10-K 1 hrg-930201710xk.htm 10-K Document
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
Form 10-K
 
 
 
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2017
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to
Commission file number: 1-4219
 
 
 
hrggrouprgba05.jpg
HRG Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
74-1339132
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
450 Park Avenue, 29th Floor, New York, NY
10022
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(212) 906-8555
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x    or    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ¨    or    No  x.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    or    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    or    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
x
 
Accelerated Filer
¨
Non-accelerated Filer
¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    or    No  x
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, March 31, 2017, was approximately $2,287.0 million. For the sole purpose of making this calculation, the term “non-affiliate” has been interpreted to exclude directors and executive officers and other affiliates of the registrant. Exclusion of shares held by any person should not be construed as a conclusion by the registrant, or an admission by any such person, that such person is an “affiliate” of the Company, as defined by applicable securities laws.
There were 200,624,864 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of November 14, 2017.
Documents Incorporated By Reference: None.
 



HRG GROUP, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
PART I
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A
Item 9B
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
Item 15.
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I
Unless otherwise indicated in Part I of this annual report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) or the context requires otherwise, in this Form 10-K, references to the “Company,” “HRG,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to HRG Group, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “FGH” refers to Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “FGL” refers to Fidelity & Guaranty Life and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Fiscal 2013” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2013; “Fiscal 2014” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2014; “Fiscal 2015” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2015; “Fiscal 2016” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016; “Fiscal 2017” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2017; “Fiscal 2018” refers to the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018; “Front Street” refers to Front Street Re (Delaware) Ltd. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Front Street Cayman” refers to Front Street Re Cayman Ltd.; “Front Street Bermuda” refers to Front Street Re Ltd.; “HGI Energy” refers to HGI Energy Holdings, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “HGI Funding” refers to HGI Funding, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Salus” refers to Salus Capital Partners, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “SBI” refers to Spectrum Brands, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; and “Spectrum Brands” refers to Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR PURPOSES OF THE “SAFE HARBOR” PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995.
This document contains, and certain oral statements made by our representatives from time to time may contain, forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, events and developments to differ materially from those set forth in or implied by such statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of HRG’s management and the management of HRG’s subsidiaries and affiliates (including target businesses). Forward-looking statements include information concerning possible or assumed future actions, events, results, strategies and expectations, including plans and expectations regarding future acquisitions, dispositions, distributions, and similar activities, and are generally identifiable by use of the words “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “projects,” “may,” “will,” “could,” “might,” or “continues” or similar expressions.
Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, events and developments to differ materially from those set forth in or implied by such statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of HRG’s management and the management of HRG’s subsidiaries. Factors that could cause actual results, events and developments to differ include, without limitation: that the review of strategic alternatives at HRG will result in a transaction, or if a transaction is undertaken, as to its terms or timing; the ability of HRG’s subsidiaries to close previously announced transactions, including statements regarding the closing of the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale (each as defined herein); whether we determine to exercise the 338 Tax Election (as defined herein) and realizes the expected benefits from such election; the ability of HRG’s subsidiaries to generate sufficient net income and cash flows to make upstream cash distributions; the decision of the boards of HRG’s subsidiaries to make upstream cash distributions, which is subject to numerous factors such as restrictions contained in applicable financing agreements, state and regulatory restrictions and other relevant considerations as determined by the applicable board; HRG’s liquidity, which may be impacted by a variety of factors, including the capital needs of HRG’s subsidiaries; capital market conditions; commodity market conditions; foreign exchange rates; HRG’s and its subsidiaries’ ability to identify, pursue or complete any suitable future acquisition or disposition opportunities, including realizing such transaction’s expected benefits and the timetable for completing applicable financial reporting requirements; litigation; potential and contingent liabilities; management’s plans; changes in regulations; taxes; and the risks that may affect the performance of the operating subsidiaries of HRG and those factors listed under the caption “Risk Factors” in this report. 
We claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for all forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements described herein are qualified by these cautionary statements and there can be no assurance that the actual results, events or developments referenced herein will occur or be realized. Neither HRG nor any of its affiliates undertake any obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operation results, except as required by law.
In addition, you should understand that the following important factors, in addition to those discussed in Part I, Item IA. “Risk Factors” of this report, could affect our future results and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. You should also understand that many factors described under one heading below may apply to more than one section in which we have grouped them for the purpose of this presentation. As a result, you should consider all of the following factors, together with all of the other information presented herein, in evaluating the business of the Company and our subsidiaries.

HRG and its Subsidiaries
HRG’s and its subsidiaries’ actual results or other outcomes may differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements contained herein due to a variety of important factors, including, without limitation, the following:

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our dependence on distributions from our subsidiaries and our ability to access the capital markets to fund our operations and payments on our debt and other obligations;
the decision of our subsidiaries’ boards to make upstream cash distributions, which is subject to numerous factors such as restrictions contained in applicable financing agreements, state and regulatory restrictions and other relevant considerations as determined by the applicable board;
our and our subsidiaries’ liquidity, which may be impacted by a variety of factors, including the capital needs of us and our current and future subsidiaries and our current and future subsidiaries’ ability to access the capital markets;
whether we determine to exercise the 338 Tax Election (as defined herein) and realizes the expected benefits from such election;
the ability to successfully identify or consummate a strategic alternative for HRG and/or its assets;
the need to provide sufficient capital to our operating businesses;
limitations on our ability to successfully identify suitable acquisition, disposition and other strategic opportunities and to compete for these opportunities with others who have greater resources;
our and our subsidiaries’ dependence on certain key personnel;
our and our subsidiaries’ ability to attract and retain key employees;
the impact of covenants in the indenture governing our 7.875% Senior Secured Notes due 2019, the covenants in the indenture governing our 7.750% Senior Notes due 2022 and the 2017 Loan (as defined herein), the continuing covenants contained in the certificate of designation governing our Series A Participating Convertible Preferred Stock and future financing or refinancing agreements, on our ability to operate our business and finance our pursuit of our business strategy;
our ability to incur new debt and refinance or extinguish our existing indebtedness;
the impact on our business and financial condition of our substantial indebtedness and the significant additional indebtedness and other financing obligations we and our subsidiaries may incur;
the impact on us and/or our subsidiaries from interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems;
the impact on the aggregate value of our assets and our stock price from changes in the market prices of publicly traded equity interests we hold, particularly during times of volatility in security prices;
the impact of decisions by our significant stockholders, whose interest may differ from those of our other stockholders, or any of them ceasing to remain significant stockholders;
the effect any interests of our officers, directors, stockholders and their respective affiliates may have in certain transactions in which we are involved;
the impact of additional material charges associated with our oversight of acquired or target businesses and the integration of our financial reporting;
the impact of restrictive covenants and applicable laws, including securities laws, on our ability to dispose of equity interests we hold;
the impact of potential losses and other risks from changes in the value of our assets;
our ability to effectively increase the size of our organization, if needed, and manage our growth;
the impact of a determination that we are an investment company or personal holding company;
the impact of claims or litigation arising from operations, agreements and transactions, including litigation arising from or involving former subsidiaries and/or the disposal or winding down of former business;
the impact of expending significant resources in considering acquisition or disposition targets or strategic opportunities that are not consummated;
our and our subsidiaries’ ability to successfully integrate current and future acquired businesses into our existing operations and achieve the expected economic benefits;
tax consequences associated with our acquisition, holding and disposition of target companies and assets;
the impact of delays or difficulty in satisfying the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 or negative reports concerning our internal controls;
the impact of the relatively low market liquidity for shares of our Common Stock (“Common Stock”); 
the impact on the holders of our Common Stock if we issue additional shares of our Common Stock or preferred stock; and
the effect of price fluctuations in our Common Stock caused by general market and economic conditions and a variety of other factors, including factors that affect the volatility of the common stock of any of our publicly-held subsidiaries.

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Spectrum Brands
Spectrum Brands’ actual results or outcomes may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements contained herein due to a variety of important factors, including, without limitation, the following:
the impact of Spectrum Brands’ indebtedness on its business, financial condition and results of operations;
the impact of restrictions in Spectrum Brands’ debt instruments on its ability to operate its business, finance its capital needs or pursue or expand its business strategies;
any failure to comply with financial covenants and other provisions and restrictions of Spectrum Brands’ debt instruments;
the impact of actions taken by significant stockholders;
the impact of fluctuations in commodity prices, costs or availability of raw materials or terms and conditions available from suppliers, including suppliers’ willingness to advance credit;
interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations;
the loss of, significant reduction in, or dependence upon, sales to any significant retail customer(s);
competitive promotional activity or spending by competitors or price reductions by competitors;
the introduction of new product features or technological developments by competitors and/or the development of new competitors or competitive brands;
the effects of general economic conditions, including inflation, recession or fears of a recession, depression or fears of a depression, labor costs and stock market volatility or changes in trade, monetary or fiscal policies in the countries where Spectrum Brands does business;
changes in consumer spending preferences and demand for Spectrum Brands’ products;
Spectrum Brands’ ability to develop and successfully introduce new products, protect its intellectual property and avoid infringing the intellectual property of third parties;
Spectrum Brands’ ability to successfully implement, achieve and sustain manufacturing and distribution cost efficiencies and improvements, and fully realize anticipated cost savings;
the seasonal nature of sales of certain of Spectrum Brands’ products;
the effects of climate change and unusual weather activity;
the cost and effect of unanticipated legal, tax or regulatory proceedings or new laws or regulations (including environmental, public health and consumer protection regulations);
public perception regarding the safety of products that Spectrum Brands manufactures and sells, including the potential for environmental liabilities, product liability claims, litigation and other claims related to products manufactured by Spectrum Brands and third parties;
the impact of pending or threatened litigation;
the impact of cybersecurity breaches or Spectrum Brands’ actual or perceived failure to protect company and personal data;
changes in accounting policies applicable to Spectrum Brands’ business;
Spectrum Brands’ ability to utilize their net operating loss carry-forwards to offset tax liabilities from future taxable income;
government regulations;
the impact of expenses resulting from the implementation of new business strategies, divestitures or current and proposed restructuring activities;
Spectrum Brands’ inability to successfully integrate and operate new acquisitions at the level of financial performance anticipated;
the unanticipated loss of key members of Spectrum Brands’ senior management;
the effects of political or economic conditions, terrorist attacks, acts of war or other unrest in international markets; and
Spectrum Brands’ special committee’s exploration of strategic alternatives and the terms of any strategic transaction, if any.

FGL and Front Street
FGL’s and Front Street’s actual results or other outcomes may differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements contained herein due to a variety of important factors, including, without limitation, the following:
the ability of FGL and Front Street to satisfy the closing conditions, including regulatory approvals, contained in the

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FGL Merger Agreement and Front Street Purchase Agreement (as defined herein);
the impact on the business, financial condition and results of operations if the proposed FGL Merger and Front Street Sale are not consummated or not consummated timely;
the impact of the operating restrictions in the FGL Merger Agreement and the Front Street Purchase Agreement and their impact on FGL and Front Street, respectively;
the impact of the Department of Labor “fiduciary” rule, finalized in April 2016, on FGL, its products, distribution and business model;
the impact on FGL’s business of new accounting rules or changes to existing accounting rules;
the inability of FGL’s and Front Street’s subsidiaries and affiliates to generate sufficient cash to service all of their obligations;
the ability of FGL’s and Front Street’s subsidiaries to pay dividends;
the impact of restrictions in FGL’s debt instruments on its ability to operate its business, finance its capital needs or pursue or expand its business strategies;
the accuracy of FGL’s and Front Street’s assumptions and estimates;
the accuracy of FGL’s and Front Street’s assumptions regarding the fair value and future performance of their investments;
FGL and its insurance subsidiaries’ abilities to maintain or improve their financial strength ratings;
FGL’s and Front Street’s and their insurance subsidiaries’ potential need for additional capital to maintain their financial strength and credit ratings and meet other requirements and obligations;
FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to defend themselves against or respond to, potential litigation (including class action litigation), enforcement investigations or increased regulatory scrutiny, including litigation (if any) arising from the FGL Merger and/or the Front Street Sale;
FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to manage their businesses in a highly-regulated industry, which is subject to numerous legal restrictions and regulations;
regulatory changes or actions, including those relating to regulation of financial services, affecting (among other things) underwriting of insurance products and regulation of the sale, underwriting and pricing of products and minimum capitalization and statutory reserve requirements for insurance companies, or the ability of FGL’s and Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries to make cash distributions to FGL or Front Street, as applicable (including dividends or payments on surplus notes FGL’s subsidiaries issue to FGL);
the impact of the anticipated implementation of principle based reserving on FGL’s ability to write certain products, manage risk and deploy capital efficiently;
the impact of FGL’s reinsurers failing to meet or timely meet their assumed obligations, increasing their reinsurance rates, or becoming subject to adverse developments that could materially adversely impact their ability to provide reinsurance to FGL at consistent and economical terms;
restrictions on FGL’s ability to use captive reinsurers and the impact of the anticipated implementation of principle based reserving;
the impact of interest rate fluctuations on FGL and Front Street and withdrawal demands in excess of FGL’s and Front Street’s assumptions;
the impact of market and credit risks;
equity market volatility;
credit market volatility or disruption;
changes in the federal income tax laws and regulations which may affect the relative income tax advantages of FGL’s products;
increases in FGL’s and Front Street’s valuation allowance against FGL’s and Front Street’s deferred tax assets, and restrictions on FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to fully utilize such assets;
the performance of third-parties, including independent distributors, underwriters, actuarial consultants and other service providers;
interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems;
the continued availability of capital required for FGL’s and Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries to grow;
the risk that FGL’s or Front Street’s exposure to unidentified or unanticipated risk is not adequately addressed by their risk management policies and procedures;

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general economic conditions and other factors, including prevailing interest and unemployment rate levels and stock and credit market performance;
FGL’s ability to protect its intellectual property;
difficulties arising from FGL’s and Front Street’s outsourcing relationships;
the impact on FGL’s and Front Street’s business of natural and of man-made catastrophes, pandemics, computer viruses, network security breaches, and malicious and terrorist acts;
FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to compete in a highly competitive industry;
FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to maintain competitive policy expense costs;
adverse consequences if the independent contractor status of FGL’s independent insurance marketing organizations (“IMOs”) is successfully challenged;
FGL’s ability to attract and retain national marketing organizations and independent agents;
the potential adverse tax consequences to FGL if FGL generates passive income in excess of operating expenses;
the significant operating and financial restrictions contained in FGL’s debt agreements, which may prevent FGL from capitalizing on business opportunities; and
the ability to maintain or obtain approval of the Iowa Insurance Division (“IID”) and other regulatory authorities as required for FGL’s operations and those of its insurance subsidiaries.

Item 1.         Business
OVERVIEW
HRG
Overview
We are a holding company that conducts its operations principally through its operating subsidiaries. As of September 30, 2017, our principal operating subsidiaries include the following: (i) Spectrum Brands, our subsidiary that provides global branded consumer products; (ii) FGL, our subsidiary that provides life insurance and annuity products; and (iii) Front Street, our subsidiary engaged in the business of providing long-term reinsurance, including reinsurance to the specialty insurance sector of fixed, deferred and payout annuities. In addition, we own 99.5% of NZCH Corporation, a public shell company, and Salus, which was established to serve as a secured asset-based lender and is in the process of completing the wind-down of its business.
We were incorporated in Delaware in 1954 under the name Zapata Corporation and reincorporated in Nevada in April 1999 under the same name. On December 23, 2009, we reincorporated in Delaware under the name Harbinger Group Inc. Effective March 9, 2015, we changed our name from Harbinger Group Inc. to HRG Group, Inc. Our Common Stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HRG.” Our principal executive offices are located at 450 Park Avenue, 29th Floor, New York, New York 10022.
We currently present the results of our operations in two reportable segments: (i) Consumer Products, which consists of Spectrum Brands and (ii) Corporate and Other. For the results of operations by segment and other segment data, see Part IV, Item 15. “Note 23, Segment and Geographic Data” to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report.
For detailed information about revenues, operating income and total assets of HRG and its operating subsidiaries, see the financial statements beginning on page F-1 and S-1, respectively, of this report.
Strategy
During Fiscal 2017, we continued to streamline our business and simplify our holding company structure. For Fiscal 2017, we also continued to review and evaluate strategic alternatives available to us with a view towards maximizing shareholder value. We believe that HRG is an excellent company that owns great businesses that have generated strong performance over a long period of time. We believe that we are well-positioned to take advantage of the opportunities that may be available to us through the review of strategic alternatives. Strategic alternatives may include, but are not limited to, a merger, sale or other business combination involving the Company and/or its assets. As part of this strategic review process, HRG has made/received, and may in the future make/receive, one or more proposals to/from third parties and/or Spectrum Brands, its management, its board of directors, its stockholders and other persons, including discussions and proposals that may include, but are not limited to, a merger or a sale and/or a business combination of the Company and Spectrum Brands. In connection therewith, the Spectrum Brands board of directors has formed a special committee of independent directors and has hired independent financial and legal advisors. We have not set a definitive schedule to complete our review of strategic alternatives and do not intend to provide any further updates until such time as it determines in its sole discretion or as required by law. The strategic review process may be suspended or terminated at any time without notice. There can be no assurance that any such process will result in a transaction, or if a transaction is undertaken, as to its terms or timing.

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On May 24, 2017, FGL entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “FGL Merger Agreement”) with CF Corporation (“CF Corp”), FGL U.S. Holdings Inc., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of CF Corp (“CF/FGL US”), and FGL Merger Sub Inc. (“Merger Sub”), a direct wholly owned subsidiary of CF/FGL US, pursuant to which CF Corp has agreed to acquire FGL for $31.10 per share (the “FGL Merger”). In addition, Front Street has agreed to sell (the “Front Street Sale”) to CF/FGL US all of the issued and outstanding shares of (i) Front Street Cayman and (ii) Front Street Bermuda (collectively, the “Acquired Companies”) pursuant to a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Front Street Purchase Agreement”). The purchase price is $65.0 million, subject to customary adjustments for transaction expenses. The Front Street Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and indemnification obligations. The required regulatory approvals in connection with the Front Street Sale have been received and the closing of the transaction is expected to take place before the end of calendar year 2017, subject to the satisfaction of other customary closing conditions, including the consummation of the FGL Merger. The closing of the FGL Merger is not conditioned upon the closing of the Front Street Sale.
See Part I, Item 1. “Business-FGL-The FGL Merger” of this report for further information.
Competition
We and our subsidiaries face intense competition from a variety of sources in carrying out our respective businesses and achieving our objectives. Many of our competitors may be better established, possess greater human and other resources than us, and our financial resources may be relatively limited when compared with many of these competitors. Any of these factors may place us at a competitive disadvantage in contrast to our competitors. See elsewhere in this report for discussion of competition faced by our subsidiaries. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Related to HRG-Our subsidiaries operate in highly-competitive industries, limiting their ability to gain or maintain their positions in their respective industries.”
Employees
At September 30, 2017, HRG employed 13 persons and HRG’s subsidiaries employed approximately 17,100 persons. In the normal course of business, HRG and its subsidiaries use contract personnel to supplement their employee base to meet business needs. As of September 30, 2017, none of HRG’s employees were represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. See the remainder of this report for additional information regarding the employees of HRG’s subsidiaries. HRG believes that its overall relationship with its employees is good.
Available Information
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are made available free of charge on or through our website at www.hrggroup.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC” or the “Commission”). The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the Commission.
You may read and copy any materials we file with the Commission at the Commission’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our reports, proxy statements and other information at www.sec.gov. In addition, copies of our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Code of Ethics, Code of Ethics for our Chief Executive and Senior Financial Officers and Executive Sessions Policy are available at our website at www.hrggroup.com under “Investor Relations-Corporate Governance.” Copies will also be provided to any HRG stockholder upon written request to Investor Relations, HRG Group, Inc. at 450 Park Avenue, 29th Floor, New York, NY 10022 or via electronic mail at investorrelations@hrggroup.com.
For additional information regarding Spectrum Brands and FGL, including information in addition to that included in HRG’s SEC reports and public announcements, we direct you to Spectrum Brands’ and FGL’s public announcements and filings made with the SEC. You should follow and read the SEC filings, press releases and other public statements made by Spectrum Brands, FGL and their respective representatives, as we expect that they will make additional information available through these channels. See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-Spectrum Brands-Available Information” for additional information regarding Spectrum Brands and Part I, Item 1. “Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Available Information” for additional information regarding FGL.

OUR OPERATING SUBSIDIARIES
Spectrum Brands
Spectrum Brands, a Delaware corporation and a subsidiary of HRG, is a diversified global branded consumer products company. Spectrum Brands’ common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol “SPB.” As of September 30, 2017, HRG owned approximately 59.6% of Spectrum Brands’ common stock.

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Spectrum Brands manufactures, markets and/or distributes its products in approximately 160 countries in the North America (“NA”); Europe, Middle East & Africa (“EMEA”); Latin America (“LATAM”) and Asia-Pacific (“APAC”) regions through a variety of trade channels, including retailers, wholesalers and distributors, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), construction companies, and hearing aid professionals. Spectrum Brands enjoys strong name recognition in its regions under Spectrum Brands’ various brands and patented technologies across multiple product categories. Spectrum Brands manages its business in five vertically integrated, product lines: (i) Global Batteries & Appliances (“GBA”); (ii) Hardware & Home Improvement (“HHI”); (iii) Global Pet Supplies (“PET”); (iv) Home and Garden (“H&G”); and (v) Global Auto Care (“GAC”). Geographic strategic initiatives and financial objectives are determined at the corporate level. Each segment is responsible for implementing defined strategic initiatives and achieving certain financial objectives and has a president responsible for sales and marketing initiatives and the financial results for all product lines within that segment.
Spectrum Brands’ operating performance is influenced by a number of factors including: general economic conditions; foreign exchange fluctuations; trends in consumer markets; consumer confidence and preferences; Spectrum Brands’ overall product line mix, including pricing and gross margin, which vary by product line and geographic market; pricing of certain raw materials and commodities; energy and fuel prices; and Spectrum Brands’ general competitive position, especially as impacted by Spectrum Brands’ competitors’ advertising and promotional activities and pricing strategies.
See Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for for further discussion of the operating results of Spectrum Brands.
Spectrum Brands’ Product Lines
Global Batteries and Appliances (GBA)
Spectrum Brands’ consumer batteries product category consists of alkaline batteries, zinc carbon batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries and battery chargers primarily under the Rayovac® and VARTA® brands. Additionally, Spectrum Brands manufactures alkaline batteries for third parties who sell under their own private labels. Spectrum Brands also offers a broad line of battery-powered portable lighting products including flashlights and lanterns under the Rayovac® and VARTA® brands, and other proprietary brand names pursuant to licensing arrangements with third parties. Spectrum Brands manufactures and sells hearing aid batteries under several brand names and private labels for many major hearing aid device manufacturers. Other specialty battery products include keyless entry batteries, portable chargers and coin cells for use in watches, cameras, calculators, communications equipment, and medical instruments.
Spectrum Brands’ small appliances product category consists of small kitchen appliances under the Black & Decker®, Russell Hobbs®, George Foreman®, Juiceman® and Breadman® brands, including toaster ovens, toasters, sandwich makers, coffeemakers, coffee grinders, can openers, electric knives, grills, deep fryers, food choppers, food processors, slow cookers, hand mixers, blenders, juicers, bread makers, kettles, rice cookers and steamers. Spectrum Brands also sells small home product appliances, including hand-held irons and vacuum cleaners primarily under the Black & Decker® and Russell Hobbs® brands.
Spectrum Brands’ personal care product category includes a broad line of electric shaving and grooming products under the Remington® brand name, including men’s rotary and foil shavers, beard and mustache trimmers, body groomers, nose and ear trimmers, women’s shavers, haircut kits and intense pulsed light hair removal systems. Other personal care products include hand-held dryers, curling irons, straightening irons, straightening brushes, hair setters, and facial brushes.
Spectrum Brands manages its GBA sales teams by geographic region and product category. Spectrum Brands sells primarily to large retailers, online retailers, wholesalers, distributors, warehouse clubs, food and drug chains and specialty trade or retail outlets such as consumer electronics stores, department stores, discounters and other specialty stores. Spectrum Brands maintains separate sales teams to service (i) its retail sales and distribution channels; (ii) its hearing aid professionals channel; and (iii) its industrial distributors and OEM sales and distribution channel. International distribution varies by region and is often executed on a country-by-country basis. Spectrum Brands utilizes a network of independent brokers to service participants in selected distribution channels.
Hardware and Home Improvement (HHI)
Spectrum Brands’ security product category includes a broad range of locksets and door hardware including knobs, levers, deadbolts and handle sets sold under four main brands: (i) Kwikset®, residential door hardware sold primarily in the U.S.; (ii) Weiser®, residential door hardware sold primarily in Canada; (iii) Baldwin®, luxury residential door hardware sold primarily in the U.S.; and (iv) Tell®, commercial doors and hardware sold primarily in the U.S. Spectrum Brands’ residential lockset products incorporate patented SmartKey® technology that provides advanced security and easy rekeying. The security product category also includes electronic and connected locks allowing customers more convenience and protection including remote security features as part of many home automation solutions. Spectrum Brands also supplies product to some customers who have private label offerings.
Spectrum Brands’ plumbing product category includes kitchen and bath faucets and accessories under the Pfister® brand, which delivers best in class designs at a value. Pfister® offers a wide range of styles and finishes to meet a variety of consumer, plumber and builder needs.
Spectrum Brands’ hardware product category includes a broad range of products such as hinges, metal shapes, security hardware,

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track and sliding door hardware and gate hardware sold primarily under the National Hardware® brand in the U.S. Spectrum Brands also sells some products under the Stanley® brand subject to a licensing arrangement.
The sales force of the HHI business is aligned by brands, customers and geographic regions. Spectrum Brands has strong partnerships with a variety of customers including large home improvement centers, wholesale distributors, home builders, plumbers, home automation providers, and commercial contractors.
Global Pet Supplies (PET)
Spectrum Brands’ aquatics product category includes a broad line of products, including fully integrated consumer and commercial aquarium kits, stand-alone tanks, aquatics equipment such as filtration systems, heaters and pumps, and aquatics consumables such as fish food, water management and care. Spectrum Brands’ largest aquatics brands are Tetra®, Marineland® and Instant Ocean®. On May 12, 2017, Spectrum Brands entered into an asset purchase agreement with Yorktown Technologies LP for the acquisition of assets consisting of the GloFish operation, including transfer of the GloFish® brand, its related intellectual property and operating agreements. The GloFish operations consist of the development and licensing of multiple species and color combination of fluorescent fish sold through retail and online channels.
Spectrum Brands’ companion animal product category includes a variety of specialty pet products including rawhide chews, dog and cat clean-up, training, health and grooming products, and small animal food and care products. Spectrum Brands’ largest specialty pet brands include Dingo®, FURminator®, Nature’s Miracle®, Wild Harvest®, 8-in-1®, Littermaid® and Healthy-Hide®, marketed across the Good’n’Fun®, and Good’n’Tasty® family of brands. On June 1, 2017, Spectrum Brands acquired PetMatrix LLC, a manufacturer and marketer of rawhide-free dog chews consisting primarily of the DreamBone® and SmartBones® brands. PetMatrix will provide the segment with complementary product offerings, as well as entrance into an expanding business of raw-hide free treats in the pet food product category. Spectrum Brands’ pet food product category also includes wet and dry pet food for dogs and cats under the IAMS®, Eukanuba® and 8-in-1® brand names in European markets.
Spectrum Brands’ PET sells primarily to pet superstores, mass merchandisers, e-tailers, grocery stores and drug chains, warehouse clubs and other specialty retailers. International distribution varies by region and is often executed on a country-by-country basis.
Home and Garden (H&G)
Spectrum Brands’ controls product category includes a variety of outdoor insect and weed control solutions, and animal repellents under the brand names Spectracide®, Black Flag®, Garden Safe®, EcoLogic® and Liquid Fence®. Spectrum Brands’ lines of outdoor control solutions are designed to assist consumers in controlling insects, weeds and animals when tackling lawn and landscaping projects. Spectrum Brands’ largest brands in the household insect control and rodenticide category are Hot Shot® and Black Flag®.
Spectrum Brands’ household product category includes a broad array of household pest control solutions, such as spider and scorpion killers; ant and roach killers; flying insect killers; insect foggers; wasp and hornet killers; bedbug, flea and tick control products; and roach and ant baits. Spectrum Brands’ outdoor products are available as aerosols, granules, ready-to-use sprays or hose-end ready-to-sprays designed to fulfill a variety of consumer needs.
Spectrum Brands’ repellents product category includes personal use pesticides for protection from various outdoor nuisance pests, especially mosquitoes. These products include both personal repellents in a variety of formulas to meet consumer needs, such as aerosols, lotions, pump sprays and wipes, as well as area repellents, such as yard sprays and citronella candles to allow consumers to enjoy the outdoors without bothersome pests. The brands in the insect repellents category are Cutter® and Repel®.
The H&G business sells primarily to home improvement centers, mass merchandisers, dollar stores, hardware stores, home and garden distributors, and food and drug retailers, primarily in the U.S.
Global Auto Care (GAC)
Spectrum Brands’ appearance product category includes protectants, wipes, tire and wheel care products, glass cleaners, leather care products, air fresheners and washes designed to clean, shine, refresh and protect interior and exterior automobile surfaces under the brand name Armor All®.
Spectrum Brands’ performance product category includes STP® branded fuel and oil additives, functional fluids and automotive appearance products that benefit from a rich heritage in the car enthusiast and racing scenes.
Spectrum Brands’ A/C recharge product category includes do-it-yourself automotive air conditioner recharge products under the A/C PRO® brand name, along with other refrigerant and oil recharge kits, sealants and accessories.
The GAC business sales force is geographically aligned with key customers and supply chains, and sells primarily to big-box auto, auto specialty retail, mass retailers, food and drug retailers, and small regional and convenience store retailers. Spectrum Brands’ small regional and convenience store customers are serviced by brokers and distributors. International distribution varies by region and is often executed on a country-by-country basis.

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Sales, Distribution and Competition
Spectrum Brands sells its products through a variety of trade channels, including retailers, e-commerce and online retailers, wholesalers and distributors, hearing aid professionals, construction companies and OEMs. Spectrum Brands’ sales generally are made through the use of individual purchase orders, consistent with industry practice. Retail sales of the consumer products that Spectrum Brands markets have been increasingly consolidated on a worldwide basis into a small number of regional and national mass merchandisers and e-commerce companies that generally have strong negotiating power with their suppliers. A significant percentage of Spectrum brands’ sales are attributable to a limited group of retailer customers, including (in alphabetical order), Amazon, Autozone, Dollar General, Lidl, Lowe’s, PetSmart, O’Reilly, Target, The Home Depot, and Wal-Mart. Spectrum Brands’ sales to its largest customer, Wal-Mart, represented approximately 15% of its consolidated net sales for Fiscal 2017. No other customer accounted for more than 10% of Spectrum Brands’ consolidated net sales in Fiscal 2017.
Factors influencing product sales include brand name recognition, perceived quality, price, performance, product packaging, design innovation, and consumer confidence and preferences as well as creative marketing, promotion and distribution strategies. Spectrum Brands competes for limited shelf space and consumer acceptance based on location and product segment. Spectrum Brands also competes with its retail customers, who use their own private label brands, and with distributors and foreign manufacturers of unbranded products, typically at lower prices. Spectrum Brands attempts to address these competitive challenges through a portfolio of well-recognized consumer product brands, business relationships with global retailers, distributors and wholesalers, an expansive distribution network, innovative new products, packaging and technologies and an experienced management team. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risk Related to Spectrum Brands’ Business-Spectrum Brands participates in very competitive markets and it may not be able to compete successfully, causing Spectrum Brands to lose market share and sales.”
Within Spectrum Brands’ GBA product line, primary competitors for consumer batteries include Energizer Holdings, Inc. (Energizer), Berkshire Hathaway (Duracell), Montana Tech Components AG (PowerOne), Matsushita (Panasonic) and private label brands of major retailers. Primary competitors for small appliances include Newell Brands (Sunbeam, Mr. Coffee, Crockpot, Oster), De’Longhi America (DeLonghi, Kenwood, Braun), SharkNinja (Shark, Ninja), Hamilton Beach Holding Co. (Hamilton Beach, Proctor Silex), Sensio, Inc. (Bella); SEB S.A.(T-fal, Krups, Rowenta), Whirlpool Corporation (Kitchen Aid), Conair Corporation (Cuisinart, Waring), Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips), Glen Dimplex (Morphy Richards) and private label brands for major retailers. Primary competitors in personal care include are Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Norelco), The Procter & Gamble Company (Braun), Conair Corporation, Wahl Clipper Corporation and Helen of Troy Limited.
Within Spectrum Brands’ HHI product line, primary competitors in security and residential locksets include Allegion (Schlage), Assa Abloy (Emtek, Yale) and private label import brands such as Defiant. Primary competitors for hardware include The Hillman Group, Hampton Hardware and private labels such as Crown Bolt. Primary competitors for plumbing include Masco (Delta), Fortune Brands (Moen), Kohler, American Standard, and private label brands such as Glacier Bay.
Primary competitors in Spectrum Brands’ PET product line are Mars Corporation, the Hartz Mountain Corporation and Central Garden & Pet Company which all sell a comprehensive line of pet supplies that compete across Spectrum Brands’ product categories. The pet supplies product category is highly fragmented with no competitor holding a substantial market share and consists of small companies with limited product lines.
Primary competitors in Spectrum Brands’ H&G product line are The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company (Scotts, Ortho, Roundup, Miracle-Gro, Tomcat); Central Garden & Pet (AMDRO, Sevin), Bayer A.G. (Bayer Advanced), S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. (Raid, OFF!); and Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (Combat).
Within Spectrum Brands’ GAC, primary competitors for appearance products are Meguairs, Turtle Wax, Black Magic, Mothers, and private label brands. Primary competitors in performance chemical products include Lucas, Gumout, Chevron, Prestone, and private label brands. Primary competitors for A/C recharge products primarily consist of private label brands. Spectrum Brands also encounters competition from similar and alternative products, many of which are produced and marketed by major multinational or national companies such as Mothers, Meguiars, Lucas, and Sea Foam.
Seasonality
On a consolidated basis, Spectrum Brands’ financial results are approximately equally weighted across the fiscal quarters, however, sales of certain product categories tend to be seasonal. Sales in Spectrum Brands’ GBA segment, primarily from consumer battery and electric personal care product categories tend to increase during the December holiday season (Spectrum Brands’ first fiscal quarter), while small appliances sales increase from July through December primarily due to the increased demand by customers in the late summer for “back-to-school” sales (Spectrum Brands’ fourth fiscal quarter) and in December for the holiday season. Sales in Spectrum Brands’ HHI segment primarily increase during the spring and summer construction period (Spectrum Brands’ third and fourth fiscal quarters). Sales in Spectrum Brands’ PET segment remain fairly consistent throughout the year with little variation. Sales in Spectrum Brands’ H&G segment and GAC segment typically peak during the first six months of the calendar year (Spectrum Brands’ second and third fiscal quarters) due to customer seasonal purchasing patterns and timing of promotional activities.

