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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
           ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
 
          TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-16189
NiSource Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DE35-2108964
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
801 East 86th Avenue
Merrillville,IN46410
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(877) 647-5990
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareNINYSE
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/1,000th ownership interest in a share of 6.50% Series B Fixed-Rate Reset Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, liquidation preference $25,000 per share and a 1/1,000th ownership interest in a share of Series B-1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, liquidation preference $0.01 per share
NI PR BNYSE
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:     None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes þ   No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.   Yes ¨   No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ   No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes þ   No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12-b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ     Accelerated Filer ¨     Emerging Growth Company Non-accelerated Filer ¨    Smaller Reporting Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrants included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240. 10D-1(b).☐



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes   No þ
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the "Common Stock") held by non-affiliates was approximately $11,285,281,624 based upon the June 30, 2023, closing price of $27.35 on the New York Stock Exchange.
There were 447,524,529 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of February 14, 2024.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III of this report incorporates by reference specific portions of the Registrant’s Notice of Annual Meeting and Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 13, 2024.



CONTENTS
 
  
Page
No.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.
2

Table of Contents


DEFINED TERMS
The following is a list of frequently used abbreviations or acronyms that are found in this report:
NiSource Subsidiaries and Affiliates (not exhaustive)
  
Columbia of Kentucky  Columbia Gas of Kentucky, Inc.
Columbia of Maryland  Columbia Gas of Maryland, Inc.
Columbia of Massachusetts  Bay State Gas Company
Columbia of Ohio  Columbia Gas of Ohio, Inc.
Columbia of Pennsylvania  Columbia Gas of Pennsylvania, Inc.
Columbia of Virginia  Columbia Gas of Virginia, Inc.
NIPSCO  Northern Indiana Public Service Company LLC
NIPSCO Holdings I
NIPSCO Holdings I LLC
NIPSCO Holdings II
NIPSCO Holdings II LLC
NiSource ("we," "us" or "our")  NiSource Inc.
RosewaterRosewater Wind Generation LLC and its wholly owned subsidiary, Rosewater Wind Farm LLC
Indiana Crossroads Solar
Indiana Crossroads Solar Generation LLC and its wholly owned subsidiary, Meadow Lake Solar Park LLC
Indiana Crossroads WindIndiana Crossroads Wind Generation LLC and its wholly owned subsidiary, Indiana Crossroads Wind Farm LLC
Dunns Bridge I
Dunns Bridge I Solar Generation LLC and its wholly owned subsidiary, Dunns Bridge Solar Center LLC
Dunns Bridge II
Dunns Bridge II Solar Generation LLC
Fairbanks
Fairbanks Solar Generation LLC
Cavalry
Cavalry Solar Generation LLC
Abbreviations and Other  
AFUDC  Allowance for funds used during construction
AOCI  Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASC  Accounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
ATMAt-the-market
BIP
BIP Blue Buyer L.L.C
Blackstone
Blackstone Infrastructure Partners L.P.
BTABuild-transfer agreement
CCGTCombined Cycle Gas Turbine
CCRs  Coal Combustion Residuals
CEPCapital Expenditure Program
CERCLA  Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (also known as Superfund)
CISA
Certified Information Systems Auditor
CISO
Chief Information Security Officer
CISSP
Certified Information Systems Security Professional
Corporate UnitsSeries A Corporate Units
COVID-19 ("the COVID-19 pandemic" or "the pandemic")Novel Coronavirus 2019 and its variants, including the Delta and Omicron variants, and any other variant that may emerge
CRISC
Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control
DE&IDiversity Equity and Inclusion
DPU  Department of Public Utilities
DSM  Demand Side Management
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DEFINED TERMS
EPA  United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPS  Earnings per share
Equity UnitsSeries A Equity Units
FAC  Fuel adjustment clause
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
FMCAFederally Mandated Cost Adjustment
GAAP  Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GCAGas cost adjustment
GHG  Greenhouse gases
HLBVHypothetical Liquidation at Book Value
IIJA
Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act
IRAInflation Reduction Act
IRP  Infrastructure Replacement Program
IRSInternal Revenue Service
IURC  Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission
JVJoint Venture
LDCs  Local distribution companies
LIFO  Last-in, first-out
LIHEAPLow Income Heating Energy Assistance Programs
Massachusetts BusinessAll of the assets sold to, and liabilities assumed by, Eversource pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement
MGP  Manufactured Gas Plant
MISO  Midcontinent Independent System Operator
MMDth  Million dekatherms
MWMegawatts
MWh  Megawatt hours
NERC CIP
North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection
NIPSCO Minority Interest Transaction
A transaction between NiSource, NIPSCO Holdings II (sole owner of NIPSCO) and an affiliate of Blackstone pursuant to a purchase and sale agreement entered into on June 17, 2023, that offered equity interests in NIPSCO Holdings II in exchange for capital contributions by the parties.
NOLNet Operating Loss
NTSBNational Transportation Safety Board
NYMEXThe New York Mercantile Exchange
OPEB  Other Postretirement and Postemployment Benefits
OT
Operational Technology
PCB  Polychlorinated biphenyls
PHMSAPipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PPAPower Purchase Agreement
PSC  Public Service Commission
PUCO
  
Public Utilities Commission of Ohio
ROEReturn on Equity
RNG
Renewable Natural Gas
ROURight of Use
SAVESteps to Advance Virginia's Energy Plan
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DEFINED TERMS
Scope 1 GHG EmissionsDirect emissions from sources owned or controlled by us (e.g., emissions from our combustion of fuel, vehicles, and process emissions and fugitive emissions)
Scope 2 GHG EmissionsIndirect emissions from sources owned or controlled by us
SEC  Securities and Exchange Commission
Section 201 Tariffs
Tariffs imposed by Executive Order from the President of the U.S. on certain imported solar cells and modules at a rate of 15%, which were recently extended to 2026
SMRP  Safety Modification and Replacement Program
SMSSafety Management System
SOFR
Secured Overnight Financing Rate
STRIDEStrategic Infrastructure Development and Enhancement
TCJAAn Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018 (commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017)
TDSICTransmission, Distribution and Storage System Improvement Charge
TSA
Transportation Security Administration
U.S. Attorney's OfficeU.S. Attorney's Office for the District of Massachusetts
VIEVariable Interest Entity
Note regarding forward-looking statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements," within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). Investors and prospective investors should understand that many factors govern whether any forward-looking statement contained herein will be or can be realized. Any one of those factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our plans, strategies, objectives, expected performance, expenditures, recovery of expenditures through rates, stated on either a consolidated or segment basis, and any and all underlying assumptions and other statements that are other than statements of historical fact. Expressions of future goals and expectations and similar expressions, including "may," "will," "should," "could," "would," "aims," "seeks," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "intends," "believes," "estimates," "predicts," "potential," "targets," "forecast," and "continue," reflecting something other than historical fact are intended to identify forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that management believes to be reasonable; however, there can be no assurance that actual results will not differ materially.

Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the projections, forecasts, estimates and expectations discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, among other things:
our ability to execute our business plan or growth strategy, including utility infrastructure investments;
potential incidents and other operating risks associated with our business;
our ability to work successfully with our third-party investors;
our ability to adapt to, and manage costs related to, advances in technology, including alternative energy sources and changes in laws and regulations;
our increased dependency on technology;
impacts related to our aging infrastructure;
our ability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage and whether such coverage will protect us against significant losses;
the success of our electric generation strategy;
construction risks and supply risks;
fluctuations in demand from residential and commercial customers;
fluctuations in the price of energy commodities and related transportation costs or an inability to obtain an adequate, reliable and cost-effective fuel supply to meet customer demand;
our ability to attract, retain or re-skill a qualified, diverse workforce and maintain good labor relations;
our ability to manage new initiatives and organizational changes;
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the actions of activist stockholders;
the performance and quality of third-party suppliers and service providers;
potential cybersecurity attacks or security breaches;
increased requirements and costs related to cybersecurity;
any damage to our reputation;
the impacts of natural disasters, potential terrorist attacks or other catastrophic events;
the physical impacts of climate change and the transition to a lower carbon future;
our ability to manage the financial and operational risks related to achieving our carbon emission reduction goals, including our Net Zero Goal (as defined below);
our debt obligations;
any changes to our credit rating or the credit rating of certain of our subsidiaries;
adverse economic and capital market conditions, including increases in inflation or interest rates, recession, or changes in investor sentiment;
economic regulation and the impact of regulatory rate reviews;
our ability to obtain expected financial or regulatory outcomes;
economic conditions in certain industries;
the reliability of customers and suppliers to fulfill their payment and contractual obligations;
the ability of our subsidiaries to generate cash;
pension funding obligations;
potential impairments of goodwill;
the outcome of legal and regulatory proceedings, investigations, incidents, claims and litigation;
compliance with changes in, or new interpretations of applicable laws, regulations and tariffs;
the cost of compliance with environmental laws and regulations and the costs of associated liabilities;
changes in tax laws or the interpretation thereof;
and other matters set forth in Item 1, "Business," Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and Part II, Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this report, some of which risks are beyond our control.

In addition, the relative contributions to profitability by each business segment, and the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements relating thereto, may change over time.

All forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. We undertake no obligation to, and expressly disclaim any such obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events or changes to the future results over time or otherwise, except as required by law.
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.

NiSource Inc. is an energy holding company under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 whose primary subsidiaries are fully regulated natural gas and electric utility companies, serving approximately 3.8 million customers in six states. NiSource is the successor to an Indiana corporation organized in 1987 under the name of NIPSCO Industries, Inc., which changed its name to NiSource Inc. on April 14, 1999.
On November 7, 2022, we announced our intention to seek a minority interest investor in NIPSCO. We entered into an agreement with Blackstone on June 17, 2023, in furtherance of this goal. On December 31, 2023, the NIPSCO Minority Interest Transaction closed. At closing, NIPSCO Holdings I contributed all its membership interests in NIPSCO in exchange for an 80.1% controlling membership interest and Blackstone contributed $2.16 billion in cash in exchange for a 19.9% membership interest in NIPSCO Holdings II, respectively. NIPSCO Holdings II owns all the membership interests in NIPSCO.

