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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
 
(Mark One)
Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended April 30, 2023
OR
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from to .
Commission File Number: 001-32224
 
Salesforce, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware94-3320693
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
Salesforce Tower
415 Mission Street, 3rd Fl
San Francisco, California 94105
(Address of principal executive offices)
Telephone Number: (415901-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareCRMNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No  x
As of May 30, 2023, there were approximately 974 million shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

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INDEX
 
  Page No.
  
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions)
April 30, 2023January 31, 2023
Assets(unaudited)
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$9,155 $7,016 
Marketable securities4,822 5,492 
Accounts receivable, net 4,632 10,755 
Costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts, net 1,772 1,776 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,600 1,356 
Total current assets21,981 26,395 
Property and equipment, net3,695 3,702 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net 2,646 2,890 
Noncurrent costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts, net 2,506 2,697 
Strategic investments4,633 4,672 
Goodwill48,567 48,568 
Intangible assets acquired through business combinations, net6,654 7,125 
Deferred tax assets and other assets, net 2,859 2,800 
Total assets$93,541 $98,849 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities
$5,733 $6,743 
Operating lease liabilities, current
591 590 
Unearned revenue
15,121 17,376 
Debt, current181 1,182 
Total current liabilities21,626 25,891 
Noncurrent debt9,421 9,419 
Noncurrent operating lease liabilities2,880 2,897 
Other noncurrent liabilities 2,202 2,283 
Total liabilities36,129 40,490 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock1 1 
Treasury stock, at cost(6,144)(4,000)
Additional paid-in capital56,026 55,047 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(255)(274)
Retained earnings7,784 7,585 
Total stockholders’ equity57,412 58,359 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$93,541 $98,849 









See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in millions, except per share data)
(unaudited)

1Three Months Ended April 30,
 20232022
Revenues:
Subscription and support$7,642 $6,856 
Professional services and other605 555 
Total revenues8,247 7,411 
Cost of revenues (1)(2):
Subscription and support 1,510 1,440 
Professional services and other 615 605 
Total cost of revenues2,125 2,045 
Gross profit6,122 5,366 
Operating expenses (1)(2):
Research and development1,207 1,318 
Marketing and sales3,154 3,372 
General and administrative638 656 
Restructuring711 0 
Total operating expenses5,710 5,346 
Income from operations412 20 
Gains (losses) on strategic investments, net (141)7 
Other income (expense)55 (56)
Income (loss) before benefit from (provision for) income taxes326 (29)
Benefit from (provision for) income taxes (127)57 
Net income$199 $28 
Basic net income per share$0.20 $0.03 
Diluted net income per share$0.20 $0.03 
Shares used in computing basic net income per share980 991 
Shares used in computing diluted net income per share988 1,001 
(1) Amounts include amortization of intangible assets acquired through business combinations, as follows:
Three Months Ended April 30,
20232022
Cost of revenues$248 $275 
Marketing and sales223 237 
(2) Amounts include stock-based compensation expense, as follows:
 Three Months Ended April 30,
 20232022
Cost of revenues$103 $112 
Research and development241 279 
Marketing and sales263 291 
General and administrative73 94 
Restructuring 16 0 



See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(in millions)
(unaudited)

1Three Months Ended April 30,
20232022
Net income$199 $28 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of reclassification adjustments:
Foreign currency translation and other gains (losses)6 (69)
Unrealized gains (losses) on marketable securities and privately held debt securities16 (96)
Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax22 (165)
Tax effect(3)21 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net19 (144)
Comprehensive income (loss)$218 $(116)
































See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(in millions)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended April 30, 2023
 Common StockTreasury StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossRetained EarningsTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at January 31, 20231,009 $1 (28)$(4,000)$55,047 $(274)$7,585 $58,359 
Common stock issued7 283 283 
Common stock repurchased(11)(2,144)(2,144)
Stock-based compensation expense696 696 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax 19 19 
Net income199 199 
Balance at April 30, 20231,016 $1 (39)$(6,144)$56,026 $(255)$7,784 $57,412 
Three Months Ended April 30, 2022
Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossRetained EarningsTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at January 31, 2022989 $1 $50,919 $(166)$7,377 $58,131 
Common stock issued5 85 85 
Stock-based compensation expense776 776 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax(144)(144)
Net income28 28 
Balance at April 30, 2022994 $1 $51,780 $(310)$7,405 $58,876 
























See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions)
(unaudited)

