor University. We have also developed several programs to help employees advance their careers, including Fluor Fellows for our technical experts and Mentoring Circles. In 2021, we also launched a new career development website.
Community Responsibility
Part of building a high-performance culture with purpose is offering employees robust and enriching opportunities to help build a better future. For more than 40 years, our employee volunteer program, Fluor Cares, has given employees a conduit for giving back to the communities where we live and work. In 2021, we launched a rebranded Fluor Cares 2.0 platform which consolidated both employee giving and volunteerism under the Fluor Cares banner and expanded the program to include 13 countries. The company match of 25 percent was expanded to several new cause categories, offering millions of nonprofit organizations to which employees can contribute. Despite lingering COVID protocols, our employees volunteered their time to hundreds of charitable organizations and causes.
We remained true to our legacy of giving back even as a variety of natural disasters, regional unrest and the continuing impact of COVID impacted lives and communities in far-reaching and profound ways. In 2021, Fluor and our employees pledged money to provide critical relief and support to those in need. Donations included emergency relief and resettlement support for more than 7,000 Afghan evacuees and contributions to help victims of tornadoes in the Midwest, wildfires in California and the super typhoon in the Philippines. We also provided more than 865,000 meals as well as clothing and warm blankets for more than 2,700 families around the globe.
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Information about our Executive Officers
The following information is being furnished with respect to our executive officers as of January 31, 2022:
NameAgePosition with the Company(1)
Alan L. Boeckmann73Executive Chairman
Joseph L. Brennan54Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
James R. Breuer53Group President, Energy Solutions
Alvin C. Collins III48Group President, Corporate Development and Sustainability
David E. Constable60Chief Executive Officer
Thomas P. D'Agostino63Group President, Mission Solutions
Stacy L. Dillow48Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Mark E. Fields63Group President, Project Execution
John C. Regan52Executive Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
John R. Reynolds65Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary
Terry W. Towle61Group President, Urban Solutions
_______________________________________________________________________________
(1)All references are to positions held with Fluor Corporation. All officers serve in their respective capacities at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.
Alan L. Boeckmann
Mr. Boeckmann has been Executive Chairman since 2019. Prior to his retirement in 2012, he previously served as non-executive Chairman of the company from 2011 to 2012 and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the company from 2002 to 2011. Mr. Boeckmann first joined the company in 1974. Mr. Boeckmann will retire as Executive Chairman effective May 5, 2022.
Joseph L. Brennan
Mr. Brennan has been Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since July 2020. Prior to that, he was Senior Vice President and Operations Controller in 2020, Senior Vice President and Segment Controller — Energy & Chemicals from 2018 to 2020 and Vice President and Segment Controller — Energy & Chemicals from 2016 to 2018 and as the general manager of the company's Southern California operations from 2013 to 2016. Mr. Brennan joined the company in 1991.
James R. Breuer
Mr. Breuer has been Group President, Energy Solutions since January 2021. Prior to that, he was President, Downstream — Energy & Chemicals from 2019 to 2021, Vice President and General Manager, South America — Mining & Metals from 2017 to 2019 and Director of Operations, ICA Fluor from 2013 to 2017. Mr. Breuer joined the company in 1993.
Alvin C. Collins III
Mr. Collins has been Group President, Corporate Development and Sustainability since January 2021. Prior to that, he was Senior Vice President, Operations — Energy & Chemicals from 2019 to 2021, Senior Vice President, Global Business Development — Energy & Chemicals in 2019, Senior Vice President, Operations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East — Energy & Chemicals from 2016 to 2019. Mr. Collins joined the company in 1994.
David E. Constable
Mr. Constable has been Chief Executive Officer since January 2021, after serving as a member of Fluor's Board of Directors since 2019. He previously served as Chief Executive Officer (from 2011) and Chief Executive Officer and President (from 2014) of Sasol Ltd., an integrated energy and chemical company, until 2016. Prior to that, he was Group President, Project Operations at the company from 2009 to 2011 and Group President, Power from 2005 to 2009. Mr. Constable first joined the company in 1982. Mr. Constable was appointed Chairman of the Board effective upon Mr. Boeckmann's retirement in May 2022.
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Thomas P. D'Agostino
Mr. D'Agostino has been Group President, Mission Solutions since January 2021. Prior to that, he was Group President, Government from 2017 to 2021, Senior Vice President, Sales —Government from 2015 to 2017 and Senior Vice President, Strategic Planning and Development — Government from 2013 to 2015. Mr. D'Agostino joined the company in 2013.
Stacy L. Dillow
Ms. Dillow has been Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since 2019. Prior to that, she was Head of Supply Chain Transformation, Southeast Asia and Australasia at Unilever, a consumer goods company, from 2018 to 2019. Prior to that, she was Senior Project Director — Energy & Chemicals at the company from 2014 to 2017. Ms. Dillow first joined the company in 1996.
Mark E. Fields
Mr. Fields has been Group President, Project Execution since January 2021. Prior to that, he was Group President, Energy & Chemicals from 2019 to 2021, Senior Vice President, Energy & Chemicals Americas from 2017 to 2019 and Senior Vice President, Project Director — Energy & Chemicals from 2009 to 2017. Mr. Fields joined the company in 1981.
John C. Regan
Mr. Regan has been Executive Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer since June 2020. Prior to joining the company, he was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Alta Mesa Resources, Inc., an upstream exploration and production company, from 2019 to 2020, and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Vine Oil and Gas LP and Brix Oil and Gas LP, private companies focused on natural gas exploration, from 2015 to 2018. Alta Mesa Resources, Inc. and certain of its subsidiaries filed for protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code in September 2019.
John R. Reynolds
Mr. Reynolds has been Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer since 2019 and Secretary since 2020. Prior to that, he was Vice President and Senior Managing General Counsel from 2017 to 2019 and Managing General Counsel from 2005 to 2017. Mr. Reynolds joined the company in 1985.
Terry W. Towle
Mr. Towle has been Group President, Urban Solutions since January 2021. Prior to that, he was Group President, Infrastructure & Power from 2019 to 2021, Senior Vice President, Project Director — Infrastructure from 2015 to 2019 and Senior Vice President, Business Line President — Infrastructure from 2014 to 2015. Mr. Towle joined the company in 1985.
Available Information
Our website address is www.fluor.com. You may obtain free electronic copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports on the “Investor Relations” portion of our website, under the heading “SEC Filings” filed under “Financial Information.” These reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the SEC. These reports, and any amendments to them, are also available at the Internet website of the SEC, http://www.sec.gov. We also use our investor relations website as a channel of distribution for important company information. Investors and others can receive notifications of new information posted on our investor relations website in real time by signing up for e-mail alerts and RSS feeds. We also maintain various documents related to our corporate governance including our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Board Committee Charters and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Members of the Board of Directors on the “Sustainability” portion of our website under the heading “Corporate Governance Documents” filed under “Governance.”
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
We operate in a complex and rapidly changing global environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and stock price. The risks described below highlight some of the factors that have affected and could affect us in the future. We may also be affected by unknown risks or risks that we currently think are immaterial. If any such events actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and stock price could be materially adversely affected.
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Summary Risk Factors
The following summarizes the risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and stock price. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk factor contained below.
Risks Related to our Operations
COVID has had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations and financial position.
We are vulnerable to the cyclical nature of the markets we serve.
Our revenue and earnings are largely dependent on new awards, which are driven by our clients.
The nature of our contracts, particularly our lump-sum contracts, subject us to risks associated with delays and cost overruns, which may not be recoverable and may result in reduced profits or losses that could have a material impact on us.
Intense competition in the EPC industry can impact our revenue and profits.
The success of teaming arrangements and joint ventures depends on the satisfactory performance by our venture partners over whom we may have little or no control, and the failure of those partners to perform their obligations could impose additional obligations on us that could have a material impact on us.
Cybersecurity breaches of our systems and information technology could adversely impact us.
We have international operations that are subject to foreign economic and political uncertainties and risks. Unexpected and adverse changes in the foreign countries in which we operate could result in project disruptions, increased cost and potential losses.
Our backlog is subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations.
Our employees work on projects that are inherently dangerous and in locations where there are high security risks, and a failure to maintain a safe work site could result in significant losses.
Our businesses could be materially and adversely affected by events outside of our control.
Our actual results could differ from the assumptions and estimates used to prepare our financial statements.
If we experience delays or defaults in client payments, we could be negatively impacted.
We are dependent upon suppliers and subcontractors to complete many of our contracts.
Our U.S. government contracts and contracting rights may be terminated or otherwise adversely impacted at any time, and our inability to win or renew government contracts during regulated procurement processes could harm our operations and reduce our projects and revenues.
Our success requires us to hire and retain qualified personnel.
Our effective tax rate and tax positions may vary.
Systems and information technology interruption, as well as new systems implementation, could adversely impact our ability to operate and our operating results.
It can be very difficult and expensive to obtain the insurance we need for our business operations.
If we do not have adequate indemnification for our nuclear services, it could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Foreign currency risks could have an adverse impact on us.
The loss of one or a few clients could have an adverse effect on us.
Damage to our reputation could in turn cause damage to our business.
Our business may be negatively impacted if we are unable to adequately protect intellectual property rights.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of asset impairments.
Climate change and related environmental issues could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors with respect to sustainability practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to reputational or other risks.
Risks Related to Indebtedness and other Credit Related Risks
Adverse credit and financial market conditions could impair our, our clients' and our partners' borrowing capacity, which could negatively affect us.
Our indebtedness could lead to adverse consequences or adversely affect our financial position and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under such indebtedness, and any refinancing of this debt could be at significantly higher interest rates.
We may be unable to win new contract awards if we cannot provide clients with financial assurances.
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Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are involved in litigation and regulatory proceedings, potential liability claims and contract disputes that may have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to recover adequately on claims against project owners, subcontractors or suppliers for payment or performance could have a material effect on our financial results.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
We could be adversely impacted if we fail to comply with domestic and international import and export laws.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct or our overall failure to comply with laws or regulations could impair our ability to compete for contracts.
New or changing legal requirements could adversely affect us.
Past and future environmental, safety and health regulations could impose significant additional costs on us.
Risks Related to Mergers & Acquisitions and Strategic Plans
We may be unsuccessful implementing our strategic and operational initiatives.
We may be unsuccessful integrating acquisitions or capitalizing on investments we make.
Risks Related to our Preferred Stock and our Equity
Conversion of our CPS will dilute the ownership interest of existing common stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
Our CPS has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to the rights of, our common stockholders, which could adversely affect the value of the common stock, our liquidity and our financial condition.
Provisions attendant to our preferred stock may deter or prevent a business combination that may be favorable to our common stockholders.
In the event we issue additional equity securities, stockholders' ownership percentages would be diluted.
Delaware law and our charter documents may impede or discourage a takeover or change of control.
Risks Related to our Operations
COVID has had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations and financial position.
There have been extraordinary and wide-ranging actions taken by international, federal, state and local public health and governmental authorities in response to COVID, including vaccine mandates, quarantines, government restrictions on movement, business closures and suspensions, canceled events and activities, isolation, and other voluntary or mandated changes in behavior. Both the outbreak of the disease and actions in response thereto have created significant uncertainty and economic volatility and disruption, which have impacted and may continue to impact our workforce and operations and have materially adversely affected and may continue to materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial performance, including, but not limited to, the following:
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, reductions in demand for our services and the delay or abandonment of ongoing or anticipated projects due to our clients’, suppliers’ and other third parties’ diminished financial conditions or financial distress, as well as governmental budget constraints. These impacts are expected to continue or worsen if stay-at-home, social distancing, travel restrictions and other similar orders or restrictions remain in place for an extended period of time or are re-imposed after being lifted or eased.
