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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-34657
TEXAS CAPITAL BANCSHARES, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware 75-2679109
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
2000 McKinney Avenue
Suite 700
                DallasTXUSA75201
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
214/932-6600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)
Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareTCBINasdaq Stock Market
6.5% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock Series A, par value $0.01 per shareTCBIPNasdaq Stock Market
Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the issuer is a well-known seasoned issuer pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark if the issuer is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes            No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filerx Accelerated Filer 
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes          No  
As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of common stock held by non-affiliates, based on the closing price per share of the registrant’s common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was approximately $1,546,867,000. There were 50,473,827 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding on February 8, 2021.


Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.

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ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
Background
The disclosures set forth in this item are qualified by Item 1A. Risk Factors and the section captioned “Forward-Looking Statements” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report and other cautionary statements set forth elsewhere in this report.
Texas Capital Bancshares, Inc. (“we,” “us,” “TCBI” or the “Company”), a Delaware corporation organized in 1996, is the parent of Texas Capital Bank, National Association (the “Bank”). The Company is a registered bank holding company and has elected to be a financial holding company.
The Bank is headquartered in Dallas, with primary banking offices in Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio, the five largest metropolitan areas of Texas. Substantially all of our business activities are conducted through the Bank. We have focused on organic growth, maintenance of credit quality and recruiting and retaining experienced bankers with strong personal and professional relationships in their communities.
We serve the needs of commercial businesses and successful professionals and entrepreneurs located in Texas as well as operate several lines of business that serve a regional or national clientele of commercial borrowers. We are primarily a secured lender, with the majority of our loans held for investment, excluding mortgage finance loans and other national lines of business, being made to businesses headquartered or with operations in Texas. Our national lines of business provide specialized lending products to businesses throughout the United States. We have benefitted from the success of our business model since inception, producing strong loan and deposit growth and favorable loss experience amidst a challenging environment for banking nationally.
On December 9, 2019, the Company and Independent Bank Group, Inc. ("IBTX") entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement"), pursuant to which, on the terms and subject to the conditions therein, the Company would be merged with and into IBTX. On May 22, 2020, the Company and IBTX entered into an agreement pursuant to which the parties mutually agreed to terminate the Merger Agreement. Neither party paid a termination fee in connection with the termination of the Merger Agreement.
On January 25, 2021, Robert C. Holmes began his tenure as President and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") of the Company. Larry Helm, who served as Executive Chairman of the board of directors and President and CEO of the Company from May 25, 2020, through January 24, 2021, will continue as Executive Chair of the board of directors for up to 90 days after the start of Mr. Holmes' tenure to facilitate a smooth transition of responsibilities, after which he will return to his previous role as Non-Executive Chair of the board of directors.
Growth History
We have grown substantially in both size and profitability since our formation. In 2020, we continued to experience growth in most of our key areas of business, however we did experience a decline in certain loan portfolios as we strategically reduced certain portfolios. The table below sets forth data regarding our key areas of business for the past five years.
 December 31,
(in thousands)20202019201820172016
Loans held for sale$283,165 $2,577,134 $1,969,474 $1,011,004 968,929 
Loans held for investment, mortgage finance9,079,409 8,169,849 5,877,524 5,308,160 4,497,338 
Loans held for investment, net15,351,451 16,476,413 16,690,550 15,366,252 13,001,011 
Assets37,726,096 32,548,069 28,257,767 25,075,645 21,697,134 
Demand deposits12,740,947 9,438,459 7,317,161 7,812,660 7,994,201 
Total deposits30,996,589 26,478,593 20,606,113 19,123,180 17,016,831 
Stockholders’ equity2,871,224 2,801,321 2,480,308 2,190,072 1,997,890 
The following table provides information about our loans held for investment ("LHI") portfolio by type of loan for the past five years:
 December 31,
(in thousands)20202019201820172016
Commercial$8,861,580 $9,133,444 $9,117,546 $8,373,398 $6,622,078 
Energy766,217 1,425,309 1,631,371 1,130,000 889,583 
Mortgage finance9,079,409 8,169,849 5,877,524 5,308,160 4,497,338 
Real estate5,794,624 6,008,040 6,050,083 5,960,785 5,560,909 
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The Texas Market
Our business is concentrated in Texas. The Texas market for banking services is highly competitive. We compete with national, regional and local bank holding companies and commercial banks. Texas’ largest banking organizations are headquartered outside of Texas and are controlled by out-of-state organizations. We also compete with other providers of financial services, such as non-bank lenders, commercial finance and leasing companies, consumer finance companies, financial technology, or fintech, companies, securities firms, insurance companies, full service brokerage firms and discount brokerage firms, credit unions and savings and loan associations. We believe that many middle market companies and successful professionals and entrepreneurs are interested in banking with a company headquartered in, and with decision-making authority based in, Texas and with established Texas bankers who have the expertise to act as trusted advisors to customers with regard to their banking needs.