NiSource’s principal subsidiaries include NiSource Gas Distribution Group, Inc. (a holding company that owns Columbia of Kentucky, Columbia of Maryland, Columbia of Ohio, Columbia of Pennsylvania, and Columbia of Virginia), and a controlling interest in NIPSCO (a gas and electric company). NiSource derives substantially all of its revenues and earnings from the operating results of these rate-regulated businesses.
Business Strategy
Our business strategy focuses on providing safe and reliable service through our core, rate-regulated, asset-based utilities, with the goal of adding value to all of our stakeholders. Our utilities continue to advance our core safety, infrastructure and environmental investment programs supported by complementary regulatory and customer initiatives across the six states in which we operate. Our goal is to develop strategies that (i) support long-term infrastructure investment and safety programs to better serve our customers, (ii) align our tariff structures with our cost structure, and (iii) drive value and enable growth in an evolving energy ecosystem. These strategies focus on improving safety and reliability, enhancing customer experience, pursuing regulatory and legislative initiatives to increase accessibility for customers currently not on our gas and electric service, ensuring customer affordability and reducing emissions while generating sustainable returns.
We remain committed to the advancement of our SMS for the safety of our customers, communities and employees. Our SMS is the established operating model within NiSource. In 2022, we achieved conformance certification to the American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1173, which serves as the guiding practice for our SMS. This certification, which requires ongoing annual review, marked an important milestone for our SMS and NiSource’s journey towards operational excellence. Our focus is maintaining, sustaining and continuously improving processes, procedures, capabilities and talent to enhance safety and reduce operational risk.
NiSource has two reportable segments: Gas Distribution Operations and Electric Operations. The remainder of our operations, which are not significant enough on a stand-alone basis to warrant treatment as an operating segment, are included as Corporate and Other. The activities occurring within this non-segment consist of our centralized corporate activities and are primarily comprised of interest expense on holding company debt and unallocated corporate costs and activities. The following is a summary of the business for each reporting segment. Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 21, "Business Segment Information," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to each segment.
Gas Distribution Operations
Our natural gas distribution operations serve approximately 3.3 million customers in six states. Through our wholly-owned subsidiary NiSource Gas Distribution Group, Inc., we provide natural gas to approximately 2.4 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, and Maryland. Additionally, we distribute natural gas to approximately 0.9 million customers in northern Indiana through our subsidiary NIPSCO. We operate approximately 55,000 miles of distribution main pipeline plus the associated individual customer service lines and 1,000 miles of transmission main pipeline located in our service areas described below. Throughout our service areas we also have gate stations and other operations support facilities. See below for information on our owned operating facilities. There were no significant disruptions to our system or facilities during 2023.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
Facility NameLocation
Type
Storage Capacity (MCF)
Royal Center Underground Storage
Royal Center, IN
Natural Gas
7,240,000 
Rolling Prairie LNG
Rolling Prairie, IN
Liquified Natural Gas
4,000,000 
Blackhawk Underground Storage
Beaver Falls, PA
Natural Gas
1,700,000 
Eagle Cove Propane
Petersburgh, VA
Propane Gas
863 
South Wales Propane
Jeffersonton, VA
Propane Gas
863 
Portsmouth Propane-Air
Portsmouth, VA
Propane-Air Gas
17,300 
Total Capacities
12,959,026 
Competition. Open access to natural gas supplies over interstate pipelines and the deregulation of the natural gas supply has led to tremendous change in the energy markets and natural gas competition. Due to open access to natural gas supplies, our LDC customers can purchase gas directly from producers and marketers in an open, competitive market. Certain of our Gas Distribution Operations’ subsidiaries are involved in programs that provide our residential and commercial customers the opportunity to purchase their natural gas requirements from third parties and use our Gas Distribution Operations’ subsidiaries for transportation services. As of December 31, 2023, 25.9% of our residential customers and 34.7% of our commercial customers participated in such programs.
Gas Distribution Operations competes with (i) investor-owned, municipal, and cooperative electric utilities throughout its service areas, (ii) other regulated and unregulated natural gas intra and interstate pipelines and (iii) other alternate fuels, such as propane and fuel oil. Gas Distribution Operations continues to be a strong competitor in the energy markets in which it operates as a result of strong customer preference for natural gas. Competition with providers of electricity has traditionally been the strongest in the residential and commercial markets of Kentucky, southern Ohio, central Pennsylvania and western Virginia due to comparatively low electric rates.
Additionally, our gas distribution operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations in sales. Revenues from gas distribution operations are more significant during the heating season, which is primarily from November through March. Please refer to Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results and Discussion of Operations - Gas Distribution Operations," for additional information.
Electric Operations
We generate, transmit and distribute electricity through our subsidiary NIPSCO to approximately 0.5 million customers in 20 counties in the northern part of Indiana and also engage in wholesale electric and transmission transactions. We own and operate sources of generation as well as source power through PPAs. We continue to transition our generation portfolio to primarily renewable sources. We currently have four owned projects in service: Rosewater, Indiana Crossroads Wind, Indiana Crossroads Solar, and Dunns Bridge I. Rosewater went into service in December 2020 and Indiana Crossroads Wind went into service in December 2021. The Indiana Crossroads Solar and Dunns Bridge I Solar projects went into service in June 2023. In October 2021, NIPSCO completed the retirement of two coal-burning units with installed capacity of approximately 903 MW at Schahfer Generating Station, located in Wheatfield, IN. As of December 31, 2023, we have multiple PPAs that provide 700 MW of capacity, with contracts expiring between 2024 and 2040.
NIPSCO’s transmission system, with voltages from 69,000 to 765,000 volts, consists of approximately 2,920 circuit miles. NIPSCO is interconnected with eight neighboring electric utilities.We operate 66 transmission and 250 distribution substations, and own approximately 311,000 poles. Additionally, we own and operate reactive resources to supplement generation when necessary. Our facilities had no material unplanned interruptions during 2023. See below for information on our owned operating facilities:
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
Facility NameLocationFuel Type
Generating Capacity (MW)(1)
R.M. SchahferWheatfield, INSteam - Coal722 
Michigan CityMichigan City, INSteam - Coal455 
Sugar Creek(2)
West Terre Haute, INCCGT563 
R.M. SchahferWheatfield, INNatural Gas155 
OakdaleCarroll County, INHydro
NorwayWhite County, INHydro
Rosewater(3)
White County, INWind102 
Indiana Crossroads Wind(3)
White County, INWind302 
Dunns Bridge I(3)
Jasper County, IN
Solar
265 
Indiana Crossroads Solar(3)
White County, IN
Solar
200 
Total MW Capacity2,780 
(1)Represents current net generating capability of each fossil fuel and hydro generating facility. Nameplate capacity is listed for wind and solar generating facilities.
(2)Sugar Creek added additional generating capacity in January 2024.
(3)NIPSCO is the managing partner of these JVs. Refer to Note 4, "Noncontrolling Interest," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
In November 2021, NIPSCO submitted its 2021 Integrated Resource Plan ("2021 Plan") with the IURC. The 2021 Plan builds upon the 2018 Integrated Resource Plan which outlined NIPSCO’s plan to retire its coal generating assets by 2028. The 2021 Plan affirmed the 2018 retirement decisions and calls for the replacement of the retiring coal generating assets with a diverse portfolio of resources, including demand side management resources, incremental solar, stand-alone energy storage, new gas peaking resources and upgrades to existing facilities at the Sugar Creek Generating Station, among other steps. Refer to Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for further discussion of these plans.
NIPSCO participates in the MISO transmission service and wholesale energy market. MISO is a nonprofit organization created in compliance with FERC regulations to improve the flow of electricity in the regional marketplace and to enhance electric reliability. Additionally, MISO is responsible for managing energy markets, transmission constraints and the day-ahead, real-time, Financial Transmission Rights and ancillary markets. NIPSCO has transferred functional control of its electric transmission assets to MISO, and transmission service for NIPSCO occurs under the MISO Open Access Transmission Tariff. NIPSCO generating units are dispatched by MISO which takes into account economics, reliability of the MISO system and unit availability. During the year ended December 31, 2023, NIPSCO generating units, inclusive of its BTA projects, were dispatched to meet 49.5% of its overall system load, and the remainder of the overall system load was procured through PPAs and the MISO market.
Competition. Our electric utility generally has exclusive service areas under Indiana regulations, and retail electric customers in Indiana do not have the ability to choose their electric supplier. NIPSCO faces non-utility competition from other energy sources, such as self-generation by large industrial customers and other distributed energy sources.
Our electric operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations in sales. Revenues from electric operations are more significant during the cooling season, which is primarily from June through September. Please refer to Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results and Discussion of Operations - Electric Operations," for additional information.
Political Action
The NiSource Political Action Committee ("NiPAC") provides our employees a voice in the political process. NiPAC is a voluntary, employee and director driven and funded political action committee, and NiPAC makes bipartisan political contributions to local, state and federal candidates where permitted and in accordance with established guidelines. Consistent with our commitments and our approach to engagement, the NiPAC leadership committee members evaluate candidates for support on issues important to our business.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
Regulatory
The applicable regulatory landscape at both the state and federal levels continue to evolve, including environmental. These changes have had and will continue to have an impact on our operations, structure and profitability. Management continually seeks new ways to be more competitive and profitable in this environment, while keeping service and affordability for customers at the forefront. We believe we are, in all material respects, in compliance with such laws and regulations and do not expect future compliance changes to have a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings, or competitive position. We continue to monitor existing and pending laws and regulations, and the impact of regulatory changes cannot be predicted with certainty.
Rate Case Actions. The following table describes current rate case actions as applicable in each of our jurisdictions net of tracker impacts. See "Cost Recovery and Trackers" below for further detail on trackers.
(in millions)
CompanyApproved ROERequested Incremental RevenueApproved Incremental Revenue
Filing Date
Rates
Effective
Approved Rates Cases
Columbia of Pennsylvania(1)
None specified$82.2 $44.5 March 18, 2022December 2022
Columbia of Maryland(1)
None specified$6.5 $3.9 May 12, 2023December 2023
Columbia of Kentucky(2)
9.35 %$26.7 $18.3 May 28, 2021January 2022
Columbia of Virginia(3)
None specified$40.5 $25.8 April 29, 2022October 2022
Columbia of Ohio9.60 %$221.4 $68.3 June 30, 2021March 2023
NIPSCO - Gas(4)
9.85 %$109.7 $71.8 September 29, 2021September 2022
NIPSCO - Electric(5)
9.80 %$291.8 $261.9 September 19, 2022August 2023
Pending Rate Cases
NIPSCO - Gas(6)
In process$161.9 In processOctober 25, 2023September 2024
(1) No approved ROE is identified for this matter since the approved revenue increase is the result of a black box settlement under which parties agree upon the amount of increase.
(2)The approved ROE for natural gas capital riders (e.g.,SMRP) is 9.275%.
(3)Columbia of Virginia's rate case resulted in a black box settlement, representing a settlement to a specific revenue increase but not a specified ROE. The settlement provides use of a 9.70% ROE for future SAVE filings.
(4)New rates were implemented in 2 steps, with implementation of Step 1 rates in September 2022. The Step 2 rates were filed on February 21, 2023, with rates effective March 2023.
(5)New rates will be implemented in 2 steps, with implementation of Step 1 rates in August 2023 and Step 2 Rates to be effective in March 2024, with service provided in February 2024.
(6)Pending the outcome of the current case, new rates are expected to be implemented in 2 steps, with implementation of Step 1 rates to be effective in September 2024 and Step 2 Rates in March 2025.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
FERC. NiSource’s service company and operating companies are subject to varying degrees of regulation by the FERC. NiSource Corporate Services files a FERC Form 60 annual report with its financial information as a FERC jurisdictional centralized service company. NiSource also files an annual FERC Form 61 which contains a narrative description of the service company's functions during the prior calendar year.

As natural gas LDCs, Columbia of Maryland, Columbia of Ohio, Columbia of Pennsylvania, Columbia of Virginia, and NIPSCO have limited jurisdictional certificates to transport gas in the respective service territories into interstate commerce.

As an electric company, NIPSCO has Market Based Rate authority and is a Transmission Owner subject to FERC jurisdiction. NIPSCO files the following reports annually:

FERC Form 1, which is a comprehensive financial and operating report,
FERC Form 566, which is a list of its 20 largest purchases of electricity over the past three years,
FERC Form 715, which is its Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report and the base case power flow data from the Eastern Interconnection Reliability Assessment Group Multiregional Modeling Working Group, which was used by NIPSCO for transmission planning and,
FERC Form 730, which is NIPSCO’s Report of Transmission Investment Activity.

As a Transmission Owner subject to the MISO Transmission Owners Agreement and Tariff, NIPSCO has various FERC jurisdictional obligations such as maintaining its Attachment O formula rates and corresponding protocols. NIPSCO also has FERC approvals to make affiliate transactions between itself and various JVs. NIPSCO’s officers, on the electric side, are also subject to FERC’s interlocking directorate rules and reporting requirements.

Regulatory Framework. The Gas Distribution Operations utilities have pursued non-traditional revenue sources within the evolving natural gas marketplace. These efforts include (i) the sale of products and services in the companies’ service territories, and (ii) gas supply cost incentive mechanisms for service to their core markets. The on-system services are offered by us to customers and include products such as the transportation and balancing of gas on the Gas Distribution Operations utility's system. The incentive mechanisms give the Gas Distribution Operations utilities an opportunity to share in the savings created from such situations as gas purchases made below an agreed upon benchmark price and the remarketing of unused pipeline capacity to reduce overall pipeline costs.
We recognize that energy efficiency reduces emissions, conserves natural resources and saves our customers money. Our gas distribution companies offer programs such as energy efficiency upgrades, home checkups and weatherization services. The increased efficiency of natural gas appliances and improvements in home building codes and standards contribute to a long-term trend of declining average use per customer. While we are looking to expand offerings so the energy efficiency programs can benefit as many customers as possible, our Gas Distribution Operations have pursued changes in rate design to more effectively match recoveries with costs incurred. Columbia of Ohio has adopted a straight fixed variable rate design that closely links the recovery of fixed costs with fixed charges. Columbia of Maryland and Columbia of Virginia have regulatory approval for weather and revenue normalization adjustments for certain customer classes, which adjust monthly revenues that exceed or fall short of approved levels. Columbia of Pennsylvania continues to operate its pilot residential weather normalization adjustment and also has a fixed customer charge. This weather normalization adjustment only adjusts revenues when actual weather compared to normal varies by more than 3%. Columbia of Kentucky incorporates a weather normalization adjustment for certain customer classes and also has a fixed customer charge. NIPSCO Gas and Electric include a fixed customer charge for residential and small commercial and industrial customer classes, but has no weather or usage protection mechanism. In its pending gas rate case, NIPSCO has requested approval of a revenue decoupling mechanism.
While increased efficiency of electric appliances and improvements in home building codes and standards have similarly impacted the average use per electric customer in recent years, NIPSCO expects future growth in per customer usage as a result of increasing electric applications. Further growth is anticipated as electric vehicles become more prevalent. These ongoing changes in use of electricity will likely lead to development of innovative rate designs, and NIPSCO will continue efforts to design rates that increase the certainty of recovery of fixed costs.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
Cost Recovery and Trackers. Comparability of our line item operating results is impacted by regulatory trackers that allow for the recovery in rates of certain costs such as those described below. Increases in the expenses that are subject to approved regulatory tracker mechanisms generally lead to increased regulatory assets, which ultimately result in a corresponding increase in operating revenues and, therefore, have essentially no impact on total operating income results. Certain approved regulatory tracker mechanisms allow for abbreviated regulatory proceedings in order for the operating companies to quickly implement revised rates and recover associated costs.
A portion of the Gas Distribution Operations revenue is related to the recovery of gas costs, the review and recovery of which occurs through standard regulatory proceedings. All states in our operating area require periodic review of actual gas procurement activity to determine prudence and confirm the recovery of prudently incurred energy commodity costs supplied to customers.
A portion of the Electric Operations revenue is related to the recovery of fuel costs to generate power and the fuel costs related to purchased power. These costs are recovered through a FAC, which is updated quarterly to reflect actual costs incurred to supply electricity to customers.
Environmental and Safety Matters
We are committed to reducing the environmental impact of our business and promoting sustained environmental stewardship. We seek proactive opportunities for improved environmental performance and are committed to complying with environmental laws and regulations. To fulfill our vision of being a trusted energy provider, we follow safety practices recommended by leading industry organizations. These practices help us identify and address potential risks, resulting in improvements to our operational and environmental safety.
PHMSA Legislation and Regulations
Under the Protecting Our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety (PIPES) Act of 2020, PHMSA has revised, and continues to revise, the pipeline safety regulations to require operators to update, as needed, their existing distribution integrity management plans, emergency response plans, and operation and maintenance plans. PHMSA has also adopted new requirements for managing records and updating, as necessary, existing district regulator stations to eliminate common modes of failure that can lead to over-pressurization.
In May 2023, PHMSA proposed numerous regulatory revisions under the PIPES Act of 2020 to minimize methane emissions and improve public safety. Under these proposed revisions, our subsidiaries would be required to detect and repair an increased number of gas leaks, reduce the time to repair leaks, increase leak survey frequency, and expand our existing advanced leak detection program. We continue to evaluate the proposed rule for additional impacts on our business.
In September 2023, PHMSA proposed additional regulatory revisions under the PIPES Act of 2020 to enhance distribution system safety through equipment and procedural expectations. Operators will be required to incorporate additional protections for low pressure distribution systems that prevent over-pressurization, amend construction procedures designed to minimize the risk of incidents caused by system over-pressurization, and update distribution integrity management programs to cover and prepare for over-pressurization incidents.
On November 30, 2023, the House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee introduced new pipeline safety reauthorization legislation known as the PIPES Act of 2023 to reauthorize PHMSA’s safety programs for the next four years. The proposed legislation includes several priorities for our company, including excavation damage prevention grants to improve states’ damage prevention programs, a PHMSA study on blending hydrogen in distribution pipelines, new criminal penalties for intentionally damaging pipeline facilities, and creation of a Voluntary Information Sharing System to allow for industry participants to share learnings and best practices in a protected manner across the pipeline industry.
CCR Regulation
In May 2023, the EPA proposed changes to the CCR regulations for inactive surface impoundments at inactive facilities, referred to as legacy CCR surface impoundments. The EPA is also proposing to extend a subset of requirements in the CCR regulations to areas not previously subject to the CCR regulations, referred to as CCR management units ("CCRMUs"). In November 2023, the EPA issued a Notice of Data Availability seeking comment on updated lists of legacy impoundments and CCRMUs, as well as a risk assessment for legacy impoundments and CCRMUs. We continue to evaluate the proposed rule for impacts on our business.