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Manufacturing, Raw Materials and Suppliers
The principal raw materials used in manufacturing include zinc, electrolytic manganese dioxide used in Spectrum Brands’ consumer batteries products; brass and steel used in the manufacturing of Spectrum Brands’ HHI products, and refrigerant R-134a used in Spectrum Brands’ GAC A/C recharge products, that are sourced either on a global or regional basis. The prices of these raw materials are susceptible to fluctuations due to supply and demand trends, energy costs, transportation costs, government regulations and tariffs, changes in currency exchange rates, price controls, general economic conditions and other unforeseen circumstances. Spectrum Brands has regularly engaged in forward purchase and hedging derivative transactions in an attempt to effectively manage the raw material costs Spectrum Brands expects to incur over the next 12 to 24 months.
Substantially all of Spectrum Brands’ rechargeable batteries and chargers, portable lighting products, personal care and small appliances, and rawhide alternative products from Spectrum Brands’ recent PetMatrix acquisition are manufactured by third party suppliers that are primarily located in the Asia-Pacific region. Spectrum Brands maintains ownership of most of the tooling and molds used by its suppliers.
Spectrum Brands continually evaluates its manufacturing facilities’ capacity and related utilization. As a result of such analyses, Spectrum Brands has closed a number of manufacturing facilities during the past five years. In general, Spectrum Brands believes its existing facilities are adequate for its present and foreseeable needs.
Patents and Trademarks
Spectrum Brands uses and maintains a number of patents, trademarks, brand names and trade names that are, in the aggregate, important to its businesses. Spectrum Brands seeks trademark protection in the U.S. and in foreign countries. Spectrum Brands’ most significant registered trademarks are:
Product Line
 
Trademarks
GBA
 
Rayovac®, VARTA®, Remington®, Black & Decker®, George Foreman®, Russell Hobbs®, Farberware®, Toastmaster®, Breadman®, Juiceman®
HHI
 
Kwikset®, Weiser®, Baldwin®, National Hardware®, Stanley®, Fanal®, Pfister®, Tell®
PET
 
Tetra®, 8-in-1®, Dingo®, Nature’s Miracle®, Wild Harvest®, Marineland®, Furminator®, Littermaid®, Birdola®, Healthy Hide®, Digest-eeze®, Iams®, Eukanuba®, SmartBone®, DreamBones®, GloFish®
H&G
 
Spectracide®, Cutter®, Hot Shot®, Real Kill®, Ultra Kill®, Black Flag®, Liquid Fence®, Rid-a-bug®, TAT®, Garden Safe®, Repel®
GAC
 
Armor All®, STP®, A/C PRO®
Spectrum Brands acquired the rights to the VARTA® trademark in the consumer battery category and Johnson Controls Inc. acquired rights to the trademark in the automotive battery category from VARTA AG. VARTA AG continues to have rights to use the trademark with travel guides and industrial batteries and VARTA Microbattery GmbH has the right to use the trademark with micro batteries. Spectrum Brands is a party to a Trademark and Domain Names Protection and Delimitation Agreement that governs ownership and usage rights and obligations of the parties relative to the VARTA® trademark.
Spectrum Brands licenses the Black & Decker® brand in North America, Latin America (excluding Brazil) and the Caribbean for four core categories of household appliances: beverage products, food preparation products, garment care products and cooking products through a trademark license agreement with The Black and Decker Corporation (“BDC”) through December 2018. Under the agreement, Spectrum Brands agreed to pay BDC royalties based on a percentage of sales, with minimum annual royalty payments of $15.0 million through calendar year 2018. The agreement also requires Spectrum Brands to comply with maximum annual return rates for products. If BDC does not agree to renew the license agreement, Spectrum Brands will have 18 months to transition out of the brand name with no minimum royalty payments during such transition period and BDC has agreed to not compete in the four categories for five years after the end of the transition period. Upon request, BDC may elect to extend the license to use the Black & Decker brand to certain additional product categories. BDC has approved several extensions of the license to additional categories and geographies.
Spectrum Brands owns the rights to use the Remington® trademark for electric shavers, shaver accessories, grooming products and personal care products; and Remington Arms Company, Inc. (“Remington Arms”) owns the rights to use the trademark for firearms, sporting goods and products for industrial use, including industrial hand tools. The terms of a 1986 agreement between Remington Products, LLC and Remington Arms provides for the shared rights to use the trademark on products which are not considered “principal products of interest” for either company. Spectrum Brands retains the trademark for nearly all products which Spectrum Brands believes can benefit from the use of the brand name in its distribution channels.
Spectrum Brands licenses the Stanley® and Black & Decker® marks and logos in the HHI segment for such products as residential locksets, builder’s hardware, padlocks, and door hardware through a transitional trademark license agreement with Stanley Black & Decker Corporation (“SBD”). Under the agreement and as part of the acquisition of the HHI Business in December 2012, Spectrum Brands has a royalty-free, fully paid license to use certain trademarks, brand names and logos in marketing its products and services for five years after the completion of the HHI Business acquisition. Spectrum Brands has amended the license agreement with SBD to extend the license agreement and allow for the continued use of the respective trademarks, brand names and logos in the HHI segment through December 2018. During this extension period, Spectrum Brands will pay to SBD royalties based on a percentage of sales.

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Spectrum Brands owns or licenses from third parties a significant number of patents and patent applications throughout the world relating to products that Spectrum Brands sells and manufacturing equipment that Spectrum Brands uses. Through Spectrum Brands’ GBA segment, Spectrum Brands holds a license that expires in March 2022 for certain alkaline battery designs, technology and manufacturing equipment from Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co., Ltd. (“Matsushita”), to whom Spectrum Brands pays a royalty. Through ownership of Shaser, Inc., Spectrum Brands has patented technology that is used in its i-Light and i-Light Reveal product line. Through Spectrum Brands’ HHI segment, Spectrum Brands owns the patented SmartKey® technology, which enables customers to easily rekey their locks without hiring a locksmith. Through Spectrum Brands’ acquisition of PetMatrix on June 1, 2017, Spectrum Brands owns patented technology for the development of edible rawhide-fee pet treats. Through Spectrum Brands’ acquisition of GloFish on May 12, 2017, Spectrum Brands owns patented technology used in the development and breeding of fluorescent ornamental fish.
Research and Development
Spectrum Brands’ research and development strategy is focused on new product development and performance enhancements of its existing products. Spectrum Brands plans to continue to use its strong brand names, established customer relationships and significant research and development efforts to introduce innovative products that offer enhanced value to consumers through new designs and improved functionality. During Fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, Spectrum Brands invested $59.5 million, $58.7 million and $51.3 million, respectively, in product research and development.
Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters
Due to the nature of Spectrum Brands’ operations, its facilities are subject to a broad range of federal, state, local and foreign legal and regulatory provisions relating to the environment, including those regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous substances and wastes and the remediation of contamination associated with the releases of hazardous substances at Spectrum Brands’ facilities. Spectrum Brands believes that compliance with the federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations to which it is subject will not have a material effect upon Spectrum Brands’ capital expenditures, financial condition, earnings or competitive position.
From time to time, Spectrum Brands has been required to address the effect of historic activities on the environmental condition of its properties. Spectrum Brands has not conducted invasive testing at all facilities to identify all potential environmental liability risks. Given the age of its facilities and the nature of its operations, it is possible that material liabilities may arise in the future in connection with Spectrum Brands’ current or former facilities. If previously unknown contamination of property underlying or in the vicinity of its manufacturing facilities is discovered, Spectrum Brands could incur material unforeseen expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, capital expenditures, earnings and competitive position. Although Spectrum Brands is currently engaged in investigative or remedial projects at some of its facilities, Spectrum Brands does not expect that such projects, taking into account established accruals, will cause Spectrum Brands to incur expenditures that are material to its business, financial condition or results of operations; however, it is possible that Spectrum Brands’ future liability could be material.
Spectrum Brands has been, and in the future may be, subject to proceedings related to its disposal of industrial and hazardous material at off-site disposal locations or similar disposals made by other parties for which Spectrum Brands is held responsible as a result of its relationships with such other parties. In the U.S., these proceedings are under the Federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”) or similar state laws that hold persons who “arranged for” the disposal or treatment of such substances strictly liable for costs incurred in responding to the release or threatened release of hazardous substances from such sites, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original disposal. Liability under CERCLA is typically joint and several, meaning that a liable party may be responsible for all costs incurred in investigating and remediating contamination at a site. As a practical matter, liability at CERCLA sites is shared by all of the viable responsible parties. Spectrum Brands occasionally is identified by federal or state governmental agencies as being a potentially responsible party for response actions contemplated at an off-site facility. At the existing sites where Spectrum Brands has been notified of its status as a potentially responsible party, it is either premature to determine whether its potential liability, if any, will be material or Spectrum Brands does not believe that its liability, if any, will be material. Spectrum Brands may be named as a potentially responsible party under CERCLA or similar state laws for other sites not currently known to it, and the costs and liabilities associated with these sites may be material.
It is difficult to quantify with certainty the potential financial impact of actions regarding expenditures for environmental matters, particularly remediation, and future capital expenditures for environmental control equipment. See Note 21, Commitments and Contingencies, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further details on estimated liabilities arising from such environmental matters. Nevertheless, based upon the information currently available, Spectrum Brands believes that its ultimate liability arising from such environmental matters should not be material to its business or financial condition.
Electronic and electrical products that Spectrum Brands sells in Europe, particularly products sold under the Remington® brand name, VARTA® battery chargers, certain portable lighting and all of Spectrum Brands’ batteries, are subject to regulation in European Union (“EU”) markets under three key EU directives. The first directive is the Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RoHS”) which took effect in EU member states beginning July 1, 2006.

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RoHS prohibits companies from selling products which contain certain specified hazardous materials in EU member states. Spectrum Brands believes that compliance with RoHS does not have a material effect on its capital expenditures, financial condition, earnings or competitive position. The second directive is entitled the Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”). WEEE makes producers or importers of particular classes of electrical goods financially responsible for specified collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of past and future covered products. WEEE assigns levels of responsibility to companies doing business in EU markets based on their relative market share. WEEE calls on each EU member state to enact enabling legislation to implement the directive. To comply with WEEE requirements, Spectrum Brands has partnered with other companies to create a comprehensive collection, treatment, disposal and recycling program. As EU member states pass enabling legislation Spectrum Brands currently expects its compliance system to be sufficient to meet such requirements. Spectrum Brands’ current estimated costs associated with compliance with WEEE are not significant based on its current market share. However, Spectrum Brands continues to evaluate the impact of the WEEE legislation and implementation of regulations as EU member states implement guidance and as its market share changes and, as a result, actual costs to Spectrum Brands could differ from its current estimates and may be material to its business, financial condition or results of operations. The third directive is the Directive on Batteries and Accumulators and Waste Batteries, which was adopted in September 2006 and went into effect in September 2008 (the “Battery Directive”). The Battery Directive bans heavy metals in batteries by establishing maximum quantities of those heavy metals in batteries and mandates waste management of batteries, including collection, recycling and disposal systems. The Battery Directive places the costs of such waste management systems on producers and importers of batteries. The Battery Directive calls on each EU member state to enact enabling legislation to implement the directive. Spectrum Brands currently believes that compliance with the Battery Directive does not have a material effect on its capital expenditures, financial condition, earnings or competitive position. EU member states have adopted enabling legislation required by the directive and issued additional guidance. Spectrum Brands will continue to evaluate the impact of the Battery Directive and its enabling legislation.
Certain of Spectrum Brands’ products and facilities in each of its business segments are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) or other federal consumer protection and product safety agencies and are subject to the regulations such agencies enforce, as well as by similar state, foreign and multinational agencies and regulations. For example, in the U.S., all products containing pesticides must be registered with the EPA and, in many cases, similar state and foreign agencies before they can be manufactured or sold. Spectrum Brands’ inability to obtain, delay in receipt or the cancellation of any registration could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. The severity of the effect would depend on which products were involved, whether another product could be substituted and whether its competitors were similarly affected. Spectrum Brands attempts to anticipate regulatory developments and maintain registrations of, and access to, substitute chemicals and other ingredients. Spectrum Brands may not always be able to avoid or minimize these risks.
The Food Quality Protection Act (“FQPA”) established a standard for food-use pesticides, which is that a reasonable certainty of no harm will result from the cumulative effect of pesticide exposures. Under the FQPA, the EPA is evaluating the cumulative effects from dietary and non-dietary exposures to pesticides. The pesticides in certain of Spectrum Brands’ products continue to be evaluated by the EPA as part of this program. It is possible that the EPA or a third party active ingredient registrant may decide that a pesticide Spectrum Brands uses in its products will be limited or made unavailable to Spectrum Brands. Spectrum Brands cannot predict the outcome or the severity of the effect of the EPA’s continuing evaluations of active ingredients used in its products.
Certain of Spectrum Brands’ products and packaging materials are subject to regulations administered by the FDA. Among other things, the FDA enforces statutory prohibitions against misbranded and adulterated products, establishes ingredients and manufacturing procedures for certain products, establishes standards of identity for certain products, determines the safety of products and establishes labeling standards and requirements. In addition, various states regulate these products by enforcing federal and state standards of identity for selected products, grading products, inspecting production facilities and imposing their own labeling requirements.
Certain A/C products containing R-134a are subject to regulation in the U.S. markets under the EPA’s Significant New Alternative Policy (“SNAP Program”), which implements international agreements restricting the use of certain refrigerants. The EPA has identified use of R-134a in new automotive air conditioning systems as an approved use up to the 2020 automotive model year. The EPA has not yet approved a replacement refrigerant under the SNAP program for sale in small cans for automotive use for automobiles produced beginning with the 2021 model year, and future rulemakings from the agency are anticipated. In addition, in 2017 the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued a decision that may remove R-134a from regulation under the SNAP program, and that decision may be subject to en banc review or a writ of certiorari filed with the U.S. Supreme Court. Spectrum Brands currently believes that compliance with current and future SNAP regulations will not have a material effect on its capital expenditures, financial condition, earnings or competitive position. However, until such time as future regulations are issued and future alternate refrigerants are approved for sale in small cans, a full evaluation of these costs cannot be completed by Spectrum Brands. Spectrum Brands will continue to evaluate the impact of the SNAP Program as the EPA issues additional guidance.
The fish sold under the GloFish brand can be classified as an intragenic or transgenic species due to the addition of their bioluminescent genes, which means the FDA has the authority to regulate as the luminescence is caused by intentionally altered

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genomic DNA. Additional regulatory agencies, including the EPA, as well as agencies in U.S. and foreign states have authority to regulate these types of species. It is possible that the EPA, FDA, or another U.S. or foreign state or federal agency could in the future seek to exercise authority over the distribution and/or sale of GloFish. Spectrum Brands will continue to monitor the development of any regulations that might apply to Spectrum Brands’ bioluminescent fish.
Certain of Spectrum Brands’ products may be regulated under programs within the United States, Canada, or in other countries that may require that those products and the associated product packaging be recycled or managed for disposal through a designated recycling program. Some programs are funded through assessment of a fee on the manufacturer and suppliers, including Spectrum Brands. Spectrum Brands does not expect that such programs will cause Spectrum Brands to incur expenditures that are material to Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition or results of operations; however, it is possible that Spectrum Brands’ future liability could be material.
The United States Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”) was amended in 2016, and the EPA is currently evaluating additional chemicals for regulation under that amended law. Certain of Spectrum Brands’ products may be manufactured using chemicals or other ingredients that may be subject to regulation under current TSCA regulations, and other chemicals or ingredients may be regulated under the law in the future. Spectrum Brands does not expect that compliance with current or future TSCA regulations will cause Spectrum Brands to incur expenditures that are material to Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition or results of operations; however, it is possible that Spectrum Brands’ future liability could be material.
Employees
Spectrum Brands had approximately 16,800 full-time employees worldwide as of September 30, 2017. Approximately 14% of its total labor force is covered by collective bargaining agreements. There are 8 collective bargaining agreements that will expire during Spectrum Brands’ Fiscal 2018, which cover approximately 74% of the labor force under collective bargaining agreements, or approximately 10% of its total labor force. Spectrum Brands believes that its overall relationship with its employees is good.
Available Information
For information regarding Spectrum Brands, see the remaining section of this report. For additional information regarding Spectrum Brands, including information in addition to that included in HRG’s SEC reports and public announcements, we direct you to Spectrum Brands’ announcements and filings made with the SEC, including Spectrum Brands’ Annual Report on Form 10-K for Fiscal 2017. You should follow and read the SEC filings, press releases and other public statements made by Spectrum Brands and its representatives, as we expect that they will make additional information available through these channels.
Spectrum Brands’ Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are made available free of charge on or through Spectrum Brands’ website at www.spectrumbrands.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the Commission.
The information on Spectrum Brands’ website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this report or incorporated into any other filings HRG or Spectrum Brands makes with the SEC and Spectrum Brands’ reports are not and shall not be deemed to be part of this report. You may read and copy any materials Spectrum Brands files with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website that contains Spectrum Brands’ reports, proxy statements and other information at www.sec.gov.

FGL
The FGL Business
FGL, a Delaware corporation and subsidiary of HRG, is a provider of various types of fixed annuities and life insurance products in the U.S. Based in Des Moines, Iowa, and Baltimore, Maryland, FGL operates its annuity and life insurance operations in the U.S. through its subsidiaries FGH, Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company (“FGL Insurance”) and Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York (“FGL NY Insurance”). As of September 30, 2017, FGL had approximately 700,000 policyholders counting on the safety and protection features of FGL’s fixed annuity and life insurance products.
FGL offers various types of fixed annuities and life insurance products. Fixed annuities represent a retirement and savings tool which FGL’s customers rely on for principal protection and predictable income streams. In addition, FGL’s life insurance products provide its customers with a complementary product that allows them to build on their savings and assign payment of a death benefit to a designated beneficiary upon the policyholder’s death. Currently, FGL’s most popular products are fixed indexed annuities (“FIAs”) that tie contractual returns to specific market indices, such as the Standard & Poor's Ratings Services (“S&P”) 500 Index. In addition to FIAs, FGL also sells indexed universal life policies (“IULs”) and other fixed annuities.
In Fiscal 2017, FIAs generated approximately 72% of FGL’s total sales and the remaining 28% of sales was primarily generated from fixed annuity sales during the year. FGL invests the annuity premiums primarily in fixed income securities and options and hedge FGL’s risk, predominantly using call options on the S&P 500 Index, and replicate the market index returns to its policyholders. The majority of FGL’s products contain provisions that permit FGL to annually adjust the formula by which index

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credits are provided in response to changing market conditions. In addition, FGL’s annuity contracts generally either cannot be surrendered or include surrender charges that discourage early redemptions.
The FGL Merger
On November 8, 2015, Anbang Insurance Group Co., Ltd. and its affiliates (collectively, “Anbang”) entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Anbang/FGL Merger Agreement”) to acquire FGL for $26.80 per share. On April 17, 2017, FGL terminated the Anbang/FGL Merger Agreement. Prior to its termination, the Anbang/FGL Merger Agreement was amended on November 3, 2016 and on February 9, 2017, each time to extend the outside termination date. As a result of the termination of the Anbang/FGL Merger Agreement, FGL had no remaining obligations thereunder.
On May 24, 2017, FGL entered into the FGL Merger Agreement with CF Corp and certain affiliates of CF Corp. Pursuant to the FGL Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the FGL Merger (the “Effective Time”), each issued and outstanding share of common stock of FGL (the “FGL Common Stock”) will be cancelled and converted automatically into the right to receive $31.10 in cash, without interest (the “FGL Merger Consideration”), other than any shares of FGL Common Stock owned by FGL as treasury stock or otherwise or owned by CF Corp, CF/FGL US or Merger Sub (which will be cancelled and no payment will be made with respect thereto), shares of FGL Common Stock granted pursuant to FGL’s Equity Plan (as defined in the FGL Merger Agreement) and those shares of FGL Common Stock with respect to which appraisal rights under Delaware law are properly exercised and not withdrawn. The FGL Merger Agreement permits FGL to pay out a regular quarterly cash dividend on its FGL Common Stock prior to the closing of the transaction in an amount not in excess of $0.065 per share, per quarter (the per share amount of FGL’s most recently declared quarterly dividend).
At the Effective Time, each (i) option to purchase shares of FGL Common Stock (a “FGL Stock Option”), (ii) restricted share of FGL Common Stock and (iii) performance-based restricted stock unit relating to shares of FGL Common Stock (an “RSU”), in each case whether vested or unvested, will become fully vested and automatically converted into the right to receive a cash payment equal to the product of (1) the number of shares subject to the award (for RSUs, determined at the target performance level) multiplied by (2) the FGL Merger Consideration (less the exercise price per share in the case of FGL Stock Options). In addition, at the Effective Time, each stock option (“FGH Stock Option”) and restricted stock unit relating to shares of FGH, whether vested or unvested, will become fully vested and automatically converted into the right to receive a cash payment equal to the product of (A) the number of shares of FGH stock subject to the award multiplied by (B) $176.32 (less the exercise price in the case of such FGH Stock Options), and each dividend equivalent held in respect of a share of FGH stock (a “DER”), whether vested or unvested, will become fully vested and automatically converted into the right to receive a cash payment equal to the amount accrued with respect to such DER.
Following execution of the FGL Merger Agreement, FS Holdco II Ltd. (“FS Holdco”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of HRG that holds a majority of the issued and outstanding shares of FGL Common Stock, executed and delivered to FGL a written consent (the “Consent”), approving and adopting the FGL Merger Agreement and the transactions contemplated thereby, including the FGL Merger. As a result of the execution and delivery of the Consent, the holders of at least a majority of the outstanding shares of FGL’s Common Stock have adopted and approved the FGL Merger Agreement.
Pursuant to the FGL Merger Agreement, the consummation of the FGL Merger is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the following closing conditions, which have been satisfied: (i) on June 16, 2017, the Federal Trade Commission granted early termination of the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended; (ii) on August 8, 2017, CF Corp held an extraordinary general meeting in lieu of an annual general meeting of shareholders, at which CF Corp’s shareholders approved, among other items, all of the proposals relating to the FGL Merger Agreement and the FGL Merger; (iii) on August 14, 2017, FGL filed with the SEC and mailed to its stockholders a definitive information statement in connection with the FGL Merger; (iv) on August 24, 2017, the Vermont Department of Financial Regulation granted its required regulatory approval relating to the FGL Merger; and (v) on November 8, 2017, the New York Department of Financial Services granted its required regulatory approval relating to the FGL Merger. In addition, the consummation of the FGL Merger is also subject to satisfaction or waiver of other closing conditions, including the receipt of regulatory approvals from the Iowa Insurance Division (“IID”) and the absence of any law or order enacted, issued or enforced that is in effect and that prevents or prohibits the consummation of the FGL Merger. With respect to the regulatory approvals from the IID, on November 7, 2017, the IID held a public hearing to consider whether the proposed acquisition of control of Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company complies with the standards set forth under applicable Iowa insurance laws.
FGL expects to be in a position to close the FGL Merger before the end of calendar year 2017; however, the closing of the FGL Merger and the timing thereof is subject to the IID’s regulatory review and approval process, the results of which cannot be assured. In the event the FGL Merger Agreement is terminated, under certain circumstances, FGL may be required to pay a termination fee to CF Corp in an aggregate amount of $50.0 million.
The foregoing description of the FGL Merger Agreement and the transactions contemplated thereby does not purport to be complete and should be read concurrently with the other related disclosure in this report, and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the text of the FGL Merger Agreement filed by FGL with the SEC. FGL has filed with the SEC and mailed to its stockholders the definitive information statement. The definitive information statement and other relevant materials contain important information about FGL, CF Corp, the FGL Merger and related matters. These documents are available at no

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charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, documents are also available for free from FGL by contacting FGL’s investor relations department at Investor.Relations@fglife.com.
Strategy
FGL seeks to grow its business by pursuing a set of strategies aimed at delivering sustainable and profitable growth. These strategies include: (i) taking action to protect sales in FGL’s existing markets, strengthen its business and providing a platform for sustainable growth, (ii) building off FGL’s foundational initiatives and creating a more engaging, customer-focused experience, (iii) leveraging FGL’s product capabilities for additional distribution, and (iv) focusing on initiatives that FGL expects will deliver target profits.
Competition
FGL’s ability to compete is dependent upon many factors which include, among other things, its ability to develop competitive and profitable products, its ability to maintain stable relationships with its contracted IMOs, its ability to maintain low unit costs and its maintenance of adequate financial strength ratings from rating agencies. Principal competitive factors for FIAs are initial crediting rates, reputation for renewal crediting action, product features, brand recognition, customer service, cost, distribution capabilities and financial strength ratings of the provider. Competition may affect, among other matters, both business growth and the pricing of FGL’s products and services. Principal competitive factors for IULs are based on service and distribution channel relationships, price, brand recognition, financial strength ratings of its insurance subsidiaries and financial stability. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
Products
FGL’s experience designing and developing annuities and life insurance products is expected to allow FGL to continue to introduce innovative products and solutions designed to meet customers’ changing needs. FGL works hand-in-hand with its distributors to devise the most suitable product solutions for the ever-changing market. FGL believes that, on a practical basis, FGL has a unique understanding of the safety, accumulation, protection, and income needs of middle-income Americans.
Annuity Products
Through FGL’s insurance subsidiaries, FGL issues a portfolio of deferred annuities (fixed indexed and fixed rate annuities) and immediate annuities. A deferred annuity is a type of contract that accumulates value on a tax deferred basis and typically begins making specified periodic or lump sum payments a certain number of years after the contract has been issued. An immediate annuity is a type of contract that begins making specified payments within one annuity period (e.g., one month or one year) and typically pays principal and earnings in equal payments over some period of time.
Deferred Annuities
FIAs
FGL’s FIAs allow contract owners the possibility of earning interest based on the performance of a specified market index, predominantly the S&P 500 Index, without risk to principal. The contracts include a provision for a minimum guaranteed surrender value calculated in accordance with applicable law. A market index tracks the performance of a specific group of stocks representing a particular segment of the market, or in some cases an entire market. For example, the S&P 500 Composite Stock Price Index is an index of 500 stocks intended to be representative of a broad segment of the market. All FIA products allow policyholders to allocate funds once a year among several different crediting strategies, including one or more index-based strategies and a traditional fixed rate strategy. High surrender charges apply for early withdrawal, typically seven to fourteen years after purchase.
The value to the contractholder of an FIA contract is equal to the sum of deposits paid, premium bonuses (described below), index credits, up to a cap and a participation rate based on the annual appreciation (based in certain situations on annual point-to-point, monthly point-to-point or monthly average calculations) in a recognized market index less any fees for riders. The cap can be reset annually. Certain riders allow for a contractholder to increase their cap for a set fee. As this fee is fixed, the contractholder may lose principal if the index credits received do not exceed the amount of such fee.
Fixed Rate Annuities
Fixed rate annuities include annual reset and multi-year rate guaranteed policies. Fixed rate annual reset annuities issued by FGL have an annual interest rate (the “crediting rate”) that is guaranteed for the first policy year. After the first policy year, FGL has the discretionary ability to change the crediting rate once annually to any rate at or above a guaranteed minimum rate. Fixed rate multi-year guaranteed annuities (“MYGAs”) are similar to fixed rate annual reset annuities except that the initial crediting rate is guaranteed for a specified number of years before it may be changed at its discretion.
Withdrawal Options for Deferred Annuities
After the first year following the issuance of a FIA deferred annuity policy, holders of deferred annuities are typically permitted penalty-free withdrawals up to 10% of the prior year’s value, subject to certain limitations. Withdrawals in excess of allowable

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penalty-free amounts are assessed a surrender charge if such withdrawals are made during the penalty period of the deferred annuity policy. The penalty period typically ranges from seven to fourteen years for FIAs and three to ten years for fixed rate annuities.
The policyholder may elect to take the proceeds of the surrender either in a single payment or in a series of payments over the life of the policyholder or for a fixed number of years (or a combination of these payment options). In addition to the foregoing withdrawal rights, policyholders may also elect to have additional withdrawal rights by purchasing a GMWB. These riders provide a GMWB, regardless of index performance, for the life of the contract. However, the benefit may vary based on performance.
Immediate Annuities
FGL also sells single premium immediate annuities (or “SPIAs”), which provide a series of periodic payments for a fixed period of time or for the life of the policyholder, according to the policyholder’s choice at the time of issue. The amounts, frequency and length of time of the payments are fixed at the outset of the annuity contract. SPIAs are often purchased by persons at or near retirement age who desire a steady stream of payments over a future period of years.
Life Insurance
FGL currently offers IUL insurance policies and has previously sold term and whole life insurance products. Holders of universal life insurance policies earn returns on their policies which are credited to the policyholder’s cash value account. The insurer periodically deducts its expenses and the cost of life insurance protection from the cash value account. The balance of the cash value account is credited interest at a fixed rate or returns based on the performance of a market index, or both, at the option of the policyholder, using a method similar to that described above for FIAs.
Almost all of the life insurance policies in force, except for the return of premium benefits on term life insurance products, are subject to an arrangement with Wilton Reassurance Company (“Wilton Re”).
Distribution
The sale of FGL’s products typically occurs as part of a four-party, three stage sales process between FGL Insurance, an IMO, the agent and the customer. FGL Insurance designs, manufactures, issues, and services the product. The IMOs will usually sign contracts with multiple insurance carriers to provide their agents with a broad and competitive product portfolio. The IMO will discuss product options over the phone with agents about to meet with clients. The IMO staff will also provide assistance to the agent during the selling and application process. The agent may get customer leads from the IMOs. The agent will conduct a fact find and present suitable product choices to the customers. FGL monitors each distribution partner for pricing metrics, mortality, and persistency, as well as market conduct and suitability.
Within this business model, FGL offers its products through a network of approximately 200 IMOs, representing approximately 37,000 agents, and identifies its most important IMOs, those who FGL believes have the ability to generate significant production for FGL, as “Power Partners.” FGL currently has 32 Power Partners, comprised of 21 annuity IMOs and 11 life insurance IMOs. During Fiscal 2017, these Power Partners accounted for approximately 95.0% of its annual sales volume. FGL believes that its relationships with these IMOs are strong. The average tenure of the top ten Power Partners is approximately 14 years.
FGL’s Power Partners play an important role in the development of its products. Over the last ten years, the majority of FGL’s best-selling products have been developed with its Power Partners. FGL intends to continue to have the Power Partners play an important role in the development of its products in the future, which FGL believes provides it with integral feedback throughout the development process and assists FGL with competing for “shelf space” of new design launches.
The top five states for the distribution of FGL Insurance products in 2017 were California, Texas, Florida, New Jersey and Michigan, which together accounted for nearly 42.9% of FGL Insurance’s premiums.
Investments
FGL embraces a long-term conservative investment philosophy, investing nearly all the insurance premiums FGL receives in a wide range of fixed income interest-bearing securities.
FGL’s internal asset management team manages the bulk of the investment portfolio. For certain asset classes, FGL utilizes experienced third party companies, including FGL’s affiliates. FGL’s investment strategy is designed to (i) achieve strong absolute returns; (ii) provide consistent yield and investment income; and (iii) preserve capital.
In addition to active management of assets, FGL’s Investments department is also responsible for defining portfolio strategy, managing its asset/liability profile and hedging its product guarantees.
The types of assets in which FGL may invest are influenced by various state laws, which prescribe qualified investment assets applicable to insurance companies. Additionally, FGL defines risk tolerance across a wide range of factors, including credit risk, liquidity risk, concentration (issuer and sector) risk, and caps on specific asset classes, which in turn establish conservative risk thresholds.
FGL’s investment portfolio consists of high quality fixed maturities, including publicly issued and privately issued corporate bonds, municipal and other government bonds, asset-backed securities (“ABS”), residential mortgage-backed securities

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(“RMBS”) and commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) and commercial mortgage loans (“CMLs”). FGL also maintains holdings in floating rate, and less rate-sensitive investments, including senior tranches of collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), non-agency RMBS, and various types of ABS. It is FGL’s expectation that its investment portfolio will broaden in scope and diversity to include other asset classes held by life and annuity insurance writers. FGL also has a small amount of equity holdings through its funding arrangement with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta.
Portfolio Activity
Over the last year, FGL continued to work with its internal asset management team and third party asset managers to broaden the portfolio’s exposure to include United States dollar (“USD”) denominated emerging market bonds, highly rated preferred stocks and hybrids and structured securities including ABS.
Derivatives
FGL’s FIA contracts permit the holder to elect to receive a return based on an interest rate or the performance of a market index, most typically based on the S&P 500 Index. FGL purchases derivatives consisting predominantly of call options and, to a lesser degree, futures contracts on the equity indices underlying the applicable policy. These derivatives are used to fund the index credits due to policyholders under the FIA contracts based upon policyholders’ contract elections. The majority of all such call options are one-year options purchased to match the funding requirements underlying the FIA contracts. On the anniversary dates of the FIA contracts, the market index used to compute the annual index credit under the FIA contract is reset. At such time, FGL purchases new one-, two-, three-, or five-year call options to fund the next index credit. FGL attempts to manage the cost of these purchases through the terms of its FIA contracts, which permit FGL to change caps or participation rates, subject to certain guaranteed minimums that must be maintained. The change in the fair value of the call options and futures contracts is generally designed to offset the equity market related change in the fair value of the FIA contract’s related reserve liability. The call options and futures contracts are marked to fair value with the change in fair value included as a component of Net investment gains (losses). The change in fair value of the call options and futures contracts includes the gains and losses recognized at the expiration of the instruments’ terms or upon early termination and the changes in fair value of open positions.
Outsourcing
FGL outsources the following functions to third-party service providers:
new business administration (data entry and policy issue only);
service of existing policies;
underwriting administration of life insurance applications;
call centers;
information technology development and maintenance;
investment accounting and custody; and
hosting of financial systems.
FGL closely manages its outsourcing partners and integrates their services into its operations. FGL believes that outsourcing such functions allows it to focus capital and FGL employees on its core business operations and perform differentiating functions, such as investment, actuarial, product development and risk management functions. In addition, FGL believes an outsourcing model provides predictable pricing, service levels and volume capabilities and allows it to benefit from technological developments that enhance its customer self-service and sales processes.
Ratings
FGL’s access to funding and its related cost of borrowing, the attractiveness of certain of its products to customers and requirements for derivatives collateral posting are affected by FGL’s credit ratings and insurance financial strength ratings, which are periodically reviewed by the rating agencies. Financial strength ratings and credit ratings are important factors affecting public confidence in an insurer and its competitive position in marketing products.
As of September 30, 2017, A.M. Best Company (“A.M. Best”), Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”), Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) and S&P Global Ratings (“S&P”) issued financial strength credit and/or ratings and outlook statements regarding FGH and its wholly owned insurance subsidiaries, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance. Credit ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding an entity’s ability to repay its indebtedness. Financial strength ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding the ability of an insurance company to meet its financial obligations under an insurance policy and generally involve quantitative and qualitative evaluations by rating agencies of a company’s financial condition and operating performance. Generally, rating agencies base their financial strength ratings upon information furnished to them by the insurer and upon their own investigations, studies and assumptions. Financial strength ratings are based upon factors of concern to policyholders, agents and intermediaries and are not directed toward the protection of investors. Credit and financial strength ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold securities and they may be revised or revoked at any time at the sole discretion of the rating organization.