Some clients have been, and may in the future be, unable to meet their payment obligations to us in a timely manner, including as a result of deteriorating financial condition. Further, other third parties, such as suppliers, subcontractors, joint venture partners and other outside business partners, have experienced significant disruptions in their ability to satisfy their obligations with respect to us, or they may be unable to do so in the future altogether.
While we have had phased re-openings of some offices in accordance with local guidelines from governing agencies, many of our employees continue to work remotely. While many of our employees can effectively perform their responsibilities while working remotely, some work may not be completed as efficiently as if it were performed on site. Additionally, we may be exposed to unexpected cybersecurity risks and additional information technology-related expenses as a result of these remote working requirements.
We are subject to various vaccine mandates issued by clients or governments, and it is possible that additional mandates may be announced by other jurisdictions that could impact our workforce and operations. Such mandates
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could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain qualified employees, increase costs and administrative burden and make us subject to fines.
Illness, travel restrictions or other workforce disruptions have affected, and may continue to affect, our supply chain, our ability to timely and satisfactorily complete our clients’ projects, our ability to provide services to our clients or our other business processes.
Jurisdictions where we have operations may continue to close borders, impose prolonged quarantines and further restrict travel and business activity, which could materially impair our ability to conduct our operations, to source supplies through the global supply chain and to identify, pursue and capture new business opportunities, and which could continue to restrict the ability of our employees to access their workplaces. We also face the possibility of increased overhead or other expenses resulting from compliance with any current or future government orders or other measures enacted in response to COVID.
We operate in many countries around the world, and certain of those countries’ governments may be unable to effectively mitigate the financial or other impacts of COVID on their economies and workforces and our operations therein.
The extent to which COVID will continue to impact us depends on numerous evolving factors and future developments that we are not currently able to predict and may also exacerbate other risks discussed in this 2021 10-K, any of which could have a material adverse effect on us, our business operations, results of operations and financial position.
We are vulnerable to the cyclical nature of the markets we serve.
The demand for our services is dependent upon the existence of projects with EPC needs. Our clients' interest in approving new projects, budgets for capital expenditures and need for our services have in the past been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by, among other things, poor economic conditions, low oil prices, political uncertainties and currency devaluations. Clients have been and remain selective in how they allocate and expend their capital, which has resulted in a reduction of the number of projects we may bid on and win, especially the larger scale projects in which we specialize. For example, in our Energy Solutions segment, capital expenditures by our clients are influenced by factors such as prevailing prices and expectations about future prices for underlying commodities, technological advances, the costs of exploration, production and delivery of product, domestic and international political, military, regulatory and economic conditions and other similar factors. The decline in oil prices in the first quarter of 2020 significantly reduced demand for our services. There is no guarantee that the current recovery in oil prices will be sustained, and the timing and extent of any future improvements in demand remain uncertain. Industries served by that segment and many of the others we serve have historically been and will continue to be vulnerable to general downturns, which in turn could materially and adversely affect the demand for our services.
Our revenue and earnings are largely dependent on new awards, which are driven by our clients.
The awarding and timing of projects is unpredictable and driven by our clients. Awards, including expansions of existing projects, often involve complex and lengthy negotiations and competitive bidding processes. These processes can be impacted by a wide variety of factors including a client's decision to not proceed with the development of a project, governmental approvals, financing contingencies, oil prices, environmental conditions and overall market and economic conditions. We may not win contracts that we have bid on due to price, a client's perception of our ability to perform and/or perceived technology advantages held by others. Many of our competitors may be more inclined to take greater risks or include terms and conditions that we might not deem acceptable, especially when the markets for the services we typically offer are relatively soft. Because a significant portion of our revenue is generated from large projects, our results can fluctuate depending on whether and when large project awards occur and the commencement and progress of work under large contracts already awarded. As a result, we are subject to the risk of losing new awards to competitors or the risk that revenue may not be derived from awarded projects as quickly as anticipated. Additionally, uncertain economic and political conditions may make it difficult for our clients, our vendors and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. For example, changes to U.S. policies related to global trade and tariffs in recent years, and responsive changes in policy by foreign jurisdictions, have resulted in uncertainty surrounding the future of the global economy as well as retaliatory trade measures implemented by other countries.
The nature of our contracts, particularly our lump-sum contracts, subject us to risks associated with delays and cost overruns, which may not be recoverable and may result in reduced profits or losses that could have a material impact on us.
Because our projects are often technically complex, with multiple phases occurring over several years, we incur risks in our project execution activities. These risks could result in project delays, cost overruns or other problems and can include the following:
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Incorrect assumptions related to productivity, scheduling estimates or future economic conditions, including with respect to the impacts of inflation on lump-sum contracts;
Unanticipated technical problems, including design or engineering issues;
Inaccurate representations of site conditions and unanticipated changes in the project execution plan;
Project modifications creating unanticipated costs or delays and failure to properly manage project modifications;
Inability to achieve guaranteed performance or quality standards with regard to engineering, construction or project management obligations;
Insufficient or inadequate project execution tools and systems needed to record, track, forecast and control cost and schedule;
Reliance on historical cost and/or execution data that is not representative of current economic and/or execution conditions;
Failure to accurately estimate the timing and cost of projects, including due to inflation, supply chain disruption, rising construction costs or unforeseen increases in the cost of labor;
Unanticipated increases in the cost of raw materials, components or equipment, including due to inflation or the imposition of import tariffs;
Failure to properly make judgments in accordance with applicable professional standards, including engineering standards;
Failure to properly assess and update appropriate risk mitigation strategies and measures;
Difficulties related to the performance of our clients, partners, subcontractors, suppliers or other third parties;
Delays or productivity issues caused by weather; and
Changes in local laws or difficulties or delays in obtaining permits, rights of way or approvals.
These and other risks have in the past and may in the future result in our failure to achieve contractual cost or schedule commitments, safety performance, overall client satisfaction or other performance criteria. As a result, we may receive lower fees or lose our ability to earn incentive fees. In other cases, our fee will not change but we will have to continue to perform work without additional fees until the performance criteria is achieved. We may also be required to pay liquidated damages if we fail to complete a project on schedule. In addition, if we fail to meet guaranteed performance or quality standards, we may be held responsible under the guarantee or warranty provisions of our contract for cost impact to the client, generally in the form of contractually agreed-upon liquidated damages or an obligation to re-perform work. To the extent these events occur, the total cost to the project (including any liquidated damages we become liable to pay) could be material and could, in some circumstances, equal or exceed the full value of the contract. In such events, our financial condition or results of operations could be materially and negatively impacted.
In circumstances where the contract is lump-sum or the revenue is otherwise fixed, we bear significant risk for delays and cost overruns. Reimbursable contract types, such as those that include negotiated hourly billing rates, may restrict the kinds or amounts of costs that are reimbursable, therefore exposing us to the risk that we may incur certain costs in executing these contracts that are above our estimates and not recoverable from our clients.
Intense competition in the EPC industry can impact our revenue and profits.
We serve markets that are highly competitive and in which a large number of multinational companies compete. These markets require substantial resources and investment in technology and skilled personnel. We also see a continuing influx of non-traditional competitors offering below-market pricing while accepting greater risk. Competition places downward pressure on our contract prices and profit margins, and could cause us to accept contractual terms and conditions that are not normal or customary, thereby increasing the risk of losses on such contracts. Intense competition is expected to continue in these markets, presenting us with significant challenges in our ability to maintain acceptable profit margins. To the extent we are unable to meet these competitive challenges, we could lose revenue and experience reduced profitability.
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The success of teaming arrangements and joint ventures depends on the satisfactory performance by our venture partners over whom we may have little or no control, and the failure of those partners to perform their obligations could impose additional obligations on us that could have a material impact on us.
In the ordinary course of business in our industry, we execute specific projects and otherwise conduct certain operations through joint ventures, consortiums, partnerships and other collaborative arrangements (collectively, "ventures"). We have various ownership interests in these ventures, with such ownership typically being proportionate to our decision-making and distribution rights. The ventures generally contract directly with our client; however, services may be performed directly by the venture, or may be performed by us, our partners, or a combination thereof.
Our success in many markets is impacted by the presence or capability of our partners. If we are unable to compete alone, or with a quality partner, our ability to win work and successfully complete our contracts may be impacted. Differences in opinions or views between venture partners can result in delayed decision-making or failure to agree on material issues, which could adversely affect the business and operations of our ventures. In many of the countries in which we engage in joint ventures, it may be difficult to enforce our contractual rights under the applicable joint venture agreement.
At times, we also participate in ventures where we are not a controlling party or where we team with unaffiliated parties on a particular project. In such instances, we may have limited control over venture decisions and actions, including internal controls and financial reporting, which may have an impact on our business. If internal control problems arise within a venture, or if our venture partners have financial or operational issues, there could be a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The success of our ventures also depends, in large part, on the satisfactory performance by our venture partners of their obligations, including their obligation to commit working capital, equity or credit support as required by the venture and to support their indemnification and other contractual obligations. If our venture partners fail to satisfactorily perform their obligations, the venture may be unable to adequately perform or deliver its contracted services. Under these circumstances, we may be required to make additional investments and provide additional services to ensure the adequate performance and delivery of the contracted services and to meet any performance guarantees. From time to time, in order to establish or preserve a relationship, or to better ensure venture success, we may accept risks or responsibilities for the venture that are not necessarily proportionate with the reward we expect to receive or that may differ from risks or responsibilities we would normally accept in our own operations. We may also be subject to joint and several liability under the contracts for venture projects. These additional obligations could result in reduced profits or, in some cases, increased liabilities or significant losses for us with respect to the venture, and in turn, our business and operations. In addition, a failure by a venture partner to comply with applicable regulations could negatively impact our business and reputation and could result in fines, penalties, suspension or, in the case of government contracts, even debarment.
Cybersecurity breaches of our systems and information technology could adversely impact our ability to operate.
We utilize, develop, install and maintain a number of information technology systems. Various privacy and security laws require us to protect sensitive and confidential information from disclosure. In addition, we are bound by our contracts, as well as our own business practices, to protect confidential and proprietary information. Our computer systems, as well as those of our clients, contractors and other vendors, face the threat of unauthorized access, computer hacking, viruses, malicious code, cyber attacks, phishing and other security incursions and system disruptions. While we endeavor to maintain industry-accepted security measures and technology to secure our computer systems and while we endeavor to ensure our cloud vendors that store our data maintain similar measures, these systems and the information stored on these systems are still subject to threats. There can be no assurance that our efforts will protect us against all threats. Further, as these security threats continue to evolve, we may be required to devote additional resources to protect, detect and respond against such threats. A party who circumvents our security measures, or those of our clients, contractors or other vendors, could misappropriate confidential or proprietary information, improperly manipulate data, or cause damage or interruptions to systems. Any of these events could damage our reputation, result in litigation and regulatory fines and penalties, or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Furthermore, while we maintain insurance that specifically covers cybersecurity threats, our coverage may not sufficiently cover all types of losses or claims that may arise.
We have international operations that are subject to foreign economic and political uncertainties and risks. Unexpected and adverse changes in the foreign countries in which we operate could result in project disruptions, increased cost and potential losses.
Our business is subject to international economic and political conditions that change (sometimes frequently) for reasons that are beyond our control. We expect that a significant portion of our revenue and profits will continue to come from international projects for the foreseeable future.