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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
NISOURCE INC.
Climate Change Issues
Physical Climate Risks. Increased frequency of severe and extreme weather events associated with climate change could materially impact our facilities, energy sales, and results of operations. We are unable to predict these events. However, we perform ongoing assessments of physical risk, including physical climate risk, to our business. More extreme and volatile temperatures, increased storm intensity and flooding, and more volatile precipitation leading to changes in lake and river levels are among the weather events that are most likely to impact our business. Efforts to mitigate these physical risks continue to be implemented on an ongoing basis.
Transition Climate Risks. We actively engage with and monitor the impact that proposed legislative and regulatory programs related to GHG emissions, at both the federal and state levels, would have on our business. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors, "Operational Risks," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further detail.
Regarding federal policies, we continue to monitor the implementation of any final and proposed climate change-related legislation and regulation, including the IIJA, IRA, EPA's final methane regulations for the oil and natural gas industry, and EPA's proposed Waste Emissions Charge for Petroleum and Natural Gas systems. We have identified potential opportunities associated with the IIJA and the IRA and are evaluating how they may align with our strategy going forward. The energy-related provisions of the IIJA include new federal funding for power grid infrastructure and resiliency investments, new and existing energy efficiency and weatherization programs, electric vehicle infrastructure for public chargers and additional LIHEAP funding. The IRA contains climate and energy provisions, including funding to decarbonize the electric sector.
The United States is a party to the Paris Agreement, an international treaty through which parties set nationally determined contributions to reduce GHG emissions, build resilience, and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The Biden Administration has set a target for the United States to achieve a 50%-52% GHG reduction from 2005 levels by 2030, which supports the President's goals to create a carbon-free power sector by 2035 and net zero emissions economy no later than 2050. There are many potential pathways to reach these goals.
In December 2023, the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") amended the congressionally-mandated efficiency standards for residential home furnaces manufactured after December 2028. We are assessing the potential impacts associated with these new standards.
The DOE has selected two hydrogen hubs in our territories as recipients of funding designated in the IIJA to support the development of regional clean hydrogen hubs. The two hubs are the Midwest Alliance for Clean Hydrogen Hub (MachH2), with potential projects across Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, and Wisconsin; and the Appalachian Regional Clean Hydrogen Hub (ARCH2), with potential investments across West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. Work is underway to determine what roles our companies may have with these hydrogen hubs.

In May 2023, the EPA released a package of proposed regulatory actions to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from new natural gas-fired electric generating units ("EGUs"), existing natural gas-fired EGUs, and existing coal-fired EGUs. We are reviewing the potential impacts of the proposed rules.
We also continue to monitor the implementation of any final and proposed state policy. The Virginia Energy Innovation Act, enacted into law in April 2022, and effective July 1, 2022, allows natural gas utilities to supply alternative forms of gas that meet certain standards and reduce emissions intensity. The Act also provides that the costs of enhanced leak detection and repair may be added to a utility’s plan to identify proposed eligible infrastructure replacement projects and related cost recovery mechanisms, known as the SAVE Plan. Furthermore, under the Act, utilities can recover eligible biogas supply infrastructure costs on an ongoing basis. The provisions of these laws may provide opportunities for Columbia of Virginia as it participates in the transition to a lower carbon future.
The Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022 requires Maryland to reduce GHG emissions by 60% by 2031 (from 2006 levels), and it requires the state to reach net zero emissions by 2045. The Maryland Department of the Environment adopted a plan to achieve its 2031 goal and is required to adopt a plan for their 2045 net zero goal by 2030. The Act also enacts a state policy to move to broader electrification of both existing buildings and new construction, and requires the PSC to complete a study assessing the capacity of gas and electric distribution systems to successfully serve customers under a transition to a highly electrified building sector. The PSC released their report on December 29, 2023, and concluded that high levels of electrification can be handled by Maryland's electric systems through 2031. On December 15, 2023, the Maryland Department of the Environment issued proposed Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS), which would require net zero direct greenhouse gas emissions from large buildings by 2040 with interim targets. Comments on the proposed action were due to the agency on January 18, 2024. Columbia of Maryland is advocating for compliance pathways that use RNG, hydrogen, and emissions offsets. Separately, the PSC has also initiated a proceeding related to Near-Term, Priority Actions and
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Comprehensive, Long-Term Planning for Maryland's Gas Companies. Columbia of Maryland will continue to monitor these matters, but we cannot predict their final impact on our business at this time.
NIPSCO Gas, Columbia of Maryland, Columbia of Pennsylvania, Columbia of Virginia and Columbia of Kentucky each filed petitions to implement the Green Path Rider, which is a voluntary rider allowing customers to opt in and offset either 50% or 100% of their natural gas related emissions. To reduce the emissions, the utilities will purchase RNG attributes and carbon offsets to match the usage for customers opting into the program. The program was approved by the IURC at NIPSCO in November 2022 with a January 2023 start date. After reaching settlement with other parties in September 2022, NIPSCO agreed to add a third tier to offset 25% of customer usage. Columbia of Virginia received a final order in May 2023, approving the Green Path Rider and began enrolling customers in September 2023. The petitions filed by Columbia of Maryland, Columbia of Pennsylvania, and Columbia of Kentucky were rejected and have not been implemented as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, NIPSCO Electric has a voluntary Green Power Rider program in place that allows customers to designate a portion or all their monthly electric usage to come from power generated by renewable energy sources.
Net Zero Goal. In November 2022, we announced a goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2040 covering both Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions ("Net Zero Goal"). Our Net Zero Goal builds on greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved to-date and demonstrates that continued execution of our long-term business plan will drive further greenhouse gas emission reductions. We remain on track to achieve previously announced interim greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by reducing fugitive methane emissions from main and service lines by 50 percent from 2005 levels by 2025 and reducing Scope 1 GHG emissions from company-wide operations by 90 percent from 2005 levels by 2030. We plan to achieve our Net Zero Goal primarily through continuation and enhancement of existing programs, such as retiring and replacing coal-fired electric generation with low- or zero-emission electric generation, ongoing pipe replacement and modernization programs, and deployment of advanced leak-detection technologies. In addition, we plan to advance other low- or zero-emission energy resources and technologies, which may include hydrogen, renewable natural gas, long-duration storage, and/or deployment of carbon capture and utilization technologies, if and when these become technologically and economically feasible. Carbon offsets and renewable energy credits may also be used to support achievement of our Net Zero Goal. As of the end of 2022, we had reduced Scope 1 GHG emissions by approximately 67% from 2005 levels.
Our greenhouse gas emissions projections, including achieving a Net Zero Goal, are subject to various assumptions that involve risks and uncertainties. Achievement of our Net Zero Goal by 2040 will require supportive regulatory and legislative policies, favorable stakeholder environments and advancement of technologies that are not currently economical to deploy. Should such regulatory and legislative policies, stakeholder environments or technologies fail to materialize, our actual results or ability to achieve our Net Zero Goal, including by 2040, may differ materially.
As discussed in Management's Discussion within "Results and Discussion of Operations - Electric Operations," NIPSCO continues to execute on an electric generation transition consistent with the preferred pathways identified in its 2018 and 2021 Integrated Resource Plans. Additionally, as discussed in Management's Discussion within "Liquidity and Capital Resources - Regulatory Capital Programs," our natural gas distribution companies are lowering methane emissions by replacing aging infrastructure, which also increases safety and reliability for customers and communities.
Human Capital
Human Capital Management Governance and Organizational Practices. The Compensation and Human Capital Committee ("C&HC Committee") of our Board of Directors (the "Board") is primarily responsible for assisting the Board in overseeing our human capital management practices. The C&HC Committee reviews our human capital management function and programs. The review of related procedures, programs, policies and practices allows the committee to make recommendations to management with respect to equal employment opportunity and DE&I initiatives, employee engagement, corporate culture, and talent management.

In addition to overseeing our human capital management practices, our Board is committed to equal opportunity and valuing diversity. We have a goal that the Board is comprised of directors with diverse skills, expertise, experience, and demographics, including racial and gender diversity.

Human Capital Goals and Objectives. We have aligned our human capital goals to achieve overall company strategic and operational objectives by driving an enhanced talent strategy, elevating support for front-line leaders, fostering a culture of rigor and accountability, and strengthening our human resource function. We aspire to be an employer of choice in the utility industry, in part, through embedding DE&I throughout the enterprise and creating an enviable employee experience.

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Workforce Composition. As of December 31, 2023, we had 7,364 full-time and 47 part-time active employees (i.e., not interns, not on leave or disability). Of our total workforce, 34% were subject to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. These collective bargaining agreements were renegotiated in 2021 and 2023 and expire in 2026 and 2027, respectively.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. We foster an enviable work environment that embraces DE&I and where all employees are energized. In efforts to become an employer of choice, we have developed sourcing strategies to attract and retain the most qualified talent. Our executive leadership team is characterized by a diverse composition, with 75% representation from both POC and females. In additional we have made progress the last several years with growth in our overall female and POC population.

In 2023, our Diversity of Slate initiative contributed to our talent acquisition team filling 1,508 roles with 579 filled by external candidates. Our efforts in 2023 resulted in 32% of external hires being racially or ethnically diverse and 49% being female. Our sourcing efforts led our organization across all businesses to create a workforce composition that embraces all different perspectives. We believe that every move we make as a company must value and advance the interests of the individual, energize our communities, and serve as another step toward establishing a society where no one is left behind.

A company that works to become truly fair and inclusive opens the door to more voices being heard. Our employee resource groups (ERGs) serve to create a culture of inclusion through their engagement of all employees throughout the year. We continue to develop ERG leaders to equip employees with the necessary tools to further support our efforts for advancement and strengthen our inclusive workplace. A key area for us has been our implementation and development of programs to drive higher retention and engagement of our employees. Our commitment is grounded on the core belief that our purpose extends far beyond our primary role as a utility company; thus, we focused on inclusive leadership training for over 700 Directors and Managers in the organization.

We are committed to providing equal employment opportunities in each of our companies to all employees and applicants without regard to race, color, religion, national origin or ancestry, veteran status, disability, gender, age, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, or any protected group status as defined by law. The input provided by our increasingly diverse workforce will continue to strengthen our corporate culture as well as drive constructive changes within our company to improve our operational strategies, enhance the quality of the services we provide, and increase revenue.

Talent Attraction. To recruit and hire individuals with a variety of skills, talents, backgrounds and experiences, we value and cultivate relationships with community and diversity outreach partners. We also target job fairs, including those focused on people of color and veteran and female candidates and partner with local colleges and universities to identify and recruit qualified applicants in the communities we serve.

Similar to other companies we focused on our future of work and creating a flexible, agile model for roles that can be performed in a more remote setting. Our hybrid model recognizes differing ways of working; onsite, hybrid and remote. Most of our workforce is onsite (56%) and our hybrid (36%) and remote (7%) roles provide different avenues of working and seeking talent across our footprint. Hybrid employees work in a NiSource facility twice a week. This in-office presence supports colleague connection, development, in-person mentoring, and broader team building.
As an investment in our talent attraction in 2023, our NiSource Candidate Relationship Management (CRM) was brought online enabling interface with potential candidates and pools of candidates through a talent network even when active recruiting may not be in progress. We are proud to be one of TIME magazine’s World’s Best Companies of 2023 and recognized to the Forbes 2023 list of Best Employers for Diversity.

Talent Development and Retention. We offer leadership development programs to enhance the behaviors and skills of our existing and future leaders. In 2023, we had participation from employees of all levels. We also offer extensive technical and non-technical employee development training programs.
We strive to provide promotion and advancement opportunities for employees. In 2023, for all leadership positions at the supervisor and above level posted externally, we filled 72% with internal employees. We also develop and implement targeted development action plans to increase succession candidate readiness for leadership roles. Additionally, we monitor the risk and potential impact of talent loss and take action to increase retention of top talent. Retention in 2023 was over 93%. We calculate retention as 100 minus the total number of separations divided by the average headcount for the annual period. These
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separations break down into involuntary separations (2%), resignations (4%), and retirements (2%). Retention has improved 2% year over year since 2021.
Succession Planning. We perform succession planning annually for officer level positions to ensure that we develop and sustain a strong bench of talent capable of performing at the highest levels. Talent is identified, and potential paths of development are discussed to ensure that employees have an opportunity to build their skills to be well-prepared for future roles. We maintain formal succession plans for our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and key officers. The succession plan for our CEO is reviewed by the Nominating and Governance Committee and the succession plans for key officers (other than the CEO) and critical roles are reviewed by the Compensation and Human Capital Committee annually or more frequently as needed.
Employee and Workplace Health and Safety. We have several programs to support employees, and their families’ physical, mental, and financial well-being. These programs include competitive medical, dental, vision, life and long-term disability programs, including employee HSA company contributions, telemedicine services, Employee Assistance Program, Integrated Health Management navigation services, and paid time off including a wellness day, sick/disability, parental leave, and illness in family day.
We also have a robust program to support employees, contractors and public safety, which is led by our Chief Safety Officer and is under the oversight of the Safety, Operations, Regulatory and Policy Committee of our Board.
Culture and Engagement. Our culture is another important aspect of our ability to advance our strategic and operational objectives. In addition to our DE&I, recruiting, development and retention programs described above, we also invest in internal communications programs, including in-person and virtual learning and networking opportunities, as well as regular town hall communications to employees. We measure and monitor culture and employee engagement through various channels including employee lifecycle, pulse, and census surveys. These surveys continue to show above benchmark performance in safety, employee/manager relationships, and employee empowerment.
To instill and reinforce our values and culture, we require our employees to participate in regular training on ethics and compliance topics each year, including raising concerns, treating others with respect, preventing discrimination in the workplace, anti-bribery and corruption, data protection, unconscious biases, harassment, conflicts of interest, and how to use the anonymous ethics and compliance hotline. All employees receive training on our Code of Business Conduct annually or more frequently if there is a material change in content. Because of this training and other programs, we have learned from our most recent employee survey that 92% of our employees know what ethical violations look like and how to report them. Our business ethics program, including the employee training program, is reviewed annually by our executive leadership team and the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Our Compensation and Human Capital Committee reviews reports from our Chief Human Resources Officer and Chief Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Officer on employee engagement and corporate culture. Our Board reviews results and action plans related to our enterprise-wide comprehensive employee engagement survey. Our executive leadership team, including our Chief Executive Officer, communicates directly and regularly with all employees on timely ethics topics through electronic messages, coffee chats, and all-employee town hall meetings. These communications emphasize the importance of our values and culture in the workplace.

