10-K 1 umpq-20161231x10k.htm 10-K Document
United States  
Securities and Exchange Commission 
Washington, D.C. 20549 
 
FORM 10-K
[X] Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
for the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2016
[  ] Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
for the transition period from                                        to                                       .
 
Commission File Number: 001-34624 

 Umpqua Holdings Corporation 
 (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
OREGON 
93-1261319 
(State or Other Jurisdiction
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
of Incorporation or Organization)
 
 One SW Columbia Street, Suite 1200 
Portland, Oregon 97258 
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code) 
 
(503) 727-4100 
(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code) 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
The NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
[ X]   Yes   [ ]   No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the
Act.
[  ]   Yes   [X]   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. 
[X]   Yes   [  ]   No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). 
[X]   Yes   [  ]   No 
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [X]   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
[X]   Large accelerated filer   [    ]   Accelerated filer   [    ]   Non-accelerated filer   [  ]   Smaller reporting company 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). 
[  ]   Yes   [X]   No 

The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2016, based on the closing price on that date of $15.47 per share, and 218,945,453 shares held was $3,387,086,158.
 
Indicate the number of shares outstanding for each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practical date: 
The number of shares of the Registrant's common stock (no par value) outstanding as of January 31, 2017 was 220,247,016.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2017 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Umpqua Holdings Corporation ("Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.



UMPQUA HOLDINGS CORPORATION 
FORM 10-K CROSS REFERENCE INDEX

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we refer to Umpqua Holdings Corporation as the "Company," "Umpqua," "we," "us," "our," or similar references; to Sterling Financial Corporation as "Sterling"; and to the merger of Sterling with and into Umpqua effective as of April 18, 2014, as the "Sterling merger" or the "Merger."
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for "forward-looking statements" provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements may include statements that expressly or implicitly predict future results, performance or events. Statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. You can find many of these statements by looking for words such as "could," "may," "anticipates," "expects," "believes," "estimates" and "intends" and words or phrases of similar meaning. We make forward-looking statements regarding projected sources of funds and liquidity; availability of acquisition and growth opportunities; dividends; adequacy of our allowance for loan and lease losses, reserve for unfunded commitments and provision for loan and lease losses; performance of troubled debt restructurings; our commercial real estate portfolio, its collectability and subsequent chargeoffs; resolution of non-accrual loans; litigation; Pivotus Ventures, Inc.; junior subordinated debentures; and the impact of Basel III on our capital. Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. There are many factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these forward-looking statements. Risks and uncertainties that could cause our financial performance to differ materially from our goals, plans, expectations and projections expressed in forward-looking statements include those set forth in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the following:
our ability to attract new deposits and loans and leases; 
demand for financial services in our market areas; 
competitive market pricing factors; 
our ability to effectively develop and implement new technology;
deterioration in economic conditions that could result in increased loan and lease losses; 
risks associated with concentrations in real estate related loans; 
market interest rate volatility; 
compression of our net interest margin; 
stability of funding sources and continued availability of borrowings; 
changes in legal or regulatory requirements or the results of regulatory examinations that could increase expenses or restrict growth; 
our ability to recruit and retain key management and staff; 
availability of, and competition for acquisition opportunities; 
risks associated with merger and acquisition integration; 
significant decline in the market value of the Company that could result in an impairment of goodwill; 
our ability to raise capital or incur debt on reasonable terms; 
regulatory limits on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company; 
the impact of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ("Dodd-Frank Act") and other new legislation on the Company's business operations, including our compliance costs, interest expense, and revenue;
the impact of the "Basel III" capital rules issued by federal banking regulators ("Basel III Rules"); and
competition, including from financial technology companies.


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For a more detailed discussion of some of the risk factors, see the section entitled "Risk Factors" below. We do not intend to update any factors, except as required by SEC rules, or to publicly announce revisions to any of our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date that such statement was made. You should consider any forward looking statements in light of this explanation, and we caution you about relying on forward-looking statements.

Introduction

Umpqua Holdings Corporation, an Oregon corporation, was formed as a bank holding company in March 1999. At that time, we acquired 100% of the outstanding shares of South Umpqua Bank, an Oregon state-chartered bank formed in 1953. We became a financial holding company in March 2000 under the provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 ("GLB Act"). Umpqua has two principal operating subsidiaries, Umpqua Bank (the "Bank") and Umpqua Investments, Inc. ("Umpqua Investments").

We file annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain these reports, and any amendments, from the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of these reports, and any amendments, through our website at www.umpquaholdingscorp.com. These reports are available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC.

General Background
Headquartered in Roseburg, Oregon, Umpqua Bank is considered one of the most innovative community banks in the United States, recognized nationally and internationally for its unique company culture and customer experience strategy, which differentiate the Company from its competition. The Bank provides a broad range of banking, wealth management, mortgage and other financial services to corporate, institutional, and individual customers, and also has a wholly-owned subsidiary, Financial Pacific Leasing Inc., a commercial equipment leasing company.
Umpqua Investments is a registered broker-dealer and registered investment advisor with offices in Oregon, Washington, and California, and also offers products and services through Umpqua Bank stores. The firm is one of the oldest investment companies in the Northwest and is actively engaged in the communities it serves. Umpqua Investments offers a full range of investment products and services including: stocks, fixed income securities (municipal, corporate, and government bonds, CDs, and money market instruments), mutual funds, annuities, options, retirement planning, advisory account services, goals based planning and insurance.
In 2014, the Company completed its merger with Sterling, and the combined company's banking operations joined together under the Umpqua Bank name and brand.  
In 2015, we formed Pivotus Ventures, Inc. as a subsidiary of Umpqua Holdings Corporation.  Pivotus will use a startup dynamic and collaboration with other institutions to validate, develop, and test new bank platforms that could have a significant impact on the experience and economics of banking. We believe the collaborative model will enhance Pivotus's ability to imagine and develop disruptive technologies, test them with a broad range of customers, and deliver them at scale.

Along with its subsidiaries, the Company is subject to the regulations of state and federal agencies and undergoes regular examinations by these regulatory agencies.  

Business Strategy
Umpqua Bank's primary objective is to become the leading community-oriented financial services organization throughout the Western United States. The Sterling merger expanded Umpqua Bank's footprint into Southern California, Eastern Washington, Eastern Oregon, and Idaho markets. We intend to continue to grow our assets and increase profitability and shareholder value by differentiating ourselves from competitors through the following strategies:
Capitalize on Innovative Product Delivery System. Our philosophy has been to create a unique delivery model that transforms banking from a chore into an experience that's both relevant to customers and highly differentiated from other financial institutions. With this approach in mind, in 1995 we introduced a bank store concept designed to reflect customer and community preferences and drive revenue growth by making the Bank's products and services more tangible and accessible. We've continued to evolve this model, introducing the next generation of our Neighborhood Store in the Capitol Hill area of Seattle, Washington, in 2010, and in 2013, rolling out the next generation of our flagship store in San Francisco.

4


In 2016, a new flagship store was opened in downtown Spokane, Washington, replacing an older store with a traditional bank setup.
Focus on Customer Experience. At every level of the Company, from the Board of Directors to our newest associates, and across all customer service delivery channels, we are focused on delivering an extraordinary customer experience. It's an integral part of our culture, and we believe we are among the first banks to introduce a measurable quality service program. Under our Return on Quality or ROQ program, the performance of each sales associate and store is evaluated based on specific measurable factors, including reports by incognito "mystery shoppers" and customer surveys. Based on scores achieved, Umpqua's ROQ program rewards both individual sales associates and store teams with financial incentives. Through such programs, we are able to measure the quality of the experience provided to our customers and maintain employee focus on quality customer service.
Establish Strong Brand Awareness. As a financial services provider, we devote considerable resources to developing the "Umpqua Bank" brand. This is done through design strategy, marketing, merchandising, and delivery through our customer-facing channels, as well as through active public relations, social media and community based events and initiatives. From Bank-branded bags of custom roasted coffee beans and Umpqua-branded ice cream trucks, to educational seminars, in-store events and social giving campaigns, Umpqua's goal is to engage our customers and communities in fresh and engaging ways. The unique look and feel of our stores and interactive displays help demonstrate our commitment to being an innovative, customer-friendly provider of financial products and services, and our active community engagement and investments stand out with commercial customers. Our brand activation approach is based on actions, not just advertising, and builds strong consumer awareness of our products and services.
Use Technology to Retain and Expand Customer Base. As consumer preferences evolve with technological changes, our strategy remains consistent: deliver an extraordinary experience across all customer touchpoints. As a result, we continue to expand user-friendly, technology-based systems that reflect and complement the distinct customer experience the company is known for. We believe this positions Umpqua well to adapt quickly as customer use of physical and digital channels evolves. We offer technology-based services including remote deposit capture, online banking, bill pay and treasury services, mobile banking, voice response banking, automatic payroll deposit programs, advanced function ATMs, interactive product kiosks, and our web site. We believe the combination of physical and electronic banking services enhances our ability to attract a broader range of customers and wrap our value proposition across all channels.
Increase Market Share in Existing Markets and Expand Into New Markets. As a result of our innovative retail product orientation, measurable quality service program, strong brand awareness, and distinct customer experience across all delivery channels, we believe there is significant potential to increase business with current customers, to attract new customers in our existing markets and continue entering new markets.
In April 2014 we completed the largest acquisition in Umpqua's history, merging with Sterling Financial Corporation. The Sterling acquisition was a strategic opportunity to enhance shareholder value through a transformative business combination. It allowed us to accelerate significantly our objective of creating something unique in the financial services industry: an organization that offers the products and expertise of a large bank but delivers them with the personal service and commitment of a community bank. As the landscape of the financial services industry is being reshaped by technological advances and the introduction of new digital customer delivery channels and technology-driven products and services, we believe the alignment of our physical and digital customer delivery channels is crucial in creating an exceptional customer experience. By doing so, we believe we can best serve our customers - anytime and anywhere - which will drive stronger growth, better customer retention, and create valuable fee and treasury management opportunities. During 2015, we focused on completing the integration of Sterling and realizing the financial benefits of the merger, as well as growing the combined bank and launching Pivotus Ventures, Inc. During 2016, we focused on expense discipline and adjusting the mix of the loan portfolio, entered new markets, expanded our product offerings, and enhanced the digital experience for our customers.
Prudently Manage Capital. An important part of our strategy is to continue to manage capital prudently, and to employ excess capital in a thoughtful and opportunistic manner that improves shareholder returns. We accomplish this through dividends, share repurchases, and pursuing strategic acquisitions, which could include technology-driven enterprises or banks and financial services companies in markets where we see growth potential.

Marketing and Sales
Our goal of increasing our share of financial services in our market areas is driven by a marketing, communications and sales strategy with the following key components:

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Integrated Marketing and Communications. Our comprehensive marketing and communications strategy aims to strengthen the Umpqua Bank brand and generate public awareness through innovative marketing and PR initiatives that stand out in our markets and our industry. The Bank has been recognized nationally for its use of new media and unique approach. From the Bank's Local Spotlight program, ice cream trucks and social giving platform, to interactive initiatives like Made to Grow, Umpqua is leveraging both traditional and emerging media channels in new ways to advance the brand and create meaningful connections with consumers.

Retail Store Concept. Being in the financial services business, we believe that the physical environment continues to play a critical role both in creating awareness of our brand and franchise, as well as in successfully providing the right products and services to our customers. Using a more retailer-oriented approach, we encourage existing and potential customers to come in to our physical locations. To that end, we've designed our physical locations to display financial services and products in ways that are highly tactile and engaging. Unlike many financial institutions, we encourage all in our communities to visit our stores, where they are greeted by well-trained associates and encouraged to browse our products and services. Our "Next Generation" store model includes features like free wireless, free use of laptop computers, open rooms with refrigerated beverages and innovative product packaging. The stores host a variety of after-hours events, from poetry readings and yoga classes to movie nights and seminars on how to build an art collection.

To bring financial services to our customers in a cost-effective way, we introduced "Neighborhood Stores." We build these stores in established neighborhoods and design them to be neighborhood hubs. These stand-alone, full-service stores are smaller and emphasize advanced technology. To strengthen brand recognition, all Neighborhood Stores are similar in appearance. In 2013, Umpqua Bank launched our flagship store in San Francisco which received international recognition as the Retail Design Institutes 2013 Store of the Year award, the first time in the organization's history that a financial services institution received the award.

Service Culture. We believe strongly that if we lead with a service culture, we will have more opportunity to provide our products and services and to create deeper customer relationships across all divisions, from retail to mortgage and commercial. Although a successful marketing program will attract customers to visit, a highly tuned service environment and well-trained associates are critical to selling products and services. Umpqua's service culture has become well established throughout the organization due to a clear focus and ongoing training of our associates on all aspects of sales and service. We provide training through our in-house training, known as "The World's Greatest Bank University," to recognize and celebrate exceptional service. This service culture has become iconic in our industry, and is a key element in our ability to attract both talented associates and loyal customers.

Products and Services
We offer an array of traditional and digital financial products to meet the banking needs of our market area and target customers. To ensure the ongoing viability of our product offerings, we regularly examine the desirability and profitability of existing and potential new products. Other avenues through which customers can access our products include our web site, mobile banking app, and our 24-hour telephone voice response system.
Deposit Products. We offer a traditional array of deposit products, including non-interest bearing checking accounts, interest bearing checking and savings accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit. These accounts earn interest at rates established by management based on competitive market factors and management's desire to increase certain types or maturities of deposit liabilities. Our approach is to tailor fit products and bundle those that meet the customer's needs. This approach is designed to add value for the customer, increase products per household and generate related fee income.
Private Bank. Umpqua Private Bank serves high net worth individuals and nonprofits, providing investment services. The private bank is designed to augment Umpqua's existing high-touch customer experience, and works collaboratively with the Bank's affiliate Umpqua Investments to offer a comprehensive, integrated approach that meets clients' financial goals, including financial planning, trust services, and investments.