1Three Months Ended April 30,
20232022
Operating activities:
Net income$199 $28 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization (1)1,254 906 
Amortization of costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts, net470 394 
Stock-based compensation expense696 776 
(Gains) losses on strategic investments, net141 (7)
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of business combinations:
Accounts receivable, net6,123 5,805 
Costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts, net(275)(399)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets and other assets(291)(409)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities (1,403)(1,222)
Operating lease liabilities(168)(202)
Unearned revenue(2,255)(1,994)
Net cash provided by operating activities4,491 3,676 
Investing activities:
Business combinations, net of cash acquired0 (414)
Purchases of strategic investments(105)(223)
Sales of strategic investments9 45 
Purchases of marketable securities(368)(2,572)
Sales of marketable securities269 441 
Maturities of marketable securities785 445 
Capital expenditures(243)(179)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities347 (2,457)
Financing activities:
Repurchases of common stock(2,054)0 
Proceeds from employee stock plans449 274 
Principal payments on financing obligations (110)(72)
Repayments of debt(1,001)(1)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(2,716)201 
Effect of exchange rate changes17 (25)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents2,139 1,395 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period7,016 5,464 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$9,155 $6,859 

(1)    Includes amortization of intangible assets acquired through business combinations, depreciation of fixed assets and amortization and impairment of right-of-use assets.



See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Supplemental Cash Flow Disclosure
(in millions)
 Three Months Ended April 30,
 20232022
Supplemental cash flow disclosure:
Cash paid during the period for:
Interest$46 $46 
Income taxes, net of tax refunds$122 $181 














