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Operating in the international marketplace exposes us to a number of risks including:
abrupt changes in government policies, laws, treaties (including those impacting trade), regulations or leadership;
embargoes or other trade restrictions, including sanctions;
restrictions on currency movement;
tax or tariff changes and withholding requirements;
currency exchange rate fluctuations;
changes in labor conditions and difficulties in staffing and managing international operations, including logistical and communication challenges;
U.S. government trade or other policy changes in relation to the foreign countries in which we operate;
other regional, social, political and economic instability, including recessions and other economic crises;
natural disasters and public health crises, including pandemics;
expropriation and nationalization of our assets;
international hostilities; and
unrest, civil strife, acts of war, terrorism and insurrection.
Also, the lack of a well-developed legal system in some of the countries where we operate may make it difficult to enforce our contractual rights or to defend ourself against claims made by others. We operate in locations where there is a significant amount of political risk. In addition, military action or continued unrest could impact the supply or pricing of oil, disrupt our operations in the region and elsewhere, and increase our security costs. Our level of exposure to these risks may vary with each project, depending on the location of the project and its stage of completion. For example, our risk exposure with respect to a project in an early development phase, such as engineering, will generally be less than our risk exposure on a project that is in the construction phase. To the extent that our international business is affected by unexpected and adverse foreign economic and political conditions and risks, we may experience project disruptions and losses.
Our backlog is subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations.
Our backlog generally consists of projects for which we have an executed contract or commitment with a client and reflects our expected revenue from the contract or commitment, which is often subject to revision over time. We cannot guarantee that the revenue projected in our backlog will be realized or profitable or will not be subject to delay or suspension. Project cancellations, scope adjustments or deferrals, or foreign currency fluctuations may occur with respect to contracts reflected in our backlog and could reduce the dollar amount of our backlog and the revenue and profits that we actually earn; or, may cause the rate at which we perform on our backlog to decrease. Most of our contracts have termination for convenience provisions in them allowing clients to cancel projects. Our contracts typically provide for the payment of fees earned through the date of termination and the reimbursement of costs incurred including demobilization costs. In addition, projects may remain in our backlog for an extended period of time. During periods of economic slowdown, or decreases and/or instability in oil prices, the risk of projects being suspended, delayed or canceled generally increases. Finally, poor project or contract performance could also impact our backlog and profits. Such developments could have a material adverse effect on our business and our profits.
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Our employees work on projects that are inherently dangerous and in locations where there are high security risks, and a failure to maintain a safe work site could result in significant losses.
We often work on complex projects, frequently in geographically remote or high-risk locations that are subject to political, social or economic risks, or war or civil unrest. In those locations where we have employees or operations, we may expend significant efforts and incur substantial security costs to maintain safety. In addition, our project sites can place our employees and others near large equipment, dangerous processes or substances or highly regulated materials, and in challenging environments. Safety is a primary focus of our business and is critical to our reputation and performance. Many of our clients require that we meet certain safety criteria to be eligible to bid on contracts, and some of our contract fees or profits are subject to satisfying safety criteria. Unsafe work conditions also have the potential of increasing employee turnover, increasing project costs and raising our operating costs. If we fail to implement appropriate safety procedures and/or if our procedures fail, our employees or others may suffer injuries or loss of life, the completion of a project could be delayed and we could experience investigations or litigation. Although we have a safety function to implement effective health, safety and environmental procedures throughout our company, the failure to comply with such procedures, client contracts or applicable regulations could subject us to losses and liability. Despite these activities we cannot guarantee the safety of our personnel, nor can we guarantee our work, equipment or supplies will be free from damage.
Our businesses could be materially and adversely affected by events outside of our control.
Extraordinary or force majeure events beyond our control, such as natural or man-made disasters, severe weather conditions, public health crises such as COVID, supply chain disruption, political crises or other catastrophic events, could negatively impact our ability to operate or increase our costs to operate. Such events may result in disruptions to our operations; evacuation of personnel; increased labor and material costs or shortages; inability to deliver materials, equipment and personnel to jobsites in accordance with contract schedules; and loss of productivity. We may remain obligated to perform our services after any such events, unless a contract provision provides us with relief from our obligations. The extra costs incurred as a result of these events may not be reimbursed by our clients. If we are not able to react quickly to such events, or if a high concentration of our projects are impacted by such an event, our operations may be adversely affected. In addition, if we cannot complete our contracts on time, we may be subject to potential liability claims by our clients, which may reduce our profits and result in losses.
Our actual results could differ from the assumptions and estimates used to prepare our financial statements.
In preparing our financial statements, we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported values of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Areas requiring significant estimates by our management include:
recognition of revenue, costs, profits or losses;
recognition of revenue related to project incentives, awards or other variable consideration we expect to receive;
recognition of recoveries under contract change orders or claims;
estimated amounts for project losses, warranty costs, contract close-out or other costs;
collectability of receivables and the need and amount of any allowance;
asset valuations;
income tax provisions and related valuation allowances;
determination of expense and potential liabilities under pension and other post-retirement benefit programs; and
accruals for other estimated liabilities, including litigation and insurance reserves and receivables.
Estimates are based on management's reasonable assumptions and experience, but are only estimates. Our actual business and financial results could differ from our estimates of such results due to changes in facts and circumstances, which could have a material negative impact on our financial condition and reported results of operations. Further, we recognize contract revenue as work on a contract progresses. The cumulative amount of revenue recorded on a contract at any point is that percentage of total estimated revenue that costs incurred to date bear to estimated total costs. Accordingly, contract revenue and total cost estimates are reviewed and revised as the work progresses. Adjustments are reflected in contract revenue in the period when such estimates are revised. Such adjustments could be material and could result in reduced profitability.
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If we experience delays or defaults in client payments, we could be negatively impacted.
Because of the nature of our contracts, we sometimes commit resources to projects prior to receiving payments from clients in amounts sufficient to cover expenditures as they come due. Some of our clients have found it difficult to pay our invoices timely, increasing the risk that our accounts receivable could become uncollectible and ultimately be written off. In certain cases, our clients for our large projects are project-specific entities that do not have significant assets other than their interests in the project. From time to time, it is difficult for us to collect payments owed to us by these clients. In addition, clients may request extension of the payment terms otherwise agreed to under our contracts. Delays in client payments may require us to make a working capital investment, which could impact our cash flows and liquidity. If a client fails to pay invoices on a timely basis or defaults, there could be a material adverse effect on our results of operations or liquidity.
We are dependent upon suppliers and subcontractors to complete many of our contracts.
Some of the work performed under our contracts is performed by third-party subcontractors. We also rely on third-party suppliers to provide much of the equipment and materials used for projects. If we are unable to hire qualified subcontractors or find qualified suppliers, our ability to successfully or timely complete a project could be impaired. If the amount we are required to pay for subcontractors or equipment and supplies exceeds what we have estimated, especially in a lump-sum contract, we may suffer losses on these contracts. If a supplier or subcontractor fails to provide supplies, technology, equipment or services as required under a contract to us, our joint venture partner, our client or any other party involved in the project for any reason, or provides supplies, technology, equipment or services that are not an acceptable quality, we may be required to source those supplies, technology, equipment or services on a delayed basis or at a higher price than anticipated, which could impact our profitability. In addition, faulty workmanship, equipment or materials could impact the overall project, resulting in claims against us for failure to meet required project specifications. These risks may be intensified during an economic downturn if these suppliers or subcontractors experience financial difficulties or find it difficult to obtain sufficient financing to fund their operations or access to bonding, and are not able to provide the services or supplies necessary for our business. In addition, in instances where we rely on a limited number of suppliers or subcontractors, there may be no available replacement technology, equipment, materials or services on a timely basis or at the costs we had anticipated. A failure by a third-party subcontractor or supplier to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations could negatively impact our business and reputation and could result in fines, penalties, suspension, or in the case of government contracts, even debarment.
Our U.S. government contracts and contracting rights may be terminated or otherwise adversely impacted at any time, and our inability to win or renew government contracts during regulated procurement processes could harm our operations and reduce our projects and revenues.
We have a significant portfolio of government contracts, including those that we have in place with the DOE and U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. government contracts are subject to various uncertainties, restrictions and regulations, including oversight audits by government agencies and profit and cost controls, which could result in withholding or delay of payments to us. U.S. government contracts are also subject to uncertainties associated with congressional funding, including the potential impacts of budget deficits, government shutdowns and federal sequestration. Changes in U.S. government priorities, which can occur due to policy changes or economic changes, could adversely impact our revenues. The U.S. government is under no obligation to maintain program funding at any specific level, and funds for a program may even be eliminated. Our U.S. government clients may terminate or decide not to renew our contracts with little or no prior notice.
In addition, U.S. government contracts are subject to specific regulations such as the Federal Acquisition Regulation ("FAR"), the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Cost Accounting Standards ("CAS"), the Service Contract Act and Department of Defense security regulations. Failure to comply with any of these regulations and other government requirements may result in contract price adjustments, financial penalties or contract termination. Our U.S. government contracts are also subject to audits, cost reviews and investigations by U.S. government oversight agencies such as the U.S. Defense Contract Audit Agency (the "DCAA"). The DCAA reviews the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal controls and policies (including our labor, billing, accounting, purchasing, estimating, compensation and management information systems). The DCAA also has the ability to review how we have accounted for costs under the FAR and CAS. The DCAA presents its findings to the Defense Contract Management Agency ("DCMA"). Should the DCMA determine that we have not complied with the terms of our contract and applicable statutes and regulations, or if they believe that we have engaged in inappropriate accounting or other activities, payments to us may be disallowed or we could be required to refund previously collected payments. Additionally, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, suspension or debarment from future government contracts, and qui tam litigation brought by private individuals on behalf of the U.S. government under the False Claims Act, which could include claims for treble damages. These suits may remain under seal (and hence, be unknown to us) for some time while the government decides whether to intervene on behalf of the qui tam plaintiff. Furthermore, if we have significant disagreements with our government clients concerning costs incurred, negative publicity could arise, which could adversely affect our industry reputation and our ability to compete for new contracts in the government arena or otherwise.
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Most U.S. government contracts are awarded through a rigorous competitive process. The U.S. government has increasingly relied upon multiple-year contracts with pre-established terms and conditions that generally require those contractors that have been previously awarded the contract to engage in an additional competitive bidding process for each task order issued under the contract. Such processes require successful contractors to anticipate requirements and develop rapid-response bid and proposal teams as well as dedicated supplier relationships and delivery systems to react to these needs. We face rigorous competition and significant pricing pressures in order to win these task orders. If we are not successful in containing costs or able to timely respond to government requests, we may not win additional awards. Moreover, even if we are qualified to work on a government contract, we may be impacted in our pursuit of work by government policies designed to protect small businesses and under- represented minority contractors.
Many of our U.S. government contracts require security clearances. Depending upon the level of clearance required, security clearances can be difficult and time-consuming to obtain. If we or our employees are unable to obtain or retain necessary security clearances, we may not be able to win new business, and our existing government clients could terminate their contracts with us or decide not to renew them.
Under the Budget Control Act of 2011, an automatic sequestration process, or across-the-board budget cuts, was triggered when the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction failed to agree on a deficit reduction plan for the U.S. federal budget. The Budget Control Act of 2011 remains in place, extended through 2029, and absent additional legislative or other remedial action, the sequestration could require reduced U.S. federal government spending through 2029. A significant reduction in federal government spending or a change in budgetary priorities could reduce demand for our services, cancel or delay federal projects, and result in the closure of federal facilities and significant personnel reductions, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our success requires us to hire and retain qualified personnel.
