EX-3.3 4 d823054dex33.htm EX-3.3 EX-3.3

Exhibit 3.3

AMENDED AND RESTATED

BY-LAWS

OF

LAMAR ADVERTISING REIT COMPANY

ARTICLE I

STOCKHOLDERS

SECTION 1. Place of Meetings. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at the principal office of Lamar Advertising REIT Company (the “Corporation”) or at such other place as may be named in the notice. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but shall be held solely by means of remote communication, subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, as permitted by applicable law.

SECTION 2. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting shall be held on such date and at such hour and place as the Board of Directors or an officer designated by the Board of Directors may determine which time, date and place may subsequently be changed at any time by vote of the Board of Directors. If no annual meeting has been held for a period of thirteen (13) months after the Corporation’s last annual meeting, a special meeting in lieu thereof may be held, and such special meeting shall have, for the purposes of these by-laws or otherwise, all the force and effect of an annual meeting. Any and all references hereafter in these by-laws to an annual meeting or annual meetings also shall be deemed to refer to any special meeting(s) in lieu thereof.

SECTION 3. Special Meetings. Except as otherwise required by statute and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any classes or series of preferred stock, special meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation may be called at any time by the President or a majority of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting of stockholders. Special meetings of stockholders of the Corporation may not be called by any other person or persons.

SECTION 4. Remote Communication. For the purposes of these by-laws, if authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of the stockholders may, by means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of stockholders and be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that (i) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder, (ii) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings, and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the Corporation.


SECTION 5. Notice of Meetings. Except where some other notice is required by law, notices of meetings of the stockholders shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meetings and the purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given by the Secretary under the direction of the Board of Directors or the President, not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date fixed for such meeting, to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting. If the Board of Directors has chosen to make a list of stockholders available on an electronic network, the notice shall provide the information required to gain access to such list. Notice to stockholders may be given in writing or by electronic transmission as permitted pursuant to this Section 5. If given in writing, notice shall be given personally to each stockholder or left at such stockholder’s residence or usual place of business or mailed postage prepaid and addressed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears upon the records of the corporation. In case of the death, absence, incapacity or refusal of the Secretary, such notice may be given by a person designated either by the President or the Board of Directors. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting. Notice of any meeting of stockholders need not be given to any stockholder who has waived such notice in writing or by electronic transmission, whether before or after the time such meeting is held. Attendance of a person at a meeting of stockholders shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the stockholder attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written or electronically transmitted waiver of notice. Except as required by statute, notice of any adjourned meeting of the stockholders shall not be required.

Any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given to the extent permitted by applicable law. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation and shall also be deemed revoked if (1) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the corporation in accordance with such consent and (2) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Notice given pursuant to this Section 5 shall be deemed given: (1) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (3) if by posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (4) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

 

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For purposes of these by-laws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

SECTION 6. Record Date. The Board of Directors may fix in advance a record date for the determination of the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders, or entitled to consent to corporation action in writing without a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action. Such record date shall not be earlier than the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors and shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting, nor more than 60 days before any other action to which such record date relates. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day before the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day before the day on which the meeting is held, and the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating to such purpose. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

SECTION 7. Nomination of Directors. Only persons who are nominated in accordance with the following procedures shall be eligible for election as directors at any annual or special meeting of stockholders. Nominations of persons for election as directors may be made only by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or by any stockholder entitled to vote for the election of directors at the meeting as set forth in Section 6, who is present (in person or by proxy) at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 7 as to such nomination. Such nominations, other than those made by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, shall be made pursuant to timely notice in writing to the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation by the close of business on the Advance Notice Date. For the purposes of these by-laws, the “Advance Notice Date” shall be one of the following:

(a) in the case of an annual meeting only, not earlier than the 120th day and not later than the close of business on the 90th day prior to the anniversary date of the prior year’s annual meeting, if (i) there was an annual meeting in the prior year and (ii) the date of the current year’s annual meeting is not more than 30 days before or more than 70 days after the anniversary date of the prior year’s annual meeting; or

(b) if clause (a) does not apply, not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of the current year’s annual meeting or a special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to the date of such annual or special meeting or the date 10 days after the day on which notice of the date of the current year’s annual meeting or the special meeting was mailed or public disclosure was made.