Our banking centers in our target markets are served by experienced bankers with lending expertise in the specific industries found in their market areas and established community ties. We believe our Bank can offer customers more responsive and personalized service than our competitors. By providing effective service to these customers, we believe we will be able to establish long-term relationships and provide multiple products to our customers, thereby enhancing our profitability.
National Lines of Business
While the Texas market continues to be central to the growth and success of our company, we have developed several lines of business that offer specialized loan and deposit products to businesses regionally and throughout the nation, including mortgage finance, mortgage correspondent aggregation, homebuilder finance, insurance premium finance, lender finance, asset-based lending and escrow services. We believe these business lines help us mitigate our geographic concentration risk in Texas. We continue to seek opportunities to develop additional lines of business that leverage our capabilities and are consistent with our business strategy. Most recently, we launched Bask Bank, an all-digital branch of our Bank that offers depositors American Airlines AAdvantage® miles instead of interest.
Business Strategy
Drawing on the business and community ties of our management and their banking experience, our strategy has been to grow an independent bank that has focused primarily on middle market business customers and successful professionals and entrepreneurs in each of the five major metropolitan markets of Texas as well as our national lines of business. To achieve this, we employ the following strategies:
offering a premier and differentiated banking experience to middle market businesses and successful professionals and entrepreneurs who value a broad relationship with our Bank;
growing our loan and deposit base in our existing markets by hiring additional experienced bankers in our different lines of business;
developing lines of business that leverage our strengths and complement our existing lines of business;
continuing our emphasis on credit policy to maintain credit quality consistent with long-term objectives;
leveraging our existing infrastructure with improvements in technology and processes to gain efficiencies to support a larger volume of business;
maintaining effective internal approval processes for capital and operating expenditures;
continuing our extensive use of outsourcing to provide cost-effective and more efficient operational support and service levels consistent with large-bank operations; and
extending our reach within our target markets and lines of business through service innovation and service excellence.
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Products and Services
We offer a variety of loan, deposit account and other financial products and services to our customers.
Business Customers.    We offer a full range of products and services oriented to the needs of our business customers, including:
commercial loans for general corporate purposes, including financing for working capital, internal growth, acquisitions and financing for business insurance premiums;
real estate term and construction loans;
mortgage warehouse lending;
mortgage correspondent aggregation;
equipment finance and leasing;
treasury management services, including online banking and debit and credit card services;
escrow services; and
letters of credit.
Individual Customers.    We also provide complete banking services for our individual customers, including:
personal wealth management and trust services;
certificates of deposit ("CDs") and individual retirement accounts ("IRAs");
interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing checking accounts;
traditional money market and savings accounts;
loans, both secured and unsecured;
online and mobile banking; and
Bask Bank, an all-digital branch offering depositors American Airlines AAdvantage® miles instead of interest.
Lending Activities
We target our lending to middle market businesses and successful professionals and entrepreneurs that meet our credit standards. The credit standards are set by our standing Credit Policy Committee with the assistance of our Bank’s Chief Credit Officer, who is charged with ensuring that credit standards are met by loans in our portfolio. Our Credit Policy Committee is comprised of senior Bank officers including our Bank's Chief Risk Officer, our Bank’s Chief Credit Officer and other Bank officers as deemed appropriate, and is subject to oversight by the Risk Committee of the Company's board of directors. We believe we maintain an appropriately diversified loan portfolio. Credit policies and underwriting guidelines are tailored to address the unique risks associated with each industry represented in the portfolio.