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In addition to the financial strength ratings, rating agencies use an “outlook statement” to indicate a medium or long term trend which, if continued, may lead to a rating change. A positive outlook indicates a rating may be raised and a negative outlook indicates a rating may be lowered. A stable outlook is assigned when ratings are not likely to be changed. A developing outlook is assigned when a rating may be raised, lowered, or affirmed. Outlooks should not be confused with expected stability of the issuer’s financial or economic performance. A rating may have a “stable” outlook to indicate that the rating is not expected to change, but a “stable” outlook does not preclude a rating agency from changing a rating at any time without notice.
Following the announcement of the proposed FGL Merger, the rating organizations have undertaken a review of FGL’s debt ratings and FGL’s insurance company subsidiaries’ financial strength ratings. The rating organizations may take various actions, positive or negative. Such actions are beyond FGL’s control and FGL cannot predict what these actions may be and the timing thereof.
A.M. Best, Fitch, Moody’s and S&P review their ratings of insurance companies from time to time. There can be no assurance that any particular rating will continue for any given period of time or that it will not be changed or withdrawn entirely if, in their judgment, circumstances so warrant. While the degree to which ratings adjustments will affect sales and persistency is unknown, FGL believes if its ratings were to be negatively adjusted for any reason, FGL could experience a material decline in the sales of its products and the persistency of its existing business. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Related to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses.”
Potential Impact of a Ratings Downgrade
Under some of its International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (“ISDA”) agreements, FGL has agreed to maintain certain financial strength ratings. A downgrade below these levels provides the counterparty under the agreement the right to terminate the open derivative contracts between the parties, at which time any amounts payable by FGL or the counterparty would be dependent on the market value of the underlying derivative contracts. FGL’s current rating allows multiple counterparties the right to terminate the ISDA agreements, at which time the counterparty would unwind existing positions for fair market value. No ISDA agreements have been terminated, although the counterparties have reserved the right to terminate ISDA agreements at any time. As of September 30, 2017, the amount due to FGL at risk for the ISDA agreements which could be terminated based upon its current ratings was $412.8 million, which equals the fair value to FGL of the open over-the-counter call option positions. The fair value of the call options can never decrease below zero. See Part II, Item 7A. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk-Credit Risk and Counterparty Risk-FGL.”
In certain transactions, FGL and its counterparty have entered into a collateral support agreement requiring either party to post collateral when the net exposures exceed predetermined thresholds. These thresholds vary by counterparty and credit rating, however are generally zero. As of September 30, 2017 and 2016, $381.2 million and $127.8 million, respectively, of collateral was posted by FGL’s counterparties. Accordingly, the maximum amount of loss due to credit risk that FGL would incur if parties to the call options failed completely to perform according to the terms of the contracts was $31.6 million and $147.4 million at September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
If FGL’s insurance subsidiaries held net short positions against a counterparty, and such subsidiaries’ financial strength ratings were below the levels required in ISDA agreement with the counterparty, the counterparty would demand immediate further collateralization which could negatively impact overall liquidity. Based on the market value of FGL’s derivatives as of September 30, 2017 and 2016, FGL holds no net short positions against a counterparty; therefore, there is currently no potential exposure for FGL to post collateral.
A downgrade of the financial strength rating of one of FGL’s principal insurance subsidiaries could affect its competitive position in the insurance industry and make it more difficult for FGL to market its products, as potential customers may select companies with higher financial strength ratings. A downgrade of the financial strength rating could also impact FGL’s borrowing costs.
Risk Management
Risk management is a critical part of FGL’s business. FGL seeks to assess risk to its business through a formalized process involving (i) identifying short-term and long-term strategic and operational objectives, (ii) development of risk appetite statements that establish what the company is willing to accept in terms of risks to achieving its goals and objectives, (iii) identifying the levers that control the risk appetite of the company, (iv) establishing the overall limits of risk acceptable for a given risk driver, (v) establishing operational risk limits that are aligned with the tolerances, (vi) assigning risk limit quantification and mitigation responsibilities to individual team members within functional groups, (vii) analyzing the potential qualitative and quantitative impact of individual risks, including but not limited to stress and scenario testing covering over 8 economic and insurance related risks, (viii) mitigating risks by appropriate actions and (ix) identifying, documenting and communicating key business risks in a timely fashion.
The responsibility for monitoring, evaluating and responding to risk is assigned first to FGL’s management and employees, second to those occupying specialist functions, such as legal compliance and risk teams, and third to those occupying supervisory functions, such as internal audit and the board of directors.

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 Reinsurance
FGL both cedes reinsurance and assumes reinsurance from other insurance companies. FGL uses reinsurance to diversify risks, manage loss exposures to enhance FGL’s capital position, and to manage new business volume.
In instances where FGL is the ceding company, FGL pays a premium to a reinsurer in exchange for the reinsurer assuming a portion of FGL’s liabilities under the policies it issued and collecting expense allowances in return for FGL’s administration of the ceded policies. Use of reinsurance does not discharge FGL’s liability as the ceding company because FGL remains directly liable to its policyholders and is required to pay the full amount of FGL’s policy obligations in the event that FGL’s reinsurers fail to satisfy their obligations. FGL collects reimbursement from its reinsurers when FGL pays claims on policies that are reinsured. In instances where FGL assumes reinsurance from another insurance company, FGL accepts, in exchange for a reinsurance premium, a portion of the liabilities of the other insurance company under the policies that the ceding company has issued to its policyholders.
FGL monitors the credit risk related to the ability of its reinsurers to honor their obligations under various agreements. To minimize the risk of credit loss on such contracts, FGL generally diversifies its exposures among many reinsurers and limits the amount of exposure to each based on financial strength ratings. FGL is able to further manage risk via funds withheld arrangements.
See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors- Risks Related to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses” for further discussion of reinsurance credit risk.
As of the date of this report, FGL had a number of reinsurance agreements, including agreements with Wilton Re, Front Street, Hannover Re and Raven Reinsurance Company. See Part II, Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk-Credit Risk-FGL”.
Regulation
Overview
FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are subject to comprehensive regulation and supervision in their domiciles, Iowa, New York and Vermont, respectively, and in each state in which they do business. FGL Insurance does business throughout the United States, except for New York. FGL NY Insurance only does business in New York. Raven Re is a special purpose captive reinsurance company that only provides reinsurance to FGL Insurance under the Raven Reinsurance Agreement. Following its re-domestication to Iowa, FGL Insurance’s principal insurance regulatory authority is the IID. State insurance departments throughout the United States also monitor FGL Insurance’s insurance operations as a licensed insurer. The NYDFS regulates the operations of FGL NY Insurance, which is domiciled and licensed in New York. The purpose of these regulations is primarily to protect policyholders and beneficiaries and not general creditors and shareholders of those insurers. Many of the laws and regulations to which FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject are regularly re-examined and existing or future laws and regulations may become more restrictive or otherwise adversely affect their operations.
Generally, insurance products underwritten by and rates used by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must be approved by the insurance regulators in each state in which they are sold. Those products are also substantially affected by federal and state tax laws. For example, changes in tax law could reduce or eliminate the tax-deferred accumulation of earnings on the deposits paid by the holders of annuities and life insurance products, which could make such products less attractive to potential purchasers. A shift away from life insurance and annuity products could reduce FGL Insurance’s and FGL NY Insurance’s income from the sale of such products, as well as the assets upon which FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance earn investment income. In addition, insurance products may also be subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”).
State insurance authorities have broad administrative powers over FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance with respect to all aspects of the insurance business including:
licensing to transact business;
licensing agents;
prescribing which assets and liabilities are to be considered in determining statutory surplus;
regulating premium rates for certain insurance products;
approving policy forms and certain related materials;
determining whether a reasonable basis exists as to the suitability of the annuity purchase recommendations producers make;
regulating unfair trade and claims practices;
establishing reserve requirements and solvency standards;
regulating the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year;
regulating the availability of reinsurance or other substitute financing solutions, the terms thereof and the ability of an insurer to take credit on its financial statements for insurance ceded to reinsurers or other substitute financing solutions;
 fixing maximum interest rates on life insurance policy loans and minimum accumulation or surrender values; and

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regulating the type, amounts, and valuations of investments permitted, transactions with affiliates, and other matters.
Financial Regulation
State insurance laws and regulations require FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re to file reports, including financial statements, with state insurance departments in each state in which they do business, and their operations and accounts are subject to examination by those departments at any time. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re prepare statutory financial statements in accordance with accounting practices and procedures prescribed or permitted by these departments.
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) has approved a series of statutory accounting principles and various model regulations that have been adopted, in some cases with certain modifications, by all state insurance departments. These statutory principles are subject to ongoing change and modification. For instance, the NAIC adopted, effective with the annual reporting period ending December 31, 2010, revisions to the Annual Financial Reporting Model Regulation (or the Model Audit Rule) related to auditor independence, corporate governance and internal control over financial reporting. These revisions require that insurance companies, such as FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, file reports with state insurance departments regarding their assessments of internal control over financial reporting. Moreover, compliance with any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. Any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may change over time to FGL Insurance’s or FGL NY Insurance’s detriment, or changes to the overall legal or market environment, even absent any change of interpretation by a particular regulator, may cause FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance to change their views regarding the actions they need to take from a legal risk management perspective, which could necessitate changes to FGL Insurance’s or FGL NY Insurance’s practices that may, in some cases, limit their ability to grow and improve profitability.
State insurance departments conduct periodic examinations of the books and records, financial reporting, policy and rate filings, market conduct and business practices of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years. Examinations are generally carried out in cooperation with the insurance departments of other states under guidelines promulgated by the NAIC. State insurance departments also have the authority to conduct examinations of non-domiciliary insurers that are licensed in their states. The Maryland Insurance Administration (“MIA”) completed a routine financial examination of FGL Insurance for the three-year period ended December 31, 2012, and found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed. The NYDFS completed a routine financial examination of FGL NY for the three-year period ended December 31, 2009, and found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed. The NYDFS is in the process of completing a routine financial examination of FGL NY Insurance for the three-year periods ended December 31, 2012.
The Vermont Department of Financial Regulation has completed a routine financial examination of Raven Re for the period from April 7, 2011 (commencement of business) through December 31, 2012. It found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed.
Going forward, FGL Insurance will be subject to financial and market conduct examinations by the IID, the primary regulatory authority for Iowa domestic life insurance companies.
Dividend and Other Distribution Payment Limitations
The Iowa insurance law and the New York insurance law regulate the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, respectively. Each year, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance may pay a certain limited amount of ordinary dividends or other distributions without being required to obtain the prior consent of the Iowa Insurance Commissioner (“Iowa Commissioner”) or the NYDFS, respectively. However, to pay any dividends or distributions (including the payment of any dividends or distributions for which prior consent is not required), FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must provide advance written notice to the Iowa Commissioner or the NYDFS, respectively.
Pursuant to Iowa insurance law, ordinary dividends are payments, together with all other such payments within the preceding twelve months, that do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of FGL Insurance’s statutory surplus as regards policyholders as of December 31 of the preceding year; or (ii) the net gain from operations of FGL Insurance (excluding realized capital gains) for the 12-month period ending December 31 of the preceding year.
Dividends in excess of FGL Insurance’s ordinary dividend capacity are referred to as extraordinary and require prior approval of the Iowa Commissioner. In deciding whether to approve a request to pay an extraordinary dividend, Iowa insurance law requires the Iowa Commissioner to consider the effect of the dividend payment on FGL Insurance’s surplus and financial condition generally and whether the payment of the dividend will cause FGL Insurance to fail to meet its required risk-based capital (“RBC”) ratio. Dividends may only be paid out of statutory earned surplus.
Any payment of dividends by FGL Insurance is subject to the regulatory restrictions described above and the approval of such payment by the board of directors of FGL Insurance, which must consider various factors, including general economic and business conditions, tax considerations, FGL Insurance’s strategic plans, financial results and condition, FGL Insurance’s expansion plans, any contractual, legal or regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends and its effect on RBC and such other factors the board of directors of FGL Insurance considers relevant. For example, payments of dividends could reduce FGL

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Insurance’s RBC and financial condition and lead to a reduction in FGL Insurance’s financial strength rating. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses-A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency, could make FGL’s product offerings less attractive and increase its cost of capital, and thereby adversely affect FGL’s financial condition and results of operations.”
FGL NY Insurance has historically not paid dividends. In 2012, FGL NY Insurance paid a $4.4 million dividend to FGL Insurance after a determination that, as a result of capital contributions by FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance was overcapitalized.
 Surplus and Capital
FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to the supervision of the regulators in states where they are licensed to transact business. Regulators have discretionary authority in connection with the continuing licensing of these entities to limit or prohibit sales to policyholders if, in their judgment, the regulators determine that such entities have not maintained the minimum surplus or capital or that the further transaction of business will be hazardous to policyholders.
Risk-Based Capital
In order to enhance the regulation of insurers’ solvency, the NAIC adopted a model law to implement RBC requirements for life, health and property and casualty insurance companies. All states have adopted the NAIC’s model law or a substantially similar law. RBC is used to evaluate the adequacy of capital and surplus maintained by an insurance company in relation to risks associated with: (i) asset risk, (ii) insurance risk, (iii) interest rate risk, and (iv) business risk. In general, RBC is calculated by applying factors to various asset, premium and reserve items, taking into account the risk characteristics of the insurer. Within a given risk category, these factors are higher for those items with greater underlying risk and lower for items with lower underlying risk. The RBC formula is used as an early warning regulatory tool to identify possible inadequately capitalized insurers for purposes of initiating regulatory action, and not as a means to rank insurers generally. Insurers that have less statutory capital than the RBC calculation requires are considered to have inadequate capital and are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending upon the level of capital inadequacy. As of the most recent annual statutory financial statements filed with insurance regulators, the RBC ratios for FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance each exceeded the minimum RBC requirements.
It is desirable to maintain an RBC ratio in excess of the minimum requirements in order to maintain or improve FGL’s financial strength ratings. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses-A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency, could make FGL’s product offerings less attractive and increase its cost of capital, and thereby could adversely affect FGL’s financial condition and results of operations.”
Insurance Regulatory Information System Tests
The NAIC has developed a set of financial relationships or tests known as the Insurance Regulatory Information System (“IRIS”) to assist state regulators in monitoring the financial condition of U.S. insurance companies and identifying companies that require special attention or action by insurance regulatory authorities. A ratio falling outside the prescribed “usual range” is not considered a failing result. Rather, unusual values are viewed as part of the regulatory early monitoring system. In many cases, it is not unusual for financially sound companies to have one or more ratios that fall outside the usual range. Insurance companies generally submit data annually to the NAIC, which in turn analyzes the data using prescribed financial data ratios, each with defined “usual ranges”. Generally, regulators will begin to investigate or monitor an insurance company if its ratios fall outside the usual ranges for four or more of the ratios. IRIS consists of a statistical phase and an analytical phase whereby financial examiners review insurers’ annual statements and financial ratios. The statistical phase consists of 12 key financial ratios based on year-end data that are generated from the NAIC database annually; each ratio has a “usual range” of results. As of December 31, 2016, FGL Insurance had one ratio outside the usual range, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re each had two ratios outside the usual range. The IRIS ratio for change in reserving for both FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance was outside the usual range.  The IRIS ratio for change in premium for both FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re was outside the usual range. In addition, Raven Re’s IRIS ratio for adequacy of investment income also fell outside the usual range.
In all instances in prior years, regulators have been satisfied upon follow-up that no regulatory action was required. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are not currently subject to regulatory restrictions based on these ratios.
Insurance Reserves
State insurance laws require insurers to analyze the adequacy of reserves. The respective appointed actuaries for FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re must each submit an opinion on an annual basis that their respective reserves, when considered in light of the respective assets FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re hold with respect to those reserves, make adequate provision for the contractual obligations and related expenses of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re have filed all of the required opinions with the insurance departments in the states in which they do business.

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Credit for Reinsurance Regulation
States regulate the extent to which insurers are permitted to take credit on their financial statements for the financial obligations that the insurers cede to reinsurers. Where an insurer cedes obligations to a reinsurer which is neither licensed nor accredited by the state insurance department, the ceding insurer is not permitted to take such financial statement credit unless the unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurer secures the liabilities it will owe under the reinsurance contract. Under the laws regulating credit for reinsurance issued by such unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurers, the permissible means of securing such liabilities are (i) the establishment of a trust account by the reinsurer to hold certain qualifying assets in a qualified U.S. financial institution, such as a member of the Federal Reserve, with the ceding insurer as the exclusive beneficiary of such trust account with the unconditional right to demand, without notice to the reinsurer, that the trustee pay over to it the assets in the trust account equal to the liabilities owed by the reinsurer; (ii) the posting of an unconditional and irrevocable letter of credit by a qualified U.S. financial institution in favor of the ceding company allowing the ceding company to draw upon the letter of credit up to the amount of the unpaid liabilities of the reinsurer and (iii) a “funds withheld” arrangement by which the ceding company withholds transfer to the reinsurer of the reserves which support the liabilities to be owed by the reinsurer, with the ceding insurer retaining title to and exclusive control over such reserves. In addition, on January 1, 2014, the NAIC Model Credit for Reinsurance Act became effective in Iowa, which adds the concept of “certified reinsurer”, whereby a ceding insurer may take financial statement credit for reinsurance provided by an unaccredited and unlicensed reinsurer which has been certified by the Iowa Commissioner. The Iowa Commissioner certifies reinsurers based on several factors, including their financial strength ratings, and imposes collateral requirements based on such factors. FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to such credit for reinsurance rules in Iowa and New York, respectively, insofar as they enter into any reinsurance contracts with reinsurers which are neither licensed nor accredited in Iowa and New York, respectively.
Insurance Holding Company Regulation
As the parent company of FGL Insurance and the indirect parent company of FGL NY Insurance, FGL and entities affiliated for purposes of insurance regulation are subject to the insurance holding company laws in Iowa and New York. These laws generally require each insurance company directly or indirectly owned by the holding company to register with the insurance department in the insurance company’s state of domicile and to furnish annually financial and other information about the operations of companies within the holding company system. Generally, all transactions between insurers and affiliates within the holding company system are subject to regulation and must be fair and reasonable, and may require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by its domiciliary insurance regulator.
Most states, including Iowa and New York, have insurance laws that require regulatory approval of a direct or indirect change of control of an insurer or an insurer’s holding company. Such laws prevent any person from acquiring control, directly or indirectly, of HRG, FGL, FGH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance unless that person has filed a statement with specified information with the insurance regulators and has obtained their prior approval. In addition, investors deemed to have a direct or indirect controlling interest are required to make regulatory filings and respond to regulatory inquiries. Under most states’ statutes, including those of Iowa and New York, acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. Accordingly, any person who acquires 10% or more of HRG’s voting securities or that of HRG, FGL, FGH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance without the prior approval of the insurance regulators of Iowa and New York will be in violation of those states’ laws and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the relevant insurance regulator or prohibiting the voting of those securities and to other actions determined by the relevant insurance regulator. The requirement to obtain such insurance regulatory approval will no longer apply to the acquisition of HRG’s shares of common stock if HRG’s interest in FGL is disposed of pursuant to the FGL Merger.
Insurance Guaranty Association Assessments
Each state has insurance guaranty association laws under which insurers doing business in the state may be assessed by state insurance guaranty associations for certain obligations of insolvent insurance companies to policyholders and claimants. Typically, states assess each member insurer in an amount related to the member insurer’s proportionate share of the business written by all member insurers in the state. Although no prediction can be made as to the amount and timing of any future assessments under these laws, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance have established reserves that they believe are adequate for assessments relating to insurance companies that are currently subject to insolvency proceedings.
Market Conduct Regulation
State insurance laws and regulations include numerous provisions governing the marketplace activities of insurers, including provisions governing the form and content of disclosure to consumers, illustrations, advertising, sales and complaint process practices. State regulatory authorities generally enforce these provisions through periodic market conduct examinations. In addition, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must file, and in many jurisdictions and for some lines of business obtain regulatory approval for, rates and forms relating to the insurance written in the jurisdictions in which they operate. FGL Insurance is currently the subject of four ongoing market conduct examinations in various states. Market conduct examinations can result in monetary fines or remediation and generally require FGL Insurance to devote significant resources to the management of

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such examinations. FGL Insurance does not believe that any of the current market conduct examinations it is subject to will result in any fines or remediation orders that will be material to its business.
Regulation of Investments
FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to state laws and regulations that require diversification of their investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain asset categories, such as below investment grade fixed income securities, equity, real estate, other equity investments and derivatives. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations would cause investments exceeding regulatory limitations to be treated as either non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring surplus or as not qualified as an asset held for reserve purposes and, in some instances, would require divestiture or replacement of such non-qualifying investments. FGL believes that the investment portfolios of FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance as of September 30, 2017 complied in all material respects with such regulations.
Privacy Regulation
FGL’s operations are subject to certain federal and state laws and regulations that require financial institutions and other businesses to protect the security and confidentiality of personal information, including health-related and customer information, and to notify customers and other individuals about their policies and practices relating to their collection and disclosure of health-related and customer information and their practices relating to protecting the security and confidentiality of such information. These laws and regulations require notice to affected individuals, law enforcement agencies, regulators and others if there is a breach of the security of certain personal information, including social security numbers, and require holders of certain personal information to protect the security of the data. FGL’s operations are also subject to certain federal regulations that require financial institutions and creditors to implement effective programs to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft. In addition, FGL’s ability to make telemarketing calls and to send unsolicited e-mail or fax messages to consumers and customers and its uses of certain personal information, including consumer report information, are regulated. Federal and state governments and regulatory bodies may be expected to consider additional or more detailed regulation regarding these subjects and the privacy and security of personal information.
FIAs
In recent years, the SEC and state securities regulators have questioned whether FIAs, such as those sold by FGL, should be treated as securities under the federal and state securities laws rather than as insurance products exempted from such laws. Treatment of these products as securities would require additional registration and licensing of these products and the agents selling them, as well as cause FGL to seek additional marketing relationships for these products, any of which may impose significant restrictions on its ability to conduct operations as currently operated. Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), annuities that meet specific requirements, including requirements relating to certain state suitability rules, are specifically exempted from being treated as securities by the SEC. FGL expects that the types of FIAs FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance sell will meet these requirements and therefore are exempt from being treated as securities by the SEC and state securities regulators. However, there can be no assurance that federal or state securities laws or state insurance laws and regulations will not be amended or interpreted to impose further requirements on FIAs.
The Dodd-Frank Act
The Dodd-Frank Act makes sweeping changes to the regulation of financial services entities, products and markets. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are or may become applicable to FGL, its competitors or those entities with which FGL does business, including, but not limited to:
the establishment of federal regulatory authority over derivatives;
the establishment of consolidated federal regulation and resolution authority over systemically important financial services firms;
the establishment of the Federal Insurance Office;
changes to the regulation of broker dealers and investment advisors;
changes to the regulation of reinsurance;
changes to regulations affecting the rights of shareholders;
the imposition of additional regulation over credit rating agencies;
the imposition of concentration limits on financial institutions that restrict the amount of credit that may be extended to a single person or entity; and
the clearing of derivative contracts.
Numerous provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act require the adoption of implementing rules or regulations, some of which have been implemented. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislation or regulation applicable to the insurance industry, FGL, its competitors or those entities with which FGL does business. Legislative or regulatory requirements imposed by or promulgated in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act may impact FGL in many ways, including, but not limited to:
placing FGL at a competitive disadvantage relative to FGL’s competition or other financial services entities;

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changing the competitive landscape of the financial services sector or the insurance industry;
making it more expensive for FGL to conduct its business;
requiring the reallocation of significant company resources to government affairs;
increasing FGL’s legal and compliance related activities and the costs associated therewith; or
otherwise having a material adverse effect on the overall business climate as well as FGL’s financial condition and results of operations.
Until various studies are completed and final regulations are promulgated pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on investments, investment activities and insurance and annuity products of FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance remains unclear.
ERISA
FGL may offer certain insurance and annuity products to employee benefit plans governed by ERISA and/or the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), including group annuity contracts designated to fund tax-qualified retirement plans. ERISA and the Code provide (among other requirements) standards of conduct for employee benefit plan fiduciaries, including investment managers and investment advisers with respect to the assets of such plans, and holds fiduciaries liable if they fail to satisfy fiduciary standards of conduct.
In April 2016, the Department of Labor (“DOL”) issued the “fiduciary” rule which could have a material impact on FGL, its products, distribution, and business model. The rule provides that persons who render investment advice for a fee or other compensation with respect to an employer plan or individual retirement account (“IRA”) are fiduciaries of that plan or IRA. The rule expands the definition of fiduciary under ERISA to apply to insurance agents who advise and sell products to IRA owners. As a result, commissioned insurance agents selling FGL’s IRA products must qualify for a prohibited transaction exemption, either the newly introduced Best Interest Contract Exemption (BICE) or amended PTE 84-24. When fully implemented, BICE would apply to fixed indexed annuities and amended PTE 84-24 would apply to fixed rate annuities. The rule and exemptions have been the subject of much controversy and various actions have been taken by DOL to delay and reconsider aspects of the rule and exemptions. The rule took effect June 2016 and was scheduled to become applicable in April 2017 but the “applicability date” was delayed by DOL for 60 days from April 10, 2017 to June 9, 2017. DOL also acted to delay many aspects of the prohibited transaction exemption requirements during a transition period from June 9, 2017 to January 1, 2018 provided the agent (and if applicable, financial institution) comply with “impartial conduct standards.” The impartial conduct standards essentially require the sale to be in the “best interest” of the client, misleading statements not be made, and compensation be reasonable. More recently, DOL has proposed extending the transition period to July 1, 2019 which at the present time is still under consideration. Industry continues its efforts to overturn the rule in court actions and Congress continues to consider related legislation but the success or failure of these efforts cannot be predicted. Assuming the rule is not overturned and the requirements of the exemptions were to be implemented fully, the impact on the financial services industry generally and on FGL and its business in particular is difficult to assess. FGL believes however it could have an adverse effect on sales of annuity products to IRA owners particularly in the independent agent distribution channel. A significant portion of FGL’s annuity sales are to IRAs. Compliance with the prohibited transaction exemptions when fully phased in would likely require additional supervision of agents, cause changes to compensation practices and product offerings, and increase litigation risk, all of which could adversely impact FGL’s business, results of operations and/or financial condition. FGL Insurance will continue to monitor developments closely and believes it is prepared to execute implementation plans as necessary to meet the rule and exemption requirements on the requisite applicability dates.
Employees
As of September 30, 2017, FGL had approximately 299 employees. FGL believes that it has a good relationship with its employees.
FGL Available Information
For information regarding FGL see the remaining section of this report. For additional information regarding FGL, including information in addition to that included in HRG’s SEC reports and public announcements, we direct you to FGL’s announcements and filings made with the SEC, including FGL’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for Fiscal 2017. You should follow and read the SEC filings, press releases and other public statements made by FGL and its representatives, as we expect that they will make additional information available through these channels.
FGL’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act are made available free of charge on or through FGL’s website at home.fglife.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.
The information on FGL’s website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this report or incorporated into any other filings HRG or FGL makes with the SEC and FGL’s reports are not and shall not be deemed to be part of this report. You may read and copy any materials FGL files with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website that contains FGL’s reports and other information at www.sec.gov.


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Front Street
Front Street, a Delaware corporation and a subsidiary of HRG, holds all of the equity of Front Street Re Ltd., a Bermuda company (“Front Street Bermuda”) and Front Street Cayman, an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and subsidiary of HRG. Front Street Bermuda was formed in March 2010 to act as a long-term reinsurer. Front Street Cayman was formed in the Cayman Islands and on October 24, 2012, received from the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority a license to carry on business as an Unrestricted Class “B” Insurer that permits Front Street Cayman to conduct offshore direct and reinsurance business. Front Street Bermuda and Front Street Cayman are parties to reinsurance transactions.
On December 31, 2012, following regulatory approval, FGL Insurance entered into a coinsurance agreement (the “Cayman Reinsurance Agreement”) with Front Street Cayman. Pursuant to the Cayman Reinsurance Agreement, Front Street Cayman reinsured a 10% quota share percentage of certain FGL Insurance annuity liabilities of approximately $1.0 billion and the funds withheld assets are $1 billion. Under the terms of the Cayman Reinsurance Agreement, Front Street Cayman paid an initial ceding allowance of $15.0 million which was determined to be fair and reasonable according to an independent third-party actuarial firm. The Cayman Reinsurance Agreement is on a funds withheld basis, meaning that funds are withheld by FGL Insurance from the coinsurance premium owed to Front Street Cayman as collateral for Front Street Cayman’s payment obligations. Accordingly, the collateral assets remain under the ultimate ownership of FGL Insurance. As of September 30, 2017, ceded reserves were $1.0 billion.
Effective September 17, 2014, FGL Insurance entered into a second reinsurance treaty with Front Street Cayman whereby FGL Insurance ceded 30% of any new business of its MYGA block of business on a funds withheld basis. This treaty was subsequently terminated as to new business effective April 30, 2015 but will remain in effect for policies ceded to Front Street Cayman with an effective date between September 17, 2014 and April 30, 2015.
On December 16, 2013, Front Street Cayman closed a reinsurance treaty with Bankers Life Insurance Company. Under the terms of the treaty, Bankers Life Insurance Company ceded annuity business to Front Street Cayman, on a funds withheld basis. On October 31, 2014, Front Street Cayman purchased Ability Re from Ability Re Holdings. The Ability Re acquisition consisted of long-term care reinsurance business. The acquired reinsurance agreements complement Front Street Cayman’s existing in force long-duration insurance liabilities. During Fiscal 2015, Front Street Cayman also closed three additional reinsurance transactions with unaffiliated parties. At September 30, 2017 and 2016, Front Street had $742.7 million and $671.6 million, respectively, of funds withheld receivables and $716.1 million and $631.8 million, respectively, of insurance reserves related to reinsurance transactions with third parties.
On May 24, 2017, Front Street entered into the Front Street Purchase Agreement pursuant to which, subject to the terms and conditions set forth therein, Front Street has agreed to sell to CF/FGL US all of the issued and outstanding shares of the Acquired Companies. The purchase price is $65.0 million, subject to customary adjustments for transaction expenses. The definitive documentation contains customary representations, warranties and indemnification obligations. In addition, at the closing of the Front Street Sale, $6.5 million of the purchase price will be deposited in escrow for a period of 15 months (as extended to satisfy pending claims at such time) to support certain indemnification obligations of Front Street to CF/FGL US. The required regulatory approvals in connection with the transaction have been received and the closing of the transaction is expected to take place before the end of calendar year 2017, subject to the satisfaction of other customary closing conditions, including the consummation of the FGL Merger. The closing of the FGL Merger is not conditioned upon the closing of the Front Street Sale. Prior to the execution of the Front Street Purchase Agreement, the operations of Front Street were reported in the Company’s Insurance segment.
In addition, on May 24, 2017, HRG, FS Holdco II Ltd. (“FS Holdco”), CF Corp and CF/FGL US entered into an agreement (the “338 Agreement”) pursuant to which CF/FGL US agreed that FS Holdco may, at its option, cause CF/FGL US and FS Holdco to make a joint election under Section 338(h)(10) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, with respect to the FGL Merger and the deemed share purchases of FGL’s subsidiaries (the “338 Tax Election”). Pursuant to the 338 Agreement, if FS Holdco elects to make the 338 Tax Election, it will be required to pay CF/FGL US $30.0 million, plus additional specified amounts, in excess of $6.0 million, determined by reference to FGL’s incremental current tax costs attributable to the 338 Tax Election, if any, and CF/FGL US will be required to pay FS Holdco additional specified amounts, in excess of $6.0 million, determined by reference to FGL’s incremental current tax savings attributable to the 338 Tax Election, if any. As of the date hereof, the Company expects to exercise the 338 Tax Election. As of September 30, 2017, HRG had approximately $1,840.2 million of gross U.S. net operating loss (“NOL”) and capital loss carryforwards - also see Part IV, Item 15. Note 18, Income Taxes to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report. If the 338 Tax Election is made, HRG expects to retain such federal NOL and capital loss carryforwards following the sale of its stock in the FGL Merger. If the Company exercises the 338 Tax Election, at September 30, 2017, the Company estimated to receive a $9.6 million net payment from CF Corp to HRG, which was reflected in the estimated fair value, less cost to sell of FGL as of September 30, 2017. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that the Company will receive the expected benefits of such election. In addition, the estimated payment described herein is preliminary and subject to change, and will not be definitively determined until the FGL Merger is closed and the 338 Tax Election is made and the parties to the 338 Agreement complete their review of the election in accordance with the terms of the 338 Agreement. Also, see Part IV, Item 15. Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies and

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Practices and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, “Use of Estimates” section, to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report.
Strategy
Front Street was formed with the intention of building a flexible and diversified portfolio of life and annuity reinsurance treaties. Front Street may also conduct hedging and other investment activities.
Competition
The reinsurance industry is highly competitive. Front Street competes with major reinsurers, most of which are well established and have significant operating histories, strong financial strength ratings and long-standing client relationships. Front Street’s competitors include Athene Life Re Ltd., Global Atlantic Financial Group Limited, Guggenheim Life and Annuity Company, Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated, Legal & General Reinsurance Company Ltd., and Resolution Life Holdings, Inc., as well as smaller companies and other niche reinsurers. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Related to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses- FGL and Front Street operate in highly competitive industries, which could limit their abilities to gain or maintain their respective positions in the industries and could materially adversely affect their business, financial condition and results of operations.”
Employees
As of September 30, 2017, Front Street had four employees, none of which were represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. Front Street believes that its overall relationship with its employees is good.

Item 1A.     Risk Factors
The following risk factors and the forward-looking statements elsewhere herein should be read carefully in connection with evaluating the business of the Company and its subsidiaries. These risks and uncertainties could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those anticipated. Many of the risk factors described under one heading below may apply to more than one section in which we have grouped them for the purpose of this presentation. As a result, you should consider all of the following factors, together which all of the other information presented herein, in evaluating the business of the Company and its subsidiaries. These risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time in filings and reports that we file with the SEC in the future.

Risks Related to HRG
We are a holding company and our only material assets are our equity interests in our operating subsidiaries and our other investments; as a result, our principal source of revenue and cash flow is distributions from our subsidiaries; our subsidiaries may be limited by law and by contract in making distributions to us.
As a holding company, our only material assets are our cash on hand, the equity interests in our subsidiaries and other investments. As of September 30, 2017, excluding cash, cash equivalents and investments held by our subsidiaries, we had approximately $93.0 million in cash, cash equivalents and investments. Our principal source of revenue and cash flow is distributions from our subsidiaries. Thus, our ability to service our debt, finance our business and pursue our business objectives is dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to generate sufficient net income and cash flows to make upstream cash distributions to us. For example, while we expect annual interest payments on our debt to be approximately $139.6 million in Fiscal 2018, we currently expect to receive approximately $60.7 million of dividends from our subsidiaries’ distributable earnings in Fiscal 2018. We expect such dividends along with our cash on hand, cash equivalents and investments to exceed our expected cash requirements and to satisfy our interest obligations, and general administrative expenses for at least the next twelve months. Depending on a variety of factors, including the general state of the capital markets, operating needs or business strategies, HRG and its subsidiaries may or may be required to raise additional capital through the issuance of equity, debt, or both. There is no assurance, however, that such capital will be available at that time, in the amounts necessary or on terms satisfactory to HRG.
Our subsidiaries are and will continue to be separate legal entities, and although they may be wholly-owned or controlled by us, they have no obligation to make any funds available to us, whether in the form of loans, dividends, distributions or otherwise. The boards of directors of our subsidiaries may consider a range of factors and consider their stockholders’ constituencies (including public stockholders) as a whole when making decisions about dividends or other payments. The ability of our subsidiaries to distribute cash to us will also be subject to, among other things, restrictions that are contained in our subsidiaries’ financing agreements, availability of sufficient funds in such subsidiaries and applicable state laws and regulatory restrictions. Claims of creditors of our subsidiaries generally will have priority as to the assets of such subsidiaries over our claims and claims of our creditors and stockholders. To the extent the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to us could be limited in any way, our liquidity and ability to pursue our business objectives or to take other action that could be beneficial to our businesses, or otherwise fund and conduct our business, could be materially limited.