 

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Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director, all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and any other regulations promulgated thereunder or any successor provision thereto (including such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), whether or not the Company is subject to such provisions; and (b) as to the stockholder of record giving the notice and any beneficial owner on whose behalf such proposal is made, (i) the name and record address of such stockholder and beneficial owner, (ii) the class or series and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation that are owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder and by such beneficial owner, and their respective affiliates (naming such affiliates as of the date of such notice), and (iii) a description of any agreement, arrangement, or understanding (including, without limitation, any swap or other derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, hedging transactions, and securities lending or borrowing arrangement) to which such stockholder or beneficial owner and their respective affiliates is, directly or indirectly, a party as of the date of such notice.

The chairman of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedure, and if the chairman should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

For purposes of these by-laws, public disclosure shall be deemed to include a disclosure made in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Services, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document filed or furnished by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

SECTION 8. Advance Notice of Business at Annual Meetings and Special Meetings. At any annual meeting or a special meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be brought properly before an annual meeting or a special meeting, business must be either (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by the Secretary under the direction of the Board of Directors or the President, (b) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (c) properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder. In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be brought properly before an annual meeting or a special meeting by a stockholder (other than the nomination of a person for election as a director, which is governed exclusively by Section 7), the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation by the close of business on the Advance Notice Date as defined in Section 7. A stockholder’s notice shall set forth as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting or a special meeting (a) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting or a special meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting or a special meeting, (b) the name and record address of the stockholder proposing such business, (c) the class and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially by the

 

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stockholder, (d) any material interest of the stockholder in such business and (e) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business. For purposes of this Section 8, to be considered a qualified representative of the proposing stockholder, a person must be authorized by a written instrument executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder and such person must produce such written instrument or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the written instrument or electronic transmission, to the presiding officer at the meeting of stockholders.

Notwithstanding anything in these by-laws to the contrary, no business (other than the nomination of a person for election as a director, which is governed exclusively by Section 7, and matters properly brought under Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act and included in the Corporation’s notice of meeting) shall be conducted at the annual meeting or a special meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 8, provided, however, that nothing in this Section 8 shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any business properly brought before the annual meeting or a special meeting in accordance with said procedure.

The chairman of an annual meeting or a special meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with the foregoing procedure, and if the chairman should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

SECTION 9. Voting List. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall make or have made, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least 10 days before the meeting either on a reasonably accessible electronic network or during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list required by this section or the books of the corporation, or to vote at any meeting of stockholders.

SECTION 10. Quorum of Stockholders. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, at any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of one-third of the issued and outstanding shares of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the consideration of any question, but in the absence of a quorum a smaller group may adjourn any meeting from time to time. When a quorum is present at any meeting, a majority of the votes properly cast shall, except where a different vote is required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these by-laws, decide any question brought before such meeting. Any election by stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the vote cast by the stockholders entitled to vote at the election.

 

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The stockholders present at a duly organized meeting may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

SECTION 11. Proxies and Voting. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after 3 years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. Shares of the capital stock of the Corporation belonging to the Corporation or to another Corporation, a majority of whose shares entitled to vote in the election of directors is owned by the Corporation, shall neither be entitled to vote nor be counted for quorum purposes.

SECTION 12. Conduct of Meeting. Meetings of the stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Chairman of the Board by the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Vice Chairman of the Board by the President, or in the absence of the President by a Vice-President, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a chairman designated by the Board of Directors, or in the absence of such designation by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary, or in the absence of the Secretary an Assistant Secretary, shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the absence of the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

The Board of Directors may adopt such rules, regulations and procedures for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting, (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine, (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

SECTION 13. Action Without Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders or by proxy for the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on such action were present and voted. Prompt notice of the taking of corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing.