6


Broker Dealer and Investment Advisory Services. In its combined role as a broker/dealer and a registered investment advisor, Umpqua Investments may provide comprehensive financial planning advice to its clients as well as investment services. This advice can include cash management, risk management (insurance planning/sales), investment planning (including investment advice and/or portfolio checkups), retirement planning (for employees and employers), or estate planning. The broker/dealer side of Umpqua Investments offers a full range of brokerage services including equity and fixed income products, mutual funds, annuities, options and life insurance products. At December 31, 2016, Umpqua Investments had 37 Series 7-licensed financial advisors serving clients at stand-alone retail brokerage offices, as well as "Investment Opportunity Centers" located in select Bank stores.
Commercial Loans and Leases and Commercial Real Estate Loans. We offer a broad array of specialized loans for business and commercial customers, including accounts receivable and inventory financing, multi-family loans, equipment loans, commercial equipment leases, international trade, real estate construction loans and permanent financing and Small Business Administration ("SBA") program financing as well as capital markets and treasury management services. Additionally, we offer specially designed loan products for small businesses through our Small Business Lending Center, and have a business banking division to increase lending to small and mid-sized businesses. Ongoing credit management activities continue to focus on commercial real estate loans given this is a significant portion of our loan portfolio. We are also engaged in initiatives that continue to diversify the loan portfolio including a strong focus on commercial and industrial loans in addition to financing owner-occupied properties.
Residential Real Estate Loans. Real estate loans are available for the construction, purchase, and refinancing of residential owner-occupied and rental properties. Borrowers can choose from a variety of fixed and adjustable rate options and terms. We sell most residential real estate loans that we originate into the secondary market. Servicing is retained on the majority of these loans. We also support the Home Affordable Refinance Program and Home Affordable Modification Program.
Consumer Loans. We provide loans to individual borrowers for a variety of purposes, including secured and unsecured personal loans, home equity and personal lines of credit and motor vehicle loans. Loans may be made directly to borrowers or through Umpqua's dealer banking department.
Market Area and Competition
The geographic markets we serve are highly competitive for deposits, loans, leases and retail brokerage services. We compete with traditional banking institutions, as well as non-bank financial service providers, such as credit unions, brokerage firms and mortgage companies. In our primary market areas of Oregon, Washington, California, Idaho, and Nevada, major banks and large regional banks generally hold dominant market share positions. By virtue of their larger capital bases, these institutions have significantly larger lending limits than we do and generally have more expansive branch networks. Competition also includes other commercial banks that are community-focused.
As the industry becomes increasingly oriented toward technology-driven delivery systems, permitting transactions to be conducted on computers, phones, tablets, and other mobile devices, non-bank institutions are able to attract funds and provide lending and other financial services even without offices located in our primary service area. Some insurance companies and brokerage firms compete for deposits by offering rates that are higher than may be appropriate for the Bank in relation to its asset and liability management objectives. However, we offer a wide array of deposit products and believe we can compete effectively through rate-driven product promotions. We also compete with full service investment firms for non-bank financial products and services offered by Umpqua Investments.
Credit unions present a significant competitive challenge for our banking services and products. As credit unions currently enjoy an exemption from income tax, they are able to offer higher deposit rates and lower loan rates than banks can on a comparable basis. Credit unions are also not currently subject to certain regulatory constraints, such as the Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA"), which, among other things, requires us to implement procedures to make and monitor loans throughout the communities we serve. Adhering to such regulatory requirements raises the costs associated with our lending activities, and reduces potential operating profits. Accordingly, we seek to compete by focusing on building customer relationships, providing superior service and offering a wide variety of commercial banking products, such as commercial real estate loans, inventory and accounts receivable financing, and SBA program loans for qualified businesses.

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The following tables presents the Bank's market share percentage for total deposits as of June 30, 2016, in each county where we have operations. The table also indicates the ranking by deposit size in each market. All information in the table was obtained from SNL Financial, which compiles deposit data published by the FDIC as of June 30, 2016 and updates the information for any bank mergers and acquisitions completed subsequent to the reporting date.
Oregon
County
Market Share
Market Rank
Number of Stores
Baker
25.9
%
2

1

Benton
8.3
%
6

2

Clackamas
2.3
%
8

4

Columbia
16.6
%
3

1

Coos
35.8
%
1

5

Curry
44.1
%
1

3

Deschutes
7.1
%
6

6

Douglas
76.6
%
1

9

Grant
21.6
%
3

1

Harney
22.3
%
3

1

Jackson
18.8
%
1

8

Josephine
18.5
%
2

5

Klamath
30.0
%
1

4

Lake
32.5
%
2

1

Lane
16.7
%
2

9

Lincoln
7.7
%
6

2

Linn
13.0
%
4

3

Malheur
23.4
%
2

3

Marion
7.5
%
6

3

Multnomah
3.3
%
7

16

Polk
6.8
%
7

1

Tillamook
30.2
%
2

2

Umatilla
5.6
%
6

2

Union
23.9
%
1

2

Wallowa
24.8
%
2

1

Washington
6.9
%
5

7

Yamhill
2.8
%
8

1



8


Washington
County
Market Share
Market Rank
Number of Stores
Adams
21.5
%
3

2

Asotin
16.3
%
3

1

Benton
5.5
%
8

2

Clallam
4.4
%
9

2

Clark
16.3
%
3

11

Columbia
24.8
%
3

1

Douglas
7.3
%
5

1

Franklin
7.2
%
6

1

Garfield
53.5
%
1

1

Grant
8.0
%
7

2

Grays Harbor
9.1
%
4

2

King
2.0
%
9

23

Kitsap
0.9
%
16

1

Kittitas
12.0
%
4

2

Klickitat
33.9
%
1

2

Lewis
14.6
%
2

4

Okanogan
24.5
%
2

2

Pierce
4.0
%
8

10

Skamania
63.3
%
1

1

Snohomish
0.7
%
22

2

Spokane
7.2
%
7

9

Thurston
3.4
%
13

4

Walla Walla
4.0
%
5

2

Whatcom
2.5
%
12

4

Whitman
8.6
%
5

3


9


California
County
Market Share
Market Rank
Number of Stores
Amador
4.5
%
7

1

Butte
2.7
%
10

1

Calaveras
26.0
%
2

4

Colusa
39.9
%
1

2

Contra Costa
0.4
%
16

3

El Dorado
6.5
%
5

3

Glenn
29.8
%
2

2

Humboldt
24.7
%
1

7

Lake
16.3
%
2

2

Los Angeles
0.0
%
74

3

Marin
1.7
%
11

3

Mendocino
3.5
%
7

1

Napa
8.8
%
4

5

Orange
0.5
%
28

1

Placer
4.3
%
6

7

Sacramento
0.7
%
15

6

San Diego
0.1
%
38

3

San Francisco
0.1
%
29

3

San Joaquin
0.5
%
17

1

San Luis Obispo
0.3
%
11

1

Santa Clara
0.0
%
40

1

Shasta
1.9
%
8

1

Solano
3.2
%
8

4

Sonoma
4.2
%
9

8

Stanislaus
0.7
%
15

2

Sutter
11.7
%
4

2

Tehama
16.6
%
1

2

Trinity
28.7
%
2

1

Tuolumne
14.3
%
3

3

Ventura
0.1
%
24

1

Yolo
2.3
%
11

1

Yuba
26.2
%
3

2


10


Idaho
County
Market Share
Market Rank
Number of Stores
Ada
0.6
%
17

2

Benewah
18.7
%
3

1

Idaho
48.8
%
1

3

Kootenai
2.5
%
10

3

Latah
25.0
%
2

2

Nez Perce
14.6
%
4

2

Valley
24.9
%
3

2

 
 
 
 
Nevada
County
Market Share
Market Rank
Number of Stores
Clark
0.0
%
34

1

Washoe
0.2
%
9

4

Lending and Credit Functions
The Bank makes both secured and unsecured loans to individuals and businesses. At December 31, 2016, commercial real estate, commercial, residential, and consumer and other represented approximately 53.7%, 20.4%, 22.3%, and 3.6%, respectively, of the total loan and lease portfolio.
Inter-agency guidelines adopted by federal bank regulators mandate that financial institutions establish real estate lending policies with maximum allowable real estate loan-to-value limits, subject to an allowable amount of non-conforming loans as a percentage of capital. We have adopted as loan policy loan-to-value limits that range from 5% to 10% less than the federal guidelines for each category; however, policy exceptions are permitted for real estate loan customers with strong financial credentials.
Loans and Leases 
We manage asset quality and control credit risk through diversification of the loan and lease portfolio and the application of policies designed to promote sound underwriting and loan and lease monitoring practices. The Bank's Credit Quality Group is charged with monitoring asset quality, establishing credit policies and procedures and enforcing the consistent application of these policies and procedures across the Bank. The provision for loan and lease losses charged to earnings is based upon management's judgment of the amount necessary to maintain the allowance at a level adequate to absorb probable incurred losses. The amount of provision charged is dependent upon many factors, including loan and lease growth, net charge-offs, changes in the composition of the loan and lease portfolio, delinquencies, management's assessment of loan and lease portfolio quality, general economic conditions that can impact the value of collateral, and other trends. The evaluation of these factors is performed through an analysis of the adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses. Reviews of non-performing, past due loans and leases and larger credits, designed to identify potential charges to the allowance for loan and lease losses, and to determine the adequacy of the allowance, are conducted on a quarterly basis. These reviews consider such factors as the financial strength of borrowers, the value of the applicable collateral, loan and lease loss experience, estimated loan and lease losses, growth in the loan and lease portfolio, prevailing economic conditions and other factors.
Employees
As of December 31, 2016, we had a total of 4,295 full-time equivalent employees. None of the employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement and management believes its relations with employees to be good. Information regarding employment agreements with our executive officers is contained in Item 11 below, which item is incorporated by reference to our proxy statement for the 2017 annual meeting of shareholders.

11


Government Policies
The operations of our subsidiaries are affected by state and federal legislative and regulatory changes and by policies of various regulatory authorities, including, domestic monetary policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ("Federal Reserve"), United States fiscal policy, and capital adequacy and liquidity constraints imposed by federal and state regulatory agencies.
Supervision and Regulation
General. We are extensively regulated under federal and state law. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect depositors and customers, not shareholders. To the extent that the following information describes statutory or regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statute or regulation. Any change in applicable laws or regulations may have a material effect on our business and prospects. We cannot accurately predict the nature or the extent of the effects on our business and earnings that fiscal or monetary policies, or new federal or state legislation or regulation may have in the future. Umpqua is subject to the disclosure and other requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and rules promulgated thereunder and administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission. As a listed company on NASDAQ, Umpqua is subject to NASDAQ rules for listed companies.
The Federal Reserve and the FDIC have adopted non-capital safety and soundness standards for financial institutions. These standards cover internal controls, information and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, and standards for asset quality, earnings and stock valuation. An institution that fails to meet these standards must develop a plan acceptable to the agency, specifying the steps that it will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions.
Holding Company Regulation. We are a registered financial holding company under the GLB Act, and are subject to the supervision of, and regulation by the Federal Reserve. As a financial holding company, we are examined by and file reports with the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve expects a bank holding company to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary bank and, under appropriate circumstances, to commit resources to support the subsidiary bank.
Financial holding companies are bank holding companies that satisfy certain criteria and are permitted to engage in activities that traditional bank holding companies are not. The qualifications and permitted activities of financial holdings companies are described below under "Regulatory Structure of the Financial Services Industry."
Federal and State Bank Regulation. Umpqua Bank, as a state chartered bank with deposits insured by the FDIC, is primarily subject to the supervision and regulation of the Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services Division of Financial Regulation("DCBS"), the Washington Department of Financial Institutions ("DFI"), the California Department of Business Oversight ("DBO"), the Idaho Department of Finance Banking Section, the Nevada Division of Financial Institutions, the FDIC and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"). These agencies may prohibit the Bank from engaging in what they believe constitute unsafe or unsound banking practices. Our primary state regulator, DCBS, regularly examines the Bank or participates in joint examinations with the FDIC.
Community Reinvestment Act and Fair Lending Laws. Umpqua Bank has a responsibility under the CRA, as implemented by FDIC regulations to help meet the credit needs of its communities, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution's discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. In connection with its examination, the FDIC assesses Umpqua Bank's record of compliance with the CRA. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit discrimination in lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. These factors are also considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or new facility. Umpqua Bank's failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities and the activities of Umpqua potentially resulting in the suspension of any growth of the Bank through acquisitions or opening de novo branches until the rating is improved. Umpqua Bank's failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in enforcement actions against it by the FDIC, as well as other federal regulatory agencies, including the CFPB and the Department of Justice.  As of the most recent CRA examination, the Bank's CRA rating was "Satisfactory."


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Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders. Banks are also subject to certain restrictions imposed by the Federal Reserve Act on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, principal shareholders or any related interest of such persons. Extensions of credit must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with persons not affiliated with the bank, and must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Banks are also subject to certain lending limits and restrictions on overdrafts to such persons. A violation of these restrictions may result in the assessment of substantial civil monetary penalties on the affected bank or any officer, director, employee, agent or other person participating in the conduct of the affairs of that bank, the imposition of a cease and desist order, and other regulatory sanctions.
The Federal Reserve Act and related Regulation W limit the amount of certain loan and investment transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, require certain levels of collateral for such loans, and limit the amount of advances to third parties that may be collateralized by the securities of Umpqua or its subsidiaries. Regulation W requires that certain transactions between the Bank and its affiliates be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with or involving nonaffiliated companies or, in the absence of comparable transactions, on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, that in good faith would be offered to or would apply to nonaffiliated companies. Umpqua and its subsidiaries have adopted an Affiliate Transactions Policy and have entered into various affiliate agreements in compliance with Regulation W.
Financial Privacy. Federal law and certain state laws currently contain client privacy protection provisions. These provisions limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to affiliated companies and non-affiliated third parties. These rules require disclosure of privacy policies to clients and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to affiliates or non-affiliated third parties by means of opt out or opt in authorizations. Pursuant to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) and certain state laws, companies are required to notify clients of security breaches resulting in unauthorized access to their personal information. In connection with the regulations governing the privacy of consumer financial information, the federal banking agencies have also adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and programs to protect such information.