See accompanying Notes.
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Salesforce, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Salesforce, Inc. (the “Company”) is a global leader in customer relationship management technology that brings companies and customers together. With the Customer 360 platform, the Company delivers a single source of truth, connecting customer data across systems, apps and devices to help companies sell, service, market and conduct commerce from anywhere. Since its founding in 1999, Salesforce has pioneered innovations in cloud, mobile, social, analytics and artificial intelligence, enabling companies of every size and industry to transform their businesses in the all-digital, work-from-anywhere era.
Fiscal Year
The Company’s fiscal year ends on January 31. References to fiscal 2024, for example, refer to the fiscal year ending January 31, 2024.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of April 30, 2023 and the condensed consolidated statements of operations, condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), condensed consolidated statements of stockholders' equity and condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, are unaudited.
These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the financial information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s balance sheet as of April 30, 2023, and its results of operations, including its comprehensive income (loss), stockholders' equity and its cash flows for the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022. All adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. The results for the three months ended April 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarter or for the fiscal year ending January 31, 2024.
These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2023, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 8, 2023.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the determination of:
the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed for business combinations;
the standalone selling price (“SSP”) of performance obligations for revenue contracts with multiple performance obligations;
the valuation of privately-held strategic investments, including impairments;
the recognition, measurement and valuation of current and deferred income taxes and uncertain tax positions;
the average period of benefit associated with costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts;
the useful lives of intangible assets; and
the fair value of certain stock awards issued.
Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, which forms the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities as well as income and expenses to be recognized.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
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Segments
The Company operates as one operating segment. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), in deciding how to allocate resources and assess performance. Over the past few years, the Company has completed a number of acquisitions which have allowed the Company to expand its offerings, presence and reach in various market segments of the enterprise cloud computing market. While the Company has offerings in multiple enterprise cloud computing market segments, including as a result of the Company's acquisitions, and operates in multiple countries, the Company’s business operates in one operating segment because most of the Company's service offerings operate on the Customer 360 Platform and are deployed in a nearly identical manner, and the Company’s CODM evaluates the Company’s financial information and resources, and assesses the performance of these resources, on a consolidated basis.
Concentrations of Credit Risk, Significant Customers and Investments
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. The Company’s investment portfolio consists primarily of investment-grade securities, and the Company’s policies limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The Company monitors and manages the overall exposure of its cash balances to individual financial institutions on an ongoing basis. The Company does not require collateral for accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for its doubtful accounts receivable due to estimated credit losses. This allowance is based upon historical loss patterns, the number of days that billings are past due, an evaluation of the potential risk of loss associated with delinquent accounts and current market conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions to inform adjustments to historical loss patterns. The Company records the allowance against bad debt expense through the condensed consolidated statements of operations, included in general and administrative expense, up to the amount of revenues recognized to date. Any incremental allowance is recorded as an offset to unearned revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Receivables are written off and charged against the recorded allowance when the Company has exhausted collection efforts without success.
No single customer accounted for more than five percent of accounts receivable at April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023. No single customer accounted for five percent or more of total revenue during the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022. As of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, assets located outside the Americas were 14 percent and 15 percent of total assets, respectively. As of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, assets located in the United States were 84 percent and 83 percent of total assets, respectively.
The Company is also exposed to concentrations of risk in its strategic investment portfolio, including within specific industries, as the Company primarily invests in enterprise cloud companies, technology startups and system integrators. As of April 30, 2023, the Company held two investments, both privately held, with carrying values that were individually greater than five percent of its total strategic investments portfolio and represented 16 percent of the portfolio in aggregate. As of January 31, 2023, the Company held two investments, both privately held, with carrying values that were individually greater than five percent of its strategic investment portfolio and represented 16 percent of the portfolio in aggregate.
Revenue Recognition
The Company derives its revenues from two sources: subscription and support revenues and professional services and other revenues. Subscription and support revenues include subscription fees from customers accessing the Company’s enterprise cloud computing services (collectively, “Cloud Services”), software license revenues from the sales of term and perpetual licenses and support revenues from the sales of support and updates beyond the basic subscription fees or related to the sales of software licenses. Professional services and other revenues include professional and advisory services for process mapping, project management and implementation services and training services.
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products and services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount, for example, overage fees, contingent fees or service level penalties, the Company includes an estimate of the amount it expects to receive for the total transaction price if it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur.
The Company determines the amount of revenue to be recognized through the application of the following steps:
identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
determination of the transaction price;
allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
recognition of revenue when or as the Company satisfies the performance obligations.
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Subscription and Support Revenues
Subscription and support revenues are comprised of fees that provide customers with access to Cloud Services, software licenses and related support and updates during the term of the arrangement.
Cloud Services allow customers to use the Company's multi-tenant software without taking possession of the software. Revenue is generally recognized ratably over the contract term. Substantially all of the Company’s subscription service arrangements are non-cancelable and do not contain refund-type provisions.
Subscription and support revenues also include revenues associated with term and perpetual software licenses that provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available. Revenues from term and perpetual software licenses are generally recognized at the point in time when the software is made available to the customer. Revenue from software support and updates is recognized as the support and updates are provided, which is generally ratably over the contract term.
The Company typically invoices its customers annually and its payment terms provide that customers pay within 30 days of invoice. Amounts that have been invoiced are recorded in accounts receivable and in unearned revenue or revenue, depending on whether transfer of control to customers has occurred.
Professional Services and Other Revenues
The Company’s professional services contracts are either on a time and materials, fixed price or subscription basis. These revenues are recognized as the services are rendered for time and materials contracts, on a proportional performance basis for fixed price contracts or ratably over the contract term for subscription professional services contracts. Other revenues consist primarily of training revenues recognized as such services are performed.
Significant Judgments - Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
The Company enters into contracts with its customers that may include promises to transfer multiple performance obligations such as Cloud Services, software licenses, support and updates and professional services. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer products or services that are concluded to be distinct. Determining whether products and services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or combined as one unit of accounting may require significant judgment.