Our credit standards for commercial borrowers are based on numerous criteria with respect to the borrower, including historical and projected financial information, strength of management, acceptable collateral and associated advance rates, and market conditions and trends in the borrower’s industry. In addition, prospective loans are analyzed based on current industry concentrations in our loan portfolio to prevent an unacceptable concentration of loans in any particular industry. We believe our credit standards are consistent with achieving our business objectives in the markets we serve and are an important part of our risk mitigation strategy. We believe that our Bank is differentiated from its competitors by its focus on and targeted marketing to our core customers and by its ability to tailor its products to the individual needs of our customers.
We generally extend variable rate loans in which the interest rate fluctuates with a specified reference rate such as the United States prime rate or the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and frequently provide for a minimum floor rate. Our use of variable rate loans is designed to protect us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations since the rates of interest earned will automatically reflect such fluctuations. In 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it would no longer compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The administrator of LIBOR has proposed to extend publication of the most commonly used U.S. Dollar LIBOR settings to June 30, 2023, and to cease publishing other LIBOR settings on December 31, 2021. The U.S. federal banking agencies have issued guidance strongly encouraging banking organizations to cease using U.S. dollar LIBOR as a reference rate in new contracts as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021. It is not possible to know whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may have on the financial markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments. The full impact of alternatives to LIBOR on the valuations, pricing and operation of our financial instruments is not yet known; however, the primary instruments that may be impacted include loans, securities, borrowings and derivatives indexed to LIBOR that mature after December 31, 2021. We have established a working group, consisting of key stakeholders from throughout the Bank, to monitor developments relating to LIBOR uncertainty and changes and to guide our Bank's response. This team is currently working to ensure that our technology systems are prepared for the transition, our loan documents that reference LIBOR-based rates have been
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appropriately amended to reference other methods of interest rate determination and internal and external stakeholders are apprised of the transition.
Deposit Products
We offer a variety of deposit products and services to our customers with terms, including interest rates, which are competitive with other banks. Our business deposit products include commercial checking accounts, lockbox accounts, cash concentration accounts and other treasury management services, including online banking. Our treasury management online system offers information services, wire transfer initiation, ACH initiation, account transfer and service integration. Our consumer deposit products include checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit. We also allow our consumer deposit customers to access their accounts, transfer funds, pay bills and perform other account functions through online and mobile banking.
Wealth Management and Trust
Our wealth management and trust services include wealth strategy, financial planning, investment management, personal trust and estate services, custodial services, retirement accounts and related services. Our investment management professionals work with our clients to define objectives, goals and strategies for their investment portfolios. We assist the customer with the selection of an investment manager and work with the client to tailor the investment program accordingly. We also offer retirement products such as individual retirement accounts and administrative services for retirement vehicles such as pension and profit sharing plans. Our wealth management and trust services are primarily focused on serving the needs of our banking clients and depend on close cooperation and support between our banking relationship managers and our investment management professionals.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Overview. In March 2020, the outbreak of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The spread of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis that has resulted in unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and disruption in financial markets and in governmental, commercial and consumer activity in the United States and globally, including the markets that we serve. Governmental responses to the pandemic have included orders to close businesses not deemed essential and directing individuals to restrict their movements, observe social distancing and shelter in place. These actions, together with responses to the pandemic by businesses and individuals, have resulted in rapid decreases in commercial and consumer activity, temporary, and some permanent, closures of many businesses that have led to a loss of revenues and a rapid increase in unemployment, material decreases in oil and gas prices and in business valuations, disrupted global supply chains, market downturns and volatility, changes in consumer behavior related to pandemic fears, related emergency response legislation and an expectation that Federal Reserve policy will maintain a low interest rate environment for the foreseeable future. Although financial markets have rebounded from significant declines that occurred earlier in the pandemic and global economic conditions showed signs of improvement beginning during the second quarter of 2020, many of the effects that arose or became more pronounced after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have persisted through the end of the year. These changes have had and are likely to continue to have a significant adverse effect on the markets in which we conduct our business and the demand for our products and services. See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Affecting our Business—The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting us and our customers, employees and third-party service providers, and the adverse impacts on our business, financial position, operations and prospects have been and are expected to continue to be significant.”