 

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ARTICLE II

DIRECTORS

SECTION 1. General Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of a Board of Directors, who may exercise all of the powers of the Corporation that are not by law required to be exercised by the stockholders. In the event of a vacancy on the Board of Directors, the remaining directors, except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, may exercise the powers of the full Board until the vacancy is filled.

SECTION 2. Number; Election; Tenure and Qualification. Subject to any restrictions contained in the Certificate of Incorporation, the number of directors that shall constitute the whole Board shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors but in no event shall be less than one. The directors shall be elected in the manner provided in the Certificate of Incorporation; by such stockholders as have the right to vote thereon. The number of directors may be increased or decreased by action of the Board of Directors. Directors need not be stockholders of the Corporation.

SECTION 3. Enlargement of the Board. Subject to any restrictions contained in the Certificate of Incorporation, the number of the Board of Directors may be increased at any time, such increase to be effective immediately unless otherwise specified in the resolution, by vote of a majority of the directors then in office.

SECTION 4. Vacancies. Unless and until filled by the stockholders and except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any vacancy in the Board of Directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the Board and an unfilled vacancy resulting from the removal of any director, may be filled by vote of a majority of the directors then in office although less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Each director so chosen to fill a vacancy shall serve for a term determined in the manner provided in the Certificate of Incorporation and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). When one or more directors shall resign from the Board, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have the power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective. If at any time there are no directors in office, then an election of directors may be held in accordance with the DGCL.

SECTION 5. Resignation. Any director may resign at any time by giving notice to the Corporation in writing or by electronic transmission. Such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein, or if no time is specified, at the time of its receipt by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary.

SECTION 6. Removal. Directors may be removed from office only as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation and the DGCL. The vacancy or vacancies created by the removal of a director may be filled by the stockholders at the meeting held for the purpose of removal or, if not so filled, by the directors in the manner provided in Section 4 of this Article II.

 

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SECTION 7. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution or resolutions passed by a majority of the Board of Directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee to replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of any member of any such committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of such absent or disqualified member. The Board of Directors shall have the power to change the members of any such committee at any time, to fill vacancies therein and to discharge any such committee, either with or without cause, at any time.

Any such committee, to the extent permitted by law and to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors or in these by-laws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it.

A majority of all the members of any such committee may fix its rules of procedure, determine its actions and fix the time and place, whether within or without the State of Delaware, of its meetings and specify what notice thereof, if any, shall be given, unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise by resolution provide. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and make such reports as the Board of Directors may from time to time request.

SECTION 8. Meetings of the Board of Directors. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without call or formal notice at such places either within or without the State of Delaware and at such times as the Board may by vote from time to time determine. A regular meeting of the Board of Directors may be held without call or formal notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of the stockholders, or any special meeting of the stockholders at which a Board of Directors is elected.

Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any place either within or without the State of Delaware at any time when called by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President, the Secretary or two or more directors. Reasonable notice of the time and place of a special meeting shall be given to each director unless such notice is waived by attendance or by written waiver in the manner provided in these by-laws for waiver of notice by stockholders. Notice may be given by, or by a person designated by, the Secretary, the person or persons calling the meeting, or the Board of Directors. No notice of any adjourned meeting of the Board of Directors shall be required. In any case it shall be deemed sufficient notice to a director to send notice by mail at least seventy-two hours, or by telegram or fax at least forty-eight hours, before the meeting, addressed to such director at his or her usual or last known business or home address, by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the director has consented to receive notice, or by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the director.

Directors or members of any committee may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or of such committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

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SECTION 9. Quorum and Voting. A majority of the total number of directors shall constitute a quorum, except that when a vacancy or vacancies exist in the Board, a majority of the directors then in office (but not less than one-third of the total number of the directors) shall constitute a quorum. A majority of the directors present, whether or not a quorum is present, may adjourn any meeting from time to time. The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except where a different vote is required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these by-laws.