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As an example, our subsidiary Spectrum Brands is a holding company with limited business operations of its own and its main assets are the capital stock of its subsidiaries, principally SBI. The terms of Spectrum Brands’ indebtedness may limit its ability to pay dividends to Spectrum Brands and to us. See Part I, Item IA.“Risk Factors-Risks Related to Spectrum Brands’ Business-SBI’s substantial indebtedness may limit its financial and operating flexibility, and Spectrum Brands may incur additional debt, which could increase the risks associated with its substantial indebtedness” and Part I, Item IA.“Risk Factors-Risks Related to Spectrum Brands’ Business-Restrictive covenants in the SBI Senior Secured Facilities and the SBI Indentures may restrict SBI’s ability to pursue its business strategies.”
Our subsidiary, FGL, is also a holding company with limited business operations of its own. Its main assets are the capital stock of its subsidiaries, which are principally regulated insurance companies, whose ability to pay dividends is limited by applicable insurance laws. Accordingly, FGL’s payment of dividends is dependent, to a significant extent, on the generation of cash flow by its subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to FGL, whether by dividend or otherwise. FGL’s subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable FGL to meet its obligations and pay dividends. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and legal and contractual restrictions may also limit FGL’s ability to obtain cash from its subsidiaries. See Part I, Item 1.“Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Regulation-Financial Regulation-Dividend and Other Distribution Payment Limitations” in this report. See Part I, Item 1A.“Risk Factors-Risks Related to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses-The agreements and instruments governing FGL’s debt contain significant operating and financial restrictions, which may prevent FGL from capitalizing on business opportunities.” As discussed elsewhere herein, while the agreements governing the FGL Merger permit FGL to pay a regular quarterly cash dividend on its Common Stock in an amount not in excess of $0.065 per share, per quarter, FGL may not pay any other dividends without the consent of CF Corp. In addition, if the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale are consummated, while we will receive the proceeds from the sale of our shares of FGL Common Stock and the Front Street Sale, we will no longer receive dividends from FGL and Front Street.
In addition, our liquidity and ability to pursue business opportunities may be impacted by the capital needs of our subsidiaries. Such entities may require additional capital to maintain or grow their businesses, make payments on their indebtedness or other commitments, and/or make upstream cash distributions.
Furthermore, these restrictions on our subsidiaries ability to pay dividends or distributions may limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness or refinance our existing indebtedness in the future as well. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on our ability to generate future cash flow, and we are dependent on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or pay distributions to us in order for us to generate cash flow.
We are exploring strategic alternatives, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying or completing any strategic alternative or that any such strategic alternative will yield additional value for stockholders.
We have commenced a review of strategic alternatives which could result in, among other things, a merger, a sale or other business combination involving the Company or its assets. There can be no assurance that the exploration of strategic alternatives will result in the identification or consummation of any transaction. The strategic review process may be suspended or terminated at any time without notice. In addition, we may incur substantial expenses associated with identifying and evaluating potential strategic alternatives. The process of exploring strategic alternatives may be time consuming and disruptive to the business operations and the management teams of HRG and/or its subsidiaries. If we are unable to effectively manage the process, the business, financial condition and results of operations of HRG and/or its subsidiaries could be adversely affected. We also cannot assure that any potential transaction or other strategic alternative, if identified, evaluated and consummated, will provide greater value to our stockholders than that reflected in the current stock price. Any potential transaction would be dependent upon a number of factors that may be beyond our control.
We and our subsidiaries may determine not to or may not be successful in identifying and/or consummating a strategic alternative and/or suitable acquisition, sale, merger or other business opportunity, as applicable.
We and/or one or more of our subsidiaries may not be successful in identifying and/or consummating a strategic alternative and/or suitable acquisition, sale, merger or other business opportunity, as applicable, at favorable valuations and other terms. Furthermore, any attractive strategic alternatives, acquisition, sale, merger or other business opportunities may be limited or prohibited by applicable regulatory regimes. Any future strategic alternative acquisition, sale, merger or business opportunity may also require a substantial amount of our or our subsidiaries’ management’s time and may be difficult to successfully execute. Any such failure could have a material adverse effect on our or our subsidiaries’ results of operations and financial condition and our or our subsidiaries’ ability to service our respective debt.
Even if we or our subsidiaries do execute a strategic alternative, acquisition, sale, merger or other business opportunity, as applicable, there is no assurance that we or our subsidiaries will be successful in enhancing our or our subsidiaries’ business or financial condition or that such transaction will be successful.
We and our subsidiaries are dependent on certain key personnel.
We and our subsidiaries are dependent upon certain key personnel who have substantial experience and expertise in our industry and the industries of our subsidiaries and have made significant contributions to our growth and success. We are particularly dependent on the skills, experience and efforts of our Chief Executive Officer, Joseph S. Steinberg, and Ehsan Zargar, our

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Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel. As a result of their positions with our Company, Mr. Steinberg and Mr. Zargar have significant influence over our business strategy and make most of the significant policy and managerial decisions of our Company. The loss of Mr. Steinberg or Mr. Zargar or other key personnel, or limitations on their involvement in our business, or the loss of one or more of our subsidiaries’ other key personnel, or the concurrent loss of several of these individuals or any negative public perception with respect to these individuals, could have a material adverse effect on our and our subsidiaries’ business or operating results.
We and our subsidiaries may not be able to attract and retain skilled people.
Our success and our subsidiaries’ success depend, in large part, on our and their ability to attract new personnel, retain and motivate our and their existing employees, and continue to compensate such personnel competitively. Competition for the best personnel in most activities in which we and our subsidiaries engage can be intense, and we may not be able to hire these people or retain them. We recently commenced a process to review strategic alternatives for HRG and/or its assets. Such process may negatively impact our and/or our subsidiaries’ ability to retain or hire key personnel. Our and/or our subsidiaries’ business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected if we or they lose any of these persons and are unable to attract and retain qualified replacements.
Our subsidiaries operate in highly-competitive industries, limiting their ability to gain or maintain their positions in their respective industries.
Many of our subsidiaries’ competitors possess greater technical, human, financial and other resources, or more local industry knowledge, or greater access to capital, than our subsidiaries do. These factors may place our subsidiaries at a competitive disadvantage in successfully completing future acquisitions and investments.
Our subsidiaries also face competition from both traditional and new market entrants. See risk factors related to Spectrum and FGL herein.
We and our subsidiaries could consume resources in pursuing strategic alternatives, acquisitions, business opportunities, dispositions, financings or capital market transactions, as applicable, that are not consummated, which could materially adversely affect our business.
We and our subsidiaries anticipate that the investigation of strategic alternatives, acquisition, disposition, financing or capital market transactions, and the negotiation, drafting, and execution of relevant agreements, disclosure documents, and other instruments, with respect to such transactions, will require substantial management time and attention and substantial costs for financial advisors, accountants, attorneys and other advisors. If a decision is made not to consummate a specific transaction, the costs incurred up to that point for the proposed transaction likely would not be recoverable. Furthermore, even if an agreement is reached relating to a specific transaction, we may fail to consummate the transaction for any number of reasons, including those beyond our control. Any such event could consume significant management time and result in a loss to us of the related costs incurred, which could adversely affect our financial position and our business.
While, as of the date of this report, we expect to exercise the 338 Tax Election and to receive tax benefits from making such election there can be no assurance that such an election will be made or that we will receive any of the benefits from such an election.
On May 24, 2017, HRG, FS Holdco, CF Corp and CF/FGL US entered into the 338 Agreement pursuant to which CF/FGL US agreed that FS Holdco may, at its option, cause CF/FGL US and FS Holdco to make the 338 Tax Election. Pursuant to the 338 Agreement, if FS Holdco elects to make the 338 Tax Election, it will be required to pay CF/FGL US $30.0 million, plus additional specified amounts, in excess of $6.0 million, determined by reference to FGL’s incremental current tax costs attributable to the 338 Tax Election, if any, and CF/FGL US will be required to pay FS Holdco additional specified amounts, in excess of $6.0 million, determined by reference to FGL’s incremental current tax savings attributable to the 338 Tax Election, if any. As of the date hereof, the Company expects to exercise the 338 Tax Election. As of September 30, 2017, HRG had approximately $1,840.2 million of gross U.S. NOLs and capital loss carryforwards - also see Part IV, Item 15. Note 18, Income Taxes to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report. If the 338 Tax Election is made, HRG expects to retain such federal NOL and capital loss carryforwards following the sale of its stock in the FGL Merger. If the Company exercises the 338 Tax Election, at September 30, 2017, the Company estimated to receive a $9.6 million net payment from CF Corp to HRG, which was reflected in the estimated fair value, less cost to sell of FGL as of September 30, 2017. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that the Company will receive the expected benefits of such election. In addition, the estimated payment described herein is preliminary and subject to change, and will not be definitively determined until the FGL Merger is closed and the 338 Tax Election is made and the parties to the 338 Agreement complete their review of the election in accordance with the terms of the 338 Agreement. Also, see Part IV, Item 15. Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies and Practices and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, “Use of Estimates” section, to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report.

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Covenants in certain of our material instruments limit, and other future instruments may limit our ability to operate our business.
The indenture governing our 7.875% Notes (the “7.875% Notes Indenture”), and the indenture governing our 7.750% Notes (the “7.750% Notes Indenture” and, collectively with the 7.875% Notes Indenture, the “Indentures”) contain, and any of our other future financing agreements may contain, covenants imposing operating and financial restrictions on our business. The Indentures require us to satisfy certain financial tests, including minimum liquidity and collateral coverage ratios. If we fail to meet or satisfy any of these covenants (after applicable cure periods), we would be in default and noteholders (through the trustee or collateral agent, as applicable) could elect to declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable, enforce their interests in the collateral pledged and restrict our ability to make additional borrowings. These agreements may also contain cross-default provisions, so that if a default occurs under any one agreement, the lenders under the other agreements could also declare a default. The covenants and restrictions in the Indentures, subject to specified exceptions, restrict our, and in certain cases, our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness;
create liens or engage in sale and leaseback transactions;
pay dividends or make distributions in respect of capital stock;
make certain restricted payments;
sell assets;
engage in transactions with affiliates, except on an arms-length basis; or
consolidate or merge with, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person.
Similarly, the 2017 Loan imposes certain covenants and restrictions on us and our activities. In addition, the Certificate of Designation provides CF Turul LLC (“CF Turul”), an affiliate of funds managed by Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”), with consent and voting rights with respect to certain of the matters referred to above and certain corporate governance rights.
These restrictions may interfere with our ability to obtain financings or to engage in other business activities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. Moreover, a default under one of our subsidiaries’ financing agreements may cause a default on our debt and our other financing arrangements.
Finally, Spectrum Brands’ and FGL’s stock are, directly or indirectly, pledged as collateral under our 7.875% Notes and the 2017 Loan; foreclosure on a sufficient number of Spectrum Brands stock or FGL stock pledged as collateral would constitute a change of control under certain of SBI’s debt documents or FGL’s debt documents, as applicable. Upon a change of control under those debt documents, SBI or FGL, as applicable, is required to offer to repurchase their notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of their notes, plus accrued interest. In the event holders of the SBI Notes (as defined below) or FGH Notes exercise remedies in connection with a default, their claims to SBI’s or FGH’s assets, respectively, would have priority over the holders of our 7.875% Notes.
Financing covenants could adversely affect our financial health and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of September 30, 2017, our total outstanding indebtedness was approximately $1.8 billion. As of September 30, 2017, the total liabilities of Spectrum Brands were approximately $5.6 billion, including trade payables. As of September 30, 2017, the total liabilities of FGL were approximately $26.7 billion, including approximately $20.8 billion in annuity contractholder funds, approximately $3.4 billion in future policy benefits, approximately $300.0 million of indebtedness under the FGL Notes and $105.0 million on an unsecured revolving credit facility. As of September 30, 2017, the insurance liabilities of Front Street related to reinsurance agreements with third parties were approximately $716.1 million. As of September 30, 2017, the total liabilities of Salus were approximately $75.9 million. As of September 30, 2017, the total liabilities of HGI Energy were $92.0 million. Our and our subsidiaries’ significant indebtedness and other financing arrangements could have material consequences. For example, they could:
make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our outstanding and other future debt obligations;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions or a downturn in our business;
impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, investments, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows to the payment to our financing sources, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, investments, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes; and
place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors.
Any of these risks could impact our ability to fund our operations or limit our ability to expand our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our ability to make payments on our financial obligations may depend upon the future performance of our operating subsidiaries and their ability to generate cash flow in the future, which are subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive,

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legislative, regulatory, and other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will generate sufficient cash flow from our operating subsidiaries, or that future borrowings will be available to us, in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our financial obligations or to fund our other liquidity needs. If the cash flow from our operating subsidiaries is insufficient, we may take actions, such as delaying or reducing investments or acquisitions, attempting to restructure or refinance our financial obligations prior to maturity, selling assets or operations or seeking additional equity capital to supplement cash flow. However, we may be unable to take any of these actions on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Future financing activities may adversely affect our leverage and financial condition.
Subject to the limitations set forth in the Indentures and 2017 Loan agreement, we and our subsidiaries may incur additional indebtedness and issue dividend-bearing redeemable equity interests. We may incur substantial additional financial obligations to enable us to execute on our business objectives. These obligations could result in:
default and foreclosure on our assets if our operating revenues after an investment or acquisition are insufficient to repay our financial obligations;
acceleration of our obligations to repay the financial obligations even if we make all required payments when due if we breach certain covenants that require the maintenance of certain financial ratios or reserves without a waiver or renegotiation of that covenant;
our immediate payment of all amounts owed, if any, if such financial obligations are payable on demand;
our inability to obtain necessary additional financing if such financial obligations contain covenants restricting our ability to obtain such financing while the financial obligations remain outstanding;
our inability to pay dividends on our capital stock;
using a substantial portion of our cash flow to pay principal and interest or dividends on our financial obligations, which will reduce the funds available for dividends on our Common Stock if declared, expenses, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
limitations on our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our business and in the industries in which we operate;
an event of default that triggers a cross default with respect to other financial obligations, including our indebtedness;
increased vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry, financial, competitive legislative, regulatory and other conditions and adverse changes in government regulation; and
limitations on our ability to borrow additional amounts for expenses, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our strategy and other purposes and other disadvantages compared to our competitors.
We and our subsidiaries rely extensively on our information technology (“IT”) systems, networks and services, including Internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and tools and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, some of which are managed, hosted, provided and/or used by third-parties or vendors, to assist in conducting our and our subsidiaries’ businesses.
Our and our subsidiaries’ IT systems have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to computer viruses or other malicious codes, unauthorized access attempts, phishing and other cyber-attacks. We and our subsidiaries continue to assess potential threats and make investments seeking to address these threats, including monitoring of networks and systems and upgrading skills, employee training and security policies for us and our subsidiaries, and our respective third-party providers. However, because the techniques used in these attacks change frequently and may be difficult to detect for periods of time, we or our subsidiaries may face difficulties in anticipating and implementing adequate preventative measures. Accordingly, there can be no guarantee that our security efforts will prevent breaches or breakdowns to ours, our subsidiaries’ or our third-party providers’ databases or systems. If the IT systems, networks or service providers we and our subsidiaries rely upon fails to function properly, or if we, our subsidiaries or one of our third-party providers suffer a loss, significant unavailability of or disclosure of our business or stakeholder information, and our and our subsidiaries’ businesses continuity plans do not effectively address these failures on a timely basis, we and/or our subsidiaries may be exposed to reputational, competitive and business harm as well as litigation and regulatory action. The costs and operational consequences of responding to breaches and implementing remediation measures could be significant.
We have made significant investments in publicly traded companies. Changes in the market prices of the securities we own, particularly during times of volatility in security prices, can have a material impact on the value of our business.
We have made significant investments in publicly traded companies. Changes in the market prices of the publicly traded securities of these entities could have a material impact on an investor’s perception of the aggregate value of our Common Stock and on the value of the assets we have pledged and can pledge in the future to creditors for debt financing, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to incur additional debt or finance future acquisitions.

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Certain of our stockholders hold a significant portion of our outstanding voting stock; decisions by such stockholders, including the decision to sell their HRG securities, could adversely affect our financial results and liquidity.
Leucadia National Corporation (“Leucadia”) and CF Turul beneficially own a significant portion of our outstanding Common Stock and have appointed representatives to our and our subsidiaries’ Board and committees thereof. Because of this, such persons may exercise significant influence over our business and affairs, including over matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, such as the election of directors, the removal of directors, and approval of significant corporate transactions. This influence and actual control may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire HRG or our subsidiaries because any such transaction would likely require the consent of Leucadia and CF Turul. See also Part I, Item 1A.“Risk Factors- Provisions in our organizational documents and applicable regulations may discourage the takeover of our company, may make removal of our management more difficult and may depress our stock price.”
Matters not directly related to us can nevertheless affect Leucadia’s and CF Turul’s respective decisions to maintain, decrease or increase their investments in us. Leucadia and CF Turul may at any time decide to dispose of all or a portion of their investment in us. Subject to compliance with the restrictions contained in our charter, the sale or other disposition of a certain portion of our voting stock could cause the Company and its subsidiaries to experience a change of control for certain purposes, which may accelerate certain of the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ indebtedness and other obligations, allow certain counterparties to terminate their agreements and/or negatively impact our and our subsidiaries’ tax attributes. Among other things, such a change of control could result in a “change of control” under our agreements governing our indebtedness. No assurance can be provided that upon the occurrence of such an event, the Company will be able to obtain the required waivers, repay its indebtedness or secure alternative arrangements. See also Part I, Item IA. Risk Factors-Future sales of substantial amounts of our Common Stock may adversely affect our market price.”
Our officers, directors, stockholders and their respective affiliates may have a pecuniary interest in certain transactions in which we are involved, and may also compete with us.
We have not adopted a policy that expressly prohibits our directors, officers, stockholders or affiliates from having a direct or indirect pecuniary interest in any transaction to which we are a party or have an interest, nor do we have a policy that expressly prohibits any such persons from engaging for their own account in business activities of the types conducted by us or our subsidiaries. We have engaged in transactions in which such persons have an interest and, subject to the terms of the Indentures and other applicable covenants in other financing arrangements or other agreements, may in the future enter into additional transactions in which such persons have an interest. In addition, such parties may have an interest in certain transactions such as strategic partnerships or joint ventures in which we are involved, and may also compete with us.
In the course of their other business activities, certain conflicts of interest may arise with respect to HRG, its significant stockholders, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their respective directors, officers and affiliates.
Certain of our and our significant stockholders, affiliates or subsidiaries’ officers and directors may become aware of business opportunities which may be appropriate for presentation to us as well as the other entities with which they are or may be affiliated. Due to their affiliations with other entities, such persons may have obligations to present potential business opportunities to those entities, which could cause additional conflicts of interest. Accordingly, such persons may not present otherwise attractive business combination opportunities to us, our subsidiaries or investees.
In addition, HRG currently has a number of, and may in the future acquire, additional significant stockholders, affiliates or subsidiaries (“Affiliated Persons”), some of which engage in business dealings with each other and HRG from time to time. As a result, conflicts of interest could arise with respect to transactions involving business dealings between HRG and the Affiliated Persons or between and among the Affiliated Persons, including potential business transactions and business services. It may not be possible to equally favor HRG and its subsidiaries in these business dealings, and the resolution of these conflicts may not always be equally in the best interest of HRG and its subsidiaries, which could have a material effect on HRG’s and one or more of HRG’s subsidiaries’ financial condition and results of operations.
Future dispositions or acquisitions may not require a stockholder vote and may be material to us or our subsidiaries.
Any future dispositions or acquisitions by us or our subsidiaries could be material in size and scope, and our and/or our subsidiaries’ stockholders and potential investors may have limited information about the relevant disposition or acquisition upon which to base a decision whether to invest in our Common Stock and/or stock of our subsidiaries. In any event, depending upon the size and structure of any dispositions or acquisitions, stockholders are generally expected to not have the opportunity to vote on the transaction, and may not have access to any information about any such transaction until the transaction is completed and a report is filed with the Commission disclosing the nature of such transaction and/or business. Even if a stockholder vote is required for any future transactions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws allow for our stockholders to approve such transactions by written consent, which may result in only our large stockholders having an opportunity to vote on such transactions.

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Future acquisitions or dispositions or other business opportunities could involve unknown risks that could harm our business and adversely affect our financial condition.
We have in the past, and may in the future, make acquisitions or dispositions or pursue other business activities, directly or indirectly through our subsidiaries, that involve a number of risks. In the case of acquisitions, those risks may relate to the particular industry in which the business or acquisition targets operate, including risks in industries with which we are not familiar or experienced with, risks that are unknown to us and the financial, legal and operational risks related to such acquisition. In the case of disposition, those risks may relate to employment matters, counterparties, regulators and other stakeholders in the disposed business, risks unknown to us and risks related to the management of our business and the financial, legal and operational risks related to such disposition. Any such risks may result in one or more costly disputes or litigation. Although we intend to conduct extensive business, financial, operational and legal due diligence in connection with the evaluation any such opportunity, there can be no assurance our due diligence investigations will identify every matter that could have a material adverse effect on us. The realization of any such risks could expose us to unanticipated costs and liabilities and prevent or limit us from realizing the projected benefits of such acquisition, disposition or other business activity, which could adversely affect our financial condition and liquidity and our ability to service our debt.
Provisions in our organizational documents and applicable regulations may discourage the takeover of our company, may make removal of our management more difficult and may depress our stock price.
Our organizational documents contain provisions that may have an anti-takeover effect and inhibit a change in our management. They could also have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our Common Stock. As a result, these provisions could prevent our stockholders from receiving a premium for their shares of Common Stock above the prevailing market prices. These provisions include:
the authority of the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) to issue, without stockholder approval, up to 10,000,000 shares of our preferred stock with such terms as our Board may determine;
special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of our Board or by our Corporate Secretary upon delivery of a written request executed by three directors (or, if there are fewer than three directors in office at that time, by all incumbent directors);
a staggered Board, as a result of which only one of the three classes of directors is elected each year;
advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our Board, or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings;
restrictions in our certificate of incorporation that impose limitations on the transfer of our securities, which are intended to protect our net operating losses and other tax attributes; 
the absence of cumulative voting rights;
subject to any special rights of the holders of our preferred stock may have to elect directors, removal of incumbent directors only for cause.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that restrict mergers and other business combinations with an “Interested Stockholder” (as defined therein) or that may otherwise have the effect of preventing or delaying a change of control of our company. Our Board has waived the application of this provision to Leucadia and CF Turul. Also see Part I, Item IA. “Risk Related to HRG-HRG and certain of its subsidiaries, including Spectrum Brands and FGL, may not be able to fully utilize their net operating loss and other tax carryforward; restrictions in HRG’s certificate of incorporation intended to protect net operating losses and other tax attributes may limit transfer of HRG’s securities” for the restrictions on certain transfers of our Common Stock.
Under most states’ statutes, including those of Iowa and New York, acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. Accordingly, any person who acquires 10% or more of the voting securities of HRG, FGL, FGH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance without the prior approval of the insurance regulators of Iowa and New York will be in violation of those states’ laws and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the relevant insurance regulator, prohibiting the voting of those securities and/or other actions determined by the relevant insurance regulator. Any such investors will need to obtain approval to divest of their controlling interest, except for Leucadia, CF Turul and HCP, each of whom has obtained the necessary regulatory approval. The requirement to obtain such insurance regulatory approval will no longer apply to the acquisition of our shares of Common Stock if our interest in FGL is disposed of pursuant to the FGL Merger Agreement.
Our restated bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our restated bylaws provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our restated

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bylaws, any action to interpret, apply, enforce, or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
The nature of certain of our assets is volatile and their value may fluctuate or change over short periods of time.
We are a holding company and as such, hold, directly or indirectly, various securities and debt instruments. Investments in such securities and debt instruments involves significant risk, including the risk of partial or total loss of the value of such investments, particularly in light of uncertain domestic and global political, credit and financial market conditions. Any such loss may have a material adverse effect on our and our subsidiaries’ liquidity and results of operations, and can adversely affect our and our subsidiaries’ ability to service our debt and carry out our business strategy.
In addition, some of our subsidiaries are privately-held companies and some of our assets are illiquid securities, the fair values of which are not readily determinable. We value these securities for various purposes based on a number of factors, including, without limitation, third-party independent valuations. Because valuations, and particularly valuations of private and illiquid securities, are inherently uncertain, such valuations may fluctuate significantly over time and may differ materially from the values that would have been obtained if an active market existed for these securities.
Disruption or failures of our or our subsidiaries’ information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our and our subsidiaries’ information technology systems are susceptible to security breaches, operational data loss, general disruptions in functionality, and may not be compatible with new technology. We and our subsidiaries depend on information technology systems for the effectiveness of operations and to interface with those with whom we and our subsidiaries conduct business, as well as to maintain financial and other records. Disruption or failures of such information technology systems could impair our or our subsidiaries’ ability to effectively and timely conduct our operations and maintain financial records, which could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our ability to dispose of securities and debt interests may be limited by restrictive stockholder agreements, by the federal securities laws and by other regulations or market conditions.
When we acquire securities or debt instruments directly or indirectly through subsidiaries, we acquire securities or debt instruments that are illiquid and, when we acquire less than 100% of the equity interests of a company, we may be subject to restrictive terms of agreements with other equityholders. In addition, we may hold, and may in the future hold, securities and debt instruments that are not registered under the Securities Act and/or (as is the case with respect to our shares of Spectrum Brands and FGL) restricted securities under the Securities Act. Our ability to sell such securities and debt instruments could be limited by market conditions and the illiquid nature of such securities and debt instruments and could be limited to sales pursuant to: (i) an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering the resale of those securities; (ii) Rule 144 under the Securities Act, which, among other things, requires a specified holding period and limits the manner and volume of sales; (iii) another applicable exemption under the Securities Act; or (iv) approval of certain regulators. We hold, and may in the future hold, large amounts of the securities or debt instruments of a particular issuer, which may limit our ability to sell such securities or debt instruments on economically attractive terms or at all. The inability to sell such securities or debt instruments when desired or necessary may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity, which could adversely affect our ability to service our debt and our ability to carry out our business strategy.
We may suffer adverse consequences if we are deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act and we may be required to incur significant costs to avoid investment company status and our activities may be restricted.
We believe that we are not an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”) and we intend to continue to make acquisitions and other investments in a manner so as not to be an investment company. The Investment Company Act contains substantive legal requirements that regulate the manner in which investment companies are permitted to conduct their business activities. If the Commission or a court were to disagree with us, we could be required to register as an investment company. This would negatively affect our ability to consummate acquisitions; subject us to disclosure and accounting guidance geared toward investment, rather than operating companies; limit our ability to borrow money, issue options, issue multiple classes of stock and debt, and engage in transactions with affiliates; and require us to undertake significant costs and expenses to meet the disclosure and regulatory requirements to which we would be subject as a registered investment company. In order not to be regulated as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, unless we can qualify for an exemption, we must ensure that we are engaged primarily in a business other than investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities (as defined in the Investment Company Act) and that we do not own or acquire “investment securities” having a value exceeding 40% of the value of our total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. To ensure that majority-owned investments, such as Spectrum Brands, do not become categorized as

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“investment securities,” we may need to make additional investments in these subsidiaries to offset any dilution of our interest that would otherwise cause such a subsidiary to cease to be majority-owned. We may also need to forego acquisitions that we would otherwise make or retain, or dispose of investments that we might otherwise hold.
There may be tax consequences associated with our acquisition, investment, holding and disposition of operating businesses and other assets.
We may incur significant taxes in connection with effecting acquisitions or investments, holding, receiving payments from, and operating businesses and other assets and disposing of operating businesses and other assets. Our decisions to make a particular acquisition, sell a particular asset or increase or decrease a particular investment may be based on considerations other than the timing and amount of taxes owed as a result.
HRG and certain of its subsidiaries, including Spectrum Brands and FGL, may not be able to fully utilize their net operating loss and other tax carryforward; restrictions in HRG’s certificate of incorporation intended to protect net operating losses and other tax attributes may limit transfer of HRG’s securities
As of September 30, 2017, HRG and Spectrum Brands had U.S. Federal net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards of approximately $1,524.3 million (inclusive of $151.1 million attributable to FGL’s non-life Insurance subsidiaries) and $703.5 million, respectively that, if unused, will expire through year 2037. Spectrum Brands had tax benefits related to U.S. state NOL carryforwards of approximately $70.8 million at September 30, 2017, that, if unused, will expire through year 2037. As of September 30, 2017, HRG and Spectrum Brands had U.S. Federal capital loss carryforwards of approximately $315.9 million (inclusive of $15.0 million attributable to FGL’s non-life Insurance subsidiaries) and $19.8 million, respectively that, if unused, will expire through year 2022; and Spectrum Brands had foreign loss carryforwards of approximately $169.2 million, which will expire beginning in Fiscal 2018. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-While, as of the date of this report, we expect to exercise the 338 Tax Election and to receive tax benefits from making such election there can be no assurance that such an election will be made or that we will receive any of the benefits from such an election.
The ability of HRG and its subsidiaries (including any future subsidiary) to utilize their NOL and other tax carryforwards to reduce taxable income in future years may be limited for various reasons, including if projected future taxable income is insufficient to recognize the full benefit of such NOL carryforwards prior to their expiration. Additionally, the ability of HRG and its subsidiaries (including any future subsidiary) to fully use these tax assets could also be adversely affected if the respective companies were deemed to have an “ownership change” within the meaning of Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. An ownership change is generally defined as a greater than 50% increase in equity ownership by “5% shareholders” (as that term is defined for purposes of Sections 382 and 383 of the Code) in any three-year period. HRG and its subsidiaries (including Spectrum Brands and FGL) have experienced ownership changes that have limited the utilization of a portion of their NOL carryforwards and other carryforward tax attributes. Future ownership changes, including transfers or dispositions of our stock by HCP or other stockholders and conversions or redemptions of our preferred stock, could, depending on their magnitude, result in ownership changes that would trigger the imposition of additional limitations on the utilization of these tax assets under Sections 382 and 383. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that, in the future, HRG and/or its subsidiaries (including any future subsidiary) will not experience additional limitations on utilizing the tax benefits of their NOL and other tax carryforwards. Such limitations could have a material adverse effect on HRG and/or its subsidiaries’ results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
In order to reduce the likelihood that future transactions in our Common Stock will result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code (“Section 382”), on July 13, 2015, following receipt of stockholder approval, we filed an amendment to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation (the “Charter”). The Charter amendment is designed to reduce the likelihood of an “ownership change” under U.S. federal tax laws by restricting certain direct and indirect acquisitions and dispositions of our Common Stock. The restrictions imposed under the amendment apply to any direct and indirect holders of, or persons who would become holders of, 4.9% or more of our Common Stock (and certain other interests in the Company that are treated as stock for U.S. federal tax purposes). As of July 13, 2015, which is the date of the adoption of the Charter amendment, any direct or indirect transfer of our shares of Common Stock (or such other Company securities) in violation of the restrictions will be void as of the date of the purported transfer as to the purported transferee, and the purported transferee will not be recognized as the owner of such securities for any purpose, including for purposes of voting and receiving dividends or other distributions. These restrictions may adversely affect the ability of certain holders of our Common Stock to dispose of or acquire shares of our Common Stock and may have an adverse impact on the liquidity of our Common Stock generally.
Our Board will have the power to determine and interpret, in its sole discretion, all matters necessary for assessing compliance with the provisions of the Charter transfer restrictions. These matters include (i) the identification of a 4.9% stockholder, (ii) whether a transfer is a prohibited transfer, (iii) the percentage stock ownership interest in the Company of any person for the purposes of Section 382, (iv) whether an instrument constitutes a security of the Company, (v) the amount or fair market value due to a purported transferee pursuant to the alternate procedure described in the Charter, (vi) the interpretation of the provisions of the Charter amendment and (vii) any other matters which our Board determines to be relevant. To the extent permitted by law, the good faith determination of the Board on such matters will be conclusive and binding on all persons and entities for purposes of the Charter transfer restrictions.

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In connection with its consideration of the Charter transfer restrictions, the Board has provided to CF Turul, the beneficial owner of 16.4% of our issued and outstanding Common Stock as of November 14, 2017, its approval, as required under the Charter transfer restrictions, to make, subject to specified limitations and other terms and conditions, one or more distributions of our shares of Common Stock on a substantially pro rata basis to the members of CF Turul and by such members and their affiliates to the ultimate owners who are not entities sponsored or organized by Fortress Investment Group LLC (such person each, a “Specified Holder”). In addition, the Board has also provided the funds affiliated with HCP, which were at the time a Specified Holder and the beneficial owner of approximately 10.3% of our issued and outstanding Common Stock, its approval, as required under the Charter transfer restrictions, to sell, subject to specified limitations and other terms and conditions, the shares of Common Stock that HCP held. It is our understanding that as of the date of this report HCP has disposed of a substantial amount of its stock and is no longer a Specified Holder.
While the Charter amendment is intended protect the benefits of our NOLs and other tax assets, there can be no assurance that we will not experience future transactions in our Common Stock that results in some or all of our NOLs attributes being lost or limited. For example, (i) our Board can permit a transfer to an acquirer that results in or contributes to an ownership change if it determines that such transfer is in our or our stockholders’ best interests; (ii) a court could find that part or all of the charter transfer restrictions are not enforceable, either in general or as applied to a particular stockholder or fact situation; (iii) certain changes in relationships among our stockholders or other events not proscribed under the Charter amendment could contribute to or cause an ownership change under Section 382; and (iv) an ownership change could be caused or contributed to as a result of our own actions, such as issuing, repurchasing or redeeming shares of our Common Stock, which we remain free to do if our Board determines that it is in our or our stockholders’ best interests to do so.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to document and test our internal controls over financial reporting and to report on our assessment as to the effectiveness of these controls. Any delays or difficulty in satisfying these requirements or negative reports concerning our internal controls could adversely affect our future results of operations and financial condition.
We may in the future discover areas of our internal controls that need improvement, particularly with respect to our or our subsidiaries or businesses that we or our subsidiaries may acquire or subsidiaries that are not presently material to our business but may become material to us in the future. We cannot be certain that we or our subsidiaries will develop, implement, and maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting in the future. As described in “Part II - Item 9A. Controls and Procedures,” FGL identified and, as of September 30, 2017, remediated a material weakness in FGL’s internal controls. With remediation, the Company’s management was able to conclude that its internal control over financial reporting was effective as of September 30, 2017.
In addition, we or our subsidiaries may acquire an entity that was not previously subject to U.S. public company requirements or did not previously prepare financial statements in accordance with the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”) or is not in compliance with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 or other public company reporting obligations applicable to such entity directly or through us. We or our subsidiaries may incur significant additional costs in order to ensure, that after such acquisition, HRG or our subsidiaries continue to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and its other public company requirements, which, in turn, would reduce our earnings and negatively affect our liquidity or cause us to fail to meet our or our subsidiaries’ reporting obligations. In addition, development of an adequate financial reporting system and the internal controls of any such entity to achieve compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 may increase the time and costs necessary to complete any such acquisition or cause us or our subsidiaries to fail to meet our reporting obligations. To the extent any of these newly-acquired entities or any existing entities have deficiencies in their internal controls, it may impact our internal controls.
Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our or our subsidiaries’ operating results or cause us or our subsidiaries to fail to meet our respective reporting obligations. If we or our subsidiaries are unable to conclude that we or our subsidiaries have effective internal controls over financial reporting, or if our or our subsidiaries’ independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us or our subsidiaries with an unqualified report regarding the effectiveness of our or our subsidiaries’ internal controls over financial reporting to the extent required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our or our subsidiaries’ financial statements. Failure to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could potentially subject us or our subsidiaries to sanctions or investigations by the Commission, or other regulatory authorities. In addition, failure to comply with our reporting obligations with the Commission may cause an event of default to occur under the Indentures, or similar instruments governing any debt we or our subsidiaries incur in the future.
Limitations on liability and indemnification matters.
As permitted by Delaware law, we have included in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation a provision to eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages for breach or alleged breach of their fiduciary duties as directors, subject to certain exceptions. Our restated bylaws also provide that we are required to indemnify our directors under certain circumstances, including those circumstances in which indemnification would otherwise be discretionary, and we will be required to advance expenses to our directors as incurred in connection with proceedings against them for which they may be indemnified.