Legislative Developments. On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act was signed into law. It contained substantial tax and spending provisions intended to address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The CARES Act included the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), a nearly $350 billion program designed to aid small- and medium-sized businesses through federally guaranteed loans distributed through banks. These loans were intended to guarantee eight weeks of payroll and other costs to help those businesses remain viable and allow their workers to pay their bills. The initial $350 billion program was supplemented in late April 2020 with $310 billion in additional funding. On June 5, 2020, the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act (the “new Act”) was signed into law, and made significant changes to the PPP to provide additional relief for small businesses. The new Act increased flexibility for small businesses that have been unable to rehire employees due to lack of employee availability, or have been unable to operate as normal due to COVID-19 related restrictions, extended the period that businesses have to use PPP funds to qualify for loan forgiveness to 24 weeks, up from 8 weeks under the original rules, and relaxed the requirements that loan recipients must adhere to in order to qualify for loan forgiveness. In addition, the new Act extended the payment deferral period for PPP loans until the date when the amount of loan forgiveness is determined and remitted to the lender. For PPP recipients who do not apply for forgiveness, the loan deferral period is 10 months after the applicable forgiveness period ends. On July 4, 2020, Congress enacted a new law to extend the deadline for applying for a PPP loan to August 8, 2020. The program was re-opened on January 11, 2021 with updated guidance outlining program changes to enhance its effectiveness and accessibility. This round of the PPP will serve
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new borrowers, as well as allow certain existing PPP borrowers to apply for a second draw PPP Loan and make a request to modify their first draw PPP loan.
We have partnered with a web-based commercial and SBA lending software provider to manage the origination, processing, closing and monitoring of SBA loans and have set up the Texas Capital Bank SBA PPP Loan Portal to provide borrowers the ability to apply and qualify for PPP loans. As of December 31, 2020, we had funded $717.5 million in PPP loans. Those loans have an outstanding balance of $617.5 million as of December 31, 2020.
We also implemented a short-term loan modification program in late March 2020 to provide temporary payment relief to borrowers who meet the program’s qualifications. This program allows for a deferral of payments for 90 days, which we may extend for an additional 90 days, for a maximum of 180 days on a cumulative basis. The deferred payments along with interest accrued during the deferral period are due and payable on the maturity date of the existing loan. Through December 31, 2020, we granted temporary modifications on 483 loans with a total outstanding loan balance of $1.3 billion, resulting in the deferral of $7.7 million in interest payments. As of December 31, 2020, 48 loans with a total outstanding balance of $90.2 million remain on deferral, of which $50.7 million have been granted a second deferral.
See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to our financial statements and results of operations, as well as our business operations.
Human Capital
Our goal is to attract, develop, retain and plan for succession of key talent and executives to achieve strategic objectives. We are continually investing in our workforce to further emphasize diversity and inclusion and to foster our employees' growth and career development. As part of our commitment to address diversity, equity and inclusion ("DEI") we have launched a DEI Council, chaired by our CEO.
At December 31, 2020, we had 1,619 employees, nearly all of whom are full-time and of which approximately 50% were female and 40% were minorities. Due to our significant Texas-based operations and branch-lite network, the majority of our employees are based in Texas.
We offer a comprehensive benefits program to our employees and design our compensation programs to attract, retain and motivate employees, as well as to align with Company performance.
None of our employees is represented by a collective bargaining agreement and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Regulation and Supervision
General.    We and our Bank are subject to extensive federal and state laws and regulations that impose specific requirements on us and provide regulatory oversight of virtually all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations generally are intended for the protection of the Bank's depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") and the stability of the U.S. banking system as a whole, rather than for the protection of our stockholders and creditors.
The following discussion summarizes certain laws, regulations and policies to which we and our Bank are subject. It does not address all applicable laws, regulations and policies that affect us currently or might affect us in the future. This discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full texts of the laws, regulations and policies described.
The Company’s activities are governed by the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”). We are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve") pursuant to the BHCA. We file quarterly reports and other information with the Federal Reserve. As a public company, we also file reports with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") and are subject to its regulatory authority, as well as the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, with respect to our securities, financial reporting and certain governance matters. Because our securities are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market ("Nasdaq"), and we are subject to Nasdaq's rules for listed companies, including rules relating to corporate governance.
Our Bank is organized as a national banking association under the National Bank Act, and is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”), the FDIC and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) as well as being subject to regulation by certain other federal and state agencies. The OCC has primary supervisory responsibility for our Bank and performs a continuous program of examinations concerning safety and soundness, the quality of management and oversight by our board of directors, information technology and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Our Bank also files quarterly reports of condition and income with the FDIC, which provides insurance for certain of our Bank’s deposits.