SECTION 10. Compensation. The Board of Directors, or a designated committee thereof, may fix fees for their services and for their membership on committees, and expenses of attendance may be allowed for attendance at each meeting. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity, as an officer, agent or otherwise, and receiving compensation therefor.

SECTION 11. Action Without Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting and without notice if all members of the Board of Directors or of such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing (which may be in counterparts) or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or electronic transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or of such committee. Such filings shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

ARTICLE III

OFFICERS

SECTION 1. Titles. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers with such other titles as the Board of Directors shall determine, who may include without limitation a Chairman of the Board, a Vice-Chairman of the Board and one or more Vice-Presidents, Assistant Treasurers or Assistant Secretaries.

SECTION 2. Election and Term of Office. The officers of the Corporation shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual meeting of the stockholders. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualified, unless a different term is specified in the vote electing such officer, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal.

SECTION 3. Qualification. Unless otherwise provided by resolution of the Board of Directors, no officer, other than the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board, need be a director. No officer need be a stockholder. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, as the Board of Directors shall determine.

SECTION 4. Removal. Any officer may be removed, with or without cause, at any time, by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise provided in a resolution of the Board of Directors, the President may remove, with or without cause, at any time, any officer of the corporation.

 

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SECTION 5. Resignation. Any officer may resign by delivering a written notice to the corporation at its principal office or to the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary. Such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein, or if no time is specified, at the time of its receipt by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President or the Secretary.

SECTION 6. Vacancies. The Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, if any, or the President may at any time fill any vacancy occurring in any office for the unexpired portion of the term or may leave unfilled any office other than those of President, Treasurer and Secretary.

SECTION 7. Powers and Duties. The officers of the Corporation shall have such powers and perform such duties as are specified herein and as may be conferred upon or assigned to them by the Board of Directors, or, in the case of any officer other than the President, the President, and shall have such additional powers and duties as are incident to their office except to the extent that resolutions of the Board of Directors are inconsistent therewith.

SECTION 8. President and Vice-Presidents. Except to the extent that such duties are assigned by the Board of Directors to the Chairman of the Board, or in the absence of the Chairman or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the President shall be the chief executive officer of the Corporation and shall have general and active management of the business of the Corporation and general supervision of its officers, agents and employees, and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. The President shall preside at each meeting of the stockholders and the Board of Directors unless a Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board is elected by the Board and is assigned the duty of presiding at such meetings.

The Board of Directors may assign to any Vice-President the title of Executive Vice-President, Senior Vice-President or any other title selected by the Board of Directors. In the absence of the President or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the duties of the President shall be performed by the Executive Vice-President, if any, Senior Vice President, if any, or Vice President, if any, in that order (and, in the event there be more than one person in any such office, in the order of their length of time spent in such office), and when so acting, such officer shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

SECTION 9. Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of such meetings in a book to be kept for that purpose, shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, shall maintain a stock ledger and prepare lists of stockholders and their addresses as required and shall have custody of the corporate seal, which the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary shall have authority to affix to any instrument requiring it and attest by any of their signatures. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix and attest the seal of the Corporation.

 

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Any Assistant Secretary, or any other officer, employee or agent designated by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the President, may, in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of the Secretary’s inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.

SECTION 10. Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities, shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by or pursuant to resolution of the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, if any, or the President, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the Chairman of the Board, the President and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings or whenever they may require it, an account of all transactions and of the financial condition of the Corporation.

Any Assistant Treasurer, or any other officer, employee or agent designated by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the President, may, in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer.

SECTION 11. Bonded Officers. The Board of Directors may require any officer to give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors upon such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors may specify, including without limitation a bond for the faithful performance of the duties of such officer and for the restoration to the Corporation of all property in his or her possession or control belonging to the Corporation.