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
NISOURCE INC.
The following is a list of our Executive Officers, including their names, ages, offices held and other recent business experience.
NameAgeOffice(s) Held in Past 5 Years
Lloyd M. Yates63 
President and Chief Executive Officer of NiSource since February 2022 and Director since March 2020
Executive Vice President, Customer and Delivery Operations, and President, Carolinas Region, of Duke Energy Corporation from 2014 to 2019.
Shawn Anderson42 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of NiSource since March 2023
Senior Vice President and Chief Strategy and Risk Officer from June 2020 to March 2023.
Vice President, Strategy and Chief Risk Officer from January 2019 to May 2020.
Melody Birmingham52 
Executive Vice President, and President, NiSource Utilities of NiSource since March 2023
Executive Vice President, Chief Innovation Officer of NiSource from July 2022 to March 2023.
Senior Vice President and Chief Administrator Officer of Duke Energy Corporation from May 2021 to June 2022.
Senior Vice President, Supply Chain and Chief Procurement Officer of Duke Energy Indiana from 2018 to April 2021.
Donald E. Brown52 
Executive Vice President and Chief Innovation Officer of NiSource since March 2023
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of NiSource from July 2015 to March 2023.
President, NiSource Corporate Services from 2020 to 2022.
William Jefferson, Jr62 
Executive Vice President, Operations and Chief Safety Officer of NiSource since July 2022
Station Director and Plant General Manager at STPNOC, Wadsworth, Texas, from 2016 to May 2022.
Michael S. Luhrs
51 
Executive Vice President, Strategy and Risk Chief Commercial Officer of NiSource since March 2023
Senior Vice President at Alliant Energy from 2022 to March 2023.
Vice President at Duke Energy Corporation from 2013 to 2022.
Kimberly S. Cuccia40 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of NiSource since April 2022
Vice President, Interim General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of NiSource from December 2021 to April 2022.
Vice President and Deputy General Counsel, Regulatory, of NiSource Corporate Services Company, from January 2021 to December 2021.
Vice President and General Counsel of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts and of NiSource Corporate Services Company, from 2019 to 2020.
Melanie B. Berman53 
Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since June 2021
Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of The Michaels Companies, Inc. from 2020 to 2021.
Vice President, Human Resources of Anthem, Inc. from January 2018 to 2019.
Michael W. Hooper
50
Senior Vice President and President, NIPSCO of NiSource since May 2020
Senior Vice President, Regulatory, Legislative Affairs and Strategy, of NIPSCO from 2018 to 2020.
Gunnar J. Gode
49
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller of NiSource since July 2020
Vice President and Controller of Washington Gas from March 2019 to 2020.
Assistant Controller of Washington Gas from 2016 to March 2019.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
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Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below, that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and the market price of our common stock.
OPERATIONAL RISKS
We may not be able to execute our business plan or growth strategy, including utility infrastructure investments.
Operational, financial or regulatory conditions may result in our inability to execute our business plan or growth strategy, including investments related to natural gas pipeline modernization and our renewable energy projects, and the build-transfer execution goals within our business plan.

Our enterprise-wide transformation roadmap initiatives are designed to identify long-term sustainable capability enhancements, cost optimization improvements, technology investments and work process optimization, has increased the volume and pace of change and may not be effective as it continues. Our customer and regulatory initiatives may not achieve planned results. Utility infrastructure investments may not materialize, may cease to be achievable or economically viable and may not be successfully completed. Natural gas may cease to be viewed as an economically and environmentally attractive fuel. Certain environmental activist groups, investors and governmental entities continue to oppose natural gas delivery and infrastructure investments because of perceived environmental impacts associated with the natural gas supply chain and end use. Energy conservation, energy efficiency, distributed generation, energy storage, policies favoring electric heat over gas heat and other factors may reduce demand for natural gas and electricity. In addition, we consider acquisitions or dispositions of assets or businesses, JVs, and mergers from time to time as we execute on our business plan and growth strategy. Any of these circumstances could adversely affect our business, results of operations and growth prospects. Even if our business plan and/or growth strategy are executed, there is still risk of, among other things, human error in maintenance, installation or operations, shortages or delays in obtaining equipment, including as a result of transportation delays and availability, labor availability and performance below expected levels (in addition to the other risks discussed in this section). We are currently experiencing, and expect to continue to experience, supply chain challenges, including labor availability issues, impacting our ability to obtain materials for our gas and electric projects, as well as our ability to ensure timely completion.

Our distribution, transmission and generation activities involve a variety of inherent hazards and operating risks, including potential public safety risks.
Our gas distribution and transmission, electric generation, transmission and distribution activities, involve a variety of inherent hazards and operating risks, including, but not limited to, gas leaks and over-pressurization, downed power lines, stray electrical voltage, excavation or vehicular damage to our infrastructure, outages, environmental spills, mechanical problems and other incidents, which could cause substantial financial losses. These hazards and risks have resulted and may result in serious injury or loss of life to employees and/or the general public, significant damage to property, environmental pollution, impairment of our operations, adverse regulatory rulings and reputational harm, which in turn could lead to substantial business and financial losses. The location of pipeline facilities, including regulator stations, liquefied natural gas and underground storage, or generation, transmission, substation and distribution facilities near populated areas, including residential areas, commercial business centers and industrial sites, could increase the level of damages resulting from such incidents. Hazardous incidents have subjected and may subject us to both civil and criminal litigation or administrative or other legal proceedings from time to time, which could result in substantial monetary judgments, fines, or penalties against us, be resolved on unfavorable terms, and require us to incur significant operational expenses. The occurrence of incidents has in certain instances adversely affected and could in the future adversely affect our reputation, cash flows, financial position and/or results of operations. We maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these risks and losses.

We currently conduct and may conduct in the future certain operations through a JV arrangement involving third- party investors that may result in operational impasses or litigation, including business delays as a result of such arrangements.
We have and may enter into JV arrangements involving third-party investors, including the NIPSCO Minority Interest Transaction. As part of a JV arrangement, third-party investors may hold certain protective rights that may impact our ability to make certain decisions, restricting our operational and corporate flexibility. Any such third-party investors may have interests and objectives which may differ from ours, we may be unable to cause these third parties to take action that we believe would be in the JV’s best interest, and, accordingly, disputes may arise that may result in operational impasses or litigation, including business delays.

Failure to adapt to advances in technology, including alternative energy sources, and changes in laws or regulations to support such advances in technology or alternative energy sources, and our ability to manage such related costs could make us less competitive.
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A key element of our electric business model includes generating power at central station power plants to achieve economies of scale and produce power at a competitive cost. We continue to transition our generation portfolio in order to implement new and diverse technologies including renewable energy, distributed generation, energy storage, and energy efficiency designed to reduce regulated emissions. Advances in technology and potential competition supported by changes in laws or regulations could reduce the cost of electric generation and provide retail alternatives causing power sales to decline and the value of our generating facilities to decline.

Our natural gas business model depends on widespread utilization of natural gas for space heating as a core driver of revenues. Alternative energy sources, new technologies or alternatives to natural gas space heating, including cold climate heat pumps and/or efficiency of other products, and potential competition supported by changes in laws or regulations could reduce demand and increase customer attrition, which could impact our ability to recover on our investments in our gas distribution assets.

Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and successfully adapt to technological changes, to offer services that meet customer demands and evolving industry standards, including environmental impacts associated with our products and services, and to recover all, or a significant portion of, remaining investments in retired assets. A failure by us to effectively adapt to changes in technology, successfully implement such changes, and manage the related costs could harm the ability of our products and services to remain competitive in the marketplace and could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, if these changes do not provide the anticipated benefits or meet customer demands, such failure could materially adversely affect our business model as well as impact results of operations and financial condition.

Increased dependency on technology may hinder our business operations and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation if such technology fails.
We use a variety of technological tools and systems including both Company-owned information technology and technological services provided by outside parties. These tools and systems support critical functions including scheduling and dispatching of service technicians, automated meter reading systems, customer care and billing, operational plant logistics, management reporting and external financial reporting. The failure of these or other similarly important technologies, or our inability to have these technologies supported, updated, expanded, recovered (including timely recovered), or integrated into other technologies, could hinder our business operations and adversely impact its financial condition and results of operations. Although the Company has, when possible, developed alternative sources of technology and built redundancy into its computer networks and tools, there can be no assurance that these efforts would protect against all potential issues related to the loss of any such technologies.

Aging infrastructure may lead to disruptions in operations and increased capital expenditures and maintenance costs.
We have risks associated with aging electric and gas infrastructure. These risks can be driven by threats such as, but not limited to, electrical faults, mechanical failure, internal corrosion, external corrosion, ground movement and stress corrosion and/or cracking. The age of these assets may result in a need for replacement, a higher level of maintenance costs or unscheduled outages, despite efforts by us to properly maintain or upgrade these assets through inspection, scheduled maintenance and capital investment. In addition, the nature of the information available on aging infrastructure assets, which in some cases is incomplete, may make the operation of the infrastructure, inspections, maintenance, upgrading and replacement of the assets particularly challenging. Missing or incorrect infrastructure data may lead to (1) difficulty properly locating facilities, which can result in excavator damage and operational or emergency response issues, and (2) configuration and control risks associated with the modification of system operating pressures in connection with turning off or turning on service to customers, which can result in unintended outages or operating pressures. Also, additional maintenance and inspections are required in some instances to improve infrastructure information and records and address emerging regulatory or risk management requirements, resulting in increased costs.

Supply chain issues related to shortages of materials, labor and transportation logistics may lead to delays in the maintenance and replacement of aging or damaged infrastructure, which could increase the probability and/or impact of a public safety incident. We lack diversity in suppliers of some gas materials. While we have implemented contractual protections with suppliers and stockpile some materials in inventory for such supply risks, we may not be effective in ensuring that we can obtain adequate emergency supply on a timely basis in each state, that no compromises are being made on quality and that we have alternate suppliers available. The failure to operate our assets as desired could result in interruption of electric service, major component failure at generating facilities and electric substations, gas leaks and other incidents, and an inability to meet firm service and compliance obligations, which could adversely impact revenues, and could also result in increased capital expenditures and maintenance costs, which, if not fully recovered from customers, could negatively impact our financial results.
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We may be unable to obtain insurance on acceptable terms or at all, and the insurance coverage we do obtain may not provide protection against all significant losses.
Our ability to obtain insurance, as well as the cost and coverage of such insurance, is impacted by various events and developments affecting our industry and the financial condition and underwriting considerations of insurers. For example, some insurers have discontinued underwriting certain carbon-intensive energy-related businesses such as those in the coal industry or excluded coverage for specific perils such as wildfires or punitive damage risks. Certain perils, such as cyber liability, are now being excluded from some master policies for property and casualty insurance, requiring, where we have the ability, procurement of additional policies to maintain consistent coverage at an additional cost. Specific natural catastrophe events, such as hail and tornado, may not be covered with the same limits as other perils in certain property policies, as full coverage for these events is unavailable in the marketplace without costly specialty policies. Insurance coverage may not continue to be available at limits, rates or terms acceptable to us. In addition, our insurance is not sufficient or effective under all circumstances and against all hazards or liabilities to which we are subject. Certain types of damages, expenses or claimed costs, such as fines and penalties, have been and in the future may be excluded under the policies. In addition, insurers providing insurance to us may raise defenses to coverage under the terms and conditions of the respective insurance policies that could result in a denial of coverage or limit the amount of insurance proceeds available to us. Any losses for which we are not fully insured or that are not covered by insurance at all could materially adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

Aspects of the implementation of our electric generation strategy, including the timing of the retirement of our coal generation units or the addition of new generation resources, may be delayed and may not achieve intended results.
We intend to retire the remaining two coal units at R.M. Schahfer Generating Station by the end of 2025 and the remaining coal-fired generation by the end of 2028, to be replaced by lower-cost, reliable and cleaner options. Our 2021 Integrated Resource Plan (“2021 Plan”) validated the activities underway pursuant to our prior Integrated Resource Plans and calls for the retirement of the Michigan City Generating Station, replacement of existing vintage gas peaking facilities at the R.M. Schahfer Generating Station and upgrades to the electric transmission system. Macro supply chain issues and U.S. federal policy actions could create uncertainty around the availability of key input materials necessary to develop and place our renewable energy projects in service.

In the U.S., solar industry supply chain issues include the U.S. Department of Commerce regulations related to antidumping and countervailing duties circumvention, the Uyghur Forced Labor Protection Act, Section 201 Tariffs and persistent general global supply chain and labor availability issues. The most prominent effect of these issues is the curtailment of imported solar panels and other key components required to complete utility scale solar projects in the U.S. Any available solar panels may not meet the cost and efficiency standards of our currently approved projects and the incremental cost may not be recoverable through customer rates. As a result of the challenges in obtaining solar panels, many solar projects in the U.S. have been delayed or canceled. As we are in the midst of a transition to an electric generation portfolio with more renewable resources, including solar, our projects are vulnerable to the effects of these issues.

Our expectation has been that renewable or alternative energy sources would be some of the primary ways in which we will meet our electric generation capacity and reliability obligations to the MISO market and reliably serve our customers when we retire our coal generation capacity. The uncertainty surrounding the completion of generation resource projects could create significant risks for us to reliably meet our capacity and energy obligations to MISO and to provide reliable and affordable energy to our customers. Any additional delays to the completion dates of our planned and approved solar projects or other electric generation projects, including our proposed gas peaking facility could impact our capacity position and our ability to meet our resource adequacy obligations to MISO. Delays to the completion dates of our projects could also include delays in the financial return of certain investments and impact the overall timing of our electric generation transition.

Our electric generation strategy may require additional investment to meet our MISO obligations and may require significant future capital expenditures, operating costs and charges to earnings that may negatively impact our financial position, financial results and cash flows. An inability to secure and deliver on renewable projects has negatively impacted, and could in the future negatively impact, our generation transition timeline and could negatively impact our achievement of decarbonization goals and reputation.

Our capital projects and programs subject us to construction and supply risks, and are subject to regulatory oversight, including requirements for permits, approvals and certificates from various governmental agencies.
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Our business requires substantial capital expenditures for investments in, among other things, capital improvements to our electric generating facilities, electric and natural gas distribution infrastructure, natural gas storage and other projects, including projects for environmental compliance. As we undertake these projects and programs, we may be unable to complete them on schedule or at the anticipated costs. Additionally, we may construct or purchase some of these projects and programs to capture anticipated future growth, which may not materialize, and may cause the construction to occur over an extended period of time.

Construction risks include, but are not limited to, changes in the availability or costs of materials, equipment, commodities or labor (including changes to tariffs on materials), delays caused by construction incidents or injuries, work stoppages, poor initial cost estimates, unforeseen engineering issues, and general contractors and subcontractors not performing as required under their contracts.

We are monitoring risks related to increasing delivery lead times for certain construction and other materials, increasing risk associated with the unavailability of materials due to global shortages in raw materials and issues with transportation logistics, and risk of decreased construction labor productivity in the event of disruptions in the availability of materials critical to our gas and electric operations. Our efforts to enhance our resiliency to supply chain shortages may not be effective. We continue to see increasing prices associated with certain materials, equipment and products, which impacts our ability to complete major capital projects at the cost that was planned and approved. To the extent that delays occur, costs increase, costs become unrecoverable or recovery is delayed, or we otherwise become unable to effectively manage our affordability and complete our capital projects, our business operations, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition may be adversely affected. In addition, to the extent that delays occur on projects that target system integrity, the risk of an operational incident could increase.

Our existing and planned capital projects require numerous permits, approvals and certificates from federal, state, and local governmental agencies, including obtaining necessary rights-of-way, easements and transmissions connections, as well as complying with various environmental statutes, rules and regulations, among other items. If there is a delay in obtaining any required regulatory approvals or if we fail to obtain or maintain any required approvals or to comply with any applicable laws or regulations, we may not be able to construct or operate our facilities, we may be forced to incur additional costs or we may be unable to recover any or all amounts invested in a project. We also may not receive the anticipated increases in revenue and cash flows resulting from such projects and programs until after their completion.