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In addition, we may, by action of our Board, provide indemnification and advance expenses to our officers, employees and agents (other than directors), to directors, officers, employees or agents of a subsidiary of the Company, and to each person serving as a director, officer, partner, member, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, at our request, with the same scope and effect as the indemnification of our directors provided in our restated bylaws.
We and our subsidiaries may be adversely affected by further deterioration in economic conditions.
From December 2007 through June 2009, the U.S. economy was in recession, which lead to a significant reduction in the business activity across a wide range of industries and regions in the U.S. In 2011 and 2012, concern over sovereign debt in Greece, Spain, Italy and certain other European Union countries caused significant fluctuations of the Euro, relative to other currencies, such as the U.S. Dollar. Criticism of excessive national debt among a number of countries has led to credit downgrades of the sovereign debt of several countries and has led to increased concern regarding economic and political uncertainty. Destabilization of the economy could lead to a decrease in consumer confidence, which could cause reductions in discretionary spending and demand for our subsidiary Spectrum Brands’ products. Furthermore, sovereign debt issues could also lead to further significant, and potentially longer-term, economic issues, such as reduced economic growth and devaluation of the Euro against the U.S. Dollar, any of which could adversely affect our and each of our subsidiaries’ business, financial condition and operating results. See the risk factor entitled “Spectrum Brands faces risks relating to the United Kingdom’s 2016 referendum, which called for its exit from the European Union” in this Form 10-K.
We may issue additional shares of Common Stock or preferred stock which would dilute the interests of our stockholders and could present other risks.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of up to 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of November 14, 2017, we had 200,624,864 shares of our Common Stock outstanding. In addition, as of September 30, 2017, we had 8,721,827 shares of Common Stock remaining for issuance pursuant to the HRG Group, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan (formerly, Harbinger Group Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan, as amended (the “2011 Plan”)) and 600 thousand shares of Common Stock remaining for issuance pursuant to the Harbinger Group Inc. 2014 Warrant Plan. If a significant amount of additional stock is issued, such issuance or issuances may impact the price and volatility of our stock.
Price fluctuations in our Common Stock could result from general market and economic conditions and a variety of other factors, including factors that affect the volatility of the common stock of any of our publicly-held subsidiaries.
The trading price of our Common Stock may be highly-volatile and could be subject to fluctuations in response to a number of factors beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations and the performance of our subsidiaries and their competitors;
reaction of the market to our announcement of any future acquisitions, dispositions, or other business opportunities by us or our subsidiaries, including the Company’s review of strategic alternatives and the timing and status of the FGL Merger;
the public’s reaction to our and/or our subsidiaries’ press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the Commission;
changes in general economic conditions;
actions of our historical equity investors, including sales of Common Stock by our significant stockholders, our directors and our executive officers; and
actions by institutional investors or our significant stockholders trading in our stock.
In addition, the trading price of our Common Stock could be subject to fluctuations in response to a number of factors that affect the volatility of the common stock of any of our subsidiaries, such as Spectrum Brands and FGL, which are publicly traded.
Future sales of substantial amounts of our Common Stock may adversely affect our market price.
We have granted registration rights to Leucadia and CF Turul and certain of their transferees under a registration rights agreement, to facilitate the resale of their shares of our Common Stock. Under this registration rights agreement, Leucadia and CF Turul, and certain of their transferees have the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to register the sale of their shares or their permitted transferees’ shares under the federal securities laws. By exercising their registration rights, and selling all or a portion of their shares, Leucadia and CF Turul and their permitted transferees could cause the prevailing market price of our Common Stock to decline. We have filed several registration statements on Form S-3 that have registered the sale of a substantial amount of our Common Stock, from time to time, in secondary offerings by the stockholders listed therein. Furthermore, the shares of our Common Stock owned by Leucadia and CF Turul may also be sold in the public market under Rule 144 of the Securities Act. We have, in the past, issued a substantial amount of shares of preferred stock, the majority of which were

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subsequently converted into shares of our Common Stock. We may issue a substantial amount of preferred stock in the future. If these rights are exercised in full, it might adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.
Future sales of substantial amounts of our Common Stock into the public market, or perceptions in the market that such sales could occur, may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our Common Stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
The market liquidity for our Common Stock is relatively low and may make it difficult to purchase or sell our stock.
The daily trading volume in our Common Stock is volatile and relatively low, which may make it difficult to purchase or sell shares of our Common Stock. Although a more active trading market may develop in the future, there can be no assurance as to the liquidity of any markets that may develop for our Common Stock or the prices at which holders may be able to sell our Common Stock and the limited market liquidity for our stock could affect a stockholder’s ability to sell at a price satisfactory to that stockholder.
From time to time, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to litigation for which we and our subsidiaries may be unable to accurately assess our level of exposure and which, if adversely determined, may have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
We and our subsidiaries are or may become parties to legal proceedings related to our or their current or prior businesses for which, depending on the circumstances, a reserve may not have been established or otherwise provided for or insured against.  There can be no assurance that we will prevail in any litigation in which we or our subsidiaries may become involved, or that our or their insurance coverage will be adequate to cover any or all potential losses. In addition, from time to time, we may decide to settle litigation involving us or our subsidiaries for a variety of reasons and regardless of the perceived merits of the claims related to such litigation. Such settlements may include non-monetary as well as monetary terms. To the extent that we or our subsidiaries sustain losses from such proceedings which are not reserved or otherwise provided for or insured against, our business, results of operations, cash flows and/or financial condition could be materially adversely affected. See Part I, Item 3. “Legal Proceedings.”
Agreements, transactions and litigation involving or resulting from the activities of our predecessor and its former subsidiaries may subject us to future claims or litigation that could materially adversely impact our capital resources.
HRG is the successor to Zapata Corporation, which was a holding company engaged, through its subsidiaries, in a number of business activities and over the course of our existence we have acquired and disposed of a number of businesses. The activities of such entities may subject us to future claims or litigation regardless of the merit of such claims or litigation and the defenses available to us and our subsidiaries. The time and expense that we may be required to dedicate to such matters may be material to us and our subsidiaries and may adversely impact our capital resources. In certain instances, we may have continuing obligations pursuant to certain of these transactions, including obligations to indemnify other parties to agreements, and may be subject to risks resulting from these transactions. See Part I, Item 3. “Legal Proceedings.”

Risks Related to Spectrum Brands’ Business
Spectrum Brands is a parent company with limited business operations of its own. Its main asset is the capital stock of its subsidiaries, including SBI. Spectrum Brands conducts most of its business operations through its subsidiaries and its primary source of cash is and will be distributions from its subsidiaries.
Spectrum Brands’ primary sources of cash are dividends and distributions with respect to its ownership interests in its subsidiaries that are derived from their earnings and cash flow. Spectrum Brands’ and SBI’s subsidiaries might not generate sufficient earnings and cash flow to pay dividends or distributions in the future. Spectrum Brands’ and SBI’s subsidiaries’ payments to their respective parent will be contingent upon their earnings, upon other business considerations and compliance with the terms of SBI’s indebtedness.
SBI substantial indebtedness may limit its financial and operating flexibility, and Spectrum Brands may incur additional debt, which could increase the risks associated with its substantial indebtedness.
SBI has, and expects to continue to have, a significant amount of indebtedness. See Note 13, Debt, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further details. SBI’s substantial indebtedness has had, and could continue to have, material adverse consequences for its business, and may:
require Spectrum Brands to dedicate a large portion of its cash flow to pay principal and interest on its indebtedness, which will reduce the availability of its cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures and other business activities;
increase its vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit its flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in its business and the industry in which Spectrum Brands operates;

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restrict its ability to make strategic acquisitions, dispositions or to exploit business opportunities;
place Spectrum Brands at a competitive disadvantage compared to its competitors that have less debt; and
limit its ability to borrow additional funds (even when necessary to maintain adequate liquidity) or dispose of assets.
Under the SBI Senior Secured Facilities and indentures governing the SBI Notes (together, the “SBI Indentures”), SBI may incur additional indebtedness. If new debt is added to its existing debt levels, the related risks that Spectrum Brands now faces would increase.
Furthermore, a portion of SBI’s debt bears interest at variable rates. If market interest rates increase, the interest rate on SBI’s variable rate debt will increase and will create higher debt service requirements, which would adversely affect SBI’s cash flow and could adversely impact SBI’s results of operations. While SBI may enter into agreements limiting SBI’s exposure to higher debt service requirements, any such agreements may not offer complete protection from this risk.
Restrictive covenants in the SBI Senior Secured Facilities and the SBI Indentures may restrict SBI’s ability to pursue its business strategies.
The SBI Senior Secured Facilities and the SBI Indentures each restrict, among other things, asset dispositions, mergers and acquisitions, dividends, stock repurchases and redemptions, other restricted payments, indebtedness and preferred stock, loans and investments, liens and affiliate transactions. The SBI Senior Secured Facilities and the SBI Indentures also contain customary events of default. These covenants could, among other things, limit SBI’s ability to fund future working capital and capital expenditures, engage in future acquisitions or development activities, or otherwise realize the value of its assets and opportunities fully. In addition, the SBI Senior Secured Facilities and the SBI Indentures require SBI to dedicate a portion of cash flow from operations to payments on debt and also contain borrowing restrictions based on, among other things, Spectrum Brands’ fixed charge coverage ratio. Furthermore, the credit agreement governing the SBI Senior Secured Facilities contains a financial covenant relating to maximum leverage. Such requirements and covenants could limit the flexibility of SBI’s restricted entities in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the industries in which they operate. SBI’s ability to comply with these covenants is subject to certain events outside of its control. If SBI is unable to comply with these covenants, the lenders under the SBI Senior Secured Facilities could terminate their commitments and the lenders under the SBI Senior Secured Facilities or the holders of the SBI Notes could accelerate repayment of SBI’ outstanding borrowings and, in either case, SBI may be unable to obtain adequate refinancing of outstanding borrowings on favorable terms or at all. If SBI is unable to repay outstanding borrowings when due, the lenders under the SBI Senior Secured Facilities will also have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the indebtedness owed to them. If SBI’s obligations under the SBI Senior Secured Facilities are accelerated, SBI cannot assure you that its assets would be sufficient to repay in full such indebtedness.
Spectrum Brands is subject to significant international business risks that could hurt its business and cause its results of operations to fluctuate.
Approximately 36% of Spectrum Brands’ net sales for Fiscal 2017 were to customers outside of the U.S. Spectrum Brands’ pursuit of international growth opportunities may require significant investments for an extended period before returns on these investments, if any, are realized. Spectrum Brands’ international operations are subject to risks including, among others:
currency fluctuations, including, without limitation, fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate of the Euro, British Pound, Brazilian Real, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Japanese Yen and the Mexican Peso;
changes in the economic conditions or consumer preferences or demand for its products in these markets;
the risk that because its brand names may not be locally recognized, Spectrum Brands must spend significant amounts of time and money to build brand recognition without certainty that Spectrum Brands will be successful;
labor unrest;
political and economic instability, as a result of war, terrorist attacks, pandemics, natural disasters or otherwise;
lack of developed infrastructure;
longer payment cycles and greater difficulty in collecting accounts;
restrictions on transfers of funds;
import and export duties and quotas, as well as general transportation costs;
changes in domestic and international customs and tariffs;
changes in foreign labor laws and regulations affecting Spectrum Brands’ ability to hire and retain employees;
inadequate protection of intellectual property in foreign countries;
unexpected changes in regulatory environments;
difficulty in complying with foreign law; and
adverse tax consequences.
The foregoing factors may have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ ability to increase or maintain its supply of products, financial condition or results of operations.

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As a result of its international operations, Spectrum Brands faces a number of risks related to exchange rates and foreign currencies.
Spectrum Brands’ international sales and certain of its expenses are transacted in foreign currencies. During Fiscal 2017, approximately 36% of Spectrum Brands’ net sales and operating expenses were denominated in foreign currencies. Spectrum Brands expects that the amount of its revenues and expenses transacted in foreign currencies will increase as its Latin American, European and Asian operations grow and as a result of acquisitions in these markets and, as a result, its exposure to risks associated with foreign currencies could increase accordingly. Significant changes in the value of the U.S. dollar in relation to foreign currencies will affect Spectrum Brands’ cost of goods sold and its operating margins and could result in exchange losses or otherwise have a material effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. Changes in currency exchange rates may also affect Spectrum Brands’ sales to, purchases from, and loans to, its subsidiaries, as well as sales to, purchases from, and bank lines of credit with, its customers, suppliers and creditors that are denominated in foreign currencies.
Spectrum Brands sources many products from China and other Asian countries. To the extent the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) or other currencies appreciate with respect to the U.S. dollar, Spectrum Brands may experience fluctuations in Spectrum Brands’ results of operations. Since 2005, the RMB has no longer been pegged to the U.S. dollar at a constant exchange rate and instead fluctuates versus a basket of currencies. Although the People’s Bank of China has historically intervened in the foreign exchange market to prevent significant short-term fluctuations in the exchange rate, the RMB may appreciate or depreciate within a flexible peg range against the U.S. dollar in the medium to long term. Moreover, it is possible that in the future Chinese authorities may lift restrictions on fluctuations in the RMB exchange rate and lessen intervention in the foreign exchange market.
While Spectrum Brands may enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and Spectrum Brands may not be able to successfully hedge its exposure to currency fluctuations. Further, Spectrum Brands may not be successful in implementing customer pricing or other actions in an effort to mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations and, thus, its results of operations may be adversely impacted.
Spectrum Brands’ international operations may expose it to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries.
Spectrum Brands is subject to three EU Directives that may have a material impact on its business: Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RUHSEEE”); Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”); and the Directive on Batteries and Accumulators and Waste Batteries (“DBAWB”), discussed below. RUHSEEE requires Spectrum Brands to eliminate specified hazardous materials from products it sells in EU member states. WEEE requires Spectrum Brands to collect and treat, dispose of or recycle certain products it manufactures or imports into the EU at its own expense. The EU DBAWB bans heavy metals in batteries by establishing maximum quantities of heavy metals in batteries and mandates waste management of these batteries, including collection, recycling and disposal systems, with the costs imposed upon producers and importers such as Spectrum Brands. The costs associated with maintaining compliance or failing to comply with the EU Directives may harm Spectrum Brands’ business. For example:
Although contracts with its suppliers address related compliance issues, Spectrum Brands may be unable to procure appropriate RUHSEEE- compliant material in sufficient quantity and quality and/or be able to incorporate it into its product procurement processes without compromising quality and/or harming its cost structure.
Spectrum Brands may face excess and obsolete inventory risk related to non-compliant inventory that it may hold for which there is reduced demand, and it may need to write down the carrying value of such inventories.
Spectrum Brands may be unable to sell certain existing inventories of its batteries in Europe and other countries that have adopted similar regulations.
Many of the developing countries in which Spectrum Brands operates do not have significant governmental regulation relating to environmental safety, occupational safety, employment practices or other business matters routinely regulated in the U.S. and EU or may not rigorously enforce such regulation. As these countries and their economies develop, it is possible that new regulations or increased enforcement of existing regulations may increase the expense of doing business in these countries. In addition, social legislation in many countries in which Spectrum Brands operates may result in significantly higher expenses associated with labor costs, terminating employees or distributors and closing manufacturing facilities. Increases in Spectrum Brands’ costs as a result of increased regulation, legislation or enforcement could materially and adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.
Spectrum Brands faces risks related to the impact on foreign trade agreements and relations from the current administration.
Recent changes in the United States federal government have caused uncertainty about the future of trade partnerships and treaties, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”). The current administration has formally withdrawn the U.S. from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (“TPPA”), which may affect Spectrum Brands’ ability to leverage lower cost facilities in territories outside of the U.S. The current administration has also initiated negotiations with Canada and Mexico aimed at re-negotiating term of NAFTA. It is uncertain what the outcome of the negotiations will be, but it is possible that revisions to NATFA could adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ existing production operations in Mexico and the current and future levels of sales and earnings of Spectrum Brands in all three countries. Furthermore, the current administration has threatened

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tougher trade terms with China and other countries. Media and political reactions in the affected countries could potentially impact the ability of Spectrum Brands’ operations in those countries. Foreign countries may impose additional burdens on U.S. companies through the use of local regulations, tariffs or other requirements which could increase Spectrum Brands’ operating costs in those foreign jurisdictions. It remains unclear what additional actions, if any, the current administration will take. If the United States were to materially modify NAFTA or other international trade agreements to which it is a party, or if tariffs were raised on the foreign-sourced goods that Spectrum Brands sell, such goods may no longer be available at a commercially attractive price, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands faces risks relating to the United Kingdom’s 2016 referendum, which called for its exit from the European Union.
The announcement of the referendum regarding the United Kingdom’s (“UK”) membership in the European Union (“EU”) on June 23, 2016 (referred to as “Brexit”), advising for the exit of the UK from the EU, and subsequent notification of intention to withdraw given on March 29, 2017, has adversely impacted global markets and foreign currencies. In particular, the value of the Pound Sterling has sharply declined as compared to the U.S. Dollar and other currencies. This volatility in foreign currencies is expected to continue as the UK negotiates and executes its exit from the EU, but there is uncertainty over what time period this will occur. A significantly weaker Pound Sterling compared to the U.S. Dollar could have a significant negative effect on the Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. The decrease in value to the Pound Sterling and impacts across global markets and foreign currencies may influence trends in consumer confidence and discretionary spending habits, but given the lack of precedent and uncertainty, it is unclear how the implications will affect Spectrum Brands.
The intention to withdraw begins a two-year negotiating period to establish the withdrawal terms. Even if no agreement is reached, the UK’s separation still becomes effective unless all EU members unanimously agree on an extension. Negotiations will commence to determine the future terms of the UK relationship with the EU, including, among other things, the terms of trade between the UK and the EU. The effects of Brexit will depend on many factors, including any agreements that the UK makes to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or more permanently. Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. Any of these effects of Brexit and others Spectrum Brands cannot anticipate, transactions between the UK and the EU, as well as the UK and non-EU countries, such as the United States will be affected because the UK currently operated under the EU’s tax treaties. The UK will need to negotiate its own tax treaties with countries all over the world, which could take years to complete. While Spectrum Brands cannot anticipate the outcome of these future negotiations, effects could include uncertainty regarding tax exemptions and reliefs within the EU, as well as expected changes in tax laws or regulations which could materially and adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ business, business opportunities, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.
Spectrum Brands participates in very competitive markets and it may not be able to compete successfully, causing Spectrum Brands to lose market share and sales.
Spectrum Brands competes for consumer acceptance and limited shelf space based upon brand name recognition, perceived product quality, price, performance, product features and enhancements, product packaging and design innovation, as well as creative marketing, promotion and distribution strategies, and new product introductions. See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Spectrum Brands-Sales Distribution and Competition” of this report for further information over the segments, product categories and markets in which Spectrum Brands competes, along with discussion over primary competitors. Spectrum Brands’ ability to compete in these consumer product markets may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
Spectrum Brands competes against many well-established companies that may have substantially greater financial and other resources, including personnel and research and development, and greater overall market share than Spectrum Brands.
In some key product lines, Spectrum Brands’ competitors may have lower production costs and higher profit margins than Spectrum Brands, which may enable them to compete more aggressively in offering retail discounts, rebates and other promotional incentives.
Technological advancements, product improvements or effective advertising campaigns by competitors may weaken consumer demand for Spectrum Brands’ products.
Consumer purchasing behavior may shift to distribution channels, including to online retailers, where Spectrum Brands and its customers do not have a strong presence.
Consumer preferences may change to lower margin products or products other than those that Spectrum Brands markets.
Spectrum Brands may not be successful in the introduction, marketing and manufacture of any new products or product innovations or be able to develop and introduce, in a timely manner, innovations to its existing products that satisfy customer needs or achieve market acceptance.

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In addition, in a number of Spectrum Brands’ product lines, Spectrum Brands competes with its retail customers, who use their own private label brands, and with distributors and foreign manufacturers of unbranded products. Significant new competitors or increased competition from existing competitors, including specifically private label brands, may adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of Spectrum Brands’ operations.
Some competitors may be willing to reduce prices and accept lower profit margins to compete with Spectrum Brands. As a result of this competition, Spectrum Brands could lose market share and sales, or be forced to reduce its prices to meet competition. If Spectrum Brands’ product offerings are unable to compete successfully, Spectrum Brands’ sales, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, Spectrum Brands may be unable to implement changes to its products or otherwise adapt to changing consumer trends. If Spectrum Brands is unable to respond to changing consumer trends, its operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Changes in consumer shopping trends and changes in distribution channels could significantly harm Spectrum Brands’ business.
Spectrum Brands sells products through a variety of trade channels with a significant portion dependent upon retail partnerships, through both traditional brick-and-mortar retail channels and e-commerce channels. Spectrum Brands is seeing the emergence of strong e-commerce channels generating more online competition and declining in-store traffic in brick-and-mortar retailers. Consumer shopping preferences have shifted, and may continue to shift in the future to distribution channels other than traditional retail that may have more limited experience, presence and developed, such as e-commerce channels. If Spectrum Brands is not successful in developing and utilizing e-commerce channels that future consumers may prefer, Spectrum Brands may experience lower than expected revenues. Spectrum Brands is also seeing more traditional brick-and-mortar retailers closing physical stores, and filing for bankruptcy, which could negatively impact Spectrum Brands’ distribution strategies and/or sales if such retailers decide to significantly reduce their inventory levels for Spectrum Brands’ products or to designate more floor space to Spectrum Brands’ competitors. Further consolidation, store closures and bankruptcies could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, as well as the trading price of Spectrum Brands’ securities.
Additionally, consolidation in retail has occurred during the last several years, particularly in developed markets such as the U.S. and Western Europe, resulting in Spectrum Brands becoming increasingly dependent on relationships with fewer key retailers that control an increasing percentage of retail locations, which trend may continue. Spectrum Brands’ success is dependent on Spectrum Brands’ ability to manage Spectrum Brands’ retailer relationships, including offering trade terms on mutually acceptable terms. Spectrum Brands generally does not have long-term sales contracts or other sales assurances with Spectrum Brands’ retail customers.
Sales of certain of Spectrum Brands’ products are seasonal and may cause its operating results and working capital requirements to fluctuate.
On a consolidated basis Spectrum Brands’ financial results are approximately equally weighted across its fiscal quarters, however, sales of certain product categories tend to be seasonal. See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Spectrum Brands-Seasonality” of this report for further information over the seasonality of sales. As a result of this seasonality, Spectrum Brands’ inventory and working capital needs fluctuate significantly throughout the year. In addition, orders from retailers are often made late in the period preceding the applicable peak season, making forecasting of production schedules and inventory purchases difficult. If Spectrum Brands is unable to accurately forecast and prepare for customer orders or its working capital needs, or there is a general downturn in business or economic conditions during these periods, Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Adverse weather conditions during Spectrum Brands’ peak selling seasons for its home and garden control and auto care products could have a material adverse effect on its home and garden business and auto care business.
Weather conditions have a significant impact on the timing and volume of sales of certain of Spectrum Brands’ lawn and garden and household insecticide and repellent products. For example, periods of dry, hot weather can decrease insecticide sales, while periods of cold and wet weather can slow sales of herbicides. Adverse weather conditions during the first six months of the calendar year (Spectrum Brands’ second and third fiscal quarters), when demand for home and garden control products typically peaks, could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ home and garden business and its financial results during such period. Weather can also influence customer behavior for Spectrum Brands’ auto care products, especially with appearance and A/C recharge products, which sell best during warm, dry weather. There could be a material adverse effect on the auto care segment if the weather is cold or wet, during the spring and summer seasons when demand for Spectrum Brands’ auto care products typically peaks.
Consolidation of retailers and Spectrum Brands’ dependence on a small number of key customers for a significant percentage of its sales may negatively affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of consolidation of retailers and consumer trends toward national mass merchandisers, a significant percentage of Spectrum Brands’ sales are attributable to a limited group of customers. Spectrum Brands’ largest customer, Wal-Mart, accounted

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for 15% of its consolidated net sales for Fiscal 2017. As these mass merchandisers and retailers grow larger and become more sophisticated, they may demand lower pricing, special packaging or impose other requirements on product suppliers. These business demands may relate to inventory practices, logistics or other aspects of the customer-supplier relationship. Because of the importance of these key customers, demands for price reductions or promotions, reductions in their purchases, changes in their financial condition or loss of their accounts could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Although Spectrum Brands has long-established relationships with many of its customers, Spectrum Brands does not have long-term agreements with them and purchases are generally made through the use of individual purchase orders. Any significant reduction in purchases, failure to obtain anticipated orders or delays or cancellations of orders by any of these major customers, or significant pressure to reduce prices from any of these major customers, could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the retail industry in general, the bankruptcy of any of Spectrum Brands’ customers or any of Spectrum Brands’ customers ceasing operations could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ sales and profitability.
As a result of retailers maintaining tighter inventory control, Spectrum Brands faces risks related to meeting demand and storing inventory.
As a result of the desire of retailers to more closely manage inventory levels, there is a growing trend among them to purchase products on a “just-in-time” basis. Due to a number of factors, including (i) manufacturing lead-times, (ii) seasonal purchasing patterns and (iii) the potential for material price increases, Spectrum Brands may be required to shorten its lead-time for production and more closely anticipate its retailers’ and customers’ demands, which could in the future require Spectrum Brands to carry additional inventories and increase its working capital and related financing requirements. This may increase the cost of warehousing inventory or result in excess inventory becoming difficult to manage, unusable or obsolete. In addition, if Spectrum Brands retailers significantly change their inventory management strategies, Spectrum Brands may encounter difficulties in filling customer orders or in liquidating excess inventories, or may find that customers are cancelling orders or returning products, which may have a material adverse effect on its business.
Furthermore, Spectrum Brands primarily sells branded products and a move by one or more of its large customers to sell significant quantities of private label products, which Spectrum Brands does not produce on their behalf and which directly compete with Spectrum Brands products, could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands’ products utilize certain key raw materials; any significant increase in the price of, or change in supply and demand for, these raw materials could have a material and adverse effect on its business, financial condition and profits.
The principal raw materials used to produce Spectrum Brands’ products-including zinc powder, brass, electrolytic manganese dioxide powder, petroleum-based plastic materials, steel, aluminum, copper and corrugated materials (for packaging)-are sourced either on a global or regional basis by Spectrum Brands or its suppliers, and the prices of those raw materials are susceptible to price fluctuations due to supply and demand trends, energy costs, transportation costs, government regulations, duties and tariffs, changes in currency exchange rates, price controls, general economic conditions and other unforeseen circumstances. In particular, during the years 2012 and 2013, Spectrum Brands experienced extraordinary price increases for raw materials, particularly as a result of strong demand from China. Although Spectrum Brands may increase the prices of certain of its goods to its customers, Spectrum Brands may not be able to pass all of these cost increases on to its customers. As a result, its margins may be adversely impacted by such cost increases. Spectrum Brands cannot provide any assurance that its sources of supply will not be interrupted due to changes in worldwide supply of or demand for raw materials or other events that interrupt material flow, which may have an adverse effect on its profitability and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands regularly engages in forward purchase and hedging derivative transactions in an attempt to effectively manage and stabilize some of the raw material costs it expects to incur over the next 12 to 24 months. However, Spectrum Brands’ hedging positions may not be effective, or may not anticipate beneficial trends, in a particular raw material market or may, as a result of changes in its business, no longer be useful for Spectrum Brands. See Note 15, Derivative Financial Instruments, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further details on Spectrum Brands’ effective hedging strategies over certain commodity costs. In addition, for certain of the principal raw materials Spectrum Brands uses to produce its products, such as electrolytic manganese dioxide powder, there are no available effective hedging markets. If these efforts are not effective or expose Spectrum Brands to above average costs for an extended period of time, and Spectrum Brands is unable to pass its raw materials costs on to its customers, Spectrum Brands’ future profitability may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, with respect to transportation costs, certain modes of delivery are subject to fuel surcharges which are determined based upon the current cost of diesel fuel in relation to pre-established agreed upon costs. Spectrum Brands may be unable to pass these fuel surcharges on to its customers, which may have an adverse effect on its profitability and results of operations.
In addition, Spectrum Brands has exclusivity arrangements and minimum purchase requirements with certain of its suppliers for the home and garden business, which increase its dependence upon and exposure to those suppliers. Some of those agreements include caps on the price Spectrum Brands pays for its supplies and in certain instances, these caps have allowed Spectrum

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Brands to purchase materials at below market prices. When Spectrum Brands attempts to renew those contracts, the other parties to the contracts may not be willing to include or may limit the effect of those caps and could even attempt to impose above market prices in an effort to make up for any below market prices paid by Spectrum Brands prior to the renewal of the agreement. Any failure to timely obtain suitable supplies at competitive prices could materially adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands’ dependence on a few suppliers for certain of its products makes it vulnerable to a disruption in the supply of its products.
Although Spectrum Brands has long-standing relationships with many of its suppliers, it generally does not have long-term contracts with them. An adverse change in any of the following could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations:
its ability to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers;
the terms and conditions upon which it purchases products from its suppliers, including applicable exchange rates, transport and other costs, its suppliers’ willingness to extend credit to Spectrum Brands to finance its inventory purchases and other factors beyond its control;
the financial condition of its suppliers;
political and economic instability in the countries in which its suppliers are located, as a result of war, terrorist attacks, pandemics, natural disasters or otherwise;
its ability to import outsourced products;
its suppliers’ noncompliance with applicable laws, trade restrictions and tariffs; or
its suppliers’ ability to manufacture and deliver outsourced products according to its standards of quality on a timely and efficient basis.
If Spectrum Brands’ relationship with one of its key suppliers is adversely affected, Spectrum Brands may not be able to quickly or effectively replace such supplier and may not be able to retrieve tooling, molds or other specialized production equipment or processes used by such supplier in the manufacture of its products. The loss of one or more of its suppliers, a material reduction in their supply of products or provision of services to Spectrum Brands or extended disruptions or interruptions in their operations could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands manufactures the majority of its foil cutting systems for its shaving product lines, using specially designed machines and proprietary cutting technology, at its Portage, Wisconsin facility. In addition, Spectrum Brands also manufactures the majority of its residential door locks at its Subic Bay, Philippines facility. Spectrum Brands’ home and garden products are mainly manufactured from its St. Louis, Missouri, facility. GAC’s manufacturing facility consists of one site which is located in Dayton, Ohio and thus GAC is dependent upon the continued safe operation of this facility.
Spectrum Brands’ facilities are subject to various hazards associated with the manufacturing, handling, storage, and transportation of chemical materials and products, including human error, leaks and ruptures, explosions, floods, fires, inclement weather and natural disasters, power loss or other infrastructure failures, mechanical failure, unscheduled downtime, regulatory requirements, the loss of certifications, technical difficulties, labor disputes, inability to obtain material, equipment or transportation, environmental hazards such as remediation, chemical spills, discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases, and other risks. Many of these hazards could cause personal injury and loss of life, severe damage to, or destruction of, property and equipment and environmental contamination. In addition, the occurrence of material operation problems at Spectrum Brands’ facility due to any of these hazards could cause a disruption in the production of products. Spectrum Brands may also encounter difficulties or interruption as a result of the application of enhanced manufacturing technologies or changes to production lines to improve throughput or to upgrade or repair its production lines. Spectrum Brands’ insurance policies have coverage in case of significant damage to its manufacturing facility but may not fully compensate for the cost of replacement for any such damage and any loss from business interruption. As a result, Spectrum Brands may not be adequately insured to cover losses resulting from significant damage to its manufacturing facility. Any damage to its facility or interruption in manufacturing could result in production delays and delays in meeting contractual obligations which could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ relationship with its customers and on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows in any given period.
Spectrum Brands faces risks related to its sales of products obtained from third-party suppliers.
Spectrum Brands sells a significant number of products that are manufactured by third party suppliers over which it has no direct control. While Spectrum Brands has implemented processes and procedures to try to ensure that the suppliers it uses are complying with all applicable regulations, there can be no assurances that such suppliers in all instances will comply with such processes and procedures or otherwise with applicable regulations. Noncompliance could result in Spectrum Brands’ marketing and distribution of contaminated, defective or dangerous products which could subject it to liabilities and could result in the imposition by governmental authorities of procedures or penalties that could restrict or eliminate its ability to purchase products. Any or all of these effects could adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.