ARTICLE IV

STOCK

SECTION 1. Certificates of Stock. Shares of the stock of the Corporation may be certificated or uncertificated. The stock certificates of the Corporation shall be signed by (i) the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors or the President or a Vice-President and (ii) the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary. Any or all signatures on any such certificate may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who shall have signed or whose facsimile signature shall have been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person or entity were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Each certificated or uncertificated share of stock that is subject to any restriction on transfer pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, these by-laws, applicable securities laws, or any agreement among any number of stockholders or among such holders and the Corporation shall contain notice of such restriction.

 

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SECTION 2. Transfers of Shares of Stock. Subject to the restrictions, if any, stated or otherwise noted with respect to shares of stock, shares of stock may be transferred on the books of the corporation by the surrender to the Corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate representing such shares, if such shares are certificated, properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment or power of attorney properly executed, and with such proof of authority or the authenticity of signature as the Corporation or its transfer agent may reasonably require, or, if such shares are uncertificated, by notification to the Corporation or its transfer agent of the transfer of such shares, accompanied by written authorization properly executed. The Corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to vote with respect to that stock, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other disposition of that stock, until the shares have been transferred on the books of the Corporation in accordance with the requirements of these by-laws.

SECTION 3. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct that (i) a new stock certificate or (ii) uncertificated shares in place of any certificate previously issued by the corporation, be issued in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation and alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon such terms in conformity with law. The Board of Directors may, in their discretion, require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or the owner’s legal representatives, to give the Corporation a bond, in such sum as they may direct, to indemnify the corporation against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate, or the issuance of any such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

SECTION 4. Fractional Share Interests. The corporation may, but shall not be required to, issue fractions of a share. If the Corporation does not issue fractions of a share, it shall (i) arrange for the disposition of fractional interests by those entitled thereto, (ii) pay in cash the fair value of fractions of a share as of the time when those entitled to receive such fractions are determined, or (iii) issue scrip or warrants in registered or bearer form, which shall entitle the holder to receive a certificated or uncertificated full share upon the surrender of such scrip or warrants aggregating a full share. A certificated or uncertificated fractional share shall, but scrip or warrants shall not unless otherwise provided therein, entitle the holder to exercise voting rights, to receive dividends thereon, and to participate in any of the assets of the Corporation in the event of liquidation. The Board of Directors may cause scrip or warrants to be issued subject to the conditions that they shall become void if not exchanged for full certificated or uncertificated shares before a specified date, or subject to the conditions that the shares for which scrip or warrants are exchangeable may be sold by the Corporation and the proceeds thereof distributed to the holders of scrip or warrants, or subject to any other conditions that the Board of Directors may impose.

SECTION 5. Dividends. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors may, out of funds legally available therefor declare and pay dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation as and when they deem expedient.

 

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ARTICLE V

INDEMNIFICATION

SECTION 1. Definitions. For purposes of this Article V:

(a) “Corporate Status” describes the status of a person who is serving or has served (i) as a Director of the Corporation, (ii) as an Officer of the Corporation, (iii) as a Non-Officer Employee of the Corporation, or (iv) as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of any other corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, foundation, association, organization or other legal entity which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation. For purposes of this Section 1(a), a Director, Officer or Non-Officer Employee of the Corporation who is serving or has served as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of a Subsidiary shall be deemed to be serving at the request of the Corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, “Corporate Status” shall not include the status of a person who is serving or has served as a director, officer, employee or agent of a constituent corporation absorbed in a merger or consolidation transaction with the Corporation with respect to such person’s activities prior to said transaction, unless specifically authorized by the Board of Directors or the stockholders of the Corporation;

(b) “Director” means any person who serves or has served the Corporation as a director on the Board of Directors of the Corporation;

(c) “Disinterested Director” means, with respect to each Proceeding in respect of which indemnification is sought hereunder, a Director of the Corporation who is not and was not a party to such Proceeding;