The success of our business is dependent upon being able to attract, develop and retain personnel, including engineers, project management, craft employees and management around the globe, who have the necessary and required experience and expertise, and who will perform these services at a reasonable and competitive rate. Competition for these and other experienced personnel is intense. It may be difficult to attract and retain qualified individuals with the expertise and in the timeframe demanded by our clients. In certain geographic areas, for example, we may be unable to satisfy the demand for our services because of our inability to deploy qualified personnel. Also, it may be difficult to replace personnel who hold government required credentials. Loss of the services of, or failure to recruit, qualified technical and management personnel could limit our ability to successfully complete existing projects and compete for new projects.
As some of our executives and other key personnel approach retirement age or otherwise leave the company, we need to provide for smooth transitions, which may require that we devote time and resources to identify and integrate new personnel into leadership roles. Changes in our management team may disrupt our business and the failure to successfully transition and assimilate executives or other key personnel could adversely affect our results. If we are unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled personnel or effectively implement appropriate succession plans, our ability to pursue projects may be adversely affected, the costs of executing our existing and future projects may increase.
In addition, the cost of providing our services, including the extent to which we utilize our workforce, affects our profitability. For example, the uncertainty of contract award timing can present difficulties in matching our workforce size with project needs. If an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we could incur costs resulting from excess staff, reductions in staff, or redundancy of facilities that could have a material adverse impact on us.
Our effective tax rate and tax positions may vary.
We are subject to income taxes where we do business. A change in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation, in any country in which we operate could change our overall tax rate , which could have a material impact on our results of operations. In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and our judgments could prove inaccurate. There are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities, and our tax estimates and tax positions could be materially affected by many factors including the final outcome of tax audits and related litigation, the introduction of new tax accounting standards, legislation, regulations and related interpretations, our global mix of earnings, our ability to realize deferred tax assets and changes in uncertain tax positions. Future changes in our tax rate or adverse changes in tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and liquidity.
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Systems and information technology interruption, as well as new systems implementation, could adversely impact our ability to operate and our operating results.
We are heavily reliant on computer, information and communications technology and related systems, some of which are hosted by third party providers. From time to time, we experience system interruptions and delays that may be planned for upgrades or that may be unplanned. Unplanned interruptions could result from natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar events or disruptions. Any of these or other events could cause system interruptions, delays, loss of critical or sensitive data (including personal or financial data) or loss of funds; could delay or prevent operations (including the processing of transactions and reporting of financial results); and could adversely affect our reputation or our operating results. While we have and require the maintenance of reasonable safeguards designed to protect against unavailability or loss of data, these safeguards may not be sufficient. We may be required to incur significant costs to protect against or alleviate damage caused by systems interruptions and delays, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and cash flows.
We continue to evaluate the need to upgrade and/or replace our systems and network infrastructure to protect our computing environment, to stay current on vendor supported products, to improve the efficiency of our systems and for other business reasons. The implementation of new systems and information technology could adversely impact our operations by imposing substantial capital expenditures, demands on management time and risks of delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems. Our systems implementations also may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated. Systems implementation disruption and any other information technology disruption, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
It can be very difficult and expensive to obtain the insurance we need for our business operations.
We maintain insurance both as a corporate risk management strategy and to satisfy the requirements of many of our contracts. Although we have been generally able to cover our insurance needs, there can be no assurances that we can secure all necessary or appropriate insurance in the future, or that such insurance can be economically secured. For example, catastrophic events can result in decreased coverage limits, more limited coverage, increased premium costs or deductibles. We also monitor the financial health of our insurance. Our insurance is purchased from a number of leading providers, often in layered insurance or quota share arrangements. If any of our third party insurers fail, abruptly cancel our coverage or otherwise cannot satisfy their obligations to us, then our overall risk exposure and operational expenses could increase and our business operations could be interrupted.
If we do not have adequate indemnification for our nuclear services, it could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We provide services to the DOE and the nuclear energy industry in the on-going maintenance and modification of nuclear facilities as well as decontamination and decommissioning activities of nuclear plants. The Price-Anderson Act generally indemnifies parties performing services to nuclear power plants and DOE contractors; however, not all of our activities are covered. Thus, if the Price-Anderson Act indemnification protections do not apply to our services, or if the exposure occurs outside of the U.S. in a region that does not have protections comparable to the Price-Anderson Act, our business and financial condition could be adversely affected by our client's refusal to contract with us, by our inability to obtain commercially reasonable insurance or third party indemnification, or by the potentially significant monetary damages we could incur.
Foreign currency risks could have an adverse impact on revenue, earnings and/or backlog.
Our contracts may subject us to foreign currency risk, particularly when project revenue is denominated in a currency different than the expected costs. A project may be denominated in different currencies at various points in time as a project progresses. We may attempt to minimize our exposure to foreign currency risk by obtaining contract provisions that protect us from foreign currency fluctuations and/or by implementing hedging strategies utilizing derivatives. However, these actions may not always eliminate all foreign currency risk, and as a result, our profitability could be affected.
Our monetary assets and liabilities denominated in nonfunctional currencies are subject to remeasurement. In addition, the U.S. dollar value of our backlog may from time to time increase or decrease significantly due to foreign currency volatility. We may also be exposed to limitations on our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund our operations in other countries.
The loss of one or a few clients could have an adverse effect on us.
A few clients, including the U.S. government, state governments and governmental agencies comprise a significant portion of our revenue. Although we have long-standing relationships with many of our significant clients, our clients may
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unilaterally reduce, fail to renew or terminate their contracts with us at any time. Most of our contracts have "termination for convenience" provisions in them. The loss of business from a significant client could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Damage to our reputation could in turn cause damage to our business.
Maintaining a positive reputation is critical to attracting and maintaining clients and other business relationships. If we fail to address issues that may give rise to reputational risk, we could significantly harm our business. These issues may include, but are not limited to, any of the risk factors discussed herein. If our reputation is harmed, we could suffer a number of adverse consequences, such as:
reduced demand for our services;
lack of investor confidence;
less favorable credit rating;
the inability to attract and retain qualified employees;
a loss or reduction in scope of current project contracts and fewer contract awards;
less favorable contract terms;
increased need for financial assurances;
increased litigation and costs; and
heightened regulatory scrutiny.
These and other consequences resulting from damage to our reputation could have a material adverse effect us.
Our business may be negatively impacted if we are unable to adequately protect intellectual property rights.
Our success is impacted by our ability to differentiate our services through our technologies and know-how. This includes the ability to protect intellectual property rights. We utilize a combination of patents, copyrights, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and other contractual arrangements to protect our interests. However, these methods only provide limited protection and may not adequately protect our interests. Our employees, contractors and joint venture partners are subject to confidentiality obligations, but this protection may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information and/or infringement of our intellectual property rights. This can be especially true in certain foreign countries where intellectual property does not have equivalent protections as in the U.S., or when our joint venture partner is a competitor who will gain access to our procedures and know-how while working with us in the performance of services.
Our clients require broad ownership rights in the work product and other materials we deliver. If we are unable to retain ownership of our pre-existing intellectual property and improvements thereto, it may affect our ability to provide similar services to other clients in the future, which ultimately, could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Our competitors or others may independently develop technology substantially similar to our trade secret technology or we may be unsuccessful in preserving our intellectual property rights in the future. Our intellectual property rights could be invalidated, circumvented, challenged or infringed upon. Litigation to determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert management's attention.
In addition, our clients or other third parties may also provide us with their technology and intellectual property. There is a risk that we may not sufficiently protect against improper use or dissemination and, as a result, we could be subject to claims and litigation and resulting liabilities, loss of contracts or other consequences that could have an adverse impact on us.
We also hold licenses from third parties utilized in our business operations. If we are no longer able to license such technology on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise, we could be adversely affected. When we license our intellectual property to third parties, the scope of such license grant is generally limited. If such third party exceeds the scope of the license grant, and if we are unable to detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property or otherwise take appropriate steps to enforce our rights, our revenue and margins will be adversely impacted, and the value of our intellectual property portfolio may be adversely affected.
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Our results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of asset impairments.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by impairments. Goodwill and other intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but instead are tested at least annually for impairment. Any future impairments, including impairments of tangible assets, goodwill, investments, deferred tax assets or other intangible assets, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Climate change and related environmental issues could have a material adverse impact on us.
Climate change related events, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods, wildfires, droughts, hurricanes, freezing conditions, and other natural disasters, may have a long-term impact on our business, financial condition and results of operation. While we seek to mitigate our business risks associated with climate change, we recognize that there are inherent climate related risks regardless of where we conduct our businesses. For example, a catastrophic natural disaster could negatively impact any of our office locations and the locations of our clients. Access to clean water and reliable energy in the communities where we conduct our business is critical to our operations. Accordingly, a natural disaster has the potential to disrupt our and our clients’ businesses and may cause us to experience work stoppages, supply chain disruptions, project delays, financial losses and additional costs to resume operations, including increased insurance costs or loss of cover, legal liability and reputational losses.
Further, the risks caused by climate change span across the full spectrum of the industries we serve. The direct physical risks that climate change poses through chronic environmental changes, such as rising sea levels and temperatures, and acute events, such as hurricanes, droughts and wildfires, is common to each of these industries. Our clients could face increased costs to maintain their assets, which could result in reduced profitability and fewer resources for strategic investment. These types of physical risks could in turn lead to transitional risks (i.e., the degree to which society responds to the threat of climate change). For example, growing concerns about climate change may result in legislation, international protocols or treaties, regulation or other restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions or that otherwise seek to address climate change that could affect our clients, including those who (a) are involved in the exploration, production or refining of fossil fuels, such as our Energy Solutions clients, (b) emit greenhouse gases through the combustion of fossil fuels or (c) emit greenhouse gases through the mining, manufacture, utilization or production of materials or goods. Such legislation or restrictions could increase the costs of projects for us and our clients or, in some cases, prevent a project from going forward, thereby potentially reducing the need for our services, which would in turn have a material adverse impact on us. However, policy changes and climate legislation could also accelerate energy transition, including the development of carbon capture and storage projects, alternative transportation, alternative energy facilities, such as wind farms or nuclear reactors, or incentivize increased implementation of clean fuels projects, which could positively impact the demand for our services. We cannot predict when or whether any of these legislative proposals may become law or what effect will be on us and our clients.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors with respect to sustainability practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to reputational or other risks.
Investors and clients have increasingly focused on the environmental, social and governance practices of companies, including practices with respect to human capital, emissions and environmental impact and political spending. While we have programs and initiatives in place related to our environmental, social and governance practices, investors may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of our practices. In addition, our clients may require that we adhere to varying environmental, social or governance standards. Our failure to comply with investor or client standards, which are evolving, or if we are perceived to not have responded appropriately to the growing concern for these issues could also cause reputational harm to our business and could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, organizations that provide ratings information to investors on environmental, social and governance matters may have unfavorable views on us, which may lead to negative sentiment.
Risks Related to Indebtedness
Adverse credit and financial market conditions could impair our, our clients' and our partners' borrowing capacity, which could negatively affect us.
Our ability to generate cash is important for the funding of our operations, investing in ventures, the servicing of our indebtedness, paying dividends and making acquisitions. To the extent that existing cash balances and operating cash flow, together with borrowing capacity under our credit facilities, are insufficient to make investments or acquisitions or provide needed working capital, we may require additional financing from other sources. Our ability to obtain such additional financing will depend upon prevailing capital market conditions, including those arising due to events occurring in our industry, as well as conditions in our business and our operating results; and those factors may affect our efforts to negotiate terms that are acceptable to us. Furthermore, if global economic, industry, political or other market conditions adversely affect the financial institutions that provide credit to us, it is possible that our ability to establish or draw upon our credit
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facilities may be impacted. In addition, a downgrade in our credit rating could increase the cost of our borrowings or their refinancing, limit access to sources of financing or lead to other adverse consequences. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to make future investments, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities, or respond to competitive challenges.