Cloud Services, software licenses and support and updates services are generally concluded to be distinct because such offerings are often sold separately. In determining whether professional services are distinct, the Company considers the following factors for each professional services agreement: availability of the services from other vendors, the nature of the professional services, the timing of when the professional services contract was signed in comparison to the subscription start date and the contractual dependence of the service on the customer’s satisfaction with the professional services work. To date, the Company has concluded that professional services included in contracts with multiple performance obligations are distinct.
The Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative SSP basis. The SSP is the price at which the Company would sell a promised product or service separately to a customer. Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation.
The Company determines SSP by considering its overall pricing objectives and market conditions. Significant pricing practices taken into consideration include the Company’s discounting practices, the size and volume of the Company’s transactions, the customer demographic, the geographic area where services are sold, price lists, the Company's go-to-market strategy, historical and current sales and contract prices. In instances where the Company does not sell or price a product or service separately, the Company determines SSP using information that may include market conditions or other observable inputs. As the Company’s go-to-market strategies evolve, the Company may modify its pricing practices in the future, which could result in changes to SSP.
In certain cases, the Company is able to establish SSP based on observable prices of products or services sold or priced separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers. The Company uses a single amount to estimate SSP when indicated by the distribution of its observable prices.
Alternatively, the Company uses a range of amounts to estimate SSP when the pricing practices or distribution of the observable prices is highly variable. The Company typically has more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customer size and geography.
Costs Capitalized to Obtain Revenue Contracts
The Company capitalizes incremental costs of obtaining revenue contracts related to non-cancelable Cloud Services subscription, ongoing Cloud Services support and license support and updates. For contracts with on-premises software licenses where revenue is recognized upfront when the software is made available to the customer, costs allocable to those licenses are expensed as they are incurred. Capitalized amounts consist primarily of sales commissions paid to the Company’s direct sales
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force. Capitalized amounts also include (1) amounts paid to employees other than the direct sales force who earn incentive payouts under annual compensation plans that are tied to the value of contracts acquired, (2) commissions paid to employees upon renewals of subscription and support contracts, (3) the associated payroll taxes and fringe benefit costs associated with the payments to the Company’s employees and (4) to a lesser extent, success fees paid to partners in emerging markets where the Company has a limited presence.
Costs capitalized related to new revenue contracts are amortized on a straight-line basis over four years, which is longer than the typical initial contract period, but reflects the estimated average period of benefit, including expected contract renewals. In arriving at this average period of benefit, the Company evaluates both qualitative and quantitative factors which included the estimated life cycles of its offerings and its customer attrition. Additionally, the Company amortizes capitalized costs for renewals and success fees paid to partners over two years.
The capitalized amounts are recoverable through future revenue streams under all non-cancelable customer contracts. The Company periodically evaluates whether there have been any changes in its business, the market conditions in which it operates or other events which would indicate that its amortization period should be changed or if there are potential indicators of impairment.
Amortization of capitalized costs to obtain revenue contracts is included in marketing and sales expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. There were no impairments of costs to obtain revenue contracts for the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value.
Marketable Securities
The Company considers all of its marketable debt securities as available for use in current operations, including those with maturity dates beyond one year, and therefore classifies these securities within current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Securities are classified as available for sale and are carried at fair value, with the change in unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported as a separate component on the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income until realized. Fair value is determined based on quoted market rates when observable or utilizing data points that are observable, such as quoted prices, interest rates and yield curves. Securities with an amortized cost basis in excess of estimated fair value are assessed to determine what amount of the excess, if any, is caused by expected credit losses. Expected credit losses on securities are recognized in other expense, net on the condensed consolidated statements of operations, and any remaining unrealized losses, net of taxes, are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders' equity. For the purposes of computing realized and unrealized gains and losses, the cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. Interest on securities classified as available for sale is included as a component of investment income within other expense on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Strategic Investments
The Company holds strategic investments in privately held debt and equity securities and publicly held equity securities in which the Company does not have a controlling interest.
Privately held equity securities where the Company does not have a controlling financial interest in but does exercise significant influence over the investee are accounted for under the equity method. Privately held equity securities not accounted for under the equity method are recorded at cost and adjusted only for observable transactions for same or similar investments of the same issuer or impairment events (referred to as the measurement alternative). All gains and losses on privately held equity securities, realized and unrealized, are recorded through gains (losses) on strategic investments, net on the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Privately held debt securities are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recorded through accumulated other comprehensive loss on the condensed consolidated balance sheet.
Valuations of privately held securities are inherently complex and require judgment due to the lack of readily available market data. In determining the estimated fair value of its strategic investments in privately held companies, the Company utilizes the most recent data available to the Company. The Company assesses its privately held debt and equity securities in its strategic investment portfolio at least quarterly for impairment. The Company’s impairment analysis encompasses an assessment of both qualitative and quantitative factors, including the investee's financial metrics, market acceptance of the investee's product or technology and the rate at which the investee is using its cash. If the investment is considered impaired, the Company estimates the fair value of the investment and recognizes any resulting impairment through the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Publicly held equity securities are measured at fair value with changes recorded through gains on strategic investments, net on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
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The Company may enter into strategic investments or other investments that are considered variable interest entities (“VIEs”). If the Company is a primary beneficiary of a VIE, it is required to consolidate the entity. To determine if the Company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, the Company evaluates whether it has (1) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance, and (2) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The assessment of whether the Company is the primary beneficiary of its VIE investments requires significant assumptions and judgments. VIEs that are not consolidated are accounted for under the measurement alternative, equity method, amortized cost, or other appropriate methodology based on the nature of the interest held.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company measures its cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, publicly held equity securities and foreign currency derivative contracts at fair value. In addition, the Company measures certain of its strategic investments, including its privately held debt securities and privately held equity securities, at fair value on a nonrecurring basis when there has been an observable price change in a same or similar security or an impairment. The additional disclosures regarding the Company’s fair value measurements are included in Note 4 “Fair Value Measurement.”