A significant portion of the gas and electricity we sell is used by residential and commercial customers for heating and air conditioning. Accordingly, fluctuations in weather, gas and electricity commodity costs, and economic conditions impact customer demand.
Energy sales are sensitive to variations in weather. Forecasts of energy sales are based on “normal” weather, which represents a long-term historical average. Significant variations from normal weather resulting from climate change or other factors could have, and have had, a material impact on energy sales. Additionally, residential usage, and to some degree commercial usage, is sensitive to fluctuations in commodity costs for gas and electricity, whereby usage declines with increased costs, thus affecting our financial results. Commodity prices have been and may continue to be volatile as described in more detail in the below risk factor. Rising gas costs could heighten regulator and stakeholder sensitivity relative to the impact of base rate increases on customer affordability. Lastly, residential and commercial customers’ usage is sensitive to economic conditions and factors such as recession, inflation, unemployment, consumption and consumer confidence. Therefore, prevailing economic conditions affecting the demand of our customers may in turn affect our financial results.

Fluctuations in the price of energy commodities or their related transportation costs, or an inability to obtain an adequate, reliable and cost- effective fuel supply may impact our ability to meet customer demand.
Our current electric generating fleet has dependencies on coal and natural gas for fuel, and our gas distribution operations purchase and resell a portion of the natural gas we deliver to our customers. These energy commodities are subject to price fluctuations and fluctuations in associated transportation costs. We use physical hedging through the use of storage assets and use financial products in certain jurisdictions in order to offset fluctuations in commodity supply prices. We rely on regulatory recovery mechanisms in the various jurisdictions in order to fully recover the commodity costs incurred in selling energy to our customers. While we have historically been successful in the recovery of costs related to such commodity prices, there can be no assurance that such costs will be fully recovered through rates in a timely manner.

In addition, we depend on electric transmission lines, natural gas pipelines, and other transportation and storage facilities owned and operated by third parties to deliver the electricity and natural gas we sell to wholesale markets, supply natural gas to our gas storage and electric generation facilities, and provide retail energy services to our customers. If transportation is disrupted, if
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capacity is inadequate or if supply is interrupted due to issues at the wellhead, we may be unable to sell and deliver our gas and electric services to some or all of our customers. As a result, we may be required to procure additional or alternative electricity and/or natural gas supplies at then-current market rates, which, if recovery of related costs is disallowed, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and/or prospects.

Failure to attract, retain or re-skill an appropriately qualified workforce, and maintain good labor relations, could adversely impact safety, service reliability, and customer satisfaction.
Although our attrition rates have stabilized and are improving, we face increased competition for talent which may result in longer hire times or increased cost due to the competitive nature of certain positions.

We operate in an industry that requires many of our employees and contractors to possess unique technical skill sets. An aging workforce without appropriate replacements, the mismatch of skill sets to future needs, the unavailability of talent for internal positions and the unavailability of contract resources may lead to operating challenges or increased costs. These operating challenges include lack of resources, loss of knowledge and a lengthy time period associated with skill development. For example, certain skills, such as those related to construction, maintenance and repair of transmission and distribution systems, are in high demand and have a limited supply. Current and prospective employees may determine that they do not wish to work for us due to market, economic, employment or other conditions, including those related to organizational changes as described in the risk factor below.

Further, as part of our strategic plan, which includes enhanced technology, transmission and distribution investments, and a reduction in reliance on coal-fired generation, we will need to attract and retain personnel that are qualified to implement such a strategy and may need to retrain or re-skill certain employees to support our long-term objectives. Additionally, successful implementation of our strategic plan is dependent on our ability to recruit and retain key executive officers to oversee its progress.

A significant portion of our workforce is subject to collective bargaining agreements. Our collective bargaining agreements are generally negotiated on an operating company basis with some companies having multiple bargaining agreements, which may span different geographies. Any failure to reach an agreement on new labor contracts or to renegotiate these labor contracts might result in strikes, boycotts or other labor disruptions. Our workforce continuity plans may not be effective in avoiding work stoppages that may result from labor negotiations or mass resignations. Labor disruptions, strikes or significant negotiated wage and benefit increases, whether due to union activities, employee turnover or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, results of operations and/or cash flows.

Failure to attract, retain, or re-skill qualified employees, including the ability to transfer significant internal historical knowledge and expertise to the new employees, could result in a loss of momentum, loss of high-level employees to our peers and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition. If we are unable to successfully attract and retain an appropriately qualified workforce and maintain satisfactory labor relations, safety, service reliability, customer satisfaction and our results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we cannot effectively manage new initiatives and organizational changes, we will be unable to address the opportunities and challenges presented by our strategy and the business and regulatory environment.
In order to execute on our sustainable growth strategy and enhance our culture of ongoing continuous improvement, we must effectively manage the complexity and frequency of new initiatives and organizational changes. The organizational changes from our transformation initiatives have put short-term pressure on employees due to the volume and pace of change and, in some cases, the loss of personnel. Front-line workers are being impacted by the variety of process and technology changes that are currently in progress.

If we are unable to make decisions quickly, assess our opportunities and risks, and successfully implement new governance, managerial and organizational processes as needed to execute our strategy in this increasingly dynamic and competitive business and regulatory environment, our financial condition, results of operations and relationships with our business partners, regulators, customers, employees and stockholders may be negatively impacted.

Actions of activist stockholders could negatively affect our business and stock price and cause us to incur significant expenses.
We may be subject to actions or proposals from activist stockholders or others that may not be aligned with our long-term strategy or the interests of our other stockholders. Our response to suggested actions, proposals, director nominations and
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contests for the election of directors by activist stockholders could disrupt our business and operations, divert the attention of our board of directors, management and employees, and be costly and time‐consuming. Potential actions by activist stockholders or others may interfere with our ability to execute our strategic plans; create perceived uncertainties as to the future direction of our business or strategy; cause uncertainty with our regulators; make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel; and adversely affect our relationships with our existing and potential business partners. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, we may be required to incur significant fees and other expenses related to responding to stockholder activism, including for third-party advisors. Moreover, our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any stockholder activism.

We outsource certain business functions to third-party suppliers and service providers, and may be impacted by substandard performance or quality by third parties.
Utilities rely on extensive networks of business partners and suppliers to support critical enterprise capabilities across their organizations. Like other companies in the utilities industry, we outsource certain services to third parties in areas including construction services, information technology, materials, fleet, environmental, operational services, corporate and other areas. We are seeing slowing deliveries from suppliers and in some cases materials and labor shortages for capital projects. In addition to delays and unavailability, at times, outsourcing of services to third parties could expose us to inferior service quality or substandard deliverables, which may result in non-compliance (including with applicable legal requirements and industry standards), interruption of service, accidents, or reputational harm, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The nature of indirect supply chain, including a potential lack of control or certain visibility into sourcing by vendors, may also impact our ability to serve customers in a safe, reliable and cost-effective manner. These risks include the risk of operational failure, reputation damage, disruption due to new supply chain disruptions, exposure to significant commercial losses and fines and poorly positioned and distressed suppliers. If we continue to see delayed deliveries and shortages or if any other difficulties in the operations of these third-party suppliers and service providers, including their systems, were to occur, they could adversely affect our results of operations, or adversely affect our ability to work with regulators, unions, customers, or employees.

A cyber-attack or security breach on any of our or certain third-party technology systems, including but not limited to information systems, infrastructure, software and hardware, upon which we rely may adversely affect our ability to operate, could lead to a loss or misuse of confidential and proprietary information, or potential liability.
We are reliant on technology to run our business, which is dependent upon technology systems to process critical information necessary to conduct various elements of our business, including the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; operation of our gas pipeline facilities; and the recording and reporting of commercial and financial transactions to regulators, investors and other stakeholders. In addition to general information and cybersecurity risks that all large corporations face (e.g., ransomware, malware, unauthorized access attempts, phishing attacks, malicious intent by insiders, third-party software vulnerabilities and inadvertent disclosure of sensitive information), the utility industry faces evolving and increasingly complex cybersecurity risks associated with protecting electric grid and natural gas infrastructure as well as sensitive and confidential customer and employee information. Deployment of new business technologies, along with maintaining legacy technology, represents a large-scale opportunity for attacks on our information systems and confidential customer and employee information, as well as on the integrity of the energy grid and the natural gas infrastructure. Increasing large-scale corporate cyber-attacks in conjunction with more sophisticated threats continue to challenge power and utility companies. Additionally, international conflicts, as well as increased surveillance activity from China, has increased the likelihood of a cyber-attack or security breach on critical infrastructure systems.

Additionally, our information systems experience ongoing, often sophisticated, cyber-attacks or security breaches by a variety of sources, including foreign sources, with the apparent aim to breach our cyber-defenses. While we have implemented and maintain a cybersecurity program designed to protect our information technology, operational technology, and data systems from such cyber-attacks or security breaches, our cybersecurity program does not prevent all breaches, cyber-attack or security breach incidents. We have experienced an increase in the number of attempts by external parties to access our networks or our company data without authorization. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, cybersecurity intrusions and attacks or security breaches to our information systems. To our knowledge, none of these intrusions or attacks have resulted in a material cybersecurity intrusion or data breach. The risk of a disruption or breach of our operational technology, or the compromise of the data processed in connection with our operations, through cybersecurity breach or ransomware attack has increased as attempted cyber-attacks or security breaches have advanced in sophistication and number around the world. Technological complexities combined with advanced cyber- attack or security breach techniques, lack of cybersecurity hygiene and human error can result in a cybersecurity incident, such as a ransomware attack. Supplier non-compliance with
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cybersecurity controls can also result in a cybersecurity incident. We are aware of vendor cyber incidents that have impacted our business, although no such events have had a material impact. Cyber-attacks or security breaches can occur at any point in the supply chain or with any suppliers, and future supplier non-compliance with cybersecurity controls could result in material cybersecurity incidents. In addition, we use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) or drones in our business operations. UASs are also being used for malicious activities and the cybersecurity risk in connection with operating UASs is increasing.

In addition, we collect and retain personally identifiable information of our customers and employees. Customers and employees expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. The legal and regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding.

Although we attempt to maintain adequate defenses to these cyber-attacks or security breaches and work through industry groups and trade associations to identify common threats and assess our countermeasures, a security breach of our information systems or operational technology, or a security breach of the information systems of our customers, suppliers or others with whom we do business, could (i) adversely impact our ability to safely and reliably deliver electricity and natural gas to our customers through our generation, transmission and distribution systems and potentially negatively impact our compliance with certain mandatory reliability and gas flow standards, (ii) subject us to reputational and other harm or liabilities associated with theft or inappropriate release of certain types of information such as system operating information or information, personal or otherwise, relating to our customers or employees, (iii) impact our ability to manage our businesses, and/or (iv) subject us to legal and regulatory proceedings and claims from third parties, in addition to remediation costs, any of which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, cash flows, financial condition, results of operations and/or prospects. Although we do maintain cybersecurity insurance, it is possible that such insurance will not adequately cover any losses or liabilities we may incur as a result of a cybersecurity incident.

Compliance with and changes in cybersecurity requirements have a cost and operational impact on our business, and failure to comply with such laws and regulations could adversely impact our reputation, results of operations, financial condition and/or cash flows.
As cyber-attacks or security breaches are becoming more sophisticated, critical infrastructure assets, including pipelines and electric infrastructure, may be specifically targeted. In 2021, the TSA announced two new security directives in response to a ransomware attack on the Colonial Pipeline that occurred earlier in the year. These directives, including updates or amendments to such TSA directives, require critical pipeline owners to comply with mandatory reporting measures, designate a cybersecurity coordinator, provide vulnerability assessments, and ensure compliance with certain cybersecurity requirements. NiSource continues to work with the TSA to ensure that compliance with the security directives are being met. Additionally, on November 30, 2022, the TSA issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) seeking public comment on more comprehensive, formal cybersecurity regulations for the pipeline industry. Such directives or additional legal requirements may require expenditure of significant additional resources to respond to cyber-attacks or security breaches, to continue to modify or enhance protective measures, or to assess, investigate and remediate any critical infrastructure security vulnerabilities. Increased costs and the operational impacts of compliance and changes in cybersecurity requirements, including any failure to comply with government regulations or any failure in our cybersecurity protective measures may result in enforcement actions, all of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, there is no certainty that costs incurred related to securing against threats will be recovered through rates.

The impacts of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, acts of war, civil unrest, accidents, public health emergencies or other catastrophic events may disrupt operations and reduce the ability to service customers.
A disruption or failure of natural gas distribution systems, or within electric generation, transmission or distribution systems, in the event of a major hurricane, tornado, wildfire, or other major weather event, or terrorist attack, acts of war, international military invasions, including the political and economic disruption and uncertainty related to such terrorist attack, acts of war, or international military invasions (e.g. Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine, Israel/Hamas conflict), civil unrest, accident, public health emergency (e.g. pandemic), or other catastrophic event could cause delays in completing sales, providing services, or performing other critical functions. We have experienced disruptions in the past from hurricanes and tornadoes and other events of this nature. Also, companies in our industry face a heightened risk of exposure to and have experienced acts of terrorism and vandalism. Our electric and gas physical infrastructure may be targets of physical security threats or terrorist activities that could disrupt our operations. We have increased security given the current environment and may be required by regulators or by the future threat environment to make investments in security that we cannot currently predict. In addition, the supply chain constraints that we are experiencing could impact our ability to timely restore services. The occurrence of such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations. In accordance with customary industry practice, we maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these risks and losses. As a result, the amount and scope
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of insurance coverage maintained against losses resulting from any such event may not be sufficient to cover such losses or otherwise adequately compensate for any business disruptions that could result.

We are exposed to significant reputational risks, which make us vulnerable to a loss of cost recovery, increased litigation and negative public perception.
As a utility company, we are subject to adverse publicity focused on the reliability of our services, the speed with which we are able to respond effectively to electric outages, natural gas leaks or events and related accidents and similar interruptions caused by storm damage, physical or cybersecurity incidents, or other unanticipated events, as well as our own or third parties’ actions or failure to act. We are subject to prevailing labor markets and potential high attrition, which may impact the speed of our customer service response. We are also facing supply chain challenges, the impacts of which may adversely impact our reputation in several areas as described elsewhere in these risk factors. We are also subject to adverse publicity related to actual or perceived environmental impacts. If customers, legislators or regulators have or develop a negative opinion of us, this could result in less favorable legislative and regulatory outcomes or increased regulatory oversight, increased litigation and negative public perception. The foregoing may have adverse effects on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.