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In addition, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act includes provisions regarding certain minerals and metals, known as conflict minerals, mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. These provisions require companies to undertake due diligence procedures and report on the use of conflict minerals in its products, including products manufactured by third parties. Compliance with these provisions will cause Spectrum Brands to incur costs to certify that its supply chain is conflict free and Spectrum Brands may face difficulties if its suppliers are unwilling or unable to verify the source of their materials. Spectrum Brands’ ability to source these minerals and metals may also be adversely impacted. In addition, Spectrum Brands’ customers may require that it provides them with a certification and its inability to do so may disqualify it as a supplier.
A change in governmental regulations regarding the use of refrigerant gas R-134a or its potential future substitutes could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ ability to sell its aftermarket A/C products.
The refrigerant R-134a is critical component of Spectrum Brands’ aftermarket A/C products and is used in products which comprised approximately 35% of GAC’s net sales, or approximately 3% of Spectrum Brands’ net sales, in Fiscal 2017. Older generation refrigerants such as R-12 (Freon) have been regulated for some time in the United States and elsewhere, due to concerns about their potential to contribute to ozone depletion. In recent years, refrigerants such as R-134a, which is an approved substitute for R-12, have also become the subject of regulatory focus due to their potential to contribute to global warming.
The European Union has passed regulations that require the phase out of R-134a in automotive cooling systems in new vehicles by 2017. In the United States, Spectrum Brands cannot predict what future action, if any, the EPA will take on the regulation of R-134a. But based on currently available information, it believes that it would take some time for suitable alternatives to R-134a to come into full scale commercial production and therefore such alternatives would not be readily available for wide spread use in new car models. If the future use of R-134a is phased out or is limited or prohibited in jurisdictions in which Spectrum Brands does business, the future market for GAC’s products containing R-134a may be limited, which could have a material adverse impact on Spectrum Brands’ results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
In addition, regulations may be enacted governing the packaging, use and disposal of Spectrum Brands’ products containing refrigerants. For example, regulations are currently in effect in California that governs the sale and distribution of products containing R-134a. While Spectrum Brands has reported that it is not aware of any noncompliance with such regulations, its failure to comply with these or possible future regulations in California, or elsewhere, could result in material fines or costs or the inability to sell its products in those markets, which could have a material adverse impact on Spectrum Brands’ results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. If substitutes for R-134a become widely used in A/C systems and their use for DIY and retrofit purposes are not approved by the EPA, it could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. In addition, the cost of HFO-1234yf, the leading long-term alternative to R-134a being proposed in the United States and the European Union for use in the A/C systems of new vehicles, will likely be higher than that of R-134a and access to supply of HFO-1234yf may be limited. If HFO-1234yf becomes widely used and Spectrum Brands is able to develop products using HFO-1234yf, but is unable to price its products to reflect the increased cost of HFO-1234yf, it could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.
Spectrum Brands may not be able to adequately establish and protect its intellectual property rights, and the infringement or loss of its intellectual property rights could harm its business.
To establish and protect its intellectual property rights, Spectrum Brands relies upon a combination of national, foreign and multi-national patent, trademark and trade secret laws, together with licenses, confidentiality agreements and other contractual arrangements. The measures that Spectrum Brands takes to protect its intellectual property rights may prove inadequate to prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating its intellectual property. Spectrum Brands may need to resort to litigation to enforce or defend its intellectual property rights. If a competitor or collaborator files a patent application claiming technology also claimed by Spectrum Brands, or a trademark application claiming a trademark, service mark or trade dress also used by Spectrum Brands, in order to protect Spectrum Brands’ rights, Spectrum Brands may have to participate in expensive and time consuming opposition or interference proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or a similar foreign agency. Similarly, its intellectual property rights may be challenged by third parties or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. The costs associated with protecting intellectual property rights, including litigation costs, may be material. Furthermore, even if Spectrum Brands’ intellectual property rights are not directly challenged, disputes among third parties could lead to the weakening or invalidation of Spectrum Brands’ intellectual property rights, or its competitors may independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to its technology. Obtaining, protecting and defending intellectual property rights can be time consuming and expensive, and may require Spectrum Brands to incur substantial costs, including the diversion of the time and resources of management and technical personnel.
Moreover, the laws of certain foreign countries in which Spectrum Brands operates or may operate in the future do not protect, and the governments of certain foreign countries do not enforce, intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws and government of the U.S., which may negate Spectrum Brands’ competitive or technological advantages in such markets. Also, some of the technology underlying Spectrum Brands’ products is the subject of nonexclusive licenses from third parties. As a result, this technology could be made available to Spectrum Brands’ competitors at any time. If Spectrum Brands is unable

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to establish and then adequately protect its intellectual property rights, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Spectrum Brands licenses various trademarks, trade names and patents from third parties for certain of its products. See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Spectrum Brands-Patents and Trademarks” of this report for further discussion and detail on licensed trademarks, trade names and patents. These licenses generally place marketing obligations on Spectrum Brands and require Spectrum Brands to pay fees and royalties based on net sales or profits. Typically, these licenses may be terminated if Spectrum Brands fails to satisfy certain minimum sales obligations or if it breaches the terms of the license. The termination of these licensing arrangements, failure to renew or enter into a new agreement on acceptable terms could adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. When Spectrum Brands’ right to use these trademarks, brand names and logos expires, Spectrum Brands may not be able to maintain or enjoy comparable name recognition or status under its new brand. If Spectrum Brands is unable to successfully manage the transition of its business to new brands, Spectrum Brands’ reputation among its customers could be adversely affected, and its revenue and profitability could decline.
If Spectrum Brands is unable to protect the confidentiality of its proprietary information and know-how, the value of Spectrum Brands’ technology, products and services could be harmed significantly.
Spectrum Brands relies on trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information in operating its business. If this information is not adequately protected, then it may be disclosed or used in an unauthorized manner. To the extent that consultants, key employees or other third parties apply technological information independently developed by them or by others to its proposed products, disputes may arise as to the proprietary rights to such information, which may not be resolved in Spectrum Brands’ favor. The risk that other parties may breach confidentiality agreements or that Spectrum Brands’ trade secrets become known or independently discovered by competitors, could harm Spectrum Brands by enabling its competitors, who may have greater experience and financial resources, to copy or use Spectrum Brands’ trade secrets and other proprietary information in the advancement of their products, methods or technologies. The disclosure of Spectrum Brands’ trade secrets would impair its competitive position, thereby weakening demand for its products or services and harming Spectrum Brands’ ability to maintain or increase its customer base.
Claims by third parties that Spectrum Brands is infringing their intellectual property and other litigation could adversely affect its business.
From time to time in the past Spectrum Brands has been subject to claims that it is infringing the intellectual property of others. Spectrum Brands currently is the subject of such claims and it is possible that third parties will assert infringement claims against Spectrum Brands in the future. An adverse finding against Spectrum Brands in these or similar trademark or other intellectual property litigations may have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive, and may require Spectrum Brands to incur substantial costs, including the diversion of the resources of management and technical personnel, cause product delays or require Spectrum Brands to enter into licensing or other agreements in order to secure continued access to necessary or desirable intellectual property. If Spectrum Brands is deemed to be infringing a third party’s intellectual property and is unable to continue using that intellectual property as it had been, its business and results of operations could be harmed if it is unable to successfully develop non-infringing alternative intellectual property on a timely basis or license non-infringing alternatives or substitutes, if any exist, on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, an unfavorable ruling in intellectual property litigation could subject Spectrum Brands to significant liability, as well as require Spectrum Brands to cease developing, manufacturing or selling the affected products or using the affected processes or trademarks. Any significant restriction on Spectrum Brands’ proprietary or licensed intellectual property that impedes its ability to develop and commercialize its products could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Class action and derivative action lawsuits and other investigations, regardless of their merits, could have an adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands and certain of its officers and directors have been named in the past, and, may be named in the future, as defendants of class action and derivative action lawsuits. In the past, Spectrum Brands has also received requests for information from government authorities. Regardless of their subject matter or merits, class action lawsuits and other government investigations may result in significant cost to Spectrum Brands, which may not be covered by insurance, may divert the attention of management or may otherwise have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands may be subject to product liability claims and product recalls, which could negatively impact its profitability.
In the ordinary course of business, Spectrum Brands may be named as a defendant in lawsuits involving product liability claims. In any such proceedings, plaintiffs may seek to recover large and sometimes unspecified amounts of damages, and the matters may remain unresolved for several years. Any such matters could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, results of operations and cash flows if Spectrum Brands is unable to successfully defend against or settle these matters or if Spectrum Brands’ insurance coverage is insufficient to satisfy any judgments against Spectrum Brands or settlement related to these matters. Spectrum Brands sells perishable treats for animal consumption, which involves risks such as product contamination or spoilage, product tampering, and other adulteration of food products. Spectrum Brands may be subject to

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liability if the consumption of any of its products causes injury, illness, or death. In addition, Spectrum Brands will voluntarily recall products in the event of contamination or damage. For example, on June 10, 2017, Spectrum Brands initiated a voluntary safety recall of various rawhide chew products for dogs sold by Spectrum Brands due to possible chemical contamination. The costs of the recall negatively impacted Net Sales, Gross Margin, and adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization and Spectrum Brands expects ongoing impacts to its business. A significant product liability judgment or a widespread product recall may negatively impact Spectrum Brands’ sales and profitability for a period of time depending on product availability, competitive reaction, and consumer attitudes. Even if a product liability claim is unsuccessful or is not fully pursued, the negative publicity surrounding any assertion that Spectrum Brands’ products caused illness or injury could adversely affect Spectrum Brands’ reputation with existing and potential customers and its corporate and brand image. Although Spectrum Brands has product liability insurance coverage and an excess umbrella policy, Spectrum Brands’ insurance policies may not provide coverage for certain, or any, claims against Spectrum Brands or may not be sufficient to cover all possible liabilities. Spectrum Brands may not be able to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, in the future. See Note 21, Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further discussion on product liability and product recalls.
Public perceptions that some of the products Spectrum Brands produces and markets are not safe could adversely affect Spectrum Brands.
On occasion, Spectrum Brands’ customers have alleged that some products failed to perform up to expectations or have caused damage or injury to individuals or property. Public perception that any of its products are not safe, whether justified or not, could impair Spectrum Brands’ reputation, damage its brand names and have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, Spectrum Brands relies on certain third party trademarks, brand names and logos which it does not have exclusive use of. Public perception that any such third party trademarks, brand names and logos used by Spectrum Brands are not safe, whether justified or not, could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
Spectrum Brands may incur material capital and other costs due to environmental liabilities.
Spectrum Brands is subject to a broad range of federal, state, local, foreign and multi-national laws and regulations relating to the environment. These include laws and regulations that govern:
discharges to the air, water and land;
the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous substances and wastes; and
remediation of contamination associated with release of hazardous substances at its facilities and at off-site disposal locations.
Risk of environmental liability is inherent in Spectrum Brands’ business. As a result, material environmental costs may arise in the future. In particular, Spectrum Brands may incur capital and other costs to comply with increasingly stringent environmental laws and enforcement policies, such as the EU Directives: Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment and the Directive on Batteries and Accumulators and Waste Batteries, discussed above. Spectrum Brands’ international operations may expose Spectrum Brands to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Spectrum Brands’ Business- Spectrum Brands’ international operations may expose Spectrum Brands to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries” in this report.
Moreover, there are adopted and proposed international accords and treaties, as well as federal, state and local laws and regulations that would attempt to control or limit the causes of climate change, including the effect of greenhouse gas emissions on the environment. In the event that the U.S. government or foreign governments enact new climate change laws or regulations or make changes to existing laws or regulations, compliance with applicable laws or regulations may result in increased manufacturing costs for Spectrum Brands’ products, such as by requiring investment in new pollution control equipment or changing the ways in which certain of its products are made. Spectrum Brands may incur some of these costs directly and others may be passed on to it from its third-party suppliers. Although Spectrum Brands believes that it is substantially in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations at its facilities, Spectrum Brands may not always be in compliance with such laws and regulations or any new laws and regulations in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, Spectrum Brands has been required to address the effect of historic activities on the environmental condition of its properties or former properties. Spectrum Brands has not conducted invasive testing at all of its facilities to identify all potential environmental liability risks. Given the age of its facilities and the nature of its operations, material liabilities may arise in the future in connection with its current or former facilities. If previously unknown contamination of property underlying or in the vicinity of its manufacturing facilities is discovered, Spectrum Brands could be required to incur material unforeseen expenses. If this occurs, it may have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations. Spectrum Brands is currently engaged in investigative or remedial projects at a few of its facilities and any liabilities arising from such investigative or remedial projects at such facilities may have a material effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.

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In addition, in connection with certain business acquisitions, Spectrum Brands has assumed, and in connection with future acquisitions may assume in the future, certain potential environmental liabilities. To the extent Spectrum Brands has not identified such environmental liabilities or to the extent the indemnifications obtained from Spectrum Brands’ counterparties are insufficient to cover such environmental liabilities, these environmental liabilities could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business.
Spectrum Brands is also subject to proceedings related to its disposal of industrial and hazardous material at off-site disposal locations or similar disposals made by other parties for which it is responsible as a result of its relationship with such other parties. These proceedings are under CERCLA or similar state or foreign jurisdiction laws that hold persons who “arranged for” the disposal or treatment of such substances strictly liable for costs incurred in responding to the release or threatened release of hazardous substances from such sites, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original disposal. Liability under CERCLA is typically joint and several, meaning that a liable party may be responsible for all of the costs incurred in investigating and remediating contamination at a site. Spectrum Brands occasionally is identified by federal or state governmental agencies as being a potentially responsible party for response actions contemplated at an off-site facility. At the existing sites where Spectrum Brands has been notified of its status as a potentially responsible party, it is either premature to determine if Spectrum Brands’ potential liability, if any, will be material or it does not believe that its liability, if any, will be material. Spectrum Brands may be named as a potentially responsible party under CERCLA or similar state or foreign jurisdiction laws in the future for other sites not currently known to Spectrum Brands, and the costs and liabilities associated with these sites may have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
It is difficult to quantify with certainty the potential financial impact of actions regarding expenditures for environmental matters, particularly remediation, and future capital expenditures for environmental control equipment. See Note 21, Commitments and Contingencies, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further discussion on estimated liabilities arising from such environmental matters. Nevertheless, based upon the information currently available, Spectrum Brands believes that its ultimate liability arising from such environmental matters should not be material to Spectrum Brands’ business or financial condition.
Compliance with various public health, consumer protection and other regulations applicable to Spectrum Brands’ products and facilities could increase its cost of doing business and expose Spectrum Brands to additional requirements with which Spectrum Brands may be unable to comply.
Certain of Spectrum Brands’ products sold through, and facilities operated under, each of its business segments are regulated by the EPA, the FDA, the United States Department of Agriculture or other federal or state consumer protection and product safety agencies and are subject to the regulations such agencies enforce, as well as by similar state, foreign and multinational agencies and regulations. For example, in the U.S., all products containing pesticides must be registered with the EPA and, in many cases, similar state and foreign agencies before they can be manufactured or sold. Spectrum Brands’ inability to obtain, or the cancellation of, any registration could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. The severity of the effect would depend on which products were involved, whether another product could be substituted and whether its competitors were similarly affected. Spectrum Brands attempts to anticipate regulatory developments and maintain registrations of, and access to, substitute chemicals and other ingredients, but it may not always be able to avoid or minimize these risks.
As a distributor of consumer products in the U.S., certain of Spectrum Brands’ products are also subject to the Consumer Product Safety Act, which empowers the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (the “Consumer Commission”) to exclude from the market products that are found to be unsafe or hazardous. Under certain circumstances, the Consumer Commission could require it to repair, replace or refund the purchase price of one or more of its products, or it may voluntarily do so. Any additional repurchases or recalls of Spectrum Brands’ products could be costly to Spectrum Brands and could damage the reputation or the value of its brands. If Spectrum Brands is required to remove, or Spectrum Brands voluntarily removes its products from the market, its reputation or brands could be tarnished and it may have large quantities of finished products that could not be sold. Furthermore, failure to timely notify the Consumer Commission of a potential safety hazard can result in significant fines being assessed against Spectrum Brands. Additionally, laws regulating certain consumer products exist in some states, as well as in other countries in which Spectrum Brands sells its products, and more restrictive laws and regulations may be adopted in the future.
The Food Quality Protection Act (“FQPA”) established a standard for food-use pesticides, which is that a reasonable certainty of no harm will result from the cumulative effect of pesticide exposures. Under the FQPA, the EPA is evaluating the cumulative effects from dietary and non-dietary exposures to pesticides. The pesticides in certain of Spectrum Brands’ products that are sold through the Home and Garden Business continue to be evaluated by the EPA as part of this program. It is possible that the EPA or a third party active ingredient registrant may decide that a pesticide Spectrum Brands uses in its products will be limited or made unavailable to Spectrum Brands. Spectrum Brands cannot predict the outcome or the severity of the effect of the EPA’s continuing evaluations of active ingredients used in its products.
In addition, the use of certain pesticide products that are sold through Spectrum Brands’ Home and Garden Business may, among other things, be regulated by various local, state, federal and foreign environmental and public health agencies. These regulations may require that only certified or professional users apply the product, that users post notices on properties where products have

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been or will be applied or that certain ingredients may not be used. Compliance with such public health regulations could increase Spectrum Brands’ cost of doing business and expose Spectrum Brands to additional requirements with which it may be unable to comply.
Any failure to comply with these laws or regulations, or the terms of applicable environmental permits, could result in Spectrum Brands incurring substantial costs, including fines, penalties and other civil and criminal sanctions or the prohibition of sales of its pest control products. Environmental law requirements, and the enforcement thereof, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent over time and could require Spectrum Brands to incur significant expenses.
Most federal, state and local authorities require certification by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. (“UL”), an independent, not-for-profit corporation engaged in the testing of products for compliance with certain public safety standards, or other safety regulation certification prior to marketing electrical appliances. Foreign jurisdictions also have regulatory authorities overseeing the safety of consumer products. Spectrum Brands’ products may not meet the specifications required by these authorities. A determination that any of its products are not in compliance with these rules and regulations could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants.
Disruption or failures of Spectrum Brands’ information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on its business.
Spectrum Brands’ information technology systems are susceptible to security breaches, operational data loss, general disruptions in functionality, and may not be compatible with new technology. Spectrum Brands depends on its information technology systems for the effectiveness of its operations and to interface with its customers, as well as to maintain financial records and accuracy. Disruption or failures of Spectrum Brands’ information technology systems could impair its ability to effectively and timely provide its services and products and maintain its financial records, which could damage its reputation and have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business.
Spectrum Brands actual or perceived failure to adequately protect personal data could adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.
A variety of state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. These privacy and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving, with new or modified laws and regulations proposed and implemented frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to new or different interpretations. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products.
Spectrum Brands historically has relied upon adherence to the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Safe Harbor Privacy Principles and compliance with the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Framework under Directive 95/46/EC (commonly referred to as the “Data Protection Directive”) agreed to by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the EU. The U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Framework, which established means for legitimizing the transfer of personal data by U.S. companies from the European Economic Area, or EEA, to the U.S., recently was invalidated by a decision of the European Court of Justice (or the “ECJ”).
On July 12, 2016, the European Commission adopted the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, which provides a framework for the transfer of personal data of EU data subjects, and on May 4, 2016, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which will replace Directive 95/46/EC, was formally published. The GDPR will go into effect on May 25, 2018 and as a regulation as opposed to a directive will be directly applicable in EU member states. Among other things, the GDPR applies to data controllers and processors outside of the EU whose processing activities relate to the offering of goods or services to, or monitoring the behavior within the EU of, EU data subjects.
In light of these developments, Spectrum Brands is reviewing its business practices and may find it necessary or desirable to make changes to our personal data handling to cause our transfer and receipt of EEA residents’ personal data to be legitimized under applicable European law. The regulation of data privacy in the EU continues to evolve, and it is not possible to predict the ultimate content, and therefore the effect, of data protection regulation over time.
Spectrum Brands’ actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect personal data, could result in enforcement actions and significant penalties against Spectrum Brands, which could result in negative publicity, increase Spectrum Brands’ operating costs, subject Spectrum Brands to claims or other remedies and have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If Spectrum Brands is unable to negotiate satisfactory terms to continue existing or enter into additional collective bargaining agreements, Spectrum Brands may experience an increased risk of labor disruptions and its results of operations and financial condition may suffer.
See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Spectrum Brands-Employees” of this report for further discussion on Spectrum Brands’ labor force subject to collective bargaining agreements. While Spectrum Brands currently expects to negotiate continuations to the terms of these agreements, there can be no assurances that it will be able to obtain terms that are satisfactory to it or otherwise to reach agreement at all with the applicable parties. In addition, in the course of its business, Spectrum Brands may also become subject to additional collective bargaining agreements. These agreements may be on terms that are less favorable than those under its

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current collective bargaining agreements. Spectrum Brands’ increased exposure to collective bargaining agreements, whether on terms more or less favorable than its existing collective bargaining agreements, could adversely affect the operation of Spectrum Brands’ business, including through increased labor expenses. While Spectrum Brands intends to comply with all collective bargaining agreements to which it is subject, there can be no assurances that Spectrum Brands will be able to do so and any noncompliance could subject it to disruptions in its operations and materially and adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition.
Significant changes in actual investment return on pension assets, discount rates and other factors could affect Spectrum Brands’ results of operations, equity and pension contributions in future periods.
Spectrum Brands’ results of operations may be positively or negatively affected by the amount of income or expense it records for its defined benefit pension plans. U.S. GAAP requires that Spectrum Brands calculate income or expense for the plans using actuarial valuations. These valuations reflect assumptions about financial markets and other economic conditions, which may change based on changes in key economic indicators. The most significant assumptions Spectrum Brands uses to estimate pension income or expense are the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets. In addition, Spectrum Brands is required to make an annual measurement of plan assets and liabilities, which may result in a significant change to equity. Although pension expense and pension funding contributions are not directly related, key economic factors that affect pension expense would also likely affect the amount of cash Spectrum Brands would contribute to pension plans as required under ERISA.
Spectrum Brands’ acquisition and expansion strategy may not be successful.
Spectrum Brands’ growth strategy is based in part on growth through acquisitions, which poses a number of risks. Spectrum Brands may not be successful in identifying appropriate acquisition candidates, consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms or integrating any newly acquired or expanded business with its current operations. Spectrum Brands may issue additional equity, incur long-term or short-term indebtedness, spend cash or use a combination of these for all or part of the consideration paid in future acquisitions or expansion of its operations. The execution of Spectrum Brands’ acquisition and expansion strategy could entail repositioning or similar actions that in turn require Spectrum Brands to record impairments, restructuring and other charges. Any such charges would reduce Spectrum Brands’ earnings. Spectrum Brands cannot guarantee that any future business acquisitions will be pursued or that any acquisitions that are pursued will be consummated.
Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation of recent and future business acquisitions and the integration of such acquired businesses with Spectrum Brands into a combined company, including legal, accounting, financial advisory and other costs.
Spectrum Brands expects to incur one-time costs in connection with integrating Spectrum Brands’ operations, products and personnel and those of the businesses Spectrum Brands acquires into a combined company, in addition to costs related directly to completing such acquisitions. Spectrum Brands would expect similar costs to be incurred with any future acquisition. These costs may include expenditures for:
employee redeployment, relocation or severance;
integration of operations and information systems;
combination of research and development teams and processes; and
reorganization or closures of facilities.
In addition, Spectrum Brands expects to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with combining its operations with those of acquired businesses. Additional unanticipated costs may yet be incurred as Spectrum Brands integrates its business with acquired businesses. Although Spectrum Brands expects that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of its operations with those of acquired businesses, may offset incremental transaction and transaction-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term. Additionally, while Spectrum Brands expects to benefit from leveraging distribution channels and brand names among Spectrum Brands and its acquired businesses, Spectrum Brands cannot assure you that it will achieve such benefits.
Spectrum Brands may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, its business acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.
Business acquisitions involve the integration of new businesses that have previously operated independently from Spectrum Brands. The integration of Spectrum Brands’ operations with those of acquired businesses is frequently expected to result in financial and operational benefits, including increased top line growth, margins, revenues and cost savings and be accretive to earnings per share, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization and free cash flow before synergies. There can be no assurance, however, regarding when or the extent to which Spectrum Brands will be able to realize these increased top line growth, margins, revenues, cost savings or accretions to earnings per share, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization or free cash flow or other benefits. Integration may also be difficult, unpredictable, and subject to delay because of possible company culture conflicts and different opinions on technical decisions and product roadmaps. Spectrum Brands will often be required to integrate or, in some cases, replace, numerous systems, including those involving management

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information, purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, billing, employee benefits, payroll and regulatory compliance, many of which may be dissimilar. In some instances, Spectrum Brands and certain acquired businesses have served the same customers, and some customers may decide that it is desirable to have additional or different suppliers. Difficulties associated with the integration of acquired businesses could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business.
Spectrum Brands may also acquire partial or full ownership in businesses or may acquire rights to market and distribute particular products or lines of products. The acquisition of a business or the rights to market specific products or use specific product names may involve a financial commitment by Spectrum Brands, either in the form of cash or equity consideration. In the case of a new license, such commitments are usually in the form of prepaid royalties and future minimum royalty payments. There is no guarantee that Spectrum Brands will acquire businesses or product distribution rights that will contribute positively to its earnings. Anticipated synergies may not materialize, cost savings may be less than expected, sales of products may not meet expectations and acquired businesses may carry unexpected liabilities.
In addition, in connection with business acquisitions, Spectrum Brands has assumed, and may assume in connection with future acquisitions, certain potential liabilities. To the extent such liabilities are not identified by Spectrum Brands or to the extent the indemnifications obtained from third parties are insufficient to cover such liabilities, these liabilities could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business.
Integrating Spectrum Brands’ business with acquired businesses may divert its management’s attention away from operations.
Successful integration of acquired businesses’ operations, products and personnel with Spectrum Brands may place a significant burden on its management and other internal resources. The diversion of management’s attention, and any difficulties encountered in the transition and integration process, could harm its business, financial condition and operating results.
General customer uncertainty related to Spectrum Brands’ business acquisitions could harm Spectrum Brands.
Spectrum Brands’ customers may, in response to the announcement or consummation of a business acquisition, delay or defer purchasing decisions. If Spectrum Brands’ customers delay or defer purchasing decisions, its revenues could materially decline or any anticipated increases in revenue could be lower than expected.
If Spectrum Brands’ goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets or other long-term assets become impaired, Spectrum Brands will be required to record additional impairment charges, which may be significant.
A significant portion of Spectrum Brands’ long-term assets consist of goodwill, other indefinite-lived intangible assets and finite-lived intangible assets recorded as a result of past acquisitions as well as through fresh start reporting. Spectrum Brands does not amortize goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather reviews them for impairment on a periodic basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. Spectrum Brands considers whether circumstances or conditions exist which suggest that the carrying value of its goodwill and other long-lived intangible assets might be impaired. If such circumstances or conditions exist, further steps are required in order to determine whether the carrying value of each of the individual assets exceeds its fair value. If analysis indicates that an individual asset’s carrying value does exceed its fair value, the next step is to record a loss equal to the excess of the individual asset’s carrying value over its fair value.
The steps required by U.S. GAAP entail significant amounts of judgment and subjectivity. Events and changes in circumstances that may indicate that there may be an impairment and which may indicate that interim impairment testing is necessary include, but are not limited to: strategic decisions to exit a business or dispose of an asset made in response to changes in economic, political and competitive conditions; the impact of the economic environment on the customer base and on broad market conditions that drive valuation considerations by market participants; Spectrum Brands’ internal expectations with regard to future revenue growth and the assumptions Spectrum Brands makes when performing impairment reviews; a significant decrease in the market price of Spectrum Brands’ assets; a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which Spectrum Brands’ assets are used; a significant adverse change in legal factors or the business climate that could affect Spectrum Brands’ assets; an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition of an asset; and significant changes in the cash flows associated with an asset. As a result of such circumstances, Spectrum Brands may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in its financial statements during the period in which any impairment of its goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets or other long-term assets is determined. Any such impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on Spectrum Brands’ business, financial condition and operating results.
The successful execution of Spectrum Brands operational efficiency and multi-year restructuring initiatives are key to the long-term growth of its business.
Spectrum Brands continues to engage in targeted restructuring initiatives, such as the HHI Distribution Center Consolidation and GAC Business Rationalization Initiatives, to align Spectrum Brands’ business operations in response to current and anticipated future market conditions and investment strategy. Spectrum Brands will evaluate opportunities for additional initiatives to restructure or reorganize the business across its operating segments and functions with a focus on areas of strategic growth and optimizing operational efficiency. Significant risks associated with these actions may impair its ability to achieve the anticipated cost reduction or may disrupt its business including delays in shipping, implementation of workforce, redundant

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costs, and failure to meet operational targets. In addition, Spectrum Brands’ ability to achieve the anticipated cost savings and other benefits from these actions within the expected timeframe is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond Spectrum Brands’ control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, Spectrum Brands’ business and results of operation could be adversely affected. See Note 4 , Restructuring and Related Charges, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for further details over restructuring related activity.

Risks Related to FGL’s and Front Street’s Businesses
The FGL Merger and Front Street Sale are subject to various closing conditions, including regulatory approvals.
As discussed in Item 1. “Business-FGL-The FGL Merger” and Item 1. “Business-Front Street”, the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale are each subject to a number of different closing conditions, some of which remain unsatisfied as of the date of this report. These closing conditions are outside of FGL and Front Street’s control and FGL and Front Street cannot predict with certainty whether all of the required closing conditions will be satisfied or waived or if other uncertainties may arise. In addition, regulators could impose additional requirements or obligations as conditions for their approvals, which may be burdensome. Despite FGL and Front Street’s best efforts, FGL and Front Street may not be able to satisfy the various closing conditions or obtain the necessary waivers or approvals in a timely fashion or at all, in which case the FGL Merger and/or Front Street Sale would be prevented or delayed.
Failure to timely complete the FGL Merger could adversely impact FGL’s stock price, business, financial condition and results of operations.
A failure to complete the FGL Merger on a timely basis or at all could result in negative publicity and cause the price of FGL’s common stock to decline, in particular because FGL’s current stock price reflects a market assumption that the FGL Merger will occur. In addition, as a result of the announcement of the FGL Merger Agreement, trading in FGL’s stock has increased substantially. If the FGL Merger is not consummated, the investment goals of FGL’s stockholders may be materially different than those of FGL’s stockholders on a pre-FGL Merger announcement basis. In addition, FGL will remain liable for significant transaction costs that will be payable even if the FGL Merger is not completed and could also be required to pay a termination fee to CF Corp in specific circumstances.
The pending FGL Merger and Front Street Sale and operating restrictions contained in the FGL Merger Agreement and Front Street Purchase Agreement, as applicable, could adversely affect FGL and Front Street’s business and operations.
The proposed FGL Merger and Front Street Sale and certain interim operating covenants that govern the conduct of FGL and Front Street’s business during the pendency of the FGL Merger Agreement and Front Street Purchase Agreement could cause disruptions to FGL and Front Street’s business and business relationships, which could have an adverse impact on FGL and Front Street’s results of operations, liquidity and financial condition. For example, the attention of FGL and Front Street’s management may be directed to FGL Merger and Front Street Sale-related considerations, FGL and Front Street’s current and prospective employees may experience uncertainty about their future roles with FGL and Front Street’s, which may adversely affect FGL and Front Street’s ability to retain and hire key personnel, and parties with which FGL and Front Street have business relationships, including customers, potential customers and distributors, may experience uncertainty as to the future of such relationships and seek alternative relationships or seek to alter their present business relationships with FGL and Front Street in a manner that negatively impacts FGL and Front Street.
Shareholder litigation could delay or prevent the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale and cause FGL and/or Front Street to incur significant costs and expenses.
Transactions such as the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale are often subject to lawsuits by shareholders. Conditions to the closing of the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale include that no law or order shall have been enacted, issued or enforced and in effect, that would prevent or prohibit consummation of the FGL Merger and Front Street Sale. FGL and Front Street cannot provide assurance as to the outcome of any potential lawsuits, including the costs associated with defending the claims or any other liabilities that may be incurred in connection with the litigation or settlement of lawsuits.
FGL’s subsidiaries may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of their obligations and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy their obligations, which may not be successful.
FGL’s subsidiaries’ ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance their debt obligations, including the FGH Senior Notes, depends on their financial condition and operating performance, which in turn are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond their control. FGL’s subsidiaries may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit them to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on indebtedness.
If FGL’s subsidiaries’ cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund its subsidiaries’ obligations, FGL could face substantial liquidity problems and may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek

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additional capital or restructure or refinance indebtedness. FGL’s ability to restructure or refinance its subsidiaries’ debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and its financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of FGL’s subsidiaries’ debt could be at higher interest rates and may require compliance with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict its business operations. The terms of existing and future debt instruments may restrict FGL from adopting some of these alternatives. In addition, any failure to make payments on outstanding obligations on a timely basis would likely result in a reduction of FGL’s ratings, which could harm FGL’s ability to conduct its business and to incur additional indebtedness. In the face of such substantial liquidity problems, FGL may be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet its obligations. FGL may not be able to consummate those dispositions and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any obligations then due.
FGL is a holding company with no operations of its own; its ability to pay dividends on its stock will depend on the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends to FGL, which may be restricted by law. Front Street is a parent company with limited business operations of its own and conducts most of its business operations through its subsidiaries and its primary source of cash is and will be distributions from its subsidiaries.
FGL is a holding company with limited business operations of its own. Its primary subsidiaries are insurance subsidiaries that own substantially all of its assets and conduct substantially all of its operations. Accordingly, FGL’s payment of dividends is dependent, to a significant extent, on the generation of cash flow by its subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to FGL, by dividend or otherwise. FGL’s subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable FGL to meet its obligations and pay dividends. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and legal and contractual restrictions may also limit FGL’s ability to obtain cash from its subsidiaries.
FGL’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to various statutory and regulatory restrictions and the ability of its insurance subsidiaries to pay dividends is limited by applicable insurance laws and regulations. See Part I, Item 1A.“Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Regulation-Dividend and Other Distribution Payment Limitations”. The Iowa insurance law and the New York insurance law regulate the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, respectively. This could limit both FGL’s ability to receive cash flow from its direct wholly owned subsidiary, FGH and FGH’s ability to receive cash flow from its direct wholly owned subsidiary, FGL Insurance, and FGL Insurance’s ability to receive cash flow from its direct wholly owned subsidiary, FGL NY Insurance.
Each year FGL Insurance may pay a certain limited amount of ordinary dividends or other distributions without being required to obtain the prior consent of the Iowa Commissioner. FGL Insurance is required to provide advance written notice to the Iowa Commissioner of its intention to pay dividends that are deemed ordinary dividends and to request approval to pay dividends that are deemed extraordinary dividends. Pursuant to Iowa insurance law, ordinary dividends are payments, together with all other such payments within the preceding twelve months, that do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of FGL Insurance’s statutory surplus as regards policyholders as of December 31 of the preceding year; or (ii) the net gain from operations of FGL Insurance (excluding realized capital gains) for the 12-month period ending December 31 of the preceding year. Dividends may only be paid out of statutory earned surplus.
Dividends in excess of FGL Insurance’s ordinary dividend capacity are referred to as extraordinary and require prior approval of the Iowa Commissioner. In deciding whether to approve a request to pay an extraordinary dividend, Iowa insurance law requires the Iowa Commissioner to consider the effect of the dividend payment on FGL Insurance’s surplus and financial condition generally and whether the payment of the dividend will cause FGL Insurance to fail to meet its required RBC ratio. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict FGL’s ability to pay dividends to holders of FGL’s common stock. FGL Insurance has not paid out extraordinary dividends since 2008, and in the future FGL Insurance may be required to request approval to pay an extraordinary dividend and there is no guarantee such a request would be approved by the Iowa Commissioner.
It is possible that in the future, FGL’s insurance subsidiaries may be unable to pay dividends or distributions to FGL in an amount sufficient to meet its obligations or to pay dividends due to a lack of sufficient statutory net gain from operations, a diminishing statutory policyholders surplus, changes to the Iowa or New York insurance laws or regulations or for some other reason. Further, the covenants in the agreement governing the existing indebtedness of FGH significantly restrict its ability to pay dividends, which further limits FGL’s ability to obtain cash or other assets from FGL’s subsidiaries. If FGL’s subsidiaries cannot pay sufficient dividends or distributions to FGL in the future, FGL would be unable to meet its obligations or to pay dividends. This would negatively affect FGL’s business and financial condition as well as the trading price of FGL’s common stock.
Front Street is a parent company with limited business operations of its own and conducts most of its business operations through its subsidiaries and its primary source of cash is and will be distributions from its subsidiaries. Front Street’s subsidiaries have limited operations and might not generate sufficient earnings and cash flow to pay dividends or distributions in the future.
FGL’s businesses are highly regulated and subject to numerous legal restrictions and regulations.
State Regulation
FGL’s business is subject to government regulation in each of the states in which they conduct business and is concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders and other customers rather than shareholders. Such regulation is vested in state agencies having broad administrative and discretionary, authority with respect to many aspects of FGL’s business which may include, among other things, premium rates and increases thereto, underwriting practices, reserve requirements, marketing practices,