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company enters into foreign currency derivative contracts with financial institutions to reduce foreign exchange risk associated with intercompany transactions and other monetary assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of a subsidiary. The Company uses forward currency derivative contracts, which are not designated as hedging instruments, to minimize the Company’s exposure to balances primarily denominated in the Euro, British Pound Sterling, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real and Japanese Yen. The Company’s derivative financial instruments program is not designated for trading or speculative purposes. The Company generally enters into master netting arrangements with the financial institutions with which it contracts for such derivatives, which permit net settlement of transactions with the same counterparty, thereby reducing risk of credit-related losses from a financial institutions' nonperformance. While the contract or notional amount is often used to express the volume of foreign currency derivative contracts, the amounts potentially subject to credit risk are generally limited to the amounts, if any, by which the counterparties’ obligations under the agreements exceed the obligations of the Company to the counterparties. The notional amount of foreign currency derivative contracts as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023 was $5.7 billion and $6.0 billion, respectively.
Outstanding foreign currency derivative contracts are recorded at fair value on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized gains or losses due to changes in the fair value of these derivative contracts, as well as realized gains or losses from their net settlement, are recognized as other expense consistent with the offsetting gains or losses resulting from the remeasurement or settlement of the underlying foreign currency denominated receivables and payables.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of those assets as follows:
Buildings and building improvements
10 to 40 years
Computers, equipment and software
3 to 5 years
Furniture and fixtures5 years
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of the estimated lease term or 10 years
The Company estimates the useful lives of property and equipment upon initial recognition and periodically evaluates the useful lives and whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the useful lives.
When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from their respective accounts and any loss on such retirement is reflected in operating expenses.
Leases
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception and classifies its leases at commencement. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and current and noncurrent operating lease liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Assets (also referred to as ROU assets) and liabilities recognized from finance leases are included in property and equipment, accrued expenses and other liabilities and other noncurrent liabilities, respectively, on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term. The corresponding lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The Company does not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for leases with a term of 12 months or less for any asset classes.
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Lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement, net of any future tenant incentives. The Company has lease agreements which contain both lease and non-lease components, which it has elected to combine for all asset classes. As such, minimum lease payments include fixed payments for non-lease components within a lease agreement, but exclude variable lease payments not dependent on an index or rate, such as common area maintenance, operating expenses, utilities, or other costs that are subject to fluctuation from period to period. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease. Periods beyond the noncancellable term of the lease are included in the measurement of the lease liability only when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the associated extension option or waive the termination option. The Company reassesses the lease term if and when a significant event or change in circumstances occurs within the control of the Company. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the net present value of future minimum lease payments is determined using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. The Company's incremental borrowing rate is an estimate of the interest rate the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis with similar terms and payments, in the economic environment where the leased asset is located.
The lease ROU asset is recognized based on the lease liability, adjusted for any rent payments or initial direct costs incurred or tenant incentives received prior to commencement.
Lease expense for operating leases, which includes amortization expense of ROU assets, is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Amortization expense of finance lease ROU assets is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, and interest expense for finance lease liabilities is recognized based on the incremental borrowing rate. Expense for variable lease payments are recognized as incurred.
On the lease commencement date, the Company also establishes assets and liabilities for the present value of estimated future costs to retire long-lived assets at the termination or expiration of a lease. Such assets are included in property and equipment, net and are amortized over the lease term.
The Company has entered into subleases or has made decisions and taken actions to exit and sublease certain unoccupied leased office space. Similar to other long-lived assets discussed below, management tests ROU assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. For leased assets, such circumstances would include the decision to leave a leased facility prior to the end of the minimum lease term or subleases for which estimated cash flows do not fully cover the costs of the associated lease.
Intangible Assets Acquired through Business Combinations
Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Each period, the Company evaluates the estimated remaining useful life of its intangible assets and whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization.
Impairment Assessment
The Company evaluates intangible assets and other long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. This includes but is not limited to significant adverse changes in business climate, market conditions or other events that indicate an asset's carrying amount may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of each asset to the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. If the undiscounted cash flows used in the test for recoverability are less than the carrying amount of these assets, the carrying amount of such assets is reduced to fair value.
The Company evaluates and tests the recoverability of its goodwill for impairment at least annually during its fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more often if and when circumstances indicate that goodwill may not be recoverable.
Business Combinations
The Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to assign fair value to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. The Company’s estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. During the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the fair value of these tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. In addition, uncertain tax positions, tax-related valuation allowances and pre-acquisition contingencies are initially recorded in connection with a business combination as of the acquisition date. The Company continues to collect information and reevaluates these estimates and assumptions quarterly and records any adjustments to the Company’s preliminary estimates to goodwill provided that the Company is within the measurement period. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the fair value of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.
In the event the Company acquires an entity with which the Company has a preexisting relationship, the Company will generally recognize a gain or loss to settle that relationship as of the acquisition date within operating income on the condensed
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consolidated statements of operations. In the event that the Company acquires an entity in which the Company previously held a strategic investment, the difference between the fair value of the shares as of the date of the acquisition and the carrying value of the strategic investment is recorded as a gain or loss and recorded within net gains (losses) on strategic investments in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Restructuring
The Company generally recognizes employee severance costs when payments are probable and amounts are estimable or when notification occurs, depending on the region an employee works. Costs related to contracts without future benefit or contract termination are recognized at the earlier of the contract termination or the cease-use dates. Other exit-related costs are recognized as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense is measured based on grant date at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model for stock options and the grant date closing stock price for restricted stock awards. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense related to stock options and restricted stock awards on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting term of four years. The estimated forfeiture rate applied is based on historical forfeiture rates.
Stock-based compensation expense related to the Company’s Amended and Restated 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP” or “2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan”) is measured based on grant date at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense related to shares issued pursuant to the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan on a straight-line basis over the offering period, which is 12 months. The ESPP allows employees to purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a 15 percent discount from the lower of the Company’s stock price on (i) the first day of the offering period or on (ii) the last day of the purchase period and also allows employees to reduce their percentage election once during a six-month purchase period (December 15 and June 15 of each fiscal year), but not to increase that election until the next one-year offering period. The ESPP also includes a reset provision for the purchase price if the stock price on the purchase date is less than the stock price on the offering date.