The physical impacts of climate change and the transition to a lower carbon future are impacting our business and could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
Climate change is exacerbating risks to our physical infrastructure by increasing the frequency of extreme weather, including heat stresses to power lines, cold temperature stress to our electric and gas systems, and storms and floods that damage infrastructure. In addition, climate change is likely to cause lake and river level changes that affect the manner in which services are currently provided and droughts or other limits on water used to supply services, and other extreme weather conditions. We have adapted and will continue to evolve our infrastructure and operations to meet current and future needs of our stakeholders. With higher frequency of these and other possible extreme weather events it may become more costly for us to safely and reliably deliver certain products and services to our customers. Further, as our generation profile increases geographically, it is potentially more vulnerable to certain weather hazards than centralized fossil generation, thereby increasing the frequency of weather impacts to overall electric reliability and such distributed renewables. Some of these costs may not be recovered. To the extent that we are unable to recover those costs, or if higher rates arising from recovery of such costs result in reduced demand for services, our future financial results may be adversely impacted. Further, as the intensity and frequency of significant weather events increases, insurers may reprice or remove themselves from insuring risks for which the company has historically maintained insurance, resulting in increased cost or risk to us.

Our strategy may be impacted by policy and legal, technology, market and reputational risks and opportunities that are associated with the transition to a lower-carbon economy, as disclosed in other risk factors in this section. As a result of increased awareness regarding climate change, coupled with adverse economic conditions, availability of alternative energy sources, including private solar, microturbines, fuel cells, energy-efficient buildings and energy storage devices, and new regulations restricting emissions, including potential regulations of methane emissions, some consumers and companies may use less energy, meet their own energy needs through alternative energy sources or avoid expansions of their facilities, including natural gas facilities, which may result in less demand for our services. As these technologies become a more cost-competitive option over time, whether through cost effectiveness or government incentives and subsidies, certain customers may choose to meet their own energy needs and subsequently decrease usage of our systems and services, which may result in, among other things, our facilities becoming less competitive and economical. Further, evolving investor sentiment related to the use of fossil fuels and initiatives to restrict continued production of fossil fuels could result in a significant impact on our electric generation and natural gas businesses in the future.

We are unable to forecast the future of commodity markets. Some of our baseload generation is dependent on natural gas and coal, and we pass through the costs for these energy sources to our customers. In addition, in our gas distribution business, we procure natural gas on behalf of certain customers, and we pass through the actual cost of the gas consumed. Diminished investor interest in funding fossil fuel development could reduce the amount of exploration and production of natural gas or coal, or investment in gas transmission pipelines. Reduced production and transportation of natural gas could, in the long-term, lead to supply shortages leading to baseload generation outages. Given that we pass through commodity costs to customers, this could also create the potential for regulatory questions resulting from increased customer costs, reduced fossil fuel investment, due to evolving investor sentiment, could lead to higher commodity prices and shortages impacting our generation and our reputation with regulators. Conversely, demand for our services may increase as a result of customer changes in response to climate change. For example, as the utilization of electric vehicles increases, demand for electricity may increase, resulting in increased usage of our systems and services.
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Any negative views with respect to our environmental practices or our ability to meet the challenges posed by climate change from regulators, customers, investors or legislators could harm our reputation and adversely affect the perceived value of our products and services. Changes in policy to combat climate change, and technology advancement, each of which can also accelerate the implications of a transition to a lower carbon economy, may materially adversely impact our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. For example, in February 2023, the Maryland Office of People's Counsel filed a petition with the Maryland PSC seeking an investigation regarding planning, practices, and future operations of natural gas suppliers in the state and this initiated a proceeding related to Near-Term, Priority Actions and Comprehensive, Long-Term Planning for Maryland's Gas Companies, and in December 2023 the Maryland Department of Environment proposed a Building Efficiency Performance Standard regulation that could require buildings of a certain size and type eliminate Scope 1 GHG emissions by 2040.

We are subject to operational and financial risks and liabilities associated with the implementation and efforts to achieve our carbon emission reduction goals.
On November 7, 2022, we announced our goal of reaching net zero Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions by 2040 (the “Net Zero Goal”). Achieving the Net Zero Goal will require supportive regulatory and legislative policies, favorable stakeholder environments and advancement of technologies that are not currently economical to deploy, the impacts and costs of which are not fully understood at this time. NIPSCO’s electric generation transition is a key element of the Net Zero Goal. Our analysis and plan for execution, which is outlined in the NIPSCO 2021 Integrated Resource Plan, requires us to make a number of assumptions. These goals and underlying assumptions involve risks and uncertainties and are not guarantees. Should one or more of our underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results and ability to achieve our emissions goal could differ materially from our expectations. Certain of the assumptions that could impact our ability to meet our emissions goal include, but are not limited to: the accuracy of current emission measurements, service territory size and capacity needs remaining in line with expectations; regulatory approval; impacts of future environmental regulations or legislation; impact of future GHG pricing regulations or legislation, including a future carbon tax or methane fee; price, availability and regulation of carbon offsets; price of fuel, such as natural gas; cost of energy generation technologies, such as wind and solar, natural gas and storage solutions; adoption of alternative energy, including adoption of electric vehicles; rate of technology innovation with regards to alternative energy resources; our ability to implement our modernization plans for our pipelines and facilities; the ability to complete and implement generation alternatives to NIPSCO’s coal generation and retirement dates of NIPSCO’s coal facilities by 2028; the ability to construct and/or permit new natural gas pipelines; the ability to procure resources needed to build at a reasonable cost, the lack of scarcity of resources and labor, project cancellations, construction delays or overruns and the ability to appropriately estimate costs of new generation; impact of any supply chain disruptions; and advancement of energy efficiencies. Any negative opinions with respect to these goals or our environmental practices, including any inability to achieve, or a scaling back of these goals, formed by regulators, customers, investors or legislators could harm our reputation and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
FINANCIAL, ECONOMIC AND MARKET RISKS
We have substantial indebtedness which could adversely affect our financial condition.
Our business is capital intensive and we rely significantly on long-term debt to fund a portion of our capital expenditures and repay outstanding debt, and on short-term borrowings to fund a portion of day-to-day business operations. We had total consolidated indebtedness of $14,127.9 million outstanding as of December 31, 2023. Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences. For example, it could:
limit our ability to borrow additional funds or increase the cost of borrowing additional funds;
reduce the availability of cash flow from operations to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the business and the industries in which we operate;
lead parties with whom we do business to require additional credit support, such as letters of credit, in order for us to transact such business;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that are less leveraged;
increase vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; and
limit our ability to execute on our growth strategy, which is dependent upon access to capital to fund our substantial infrastructure investment program.

Some of our debt obligations contain financial covenants related to debt-to-capital ratios and cross-default provisions. Our failure to comply with any of these covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of outstanding debt obligations. Additionally, non-compliance with debt covenants could adversely affect our
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ability to obtain future borrowings and as a result materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

A drop in our credit ratings could adversely impact our cash flows, results of operation, financial condition and liquidity.
The availability and cost of credit for our businesses may be greatly affected by credit ratings. The credit rating agencies periodically review our ratings, taking into account factors such as our capital structure, earnings profile, and overall shifts in the economy or business environment. We are committed to maintaining investment grade credit ratings; however, there is no assurance we will be able to do so in the future. Our credit ratings could be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, the circumstances warrant. Any negative rating action could adversely affect our ability to access capital at rates and on terms that are attractive. A negative rating action could also adversely impact our business relationships with suppliers and operating partners, who may be less willing to extend credit or offer us similarly favorable terms as secured in the past under such circumstances.

Certain of our subsidiaries have agreements that contain “ratings triggers” that require increased collateral in the form of cash, a letter of credit or other forms of security for new and existing transactions if our credit ratings (including the standalone credit ratings of certain of our subsidiaries) are dropped below investment grade. These agreements are primarily for insurance purposes and for the physical purchase or sale of gas or power. As of December 31, 2023, the collateral requirement that would be required in the event of a downgrade below the ratings trigger levels would amount to approximately $90.1 million. In addition to agreements with ratings triggers, there are other agreements that contain “adequate assurance” or “material adverse change” provisions that could necessitate additional credit support such as letters of credit and cash collateral to transact business.
If our or certain of our subsidiaries’ credit ratings were downgraded, especially below investment grade, financing costs and the principal amount of borrowings would likely increase due to the additional risk of our debt and because certain counterparties may require additional credit support as described above. Such amounts may be material and could adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition. Losing investment grade credit ratings may also result in more restrictive covenants and reduced flexibility on repayment terms in debt issuances, lower share price and greater stockholder dilution from common equity issuances, in addition to reputational damage within the investment community.
Adverse economic and market conditions, including increases in inflation or interest rates, recession or changes in investor sentiment could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and liquidity.
Deteriorating, sluggish or volatile economic conditions in our operating jurisdictions could adversely impact our ability to maintain or grow our customer base and collect revenues from customers, which could reduce our revenue or growth rate and increase operating costs. A continued economic downturn or recession, or slowing or stalled recovery from such economic downturn or recession, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

We rely on access to the capital markets to finance our liquidity and long-term capital requirements, including expenditures for our utility infrastructure and to comply with future regulatory requirements, to the extent not satisfied by the cash flow generated by our operations. We have historically relied on long-term debt and on the issuance of equity securities to fund a portion of our capital expenditures and repay outstanding debt, and on short-term borrowings to fund a portion of day-to-day business operations. Actions to reduce inflation, including raising interest rates, increase our cost of borrowing, which in turn could make it more difficult to obtain financing for our operations or investments on favorable terms. Successful implementation of our long-term business strategies, including capital investment, is dependent upon our ability to access the capital and credit markets, including the banking and commercial paper markets, on competitive terms and rates. An economic downturn or uncertainty, market turmoil, changes in interest rates, changes in tax policy, challenges faced by financial institutions, changes in our credit ratings, or a change in investor sentiment toward us or the utilities industry generally could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital or refinance debt. For example, because NIPSCO’s current generating facilities substantially rely on coal for its operations, certain financial institutions may choose not to participate in our financing arrangements. In addition, large institutional investors may choose to sell or choose not to purchase our stock due to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) concerns or concerns regarding renewable energy supply chain challenges. Reduced access to capital markets, increased borrowing costs, and/or lower equity valuation levels could reduce future earnings per share and cash flows. In addition, any rise in interest rates may lead to higher borrowing costs, which may adversely impact reported earnings, cost of capital and capital holdings.
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If, in the future, we face limits to the credit and capital markets or experience significant increases in the cost of capital or are unable to access the capital markets, it could limit our ability to implement, or increase the costs of implementing, our business plan, which, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and liquidity.
Most of our revenues are subject to economic regulation and are exposed to the impact of regulatory rate reviews and proceedings.
Most of our revenues are subject to economic regulation at either the federal or state level. As such, the revenues generated by us are subject to regulatory review by the applicable federal or state authority. These rate reviews determine the rates charged to customers and directly impact revenues. Our financial results are dependent on frequent regulatory proceedings in order to ensure timely recovery of costs and investments. As described in more detail in the risk factor below, the outcomes of these proceedings are uncertain, potentially lengthy and could be influenced by many factors, some of which may be outside of our control, including the cost of providing service, the necessity of expenditures, the quality of service, regulatory interpretations, customer intervention, economic conditions and the political environment. Further, the rate orders are subject to appeal, which creates additional uncertainty as to the rates that will ultimately be allowed to be charged for services.
The actions of regulators and legislators could result in outcomes that may adversely affect our earnings and liquidity.
The rates that our electric and natural gas companies charge their customers are determined by their state regulatory commissions and by the FERC. These state regulatory commissions also regulate the companies’ accounting, operations, the issuance of certain securities and certain other matters. The FERC also regulates the transmission of electric energy, the sale of electric energy at wholesale, accounting, issuance of certain securities and certain other matters, including reliability standards through the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC).
Under state and federal law, our electric and natural gas companies are entitled to charge rates that are sufficient to allow them an opportunity to recover their prudently incurred operating and capital costs and a reasonable rate of return on invested capital, to attract needed capital and maintain their financial integrity, while also protecting relevant public interests. Our electric and natural gas companies are required to engage in regulatory approval proceedings as a part of the process of establishing the terms and rates for their respective services. Each of these companies prepares and submits periodic rate filings with their respective regulatory commissions for review and approval, which allows for various entities to challenge our current or future rates, structures or mechanisms and could alter or limit the rates we are allowed to charge our customers. These proceedings typically involve multiple parties, including governmental bodies and officials, consumer advocacy groups, and various consumers of energy, who have differing interests. Any change in rates, including changes in allowed rate of return, are subject to regulatory approval proceedings that can be contentious, lengthy, and subject to appeal. This may lead to uncertainty as to the ultimate result of those proceedings. Established rates are also subject to subsequent prudency reviews by state regulators, whereby various portions of rates could be adjusted, subject to refund or disallowed, including cost recovery mechanisms. The ultimate outcome and timing of regulatory rate proceedings could have a significant effect on our ability to recover costs or earn an adequate return. Adverse decisions in our proceedings could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
There can be no assurance that regulators will approve the recovery of all costs incurred by our electric and natural gas companies, including costs for construction, operation and maintenance, and compliance with current and future changes in environmental, federal pipeline safety, critical infrastructure and cyber-security laws and regulations. Challenges arise with state regulators on inflationary pricing for electric and gas materials and potential price increases, ensuring that updated pricing for electric and gas materials is included in plans and regulatory assumptions, and ensuring there is a regulatory recovery model. There is debate among state regulators and other stakeholders over how to transition to a decarbonized economy and prudency arguments relative to investing in natural gas assets when the depreciable life of the assets may be shortened due to electrification. The inability to recover a significant amount of operating costs could have an adverse effect on a company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Changes to rates may occur at times different from when costs are incurred. Additionally, catastrophic events at other utilities could result in our regulators and legislators imposing additional requirements that may lead to additional costs or operational requirements for the companies.
In addition to the risk of disallowance of incurred costs, regulators may also impose downward adjustments in a company’s allowed ROE as well as assess penalties and fines. Regulators may reduce ROE to mitigate potential customer bill increases due to items unrelated to capital investments. These actions would have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
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Our electric business is subject to mandatory reliability and critical infrastructure protection standards established by NERC and enforced by the FERC. The critical infrastructure protection standards focus on controlling access to critical physical and cybersecurity assets. Compliance with the mandatory reliability standards could subject our electric utilities to higher operating costs. In addition, compliance with PHMSA regulations, including the expected final ruling around leak detection and repair requirements could subject our gas utilities to higher operating costs and divert business resources from other activities in order to remain compliant. If our businesses are found to be in noncompliance, we could be subject to sanctions, including substantial monetary penalties, or damage to our reputation.
Changes in tax laws, as well as the potential tax effects of business decisions, could negatively impact our business, results of operations (including our expected project returns from our planned renewable energy projects), financial condition and cash flows.
Our business operations are subject to economic conditions in certain industries.
Business operations throughout our service territories have been and may continue to be adversely affected by economic events at the national and local level where our businesses operate. In particular, sales to large industrial customers, such as those in the steel, oil refining, industrial gas and related industries, are impacted by economic downturns and recession; geographic or technological shifts in production or production methods; and consumer demand for environmentally friendly products and practices. The U.S. manufacturing industry continues to adjust to changing market conditions including international competition, inflation and increasing costs, government and societal pressure to decarbonization, and fluctuating demand for its products. In addition, our results of operations are negatively impacted by lower revenues resulting from higher bankruptcies, predominately focused on commercial and industrial customers not able to sustain operations through the economic disruptions related to the pandemic.
We are exposed to risk that customers will not remit payment for delivered energy or services, and that suppliers or counterparties will not perform under various financial or operating agreements.
Our extension of credit is governed by a Corporate Credit Risk Policy, involves judgment by our employees and is based on an evaluation of customer, supplier, or counterparty’s financial condition, credit history and other factors. We monitor our credit risk exposure by obtaining credit reports and updated financial information for customers and suppliers, and by evaluating the financial status of our banking partners and other counterparties by reference to market-based metrics such as credit default swap pricing levels, and to traditional credit ratings provided by the major credit rating agencies. Adverse economic conditions could result in an increase in defaults by customers, suppliers and counterparties We are also exposed to the risk that due to adverse economic conditions one or more suppliers or counterparties may fail or delay the performance of their contractual obligations. such risks could negatively impact our business, financial condition and cash flow.
We are a holding company and are dependent on cash generated by our subsidiaries to meet our debt obligations and pay dividends on our stock.
We are a holding company and conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries, which are separate and distinct legal entities. Substantially all of our consolidated assets are held by our subsidiaries. Accordingly, our ability to meet our debt obligations or pay dividends on our common stock and preferred stock is largely dependent upon cash generated by these subsidiaries. In the event a major subsidiary is not able to pay dividends or transfer cash flows to us, our ability to service our debt obligations or pay dividends could be negatively affected.
Capital market performance and other factors may decrease the value of benefit plan assets, which then could require significant additional funding and impact earnings.
The performance of the capital markets affects the value of the assets that are held in trust to satisfy future obligations under defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans. We have significant obligations in these areas and hold significant assets in these trusts. These assets are subject to market fluctuations and may yield uncertain returns, which could fall below our projected rates of return. A decline in the market value of assets may increase the funding requirements of the obligations under the defined benefit pension plans. Additionally, changes in interest rates affect the liabilities under these benefit plans; as interest rates decrease, the liabilities increase, which could potentially increase funding requirements. Further, the funding requirements of the obligations related to these benefits plans may increase due to changes in governmental regulations and participant demographics, including increased numbers of retirements or longer life expectancy assumptions, as well as voluntary early retirements. In addition, lower asset returns result in increased expenses. Ultimately, significant funding requirements and increased pension or other postretirement benefit plan expenses could negatively impact our results of operations and financial position.
We have significant goodwill. Any future impairments of goodwill could result in a significant charge to earnings in a future period and negatively impact our compliance with certain covenants under financing agreements.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
NISOURCE INC.
In accordance with GAAP, we test goodwill for impairment at least annually and review our definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate its fair value might be below its carrying value. Goodwill is also tested for impairment when factors, examples of which include reduced cash flow estimates, a sustained decline in stock price or market capitalization below book value, indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable and results in a significant charge to earnings. We cannot predict the timing, magnitude, or duration of such changes. In general, the carrying value of goodwill would not be recoverable, in which case we may record a non-cash impairment charge, which could materially impact our results of operations and financial position.
A significant impairment charge in the future could impact the capitalization ratio covenant under certain financing agreements. We are subject to a financial covenant under our revolving credit facility, which requires us to maintain a debt to capitalization ratio that does not exceed 70%. As of December 31, 2023, the ratio was 58.2%.
LITIGATION, REGULATORY AND LEGISLATIVE RISKS
The outcome of legal and regulatory proceedings, investigations, inquiries, claims and litigation related to our business operations may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.
We are, or may be, involved in legal and regulatory proceedings, investigations, inquiries, claims and litigation in connection with our business operations, the most significant of which are summarized in, Note 19, "Other Commitments and Contingencies," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. While we have insurance, it may not cover all costs or expenses incurred relating to litigation. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the outcomes of such matters, there can be no assurance that the resolution of any particular claim or proceeding would not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.