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advertising, privacy, policy forms, reinsurance reserve requirements, acquisitions, mergers and capital adequacy. At any given time, FGL and its insurance subsidiaries may be the subject of a number of ongoing financial or market conduct examinations, audits or inquiries. From time to time, regulators raise issues during such examinations or audits that could have a material impact on FGL’s business.
FGL has received inquiries from a number of state regulatory authorities regarding its use of the U.S. Social Security Administration’s Death Master File (“Death Master File”) and compliance with state claims practices regulations and unclaimed property or escheatment laws. The NYDFS issued a letter and subsequent regulation requiring life insurers doing business in New York to use the Death Master File or similar databases to determine if benefits were payable under life insurance policies, annuities and retained asset accounts. Other states have enacted laws which will impose requirements on insurers to periodically compare their in-force life insurance policies and annuities against the Death Master File or similar databases, investigate any identified potential matches to confirm the death of the insured and determine whether benefits are due and attempt to locate the beneficiaries of any benefits that are due or, if no beneficiary can be located, escheat the benefit to the state as unclaimed property. FGL has received notice of escheatment audits from several states. FGL has filed suit in federal and state court to challenge the audit policies of the California controller and the applicability of California’s unclaimed property laws to FGL generally. It is possible that these requirements will result in additional payments to beneficiaries, additional escheatment of funds deemed abandoned under state laws or administrative penalties and expenses. While FGL believes that it has established sufficient reserves with respect to these matters, it is possible that third parties could dispute these amounts and additional payments or additional unreported claims or liabilities could be required or identified given the ongoing regulatory developments, the effects of which could be significant and could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s results of operations in any one period.
State insurance departments conduct periodic examinations of the books and records, financial reporting, policy and rate filings, market conduct and business practices of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years. The regulator in FGL Insurance’s previous state of domicile, the MIA, completed a routine financial examination of FGL Insurance for the three-year period ended December 31, 2012. The NYDFS completed a routine financial examination of FGL NY Insurance for the three-year periods ended December 31, 2009 and is completing its exam for the period ended December 31, 2012. The Vermont Department of Financial Regulation completed a routine financial examination of Raven Re for the period from April 7, 2011 (commencement of business) through December 31, 2012. FGL Insurance is currently the subject of seven ongoing market conduct examinations or inquiries in various states. While FGL Insurance does not believe that any of the current market conduct examinations it is subject to will result in any fines or remediation orders that will be material to its business, market conduct examinations can result in monetary fines or remediation and generally require FGL Insurance to devote significant resources to the management of such examinations. As a result of its re-domestication to Iowa, FGL Insurance became subject to financial and market conduct examinations by the IID, the primary regulatory authority for Iowa domestic life insurance companies.
NAIC
Although FGL’s business is subject to regulation in each state in which FGL conducts business, in many instances the state regulatory models emanate from the NAIC. State insurance regulators and the NAIC regularly re-examine existing laws and regulations applicable to insurance companies and their products. Changes in these laws and regulations, or interpretations thereof, are often made for the benefit of the consumer and at the expense of the insurer and, thus, could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, operations and financial condition. FGL is also subject to the risk that compliance with any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. Under insurance guaranty fund laws in most states, insurance companies doing business therein can be assessed up to prescribed limits for policyholder losses incurred by insolvent companies. FGL cannot predict the amount or timing of any such future assessments. There is an additional risk that any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may change over time to FGL’s detriment, or that changes to the overall legal or market environment, even absent any change of interpretation by a particular regulator, may cause FGL to change its views regarding the actions FGL needs to take from a legal risk management perspective, which could necessitate changes to FGL’s practices that may, in some cases, limit its ability to grow and improve profitability.
Some of the NAIC pronouncements, particularly as they affect accounting issues, take effect automatically in the various states without affirmative action by the states. Statutes, regulations and interpretations may be applied with retroactive impact, particularly in areas such as accounting and reserve requirements. Also, regulatory actions with prospective impact can potentially have a significant impact on current product offerings. The NAIC continues to work to reform state regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to life insurance reserves. On June 10, 2016, the NAIC formally approved principle-based reserving for life insurance products with secondary guarantees, with an effective date of January 1, 2017. A three year transition period is available which delays application of the new guidance until January 1, 2020. Additionally, various statutory accounting guidance is being evaluated, including investment value of insurance subsidiaries.

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Federal Regulation
In April 2016, the Department of Labor (“DOL”) issued the “fiduciary” rule which could have a material impact on FGL, its products, distribution, and business model. The rule provides that persons who render investment advice for a fee or other compensation with respect to an employer plan or individual retirement account (“IRA”) are fiduciaries of that plan or IRA. The rule expands the definition of fiduciary under ERISA to apply to insurance agents who advise and sell products to IRA owners. As a result, commissioned insurance agents selling FGL’s IRA products must qualify for a prohibited transaction exemption, either the newly introduced Best Interest Contract Exemption (“BICE”) or amended PTE 84-24. When fully implemented, BICE would apply to fixed indexed annuities and amended PTE 84-24 would apply to fixed rate annuities. The rule and exemptions have been the subject of much controversy and various actions have been taken by DOL to delay and reconsider aspects of the rule and exemptions. The rule took effect June 2016 and was scheduled to become applicable in April 2017 but the “applicability date” was delayed by DOL for 60 days from April 10, 2017 to June 9, 2017. DOL also acted to delay many aspects of the prohibited transaction exemption requirements during a transition period from June 9, 2017 to January 1, 2018 provided the agent (and if applicable, financial institution) comply with “impartial conduct standards.” The impartial conduct standards essentially require the sale to be in the “best interest” of the client, misleading statements not be made, and compensation be reasonable. More recently, DOL has proposed extending the transition period to July 1, 2019 which at the present time is still under consideration. Industry continues its efforts to overturn the rule in court actions and Congress continues to consider related legislation but the success or failure of these efforts cannot be predicted. Assuming the rule is not overturned and the requirements of the exemptions were to be implemented fully, the impact on the financial services industry generally, and on FGL and its business in particular, is difficult to assess. FGL believes however it could have an adverse effect on sales of annuity products to IRA owners particularly in the independent agent distribution channel. A significant portion of FGL’s annuity sales are to IRAs. Compliance with the prohibited transaction exemptions when fully phased in would likely require additional supervision of agents, cause changes to compensation practices and product offerings, and increase litigation risk, all of which could adversely impact FGL’s business, results of operations and/or financial condition. FGL Insurance will continue to monitor developments closely and believes it is prepared to execute implementation plans as necessary to meet the rule and exemption requirements on the requisite applicability dates.
Regardless of the outcome of the court and political challenges, FGL believes that it is prepared to execute on its implementation plans on the revised applicability date.
Other Regulation
Other types of regulation that could affect FGL or Front Street include insurance company investment laws and regulations, state adopted statutory accounting principles, antitrust laws, minimum solvency requirements, federal privacy laws, insurable interest laws and federal anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism laws.
Compliance with applicable laws and regulations is time-consuming and personnel-intensive, and changes in laws and regulations may materially increase the cost of compliance and other expenses of doing business. There are a number of risks that may arise where applicable regulations may be unclear, subject to multiple interpretations or under development or where regulations may conflict with one another, where regulators revise their previous guidance or courts overturn previous rulings, which could result in FGL’s or Front Street’s failure to meet applicable standards. Regulators and other authorities have the power to bring administrative or judicial proceedings against FGL and Front Street, which could result, among other things, in suspension or revocation of FGL’s or Front Street’s licenses, cease and desist orders, fines, civil penalties, criminal penalties or other disciplinary action, which could materially harm FGL’s or Front Street’s results of operations and financial condition. If FGL or Front Street fail to address, or appear to fail to address, appropriately any of these matters, FGL’s or Front Street’s reputation could be harmed and FGL or Front Street could be subject to additional legal risk, which could increase the size and number of claims and damages asserted against them or subject them to enforcement actions, fines and penalties. See Part I, Item I, “Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Regulation” for further discussion of the impact of regulations on FGL’s and Front Street’s business.
FGL and Front Street cannot predict what form any future changes in these or other areas of regulation affecting the insurance and reinsurance industry might take or what effect, if any, such proposals might have on FGL or Front Street if enacted into law. In addition, because FGL’s and Front Street’s activities are relatively concentrated in a small number of lines of business, any change in law or regulation affecting one of those lines of business could have a disproportionate impact on FGL or Front Street as compared to other more diversified insurance companies.
FGL’s and Front Street’s results of operations and financial condition depend on the accuracy of a broad range of assumptions and estimates made by their respective management teams.
FGL and Front Street make certain assumptions and estimates regarding mortality, persistency, expenses, interest rates, tax liability, business mix, frequency of claims, contingent liabilities, investment performance, derivative cost and other factors related to their businesses and anticipated results. FGL and Front Street rely on these assumptions and estimates to determine the amounts of deferred acquisition cost (“DAC”) and value of business acquired (“VOBA”) policy liabilities and accruals, future earnings and various components of their consolidated balance sheets and income statements. These assumptions are also used in making decisions crucial to the operation of their business, including the pricing of products and expense structures related to products. The calculations FGL and Front Street use to estimate various components of their balance sheets and

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consolidated statements of operations are necessarily complex and involve analyzing and interpreting large quantities of data. The assumptions and estimates required for these calculations involve judgment and by their nature are imprecise and subject to changes and revisions over time. These assumptions and estimates incorporate many factors, none of which can be predicted with certainty. To the extent their actual experience and changes in estimates differ from original estimates and assumptions, FGL’s and Front Street’s businesses, Consolidated Statements of Operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected. Accordingly, their results may be adversely affected by changes resulting from implementing more sophisticated administrative systems and procedures that facilitate the calculation of more precise estimates.
FGL has minimal experience to date on policyholder behavior for its GMWB products which it began issuing in 2008; as a result, future experience could lead to significant changes in their assumptions. If emerging experience deviates from FGL’s assumptions on GMWB utilization, it could have a significant effect on FGL’s reserve levels and related results of operations. See Part I, Item I. “Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.”
FGL’s or Front Street’s financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted if their assumptions regarding the fair value and future performance of their investments differ from actual experience.
FGL and Front Street make assumptions regarding the fair value and expected future performance of their investments. It is possible that actual values will differ from their assumptions. Such events could result in a material change in the value of their investments, business, operations and financial condition.
For example, expectations that FGL’s investments in RMBS and CMBS will continue to perform in accordance with their contractual terms are based on assumptions a market participant would use in determining the current fair value and considering the performance of the underlying assets. FGL has non-agency RMBS holdings of $1.3 billion as of September 30, 2017. It is possible that the collateral underlying these investments will not meet performance expectations and the lower performance levels may lead to adverse changes in the cash flows on FGL’s holdings of these types of securities. This could lead to potential future other-than-temporary impairments (“OTTI”) within FGL’s portfolio of RMBS, CMBS, and ABS. In addition, expectations that FGL’s investments in corporate securities or debt obligations will continue to perform in accordance with their contractual terms are based on evidence gathered through FGL’s normal credit surveillance process. It is possible that issuers of corporate securities in which FGL has invested will perform worse than current expectations. Such events may lead FGL to recognize potential future OTTI within its portfolio of corporate securities. The Insurance Operations recorded OTTI charges of approximately $26.3 million and $51.3 million for Fiscal 2017 and Fiscal 2016, respectively, inclusive of OTTI on investments in affiliates. It is also possible that unanticipated events would lead FGL to dispose of certain of those holdings and recognize the effects of any market movements in FGL’s financial statements.
A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency, could make FGL’s product offerings less attractive and increase its cost of capital, and thereby could adversely affect FGL’s financial condition and results of operations.
Various nationally recognized rating agencies review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including FGL’s insurance subsidiaries, and publish their financial strength ratings as indicators of an insurer’s ability to meet policyholder and contractholder obligations. These ratings are important to maintaining public confidence in FGL’s products, its ability to market its products and its competitive position. Any downgrade or other negative action by a rating agency with respect to the financial strength ratings of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries could have a materially adverse effect on FGL in many ways, including the following:
adversely affecting relationships with distributors, IMOs and sales agents, which could result in reduction of sales;
increasing the number or amount of policy lapses or surrenders and withdrawals of funds;
requiring a reduction in prices for FGL’s insurance products and services in order to remain competitive;
adversely affecting FGL’s ability to obtain reinsurance at a reasonable price, on reasonable terms or at all; and
requiring FGL to collateralize reserves, balances or obligations under reinsurance and derivatives agreements.
Rating agencies assign ratings based upon several factors. While most of these factors relate to the rated company, some factors relate to the views of the rating agency, general economic conditions and circumstances outside the rated company’s control. In addition, rating agencies use various proprietary models and formulas to assess the strength of a rated company, and from time to time rating agencies have altered their models and may do so in the future in ways that negatively impact the financial strength ratings of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries and make it more difficult to maintain or obtain comparable ratings going forward. As rating agencies continue to evaluate the financial services industry, it is possible that rating agencies will heighten the level of scrutiny that they apply to financial institutions, increase the frequency and scope of their credit reviews, request additional information from the companies that they rate and potentially adjust upward the capital and other requirements employed in the rating agency models for maintenance of certain ratings levels. It is possible that the outcome of any such review of FGL would have additional adverse ratings consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. FGL may need to take actions in response to changing standards or capital requirements set by any of the rating agencies which could cause FGL’s business and operations to suffer. If the financial strength ratings of FGL’s insurance

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subsidiaries are downgraded, FGL anticipates that its sales of new policies will be adversely impacted and that FGL could experience substantial surrenders of existing policies. In order to improve or maintain their financial strength ratings, FGL’s insurance subsidiaries may limit the amount of dividends that they would otherwise pay to FGL. In that regard, FGL may, among other things, implement business strategies to improve the RBC ratio of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries to a level anticipated by the rating agencies to maintain or improve FGL’s current rating. If FGL is unable to achieve this level, FGL may limit dividend payments from FGL Insurance to the extent necessary. FGL cannot guarantee these measures will be successful, and if FGL Insurance fails to maintain such a target RBC ratio, its financial strength rating could suffer. FGL cannot predict what actions rating agencies may take in the future, and failure to improve or maintain current financial strength ratings could adversely affect FGL’s financial condition and results of operations.
Following the announcement of the CF Corp Merger Agreement on May 24, 2017, the rating organizations have undertaken a review of FGL’s debt ratings and FGL’s insurance company subsidiaries’ financial strength ratings. The rating organizations may take various actions, positive or negative. Such actions are beyond FGL’s control and FGL cannot predict what these actions may be and the timing thereof.
FGH is required to maintain minimum ratings as a matter of routine practice under FGH’s over-the-counter derivative agreements on forms promulgated by ISDA Under some ISDA agreements, FGH has agreed to maintain certain financial strength ratings. A downgrade below these levels provides the counterparty under the agreement the right to terminate the open derivative contracts between the parties, at which time any amounts payable by FGH or the counterparty would be dependent on the market value of the underlying derivative contracts. FGH’s current rating allows multiple counterparties the right to terminate ISDA agreements. As of September 30, 2017, the amount at risk for ISDA agreements which could be terminated based upon FGH’s current ratings was $412.8 million, which equals the fair value to FGH of the open over-the-counter call option positions. The fair value of the call options can never decrease below zero. No ISDA agreements have been terminated, although the counterparties have reserved the right to terminate the ISDA agreements at any time. In certain transactions, FGH and the counterparty have entered into a collateral support agreement requiring either party to post collateral when the net exposures exceed predetermined thresholds. These thresholds vary by counterparty and credit rating but are generally zero. As of September 30, 2017 and 2016, $381.2 million and $127.8 million, respectively, of collateral was posted by FGH’s counterparties. Accordingly, the maximum amount of loss due to credit risk that FGH were to incur if parties to the call options failed completely to perform according to the terms of the contracts was $31.6 million and $147.4 million at September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Additionally, under certain insurance reserve financing arrangements, if FGH were to take certain actions without the counterparties consent, and such actions resulted in a specified financial strength ratings downgrade, FGH would be in default. See Part II, Item 7A.“Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk-Credit Risk and Counterparty Risk-FGL.”
The amount of regulatory capital that FGL’s and Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries have and the amount of statutory capital that they must hold to maintain their financial strength ratings and meet other requirements can vary significantly from time to time due to a number of factors outside of their control.
FGL’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulations that provide minimum capitalization requirements based on RBC formulas for life insurance and reinsurance companies that establish capital requirements relating to insurance, business, asset, interest rate, and certain other risks.
In any particular year, statutory surplus amounts and RBC ratios may increase or decrease depending on a variety of factors, most of which are outside of FGL’s control, including, but not limited to, the following:
the amount of statutory income or losses generated by their insurance subsidiaries (which itself is sensitive to equity market and credit market conditions);
the amount of additional capital their insurance subsidiaries must hold to support business growth;
changes in reserve requirements applicable to their insurance subsidiaries;
their ability to access capital markets to provide reserve relief;
changes in equity market levels;
the value of certain fixed-income and equity securities in their investment portfolios;
changes in the credit ratings of investments held in their portfolios;
the value of certain derivative instruments;
changes in interest rates;
credit market volatility;
changes in consumer behavior; and
changes to the RBC formulas and interpretation of the NAIC instructions with respect to RBC calculation methodologies.
The financial strength ratings of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries are significantly influenced by their statutory surplus amounts and capital adequacy ratios. Rating agencies may also implement changes to their internal models, which differ from the RBC

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capital model, that have the effect of increasing or decreasing the amount of statutory capital FGL’s insurance subsidiaries must hold in order to maintain their current ratings. In addition, rating agencies may downgrade the investments held in FGL’s portfolio, which could result in a reduction of FGL’s capital and surplus and its RBC ratio.
In extreme equity market declines, the amount of additional statutory reserves, FGL’s insurance subsidiaries are required to hold for fixed indexed products may decrease at a rate less than the rate of change of the market value of the invested assets. This mismatch could result in a reduction of the capital, surplus or RBC ratio of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries. To the extent that an insurance subsidiary’s RBC ratios are deemed to be insufficient, FGL may take actions either to increase the capitalization of the insurer or to reduce the capitalization requirements. If FGL is unable to take such actions, the rating agencies may view this as a reason for a ratings downgrade.
While the amount of statutory reserves is not directly affected by changes in market interest rates, additional statutory reserves may be required as the result of an asset adequacy analysis, and this analysis of cash flow testing is altered by rising or falling interest rates and widening credit spreads.
The failure of any of FGL’s insurance subsidiaries to meet its applicable RBC requirements or minimum capital and surplus requirements could subject it to further examination or corrective action imposed by insurance regulators, including limitations on its ability to write additional business, supervision by regulators or seizure or liquidation. Any corrective action imposed could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, results of operations and financial condition. A decline in RBC ratios also limits the ability of an insurance subsidiary to make dividends or distributions to FGL and could be a factor in causing rating agencies to downgrade the insurer’s financial strength ratings, which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Financial services companies are frequently the targets of litigation, including class action litigation, which could result in substantial judgments.
FGL and Front Street, like other financial services companies, are involved in litigation and arbitration in the ordinary course of business. Although FGL and Front Street do not believe that the outcome of any such litigation or arbitration will have a material adverse effect on their financial condition, it is possible that their results of operations and cash flows could be materially affected by an unfavorable outcome. More generally, FGL and Front Street operate in industries in which various practices are subject to scrutiny and potential litigation, including class actions. In addition, FGL sells its products through IMOs, whose activities may be difficult to monitor. Civil jury verdicts have been returned against insurers and other financial services companies involving sales, underwriting practices, product design, product disclosure, administration, denial or delay of benefits, charging excessive or impermissible fees, recommending unsuitable products to customers, breaching fiduciary or other duties to customers, refund or claims practices, alleged agent misconduct, failure to properly supervise representatives, relationships with agents or other persons with whom the insurer does business, payment of sales or other contingent commissions and other matters. Such lawsuits can result in substantial judgments that are disproportionate to the actual damages, including material amounts of punitive non-economic compensatory damages. In some states, juries, judges and arbitrators have substantial discretion in awarding punitive and non-economic compensatory damages, which creates the potential for unpredictable material adverse judgments or awards in any given lawsuit or arbitration. Arbitration awards are subject to very limited appellate review. In addition, in some class action and other lawsuits, financial services companies have made material settlement payments.
FGL’s reinsurers, including Wilton Re and Front Street Cayman, could fail to meet assumed obligations, increase their rates, or become subject to adverse developments that could materially adversely affect FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
FGL’s insurance subsidiaries cede material amounts of insurance and transfer related assets and certain liabilities to other insurance companies through reinsurance. For example, a material amount of reinsured liabilities are concentrated with Wilton Re and Front Street Cayman. As of September 30, 2017, the amount recoverable from Wilton Re and Front Street Cayman was $1,534.7 million and $1,016.2 million, respectively. As of September 30, 2017, the reserves ceded to Wilton Re and Front Street Cayman was $1,477.2 million and $1,016.2 million, respectively. Given FGL’s significant concentration of reinsurance with Wilton Re, if Wilton Re fails to perform its obligations under the various reinsurance treaties, such failure could have a material impact on FGL’s financial position. See Part I, Item 1. “Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Reinsurance-Wilton Re Transaction”. However, notwithstanding the transfer of related assets and certain liabilities, FGL remains liable with respect to ceded insurance should any reinsurer fail to meet the obligations assumed. Accordingly, FGL bears credit risk with respect to its reinsurers. The failure, insolvency, inability or unwillingness of any reinsurer to pay under the terms of reinsurance agreements with FGL could materially adversely affect FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations. To mitigate the counterparty risk for the Front Street Cayman transaction, the assets are held on FGL Insurance’s balance sheet and are used as collateral in the event of a failure. For Wilton Re, A+ rated from Fitch, FGL monitors the credit rating. During 2014 Wilton Re announced their purchase by Canadian Pension Plan Investment Board, (“CCIB”), an AAA rated organization. With the capital resources of CCIB behind Wilton Re, FGL believes the counterparty risk is low. See Part I, Item 1A.“Business-Our Operating Subsidiaries-FGL-Reinsurance-Wilton Re Transaction”.
FGL’s ability to compete is dependent on the availability of reinsurance or other substitute financing solutions, both of which could involve the use of reinsurance affiliates referred to generally as “captives”. Premium rates charged by FGL are based, in

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part, on the assumption that reinsurance will be available at a certain cost. Under certain reinsurance agreements, the reinsurer may increase the rate it charges FGL for the reinsurance. Therefore, if the cost of reinsurance were to increase, if reinsurance were to become unavailable on commercially reasonable terms or at all, if alternatives to reinsurance were not available to FGL, if the use of captives were materially restricted through regulation, including certain general proposals currently under consideration by the NAIC, FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The credit for reinsurance taken by FGL’s insurance subsidiaries under offshore reinsurance agreements is, under certain conditions, dependent upon the offshore reinsurers ability to obtain and provide sufficient qualifying assets in a qualifying trust or qualifying letters of credit issued by qualifying lending banks. The cost of letters of credit, when available, continues to be very expensive in the current economic environment. Loss of reserve credit by an insurance subsidiary would require it to establish additional reserves and would result in a decrease in the level of its capital, which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s profitability, results of operations and financial condition.
In recent years, access to reinsurance has become more costly for members of the insurance industry, including FGL. In addition, the number of life reinsurers has decreased as the reinsurance industry has consolidated. The decreased number of participants in the life reinsurance market resulted in increased concentration of risk for insurers, including FGL. If the reinsurance market further contracts, FGL’s ability to continue to offer FGL’s products on terms favorable to it could be negatively impacted, resulting in adverse consequences to FGL’s business, operations and financial condition.
In addition, reinsurers are facing many challenges regarding illiquid credit or capital markets, investment downgrades, rating agency downgrades, deterioration of general economic conditions and other factors negatively impacting the financial services industry generally. If such events cause a reinsurer to fail to meet its obligations, FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Restrictions on FGL’s ability to use captive reinsurers could adversely impact its competitive position and results of operations.
The NAIC and state insurance regulators continue to review life insurance companies’ use of affiliated captive reinsurers or off-shore entities. On June 4, 2014, Rector & Associates, a consulting firm commissioned by the NAIC, presented a revised report (the “Rector Report”) to the Principle-Based Reserving Implementation Task Force of the NAIC which proposes a new regulatory framework for captives assuming term life insurance (“XXX”) or universal life insurance with secondary guarantees (“AXXX”) business, and recommends, among other things, placing limitations on the types of assets that may be used to finance reserves associated with XXX and AXXX business and making an individual state’s adoption of the new regulations contemplated by the report an NAIC accreditation standard. On August 17, 2014, the NAIC Executive (EX) Committee adopted the regulatory framework proposed by the Rector Report, including recommendations to have various NAIC technical subgroups propose regulations and guidelines to implement the new framework. These technical working groups are in various stages of developing and proposing regulations and guidelines. On October 9, 2014, the NAIC’s Principle-Based Reserving Implementation Task Force voted to expose for comment a new Actuarial Guideline (AG48) designed to implement many of the recommendations in the Rector Report related to the amount of assets that may be supported by different asset classes in connection with certain transactions involving captive reinsurance companies. AG48 was adopted effective January 1, 2015 and did not materially impact FGL’s financial statements or actuarial opinion.
If state insurance regulators restrict the use of captive reinsurers or if FGL otherwise is unable to continue to use captive reinsurers in the future, FGL’s ability to write certain products, to manage the associated risks and to deploy capital efficiently, could be adversely affected, or FGL may need to increase prices on those products, which could adversely impact its competitive position and its results of operations.
Interest rate fluctuations and withdrawal demands in excess of FGL’s and Front Street’s assumptions could negatively affect their business, financial condition and results of operations.
FGL and Front Street offer certain products that allow policyholders to withdraw their funds under defined circumstances. In order to meet such funding obligations, FGL and Front Street manage their liabilities and configure their investment portfolios so as to provide and maintain sufficient liquidity to support expected withdrawal demands and contract benefits and maturities. However, in order to provide necessary long-term returns, a certain portion of FGL’s and Front Street’s assets are relatively illiquid. There can be no assurance that withdrawal demands will match FGL’s and Front Street’s estimation of withdrawal demands. However, in an effort to mitigate this risk, FGL and Front Street assess surrender charges on withdrawals in excess of allowable penalty-free amounts that occur prior to surrender expiration. As interest rates increase, FGL and Front Street are exposed to the risk of financial disintermediation through a potential increase in the number of withdrawals. Disintermediation risk refers to the risk that policyholders may surrender their contracts in a rising interest rate environment, requiring FGL and Front Street to liquidate assets in an unrealized loss position. If FGL and Front Street experience unexpected withdrawal activity, whether as a result of interest rate movements financial strength downgrades or otherwise, it could exhaust its liquid assets and be forced to liquidate other less liquid assets, possibly at a loss or on other unfavorable terms, which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s and Front Street’s business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, FGL and Front Street may experience spread compression, and a loss of anticipated earnings, if credited interest rates are increased on renewing contracts in an effort to decrease or manage withdrawal activity.
Interest rates are subject to volatility and fluctuations. For the past several years, interest rates have trended downwards to

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historically low levels. In order to meet its policy and contractual obligations, FGL and Front Street must earn a sufficient return on its invested assets. A prolonged period of historically low rates or significant changes in interest rates could expose FGL and Front Street to the risk of not achieving sufficient return on its invested assets by not achieving anticipated interest earnings, or of not earning anticipated spreads between the interest rate earned on investments and the credited interest rates paid on outstanding policies and contracts. Additionally, a prolonged period of low interest rates in the future may lengthen liability maturity, thus increasing the need for a re-investment of assets at yields that are below the amounts required to support guarantee features of FGL’s and Front Street’s contracts. Both rising and declining interest rates can negatively affect FGL’s and Front Street’s interest earnings and spread income (the difference between the returns FGL and Front Street earn on their investments and the amounts they must credit to policyholders and contractholders). While FGL and Front Street develop and maintain asset liability management (“ALM”) programs and procedures designed to mitigate the effect on interest earnings and spread income in rising or falling interest rate environments, no assurance can be given that changes in interest rates will not materially adversely affect FGL’s or Front Street’s businesses, financial conditions and results of operations.
FGL’s expectation for future interest earnings and spread income is an important component in amortization of DAC and VOBA and significantly lower interest earnings or spreads may cause FGL to accelerate amortization, thereby reducing net income in the affected reporting period. An extended period of declining interest rates or a prolonged period of low interest rates may also cause FGL or Front Street to change their long-term view of the interest rates that they can earn on their investments. Such a change in FGL’s or Front Street’s view would cause them to change the long-term interest rate that they assume in their calculation of insurance assets and liabilities under U.S. GAAP. This revision would result in increased reserves and other unfavorable consequences. In addition, while the amount of statutory reserves is not directly affected by changes in market interest rates, additional statutory reserves may be required as the result of an asset adequacy analysis, which is altered by rising or falling interest rates and widening credit spreads.
Additionally, FGL’s and Front Street’s ALM programs and procedures incorporate assumptions about the relationship between short-term and long-term interest rates and relationships between risk-adjusted and risk-free interest rates, market liquidity and other factors. The effectiveness of FGL’s and Front Street’s ALM programs and procedures may be negatively affected whenever actual results differ from these assumptions.
Changes in interest rates may also affect the attractiveness of certain of FGL’s products. For example, lower interest rates may result in decreased sales of certain of FGL’s insurance and investment products. However, during periods of declining interest rates, certain life insurance and annuity products may be relatively more attractive investments to consumers, resulting in increased premium payments on products with flexible premium features, repayment of policy loans and increased persistency or a higher percentage of insurance policies remaining in force from year to year during a period when FGL’s investments carry lower returns. As a result, FGL could become unable to earn its desired level of spread income.
During periods of increasing market interest rates, FGL may offer higher crediting rates on interest-sensitive products, such as universal life insurance and fixed annuities, and FGL may increase crediting rates on in-force products to keep these products competitive. Increases in crediting rates, as well as surrenders and withdrawals, could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if long-term interest rates rise dramatically within a six- to twelve-month time period, certain of FGL’s products may be exposed to disintermediation risk. Higher interest rates may increase the cost of debt and other obligations having floating rate or rate reset provisions and may result in lower sales of other products. A rise in interest rates, in the absence of other countervailing changes, will increase the gross unrealized loss position of FGL’s investment portfolio which will decrease FGL’s accumulated other comprehensive income and shareholders’ equity. FGL’s gross unrealized loss on FGL’s available for sale (“AFS”) portfolio was $138.5 million as of September 30, 2017 compared to $268.2 million as of September 30, 2016.
FGL’s and Front Street’s investments are subject to market and credit risks. These risks could be heightened during periods of extreme volatility or disruption in financial and credit markets.
FGL’s and Front Street’s invested assets and derivative financial instruments are subject to risks of credit defaults and changes in market values. Periods of extreme volatility or disruption in the financial and credit markets could increase these risks. Underlying factors relating to volatility affecting the financial and credit markets could have a material adverse impact on FGL’s and Front Street’s results of operations or financial condition.
The value of FGL’s and Front Street’s mortgage-backed investments depends in part on the financial condition of the borrowers and tenants for the properties underlying those investments, as well as general and specific economic trends affecting the overall default rate. FGL and Front Street are also subject to the risk that cash flows resulting from the payments on pools of mortgages that serve as collateral underlying the mortgage-backed securities FGL and Front Street own may differ from their expectations in timing or size. Cash flow variability arising from an unexpected acceleration in mortgage prepayment behavior can be significant, and could cause a decline in the estimated fair value of certain “interest-only” securities within FGL’s and Front Street’s mortgage-backed securities portfolio. Any event reducing the estimated fair value of these securities, other than on a temporary basis, could have an adverse effect on FGL’s and Front Street’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Significant continued financial and credit market volatility, changes in interest rates, credit spreads, credit defaults, real estate values, market illiquidity, declines in equity prices, acts of corporate malfeasance, ratings downgrades of the issuers or guarantors

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of these investments and declines in general economic conditions, either alone or in combination, could have a material adverse impact on FGL’s or Front Street’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flows through realized losses, OTTI, changes in unrealized loss positions and increased demands on capital.
As of September 30, 2017 and 2016, Front Street’s most significant exposure related to the securities underlying the funds withheld receivables was to the financial sector and the energy, mining and metals industries. See Part II, Item 7A. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”
In addition, market volatility can make it difficult for FGL and Front Street to value certain of their assets, especially if trading becomes less frequent. Valuations may include assumptions or estimates that may have significant period-to-period changes that could have an adverse impact on FGL’s and Front Street’s results of operations or financial condition.
FGL is exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by its counterparties on call options. FGL seeks to reduce the risk associated with such agreements by purchasing such options from large, well-established financial institutions, but there can be no assurance that FGL will not suffer losses in the event of counterparty non-performance. As of September 30, 2017 and 2016, $381.2 million and $127.8 million, respectively, of collateral was posted by FGL’s counterparties. Accordingly, the maximum amount of loss due to credit risk that FGL would incur if parties to the call options failed completely to perform according to the terms of the contracts was $31.6 million and $147.4 million at September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Equity market volatility could negatively impact FGL’s or Front Street’s business.
Equity market volatility can negatively affect FGL’s or Front Street’s revenues and profitability in various ways, particularly as a result of guaranteed minimum withdrawal or surrender benefits in their products. The estimated cost of providing GMWB incorporates various assumptions about the overall performance of equity markets over certain time periods. Periods of significant and sustained downturns in equity markets or increased equity volatility could result in an increase in the valuation of the future policy benefit or policyholder account balance liabilities associated with such products, resulting in a reduction in FGL’s or Front Street’s revenues and net income. The rate of amortization of DAC and VOBA relating to FIA products and the cost of providing guaranteed minimum withdrawal or surrender benefits could also increase if equity market performance is worse than assumed, hence materially and adversely impacting FGL’s or Front Street’s results of operations and financial condition.
Credit market volatility or disruption could adversely impact FGL’s or Front Street’s financial condition or results of operations.
Significant volatility or disruption in credit markets could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s or Front Street’s business, financial condition and results of operations. Changes in interest rates and credit spreads could cause market price and cash flow variability in the fixed income instruments in FGL’s and Front Street’s investment portfolios. Significant volatility and lack of liquidity in the credit markets could cause issuers of the fixed-income securities in FGL’s or Front Street’s investment portfolio to default on either principal or interest payments on these securities. Additionally, market price valuations may not accurately reflect the underlying expected cash flows of securities within FGL’s or Front Street’s investment portfolio.
Changes in federal or state tax laws may affect sales of FGL’s products and profitability.
The annuity and life insurance products that FGL markets generally provide the policyholder with certain federal income or state tax advantages. For example, federal income taxation on any increases in non-qualified annuity contract values (i.e., the “inside build-up”) is deferred until it is received by the policyholder. Non-qualified annuities are annuities that are not sold to a qualified retirement plan. With other savings investments, such as certificates of deposit and taxable bonds, the increase in value is generally taxed each year as it is realized. Additionally, life insurance death benefits are generally exempt from income tax.
From time to time, various tax law changes have been proposed that could have an adverse effect on FGL’s business, including the elimination of all or a portion of the income tax advantages described above for annuities and life insurance. Additionally, insurance products, including the tax favorable features of these products, generally must be approved by the insurance regulators in each state in which they are sold. This review could delay the introduction of new products or impact the features that provide for tax advantages and make such products less attractive to potential purchasers. If legislation were enacted to eliminate the tax deferral for annuities, such a change would have a material adverse effect on FGL’s ability to sell non-qualified annuities.
FGL and Front Street may be required to increase their valuation allowance against their deferred tax assets, and may face restrictions on FGL’s and Front Street’s ability to fully utilize such assets which could materially adversely affect FGL’s and Front Street’s capital position, business, operations and financial condition.
Deferred tax assets refer to assets that are attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets in essence represent future savings of taxes that would otherwise be paid in cash. The realization of the deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of sufficient future taxable income, including capital gains. If it is determined that the deferred tax assets cannot be realized, a deferred tax valuation allowance must be established, with a corresponding charge to net income.
Based on FGL’s current assessment of future taxable income, including available tax planning strategies, FGL anticipates that it is more likely than not that FGL will generate sufficient taxable income to realize all of their deferred tax assets as to which