In addition, adverse credit and financial market conditions also adversely affect our clients' and our partners' borrowing capacity, which could result in contract cancellations or suspensions, project award and execution delays, payment delays or defaults by our clients. These disruptions could materially impact our backlog and profits. If we extend a significant portion of credit to our clients or projects in a specific geographic region or industry, we may experience higher levels of collection risk or non-payment if those clients are impacted by factors specific to their geographic industry or region.
Our indebtedness could lead to adverse consequences or adversely affect our financial position and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under such indebtedness, and any refinancing of this debt could be at significantly higher interest rates.
Our indebtedness could have important consequences, including but not limited to:
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to servicing our debt, thereby reducing the availability of cash to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and investments and other general corporate purposes; and
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, challenges and opportunities, and changes in our businesses and the markets in which we operate.
Our ability to service our debt will depend on our future operating performance and financial results, which may be subject to factors beyond our control, including general economic, financial and business conditions. If we do not have sufficient cash flow to service our debt, we may need to refinance all or part of our existing debt, borrow more money or sell securities or assets, some or all of which may not be available to us at acceptable terms or at all. In addition, we may need to incur additional debt in the future in the ordinary course of business. Although the terms of our credit agreements and our bond indentures allow us to incur additional debt, there are limitations which may preclude us from incurring the desired amount.
Our current debt and any future additional debt we may incur impose, or may impose, significant operating and financial restrictions on us. In addition, our credit facilities require us to maintain specified financial covenants. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default. If a default occurs, the relevant lenders could elect to accelerate payments due. If our operating performance declines, or if we are unable to comply with any covenant, we may need to obtain amendments to our credit agreements or waivers from the lenders to avoid default. These factors could have a material adverse effect on us.
We may be unable to win new contract awards if we cannot provide clients with financial assurances.
It is a common industry practice for clients to require us to provide surety bonds, letters of credit, bank guarantees or other forms of financial assurance as credit enhancements. Surety bonds, letters of credit or guarantees indemnify our clients if we fail to perform our contractual obligations. Historically, we have had strong surety bonding capacity due to our credit rating, but bonding is provided at the surety's sole discretion. In addition, because of the overall limitations in worldwide bonding capacity, we may find it difficult to access sufficient surety bonding capacity to meet our total surety bonding needs. For letters of credit, we have historically had adequate capacity under our existing credit facilities, but any capacity that may be required in excess of our credit limits would be at our lenders' sole discretion. Failure to provide credit enhancements on terms required by a client may result in an inability to compete for or win a project.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are involved in litigation and regulatory proceedings, potential liability claims and contract disputes that may have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of legal or regulatory proceedings, liability claims or contract disputes. Our operating activities expose us to claims against us for recovery of costs they incurred in excess of what they expected to incur, or for which they believe they are not contractually liable. We may be named as a defendant in legal proceedings where parties may make a claim for damages or other remedies with respect to our projects or other matters, including shareholder litigation. During times of economic uncertainty, especially with regard to our commodity-based clients, claim frequencies and amounts tend to increase.
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In proceedings where it is determined that we have liability, we may not be covered by insurance or these liabilities may exceed our coverage. In addition, even where insurance is maintained for such exposure, the policies have deductibles resulting in our assuming exposure for a layer of coverage with respect to any such claims. Our professional liability coverage is on a "claims-made" basis covering only claims actually made during the policy period. Any liability not covered by our insurance, in excess of our insurance limits or, if covered by insurance but subject to a high deductible, could have a material adverse impact on us.
We have received subpoenas from both the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ") seeking documents and information related to projects for which we recorded charges in the second quarter of 2019 and certain project accounting, financial reporting and governance matters. We are coordinating our responses to the SEC and DOJ and cooperating in providing the requested documents and information. If the SEC or DOJ commences legal action as a result of the investigations, we could be required to pay significant penalties and become subject to injunctions, cease and desist orders and other measures. We cannot predict the outcome or timing of any governmental or regulatory investigation.
In addition to these investigations, we have also had numerous securities class action lawsuits and stockholder derivative actions filed against us and certain of our current and former executives and directors.
We may incur significant expenses related to legal, accounting, and other professional services in connection with the SEC investigation, the DOJ investigation, lawsuits and related legal and regulatory matters. These expenses and the diversion of our management's attention has adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, our operations.
We remain exposed to heightened risks of litigation, regulatory proceedings, and government enforcement actions and additional subpoenas. Any future investigations or additional lawsuits may have a material adverse effect on us.
In other legal or regulatory proceedings, liability claims or contract disputes, we may be covered by indemnification agreements that may at times be difficult to enforce. Even if enforceable, it may be difficult to recover under these agreements if the indemnitor does not have the ability to financially support the indemnity. Litigation and regulatory proceedings are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings could occur, including for monetary damages. If we were to receive an unfavorable ruling in a matter, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed. Such proceedings can also be costly, time-consuming, disruptive to operations and distracting to management, regardless of the outcome.
Our failure to recover adequately on claims against clients, subcontractors or suppliers for payment or performance could have a material effect on our financial results.
We occasionally bring claims against clients for additional costs exceeding the contract price or for amounts not included in the original contract price. Similarly, we present change orders and claims to our subcontractors and suppliers. If we fail to properly provide notice or document the nature of change orders or claims, or are otherwise unsuccessful in negotiating a reasonable settlement, we could incur reduced profits, cost overruns and in some cases a loss on the project. These types of claims can occur due to matters such as owner-caused delays or changes from the initial project scope, which result in additional cost. These claims can result in lengthy and costly proceedings, and it is often difficult to accurately predict when these claims will be fully resolved. When these types of events occur and while unresolved claims are pending, we may invest significant working capital in projects to cover cost overruns pending the resolution of the relevant claims. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and financial results.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to officials or others for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. While our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. We train our personnel concerning anti-bribery laws and issues, and we also inform our partners, subcontractors, suppliers, agents and others who work for us or on our behalf that they must comply with anti-bribery law requirements. We also have procedures and controls in place to monitor compliance. However, there is no assurance that our internal controls will always protect us from the possible reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. If we are found to be liable for anti-bribery law violations (either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others including our partners, agents, subcontractors or suppliers), we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, including contract cancellations or debarment, and damaged reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Litigation or investigations relating to alleged or suspected violations of anti-bribery laws, even if ultimately such litigation or investigations demonstrate that we did not violate anti-bribery laws, could be costly and could distract management.
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We could be adversely impacted if we fail to comply with domestic and international import and export laws.
Our global operations require importing and exporting goods and technology across international borders on a regular basis. Our policies mandate strict compliance with U.S. and foreign international trade laws. To the extent we export technical services, data and products outside of the U.S., we are subject to regulations governing international trade and exports including but not limited to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the Export Administration Regulations and trade sanctions against embargoed countries, which are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control within the Department of Treasury. From time to time, we identify certain inadvertent or potential export or related violations. These violations may include, for example, transfers without required governmental authorization. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the imposition of fines, the denial of export privileges, and suspension or debarment from participation in U.S. government contracts.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct or our overall failure to comply with laws or regulations could impair our ability to compete for contracts
Misconduct, fraud, non-compliance with applicable laws and regulations, or other improper activities by one of our employees, agents or partners could have a significant negative impact on our business and reputation. Such misconduct could include the failure to comply with anti-corruption, export control and environmental regulations; federal procurement regulations, regulations regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts and regulations regarding the protection of sensitive government information; regulations on lobbying or similar activities; regulations pertaining to the internal control over financial reporting; and various other applicable laws or regulations. The precautions we take to prevent and detect fraud, misconduct or failures to comply with applicable laws and regulations may not be effective, and we could face unknown risks or losses. Failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or acts of fraud or misconduct could subject us to fines and penalties, loss of security clearance and suspension or debarment from contracting with government agencies, which could weaken our ability to win contracts and have a material adverse impact on our revenues and profits.
New or changing legal requirements could adversely affect our operating results.
Our business and results of operations could be affected by the passage of laws, policies and regulations. The implementation of trade barriers, countervailing duties, or border taxes, or the addition, relaxation or repeal of laws, policies and regulations regarding the industries and sectors in which we work could result in a decline in demand for our services, or may make the manner in which we perform our services, less profitable. Furthermore, changes to existing trade agreements may impact our business operations. We cannot predict when or whether any of these various legislative and regulatory proposals may become law or what their effect will be on us and our clients.
Past and future environmental, safety and health regulations could impose significant additional costs on us that reduce our profits.
We are subject to numerous environmental laws and health and safety regulations. Our projects can involve the handling of hazardous and other highly regulated materials, including nuclear and other radioactive materials, which, if improperly handled or disposed of, could subject us to civil and criminal liabilities. It is impossible to reliably predict the full nature and effect of judicial, legislative or regulatory developments relating to health and safety regulations and environmental protection regulations applicable to our operations. The applicable regulations, as well as the length of time available to comply with those regulations, continue to develop and change. The cost of complying with regulations, satisfying any environmental remediation requirements for which we may be found responsible, or satisfying claims or judgments alleging personal injury, property damage or natural resource damages as a result of exposure to, or contamination by, hazardous materials, including as a result of commodities such as lead or asbestos-related products, could be substantial, may not be covered by insurance, could impact profitability and materially impact our operations.
We are subject to a number of regulations such as those from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and non-U.S. regulatory bodies, such as the International Atomic Energy Commission and the European Union, which can have a substantial effect on our nuclear operations and investments. Delays in receiving necessary approvals, permits or licenses, the failure to maintain sufficient compliance programs, and other problems encountered during construction (including changes to such regulatory requirements) could have an adverse effect on us.
A substantial portion of our business is generated either directly or indirectly as a result of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations related to environmental matters. A reduction in the number or scope of these laws or regulations, or changes in government policies regarding the funding, implementation or enforcement of such laws and regulations, could significantly reduce the size of one of our markets and limit our opportunities for growth or reduce our revenue below current levels.
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Risks Related to Mergers & Acquisitions and Strategic Plans
We may be unsuccessful in implementing our strategic and operational initiatives.
We have announced a number of strategic and operational initiatives designed to optimize costs and improve operational efficiency, including plans to divest our Stork business, monetize surplus real estate and non-core investments, and rationalize resources and overhead across various geographies. Our ability to successfully execute these initiatives is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including regulatory intervention, which may negatively impact the realization of expected benefits. Our failure to realize the anticipated benefits, which may be due to our inability to execute, competition, economic conditions, and other risks described herein, could have a material adverse effect on us. Divesting businesses involves risks and uncertainties, such as the difficulty separating assets related to such businesses from the businesses we retain, employee distraction, the need to obtain regulatory approvals and other third-party consents, which potentially disrupts customer and vendor relationships, and the fact that we may be subject to additional tax obligations or loss of certain tax benefits. Such actions also involve significant costs and require time and attention of our management, which may divert attention from other business operations. Because of these challenges, as well as market conditions or other factors, anticipated divestitures may take longer or be costlier or generate fewer benefits than expected and may not be completed at all. If we are unable to complete the divestitures or to successfully transition divested businesses, our business and financial results could be negatively impacted. If we dispose of a business, we may not be able to successfully cause a buyer of a divested business to assume the liabilities of that business or, even if such liabilities are assumed, we may have difficulties enforcing our rights, contractual or otherwise, against the buyer. We may retain exposure on financial or performance guarantees and other contractual, employment, pension and severance obligations, and potential liabilities that may arise under law because of the disposition or the subsequent failure of an acquirer. As a result, performance by the divested businesses or other conditions outside of our control could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, the divestiture of any business could negatively impact our profitability because of losses that may result from such a sale, the loss of revenues or a decrease in cash flows. Following a divestiture, we may also have less diversification in our business and in the markets we serve, as well as in our client base.