Federal Deposit Insurance. Substantially all deposits with Umpqua Bank are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") of the FDIC and are subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF.
In October 2010, the FDIC adopted a new DIF restoration plan to ensure that the fund reserve ratio reaches 1.35% by September 30, 2020, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. At least semi-annually, the FDIC will update its loss and income projections for the DIF and, if needed, increase or decrease assessment rates.
On February 7, 2011, the FDIC adopted a final rule modifying the risk-based assessment system from a domestic deposit base to a scorecard based assessment system, effective April 1, 2011. As of April 1, 2011, the Bank was categorized as a large institution as the Bank has more than $10 billion in assets. The initial base assessment rates range from 5 to 35 basis points. After potential adjustments related to unsecured debt and brokered deposit balances, the final total assessment rates range from 2.5 to 45 basis points. Initial base assessment rates for large institutions ranged from 5 to 35 basis points. Increases in the assessment rate could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, depending upon the amount of the increase.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act permanently raised the standard maximum federal deposit insurance amount from $100,000 to $250,000 per qualified account.
The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution if it determines that the institution has engaged in or is engaging in unsafe and unsound banking practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition or has violated any applicable law, regulation or order or any condition imposed in writing by, or pursuant to, any written agreement with the FDIC. The termination of deposit insurance for the Bank would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Dividends. Under the Oregon Bank Act and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA"), the Bank is subject to restrictions on the payment of cash dividends to its parent company. A bank may not pay cash dividends if that payment would reduce the amount of its capital below that necessary to meet minimum applicable regulatory capital requirements. In addition, under the Oregon Bank Act, the amount of the dividend paid by the Bank may not be greater than net unreserved retained earnings, after first deducting to the extent not already charged against earnings or reflected in a reserve, all bad debts, which are debts on which interest is unpaid and past due at least six months unless the debt is fully secured and in the process of collection; all other assets charged-off as required by Oregon bank regulators or a state or federal examiner; and all accrued expenses, interest and taxes of the Bank. In addition, state and federal regulatory authorities are authorized to prohibit banks and holding companies from paying dividends that would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve's view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that its net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company's capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition.
Capital Adequacy. The federal and state bank regulatory agencies use capital adequacy guidelines in their examination and regulation of holding companies and banks. If capital falls below the minimum levels established by these guidelines, a holding company or a bank may be denied approval to acquire or establish additional banks or non-bank businesses or to open new facilities.
The FDIC and Federal Reserve have adopted risk-based capital guidelines for holding companies and banks. The risk-based capital guidelines are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profile among holding companies and banks, to account for off-balance sheet exposure and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weightings. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance sheet items. The capital adequacy guidelines limit the degree to which a holding company or bank may leverage its equity capital.
Federal regulations establish minimum requirements for the capital adequacy of depository institutions, such as the Bank. Banks with capital ratios below the required minimums are subject to certain administrative actions, including prompt corrective action, the termination of deposit insurance upon notice and hearing, or a temporary suspension of insurance without a hearing.
On July 2, 2013, federal banking regulators approved final rules that revised the regulatory capital rules to incorporate certain revisions by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision to the Basel capital framework ("Basel III"). The phase-in period for the final rules began for the Company on January 1, 2015, with full compliance with the final rules' requirements phased in on January 1, 2019.

The final rules, among other things, include a new common equity Tier 1 capital ("CET1") to risk-weighted assets ratio, including a capital conservation buffer, which will gradually increase from 4.5% on January 1, 2015 to 7.0% on January 1, 2019. The final rules also raise the minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets from 4.0% to 6.0% on January 1, 2015 to 8.5% on January 1, 2019, as well as require a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%.

Under the final rules, as Umpqua grew above $15.0 billion in assets as a result of an acquisition, the combined trust preferred security debt issuances were phased out of Tier 1 and into Tier 2 capital (75% starting in the first quarter of 2015 and 100% starting in the first quarter of 2016). The final rules also provide for a number of adjustments to and deductions from the new CET1. Under Basel III, the effects of certain accumulated other comprehensive items are not excluded; however, the Company and the Bank, have made a one-time permanent election to continue to exclude these items in order to avoid significant variations in the level of capital depending upon the impact of interest rate fluctuations on the fair value of the Company's securities portfolio.

In addition, deductions include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, certain deferred tax assets not dependent upon future taxable income and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1.

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FDICIA requires federal banking regulators to take "prompt corrective action" with respect to a capital-deficient institution, including requiring a capital restoration plan and restricting certain growth activities of the institution. Umpqua could be required to guarantee any such capital restoration plan required of the Bank if the Bank became undercapitalized. Pursuant to FDICIA, regulations were adopted defining five capital levels: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, severely undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. Under the regulations, the Bank is considered "well capitalized" as of December 31, 2016.
Federal and State Regulation of Broker-Dealers. Umpqua Investments is a fully disclosed introducing broker-dealer clearing through Wells Fargo Clearing Services, LLC.  Umpqua Investments is regulated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA"), as well as the SEC, and has deposits insured through the Securities Investors Protection Corp ("SIPC") as well as third party insurers.  FINRA and the SEC perform regular examinations of Umpqua Investments that include reviews of policies, procedures, recordkeeping, trade practices, and customer protection as well as other inquiries.
SIPC protects client securities and cash up to $500,000, including $100,000 for cash with additional coverage provided through Wells Fargo Clearing Services, LLC who maintains additional coverage through Lexington Insurance Company, for the remaining net equity balance in a brokerage account, if any.  This coverage does not include losses in investment accounts.
Broker-Dealer and Related Regulatory Supervision. Umpqua Investments is a member of, and is subject to the regulatory supervision of, FINRA. Areas subject to FINRA oversight review include compliance with trading rules, financial reporting, investment suitability, and compliance with stock exchange rules and regulations.
Effects of Government Monetary Policy. Our earnings and growth are affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve implements national monetary policy for such purposes as curbing inflation and combating recession, through its open market operations in U.S. Government securities, control of the discount rate applicable to borrowings from the Federal Reserve, and establishment of reserve requirements against certain deposits. These activities influence growth of bank loans, investments and deposits, and also affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The nature and impact of future changes in monetary policies and their impact on us cannot be predicted with certainty.
Regulation of the Financial Services Industry. Federal laws and regulations governing banking and financial services underwent significant changes in recent years and we believe will continue to undergo significant changes in the future. From time to time, legislation is introduced in the United States Congress that contains proposals for altering the structure, regulation, and competitive relationships of the nation's financial institutions. If enacted into law, these proposals could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, and other financial institutions. Whether or in what form any such legislation may be adopted or the extent to which our business might be affected thereby cannot be predicted.
The GLB Act, enacted in November 1999, repealed sections of the Banking Act of 1933, commonly referred to as the Glass-Steagall Act, that prohibited banks from engaging in securities activities, and prohibited securities firms from engaging in banking. The GLB Act created a new form of holding company, known as a financial holding company, that is permitted to acquire subsidiaries that are engaged in banking, securities underwriting and dealing, and insurance underwriting.
A bank holding company, if it meets specified requirements, may elect to become a financial holding company by filing a declaration with the Federal Reserve, and may thereafter provide its customers with a broader spectrum of products and services than a traditional bank holding company is permitted to do. A financial holding company may, through a subsidiary, engage in any activity that is deemed to be financial in nature and activities that are incidental or complementary to activities that are financial in nature. These activities include traditional banking services and activities previously permitted to bank holding companies under Federal Reserve regulations, but also include underwriting and dealing in securities, providing investment advisory services, underwriting and selling insurance, merchant banking (holding a portfolio of commercial businesses, regardless of the nature of the business, for investment), and arranging or facilitating financial transactions for third parties.

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To qualify as a financial holding company, the bank holding company must be deemed to be well-capitalized and well-managed, as those terms are used by the Federal Reserve. In addition, each subsidiary bank of a bank holding company must also be well-capitalized and well-managed and be rated at least "satisfactory" under the CRA. A bank holding company that does not qualify, or has not chosen, to become a financial holding company must limit its activities to traditional banking activities and those non-banking activities the Federal Reserve has deemed to be permissible because they are closely related to the business of banking.
The GLB Act also includes provisions to protect consumer privacy by prohibiting financial services providers, whether or not affiliated with a bank, from disclosing non-public personal, financial information to unaffiliated parties without the consent of the customer, and by requiring annual disclosure of the provider's privacy policy.
The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 ("Riegle-Neal Act"), which became effective in 1995, permits interstate banking and branching, which allows banks to expand nationwide through acquisition, consolidation or merger. Under this law, an adequately capitalized bank holding company may acquire banks in any state or merge banks across state lines if permitted by state law. Further, banks may establish and operate branches in any state subject to the restrictions of applicable state law. Under Oregon law, an out-of-state bank or bank holding company may merge with or acquire an Oregon state chartered bank or bank holding company upon receipt of approval from the Director of the Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services. The Bank now has the ability to open additional de novo branches in the states of Oregon, California, Washington, Idaho, and Nevada.

Section 613 of the Dodd-Frank Act eliminated interstate branching restrictions that were implemented as part of the Riegle-Neal Act, and removed many restrictions on de novo interstate branching by national and state-chartered banks. The FDIC and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency now have authority to approve applications by insured state nonmember banks and national banks, respectively, to establish de novo branches in states other than the bank's home state if "the law of the State in which the branch is located, or is to be located, would permit establishment of the branch, if the bank were a State bank chartered by such State." The enactment of this Section 613 may significantly increase interstate banking by community banks in western states, where barriers to entry were previously high.
Anti-Terrorism Legislation. The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act ("USA Patriot Act"), enacted in 2001:
prohibits banks from providing correspondent accounts directly to foreign shell banks;
imposes due diligence requirements on banks opening or holding accounts for foreign financial institutions or wealthy foreign individuals;
requires financial institutions to establish an anti-money-laundering ("AML") compliance program; and
generally eliminates civil liability for persons who file suspicious activity reports.

The USA Patriot Act also increases governmental powers to investigate terrorism, including expanded government access to account records. The Department of the Treasury is empowered to administer and make rules to implement the Act, which to some degree, affects our record-keeping and reporting expenses. Should the Bank's AML compliance program be deemed insufficient by federal regulators, we would not be able to grow through acquiring other institutions or opening de novo branches.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 addresses public company corporate governance, auditing, accounting, executive compensation and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act represents significant federal involvement in matters traditionally left to state regulatory systems, such as the regulation of the accounting profession, and regulation of the relationship between a Board of Directors and management and between a Board of Directors and its committees.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act provides for, among other things:
prohibition on personal loans by Umpqua to its directors and executive officers except loans made by the Bank in accordance with federal banking regulations;
independence requirements for Board audit committee members and our external auditor;

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certification of reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("Exchange Act") by the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and principal accounting officer;
disclosure of off-balance sheet transactions;
expedited reporting of stock transactions by insiders; and
increased criminal penalties for violations of securities laws.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act also requires:
management to establish, maintain, and evaluate disclosure controls and procedures;
management to report on its annual assessment of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting;
our external auditor to attest to the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting.

The SEC has adopted regulations to implement various provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including disclosures in periodic filings pursuant to the Exchange Act. Also, in response to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, NASDAQ adopted new standards for listed companies.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. On July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act was signed, which was a sweeping overhaul of financial industry regulation. Among other provisions, the Act:
Created a systemic-risk council of top regulators, the Financial Stability Oversight Council, whose purpose is to identify risks and respond to emerging threats to the financial stability of the U.S. arising from large, interconnected bank holding companies or nonbank financial companies;
Gave the FDIC authority to unwind large failing financial firms. Treasury would supply funds to cover the up-front costs of winding down the failed firm, but the government would have to put a "repayment plan" in place. Regulators will recoup any losses incurred from the wind-down afterwards by assessing fees on financial firms with more than $50 billion in assets;
Directed the FDIC to base deposit-insurance assessments on assets minus tangible capital instead of on domestic deposits and requires the FDIC to increase premium rates to raise the Deposit Insurance Fund's ("DIF") minimum reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% by September 30, 2020. Banks, like Umpqua, with consolidated assets greater than $10 billion would pay the increased premiums;
Permanently increased FDIC deposit-insurance coverage to $250,000, retroactive to January 1, 2008. The act also eliminated the 1.5% cap on the DIF reserve ratio and automatic dividends when the ratio exceeds 1.35%. The FDIC also has discretion on whether to provide dividends to DIF members;
Authorized banks to pay interest on business checking accounts;
Created the CFPB, housed under the Federal Reserve and led by a director appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. All existing consumer laws and regulations enforcement will be transferred to this agency and each existing regulatory agency will contribute their respective consumer regulatory and exam staffs to the CFPB;
Gave the CFPB the authority to write consumer protection rules for banks and nonbank financial firms offering consumer financial services or products and to ensure that consumers are protected from "unfair, deceptive, or abusive" acts or practices. The CFPB also now has authority to examine and enforce regulations for banks with greater than $10 billion in assets;
Authorized the CFPB to require banks to compile and provide reports relating to its consumer lending, marketing and other consumer business activities and to make that information available to the public if doing so is "in the public interest";
Directed the Federal Reserve to set interchange fees for debit card transactions charged by banks with more than $10 billion in assets. The Federal Reserve must establish what it determines are reasonable fees by factoring in their transaction costs compared to those for checks;

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Requires loan originators to retain 5% of any loan sold and securitized, unless it is a "qualified residential mortgage", which includes standard 30 and 15 year fixed rate loans. It also specifically exempts from risk retention FHA, VA, Farmer Mac and Rural Housing Service loans;
Adopted additional various mortgage lending and predatory lending provisions;
Required federal regulators jointly to prescribe regulations mandating that financial institutions with more than $1 billion in assets to disclose to their regulators their incentive compensation plans to permit the regulators to determine whether the plans provide executive officers, employees, directors or principal shareholders with excessive compensation, fees or benefits, or could lead to material financial loss to the institution;
Imposed a number of requirements related to executive compensation that apply to all public companies, such as prohibition of broker discretionary voting in connection with a shareholder vote on executive compensation; mandatory shareholder "say on pay" (every one to three years) and "say on golden parachutes"; and clawback of incentive compensation from current or former executive officers following any accounting restatement;
Established a modified version of the "Volcker Rule" and generally prohibits banks from engaging in proprietary trading or holding or obtaining an interest in a hedge fund or private equity fund, to the extent that it would exceed 3% of the bank's Tier 1 capital. A bank's interest in any single hedge fund or private equity fund may not exceed 3% of the assets of that fund.