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FGL does not have a valuation allowance. If future events differ from FGL’s current forecasts, the valuation allowance may need to be increased from the current amount, which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s capital position, business, operations and financial condition. Based on declining conditions on its operating results and after consideration of each source of taxable income, Front Street determined it does not have sufficient taxable income to realize its deferred tax assets and increased from the current amount to a full valuation allowance.
FGL’s and Front Street’s business models depend on the performance of various third parties, including independent distributors, underwriters, actuarial consultants and other service providers.
FGL and Front Street rely significantly on various third parties to provide services for their business operations. As such, their results may be affected by the performance of those other parties. For example, FGL is dependent upon independent distribution channels to sell its products, third parties to perform policy administration and underwriting functions, and independent consultants to perform actuarial analyses and asset managers to manage certain of FGL’s assets. Additionally, FGL’s and Front Street’s operations are dependent on various service providers and on various technologies, some of which are provided or maintained by certain key outsourcing partners and other parties.
Many of FGL’s products and services are complex and are sold through third-party intermediaries. In particular, FGL’s insurance businesses are reliant on these intermediaries to describe and explain their products to potential customers. The intentional or unintentional misrepresentation of FGL’s products and services in advertising materials or other external communications, or inappropriate activities by FGL’s personnel or an intermediary, could adversely affect FGL’s reputation and business prospects, as well as lead to potential regulatory actions or litigation.
The third parties upon which FGL and Front Street depend may default on their obligations to FGL or Front Street due to bankruptcy, insolvency, lack of liquidity, adverse economic conditions, operational failure, fraud, loss of key personnel, or other reasons. Such defaults could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s or Front Street’s financial condition and results of operations. In addition, certain of these other parties may act, or be deemed to act, on behalf of FGL or represent FGL in various capacities. Consequently, FGL may be held responsible for obligations that arise from the acts or omissions of these other parties
Interruption or other operational failures in telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems, or a failure to maintain the security, integrity, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data residing on such systems, including as a result of human error, could harm FGL’s or Front Street’s business.
FGL and Front Street are highly dependent on automated and information technology systems to record and process their internal transactions and transactions involving their customers, as well as to calculate reserves, value-invested assets and complete certain other components of their U.S. GAAP and statutory financial statements. FGL or Front Street could experience a failure of one of these systems, their employees or agents could fail to monitor and implement enhancements or other modifications to a system in a timely and effective manner, or their employees or agents could fail to complete all necessary data reconciliation or other conversion controls when implementing a new software system or implementing modifications to an existing system. Despite the implementation of security and back-up measures, FGL’s and Front Street’s information technology systems may be vulnerable to physical or electronic intrusions, viruses or other attacks, programming errors and similar disruptions. FGL or Front Street may also be subject to disruptions of any of these systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond their control (for example, natural disasters, acts of terrorism, epidemics, computer viruses and electrical/telecommunications outages). All of these risks are also applicable where FGL and Front Street rely on outside vendors, including NT Data (formerly “Dell”), to provide services to FGL and Front Street, to provide services to them and their customers. The failure of any one of these systems for any reason, or errors made by FGL’s or Front Street’s employees or agents, could in each case cause significant interruptions to their respective operations, which could harm their reputations, adversely affect their internal controls over financial reporting, or have a material adverse effect on FGL’s or Front Street’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
FGL retains confidential information in its information technology systems and those of its business partners, and it relies on industry standard commercial technologies to maintain the security of those systems. Despite its implementation of network security measures, FGL’s servers could be subject to physical and electronic break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with their computer systems. While FGL performs annual penetration tests and has adopted a number of measures to protect the security of customer and company data and have not experienced a successful cyberattack, there is no guaranty that such an attack will not occur or be successful in the future. Anyone who is able to circumvent FGL’s security measures and penetrate its information technology systems could access, view, misappropriate, alter, or delete information in the systems, including personally identifiable customer information and proprietary business information. Information security risks also exist with respect to the use of portable electronic devices, such as laptops, which are particularly vulnerable to loss and theft. In addition, an increasing number of jurisdictions require that customers be notified if a security breach results in the disclosure of personally identifiable customer information. Any compromise of the security of FGL’s information technology systems that results in inappropriate access, use or disclosure of personally identifiable customer information could damage FGL’s reputation in the marketplace, deter purchases of its products, subject FGL to heightened regulatory scrutiny or significant civil and criminal liability and require FGL to incur significant technical, legal and other expenses.

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In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a blackout, a computer virus, a terrorist attack or war, FGL’s or Front Street’s information technology systems may be inaccessible to their employees, customers, or business partners for an extended period of time. Even if FGL’s or Front Street’s employees are able to report to work, they may be unable to perform their duties for an extended period of time if their data or systems are disabled or destroyed. Any such occurrence could materially adversely affect FGL’s or Front Street’s business, operations and financial condition.
FGL’s and Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries’ ability to grow depends in large part upon the continued availability of capital.
FGL’s and Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries’ long-term strategic capital requirements will depend on many factors, including their accumulated statutory earnings and the relationship between their statutory capital and surplus and various elements of required capital. To support long-term capital requirements, FGL, Front Street and their insurance subsidiaries may need to increase or maintain statutory capital and surplus through financings, which could include debt, equity, financing arrangements or other surplus relief transactions. Adverse market conditions have affected and continue to affect the availability and cost of capital from external sources. Neither FGL nor Front Street are obligated, they may choose not or, may not be able to, provide financing or make capital contributions to their insurance subsidiaries. Consequently, financings, if available at all, may be available only on terms that are not favorable to FGL or Front Street or their insurance subsidiaries. If FGL’s or Front Street’s insurance subsidiaries cannot maintain adequate capital, they may be required to limit growth in sales of new policies, or reinsurance treaties (each as applicable), and such action could materially adversely affect FGL’s or Front Street’s business, operations and financial condition.
Accounting rules, changes to accounting rules, or the grant of permitted accounting practices to competitors could negatively impact FGL and Front Street.
FGL and Front Street are required to comply with U.S. GAAP. A number of organizations are instrumental in the development and interpretation of U.S. GAAP, such as the SEC, the FASB and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. U.S. GAAP is subject to constant review by these organizations and others in an effort to address emerging accounting issues and to interpret existing accounting guidance. FGL nor Front Street cannot assure you that future changes to U.S. GAAP will not have a negative impact on FGL or Front Street. U.S. GAAP includes the requirement to carry certain assets and liabilities at fair value. These fair values are sensitive to various factors including, but not limited to, interest rate movements, credit spreads, and various other factors. Because of this, changes in these fair values may cause increased levels of volatility in FGL’s and Front Street’s consolidated financial statements.
FGL’s insurance subsidiaries are required to comply with statutory accounting principles (“SAP”). SAP and in particular actuarial reserving methodology are subject to constant review by the NAIC and its task forces and committees as well as state insurance departments in an effort to address emerging issues and otherwise improve financial reporting. Various proposals are currently, or have previously been, pending before committees and task forces of the NAIC, some of which, if enacted, would negatively affect FGL’s insurance subsidiaries. The NAIC is also currently working to reform state regulation in various areas, including comprehensive reforms relating to life insurance reserves and the accounting for such reserves. FGL cannot predict whether or in what form reforms will be enacted and, if so, whether the enacted reforms will positively or negatively affect FGL. In addition, the NAIC Accounting Practices and Procedures manual provides that state insurance departments may permit insurance companies domiciled therein to depart from SAP by granting them permitted accounting practices. FGL cannot predict whether or when the insurance departments of the states of domicile of its competitors may permit them to utilize advantageous accounting practices that depart from SAP, the use of which is not permitted by the insurance departments of the states of domicile of FGL and its insurance subsidiaries. With respect to regulations and guidelines, states sometimes defer to the interpretation of the insurance department of the state of domicile. Neither the action of the domiciliary state nor action of the NAIC is binding on a state. Accordingly, a state could choose to follow a different interpretation. FGL can give no assurance that future changes to SAP or components of SAP or the grant of permitted accounting practices to its competitors will not have a negative impact on FGL.
FGL’s and Front Street’s risk management policies and procedures could leave them exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risks, which could negatively affect their businesses or result in losses.
FGL and Front Street have developed risk management policies and procedures and expect to continue to enhance these in the future. Nonetheless, their policies and procedures to identify, monitor, and manage both internal and external risks may not effectively mitigate these risks or predict future exposures, which could be different or significantly greater than expected. These identified risks may not be the only risks facing FGL or Front Street. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to FGL or Front Street, or that either of them currently deem to be immaterial, may adversely affect their business, financial condition or operating results. For example, FGL hedges its FIA index credits with a combination of static and dynamic strategies, which can result in earnings volatility. In addition, FGL’s FIA hedging strategy economically hedges the equity returns and exposes FGL to the risk that unhedged market exposures result in divergence between changes in the fair value of the liabilities and the hedging assets.

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FGL may not be able to protect its intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.
FGL relies on a combination of contractual rights and copyright, trademark and trade secret laws to establish and protect its intellectual property. Although FGL uses a broad range of measures to protect its intellectual property rights, third parties may infringe or misappropriate its intellectual property. FGL may have to litigate to enforce and protect its copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and know-how or to determine their scope, validity or enforceability, which represents a diversion of resources that may be significant in amount and may not prove successful. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to secure or enforce the protection of FGL’s intellectual property assets could adversely impact its business and its ability to compete effectively.
FGL also may be subject to costly litigation in the event that another party alleges its operations or activities infringe upon that party’s intellectual property rights. FGL may also be subject to claims by third parties for breach of copyright, trademark, trade secret or license usage rights. Any such claims and any resulting litigation could result in significant expense and liability for damages or FGL could be enjoined from providing certain products or services to its customers or utilizing and benefiting from certain methods, processes, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets or licenses, or alternatively, FGL could be required to enter into costly licensing arrangements with third parties, all of which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
FGL’s and Front Street’s business could be interrupted or compromised if they experience difficulties arising from outsourcing relationships.
In addition to services provided by third-party asset managers and actuarial consultants, FGL outsources the following functions to third-party service providers, and expect to continue to do so in the future: (i) new business administration, (ii) hosting of financial systems, (iii) servicing of existing policies, (iv) information technology development and maintenance, (v) call centers and (vi) underwriting administration of life insurance applications. Front Street is also reliant on a variety of third party services in conducting its operations. If FGL and Front Street do not maintain an effective outsourcing strategy or third-party providers do not perform as contracted, they may experience operational difficulties, increased costs and a loss of business that could have a material adverse effect on their results of operations. In addition, FGL’s and Front Street’s reliance on third-party service providers that they do not control does not relieve them of their responsibilities and requirements. Any failure or negligence by such third-party service providers in carrying out their contractual duties may result in FGL and Front Street becoming subjected to liability to parties who are harmed and ensuing litigation. Any litigation relating to such matters could be costly, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome of any such litigation may be uncertain.
Moreover, any adverse publicity arising from such litigation, even if the litigation is not successful, could adversely affect FGL’s and Front Street’s reputation and sales of their products.
FGL and Front Street are exposed to the risks of natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics and malicious and terrorist acts that could materially adversely affect their business, financial condition and results of operations.
Natural and man-made catastrophes, pandemics and malicious and terrorist acts present risks that could materially adversely affect FGL’s or Front Street’s results of operations. A natural or man-made catastrophe, pandemic or malicious or terrorist act could materially adversely affect the mortality or morbidity experience of FGL’s business or its reinsurers, including Front Street. Claims arising from such events could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s or Front Street’s business, operations and financial condition, either directly or as a result of their effect on FGL’s reinsurers including Front Street or other counterparties. Such events could also have an adverse effect on lapses and surrenders of existing policies, as well as sales of new policies. While FGL and Front Street have taken steps to identify and manage these risks, such risks cannot be predicted with certainty, nor fully protected against even if anticipated.
In addition, such events could result in overall macroeconomic volatility or specifically a decrease or halt in economic activity in large geographic areas, adversely affecting the marketing or administration of FGL’s or Front Street’s business within such geographic areas or the general economic climate, which in turn could have an adverse effect on FGL’s or Front Street’s business, operations and financial condition. The possible macroeconomic effects of such events could also adversely affect FGL’s or Front Street’s asset portfolio.
FGL and Front Street operate in highly competitive industries, which could limit their abilities to gain or maintain their respective positions in the industries and could materially adversely affect their business, financial condition and results of operations.
FGL and Front Street operate in highly competitive industries. FGL encounters significant competition in all of its product lines from other insurance companies. Front Street faces significant competition from other reinsurance providers. Many of FGL’s and Front Street’s competitors have greater financial resources and, with respect to FGL, higher financial strength ratings, which may have a greater market share, offer a broader range of products, services or features, assume a greater level of risk, have lower operating or financing costs, or have different profitability expectations than FGL or Front Street, as applicable. Competition could result in, among other things, lower sales or higher lapses of existing products.
FGL’s annuity products compete with fixed indexed, fixed rate and variable annuities sold by other insurance companies and

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also with mutual fund products, traditional bank investments and other retirement funding alternatives offered by asset managers, banks and broker-dealers. FGL’s insurance products compete with those of other insurance companies, financial intermediaries and other institutions based on a number of factors, including premium rates, policy terms and conditions, service provided to distribution channels and policyholders, ratings by rating agencies, reputation and commission structures.
Consolidation in the insurance and reinsurance industries and in distribution channels may result in increasing competitive pressures on FGL and Front Street. Larger, potentially more efficient organizations may emerge from such consolidation. In addition, some mutual insurance companies have converted to stock ownership, which gives them greater access to capital markets and greater ability to compete. The ability of banks to increase their securities-related business or to affiliate with insurance companies may materially and adversely affect sales of all of FGL’s products by substantially increasing the number and financial strength of potential competitors. Consolidation and expansion among banks, insurance companies and other financial services companies with which FGL and Front Street do business could also have an adverse effect on their business, operations and financial condition if they demand more favorable terms than FGL or Front Street previously offered or if they elect not to continue to do business with FGL or Front Street following consolidation or expansion.
FGL’s ability to compete is dependent upon, among other things, its ability to develop competitive and profitable products, its ability to maintain low unit costs, and its maintenance of adequate financial strength ratings from rating agencies. FGL’s ability to compete is also dependent upon, among other things, its ability to attract and retain distribution channels to market its products, the competition for which is vigorous. FGL competes for marketers and agents primarily on the basis of FGL’s financial position, support services, compensation and product features. Such marketers and agents may promote products offered by other life insurance companies that may offer a larger variety of products than FGL does. FGL’s competitiveness for such marketers and agents also depends upon the long-term relationships FGL develops with them. If FGL is unable to attract and retain sufficient marketers and agents to sell its products, its ability to compete and FGL’s revenues will suffer.
Front Street’s ability to successfully compete will be dependent on, among other things, risks associated with an insurance business and managing of assets, including, among other things, Front Street’s: (a) ability to successfully implement its investment strategy, especially with respect to riskier, below-investment-grade securities; (b) exposure to credit risk associated with third parties, including brokers with whom it will conduct business; (c) ability to provide collateral to ceding companies or otherwise comply with applicable insurance regulations; (d) ability to successfully employ loss limitation methods to mitigate its loss exposure; (e) ability to attract qualified personnel and retain such key personnel; (f) mitigate unfavorable changes in applicable laws, accounting rules or regulations; (g) operational risks associated with, among other things, employee and contractor conduct, operational errors, system malfunctions and cyber-security incidents; and (h) successfully maintain its existing investments.
FGL’s ability to maintain competitive policy expense costs is dependent upon the level of new sales and persistency of existing business.
FGL’s ability to maintain competitive policy expense costs is dependent upon a number of factors, such as the level of new sales, persistency of existing business and expense management. A decrease in sales or persistency without a corresponding reduction in expenses may result in higher policy expense costs.
In addition, lower persistency may result in higher or more rapid amortization of DAC and VOBA, which would result in higher unit costs and lower reported earnings. Although many of FGL’s products contain surrender charges, such charges decrease over time and may not be sufficient to cover the unamortized DAC and VOBA costs with respect to the insurance policy or annuity contract being surrendered.
There may be adverse consequences if the independent contractor status of FGL’s IMOs is successfully challenged.
FGL sells its products through a network of approximately 200 IMOs representing approximately 37,000 independent agents and managing general agents. FGL currently treats these IMOs as independent contractors who own their own businesses. However, the tests governing the determination of whether an individual is considered to be an independent contractor or an employee are typically fact sensitive and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Laws and regulations that govern the status of the IMOs are subject to change or interpretation by various authorities. If a federal, state or local authority or court enacts legislation or adopts regulations or adopts an interpretation that changes the manner in which employees and independent contractors are classified or makes any adverse determination with respect to some or all of FGL’s independent contractors, FGL could incur significant costs in complying with such laws, regulations or interpretations, including, in respect of tax withholding, social security payments and recordkeeping, or FGL could be held liable for the actions of such independent contractors or may be required to modify its business model, any of which could have a material adverse effect on FGL’s business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, there is the risk that FGL may be subject to significant monetary liabilities arising from fines or judgments as a result of any such actual or alleged non-compliance with federal, state or local tax or employment laws. Further, if it were determined that FGL’s IMOs should be treated as employees, FGL could possibly incur additional liabilities with respect to any applicable employee benefit plan.

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If FGL is unable to attract and retain national marketing organizations and independent agents, sales of FGL’s products may be reduced.
FGL must attract and retain its network of IMOs and independent agents to sell its products. Insurance companies compete vigorously for productive agents. FGL competes with other life insurance companies for marketers and agents primarily on the basis of FGL’s financial position, support services, compensation and product features. Such marketers and agents may promote products offered by other life insurance companies that may offer a larger variety of products than FGL does. FGL’s competitiveness for such marketers and agents also depends upon the long-term relationships FGL develops with them. FGL’s most important IMOs (those who are able to meet certain production targets) are referred to as “Power Partners”. FGL currently has 32 Power Partners that accounted for approximately 95.0% of FGL’s Fiscal 2016 sales volume. There can be no guaranty that such relationships will continue in the future. If FGL is unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of marketers and agents to sell its products, FGL’s ability to compete and its revenues would suffer.
FGL may be subject to an additional tax as a personal holding company on future undistributed personal holding company income if it generates passive income in excess of operating expenses (subject to certain exclusions relating to FGL’s life insurance subsidiaries).
Section 541 of the Code subjects a corporation (not including a life insurance corporation) that is a “personal holding company” (“PHC”) to a 20% tax on “undistributed personal holding company income” in addition to a corporation’s normal income tax. A corporation (not including a life insurance corporation) is also generally is considered to be a PHC if (i) at least 60% of its adjusted ordinary gross income (excluding dividends paid by any non-consolidated life insurance subsidiary) is PHC Income (defined below) and (ii) more than 50% in value of its outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (including, for this purpose, certain organizations and trusts) at any time during the last half of the taxable year. Personal holding company income (“PHC Income”) is comprised primarily of passive investment income (but does not include non-passive income such as insurance premiums or dividends paid by any non-consolidated life insurance subsidiary) plus, under certain circumstances, personal service income.
So long as individuals and their affiliates hold (directly or by attribution) more than 50% in value of FGL’s outstanding common stock, including through ownership of the outstanding common stock of HRG at any time during any future tax year, it is possible that FGL will be a PHC if at least 60% of its adjusted ordinary gross income consists of PHC Income (taking into account the rules and exclusions discussed above). In the past, FGL has not incurred the PHC tax. However, there can be no assurance that FGL will not be subject to this tax in the future, which, in turn, may materially and adversely impact its financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
The agreements and instruments governing FGL’s debt contain significant operating and financial restrictions, which may prevent FGL from capitalizing on business opportunities.
The indenture governing the 6.375% senior notes due 2021 (the “Senior Notes”) issued by FGH and the three-year $150.0 million unsecured revolving credit facility (the “Credit Agreement”); each contains various restrictive covenants which limit, among other things, FGH’s ability to:
incur additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or certain other distributions on its capital stock other than as allowed under the indenture and the Credit Agreement;
make certain investments or other restricted payments;
engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;
sell certain assets or merge with or into other companies;
change FGH’s accounting policies;
enter into restrictive agreements;
guarantee indebtedness; and
create liens.
In addition, if FGL or FGH undergoes a “change of control” as defined in the indenture, each holder of FGH Senior Notes will have the right to require FGL to repurchase their FGL Senior Notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount and any accrued but unpaid interest.
As a result of these restrictions and their effect on FGL, FGL may be limited in how it conducts its business and FGL may be unable to raise additional debt financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness FGL or its subsidiaries may incur could include more restrictive covenants.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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Item 2.
Properties
HRG
HRG leases through HGI Funding its headquarters at 450 Park Avenue, 29th Floor, New York, NY 10022. HRG’s lease expires in November 2022. For the operations of certain of HRG’s former subsidiaries, HGI Funding leases office space at 64 Wooster Street, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10012. The lease expires in November 2018.
HRG and its subsidiaries, as applicable, believe their existing facilities are suitable and adequate for their present purposes.
Spectrum Brands
The following lists Spectrum Brands’ principal owned or leased administrative, manufacturing, packaging, and distribution facilities at September 30, 2017:
Corporate and Administrative
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Middleton, Wisconsin
 
World Headquarters & GBA Headquarters
 
Leased
Danbury, Connecticut
 
GAC Headquarters
 
Leased
Earth City, Missouri
 
Pet, Home & Garden Headquarters
 
Leased
Lake Forest, California
 
HHI Headquarters
 
Leased
Miami Lakes, Florida
 
Latin America Headquarters
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Manchester, England
 
UK Headquarters
 
Owned
Mentone, Australia
 
APAC Headquarters
 
Leased
Sulzbach, Germany
 
Europe Headquarters
 
Leased
Mississauga, Canada
 
Canada Headquarters
 
Leased
Shared Operations and Sales Offices
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Alpharetta, Georgia
 
Platform sales
 
Leased
Bentonville, Arkansas
 
Platform sales
 
Leased
Minneapolis, Minnesota
 
Platform sales
 
Leased
Mooresville, North Carolina
 
Platform sales
 
Leased
Middleton, Wisconsin
 
Design and testing
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Concord, Canada
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Mentone, Australia
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Wolverhampton, England
 
Distribution
 
Owned
Shenzhen, China
 
Distribution
 
Leased

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Global Batteries and Appliances (GBA)
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Fennimore, Wisconsin
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Owned
Portage, Wisconsin
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Owned
DeForest, Wisconsin
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Dixon, Illinois
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Redlands, California
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Dischingen, Germany
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Leased
Guatemala City, Guatemala
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Owned
Cavaleiro, Brazil
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Owned
Washington, UK
 
Battery Manufacturing
 
Leased
Ellwangen-Neunheim, Germany
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Guatemala City, Guatemala
 
Distribution
 
Owned
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
 
Distribution
 
Owned
Middleton, Wisconsin
 
Research & Development
 
Leased
Home & Hardware Improvement (HHI)
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Charlotte, North Carolina
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Edgerton, Kansas
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Houston, Texas
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Lititz, Pennsylvania
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Denison, Texas
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Birmingham, Alabama
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Dallas, Texas
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Denison, Texas
 
Distribution
 
Owned
Elkhart, Indiana
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Mira Loma, California
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Mexicali, Mexico
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Chia-Yi, Taiwan
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Nogales, Mexico
 
Manufacturing
 
Owned
Subic Bay, Philippines
 
Manufacturing
 
Owned
Xiamen, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Xiaolan, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Brockville, Canada
 
Distribution
 
Leased

69


Global Pet Supplies (PET)
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Blacksburg, Virginia
 
Manufacturing
 
Owned
Bridgeton, Missouri
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Noblesville, Indiana
 
Manufacturing
 
Owned
St. Louis, Missouri
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Edwardsville, Illinois
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Riverview, Florida
 
Research & Development
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Bogota, Colombia
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Melle, Germany
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Owned
Ambato, Ecuador
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Coevorden, Netherlands
 
Manufacturing
 
Owned
Leon, Mexico
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Home & Garden (H&G)
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
St. Louis, Missouri
 
Manufacturing
 
Leased
Edwardsville, Illinois
 
Distribution
 
Leased
Global Auto Care (GAC)
Location
 
Function / Use
 
Owned / Leased
U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Dayton, Ohio
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Non-U.S. Locations
 
 
 
 
Ebbw Vale, Gwent, Wales
 
Manufacturing & Distribution
 
Leased
Spectrum Brands also owns, operates or contracts with third parties to operate distribution centers, sales and administrative offices throughout the world in support of its business.
Spectrum Brands believes that its existing facilities are suitable and adequate for its present purposes and that the productive capacity in such facilities is substantially being utilized or Spectrum Brands has plans to utilize it.
FGL
FGL leases its headquarters at 601 Locust Street, Des Moines, Iowa, and subleases properties in Baltimore, Maryland and Lincoln, Nebraska for legal, claims and processing needs. Such leases expire December 2020, May 2021 and January 2022, respectively. FGL believes that its existing facilities are suitable and adequate for its present purposes.
Front Street
Front Street leases its headquarters at Sterling House, 16 Wesley Street, Hamilton HM CX, Bermuda. This lease expires in May 2018. Front Street believes its existing facilities are suitable and adequate for its present purposes.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
See Part IV, Item 15. “HRG Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries Index of Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 21, Commitments and Contingencies — Legal and Environmental Matters to HRG’s Consolidated Financial Statements” included elsewhere in this report.

Item 4.         Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

70


PART II
Unless otherwise indicated in Part II of this annual report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) or the context requires otherwise, in this Form 10-K, references to the “Company,” “HRG,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to HRG Group, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “FGH” refers to Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “FGL” refers to Fidelity & Guaranty Life and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Fiscal 2013” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2013; “Fiscal 2014” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2014; “Fiscal 2015” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2015; “Fiscal 2016” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016; “Fiscal 2017” refers to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2017; “Fiscal 2018” refers to the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018; “Front Street” refers to Front Street Re (Delaware) Ltd. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Front Street Cayman” refers to Front Street Re Cayman Ltd.; “Front Street Bermuda” refers to Front Street Re Ltd.; “HGI Energy” refers to HGI Energy Holdings, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “HGI Funding” refers to HGI Funding, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “Salus” refers to Salus Capital Partners, LLC and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; “SBI” refers to Spectrum Brands, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries; and “Spectrum Brands” refers to Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries.

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol “HRG.” The high and low sales prices for our common stock for each quarterly period for the last two years are shown in the following table.
 
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal 2017
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
16.08

 
$
14.07

Second Quarter
 
19.50

 
15.20

Third Quarter
 
20.17

 
17.25

Fourth Quarter
 
17.90

 
14.75

Fiscal 2016
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
14.11

 
$
11.63

Second Quarter
 
14.04

 
10.29

Third Quarter
 
14.59

 
12.50

Fourth Quarter
 
16.39

 
13.14

We have not declared any dividends in the past several years and we do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Our ability to pay dividends is limited by the terms of our indebtedness and is dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. The ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to HRG is subject to restrictions contained in their applicable financing agreements, state and regulatory restrictions and other relevant considerations as determined by the applicable board. See Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors-Risks Related to HRG-We are a holding company and our only material assets are our equity interests in our operating subsidiaries and our other investments; as a result, our principal source of revenue and cash flow is distributions from our subsidiaries; our subsidiaries may be limited by law and by contract in making distributions to us.
As of November 14, 2017, there were approximately 1,449 holders of record of our common stock. This number does not include the stockholders for whom shares are held in a “nominee” or “street” name.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table sets forth information with respect to compensation plans under which our equity securities are authorized for issuance as of September 30, 2017:
Plan category
 
Number of securities
to be issued upon
exercise of
outstanding
options, warrants
and rights
(in thousands)
(a)
 
Weighted-average
exercise price of
outstanding
options, warrants
and rights
(b)
 
Number of securities
remaining
available for future
issuance under
equity compensation
plans (excluding
securities reflected
in column (a))
(in thousands)
(c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
4,719

 
$
9.83

 
8,721

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 
4,719

 
$
9.83

 
8,721


71


Equity Plans
Our stockholders approved the adoption of the HRG Group, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan (formerly, Harbinger Group Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan), as amended (the “2011 Plan”), pursuant to which incentive compensation and performance compensation awards may be provided to employees, directors, officers and consultants of the Company or of its subsidiaries or their respective affiliates. The 2011 Plan authorizes the issuance of up to 24 million shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company. In addition, our stockholders approved the adoption of the Harbinger Group Inc. 2014 Warrant Plan (the “2014 Warrant Plan”) pursuant to which the Company awarded, Philip Falcone, its former Chief Executive Officer, warrants representing the right to purchase approximately 3 million shares of our common stock, at an exercise price of $13.125 per share. A portion of the warrants, representing 600 thousand shares, vested immediately upon approval of the grant, and the remainder would vest in equal installments on March 10, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. At September 30, 2017, there were 0.6 million warrants outstanding and not yet vested. The description of the 2011 Plan and 2014 Warrant Plan above is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the 2011 Plan and 2014 Warrant Plan. Refer to Note 20, Stock-based Compensation, to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV - Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statements and Schedules for additional information.
Share Repurchases
On May 8, 2014, our board of directors authorized us to enter into a repurchase program, which replaced our prior share repurchase program. This share repurchase program authorized us to repurchase up to $100.0 million of shares of our common stock, subject to certain restrictions and provisions. During Fiscal 2015, HRG purchased 1.7 million shares of its outstanding common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $22.2 million under this program. During Fiscal 2017 and 2016, HRG did not repurchase any of its outstanding common stock. As of September 30, 2017, under this program we had repurchased a total of 6.9 million shares of our common stock, at an aggregate repurchase price of $87.7 million with $12.3 million remaining value of the shares that may yet to be purchased. This program does not have an expiration date. We may from time to time, and at any time, elect to increase the amount of shares authorized under our repurchase program, authorize a new repurchase program or repurchase shares of our Common Stock in privately negotiated transactions or we may determine to terminate, suspend, discontinue, modify and/or reinstate one or more of such programs.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Stock Performance Graph
Set forth below is a line-graph presentation comparing the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock against cumulative total returns of the following: (a) the Russell 2000 and (b) a peer group of companies consisting of Leucadia, Carlisle Companies Inc., Apollo Global Management, LLC and Standex International Corp. The performance graph shows the total return on an investment of $100 for the period beginning September 30, 2012 and ending September 30, 2017. The Company believes that the peer group of companies provides a reasonable basis for comparing total stockholder returns. The stockholder return shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we will not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns. The graph and related data were furnished by Research Data Group, Inc.
hrgperfgraph2017a04.jpg

72


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth certain selected historic financial information for the periods and as of the dates presented and should be read in conjunction with our accompanying consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto referenced in Item 8 of this report and with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of this report. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified or combined to conform to the current year presentation, including reclassifications to reflect the presentation of discontinued operations and assets and liabilities of businesses held for sale. All amounts are in millions, except for per share amounts.
 
 
Fiscal
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Income Statement Data(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (2)
 
$
5,008.5

 
$
5,048.6

 
$
4,753.8

 
$
4,482.6

 
$
4,114.5

Operating income(3)
 
516.3

 
573.5

 
179.1

 
354.8

 
270.4

Interest expense (4)
 
(360.1
)
 
(402.5
)
 
(407.8
)
 
(307.4
)
 
(505.4
)
Loss from the change in the fair value of the equity conversion feature of preferred stock
 

 

 

 
(12.7
)
 
(101.6
)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
 
102.9

 
144.2

 
(219.7
)
 
(36.3
)
 
(367.0
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
170.3

 
(178.1
)
 
(292.7
)
 
138.0

 
298.0

Net income (loss) (5)
 
273.2

 
(33.9
)
 
(512.4
)
 
101.7

 
(69.0
)
Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interest
 
106.0

 
(198.8
)
 
(556.8
)
 
(10.3
)
 
(45.8
)
Preferred stock dividends, accretion and loss on conversion
 

 

 

 
73.6

 
48.4

Net income (loss) attributable to common and participating preferred stockholders
 
106.0

 
(198.8
)
 
(556.8
)
 
(83.9
)
 
(94.2
)
Per Share Data(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amounts attributable to controlling interest:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss from continuing operations
 
$
(20.6
)
 
$
(1.6
)
 
$
(242.1
)
 
$
(194.7
)
 
$
(392.2
)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations
 
126.6

 
(197.2
)
 
(314.7
)
 
110.8

 
298.0

Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interest
 
$
106.0

 
$
(198.8
)
 
$
(556.8
)
 
$
(83.9
)
 
$
(94.2
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic loss from continuing operations
 
$
(0.10
)
 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(1.22
)
 
$
(1.19
)
 
$
(2.80
)
Basic income (loss) from discontinued operations
 
0.63

 
(0.99
)
 
(1.59
)
 
0.68

 
2.13

Basic
 
$
0.53

 
$
(1.00
)
 
$
(2.81
)
 
$
(0.51
)
 
$
(0.67
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted loss from continuing operations(6)
 
$
(0.10
)
 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(1.22
)
 
$
(1.19
)
 
$
(2.80
)
Diluted income (loss) from discontinued operations(6)
 
0.63

 
(0.99
)
 
(1.59
)
 
0.68

 
2.13

Diluted
 
$
0.53

 
$
(1.00
)
 
$
(2.81
)
 
$
(0.51
)
 
$
(0.67
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
200.0

 
198.4

 
198.1