The Company, at times, grants performance share awards to executive officers and other members of senior management, which may include a market condition or performance condition, or both. Stock-based compensation expense related to awards with a market condition are measured at fair value using a Monte Carlo simulation model and stock-based compensation expense related to these awards is recognized on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting term. Stock-based compensation expense related to awards with a performance condition are measured based on the grant date closing stock price and stock-based compensation expense related to these awards is recognized based on the requisite service period elapsed, as well as the probability of achievement and estimated attainment of the performance condition as of the end of our reporting period.
The Company, at times, grants unvested restricted shares to employee stockholders of certain acquired companies in lieu of cash consideration. These awards are generally subject to continued post-acquisition employment. Therefore, the Company accounts for them as post-acquisition stock-based compensation expense. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense equal to the grant date fair value of the restricted stock awards, based on the closing stock price on grant date, on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally four years. 
Income Taxes
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax laws is recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company’s tax positions are subject to income tax audits by multiple tax jurisdictions throughout the world. The Company recognizes the tax benefit of an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the position is sustainable upon examination by the taxing authority, solely based on its technical merits. The tax benefit recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit which is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority. The Company recognizes interest accrued and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the income tax provision.
Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts that are more likely than not expected to be realized based on the weighting of positive and negative evidence. Future realization of deferred tax assets ultimately depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character (for example, ordinary income or capital gain) within the carryback or carryforward periods available under the applicable tax law. The Company regularly reviews the deferred tax assets for recoverability based on historical taxable income, projected future taxable income,
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the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and tax planning strategies. The Company’s judgments regarding future profitability may change due to many factors, including future market conditions and the ability to successfully execute its business plans. Should there be a change in the ability to recover deferred tax assets, the tax provision would increase or decrease in the period in which the assessment is changed.
Foreign Currency Translation
The functional currency of the Company’s major foreign subsidiaries is generally the local currency. All assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average exchange rate during the period. Equity transactions are translated using historical exchange rates. Adjustments resulting from translating foreign functional currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are recorded as a separate component on the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in other income in the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the period.
Warranties and Indemnification
The Company’s enterprise cloud computing services are typically warranted to perform in a manner consistent with general industry standards that are reasonably applicable and materially in accordance with the Company’s online help documentation under normal use and circumstances.
The Company’s arrangements generally include certain provisions for indemnifying customers against liabilities if its products or services infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights. To date, the Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such obligations and has not accrued any material liabilities related to such obligations in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company has also agreed to indemnify its directors and executive officers for costs associated with any fees, expenses, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these persons in any action or proceeding to which any of those persons is, or is threatened to be, made a party by reason of the person’s service as a director or officer, including any action by the Company, arising out of that person’s services as the Company’s director or officer or that person’s services provided to any other company or enterprise at the Company’s request. The Company maintains director and officer insurance coverage that would generally enable the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. The Company may also be subject to indemnification obligations by law with respect to the actions of its employees under certain circumstances and in certain jurisdictions.
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2. Revenues
Disaggregation of Revenue
Subscription and Support Revenue by the Company's Service Offerings
Subscription and support revenues consisted of the following (in millions):
 Three Months Ended April 30,
 20232022
Sales $1,810 $1,632 
Service 1,964 1,761 
Platform and Other 1,567 1,419 
Marketing and Commerce1,170 1,089 
Data1,131 955 
$7,642 $6,856 
Total Revenue by Geographic Locations
Revenues by geographical region consisted of the following (in millions):
 Three Months Ended April 30,
 20232022
Americas$5,482 $4,971 
Europe1,951 1,738 
Asia Pacific814 702 
$8,247 $7,411 
Revenues by geography are determined based on the region of the Company's contracting entity, which may be different than the region of the customer. Americas revenue attributed to the United States was approximately 93 percent during the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022. No other country represented more than ten percent of total revenue during the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022.
Contract Balances
Contract Assets
The Company records a contract asset when revenue recognized on a contract exceeds the billings. Contract assets were $704 million as of April 30, 2023 as compared to $648 million as of January 31, 2023, and are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and deferred tax assets and other assets, net on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Unearned Revenue
Unearned revenue represents amounts that have been invoiced in advance of revenue recognition and is recognized as revenue when transfer of control to customers has occurred or services have been provided. The unearned revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual or multi-year, non-cancelable subscription agreements. The unearned revenue balance is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the compounding effects of renewals, invoice duration, invoice timing, dollar size and new business linearity within the quarter.
The change in unearned revenue was as follows (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30,
20232022
Unearned revenue, beginning of period$17,376 $15,628 
Billings and other (1)5,937 5,328 
Contribution from contract asset55 89 
Revenue recognized over time(7,837)(7,056)
Revenue recognized at a point in time(410)(355)
Unearned revenue from business combinations0 2 
Unearned revenue, end of period$15,121 $13,636 
(1) Other includes, for example, the impact of foreign currency translation.
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The majority of revenue recognized for these services is from the beginning of period unearned revenue balance.
Revenue recognized over time primarily includes Cloud Services subscription and support revenue, which is generally recognized ratably over time, and professional services and other revenue, which is generally recognized ratably or as delivered.
Revenue recognized at a point in time substantially consists of on-premises software licenses.
Remaining Performance Obligation
Remaining performance obligation represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized and includes unearned revenue and unbilled amounts that will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation is based on SSP. Remaining performance obligation is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the timing of renewals, the timing of software license deliveries, average contract terms and foreign currency exchange rates. Remaining performance obligation is also impacted by acquisitions. Unbilled portions of the remaining performance obligation denominated in foreign currencies are revalued each period based on the period end exchange rates. Remaining performance obligation is subject to future economic risks, including bankruptcies, regulatory changes and other market factors.
The Company excludes amounts related to performance obligations from professional services contracts that are billed and recognized on a time and materials basis.
The majority of the Company's noncurrent remaining performance obligation is expected to be recognized in the next 13 to 36 months.
Remaining performance obligation consisted of the following (in billions):
 CurrentNoncurrentTotal
As of April 30, 2023$24.1 $22.6 $46.7 
As of January 31, 2023 $24.6 $24.0 $48.6 