Stress Testing and Capital Planning. Umpqua is subject to the annual Dodd-Frank Act capital stress testing (DFAST) requirements of the Federal Reserve and the FDIC. As part of the DFAST process, Umpqua is required to submit the results of the company-run stress tests to the FDIC by July 31, and Umpqua will disclose certain results from stress testing exercises, generally in October of each year. 

CFPB Regulation and Supervision. As noted above, the Dodd-Frank Act gives the CFPB authority to examine Umpqua and Umpqua Bank for compliance with a broad range of federal consumer financial laws and regulations, including the laws and regulations that relate to credit card, deposit, mortgage and other consumer financial products and services the Bank offers. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act gives the CFPB broad authority to take corrective action against Umpqua and Umpqua Bank as it deems appropriate. The CFPB is authorized to issue regulations and take enforcement actions to prevent and remedy acts and practices relating to consumer financial products and services that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. The agency also has authority to impose new disclosure requirements for any consumer financial product or service. These authorities are in addition to the authority the CFPB assumed on July 21, 2011 under existing consumer financial law governing the provision of consumer financial products and services. The CFPB has concentrated much of its initial rulemaking efforts on a variety of mortgage related topics required under the Dodd-Frank Act, including ability-to-repay and qualified mortgage standards, mortgage servicing standards, loan originator compensation standards, high-cost mortgage requirements, appraisal and escrow standards and requirements for higher-priced mortgages.

In January 2014, new rules issued by the CFPB for mortgage origination and mortgage servicing became effective. The rules require lenders to conduct a reasonable and good faith determination at or before consummation of a residential mortgage loan that the borrower will have a reasonable ability to repay the loan. The regulations also define criteria for making Qualified Mortgages which entitle the lender and any assignee to either a conclusive or rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability to repay rule. The new mortgage servicing rules include new standards for notices to consumers, loss mitigation procedures, and consumer requests for information. Both the origination and servicing rules create new private rights of action for consumers in the event of certain violations. In addition to the exercise of its rulemaking authority, the CFPB is continuing its ongoing examination and supervisory activities with respect to a number of consumer businesses and products.


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October 2015, the CFPB's final rules on integrated mortgage disclosures under the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act became effective. Throughout 2015, the CFPB continued its focus on fair lending practices of indirect automobile lenders. This focus led to some lenders to enter into consent orders with the CFPB and Department of Justice. Indirect automobile lenders have also received continued pressure from the CFPB to limit or eliminate discretionary pricing by dealers. Banking regulatory agencies have increasingly used their authority under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act to take supervisory or enforcement action with respect to unfair or deceptive acts or practices (UDAP) by banks under standards developed many years ago by the Federal Trade Commission in order to address practices that may not necessarily fall within the scope of a specific banking or consumer finance law. The Dodd-Frank Act also gave to the CFPB similar authority to take action in connection with unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices (UDAAP) by entities subject to CFPB supervisory or enforcement authority. Banks face considerable uncertainty as to the regulatory interpretation of "abusive" practices. Financial services companies face increased regulation and exposure under the new Military Lending Act (MLA) final rules issued by the Department of Defense that become effective for new loans entered into on and after October 3, 2016. The new rules dramatically expand the scope of coverage of the MLA and compliance with the new rules will affect operations of more financial services companies than under the previous rules. We continue to monitor, evaluate, and implement new regulations.

Joint Agency Guidance on Incentive Compensation. On June 21, 2010, federal banking regulators issued final joint agency guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies. This guidance applies to executive and non-executive incentive compensation plans administered by banks. The guidance says that incentive compensation programs must:
Provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward.
Be compatible with effective controls and risk- management; and
Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the board;

The Federal Reserve reviews, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of the Company and other banking organizations. The findings of the supervisory initiatives are included in reports of examination and any deficiencies will be incorporated into the Company's supervisory ratings, which can affect the Company's ability to make acquisitions and take other actions.
ITEM 1A.   RISK FACTORS. 
 
In addition to the other information set forth in this report, you should carefully consider the factors discussed below. These factors could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and capital position, and could cause our actual results to differ materially from our historical results or the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report.
Difficult or volatile market conditions or weak economic conditions may adversely affect the financial services industry and our business.
Our business and financial performance are vulnerable to weak economic conditions, primarily in the United States and especially in the western United States. The severe conditions from 2007 to 2009 had a significant negative impact on the financial services industry, and on Umpqua, including significant write-downs of asset values, bank failures and volatile financial markets. A deterioration in economic conditions or a prolonged delay in economic recovery in our primary market areas could result in the following consequences, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business: loan delinquencies may increase; problem assets and foreclosures may increase putting further price pressures on valuations generally; demand for our products and services may decrease; low cost or noninterest bearing deposits may decrease; intangible asset impairment; and collateral for loans made by us, especially real estate, may decline in value, in turn reducing customers' borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with our existing loans. In addition, we could face the following risks in connection with these events:
Increased regulation of our industry, which could increase the costs associated with regulatory compliance, reduce existing sources of revenue and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.
Our ability to assess the creditworthiness of our customers may be impaired if the models and approaches we use to select, manage, and underwrite our customers become less predictive of future performance.
The process we use to estimate losses inherent in our loan portfolio requires difficult, subjective, and complex judgments, including forecasts of economic conditions and how these economic predictions might impair the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, which process may no longer be capable of accurate estimation and may, in turn, impact its reliability.

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Downward pressure on our stock price.

The majority of our assets are loans, which if not repaid would result in losses to the Bank.
The Bank, like other lenders, is subject to credit risk, which is the risk of losing principal or interest due to borrowers' failure to repay loans in accordance with their terms. Underwriting and documentation controls cannot mitigate all credit risk. A downturn in the economy or the real estate market in our market areas or a rapid increase in interest rates could have a negative effect on collateral values and borrowers' ability to repay. To the extent loans are not paid timely by borrowers, the loans are placed on non-accrual status, thereby reducing interest income. Further, under these circumstances, an additional provision for loan and lease losses or unfunded commitments may be required.

Deterioration in the real estate market or other segments of our loan portfolio would lead to additional losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As of December 31, 2016, approximately 76% of our total loan portfolio is secured by real estate, the majority of which is commercial real estate. Our success depends in part on economic conditions in the western United States and adverse changes in markets where our real estate collateral is located could adversely affect our business. Increases in delinquency rates or declines in real estate market values would require increased net charge-offs and increases in the allowance for loan and lease losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and prospects.
A rapid change in interest rates, or maintenance of rates at historically high or low levels for an extended period, could make it difficult to improve or maintain our current interest income spread and could result in reduced earnings.

Our earnings are largely derived from net interest income, which is interest income and fees earned on loans and investments, less interest paid on deposits and other borrowings. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the control of our management, including general economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities. The actions of the Federal Reserve influence the rates of interest that we charge on loans and that we pay on borrowings and interest-bearing deposits. We cannot predict the nature or timing of future changes in monetary, tax and other policies or the effects that they may have on our activities and financial results.

As interest rates change, net interest income is affected. With fixed rate assets (such as fixed rate loans and most investment securities) and liabilities (such as certificates of deposit), the effect on net interest income depends on the cash flows associated with the maturity of the asset or liability. Asset/liability management policies may not be successfully implemented and from time to time our risk position is not balanced. An unanticipated rapid decrease or increase in interest rates could have an adverse effect on the spreads between the interest rates earned on assets and the rates of interest paid on liabilities, and therefore on the level of net interest income. For instance, any rapid increase in interest rates in the future could result in interest expense increasing faster than interest income because of fixed rate loans and longer-term investments. Historically low rates for an extended period of time result in reduced returns from the investment and loan portfolios. The current very low interest rate environment, which is expected to continue with the potential for slight increases over time, could affect consumer and business behavior in ways that are adverse to us and negatively impact our ability to increase our net interest income. Further, substantially higher interest rates generally reduce loan demand and may result in slower loan growth than previously experienced.

Changes in interest rates could reduce the value of mortgage servicing rights (MSR).

We acquire MSR when we keep servicing rights after we sell originated residential mortgage loans. We sell the majority of our originated residential mortgage loans servicing retained. We measure MSR at fair value. Fair value is the present value of estimated future net servicing income, calculated based on a number of variables, including assumptions about the likelihood of prepayment by borrowers. Changes in interest rates can affect prepayment assumptions and consequently MSR fair value. When interest rates fall, borrowers are usually more likely to prepay their mortgage loans by refinancing them at a lower rate. As the likelihood of prepayment increases, MSR fair value can decrease, which reduces earnings in the period in which the decrease occurs.


20


Our mortgage banking revenue can fluctuate significantly.

We earn revenue from fees received for originating and servicing mortgage loans. Generally, if interest rates rise, the demand for mortgage loans tends to fall, reducing the revenue we receive from originations. At the same time, revenue from MSR can increase through increases in fair value. When interest rates decline, originations tend to increase and the value of MSR tends to decline, also with some offsetting revenue effect. The negative effect on revenue from a decrease in the fair value of residential MSR is immediate, but any offsetting revenue benefit from more originations and the MSR relating to new loans accrues over time. It is also possible that even if interest rates were to fall, mortgage originations may also fall or any increase in mortgage originations may not be enough to offset the decrease in the MSR value caused by the lower rates.

We depend upon programs administered by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae.
 
Our ability to generate revenues in our home lending group depends on programs administered by government-sponsored entities that play an important role in the residential mortgage industry. During 2016, 72% of mortgage loans were originated for sale to, or through programs sponsored by, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae. We service loans on behalf of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, as well as loans that have been securitized pursuant to securitization programs sponsored by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae.  A majority of our mortgage servicing rights and loans serviced through subservicing agreements relate to these servicing activities. These entities establish the base service fee to compensate us for servicing loans as well as the assessment of fines and penalties that may be imposed upon us for failing to meet servicing standards. Our status as a Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae approved seller and servicer is subject to compliance with guidelines and failure to meet such guidelines could result in the unilateral termination of our status as an approved seller or servicer.  Changes in the existing government-sponsored mortgage programs or servicing eligibility standards through legislation or otherwise, or our failure to maintain a relationship with each of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows through negative impact on the pricing of mortgage related assets in the secondary market, higher mortgage rates to borrowers, or lower mortgage origination volumes and margins. 

The financial services industry is highly competitive.

We face pricing competition for loans and deposits. We also face competition with respect to customer convenience, product lines, accessibility of service and service capabilities. Our most direct competition comes from other banks, brokerages, mortgage companies and savings institutions, but more recently has also come from financial technology (or "fintech") companies that rely on technology to provide financial services. We also face competition from credit unions, government-sponsored enterprises, mutual fund companies, insurance companies and other non-bank businesses. The significant competition in attracting and retaining deposits and making loans, as well as providing other financial services throughout our market area may impact future earnings and growth. Our success depends, in part, on the ability to adapt products and services to evolving industry standards. There is increasing pressure to provide products and services at lower prices, which can reduce net interest income and non-interest income from fee-based products and services.

The failure to understand and adapt to continual technological changes could negatively impact our business.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services by depository institutions and fintech companies. New technology-driven products and services are often introduced and adopted, including innovative ways that customers can make payments, access products and manage accounts. We could be required to make substantial capital expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services or develop new products and services. We may not be successful in introducing new products and services or those new products may not achieve market acceptance. We could lose business, be forced to price products and services on less advantageous terms to retain or attract clients, or be subject to cost increases if we do not effectively develop and implement new technology. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in operations. In addition, advances in technology such as digital, mobile, telephone, text, and on-line banking; e-commerce; and self-service automatic teller machines and other equipment, as well as changing customer preferences to access our products and services through digital channels, could decrease the value of our store network and other assets. We may close or sell certain stores and restructure or reduce our remaining stores and work force. These actions could lead to losses on assets, expense to reconfigure stores and loss of customers in certain markets. As a result, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.


21


We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision; the Dodd-Frank Act, new legislation, additional regulation and heightened supervisory requirements could detrimentally affect the Company's business.

Umpqua Holdings Corporation and its subsidiaries, primarily Umpqua Bank, are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision, the primary focus of which is to protect customers, depositors, the deposit insurance fund and the safety and soundness of the banking system as a whole, and not shareholders. The quantity and scope of applicable federal and state regulations may place banks and brokerage firms at a competitive disadvantage compared to less regulated competitors such as fintech companies, finance companies, credit unions, mortgage banking companies and leasing companies. These regulations affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, and could subject us to additional costs, limits on the services and products we may offer or limits on the pricing of banking services and products.  Since the global financial crisis, financial institutions generally have been subject to increased scrutiny from regulatory authorities, with an increased focus on risk management and consumer compliance. If we receive less than satisfactory results on regulatory examinations, we could be subject to penalties, required to increase compliance costs or restricted from making acquisitions, adding new stores, developing new lines of business, or otherwise continuing our growth strategy for a period of time. Future changes in federal and state banking and brokerage regulations could adversely affect our operating results and ability to continue to compete effectively. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulations subject us to additional restrictions, oversight and reporting obligations, which have significantly increased costs. We cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof. Compliance with such current and potential regulation and scrutiny could significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner.

Interest rate volatility and credit risk adjusted rate spreads may impact our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value, particularly the fair value of our junior subordinated debentures.