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Bank Holding Company Regulation.    The BHCA limits our business to banking, managing or controlling banks and other activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be closely related to banking. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, as amended (the "GLB Act"), allows bank holding companies meeting certain management, capital and Community Reinvestment Act standards to elect to be treated as financial holding company that may offer customers a more comprehensive array of financial products and services. We have elected to register with the Federal Reserve as a financial holding company. This authorizes us to engage in any activity that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity, as determined by the Federal Reserve, or (ii) complementary to a financial activity, so long as the activity does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of our Bank or the financial system generally, as determined by the Federal Reserve. Examples of non-banking activities that are financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting, providing investment and financial advice, leasing personal property and making merchant banking investments.
We are not at this time exercising the powers authorized for a financial holding company at the parent company level.
We, through our Bank, engage in traditional banking activities that are deemed financial in nature. In order for us to undertake new activities permitted by the BHCA, we and our Bank must be considered "well capitalized" (as defined below) and well managed, our Bank must have received a rating of at least "satisfactory" in its most recent examination under the Community Reinvestment Act and we must notify the Federal Reserve within thirty days of engaging in the new activity. We do not currently expect to engage in any non-banking activities at the holding company level.
Under Federal Reserve policy, now codified by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), we are expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to our Bank and commit resources to its support. Such support may be required even at times when, absent this Federal Reserve policy, a holding company may not be in a financial position, or otherwise inclined, to provide such resources. We could in certain circumstances be required to guarantee the capital plan of our Bank if it became undercapitalized.
It is the policy of the Federal Reserve that financial holding companies may pay cash dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs and financial condition. The policy provides that financial holding companies may not pay cash dividends in an amount that would undermine the holding company’s ability to serve as a source of strength to its banking subsidiary.
With certain limited exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act of 1978, as amended (the "CIBC Act"), together with regulations promulgated thereunder, prohibit a person or company or a group of persons deemed to be “acting in concert” from, directly or indirectly, acquiring more than 10% (5% if the acquirer is a bank holding company) of any class of our voting stock or obtaining the ability to control in any manner the election of a majority of our directors or otherwise direct the management or policies of our company without prior notice or application to and the approval of the Federal Reserve.
If, in the opinion of the applicable federal bank regulatory authorities, a depository institution or holding company is engaged in or is about to engage in an unsafe or unsound practice (which could include the payment of dividends or repurchase or redemptions of securities), such authority may require, generally after notice and hearing, that such institution or holding company cease and desist such practice. The federal banking agencies have indicated that paying dividends that deplete a depository institution’s or holding company’s capital base to an inadequate level would be such an unsafe or unsound banking practice. Moreover, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC have issued policy statements providing that financial holding companies and insured depository institutions generally should only pay dividends out of current operating earnings and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the entity's current and expected future capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. Federal Reserve regulations require that the Company provide prior notice to or obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve for declaring or paying dividends that exceed its earnings for the relevant period and redemptions or repurchases of its equity securities, and prohibit such actions if they would deplete the Company's capital or impair its ability to serve as a source of strength for our Bank.
Regulation of Our Bank by the OCC. National banks the size of our Bank are subject to continuous regulation, supervision and examination by the OCC. The OCC regulates or monitors all areas of a national bank’s operations, including security devices and procedures, adequacy of capitalization and loss reserves, accounting treatment and impact on capital determinations, loans, investments, borrowings, deposits, liquidity, mergers, issuances of securities, payment of dividends, interest rate risk management, establishment of branches, corporate reorganizations, maintenance of books and records, and adequacy of staff training to carry on safe and sound lending and deposit gathering practices. The OCC requires national banks to maintain specified capital ratios and imposes limitations on their aggregate investment in real estate, bank premises and furniture and fixtures. National banks are required by the OCC to file quarterly reports of their financial condition and results of operations and to obtain an annual audit of their financial statements in compliance with minimum standards and procedures prescribed by the OCC.