Our businesses are subject to various federal, state and local laws, regulations, tariffs and policies and a failure to comply with changes in, or new or different interpretations of, such laws, regulations, tariffs and policies could have an adverse impact on our business.
Our businesses are subject to various federal, state and local laws, regulations, tariffs and policies, including, but not limited to, those relating to natural gas pipeline safety, employee safety, the environment and our energy infrastructure. In particular, we are subject to significant federal, state and local regulations applicable to utility companies, including regulations by the various utility commissions in the states where we serve customers. These regulations significantly influence our operating environment, may affect our ability to recover costs from utility customers, and cause us to incur substantial compliance and other costs. Existing laws, regulations, tariffs and policies may be revised or become subject to new interpretations, and new laws, regulations, tariffs and policies may be adopted or become applicable to us and our operations. In some cases, compliance with new or different laws, regulations, tariffs and policies increases our costs or risks of liability. Supply chain constraints may challenge our ability to remain in compliance if we cannot obtain the materials that we need to operate our business in a compliant manner. If we fail to comply with laws, regulations and tariffs applicable to us or with any changes in or new interpretations of such laws, regulations, tariffs or policies, our financial condition, results of operations, regulatory outcomes and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

Our businesses are regulated under numerous environmental laws and regulations. The cost of compliance with these laws and regulations, and changes to or additions to, or reinterpretations of the laws and regulations, could be significant, and the cost of compliance may not be recoverable. Liability from the failure to comply with existing or changed laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Our businesses are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental laws and rules that regulate, among other things, air emissions, water usage and discharges, leak detection and repair, GHG and waste products such as CCR. Compliance with these legal obligations require us to make significant expenditures for installation of pollution control equipment, remediation, environmental monitoring, emissions fees, and permits at many of our facilities. Furthermore, if we fail to comply with environmental laws and regulations or are found to have caused damage to the environment or persons, that failure or harm may result in the assessment of civil or criminal penalties and damages against us, injunctions to remedy the failure or harm, and the inability to operate facilities as designed and intended. Further, failing to comply with such laws and regulations or a determination that we have caused damage to the environment or persons, could result in reputational damage.

Existing environmental laws and regulations may be revised and new laws and regulations may be adopted or become applicable to us, with an increasing focus on the impact of coal and natural gas facilities that may result in significant additional expense and operating restrictions on our facilities, which may not be fully recoverable from customers and could materially affect the continued economic viability of our facilities.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
NISOURCE INC.

An area of significant uncertainty and risk are potential changes to the laws concerning emission of GHG. While we continue to execute our plan to reduce our Scope 1 GHG emissions through the retirement of coal-fired electric generation, increased sourcing of renewable energy, priority pipeline replacement, leak detection and repair, and other methods, and while we have set a Net Zero Goal, GHG emissions are anticipated to be associated with energy delivery for many years. Future GHG legislation and/or regulation related to the generation of electricity or the extraction, production, distribution, transmission, storage and end use of natural gas could materially impact our gas supply, financial position, financial results and cash flows.

Another area of significant uncertainty and risk are the regulations concerning CCR. The EPA has issued regulations and plans to promulgate additional regulations concerning the management, transformation, transportation and storage of CCRs. NIPSCO is also incurring or will incur costs associated with closing, corrective action, and ongoing monitoring of certain CCR impoundments. Further, a release of CCR to the environment could result in remediation costs, penalties, claims, litigation, increased compliance costs, and reputational damage.

We currently have a pending application with the EPA to continue operation of a CCR impoundment that is tied to operation of R.M. Schahfer Generating Station Units 17 and 18 to the end of 2025, with the CCR impoundment closing by October 2028. In proposed and final EPA actions denying continued operation of CCR impoundments at other utilities, EPA said that CCR impoundments should cease receipt of CCRs within 135 days of final EPA action unless certain conditions are demonstrated, such as potential reliability issues. In the event that approval is not obtained, future operations could be impacted.

The actual future expenditures to achieve environmental compliance depends on many factors, including the nature and extent of impact, the method of improvement, the cost of raw materials, contractor costs, and requirements established by environmental authorities. Changes or increases in costs and the ability to recover under regulatory mechanisms could affect our financial position, financial results and cash flows.

Changes in tax laws or the interpretation thereof and challenges to tax positions could adversely affect our financial results.
We are subject to taxation by the various taxing authorities at the federal, state and local levels where we do business. Legislation or regulation which could affect our tax burden could be enacted or interpreted by any of these governmental authorities. The IRA imposed a 15 percent minimum tax rate on book earnings for corporations with higher than $1 billion of annual income, along with a 1 percent excise tax on corporate stock repurchases while providing tax incentives to promote various clean energy initiatives. Separately, a challenge by a taxing authority, changes in taxing authorities’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies and positions, our ability to utilize tax benefits such as carryforwards or tax credits, or a deviation from other tax-related assumptions may cause actual financial results to deviate from previous estimates.


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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
NISOURCE INC.
None.
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
NiSource has implemented and maintains a comprehensive cybersecurity program that includes a variety of security controls and measures designed to identify, assess, and manage material cybersecurity risks. The program is a part of NiSource’s enterprise risk management strategy. The enterprise risk team and the Risk Management Committee review material risks to any NiSource operating company based on perspectives from external experts, peer surveys, and the potential impact to NiSource’s enterprise assets and strategic objectives.

Risk events are classified based on both the timing of impact and NiSource’s ability to preventatively mitigate the risk. For the cybersecurity risks that can be preventively mitigated, the enterprise risk team gathers quarterly updates on mitigation gap closure from risk owners. The Risk Management Committee reviews any mitigation gaps identified by risk owners and approves or rejects the pace of mitigation activities as a statement of risk tolerance and then directs that mitigation activities be included in budgets and the business plan as appropriate.

The NiSource cybersecurity program includes the following key components:

Risk assessment NiSource regularly assesses its cybersecurity risks to identify and prioritize the most significant threats. The risk assessment process considers a variety of factors, including those specific to the utility/energy industry, the types of data NiSource collects and stores, and the threats posed by known vulnerabilities. NiSource engages third parties to perform independent assessments of its cybersecurity program, provide intelligence about the threat environment, and to provide operational assistance in managing the program. Annually, a third-party independent assessment is performed to evaluate NiSource cybersecurity maturity against a framework of cybersecurity controls. NiSource also performs bi-annual penetration testing and social engineering assessments performed by a third-party.

Third-party risk management: NiSource performs cyber assessments periodically on third-party vendors and service providers with whom NiSource shares data, relies on for critical business functions, or provides access to the NiSource network or systems. NiSource’s Supply Chain function works with legal counsel and the Cyber function to periodically update cybersecurity contractual provisions in its vendor agreements, with deviations from such provisions requiring approval from the Legal Department and Cyber function. NiSource’s Supplier Code of Business Conduct requires, among other things, that suppliers ensure safe and secure use of information assets, comply with applicable law relating to personal information, and adhering to standards relative to the use and protection of Company information, including that of our employees, customers, vendors and other stakeholders. In addition, all vendors and contractors that have access and/or connectivity to the NiSource environment must complete cybersecurity training annually.

Security controls: NiSource has implemented a variety of security controls to mitigate cybersecurity risks. These controls include technical controls, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, as well as administrative controls, such as employee training and security awareness programs. To ensure cybersecurity controls, NiSource Operational Technology (OT) within the electric business adheres to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection (NERC CIP). Within the natural gas business, cybersecurity controls are managed and monitored based on the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Security Directives.

Incident response: NiSource has a comprehensive incident response plan in place to respond to cybersecurity incidents. The plan includes steps for detection, analysis, containment, eradication, and recovery from incidents, as well as steps for notifying affected individuals and regulators.

The NiSource Board of Directors' Audit Committee has responsibility for oversight of the cybersecurity program and risks from cybersecurity threats. The Audit Committee meets quarterly to review NiSource’s cybersecurity posture and make recommendations for improvement. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) regularly briefs the Audit Committee on cybersecurity risks and the efforts to address them. In addition, the Board of Directors is briefed regularly, through written reports and updates by the Audit Committee, about key and emerging cybersecurity risks.

At the management level, the CISO leads the cybersecurity program and is responsible for assessing and managing cybersecurity risks. Our CISO has expertise and experience in cybersecurity derived from over 15 years of cyber related work experience and possess several certifications including Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Certified
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
NISOURCE INC.
in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC), and Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA). The CISO is supported by the NiSource Enterprise Security team which performs the cybersecurity function and engages directly on the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents.