The widening of the credit risk adjusted rate spreads on potential new issuances of junior subordinated debentures above our contractual spreads and reductions in three month LIBOR rates have contributed to the cumulative positive fair value adjustment in our junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value. Tightening of these credit risk adjusted rate spreads and interest rate volatility may result in recognizing negative fair value adjustments charged to earnings in the future.

We may be required to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed, or it may only be available on unacceptable terms, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside our control, and on our financial performance. Accordingly, we may not be able to raise additional capital, if needed, on terms acceptable to us. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, our ability to further expand our operations and pursue our growth strategy could be materially impaired. We and the Bank are currently well capitalized under applicable regulatory guidelines. However, our business could be negatively affected if we or the Bank failed to remain well capitalized. For example, because Umpqua Bank is well capitalized and we otherwise qualify as a financial holding company, we are permitted to engage in a broader range of activities than are permitted to a bank holding company. Loss of financial holding company status could require that we cease these broader activities. The banking regulators are authorized (and sometimes required) to impose a wide range of requirements, conditions, and restrictions on banks, thrifts, and bank holding companies that fail to maintain adequate capital levels.


22


New rules will require increased capital.

In June 2013, federal banking regulators jointly issued the Basel III rules. The rules impose new capital requirements and implement Section 171 of the Dodd Frank Act.  The new rules are to be phased in through 2019.  Among other things, the rules will require that we maintain a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6%, a total capital ratio of 8%, and a leverage ratio of 4%.  In addition, we will have to maintain an additional capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of total risk weighted assets or be subject to limitations on dividends and other capital distributions, as well as limiting discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. It is possible the Company may accelerate redemption of the existing junior subordinated debentures.  This could result in adjustments to the fair value of these instruments including the acceleration of losses on junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value within non-interest income. The Company currently does not intend to redeem the junior subordinated debentures in order to support regulatory total capital levels. The new rules may require us to raise more common capital or other capital that qualifies as Tier 1 capital. The application of more stringent capital requirements could, among other things, result in lower returns on invested capital and result in regulatory actions if we were to be unable to comply with such requirements.

Conditions in the financial markets may limit our access to additional funding to meet our liquidity needs.

Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale or pledging as collateral of loans and other assets could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. An adverse regulatory action against us could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are nonspecific to us, such as severe disruption of the financial markets or negative news and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole as evidenced by turmoil in the domestic and worldwide credit markets.

Our wholesale funding sources may prove insufficient to support our future growth or an unexpected reduction in deposits.

We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. As a part of our liquidity management, we use a number of funding sources in addition to core deposit growth and repayments and maturities of loans and investments. If we grow more rapidly than any increase in our deposit balances, we are likely to become more dependent on these sources, which include Federal Home Loan Bank advances, proceeds from the sale of loans and liquidity resources at the holding company. Our financial flexibility will be severely constrained if we are unable to maintain our access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. If we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, our revenues may not increase proportionately to cover our costs, and our profitability would be adversely affected.

As a bank holding company that conducts substantially all of our operations through the Bank, our ability to pay dividends, repurchase our shares or to repay our indebtedness depends upon liquid assets held by the holding company and the results of operations of our subsidiaries.

The Company is a separate and distinct legal entity from our subsidiaries and it receives substantially all of its revenue from dividends paid from the Bank. There are legal limitations on the extent to which the Bank may extend credit, pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to, or engage in transactions with, us. Our inability to receive dividends from the Bank could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our net income depends primarily upon the Bank's net interest income, which is the income that remains after deducting from total income generated by earning assets the expense attributable to the acquisition of the funds required to support earning assets (primarily interest paid on deposits). The amount of interest income is dependent on many factors including the volume of earning assets, the general level of interest rates, the dynamics of changes in interest rates and the levels of nonperforming loans. All of those factors affect the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company.

Various statutory provisions restrict the amount of dividends the Bank can pay to us without regulatory approval. The Bank may not pay cash dividends if that payment could reduce the amount of its capital below that necessary to meet the "adequately capitalized" level in accordance with regulatory capital requirements. It is also possible that, depending upon the financial condition of the Bank and other factors, regulatory authorities could conclude that payment of dividends or other payments, including payments to us, is an unsafe or unsound practice and impose restrictions or prohibit such payments.

23



Under Oregon law, the Bank may not pay dividends in excess of unreserved retained earnings, deducting there from, to the extent not already charged against earnings or reflected in a reserve, the following: (1) all bad debts, which are debts on which interest is past due and unpaid for at least six months, unless the debt is fully secured and in the process of collection; (2) all other assets charged-off as required by Oregon bank regulators or a state or federal examiner; and (3) all accrued expenses, interest and taxes of the institution. The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve's view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that its net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company's capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition.

Our business is highly reliant on technology and our ability to manage the operational risks associated with technology.

Our business involves storing and processing sensitive consumer and business customer data. A cyber security breach may result in theft of such data or disruption of our transaction processing systems. We depend on internal systems and outsourced technology to support these data storage and processing operations. Our inability to use or access these information systems at critical points in time could unfavorably impact the timeliness and efficiency of our business operations. A material breach of customer data security may negatively impact our business reputation and cause a loss of customers, result in increased expense to contain the event and/or require that we provide credit monitoring services for affected customers, result in regulatory fines and sanctions and/or result in litigation. Cyber security risk management programs are expensive to maintain and will not protect the Company from all risks associated with maintaining the security of customer data and the Company's proprietary data from external and internal intrusions, disaster recovery and failures in the controls used by our vendors. In addition, Congress and the legislatures of states in which we operate regularly consider legislation that would impose more stringent data privacy requirements.

Our business is highly reliant on third party vendors and our ability to manage the operational risks associated with outsourcing those services.

We rely on third parties to provide services that are integral to our operations. These vendors provide services that support our operations, including the storage and processing of sensitive consumer and business customer data, as well as our sales efforts. A cyber security breach of a vendor's system may result in theft of our data or disruption of business processes.  A material breach of customer data security at a service provider's site may negatively impact our business reputation and cause a loss of customers; result in increased expense to contain the event and/or require that we provide credit monitoring services for affected customers, result in regulatory fines and sanctions and/or result in litigation.  In most cases, we will remain primarily liable to our customers for losses arising from a breach of a vendor's data security system. We rely on our outsourced service providers to implement and maintain prudent cyber security controls.  We have procedures in place to assess a vendor's cyber security controls prior to establishing a contractual relationship and to periodically review assessments of those control systems; however, these procedures are not infallible and a vendor's system can be breached despite the procedures we employ. We have alliances with other companies that assist in our sales efforts. In our wealth management business, we have an alliance with Ferguson Wellman, a registered investment advisor to whom we refer customers for investment advice and asset management services. We cannot be sure that we will be able to maintain these relationships on favorable terms. In addition, some of our data processing services are provided by companies associated with our competitors. The loss of these vendor relationships could disrupt the services we provide to our customers and cause us to incur significant expense in connection with replacing these services.

Damage to our brand and reputation could significantly harm our business and prospects.

Our brand and reputation are important assets. Our relationship with many of our customers is predicated upon our reputation as a high quality provider of financial services that adheres to the highest standards of ethics, service quality and regulatory compliance. We believe that our brand has been, and continues to be, well received in our industry, with current and potential customers, investors and employees. Our ability to attract and retain customers, investors and employees depends upon external perceptions of us. Damage to our reputation among existing and potential customers, investors and employees could cause significant harm to our business and prospects and may arise from numerous sources, including litigation or regulatory actions, failing to deliver minimum standards of service and quality, lending practices, inadequate protection of customer information, sales and marketing efforts, compliance failures, unethical behavior and the misconduct of employees. Adverse developments with respect to our industry may also, by association, negatively impact our reputation or result in greater regulatory or legislative scrutiny or litigation against us.


24


A decline in the Company's stock price or expected future cash flows, or a material adverse change in our results of operations or prospects, could result in impairment of our goodwill.

From time to time, the Company's common stock has traded at a price below its book value, including goodwill and other intangible assets.  A significant and sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization, a significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate or slower growth rates could result in impairment of our goodwill.  If impairment was deemed to exist, a write down of goodwill would occur with a charge to earnings.

We have a significant gross deferred tax asset position at December 31, 2016, and we are required to assess the recoverability of this asset on an ongoing basis.

Deferred tax assets are evaluated on a quarterly basis to determine if they are expected to be recoverable in the future. Our evaluation considers positive and negative evidence to assess whether it is more likely than not that a portion of the asset will not be realized. The risk of a valuation allowance increases if continuing operating losses are incurred. Future negative operating performance or other negative evidence may result in a valuation allowance being recorded against some or all of this amount. A valuation allowance on our deferred tax asset could have a material adverse impact on our capital and results of operations.

Involvement in non-bank business creates risks associated with the securities industry.

Umpqua Investments' retail brokerage operations present special risks not borne by community banks that focus exclusively on community banking. For example, the brokerage industry is subject to fluctuations in the stock market that may have a significant adverse impact on transaction fees, customer activity and investment portfolio gains and losses. Likewise, additional or modified regulations may adversely affect Umpqua Investments' operations. Umpqua Investments is also dependent on a small number of established brokers, whose departure could result in the loss of a significant number of customer accounts. A significant decline in fees and commissions or trading losses suffered in the investment portfolio could adversely affect Umpqua Investments' income and potentially require the contribution of additional capital to support its operations. Umpqua Investments is subject to claim arbitration risk arising from customers who claim their investments were not suitable or that their portfolios were too actively traded. These risks increase when the market, as a whole, declines. The risks associated with retail brokerage may not be supported by the income generated by those operations. See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-"Non-interest Income".

The value of the securities in our investment securities portfolio may be negatively affected by continued disruptions in securities markets.

The market for some of the investment securities held in our portfolio has become extremely volatile over the past three years. Volatile market conditions or deteriorating financial performance of the issuer or obligor may detrimentally affect the value of these securities. There can be no assurance that the declines in market value associated with these disruptions will not result in other-than-temporary or permanent impairments of these assets, which would lead to accounting charges that could have a material adverse effect on our net income and capital levels.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.


25


ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.
The executive offices of Umpqua and Umpqua Investments are located at One SW Columbia Street in Portland, Oregon in office space that is leased. The Bank's headquarters, located in Roseburg, Oregon, is owned. At December 31, 2016, the Bank conducted community banking activities or operated Commercial Banking Centers at 346 locations, in California, Oregon and Washington along the I-5 corridor; in the San Francisco Bay area, Inland Foothills, Napa, and Coastal regions in California; in Bend and along the Pacific Coast of Oregon; in greater Seattle and Bellevue, Washington, and in Idaho and Reno, Nevada, of which 139 are owned and 207 are leased under various agreements. As of December 31, 2016, the Bank also operated 24 facilities for the purpose of administrative and other functions, such as back-office support, of which 3 are owned and 21 are leased. All facilities are in a good state of repair and appropriately designed for use as banking or administrative office facilities. As of December 31, 2016, Umpqua Investments leased four stand-alone offices from unrelated third parties and also leased space in 13 Bank stores under lease agreements based on market rates.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
Due to the nature of our business, we are involved in legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. While the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable, we do not expect that the ultimate costs to resolve these matters will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

The Company assumed, as successor-in-interest to Sterling, the defense of litigation matters pending against Sterling. Sterling previously reported that on December 11, 2009, a putative securities class action complaint captioned City of Roseville Employees' Retirement System v. Sterling Financial Corp., et al., No. CV 09-00368-EFS, was filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington against Sterling and certain of its current and former officers. On June 18, 2010, lead plaintiff filed a consolidated complaint alleging that the defendants violated sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and SEC Rule 10b-5 by making false and misleading statements concerning Sterling's business and financial results. Plaintiffs sought unspecified damages and attorneys' fees and costs. On August 30, 2010, Sterling moved to dismiss the Complaint, and the court granted the motion to dismiss without prejudice on August 5, 2013. On October 11, 2013, the lead plaintiff filed an amended consolidated complaint with the same defendants, class period, alleged violations, and relief sought. On January 24, 2014, Sterling moved to dismiss the amended consolidated complaint, and on September 17, 2014, the court entered an order dismissing the amended consolidated complaint in its entirety with no further leave to amend. On October 24, 2014, plaintiffs filed a Notice of Appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit from the district court's order granting the motion to dismiss the amended consolidated complaint. Appellant filed its opening brief on April 3, 2015 and the Company filed its reply brief on June 17, 2015; additional appellate briefing was filed in the third quarter 2015 and the appeal hearing is currently scheduled for second quarter 2017.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable 


26


PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
 (a)    Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "UMPQ." As of December 31, 2016, there were 400,000,000 common shares authorized for issuance. The following table presents the high and low sales prices of our common stock for each period, based on inter-dealer prices that do not include retail mark-ups, mark-downs or commissions, and cash dividends declared for each period:

Quarter Ended
High

 
Low

 
Cash Dividend Per Share

December 31, 2016
$
19.30

 
$
14.78

 
$
0.16

September 30, 2016
$
16.51

 
$
14.79

 
$
0.16

June 30, 2016
$
16.78

 
$
14.61

 
$
0.16

March 31, 2016
$
16.35

 
$
13.46

 
$
0.16

 
 
 
 
 

December 31, 2015
$
18.05

 
$
15.52

 
$
0.16

September 30, 2015
$
18.89

 
$
15.53

 
$
0.16

June 30, 2015
$
18.92

 
$
16.82

 
$
0.15

March 31, 2015
$
17.50

 
$
14.70

 
$
0.15

 
As of December 31, 2016, our common stock was held by approximately 5,042 shareholders of record, a number that does not include beneficial owners who hold shares in "street name", or shareholders from previously acquired companies that have not exchanged their stock. At December 31, 2016, a total of 219,000 stock options, 1.1 million shares of restricted stock and 78,000 restricted stock units were outstanding.
The payment of future cash dividends is at the discretion of our Board of Directors and subject to a number of factors, including results of operations, general business conditions, growth, financial condition and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors. Further, our ability to pay future cash dividends is subject to certain regulatory requirements and restrictions discussed in the Supervision and Regulation section in Item 1 above.
During 2016, Umpqua's Board of Directors approved a quarterly cash dividend of $0.16 per common share for each quarter. These dividends were made pursuant to our existing dividend policy and in consideration of, among other things, earnings, regulatory capital levels, the overall payout ratio and expected asset growth. We expect that the dividend rate will be reassessed on a quarterly basis by the Board of Directors in accordance with the dividend policy.
We have a dividend reinvestment plan that permits shareholder participants to purchase shares at the then-current market price in lieu of the receipt of cash dividends. Shares issued in connection with the dividend reinvestment plan are purchased in open market transactions.