(d) “Expenses” means all attorneys’ fees, retainers, court costs, transcript costs, fees of expert witnesses, private investigators and professional advisors (including, without limitation, accountants and investment bankers), travel expenses, duplicating costs, printing and binding costs, costs of preparation of demonstrative evidence and other courtroom presentation aids and devices, costs incurred in connection with document review, organization, imaging and computerization, telephone charges, postage, delivery service fees, and all other disbursements, costs or expenses of the type customarily incurred in connection with prosecuting, defending, preparing to prosecute or defend, investigating, being or preparing to be a witness in, settling or otherwise participating in, a Proceeding;

(e) “Liabilities” means judgments, damages, liabilities, losses, penalties, excise taxes, fines and amounts paid in settlement;

(f) “Non-Officer Employee” means any person who serves or has served as an employee or agent of the Corporation, but who is not or was not a Director or Officer;

(g) “Officer” means any person who serves or has served the Corporation as an officer of the Corporation appointed by the Board of Directors of the Corporation;

(h) “Proceeding” means any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, arbitration, alternate dispute resolution mechanism, inquiry, investigation, administrative hearing or other proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, arbitrative or investigative; and

(i) “Subsidiary” shall mean any corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust or other entity of which the corporation owns (either directly or through or together with another Subsidiary of the corporation) either (i) a general partner, managing member or other similar interest or (ii) (A) fifty percent (50%) or more of the voting power of the voting capital equity interests of such corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or other entity, or (B) fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding voting capital stock or other voting equity interests of such corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or other entity.

 

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SECTION 2. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

(a) Subject to the operation of Section 2 of this Article V of these by-laws, each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), and to the extent authorized in this Section 2.

(1) Actions, Suits and Proceedings Other than By or In the Right of the Corporation. Each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation against any and all Expenses and Liabilities that are incurred or paid by such Director or Officer or on such Director’s or Officer’s behalf in connection with any Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation), which such Director or Officer is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Director’s or Officer’s Corporate Status, if such Director or Officer acted in good faith and in a manner such Director or Officer reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

(2) Actions, Suits and Proceedings By or In the Right of the Corporation. Each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation against any and all Expenses that are incurred by such Director or Officer or on such Director’s or Officer’s behalf in connection with any Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein by or in the right of the Corporation, which such Director or Officer is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Director’s or Officer’s Corporate Status, if such Director or Officer acted in good faith and in a manner such Director or Officer reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; provided, however, that no indemnification shall be made under this Section 2(a)(2) in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such Director or Officer shall have been finally adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be liable to the Corporation, unless, and only to the extent that, the Court of Chancery or another court in which such Proceeding was brought shall determine upon application that, despite adjudication of liability, but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such Director or Officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification for such Expenses that such court deems proper.

(3) Survival of Rights. The rights of indemnification provided by this Section 2 shall continue as to a Director or Officer after he or she has ceased to be a Director or Officer and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, executors, administrators and personal representatives.

(4) Actions by Directors or Officers. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Corporation shall indemnify any Director or Officer seeking indemnification in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Director or Officer only if such Proceeding (including any parts of such Proceeding not initiated by such Director or Officer) was authorized in advance by the Board of Directors of the Corporation, unless such Proceeding was brought to enforce such Officer’s or Director’s rights to indemnification or, in the case of Directors, advancement of Expenses under these by-laws in accordance with the provisions set forth herein.