We may be unsuccessful integrating acquisitions or capitalizing on investments we make.
In making an acquisition or investment, we devote significant management attention and resources to integrating or aligning the business practices and operations of companies we acquire or invest in. Difficulties we may encounter in integrating or capitalizing on investments could include:
A delay in the integration or alignment of management teams, strategies, operations, products and services;
Diversion of management's attention;
The consequences of a change in tax treatment;
Differences in corporate culture and management philosophies;
The ability to retain key personnel;
The challenges of integrating or aligning complex IT systems; and
Potential for unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses or associated delays, including integration costs.
Any of these factors could negatively affect us.
Risks Related to our Preferred Stock and our Equity
Conversion of our CPS will dilute the ownership interest of existing common stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
In May 2021, we issued shares of Series A CPS. The conversion of some or all of the preferred stock into our common stock will dilute the ownership interests of existing common stockholders. Any public market sales of the common stock issuable upon conversion could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Our CPS has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to the rights of, our common stockholders, which could adversely affect the value of the common stock, our liquidity and our financial condition.
Holders of our preferred stock have the right to receive a payment of $1,000 per share, plus accumulated but unpaid dividends, upon our liquidation, winding up or dissolution before any payment may be made to holders of our common stock.
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In addition, dividends on the preferred stock accrue and are cumulative at an annual rate of 6.50%. Subject to certain exceptions, we are not permitted to declare or pay dividends on our common stock unless all accumulated and unpaid preferred stock dividends have been satisfied. These dividend obligations could impact our liquidity available for other purposes.
If dividends on the preferred stock are in arrears and unpaid for six or more quarterly dividend periods, the preferred stockholders are entitled to elect two additional directors to our board of directors. In addition, votes of holders of at least 66⅔% of the outstanding preferred stock are required to issue any equity senior to the preferred stock.
The rights of the preferred stockholders could also limit our ability to obtain additional financing, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The preferred stockholders could also have divergent interests from the holders of our common stock.
Provisions attendant to our preferred stock may deter or prevent a business combination that may be favorable to our stockholders.
If a make-whole fundamental change occurs, we may be required to increase the conversion rate for an electing holder. This and other provisions attendant to the preferred stock could deter or prevent a third party from acquiring us even when the acquisition may be favorable to our common stockholders.
In the event we issue additional equity securities, stockholders' ownership percentages would be diluted.
We may in the future issue additional equity securities to pay for potential acquisitions or to otherwise fund our corporate initiatives. If we do issue additional equity securities, the issuance may dilute our earnings per share and stockholders' percentage ownership.
Delaware law and our charter documents may impede or discourage a takeover or change of control.
Fluor is a Delaware corporation. Various anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law impose impediments on the ability of others to acquire control of us, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our stockholders. In addition, certain provisions of our charters and bylaws may impede or discourage a takeover. For example:
stockholders may not act by written consent;
there are various restrictions on the ability of a stockholder to call a special meeting or to nominate a director for election; and
our Board of Directors can authorize the issuance of preferred shares.
These types of provisions in our charters and bylaws could also make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our equity holders.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
Major Facilities
Our operations are conducted at both owned and leased properties in U.S. and foreign locations totaling approximately 6.6 million rentable square feet, down 1.3 million square feet from last year. Our executive offices are located at 6700 Las Colinas Boulevard, Irving, Texas. As our business frequently changes, the extent of utilization of the facilities by particular segments cannot be accurately stated. In addition, certain of our properties are leased or subleased to third party tenants. While we have operations worldwide, the following summarizes our more significant existing facilities:
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LocationInterest
United States:
Greenville, South CarolinaOwned
Houston (Sugar Land), TexasLeased
Irving, Texas (Corporate Headquarters)Owned
Southern California (Aliso Viejo and Long Beach)Leased
Canada:
Calgary, AlbertaOwned
Vancouver, British ColumbiaLeased
Latin America:
Santiago, ChileOwned and Leased
Europe, Africa and Middle East:
Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaOwned
Amsterdam, the NetherlandsOwned
Farnborough, EnglandOwned and Leased
Gliwice, PolandOwned
Johannesburg, South AfricaLeased
Utrecht, the NetherlandsLeased
Asia/Asia Pacific:
Manila, the PhilippinesOwned and Leased
New Delhi, IndiaLeased
Perth, AustraliaLeased
Shanghai, ChinaLeased
In addition, we lease or own a number of individually insignificant offices, warehouses and equipment yards strategically located throughout the world. We also, through various joint ventures, own or lease fabrication yards in China and Mexico.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
As part of our normal business activities, we are party to a number of legal proceedings and other matters in various stages of development. We periodically assess our liabilities and contingencies for these matters based upon the latest information available.
For information on legal proceedings and matters in dispute, see the Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "FLR."
We have paid no dividends on our common stock since April 2020. Any future cash dividends will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, availability of surplus and such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
At January 31, 2022, there were 4,151 stockholders of record of our common stock.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information for the three months ended December 31, 2021 about purchases by the company of equity securities that have been registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average Price
Paid per
Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Maximum
Number of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under Plans or
Programs(1)
October 1–October 31, 2021— $— — 10,513,093 
November 1–November 30, 2021— — — 10,513,093 
December 1–December 31, 2021— — — 10,513,093 
Total— $— —  
_______________________________________________________________________________
(1)The share repurchase program, as amended, totals 34,000,000 shares. We may repurchase shares from time to time in open market transactions or privately negotiated transactions, including through pre-arranged trading programs, at our discretion, subject to market conditions and other factors and at such time and in amounts that we deem appropriate.
Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our financial statements.
Results of Operations
During the first quarter of 2021, we changed the composition of our segments to implement our new strategy and to pursue opportunities in our designated markets. We now report our operating results in four segments as follows: Energy Solutions, Urban Solutions, Mission Solutions and Other. Segment operating information and assets for 2020 and 2019 have been recast to conform to these changes.
In the first quarter of 2021, we also committed to a plan to sell our Stork business, which had previously represented the majority of operations from our former diversified services segment. The sale of the North American portion of the AMECO equipment business was completed during May 2021. Therefore, both Stork and AMECO are reported as Disc Ops along with other immaterial operations. We expect to complete the sale of Stork and the remaining AMECO operations early in 2022. The assets and liabilities of the Stork and AMECO businesses are classified as held for sale for all periods presented.
In December 2021, we announced that NuScale, in which we are the majority investor, signed a merger agreement with Spring Valley Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company ("Spring Valley"). Spring Valley is acquiring an approximately 20% interest in NuScale. The proposed transaction is anticipated to close in the first half of 2022, subject to customary closing conditions. Upon completion of the merger, we estimate that we will own approximately 60-70% of the combined company and expect that we will continue to consolidate it.

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YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(in millions)202120202019
Revenue
Energy Solutions$4,956 $5,271 $5,838 
Urban Solutions4,416 5,854 6,590 
Mission Solutions3,063 3,033 3,026 
Total revenue$12,435 $14,158 $15,454 
Segment profit (loss) $ and margin %
Energy Solutions$250 5.0 %$169 3.2 %$(97)(1.7)%
Urban Solutions38 0.9 %161 2.8 %(50)(0.8)%
Mission Solutions155 5.1 %87 2.9 %46 1.5 %
Other(69)NM(84)NM(66)NM
Total segment profit (loss) $ and margin %(1)
$374 3.0 %$333 2.4 %$(167)(1.1)%
G&A(216)(202)(140)
Impairment, restructuring and other exit costs(44)(108)(318)
Loss on pension settlement(198)— (138)
Foreign currency gain (loss)(13)(45)(26)
Interest expense, net(68)(42)(11)
Earnings (loss) attributable to NCI from Cont Ops37 67 (39)
Earnings (loss) from Cont Ops before taxes(128)(839)
Income tax (expense) benefit(16)(15)(482)
Net earnings (loss) from Cont Ops$(144)$(12)$(1,321)
New awards
Energy Solutions$3,313 $2,013 $3,724 
Urban Solutions2,721 3,563 4,471 
Mission Solutions2,719 1,883 2,151 
Total new awards$8,753 $7,459 $10,346 
New awards related to projects located outside of the U.S.57%53%48%
(in millions)December 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Backlog
Energy Solutions$9,324 $11,021 
Urban Solutions7,048 9,224 
Mission Solutions2,562 2,899 
Total backlog$18,934 $23,144 
Backlog related to projects located outside of the U.S.65%64%
Backlog related to lump-sum projects64%60%
(1)Total segment profit (loss) is a non-GAAP financial measure. We believe that total segment profit (loss) provides a meaningful perspective on our results as it is the aggregation of individual segment profit (loss) measures that we use to evaluate and manage our performance.
Our business has been adversely affected by the impacts of COVID and the steep decline in oil prices that occurred in early 2020. These events created significant uncertainty and economic volatility and disruption, which have impacted and may continue to impact our business. We experienced reductions in demand for certain services and the delay or abandonment of ongoing or anticipated projects due to our clients’, suppliers’ and other third parties’ diminished financial condition. Although oil prices have rebounded in 2021 and 2022, we have not yet seen our energy clients respond with elevated capital expenditures for our services. Our estimates reflect our best assessment of project results inclusive of COVID effects, which have been dynamic as our projects have seen changes in prevailing regulations as COVID cases crested and fell.
During 2021, consolidated revenue declined due to volume declines on projects which were completed or nearing completion in the Energy Solutions and Urban Solutions segments as well as the cancellation of three large projects that were in progress in the prior year. Consolidated revenue in 2020 declined due to volume declines on completed projects or projects nearing completion as well as COVID and the decline in oil prices.
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During 2021, improvements in segment profit in the Energy Solutions, Mission Solutions and Other segments were partially offset by a significant decline in segment profit for Urban Solutions where we recognized a $138 million charge in the second quarter of 2021 for procurement and subcontractor cost growth on a legacy infrastructure project. Segment profit in 2020 significantly improved primarily due to forecast revisions totaling $839 million recognized in 2019 on several projects in the Energy Solutions, Urban Solutions and Mission Solutions segments but was diminished by the impact of COVID on numerous projects in 2020.
The effective tax rate from Cont Ops was 13%, (454%) and 57% for 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. The 2021 effective tax rate was favorably impacted by a $52 million benefit due to the Dutch pension plan settlement. This benefit was offset by a $100 million increase in valuation allowances to reduce deferred assets primarily in the U.S., U.K. and the Netherlands. The 2020 effective tax rate was favorably impacted by a $125 million benefit due to the utilization of a 2019 net operating loss carryback as allowed under the CARES ACT. This benefit was offset by a $147 million increase in valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets primarily in the U.S. and the Netherlands. The 2019 effective tax rate was unfavorably impacted by $659 million in charges related to establishing valuation allowances to reduce net deferred tax assets in the U.S., the U.K. and Australia.
Our results reported by foreign subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currencies are affected by foreign currency volatility. When the U.S. dollar appreciates against the non-U.S. dollar functional currencies of these subsidiaries, our reported revenue, cost and earnings, after translation into U.S. dollars, are lower than what they would have been had the U.S. dollar depreciated against the same foreign currencies or if there had been no change in the exchange rates.
Our profit margins, in some cases, may be favorably or unfavorably impacted by a change in the amount of customer-furnished materials, which are accounted for as pass-through costs.