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3. Investments
Marketable Securities
At April 30, 2023, marketable securities consisted of the following (in millions):
Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gains
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Corporate notes and obligations$3,015 $3 $(83)$2,935 
U.S. treasury securities391 0 (10)381 
Mortgage-backed obligations210 0 (11)199 
Asset-backed securities966 1 (16)951 
Municipal securities160 0 (5)155 
Commercial paper0 0 0 0 
Covered bonds76 0 (4)72 
Other131 0 (2)129 
Total marketable securities$4,949 $4 $(131)$4,822 
At January 31, 2023, marketable securities consisted of the following (in millions):
Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gains
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Corporate notes and obligations$3,442 $4 $(92)$3,354 
U.S. treasury securities381 0 (11)370 
Mortgage-backed obligations190 0 (12)178 
Asset-backed securities1,004 1 (20)985 
Municipal securities175 0 (6)169 
Commercial paper278 0 0 278 
Covered bonds105 0 (4)101 
Other59 0 (2)57 
Total marketable securities$5,634 $5 $(147)$5,492 
The contractual maturities of the investments classified as marketable securities were as follows (in millions):
 As of
 April 30, 2023January 31, 2023
Due within 1 year$1,856 $2,380 
Due in 1 year through 5 years2,885 3,104 
Due in 5 years through 10 years81 8 
$4,822 $5,492 
Strategic Investments
Strategic investments by form and measurement category as of April 30, 2023 were as follows (in millions):
 Measurement Category
 Fair ValueMeasurement AlternativeOtherTotal
Equity securities$42 $4,420 $90 $4,552 
Debt securities and other investments 0 0 81 81 
Balance as of April 30, 2023
$42 $4,420 $171 $4,633 