27


Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table sets forth information about equity compensation plans that provide for the award of securities or the grant of options to purchase securities to employees and directors of Umpqua and its subsidiaries and predecessors by merger that were in effect at December 31, 2016.

(shares in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information
 
 
(A)
 
(B)
 
(C)
 
 
Number of securities
 
 
 
Number of securities
 
 
to be issued
 
Weighted average
 
remaining available for future
 
 
upon exercise of
 
exercise price of
 
issuance under equity
 
 
outstanding options
 
outstanding options,
 
compensation plans excluding
Plan category
 
warrants and rights
 
warrants and rights (3)
 
securities reflected in column (A)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
 
 
 
 
 
2013 Stock Incentive Plan (1)
 

 
$

 
7,926

2003 Stock Incentive Plan (1)
 
240

 
$
17.66

 

Other (2)
 
95

 
$
17.52

 

Total
 
335

 
$
17.62

 
7,926

 
 

 

 

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 
$

 

Total
 
335

 
$
17.62

 
7,926


(1)
Shareholders approved the Company's 2013 Incentive Plan (the "2013 Plan") on April 16, 2013, and approved an amendment to the 2013 plan to increase the number of authorized shares at the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders. The 2013 Plan authorizes the issuance of equity awards to directors and employees and reserves 12 million shares of the Company's common stock for issuance under the plan (up to 6 million shares for "full value awards" as described below). With the adoption of the 2013 Plan, no additional awards will be issued from the 2003 Stock Incentive Plan or the 2007 Long Term Incentive Plan. Under the terms of the 2013 Plan, options and awards generally vest ratably over a period of three to five years, the exercise price of each option equals the market price of the Company's common stock on the date of the grant, and the maximum term is ten years. The 2013 Plan weights "full value awards" (restricted stock and performance share awards) as two shares issued from the total authorized under the 2013 Plan; we have issued only full value awards under the 2013 Plan. For purposes of column (C) above, the total number of shares available for future issuance under the 2013 Plan for full value awards was 4.0 million at December 31, 2016. At December 31, 2016, 1.1 million shares issued under the 2013 Plan as restricted stock/performance share awards were outstanding, but subject to forfeiture in the event time or performance based conditions are not met.
(2)
Includes other Umpqua stock plans and stock plans assumed through previous mergers.
(3)
Weighted average exercise price is based solely on securities with an exercise price.

(b)    Not applicable.

28



(c)
The following table provides information about repurchases of common stock by the Company during the quarter ended December 31, 2016:

Period
 
Total number
of Common Shares
Purchased (1)
 
Average Price
Paid per Common Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plan (2)
 
Maximum Number of Remaining Shares that May be Purchased at Period End under the Plan
10/1/16 - 10/31/16
 
365

 
14.92

 

 
10,882,429

11/1/16 - 11/30/16
 
78,388

 
17.75

 
75,000

 
10,807,429

12/1/16 - 12/31/16
 
364

 
18.74

 

 
10,807,429

Total for quarter
 
79,117

 
17.74

 
75,000

 
 

(1)
Common shares repurchased by the Company during the quarter consist of cancellation of 3,832 shares to be issued upon vesting of restricted stock awards and 285 shares to be issued upon vesting of restricted stock units to pay withholding taxes. During the three months ended December 31, 2016, 75,000 shares were repurchased pursuant to the Company's publicly announced corporate stock repurchase plan described in (2) below.
    
(2)
The Company's share repurchase plan, which was first approved by the Board and announced in August 2003, was amended on September 29, 2011 to increase the number of common shares available for repurchase under the plan to 15 million shares. The repurchase program has been extended multiple times by the board with the current expiration date of July 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2016, a total of 10.8 million shares remained available for repurchase. The Company repurchased 635,000 shares under the repurchase plan during 2016, repurchased 571,000 shares in 2015, and 0 shares under the repurchase plan in 2014. The timing and amount of future repurchases will depend upon the market price for our common stock, securities laws restricting repurchases, asset growth, earnings, and our capital plan.

There were 154,000 and 52,000 shares tendered in connection with option exercises during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Restricted shares cancelled to pay withholding taxes totaled 279,000 and 135,000 shares during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. There were 49,000 restricted stock units cancelled to pay withholding taxes during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 86,000 in 2015.

29


Stock Performance Graph

The following chart, which is furnished not filed, compares the yearly percentage changes in the cumulative shareholder return on our common stock during the five fiscal years ended December 31, 2016, with (i) the Total Return Index for NASDAQ Bank Stocks (ii) the Total Return Index for The Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S. Companies) (iii) the Standard and Poor's 500 and (iv) the Total Return Index for Nasdaq Bank Stocks and (v) SNL U.S. Bank Nasdaq. This comparison assumes $100.00 was invested on December 31, 2011, in our common stock and the comparison indices, and assumes the reinvestment of all cash dividends prior to any tax effect and retention of all stock dividends. Price information from December 31, 2011 to December 31, 2016, was obtained by using the NASDAQ closing prices as of the last trading day of each year.
umpq-201512_chartx03845a01.jpg
 
Period Ending
12/31/2011
12/31/2012
12/31/2013
12/31/2014
12/31/2015
12/31/2016
Umpqua Holdings Corporation
$100.00
$97.72
$164.85
$151.65
$147.03
$180.70
Nasdaq Bank Stocks
$100.00
$118.69
$168.21
$176.48
$192.08
$265.02
Nasdaq U.S.
$100.00
$117.45
$164.57
$188.84
$201.98
$219.89
S&P 500
$100.00
$116.00
$153.57
$174.60
$177.01
$198.18
SNL U.S. Bank Nasdaq
$100.00
$119.19
$171.31
$177.42
$191.53
$265.56


30


ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
Umpqua Holdings Corporation
Annual Financial Trends

(in thousands, except per share data)
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
Interest income
$
910,639

$
929,866

$
822,521

$
442,846

$
456,085

Interest expense
66,051

58,232

48,693

37,881

48,849

Net interest income
844,588

871,634

773,828

404,965

407,236

Provision for loan and lease losses
41,674

36,589

40,241

10,716

29,201

Non-interest income
299,940

275,724

181,174

122,895

138,304

Non-interest expense
721,842

718,060

601,746

355,825

357,314

Merger related expenses
15,313

45,582

82,317

8,836

2,338

   Income before provision for income taxes
365,699

347,127

230,698

152,483

156,687

Provision for income taxes
132,759

124,588

83,040

54,192

54,768

Net income
232,940

222,539

147,658

98,291

101,919

Dividends and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities
125

357

484

788

682

Net earnings available to common shareholders
$
232,815

$
222,182

$
147,174

$
97,503

$
101,237

 
 
 
 
 
 
YEAR END
 
 
 
 
 
Assets
$
24,813,119

$
23,406,381

$
22,620,965

$
11,636,666

$
11,792,241

Earning assets
21,775,347

20,309,574

19,381,411

10,272,043

10,465,742

Loans and leases (1)
17,508,663

16,866,536

15,338,794

7,732,228

7,176,670

Deposits
19,020,985

17,707,189

16,892,099

9,117,660

9,379,275

Term debt
852,397

888,769

1,006,395

251,494

253,605

Junior subordinated debentures, at fair value
262,209

255,457

249,294

87,274

85,081

Junior subordinated debentures, at amortized cost
100,931

101,254

101,576

101,899

110,985

Total shareholders' equity
3,916,795

3,849,334

3,777,626

1,723,917

1,720,600

Common shares outstanding
220,177

220,171

220,161

111,973

111,890

 
 
 
 
 
 
AVERAGE
 
 
 
 
 
Assets
$
24,121,462

$
22,905,541

$
19,169,098

$
11,507,688

$
11,499,499

Earning assets
21,010,501

19,727,031

16,484,664

10,224,606

10,252,167

Loans and leases (1)
17,258,081

15,938,127

13,003,762

7,367,602

6,707,194

Deposits
18,347,451

17,250,810

14,407,331

9,057,673

9,124,619

Term debt
897,050

923,992

815,017

252,546

254,601

Junior subordinated debentures
359,003

352,872

301,525

189,237

187,139

Total shareholders' equity
3,898,599

3,820,505

3,137,858

1,729,083

1,701,403

Basic common shares outstanding
220,282

220,327

186,550

111,938

111,935

Diluted common shares outstanding
220,908

221,045

187,554

112,176

112,151

 
 
 
 
 
 
PER COMMON SHARE DATA
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings
$
1.06

$
1.01

$
0.79

$
0.87

$
0.90

Diluted earnings
1.05

1.01

0.78

0.87

0.90

Book value
17.79

17.48

17.16

15.40

15.38

Tangible book value (2)
9.50

9.16

8.79

8.46

9.25

Cash dividends declared
0.64

0.62

0.60

0.60

0.34

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

31


 
 
 
 
 
 
(dollars in thousands)
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
PERFORMANCE RATIOS
 
 
 
 
 
Return on average assets (3)
0.97
%
0.97
%
0.77
%
0.85
%
0.88
%
Return on average common shareholders' equity (4)
5.97
%
5.82
%
4.69
%
5.64
%
5.95
%
Return on average tangible common shareholders' equity (5)
11.25
%
11.22
%
9.17
%
9.77
%
9.88
%
Efficiency ratio (6)
64.15
%
66.27
%
71.23
%
66.83
%
64.94
%
Average common shareholders' equity to average assets
16.16
%
16.68
%
16.37
%
15.03
%
14.80
%
Leverage ratio (7)
9.21
%
9.73
%
10.99
%
10.90
%
11.44
%
Net interest margin (fully tax equivalent) (8)
4.04
%
4.44
%
4.73
%
4.01
%
4.02
%
Non-interest income to total net revenue (9)
26.21
%
24.03
%
18.97
%
23.28
%
25.35
%
Dividend payout ratio (10)
60.38
%
61.39
%
75.95
%
68.97
%
37.78
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
ASSET QUALITY
 
 
 
 
 
Non-performing loans and leases (11)
$
56,134

$
44,384

$
59,553

$
35,321

$
70,968

Non-performing assets (11)
62,872

66,691

97,495

59,256

98,480

Allowance for loan and lease losses
133,984

130,322

116,167

95,085

103,666

Net charge-offs
38,012

22,434

19,159

19,297

32,823

Non-performing loans and leases to loans and leases
0.32
%
0.26
%
0.39
%
0.46
%
0.99
%
Non-performing assets to total assets
0.25
%
0.28
%
0.43
%
0.51
%
0.84
%
Allowance for loan and lease losses to total loans and leases
0.77
%
0.77
%
0.76
%
1.23
%
1.44
%
Allowance for credit losses to loans and leases
0.79
%
0.79
%
0.78
%
1.25
%
1.46
%
Net charge-offs to average loans and leases
0.22
%
0.14
%
0.15
%
0.26
%
0.49
%
 
(1)
Excludes loans held for sale
(2)
Average common shareholders' equity less average intangible assets (excluding MSR) divided by shares outstanding at the end of the year. See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation"-"Results of Operations - Overview" for the reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures, in Item 7 of this report.
(3)
Net earnings available to common shareholders divided by average assets.
(4)
Net earnings available to common shareholders divided by average common shareholders' equity.
(5)
Net earnings available to common shareholders divided by average common shareholders' equity less average intangible assets. See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-"Results of Operations - Overview" for the reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures, in Item 7 of this report.
(6)
Non-interest expense divided by the sum of net interest income (fully tax equivalent) and non-interest income.
(7)
Tier 1 capital divided by leverage assets. Leverage assets are defined as quarterly average total assets, net of goodwill, intangibles and certain other items as required by the Federal Reserve.
(8)
Net interest margin (fully tax equivalent) is calculated by dividing net interest income (fully tax equivalent) by average interest earnings assets.
(9)
Non-interest income divided by the sum of non-interest income and net interest income.
(10)
Dividends declared per common share divided by basic earnings per common share.
(11)
Excludes government guaranteed GNMA mortgage loans that Umpqua has the right but not the obligation to repurchase that are past due 90 days or more totaling $10.9 million, $19.2 million, $11.1 million, $4.1 million and $237,000, as of December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively.


32


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS 

See the discussion of forward-looking statements and risk factors in Part I Item 1 and Item 1A of this report.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
 
Significant items for the year ended December 31, 2016 were as follows: 

Financial Performance 
Net earnings available to common shareholders per diluted common share were $1.05 for the year ended December 31, 2016, as compared to $1.01 for the year ended December 31, 2015.  
 
Net interest margin, on a tax equivalent basis, was 4.04% for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to 4.44% for the year ended December 31, 2015.  The decrease in net interest margin was primarily attributable to the lower level of accretion of the credit discount recorded on loans acquired from Sterling, as well as lower average yields on interest-earning assets, particularly in loans and leases, attributable to the low interest rate environment during most of 2016, as well as an increase in the cost of interest-bearing liabilities.

Residential mortgage banking revenue was $157.9 million for 2016, compared to $124.7 million for 2015. The 26.6% increase was the result of an increase in mortgage originations and sale income, which increased due to an increase in the gain on sale margin from 3.36% to 3.72% and a 14.1% increase in closed loans for sale. The increase was partially offset by $25.9 million negative fair value adjustments to the mortgage servicing rights ("MSR") asset during the year ended December 31, 2016, as compared to negative fair value adjustments of $20.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Total gross loans and leases were $17.5 billion as of December 31, 2016, an increase of $642.1 million, or 3.8%, as compared to December 31, 2015.  This increase is primarily driven by growth in the commercial (including leasing and equipment financing) and consumer loans, partially offset by a decline in a multi-family loans. Total gross loans and leases also decreased due to portfolio loan sales of $462.5 million, primarily consisting of residential mortgage and multifamily loans.
 