Any lack of broad based new awards could pressure our future earning streams. The decline in backlog during 2021 primarily resulted from the removal of approximately $2 billion from backlog due to the cancellation of a chemicals project and a steel project. Although backlog reflects business that is considered to be firm, cancellations, deferrals or scope adjustments may occur. Backlog is adjusted to reflect any known project cancellations, revisions to project scope and cost, foreign currency exchange fluctuations and project deferrals, as appropriate. Backlog differs from RUPO discussed elsewhere. RUPO includes only the amount of revenue we expect to recognize under contracts with definite terms and substantive termination provisions.
Impairment, Restructuring and Other Exit Costs
Impairment expense, included in Cont Ops, for 2021, 2020 and 2019 is summarized as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)202120202019
Impairment expense:
Energy Solutions' equity method investments$27,934 $86,096 $256,769 
Information technology assets15,858 16,269 — 
Total impairment expense$43,792 $102,365 $256,769 
During 2019, we initiated a restructuring plan designed to optimize costs and improve operational efficiency. These efforts primarily related to the rationalization of resources, investments, real estate and overhead across various geographies. The recognition of costs for the planned restructuring activities was substantially completed by the end of 2020. We did not recognize any material restructuring costs during 2021.
Information about our completed restructuring follows:
(in thousands)Costs Incurred in 2020Costs Incurred in
2019
Restructuring and other exit costs:
Severance$5,256 $30,530 
Asset impairments— 29,485 
Other exit costs736 1,658 
Total restructuring and other exit costs$5,992 $61,673 
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Gain (Loss) on Pension Settlement
In 2021, we settled the majority of the obligations of our largest DB plan, which provided retirement benefits to certain employees in the Netherlands, and recognized a loss on settlement of $198 million. In 2019, we settled the obligations of our DB plan in the United Kingdom and recognized a loss on settlement of $138 million.
Segment Operations
We provide professional services in the fields of EPC, fabrication and modularization, and project management services, on a global basis and serve a diverse set of industries worldwide.
Energy Solutions
Revenue in 2021 decreased due to declines in the volume of execution activities for projects nearing completion and the cancellation of a chemicals project in North America partially offset by the ramp up of execution activities on a refinery project in Mexico and a chemicals project in China. Revenue in 2020 decreased due to significant declines in the volume of execution activities for numerous upstream, downstream and chemicals projects nearing completion partially offset by increased execution activity for an LNG project in Canada.
Segment profit in 2021 increased due to the ramp up of execution activities on the refinery project in Mexico and the LNG project in Canada and the collection of previously reserved accounts receivable but was partially offset by losses on embedded foreign currency derivatives, the decline in execution activity for projects nearing completion and the cancellation of the chemicals project in North America. The increase in segment profit during 2020 was primarily the result of forecast revisions on several projects recognized during 2019. Excluding the impact of the 2019 charges, segment profit declined in 2020 due to COVID related cost growth, the recognition of reserves for expected credit losses on aged receivables, the reduced execution activity of the upstream, downstream and chemicals projects discussed above, partially offset by the increase in activity for the LNG project. The change in segment profit margin in 2021 and 2020 reflects these same factors. Segment profit margin in 2020 was also adversely impacted by a shift from higher margin work in 2019 to lower margin work in 2020 in certain geographies.
New awards in 2021 increased due to awards for a refinery project in Mexico. No significant awards were booked in 2020 due to the impact of COVID and declining oil prices on our customers' capital spend. New awards in 2019 included a chemicals projects in China and a downstream project in the United Kingdom. Backlog decreased during 2021 primarily due to the cancellation of the chemicals project in North America.
Urban Solutions
Revenue in 2021 decreased due to the close out of data center projects in Europe and mining projects in South America and Australia as well as the cancellation of a rail project and a steel project that were in progress in the prior year periods. Revenue in 2020 declined due to a six-month suspension in 2020 of a large mining project in South America due to COVID and a decline in the volume of execution activities for a large life sciences project and two mining projects completed or nearing completion. The revenue decline in 2020 was partially offset by increased execution activities on two advanced technologies projects, a mining project and a metals project.
Segment profit in 2021 declined due to forecast revisions for procurement and subcontractor cost growth, delays and disruptions in schedule of a legacy infrastructure project, resulting in a charge of $138 million recognized in the second quarter of 2021. We believe that these cost growth factors may be at least partially recoverable under the contract. However, we expect that it will require several quarters to analyze recoverability and negotiate with our client before recognizing incremental revenue for these factors. The decline in segment profit in 2021 was further impacted by forecast revisions for schedule delays and productivity on a light rail project but partially offset by the favorable resolution of a long-standing customer dispute on a road project as well as a gain on the sale of our interest in an infrastructure joint venture. The change in 2021 segment profit margin reflects these same factors.
Segment profit in 2020 significantly improved compared to 2019 primarily due to forecast revisions on several power and infrastructure projects recognized in 2019 as well as a favorable settlement on a canceled rail project in 2020. The increase in 2020 segment profit was partially offset by charges for cost growth in the infrastructure legacy portfolio, the decline in activity for the life sciences and mining projects nearing completion and the mining project in South America that was impacted by COVID. The change in 2020 segment profit margin reflects these same factors.
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New awards in 2021 and 2020 decreased partly due to delayed procurement efforts by many of our clients. However, we were recently awarded limited notice to proceed on two significant mining projects in South America. New awards in 2021 included a large life sciences project in Europe. New awards in 2020 included a highway project in Texas and new awards in 2019 included the data center projects in Europe and a road project in Texas. Backlog declined during 2021 due to the cancellation of a steel project coupled with lower new awards. Our staffing business does not report new awards or backlog.
Mission Solutions
Revenue in 2021 was flat compared to 2020 and 2019. In 2021, the ramp up of execution activities on a project to provide contingency and humanitarian support for Afghan evacuees in the United States was offset by the decline in revenue related to the closure of the army logistics and life support program in Afghanistan. In 2020, increased project execution activities at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and our DOE sites were partially offset by the decline in revenue from the completion of a nuclear decommissioning project in 2019.
The increase in segment profit in 2021 was driven by the ramp up of execution activities on the evacuee support project discussed above, increased execution activity on our DOE projects, higher than anticipated performance-based fees, the release of COVID cost reserves and the collection of previously reserved accounts receivable and the reversal of the related provision partially offset by the closure of the army logistics and life support program in Afghanistan. The increase in segment profit in 2020 was primarily driven by significant items recognized in 2019. In 2019, we recognized significant charges for cost growth on two lump-sum projects. The 2019 charges were partially offset by a favorable settlement on two nuclear power plant projects in 2019.The change in segment profit margin in 2021 and 2020 reflects these same factors.
New awards in 2021 increased due to extensions on certain DOE projects as well as the award for contingency and humanitarian support for Afghan evacuees. New awards in 2020 decreased due to a decline in FEMA work in 2020 and an award for a weapons storage and maintenance facility booked in 2019. The decline in backlog during 2021 resulted from new award activity being outpaced by work performed. Backlog included $445 million and $1.0 billion of unfunded government contracts as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Unfunded backlog reflects our estimate of future revenue under awarded government contracts for which funding has not yet been appropriated.
Other
Other includes the operations of NuScale. NuScale expenses included in the determination of segment loss were as follows:
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(in millions)202120202019
NuScale expenses$(169)$(159)$(127)
Less: DOE reimbursable expenses69 71 57 
NuScale expenses, net(100)(88)(70)
Less: Attributable to NCI31 
Fluor segment loss$(69)$(84)$(66)
The increase in NuScale expenses during 2021 was due to an increase in compensation and the increase in 2020 was due to an increase in research and development activities as NuScale received final design certification by the NRC in August of 2020. NuScale received capital contributions from outside investors of $193 million, $9 million and $49 million during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, Fluor had an approximate 80% ownership in NuScale.
G&A
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(in millions)202120202019
G&A
Compensation$164 $122 $87 
Severance— 
SEC investigation / Internal review costs27 42 — 
Gain on sale of building(13)— — 
Other30 33 53 
G&A$216 $201 $140 
The increase in compensation expense in 2021 was due to higher stock price driven compensation on stock-based awards and higher performance driven compensation including annual bonus projections. The increase in compensation expense in 2020 was primarily due to lower stock price and performance driven compensation in 2019.
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We continue to incur professional fees in responding to the SEC investigation, which remains ongoing. The internal review began in the first quarter of 2020 and was substantially completed in the fourth quarter of 2020.
The decrease in other expense in 2021 and 2020 was driven by the realization of our 2019 restructuring efforts and lower travel costs due to COVID. We announced in January 2021 that we had begun an undertaking to substantially reduce our overhead costs. Although we have not satisfied the requirements to recognize charges for any restructurings for the 2021 undertaking, we are likely to recognize expense in future quarters for these efforts.
Net Interest Expense
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(in millions)202120202019
Net interest expense
Interest expense$63 $65 $65 
Costs to refinance our credit facility— — 
Loss on debt repurchases20 — — 
Interest income(17)(23)(54)
Net interest expense$68 $42 $11 
The loss on debt repurchases includes costs to redeem $509 million of 2023 and 2024 Notes through a tender offer completed in September 2021 as well as through open market transactions following the issuance of the CPS in the second quarter of 2021. The decrease in interest income during 2021 and 2020 was primarily driven by lower interest rates compared to 2019.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Our significant accounting policies are described in the notes to our financial statements. The preparation of our financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Estimates are based on information available through the date of the issuance of the financial statements and, accordingly, actual results in future periods could differ from these estimates. Significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements apply to the following critical accounting policies:
Revenue Recognition for Long-Term Contracts. We recognize our engineering and construction contract revenue over time as we provide services to satisfy our performance obligations. We generally use the cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion measure of progress as it best depicts how control transfers to our clients. The cost-to-cost approach measures progress towards completion based on the ratio of contract cost incurred to date compared to total estimated contract cost. Use of the cost-to-cost measure of progress requires us to prepare estimates of total expected revenue and cost to complete our projects.
Due to the nature of our industry, there is significant complexity in our estimation of total expected revenue and cost, for which we must make significant judgments. Our contracts with our customers may contain award fees, incentive fees, liquidated damages or other provisions that can either increase or decrease the contract price to arrive at estimated revenue. These variable amounts generally are awarded upon achievement of certain performance metrics, program milestones or cost targets and can be based upon customer discretion. We estimate variable consideration at the most likely amount to which we expect to be entitled. We include estimated amounts in the transaction price to the extent it is probable we will realize that amount. Our estimates of variable consideration and our determination of its inclusion in project revenue for accounting purposes are based on an assessment of our anticipated performance and other information that may be available to us.
At a project level, we have specific practices and procedures to review our estimate of total revenue and cost. Each project team reviews the progress and execution of our performance obligations, which impact the project’s accounting outcome. As part of this process, the project team reviews information such as any outstanding key contract matters, progress towards completion and the related program schedule and identified risks and opportunities. The accuracy of our revenue and profit recognition in a given period depends on the accuracy of our project estimates, which can change from period to period due to a variety of factors including:
Complexity in original design;
Extent of changes from original design;
Different site conditions than assumed in our bid;
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The productivity, availability and skill level of labor;
Weather conditions when executing a project;
The technical maturity of the technologies involved;
Length of time to complete the project;
Availability and cost of equipment and materials;
Subcontractor and joint venture partner performance;
Expected costs of warranties; and
Our ability to recover for additional contract costs.