 

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SECTION 3. Indemnification of Non-Officer Employees. Subject to the operation of Section 3 of this Article V of these by-laws, each Non-Officer Employee may, in the discretion of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, be indemnified by the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against any or all Expenses and Liabilities that are incurred by such Non-Officer Employee or on such Non-Officer Employee’s behalf in connection with any threatened, pending or completed Proceeding, or any claim, issue or matter therein, which such Non-Officer Employee is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Non-Officer Employee’s Corporate Status, if such Non-Officer Employee acted in good faith and in a manner such Non-Officer Employee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The rights of indemnification provided by this Section 3 shall exist as to a Non-Officer Employee after he or she has ceased to be a Non-Officer Employee and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, personal representatives, executors and administrators. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Corporation may indemnify any Non-Officer Employee seeking indemnification in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Non-Officer Employee only if such Proceeding was authorized in advance by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

SECTION 4. Determination. Unless ordered by a court, no indemnification shall be provided pursuant to this Article V to a Director, to an Officer or to a Non-Officer Employee unless a determination shall have been made that such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation and, with respect to any criminal Proceeding, such person had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. Such determination shall be made by (a) a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, (b) a committee comprised of Disinterested Directors, such committee having been designated by a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors (even though less than a quorum), (c) if there are no such Disinterested Directors, or if a majority of Disinterested Directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (d) by the stockholders of the Corporation.

SECTION 5. Advancement of Expenses to Directors Prior to Final Disposition.

(a) The Corporation shall advance all Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Director in connection with any Proceeding in which such Director is involved by reason of such Director’s Corporate Status within thirty (30) days after the receipt by the Corporation of a

 

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written statement from such Director requesting such advance or advances from time to time, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by such Director and shall be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of such Director to repay any Expenses so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such Director is not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Corporation shall advance all Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Director seeking advancement of expenses hereunder in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Director only if such Proceeding (including any parts of such Proceeding not initiated by such Director) was (i) authorized by the Board of Directors of the Corporation, or (ii) brought to enforce such Director’s rights to indemnification or advancement of Expenses under these by-laws.

(b) If a claim for advancement of Expenses hereunder by a Director is not paid in full by the Corporation within thirty (30) days after receipt by the Corporation of documentation of Expenses and the required undertaking, such Director may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and if successful in whole or in part, such Director shall also be entitled to be paid the expenses of prosecuting such claim. The failure of the Corporation (including its Board of Directors or any committee thereof, independent legal counsel, or stockholders) to make a determination concerning the permissibility of such advancement of Expenses under this Article V shall not be a defense to an action brought by a Director for recovery of the unpaid amount of an advancement claim and shall not create a presumption that such advancement is not permissible. The burden of proving that a Director is not entitled to an advancement of expenses shall be on the Corporation.

(c) In any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the Director has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

SECTION 6. Advancement of Expenses to Officers and Non-Officer Employees Prior to Final Disposition.

(a) The Corporation may, at the discretion of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, advance any or all Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Officer or any Non-Officer Employee in connection with any Proceeding in which such person is involved by reason of his or her Corporate Status as an Officer or Non-Officer Employee upon the receipt by the Corporation of a statement or statements from such Officer or Non-Officer Employee requesting such advance or advances from time to time, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by such Officer or Non-Officer Employee and shall be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay any Expenses so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such Officer or Non-Officer Employee is not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses.

(b) In any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the Officer or Non-Officer Employee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

 

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SECTION 7. Contractual Nature of Rights.

(a) The provisions of this Article V shall be deemed to be a contract between the Corporation and each Director and Officer entitled to the benefits hereof at any time while this Article V is in effect, in consideration of such person’s past or current and any future performance of services for the Corporation. Neither amendment, repeal or modification of any provision of this Article V nor the adoption of any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation inconsistent with this Article V shall eliminate or reduce any right conferred by this Article V in respect of any act or omission occurring, or any cause of action or claim that accrues or arises or any state of facts existing, at the time of or before such amendment, repeal, modification or adoption of an inconsistent provision (even in the case of a proceeding based on such a state of facts that is commenced after such time), and all rights to indemnification and advancement of Expenses granted herein or arising out of any act or omission shall vest at the time of the act or omission in question, regardless of when or if any proceeding with respect to such act or omission is commenced. The rights to indemnification and to advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article V shall continue notwithstanding that the person has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, executors, administrators, legatees and distributes of such person.