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Strategic investments by form and measurement category as of January 31, 2023 were as follows (in millions):
 Measurement Category
 Fair ValueMeasurement AlternativeOtherTotal
Equity securities$48 $4,479 $76 $4,603 
Debt securities and other investments0 0 69 69 
Balance as of January 31, 2023
$48 $4,479 $145 $4,672 

The Company holds investments in, or management agreements with, VIEs which the Company does not consolidate because it is not considered the primary beneficiary of these entities. The carrying value of VIEs within strategic investments was $363 million and $354 million, as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, respectively.
Gains (Losses) on Strategic Investments, Net
The components of gains and losses on strategic investments were as follows (in millions):
1Three Months Ended April 30,
20232022
Unrealized gains (losses) recognized on publicly traded equity securities, net$0 $(74)
Unrealized gains recognized on privately held equity securities, net38 57 
Impairments on privately held equity and debt securities(177)(11)
Unrealized losses, net(139)(28)
Realized gains (losses) on sales of securities, net(2)35 
Gains (losses) on strategic investments, net$(141)$7 

Unrealized gains and losses recognized on privately held equity securities, net includes upward and downward adjustments from equity securities accounted for under the measurement alternative, as well as gains and losses from private equity securities in other measurement categories. For privately held securities accounted for under the measurement alternative, the Company recorded upward adjustments of $46 million and $78 million and impairments and downward adjustments of $175 million and $10 million for the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Realized gains on sales of securities, net reflects the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying value of the security at the beginning of the period or the purchase date, if later.
4. Fair Value Measurement
The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in the valuation methodologies in measuring fair value:
Level 1.    Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2.    Significant other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3.    Significant unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity.
All of the Company’s cash equivalents, marketable securities and foreign currency derivative contracts are classified within Level 1 or Level 2 because the Company’s cash equivalents, marketable securities and foreign currency derivative contracts are valued using quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing observable market inputs.
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The following table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value as of April 30, 2023 and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation (in millions):
DescriptionQuoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical Assets
(Level 1)
Significant Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Fair Value
Cash equivalents (1):
Time deposits$0 $996 $0 $996 
Money market mutual funds4,656 0 0 4,656 
Cash equivalent securities 0 1,303 0 1,303 
Marketable securities:
Corporate notes and obligations0 2,935 0 2,935 
U.S. treasury securities0 381 0 381 
Mortgage-backed obligations0 199 0 199 
Asset-backed securities0 951 0 951 
Municipal securities0 155 0 155 
Commercial paper0 0 0 0 
Covered bonds0 72 0 72 
Other0 129 0 129 
Strategic investments:
Equity securities42 0 0 42 
Total assets$4,698 $7,121 $0 $11,819 
(1) Included in “cash and cash equivalents” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets in addition to $2.2 billion of cash, as of April 30, 2023.
The following table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value as of January 31, 2023 and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation (in millions):
DescriptionQuoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical Assets
(Level 1)
Significant Other
Observable Inputs (Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Fair Value
Cash equivalents (1):
Time deposits$0 $1,877 $0 $1,877 
Money market mutual funds1,795 0 0 1,795 
Cash equivalent securities0