We recognize changes in contract estimates on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period in which the changes are identified. Such changes in contract estimates can result in the recognition of revenue in a current period for performance obligations which were satisfied or partially satisfied in prior periods. Changes in contract estimates may also result in the reversal of previously recognized revenue if the current estimate adversely differs from the previous estimate. If we estimate that a project will have costs in excess of revenue, we recognize the total loss in the period it is identified.
Variable Consideration. The nature of our contracts gives rise to several types of variable consideration, including claims, unpriced change orders, award and incentive fees, liquidated damages and penalties. We consider variable consideration in the development of our project forecasts so that our forecasted revenue reflects the amount of consideration we expect to be probable of recovering without a future significant reversal. We estimate the amount of revenue attributable to variable consideration using the expected value method (i.e., the sum of probability-weighted amounts) or the most likely amount method, whichever offers better prediction. Significant judgments are required in developing estimates for variable consideration.
Fair Value Measurements. We are often required to use fair value measurement techniques with inputs that require the use of estimates and involve significant judgment. These circumstances include:
Impairment testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles when quantitative analysis is deemed necessary
Impairment testing of long-lived assets when impairment indicators are present
Impairment testing of investments as part of other than temporary impairment assessments when impairment indicators are present
Fair value assessments of businesses held for sale that are reported at fair value less cost to sell
Purchase price allocations for acquired businesses
When performing quantitative fair value or impairment evaluations, we estimate the fair value of our assets by considering the results of either or both income-based and market-based valuation approaches. Under the income approach, we prepare a discounted cash flow valuation model using recent forecasts and compare the estimated fair value of each asset to its carrying value. Cash flow forecasts are discounted using the appropriate weighted-average cost of capital at the date of evaluation. The weighted-average cost of capital is comprised of the cost of equity and the cost of debt with a weighting for each that reflects our current capital structure. Preparation of long-term forecasts involve significant judgments involving consideration of our backlog, expected future awards, customer attrition, working capital assumptions, and general market trends and conditions. Significant changes in these forecasts or any valuation assumptions, such as the discount rate selected, could affect the estimated fair value of our assets and could result in impairment expenses. Under the market approach, we consider market information such as multiples of comparable publicly traded companies and/or completed sales transactions to develop or validate our fair value conclusions, when appropriate and available.
Due to the impact of COVID and the decline in oil prices in 2020, we performed interim impairment testing of our goodwill, intangibles and certain equity method investments and recognized impairment expenses of $169 million, $27 million and $86 million, respectively. The impairment expense on goodwill and intangibles was included in Disc Ops. During 2019, we recognized impairment charges of $257 million related to certain equity method investments and $34 million related to intangible assets now included in Disc Ops.
Restructuring Accruals. We recognize and accrue restructuring related termination benefits when the recognition criteria under GAAP have been met, depending on the nature of the termination benefit. Recognition of termination benefits requires the use of estimates in determining the expected termination benefits payable, when they are probable of being realized and can be reasonably estimated. Our estimates consider the number of employees that we expect will be eligible to receive the benefit and the amount of benefit potentially payable to each employee based on either the terms of the plan or statutory entitlement.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Item is described more fully in the Notes to Financial Statements.
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Litigation and Matters in Dispute Resolution
Item is described more fully in the Notes to Financial Statements.
LIQUIDITY AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
Our liquidity arises from available cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities, cash generated from operations, capacity under our credit facilities and, when necessary, access to capital markets. We have committed and uncommitted lines of credit available for revolving loans and letters of credit. We believe that for at least the next 12 months, cash generated from operations, along with our unused credit capacity and cash position, is sufficient to support operating requirements. We regularly review our sources and uses of liquidity and may pursue opportunities to address our liquidity needs.
As of December 31, 2021, letters of credit totaling $429 million were outstanding under our $1.65 billion credit facility, which matures in February 2023. This credit facility contains customary financial covenants, including a debt-to-capitalization ratio that cannot exceed 0.65 to 1.00, a limitation on the aggregate amount of debt of the greater of $750 million or €750 million for our subsidiaries, and a minimum liquidity threshold of $1.25 billion, all as defined in the amended credit facility. The credit facility also contains provisions that will require us to provide collateral if we are downgraded to BB by S&P and Ba2 by Moody's, such collateral consisting broadly of liens on our U.S. assets. Borrowings under the facility, which may be denominated in USD, EUR, GBP or CAD, bear interest at a base rate, plus an applicable borrowing margin. As of December 31, 2021, we could have borrowed an additional $779 million under our credit facility.
In February 2022, we amended our credit facility to extend the maturity to February 2025, increase the size of the facility to $1.8 billion and decrease the debt-to-capitalization ratio to 0.60 to 1.00.
In 2022, we expect to pursue issuance of new senior notes to address the maturities currently scheduled for 2023 and 2024. We cannot predict the terms or conditions associated with any such issuance.
Cash and cash equivalents combined with marketable securities were $2.3 billion as of December 31, 2021 and $2.2 billion as of December 31, 2020. Cash and cash equivalents are held in numerous accounts throughout the world to fund our global project execution activities. Non-U.S. cash and cash equivalents amounted to $992 million and $984 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Non-U.S. cash and cash equivalents exclude deposits of U.S. legal entities that are either swept into overnight, offshore accounts or invested in offshore, short-term time deposits, to which there is unrestricted access.
In evaluating our liquidity needs, we consider cash and cash equivalents held by our consolidated variable interest entities (joint ventures and partnerships). These amounts (which totaled $630 million and $655 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively) were not necessarily readily available for general purposes. We also consider the extent to which client advances (which totaled $74 million and $80 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively) are likely to be sustained or consumed over the near term for project execution activities and the cash flow requirements of our various foreign operations. In some cases, it may not be financially efficient to move cash and cash equivalents between countries due to statutory dividend limitations and/or adverse tax consequences. We did not consider any cash to be permanently reinvested outside the U.S. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, other than unremitted earnings required to meet our working capital and long-term investment needs in non-U.S. foreign jurisdictions where we operate.
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 Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)202120202019
OPERATING CASH FLOW$25,332 $185,884 $219,018 
INVESTING CASH FLOW
Proceeds from sales and maturities (purchases) of marketable securities(103,806)(15,430)207,374 
Capital expenditures(75,073)(113,442)(180,842)
Proceeds from sales of assets incl. AMECO-North America145,672 111,589 65,977 
Investments in partnerships and joint ventures(79,464)(29,219)(52,305)
Other (9,198)4,940 40,268 
Investing cash flow(121,869)(41,562)80,472 
FINANCING CASH FLOW
Proceeds from issuance of CPS582,000 — — 
Purchases and retirement of debt(525,212)— — 
Debt extinguishment costs(1,503)— — 
Dividends paid (on CPS in 2021 and common stock in 2020 and 2019)(19,175)(28,720)(118,073)
Distributions paid to NCI(108,798)(23,184)(33,674)
Capital contributions by NCI201,847 110,051 64,646 
Other(6,907)(9,701)9,802 
Financing cash flow122,252 48,446 (77,299)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash(15,114)8,814 10,262 
Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents10,601 201,582 232,453 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year2,198,781 1,997,199 1,764,746 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year$2,209,382 $2,198,781 $1,997,199 
Cash paid during the year for:
Interest$90,299 $65,641 $71,938 
Income taxes (net of refunds)74,589 65,188 204,080 
Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities result primarily from our EPC activities and are affected by changes in working capital associated with such activities. Working capital levels vary from period to period and are primarily affected by our volume of work and billing schedules on our projects. These levels are also impacted by the stage of completion and commercial terms of engineering and construction projects, as well as our execution of our projects compared to their budget. Working capital requirements also vary by project and the payments terms agreed to with our clients, vendors and subcontractors. Most contracts require payments as the projects progress. Additionally, certain projects receive advance payments from clients. A typical trend for our projects is to have higher cash balances during the initial phases of execution due to deposits paid to us which then diminish toward the end of the construction phase. As a result, our cash position is reduced as customer advances are utilized, unless they are replaced by advances on other projects. We maintain cash reserves and borrowing facilities to provide additional working capital in the event that a project’s net operating cash outflows exceed its available cash balances. As of December 31, 2021, our backlog included $1.1 billion for loss projects which may have a negative impact on our operating cash flow in future periods.
Our operating cash flow for 2021 was negatively impacted by increases in working capital on several large projects as well as higher cash payments of G&A. Operating cash flow in 2021 and 2020 were positively impacted by significant settlement payments on a cancelled rail project. Operating cash flow in 2020 and 2019 were positively impacted by decreases in project working capital.
We contributed $128 million, $130 million and $115 million into our DC plans during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and $13 million, $25 million and $15 million into our DB plans during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We expect to contribute up to $13 million to our DB plans in 2022, which is expected to be in excess of the minimum funding required. The remaining obligations under our Dutch DB plan and UK DB plan were settled in 2021 and 2019, respectively. The loss on settlement in both years consisted primarily of unrecognized actuarial losses included in AOCI and did not materially impact our cash position. For one of our discontinued operations, we participate in one multiemployer plan in which we are aware of
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a significant unfunded benefit obligation. However, we believe we qualify for an exemption and do not believe we have a probable payment to the plan. Therefore, we have not recognized a liability related to this unfunded benefit obligation.
NuScale expenses were $69 million, $84 million and $66 million during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and were reported net of qualified reimbursable expenses of $69 million, $71 million and $57 million, respectively.
Investing Activities
Our investment policy focuses on, in order of priority, the preservation of capital, maintenance of liquidity and maximization of yield. Marketable securities may include money market funds, time deposits placed with highly-rated financial institutions, repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by U.S. Government-related securities, high-grade commercial paper and high quality short-term and medium-term fixed income securities.
Capital expenditures during 2021 primarily related to construction equipment on certain infrastructure projects as well as expenditures for facilities and investments in information technology. Capital expenditures during 2020 and 2019 primarily related to construction equipment associated with the equipment operations now included in Disc Ops, as well as expenditures for facilities and investments in information technology.
Proceeds from sales of assets during 2021 includes the sale of the North American operations of the AMECO equipment business for $71 million as well as our 10% ownership interest in an infrastructure joint venture and a building in the U.S. During 2020, we sold substantially all of the assets of our AMECO equipment business in Jamaica as well as 100% of our interest in an equipment rental business in Europe. Also in 2020, we sold our interests in two infrastructure joint ventures in the Netherlands and one infrastructure joint venture in the U.S.
Investments in unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures in 2021 included a $26 million capital contribution to COOEC Fluor, which satisfied our contractual funding requirements, as well as capital contributions to an Energy Solutions joint venture and a recently formed Mission Solutions joint venture. Investments in unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures in 2020 and 2019 included capital contributions to two infrastructure joint ventures in the United States.
Financing Activities
In May 2021, we issued 600,000 shares of Series A 6.5% cumulative perpetual CPS in a private placement transaction involving a limited number of qualified institutional buyers. Each share of preferred stock has a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share, plus accumulated but unpaid dividends, and is convertible, at the holder's option at any time into 44.9585 shares (the conversion rate) of our common stock per share of preferred stock. Cumulative cash dividends on the preferred stock are payable at an annual rate of 6.5% quarterly in arrears on February 15, May 15, August 15, and November 15, beginning on August 15, 2021, upon declaration of the dividend by our Board of Directors. Assuming that our Board of Directors approves dividends, the preferred stock will require approximately $39 million of annual dividend payments. Moreover, the issuance created added complexity to our quarterly EPS calculations. Accordingly, in determining our diluted earnings impact of the preferred stock, we will now assess the correlation between net earnings attributable to Fluor and dividends on the preferred stock as well as the effect of conversions of the preferred stock into our common stock, which could represent up to 27 million potentially dilutive shares.