As of the date of filing this Annual Report on Form 10-K, NiSource is not aware of any material cybersecurity incidents during the past year. NiSource monitors the increasing sophistication of cybersecurity threats and continues to contribute resources to improve its cybersecurity program to protect its information systems and assets. No cybersecurity program is effective to identify and mitigate all threats, and NiSource cannot guarantee that it will be able to prevent all cybersecurity incidents. Such an incident could interrupt our normal operations and require us to incur significant costs to remediate any such incident and could have a material impact on our businesses, operations and financial condition. For more information regarding the risks associated with cybersecurity, see “A cyber-attack or security breach on any of our or certain third-party technology systems, including information systems, upon which we rely may adversely affect our ability to operate, could lead to a loss or misuse of confidential and proprietary information, or potential liability.” included in Part I, “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Discussed below are the principal properties held by us and our subsidiaries as of December 31, 2023.
Gas Distribution Operations
Refer to Item 1, "Business - Gas Distribution Operations," of this report for further information on Gas Distribution Operations properties.
Electric Operations
Refer to Item 1, "Business - Electric Operations," of this report for further information on Electric Operations properties.
Corporate and Other Operations
We own the Southlake Complex, our 325,000 square foot headquarters building located in Merrillville, Indiana.
Character of Ownership
Our principal properties and our subsidiaries' principal properties are owned free from encumbrances, subject to minor exceptions, none of which are of such a nature as to impair substantially the usefulness of such properties. Many of our subsidiary offices in various communities served are occupied under leases. All properties are subject to routine liens for taxes, assessments and undetermined charges (if any) incidental to construction. It is our practice to regularly pay such amounts, as and when due, unless contested in good faith. In general, the electric lines, gas pipelines and related facilities are located on land not owned by us or our subsidiaries, but are covered by necessary consents of various governmental authorities or by appropriate rights obtained from owners of private property. We do not, however, generally have specific easements from the owners of the property adjacent to public highways over, upon or under which our electric lines and gas distribution pipelines are located. At the time each of the principal properties was purchased, a title search was made. In general, no examination of titles as to rights-of-way for electric lines, gas pipelines or related facilities was made, other than examination, in certain cases, to verify the grantors’ ownership and the lien status thereof.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a description of our legal proceedings, see Note 19, "Other Commitments and Contingencies - C. Legal Proceedings," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
NISOURCE INC.
NiSource’s common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "NI."
Holders of shares of NiSource’s common stock are entitled to receive dividends if and when declared by the Board out of funds legally available, subject to the prior dividend rights of holders of our preferred stock or the depositary shares representing such preferred stock outstanding, and if full dividends have not been declared and paid on all outstanding shares of preferred stock in any dividend period, no dividend may be declared or paid or set aside for payment on our common stock. The policy of the Board has been to declare cash dividends on a quarterly basis payable on or about the 20th day of February, May, August, and November. At its January 25, 2024 meeting, the Board declared a quarterly common dividend of $0.265 per share, payable on February 20, 2024 to holders of record on February 5, 2024.
Although the Board currently intends to continue the payment of regular quarterly cash dividends on common shares, the timing and amount of future dividends will depend on the earnings of NiSource’s subsidiaries, their financial condition, cash requirements, regulatory restrictions, any restrictions in financing agreements and other factors deemed relevant by the Board. There can be no assurance that NiSource will continue to pay such dividends or the amount of such dividends.
As of February 14, 2024, NiSource had 15,832 common stockholders of record and 447,524,529 shares outstanding.
The graph below compares the cumulative total shareholder return of NiSource’s common stock for the period commencing December 31, 2018 and ending December 31, 2023 with the cumulative total return for the same period of the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Utility indices.
1714
The foregoing performance graph is being furnished as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K solely in accordance with the requirement under Rule 14a-3(b)(9) to furnish stockholders with such information, and therefore, shall not be deemed to be filed or incorporated by reference into any filings by NiSource under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
The total shareholder return for NiSource common stock and the two indices is calculated from an assumed initial investment of $100 and assumes dividend reinvestment.
Purchases of Equity Securities by Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers. For the three months ended December 31, 2023, no equity securities that are registered by NiSource Inc. pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 were purchased by or on behalf of us or any of our affiliated purchasers.
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ITEM 6. RESERVED
NISOURCE INC.
Not applicable.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NISOURCE INC.
IndexPage
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("Management's Discussion") includes management’s analysis of past financial results and certain potential factors that may affect future results, potential future risks and approaches that may be used to manage those risks. See "Note regarding forward-looking statements" and Item 1A, "Risk Factors" at the beginning of this report for a list of factors that may cause results to differ materially.
This Management's Discussion is designed to provide an understanding of our operations and financial performance and should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are an energy holding company under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 whose subsidiaries are fully regulated natural gas and electric utility companies serving customers in six states. We generate substantially all of our operating income through these rate-regulated businesses, which are summarized for financial reporting purposes into two primary reportable segments: Gas Distribution Operations and Electric Operations.
Refer to the "Business" section under Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 21, "Business Segment Information," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of our regulated utility business segments.
Our goal is to develop strategies that benefit all stakeholders as we (i) focus on long-term infrastructure investment and safety programs to better serve our customers, (ii) align our tariff structures with our cost structure, and (iii) address changing customer energy demand. These strategies focus on improving safety and reliability, enhancing customer experience, pursuing regulatory and legislative initiatives to increase accessibility for customers currently not on our gas and electric service, ensuring customer affordability and reducing emissions while generating sustainable returns. The safety of our customers, communities and employees remains our focus. Serving as a guiding practice for our SMS, NiSource is certified in conformance to the American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1173, which is the foundation to our journey towards operational excellence.
2023 Overview: In 2023, we continued to make significant progress towards our strategic and financial goals and objectives by achieving in-service status in June 2023 and substantial completion in August 2023 for our first two solar BTA projects, Indiana Crossroads Solar and Dunns Bridge I. We continue to progress on the remaining portfolio of projects that will enable our electric generation transition. During the year, we received orders for four cases: Columbia of Virginia, Columbia of Ohio, Columbia of Maryland, and NIPSCO Electric. In addition, the NIPSCO Gas rate case filed in 2023 is anticipated to be resolved in the third quarter of 2024. These cases represent balanced outcomes supporting all stakeholders. Between our Gas Distribution and Electric Operating Segments, we added 22,000 customers. We also invested $1.5 billion in infrastructure modernization to enhance safe, reliable service, including replacement of 339 miles of distribution main and service lines, 34 miles of underground cable and 1,942 electric poles.
We also made advancements in key strategic initiatives, described in further detail below.
Your Energy, Your Future: We continue to advance Your Energy, Your Future primarily through the continuation and enhancement of existing programs, such as retiring and replacing remaining coal-fired electric generation by 2028 with a balanced mix of low or zero-emission electric generation, ongoing pipe replacement and modernization programs, and deployment of advanced leak detection and repair. Our electric generation transition, initiated through our 2018 Integrated Resource Plan ("2018 Plan") is well underway, and we are continually adjusting to the dynamic energy landscape. As of
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
NISOURCE INC.

December 31, 2023, we have executed and received IURC approval for BTAs and PPAs with a combined nameplate capacity of 1,950 MW and 1,400 MW, respectively, under the 2018 Plan. We have also taken contractual actions on a number of our other renewable projects to address the timing of these projects as well as consider the broad market issues facing the industry. We remain on track to retire R.M Schahfer's remaining two coal units by the end of 2025. On January 1, 2023, the provisions of the IRA became effective. On January 17, 2024, the IURC approved full ownership of the Cavalry and Dunns Bridge II projects, allowing NIPSCO to leverage provisions of the IRA to monetize tax credits for the benefit of customers in lieu of utilizing tax equity partnerships. We are evaluating the impact of this legislation on our remaining projects, with potential to drive increased value to customers. For additional information, see "Results and Discussion of Operations - Electric Operations," in this Management's Discussion.

In 2021, we announced and filed with the IURC the Preferred Energy Resource Plan associated with our 2021 Integrated Resource Plan ("2021 Plan"). The 2021 Plan lays out a timeline to retire the Michigan City Generating Station by the end of 2028. The 2021 Plan calls for the replacement of the retiring units with a diverse portfolio of resources including demand side management resources, incremental solar, stand-alone energy storage and upgrades to existing facilities at the Sugar Creek Generating Station, among other steps. Additionally, the 2021 Plan calls for a new natural gas peaking facility to replace existing vintage gas peaking facilities at the R.M. Schahfer Generating Station to support system reliability and resiliency, and upgrades to to the electric transmission system. In September of 2023, we filed a request for issuance of a certificate of public convenience and necessity for an approximately 400 MW natural gas peaking generation facility with the IURC. The planned retirement of the two vintage gas peaking facilities at the R.M. Schahfer Generating Station is also expected to occur by the end of 2028. Final retirement dates for these units, as well as Michigan City, will be subject to MISO approval.
We continue to enhance safety and reduce methane emissions on our gas systems through modernization programs and utilization of advanced leak detection and repair. Advanced mobile methane-detection vehicles are being deployed across our service territory. These vehicles are designed to identify potential natural gas leaks using proven technology that is more sensitive than traditional leak-detection equipment. Resources like these vehicles are advancing the company’s commitment to safety and reaching our goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2040.
In addition, we plan to advance other low- or zero-emission energy resources and technologies, such as hydrogen and renewable natural gas. In 2023, we launched a multi-phase pilot project at the Columbia Gas of Pennsylvania Training Center’s Safety Town to better understand the impact of blending hydrogen into the natural gas system. We have partnered with outside experts to conduct a series of field trials blending hydrogen with the natural gas system at various percentages. The blending system allows blending from 0% to 20% hydrogen, by volume. The field trials have initially focused on the customer experience and are now moving toward system operations and other procedures. This pilot is designed to help us understand hydrogen blending into the natural gas system, identify best practices, and analyze the operational and safety impact on company infrastructure and customer appliances. Carbon offsets and renewable energy credits may also be used to assist with achieving GHG reductions and our Net Zero Goal.
NIPSCO Minority Interest Transaction: On December 31, 2023, we consummated the closing of the NIPSCO Minority Interest Transaction and issued the 19.9% equity interest in NIPSCO Holdings II to BIP in exchange for a capital contribution of $2.16 billion in cash. Refer to Note 4, "Noncontrolling Interest," in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on this transaction.
Transformation: Our enterprise-wide transformation roadmap focuses on operational excellence, safety, operation and maintenance management, and unlocking efficiencies. We are committed to identifying and implementing initiatives that will enable us to streamline work and improve logistics company-wide. These efforts include investments in proven technologies backed with standardized processes that will change the way we plan, schedule, and execute work in the field and how we engage and provide service to our customers. Taken together, all of our optimization initiatives will prioritize safety and continue to optimize our long-term growth profile.
Economic Environment: We continue to monitor risks related to order and delivery lead times for construction and other materials, potential unavailability of materials due to global shortages in raw materials, and decreased construction labor productivity in the event of disruptions in the availability of materials. We continue to see increasing prices associated with certain materials and supplies. To the extent that work plan delays occur or our costs increase, our business operations, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors, "Financial, Economic and Market Risks" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further detail.
We are faced with increased competition for employee and contractor talent in the current labor market which has resulted in increased costs to attract and retain talent. We are ensuring that we use all internal human capital programs (development,
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
NISOURCE INC.

leadership enablement programs, succession, performance management) to promote retention of our current employees along with having a competitive and attractive appeal for potential recruits. With a focus on workforce planning, we are evaluating our future talent footprint by creating flexible work arrangements where possible to ensure we have the right people, in the right role, and at the right time. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors, "Operational Risks" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further detail.
The market price of natural gas has been stable during the last half of 2023 at lower levels than 2022 and with little volatility. Similar to natural gas pricing, electric commodity costs have stayed subdued due to plentiful supplies of natural gas and coal and the growing influence of renewable generation on power market pricing. Changes in commodity prices do not have a material impact on our results of operations, however higher commodity prices can impact our cash flows and liquidity. For more information on our commodity price impacts, see Item 1A. Risk Factors, "Operational Risks" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, "Results and Discussion of Segment Operations - Gas Distribution Operations," "Results and Discussion of Segment Operations - Electric Operations," and "Market Risk Disclosures."
Due to rising interest rates, we experienced higher interest expense during 2023 compared to 2022 associated with short-term borrowings. We continue to evaluate our financing plan to manage interest expense and exposure to rates. For more information on interest rate risk, see "Market Risk Disclosures" and Item 1A. Risk Factors, "Financial, Economic and Market Risks" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Summary of Consolidated Financial Results
A summary of our consolidated financial results for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, are presented below:
Favorable (Unfavorable)
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per share amounts)
202320222021
2023 vs. 2022
2022 vs. 2021
Operating Revenues$5,505.4 $5,850.6 $4,899.6 $(345.2)$951.0 
Operating Expenses
Cost of energy1,533.3 2,110.5 1,392.3 577.2 (718.2)
Other Operating Expenses2,676.6 2,474.3 2,500.4 (202.3)26.1 
Total Operating Expenses4,209.9 4,584.8 3,892.7 374.9 (692.1)
Operating Income 1,295.5 1,265.8 1,006.9 29.7 258.9 
Total Other Deductions, Net(481.6)(309.4)(300.3)(172.2)(9.1)
Income Taxes139.5 164.6 117.8 25.1 (46.8)
Net Income
674.4 791.8 588.8 (117.4)203.0 
Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interest
(39.9)(12.3)3.9 27.6 16.2 
Net Income attributable to NiSource
714.3 804.1 584.9 (89.8)219.2 
Preferred dividends and redemption premium
(52.6)(55.1)(55.1)2.5 — 
Net Income Available to Common Shareholders
661.7 749.0 529.8 (87.3)219.2 
Basic Earnings Per Share
$1.59 $1.84 $1.35 $(0.25)$0.49 
Diluted Earnings Per Share
$1.48 $1.70 $1.27 $(0.22)$0.43 
The majority of the costs of energy in both segments are tracked costs that are passed through directly to the customer, resulting in an equal and offsetting amount reflected in operating revenues.
The decrease in net income available to common shareholders during 2023 was primarily due to lower revenue resulting from the effects of weather, the receipt of the insurance settlement related to the Greater Lawrence Incident in 2022, higher other deductions due to higher interest expense in 2023, partially offset by lower tax expense and favorable impact from net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest. The decrease in preferred dividends during 2023 was due primarily to the redemption of Series A Preferred Stock in the second quarter 2023. See Note 6, "Equity," for additional information.
For additional information on operating income variance drivers see "Results and Discussion of Operations" for Gas and Electric Operations in this Management's Discussion.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
NISOURCE INC.

Other Deductions, Net
The change in Other deductions, net in 2023 compared to 2022 is primarily driven by higher long-term and short-term debt interest in 2023 and higher non-service pension costs offset by increases in AFUDC. See Note 7, "Short-Term Borrowings," Note 8, "Long-Term Debt," and Note 16, "Pension and Other Postemployment Benefits," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Income Taxes
The decrease in income tax expense in 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 is primarily attributable to lower pre-tax income.
Refer to Note 15, "Income Taxes," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on income taxes and the change in the effective tax rate.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF OPERATIONS
Presentation of Segment Information
Our operations are divided into two primary reportable segments: Gas Distribution Operations and Electric Operations. The remainder of our operations, which are not significant enough on a stand-alone basis to warrant treatment as an operating segment, are presented as "Corporate and Other" within the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and primarily are comprised of interest expense on holding company debt, and unallocated corporate costs and activities.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
NISOURCE INC.
Gas Distribution Operations

Financial and operational data for the Gas Distribution Operations segment for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, are presented below:
Favorable (Unfavorable)
Year Ended December 31, (in millions)
202320222021
2023 vs. 2022
2022 vs. 2021
Operating Revenues$3,732.7 $4,019.8 $3,183.5 $(287.1)$836.3 
Operating Expenses
Cost of energy1,087.0 1,534.8 962.7 447.8 (572.1)
Operation and maintenance1,061.3 1,045.3 993.8 (16.0)(51.5)
Depreciation and amortization464.6 415.9 383.0 (48.7)(32.9)
(Gain) loss on sale of fixed assets and impairments, net
 (103.9)8.7 (103.9)112.6 
Other taxes217.9 211.9 217.8 (6.0)5.9 
Total Operating Expenses2,830.8 3,104.0 2,566.0 273.2 (538.0)
Operating Income$901.9 $915.8 $617.5 $(13.9)$298.3 
Revenues
Residential$2,517.7 $2,609.6 $2,143.4 $(91.9)$466.2 
Commercial855.3 942.4 731.0 (87.1)211.4 
Industrial226.4 221.5 197.2 4.9 24.3 
Off-System60.7 192.9 71.3 (132.2)121.6 
Other72.6 53.4 40.6 19.2 12.8 
Total$3,732.7 $4,019.8 $3,183.5 $(287.1)$836.3 
Sales and Transportation (MMDth)
Residential215.4 249.0 231.2 (33.6)