Total deposits were $19.0 billion as of December 31, 2016, an increase of $1.3 billion, or 7.4%, as compared to December 31, 2015. This increase was primarily driven by growth in all deposit categories, most notably in non-interest bearing demand and money market accounts.
 
Total consolidated assets were $24.8 billion as of December 31, 2016, as compared to $23.4 billion at December 31, 2015.  

Credit Quality
Non-performing assets decreased to $62.9 million, or 0.25% of total assets, as of December 31, 2016, as compared to $66.7 million, or 0.28% of total assets, as of December 31, 2015.  Non-performing loans and leases increased to $56.1 million, or 0.32% of total loans and leases, as of December 31, 2016, as compared to $44.4 million, or 0.26% of total loans and leases as of December 31, 2015
 
Net charge-offs on loans were $38.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, or 0.22% of average loans and leases, as compared to net charge-offs of $22.4 million, or 0.14% of average loans and leases, for the year ended December 31, 2015.  

The provision for loan and lease losses was $41.7 million for 2016, as compared to $36.6 million recognized for 2015. The increase was principally attributable to the growth in the loans and leases portfolio as well as an increase in net charge-offs.

33



Capital and Growth Initiatives
The Company's total risk based capital was 14.7% and its Tier 1 common to risk weighted assets ratio was 11.5% as of December 31, 2016. As of December 31, 2015, the Company's total risk based ratio was 14.3% and its Tier 1 common to risk weighted assets ratio was 11.4%.

Declared cash dividends of $0.64 per common share for 2016 and $0.62 per common share for 2015.

SUMMARY OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES 
 
The SEC defines "critical accounting policies" as those that require application of management's most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and may change in future periods. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this report. Not all of these significant accounting policies require management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates. Management believes that the following policies would be considered critical under the SEC's definition. 

Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses and Reserve for Unfunded Commitments 
 
The Bank performs regular credit reviews of the loan and lease portfolio to determine the credit quality and adherence to underwriting standards. When loans and leases are originated, they are assigned a risk rating that is reassessed periodically during the term of the loan through the credit review process.  The Bank's risk rating methodology assigns risk ratings ranging from 1 to 10, where a higher rating represents higher risk. The 10 risk rating categories are a primary factor in determining an appropriate amount for the allowance for loan and lease losses. The Bank has a management Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses ("ALLL") Committee, which is responsible for, among other things, regularly reviewing the ALLL methodology, including loss factors, and ensuring that it is designed and applied in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The ALLL Committee reviews and approves loans and leases recommended for impaired status.  The ALLL Committee also approves removing loans and leases from impaired status.  The Bank's Audit and Compliance Committee provides board oversight of the ALLL process and reviews and approves the ALLL methodology on a quarterly basis. 

Each risk rating is assessed an inherent credit loss factor that determines the amount of the allowance for loan and lease losses provided for that group of loans and leases with similar risk rating. Credit loss factors may vary by region based on management's belief that there may ultimately be different credit loss rates experienced in each region. Regular credit reviews of the portfolio also identify loans that are considered potentially impaired. Potentially impaired loans are referred to the ALLL Committee which reviews and approves designated loans as impaired. A loan is considered impaired when based on current information and events, we determine that we will probably not be able to collect all amounts due according to the loan contract, including scheduled interest payments. When we identify a loan as impaired, we measure the impairment using discounted cash flows, except when the sole remaining source of the repayment for the loan is the liquidation of the collateral. In these cases, we use the current fair value of the collateral, less selling costs, instead of discounted cash flows.

If we determine that the value of the impaired loan is less than the recorded investment in the loan, we either recognize an impairment reserve as a specific component to be provided for in the allowance for loan and lease losses or charge-off the impaired balance on collateral dependent loans if it is determined that such amount represents a confirmed loss.  The combination of the risk rating-based allowance component and the impairment reserve allowance component lead to an allocated allowance for loan and lease losses.  
 
The Bank may also maintain an unallocated allowance amount to provide for other credit losses inherent in a loan and lease portfolio that may not have been contemplated in the credit loss factors. This unallocated amount generally comprises less than 5% of the allowance, but may be maintained at higher levels during times of economic conditions characterized by falling real estate values. The unallocated amount is reviewed periodically based on trends in credit losses, the results of credit reviews and overall economic trends. As of December 31, 2016, there was no unallocated allowance amount.
The reserve for unfunded commitments ("RUC") is established to absorb inherent losses associated with our commitment to lend funds, such as with a letter or line of credit. The adequacy of the ALLL and RUC are monitored on a regular basis and are based on management's evaluation of numerous factors. These factors include the quality of the current loan portfolio; the

34


trend in the loan portfolio's risk ratings; current economic conditions; loan concentrations; loan growth rates; past-due and non-performing trends; evaluation of specific loss estimates for all significant problem loans; historical charge-off and recovery experience; and other pertinent information.   
Management believes that the ALLL was adequate as of December 31, 2016. There is, however, no assurance that future loan losses will not exceed the levels provided for in the ALLL and could possibly result in additional charges to the provision for loan and lease losses. In addition, bank regulatory authorities, as part of their periodic examination of the Bank, may require additional charges to the provision for loan and lease losses in future periods if warranted as a result of their review. A substantial percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate; as a result, a significant decline in real estate market values may require an increase in the allowance for loan and lease losses.  
 
Acquired Loans
 
Acquired loans and leases are recorded at their fair value at the acquisition date. For purchased non-impaired loans, the difference between the fair value and unpaid principal balance of the loan at the acquisition date is amortized or accreted to interest income using the effective interest method over the remaining contractual period to maturity.
 
The acquired loans that are purchased impaired loans are aggregated into pools based on individually evaluated common risk characteristics and aggregate expected cash flows were estimated for each pool. A pool is accounted for as a single asset with a single interest rate, cumulative loss rate and cash flow expectation. The cash flows expected to be received over the life of the pool were estimated by management. These cash flows were input into an accounting loan system which calculates the carrying values of the pools and underlying loans, book yields, effective interest income and impairment, if any, based on actual and projected events. Default rates, loss severity, and prepayment speeds assumptions are periodically reassessed and updated within the accounting model to update our expectation of future cash flows. The excess of the cash flows expected to be collected over a pool's carrying value is considered to be the accretable yield and is recognized as interest income over the estimated life of the loan or pool using the effective yield method. The accretable yield may change due to changes in the timing and amounts of expected cash flows. Changes in the accretable yield are disclosed quarterly. 
 
Residential Mortgage Servicing Rights ("MSR") 
 
The Company determines its classes of servicing assets based on the asset type being serviced along with the methods used to manage the risk inherent in the servicing assets, which includes the market inputs used to value the servicing assets. The Company measures its residential mortgage servicing assets at fair value and reports changes in fair value through earnings.  Fair value adjustments encompass market-driven valuation changes and the runoff in value that occurs from the passage of time, which are separately reported. Under the fair value method, the MSR is carried in the balance sheet at fair value and the changes in fair value are reported in earnings under the caption residential mortgage banking revenue in the period in which the change occurs. 
 
Retained mortgage servicing rights are measured at fair value as of the date of the related loan sale. We use quoted market prices when available. Subsequent fair value measurements are determined using a discounted cash flow model. In order to determine the fair value of the MSR, the present value of expected net future cash flows is estimated. Assumptions used include market discount rates, anticipated prepayment speeds, delinquency and foreclosure rates, and ancillary fee income net of servicing costs. This model is periodically validated by an independent external model validation group. The model assumptions and the MSR fair value estimates are also compared to observable trades of similar portfolios as well as to MSR broker valuations and industry surveys, as available. 

Valuation of Goodwill and Intangible Assets 
 
Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized but instead are periodically tested for impairment. Management performs an impairment analysis for the intangible assets with indefinite lives on an annual basis as of December 31.  Additionally, goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are evaluated on an interim basis when events or circumstances indicate impairment potentially exists.  The impairment analysis requires management to make subjective judgments. Events and factors that may significantly affect the estimates include, among others, competitive forces, customer behaviors and attrition, changes in revenue growth trends, cost structures, technology, changes in discount rates and specific industry and market conditions. There can be no assurance that changes in circumstances, estimates or assumptions may result in additional impairment of all, or some portion of, goodwill or other intangible assets. 


35


The Company performed its annual goodwill impairment analysis of the Community Banking reporting segment as of December 31, 2016. The Company assessed qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events and circumstances indicated that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. Based on this analysis, no further testing was determined to be necessary. During the first quarter of 2016, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment loss of $142,000 relating to the winding down of an immaterial subsidiary.
Stock-based Compensation 
 
We recognize expense in the income statement for the grant-date fair value of restricted shares and stock options as equity-based forms of compensation issued to employees over the employees' requisite service period (generally the vesting period). The requisite service period may be subject to performance conditions. The fair value of the restricted shares is based on the Company's share price on the grant date. Management assumptions utilized at the time of grant impact the fair value of the option calculated under the pricing model, and ultimately, the expense that will be recognized over the expected service period related to each option.
 
Fair Value 
 
A hierarchical disclosure framework associated with the level of pricing observability is utilized in measuring financial instruments at fair value. The degree of judgment utilized in measuring the fair value of financial instruments generally correlates to the level of pricing observability. Financial instruments with readily available active quoted prices or for which fair value can be measured from actively quoted prices generally will have a higher degree of pricing observability and a lesser degree of judgment utilized in measuring fair value. Conversely, financial instruments rarely traded or not quoted will generally have little or no pricing observability and a higher degree of judgment utilized in measuring fair value. Pricing observability is impacted by a number of factors, including the type of financial instrument, whether the financial instrument is new to the market and not yet established and the characteristics specific to the transaction.
  
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS 
 
Information regarding Recent Accounting Pronouncements is included in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 below.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS-OVERVIEW
 
For the year ended December 31, 2016, net earnings available to common shareholders were $232.8 million, or $1.05 per diluted common share, as compared to net earnings available to common shareholders of $222.2 million, or $1.01 per diluted common share for the year ended December 31, 2015. The increase in net earnings available to common shareholders in 2016 is principally attributable to a decline in non-interest expense, reflecting lower merger related expenses and lower salaries and benefits expense, partially offset by higher mortgage banking expenses due to the increase in mortgage originations. Total revenues increased from the prior year as increased mortgage banking revenues were offset by lower average yields on interest-earning assets, along with a lower level of interest income arising from the accretion of the credit discount recorded on acquired loans.

For the year ended December 31, 2015, net earnings available to common shareholders were $222.2 million, or $1.01 per diluted common share, as compared to net earnings available to common shareholders of $147.2 million, or $0.78 per diluted common share for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in net earnings available to common shareholders in 2015 is principally attributable to net income contribution from the full year of the operations acquired from Sterling, increased residential mortgage banking revenue resulting from the current mortgage interest rate environment, gain on sale of portfolio loans, and lower merger related expenses.
  
The Company incurs significant expenses related to the completion and integration of mergers and acquisitions. It also recognizes gains or losses on its junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value resulting from changes in interest rates and the estimated market credit risk adjusted spread that do not directly correlate with the Company's operating performance. Additionally, it may recognize goodwill impairment losses that have no direct effect on the Company's or the Bank's cash balances, liquidity, or regulatory capital ratios. The Company recognizes gains and losses related to the change in the fair value of its MSR, which are primarily tied to movements in interest rates, and are not indicative of the fundamental operating activities for the period. It also recognizes gains or losses related to the change in the fair value of its swap derivatives, which

36


are driven by movements in interest rates and are beyond our control. On occasion, the Company may sell certain securities in its investment portfolio, and recognize an associated gain or loss, which can be highly discretionary based on the timing of the sales, market opportunities, and interest rates, and therefore are not reflective of the Company's operating performance. The Company also may incur expenses related to the exit or disposal of certain business activities, such as the consolidation of bank branches, which do not reflect the on-going operating performance of the Company. Lastly, the Company may recognize one-time bargain purchase gains on certain acquisitions that are not reflective of the Company's on-going earnings power.

Accordingly, management believes that our operating results are best measured on a comparative basis excluding the after-tax impact of merger related expenses, gains or losses on junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value, gains or losses from the change in fair value of MSR asset, gains or losses from the change in fair value of the swap derivative, net gains or losses on investment securities, exit or disposal costs and other charges related to business combinations such as goodwill impairment charges or bargain purchase gains. The Company defines operating earnings as earnings available to common shareholders before these items, and calculates operating earnings per diluted share by dividing operating earnings by the same diluted share total used in determining diluted earnings per common share. Operating earnings and operating earnings per diluted share are considered "non-GAAP" financial measures. Although we believe the presentation of non-GAAP financial measures provides a better indication of our operating performance, readers of this report are urged to review the GAAP results as presented in the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in Item 8 below.