(b) If a claim for indemnification hereunder by a Director or Officer is not paid in full by the Corporation within sixty (60) days after receipt by the Corporation of a written claim for indemnification, such Director or Officer may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim, and if successful in whole or in part, such Director or Officer shall also be entitled to be paid the expenses of prosecuting such claim. The failure of the Corporation (including its Board of Directors or any committee thereof, independent legal counsel, or stockholders) to make a determination concerning the permissibility of such indemnification under this Article V shall not be a defense to an action brought by a Director or Officer for recovery of the unpaid amount of an indemnification claim and shall not create a presumption that such indemnification is not permissible. The burden of proving that a Director or Officer is not entitled to indemnification shall be on the Corporation.

(c) In any suit brought by a Director or Officer to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder, it shall be a defense that such Director or Officer has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

SECTION 8. Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights to indemnification and to advancement of Expenses set forth in this Article V shall not be exclusive of any other right which any Director, Officer, or Non-Officer Employee may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation or these by-laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or Disinterested Directors or otherwise.

SECTION 9. Insurance. The Corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, trustee,

 

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employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, other enterprise or employee benefit plan against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.

ARTICLE VI

GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 1. Fiscal Year. Except as otherwise designated from time to time by the Board of Directors, the fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the last day of December.

SECTION 2. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall be in such form as shall be approved by the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall be the custodian of the seal, and a duplicate seal may be kept and used by each Assistant Secretary and by any other officer the Board of Directors may authorize.

SECTION 3. Certificate of Incorporation. All references in these by-laws to the Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as in effect from time to time.

SECTION 4. Execution of Instruments. The Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, the President and the Treasurer shall have power to execute and deliver on behalf and in the name of the Corporation any instrument requiring the signature of an officer of the Corporation, including deeds, contracts, mortgages, bonds, notes, debentures, checks, drafts and other orders for the payment of money. In addition, the Board of Directors, the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, the President and the Treasurer may expressly delegate such powers to any other officer or agent of the corporation.

SECTION 5. Voting of Securities. The Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, the President, the Treasurer, and each other person authorized by the Board of Directors, each acting singly, may waive notice of, and act as, or appoint any person or persons to act as, proxy or attorney-in-fact for this corporation (with or without power of substitution) at any meeting of stockholders or owners of other interests of any other corporation or organization the securities of which may be held by this corporation. In addition, the Board of Directors, the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, the President and the Treasurer may expressly delegate such powers to any other officer or agent of the corporation.

SECTION 6. Evidence of Authority. A certificate by the Secretary, an Assistant Secretary or a temporary secretary as to any action taken by the stockholders, directors, a committee or any officer or representative of the Corporation shall, as to all persons who rely on the certificate in good faith, be conclusive evidence of that action.

SECTION 7. Transactions with Interested Parties. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of the directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of the directors or officers are directors or officers or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable

 

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solely for that reason or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee of the Board of Directors that authorizes the contract or transaction or solely because the vote of any such director is counted for such purpose, if:

(1) The material facts as to the relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or such committee, and the Board or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or

(2) The material facts as to the relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or

(3) The contract or transaction is fair to the corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee of the Board of Directors or the stockholders.

Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee that authorizes the contract or transaction.

SECTION 8. Books and Records. The books and records of the corporation shall be kept at such places within or without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine.

SECTION 9. Exclusive Jurisdiction of Delaware Courts. Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Certificate of Incorporation or by-laws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 9.

 

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ARTICLE VII

AMENDMENTS

SECTION 1. By the Board of Directors. These by-laws may be altered, amended or repealed or new by-laws may be adopted by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present.

SECTION 2. By the Stockholders. These by-laws may be altered, amended or repealed or new by-laws may be adopted by vote of the stockholders, at any regular meeting of stockholders, or at any special meeting of stockholders, provided notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new by-laws shall have been stated in the notice of such special meeting in accordance with these by-laws.

 

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