37


The following table provides the reconciliation of earnings available to common shareholders (GAAP) to operating earnings (non-GAAP), and earnings per diluted common share (GAAP) to operating earnings per diluted share (non-GAAP) for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014:   
 
Reconciliation of Net Earnings Available to Common Shareholders to Operating Earnings  
Years Ended December 31,
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net earnings available to common shareholders
$
232,815

 
$
222,182

 
$
147,174

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from change in fair value of MSR asset
25,926

 
20,723

 
16,587

Gain on investment securities, net
(858
)
 
(2,922
)
 
(2,904
)
Net loss on junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value
6,323

 
6,306

 
5,090

(Gain) loss from change in fair value of swap derivatives
(1,497
)
 
(162
)
 
3,232

Merger related expenses
15,313

 
45,582

 
82,317

Goodwill impairment
142

 

 

Exit or disposal costs
4,716

 

 

     Total pre-tax adjustments
$
50,065

 
$
69,527


$
104,322

  Income tax effect (1)
(19,969
)
 
(27,811
)
 
(41,729
)
     Net adjustments
30,096

 
41,716

 
62,593

Operating earnings
$
262,911

 
$
263,898

 
$
209,767

Per diluted share:
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings available to common shareholders
$
1.05

 
$
1.01

 
$
0.78

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from change in fair value of MSR asset
0.12

 
0.09

 
0.09

  Gain on investment securities, net

 
(0.01
)
 
(0.02
)
Net loss on junior subordinated debentures carried at fair value
0.03

 
0.03

 
0.03

  (Gain) loss from change in fair value of swap derivatives
(0.01
)
 

 
0.02

Merger related expenses
0.07

 
0.20

 
0.44

  Goodwill impairment

 

 

  Exit or disposal costs
0.02

 

 

     Total pre-tax adjustments
0.23

 
0.31

 
0.56

  Income tax effect (1)
(0.09
)
 
(0.13
)
 
(0.22
)
     Net adjustments
0.14

 
0.18

 
0.34

Operating earnings
$
1.19

 
$
1.19

 
$
1.12


(1) Income tax effect of operating earnings adjustments at 40% for tax-deductible items.
 
The following table presents the returns on average assets, average common shareholders' equity and average tangible common shareholders' equity for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014. For each of the periods presented, the table includes the calculated ratios based on reported net earnings available to common shareholders and operating earnings as shown in the table above. Our return on average common shareholders' equity is negatively impacted as the result of capital required to support goodwill. To the extent this performance metric is used to compare our performance with other financial institutions that do not have merger and acquisition-related intangible assets, we believe it beneficial to also consider the return on average tangible common shareholders' equity. The return on average tangible common shareholders' equity is calculated by dividing net earnings available to common shareholders by average shareholders' common equity less average goodwill and intangible assets, net (excluding MSRs). The return on average tangible common shareholders' equity is considered a non-GAAP financial measure and should be viewed in conjunction with the return on average common shareholders' equity.  

38


 
Return on Average Assets, Common Shareholders' Equity and Tangible Common Shareholders' Equity 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Returns on average assets:
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings available to common shareholders
0.97
%
 
0.97
%
 
0.77
%
Operating earnings
1.09
%
 
1.15
%
 
1.09
%
Returns on average common shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings available to common shareholders
5.97
%
 
5.82
%
 
4.69
%
Operating earnings
6.74
%
 
6.91
%
 
6.69
%
Returns on average tangible common shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings available to common shareholders
11.25
%
 
11.22
%
 
9.17
%
Operating earnings
12.70
%
 
13.32
%
 
13.07
%
Calculation of average common tangible shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Average common shareholders' equity
$
3,898,599

 
$
3,820,505

 
$
3,137,858

Less: average goodwill and other intangible assets, net
(1,828,575
)
 
(1,839,599
)
 
(1,533,403
)
Average tangible common shareholders' equity
$
2,070,024

 
$
1,980,906

 
$
1,604,455


Additionally, management believes tangible common equity and the tangible common equity ratio are meaningful measures of capital adequacy. Umpqua believes the exclusion of certain intangible assets in the computation of tangible common equity and tangible common equity ratio provides a meaningful base for period-to-period and company-to-company comparisons, which management believes will assist investors in analyzing the operating results and capital of the Company. Tangible common equity is calculated as total shareholders' equity less preferred stock and less goodwill and other intangible assets, net (excluding MSRs). In addition, tangible assets are total assets less goodwill and other intangible assets, net (excluding MSRs).  The tangible common equity ratio is calculated as tangible common shareholders' equity divided by tangible assets. The tangible common equity and tangible common equity ratio is considered a non-GAAP financial measure and should be viewed in conjunction with the total shareholders' equity and the total shareholders' equity ratio.
The following table provides a reconciliation of ending shareholders' equity (GAAP) to ending tangible common equity (non-GAAP), and ending assets (GAAP) to ending tangible assets (non-GAAP) as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015
 
Reconciliations of Total Shareholders' Equity to Tangible Common Shareholders' Equity and Total Assets to Tangible Assets 
 
(dollars in thousands) 
December 31,
 
December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Total shareholders' equity
$
3,916,795

 
$
3,849,334

Subtract:
 
 
 
Goodwill
1,787,651

 
1,787,793

  Other intangible assets, net
36,886

 
45,508

Tangible common shareholders' equity
$
2,092,258

 
$
2,016,033

Total assets
$
24,813,119

 
$
23,406,381

Subtract:
 
 
 
Goodwill
1,787,651

 
1,787,793

  Other intangible assets, net
36,886

 
45,508

Tangible assets
$
22,988,582

 
$
21,573,080

Tangible common equity ratio
9.10
%
 
9.35
%
 

39


Non-GAAP financial measures have inherent limitations, are not required to be uniformly applied, and are not audited.  Although we believe these non-GAAP financial measure are frequently used by stakeholders in the evaluation of a company, they have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analyses of results as reported under GAAP.
  
NET INTEREST INCOME 
 
Net interest income is the largest source of our operating income. Net interest income for 2016 was $844.6 million, a decrease of $27.0 million or 3.1% compared to the same period in 2015. The decrease in net interest income in 2016 as compared to 2015 is primarily attributable to lower average yields on interest-earning assets, specifically within the loan and lease portfolio. The decrease was partially offset by growth in average interest-earning assets. The decrease in net interest income also reflects a higher average cost of funds, primarily driven by an increase in the cost of time deposits due to the utilization of longer-term maturities which typically carry a higher rate paid, as well as an increase in the interest expense on junior subordinated debentures.
Net interest income for 2015 was $871.6 million, an increase of $97.8 million or 12.6% compared to the same period in 2014. The increase in net interest income in 2015 as compared to 2014 is attributable to an increase in average interest-earning assets, primarily loans, loans held for sale and investment securities, partially offset by a lower level of accretion of the credit discount recorded on loans acquired from Sterling. 
The net interest margin (net interest income as a percentage of average interest-earning assets) on a fully tax equivalent basis was 4.04% for 2016, a decrease of 40 basis points as compared to 2015.  The decrease in net interest margin primarily resulted from the lower level of accretion of the credit discount recorded on loans acquired from Sterling, as well as decreased yields on earning assets. The yield on loans and leases for 2016 decreased by 55 basis points as compared to 2015. The total cost of interest-bearing liabilities for 2016 was 0.46%, representing an increase of 4 basis points compared to 2015. The cost of time deposits was 0.86% in 2016 compared to 0.64% in 2015.
The net interest margin on a fully tax-equivalent basis was 4.44% for 2015, a decrease of 29 basis points as compared to the same period in 2014. The decrease in net interest margin primarily resulted from the lower level of accretion of the credit discount recorded on loans acquired from Sterling, as well as decreased yields on earning assets.


40


Our net interest income is affected by changes in the amount and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, as well as changes in the yields earned on interest-earning assets and rates paid on deposits and borrowed funds. The following table presents condensed average balance sheet information, together with interest income and yields on average interest-earning assets, and interest expense and rates paid on average interest-bearing liabilities for years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014

Average Rates and Balances  
(dollars in thousands) 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
Interest
 
Average 
 
 
 
Interest
 
Average 
 
 
 
Interest
 
Average 
 
Average
 
Income or
 
Yields or
 
Average
 
Income or
 
Yields or
 
Average
 
Income or
 
Yields or
 
Balance
 
Expense
 
Rates
 
Balance
 
Expense
 
Rates
 
Balance
 
Expense
 
Rates
INTEREST-EARNING ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loans held for sale
$
416,724

 
$
15,995

 
3.84
%
 
$
333,455

 
$
12,407

 
3.72
%
 
$
205,580

 
$
8,337

 
4.06
%
Loans and leases (1)
17,258,081

 
834,072

 
4.83
%
 
15,938,127

 
857,026

 
5.38
%
 
13,003,762

 
755,466

 
5.81
%
Taxable securities
2,314,062

 
47,826

 
2.07
%
 
2,275,512

 
48,550

 
2.13
%
 
2,072,936

 
46,109

 
2.22
%
Non-taxable securities (2)
284,780

 
13,426

 
4.71
%
 
310,684

 
14,684

 
4.73
%
 
301,535

 
15,692

 
5.20
%
Temporary investments and interest-bearing deposits
736,854

 
3,918

 
0.53
%
 
869,253

 
2,236

 
0.26
%
 
900,851

 
2,264

 
0.25
%
Total interest earning assets
21,010,501

 
915,237

 
4.36
%
 
19,727,031

 
934,903

 
4.74
%
 
16,484,664

 
827,868

 
5.02
%
Allowance for loan and lease losses
(132,492
)
 
 
 
 
 
(126,063
)
 
 
 
 
 
(96,513
)
 
 
 
 
Other assets
3,243,453

 
 
 
 
 
3,304,573

 
 
 
 
 
2,780,947

 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
24,121,462

 
 
 
 
 
$
22,905,541

 
 
 
 
 
$
19,169,098

 
 
 
 
INTEREST-BEARING LIABILITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest-bearing checking
$
2,189,589

 
$
2,415

 
0.11
%
 
$
2,080,126

 
$
1,957

 
0.09
%
 
$
1,721,452

 
$
950

 
0.06
%
Money market deposits
6,773,939

 
10,499

 
0.15
%
 
6,376,178

 
9,491

 
0.15
%
 
5,255,622

 
6,991

 
0.13
%
Savings deposits
1,248,831

 
655

 
0.05
%
 
1,063,151

 
1,105

 
0.10
%
 
829,737

 
426

 
0.05
%
Time deposits
2,518,507

 
21,671

 
0.86
%
 
2,715,847

 
17,286

 
0.64
%
 
2,649,091

 
15,448

 
0.58
%
Total interest-bearing deposits
12,730,866

 
35,240

 
0.28
%
 
12,235,302

 
29,839

 
0.24
%
 
10,455,902

 
23,815

 
0.23
%
Federal funds purchased and repurchase agreements
333,919

 
132

 
0.04
%
 
321,079

 
173

 
0.05
%
 
303,358

 
346

 
0.11
%
Term debt
897,050

 
15,005

 
1.67
%
 
923,992

 
14,470

 
1.57
%
 
815,017

 
12,793

 
1.57
%
Junior subordinated debentures
359,003

 
15,674

 
4.37
%
 
352,872

 
13,750

 
3.90
%
 
301,525

 
11,739

 
3.89
%
Total interest-bearing liabilities
14,320,838

 
66,051

 
0.46
%
 
13,833,245

 
58,232

 
0.42
%
 
11,875,802

 
48,693

 
0.41
%
Non-interest-bearing deposits
5,616,585

 
 
 
 
 
5,015,508

 
 
 
 
 
3,951,429

 
 
 
 
Other liabilities
285,440

 
 
 
 
 
236,283

 
 
 
 
 
204,009

 
 
 
 
Total liabilities
20,222,863

 
 
 
 
 
19,085,036

 
 
 
 
 
16,031,240

 
 
 
 
Common equity
3,898,599

 
 
 
 
 
3,820,505

 
 
 
 
 
3,137,858

 
 
 
 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$
24,121,462

 
 
 
 
 
$
22,905,541

 
 
 
 
 
$
19,169,098

 
 
 
 
NET INTEREST INCOME
 
 
$
849,186

 
 
 
 
 
$
876,671

 
 
 
 
 
$
779,175

 
 
NET INTEREST SPREAD
 
 
 
 
3.90
%
 
 
 
 
 
4.32
%
 
 

 
 

 
4.61
%
AVERAGE YIELD ON EARNING ASSETS  (1), (2)
 
 
 
 
4.36
%
 
 
 
 
 
4.74
%
 
 

 
 

 
5.02
%
INTEREST EXPENSE TO EARNING ASSETS
 
 
 
 
0.32
%
 
 
 
 
 
0.30
%
 
 

 
 

 
0.30
%
NET INTEREST INCOME TO EARNING ASSETS OR NET INTEREST MARGIN (1), (2)
 
 
 
 
4.04
%
 
 
 
 
 
4.44
%
 
 

 
 

 
4.73
%
 
(1)
Non-accrual loans and leases are included in the average balance.   

41


(2)
Tax-exempt income has been adjusted to a tax equivalent basis at a 35% tax rate. The amount of such adjustment was an addition to recorded income of approximately $4.6 million, $5.0 million, and $5.3 million for the years ended 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.

The following table sets forth a summary of the changes in tax equivalent net interest income due to changes in average asset and liability balances (volume) and changes in average rates (rate) for 2016 as compared to 2015 and 2015 compared to 2014. Changes in tax equivalent interest income and expense, which are not attributable specifically to either volume or rate, are allocated proportionately between both variances. 

(in thousands)
2016 compared to 2015
 
2015 compared to 2014
 
Increase (decrease) in interest income
 
Increase (decrease) in interest income
 
and expense due to changes in
 
and expense due to changes in
 
Volume
 
Rate
 
Total
 
Volume
 
Rate
 
Total
INTEREST-EARNING ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loans held for sale
$
3,185

 
$
403

 
$
3,588

 
$
4,808

 
$
(738
)
 
$
4,070

Loans and leases
67,744

 
(90,698
)
 
(22,954
)
 
160,934

 
(59,374
)
 
101,560

Taxable securities
814

 
(1,538
)
 
(724
)
 
4,376

 
(1,935
)
 
2,441

Non-taxable securities (1)
(1,221
)
 
(37
)
 
(1,258
)
 
465

 
(1,473
)
 
(1,008
)
Temporary investments and interest bearing deposits
(386
)
 
2,068

 
1,682

 
(80
)
 
52

 
(28
)
     Total (1)
70,136

 
(89,802
)
 
(19,666
)
 
170,503

 
(63,468
)
 
107,035

INTEREST-BEARING LIABILITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest bearing demand
107

 
351

 
458

 
231

 
776

 
1,007

Money market
606

 
402

 
1,008

 
1,605

 
895

 
2,500

Savings
168

 
(618
)
 
(450
)
 
147