Regulation of Our Bank by the CFPB. The CFPB has regulation, supervision and examination authority over our Bank with respect to substantially all federal statutes and regulations protecting the interests of consumers of financial services, including but not limited to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home
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Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act and the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and their respective related regulations. Penalties for violating these laws and regulations could subject our Bank to lawsuits and administrative penalties, including civil monetary penalties, payments to affected consumers and orders to halt or materially change our consumer banking activities. The CFPB has broad authority to pursue enforcement actions, including investigations, civil actions and cease and desist proceedings, and can refer civil and criminal findings to the Department of Justice for prosecution. The Bank is also subject to other federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that, among other things, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive, corrupt or fraudulent business practices, untrue or misleading advertising and unfair competition.
Capital Adequacy Requirements.    Federal banking regulators have adopted a system using certain risk-based capital guidelines to evaluate the capital adequacy of banks and bank holding companies that is based upon the 1988 capital accord of the Bank for International Settlements’ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”), a committee of central banks and bank regulators from the major industrialized countries that coordinates international standards for bank regulation. Under the guidelines, specific categories of assets and off-balance-sheet activities such as letters of credit are assigned risk weights, based generally on the perceived credit or other risks associated with the asset. Off-balance-sheet activities are assigned a credit conversion factor based on the perceived likelihood that they will become on-balance-sheet assets. These risk weights are multiplied by corresponding asset balances to determine a “risk weighted” asset base, which is then measured against various forms of capital to produce capital ratios.
An organization’s capital is classified in one of two tiers, Core Capital, or Tier 1, and Supplementary Capital, or Tier 2. Tier 1 capital includes common stock, retained earnings, qualifying non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, minority interests in the equity of consolidated subsidiaries, a limited amount of qualifying trust preferred securities and qualifying cumulative perpetual preferred stock at the holding company level, less goodwill and most intangible assets. Tier 2 capital includes perpetual preferred stock and trust preferred securities not meeting the Tier 1 definition, mandatory convertible debt securities, subordinated debt, and allowances for loan and lease losses. Each category is subject to a number of regulatory definitional and qualifying requirements.
The Basel Committee in 2010 released a set of international recommendations for strengthening the regulation, supervision and risk management of banking organizations, known as Basel III. In July 2013, the Federal Reserve published final rules for the adoption of the Basel III regulatory capital framework (the “Basel III Capital Rules”). The Basel III Capital Rules became effective for us on January 1, 2015, with certain transition provisions phasing in over a period that ended on January 1, 2019.
The Basel III Capital Rules, among other things, (i) specify a capital measure called “Common Equity Tier 1” (“CET1”), (ii) specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting specified requirements, (iii) require that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital and (iv) define the scope of the deductions/adjustments to the capital measures. Our Series A 6.5% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock constitutes Additional Tier 1 capital and our subordinated notes constitute Tier 2 capital.
The Basel III Capital Rules set the risk-based capital requirement and the total risk-based capital requirement to a minimum of 6.0% and 8.0%, respectively, each plus a 2.5% capital conservation buffer composed entirely of CET1, producing targeted ratios of 8.5% and 10.5%, respectively, which were fully phased-in as of January 1, 2019 and for subsequent years. The leverage ratio requirement under the Basel III Capital Rules, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average assets, is 4.0%. In order to be well capitalized under the rules now in effect, our Bank must maintain CET1, Tier 1 and total capital ratios that are equal to or greater than 7.0%, 8.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and a leverage ratio equal to or greater than 5.0%. See “Selected Consolidated Financial Data - Capital and Liquidity Ratios.
Additionally, the Basel III Capital Rules specify a capital conservation buffer with respect to each of the CET1, Tier 1 and total capital to risk-weighted assets ratios, which provides for capital levels that exceed the minimum risk-based capital adequacy requirements. The 2.5% capital conservation buffer was implemented over a three year phase-in period that began on January 1, 2016 and concluded on January 1, 2019. A financial institution with a conservation buffer of less than the required amount is subject to limitations on capital distributions, including dividend payments and stock repurchases, and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers.
We have met the capital adequacy requirements under the Basel III Capital Rules on a fully phased-in basis since we commenced filing of the applicable reports with the FDIC and OCC. As of December 31, 2020 our Bank's CET1 ratio was 9.48% and its total risk-based capital ratio was 11.67% and, as a result, it is currently classified as "well capitalized" for purposes of the OCC's prompt corrective action regulations.
Because we had less than $15 billion in total consolidated assets as of December 31, 2009, we are allowed to continue to classify our trust preferred securities, all of which were issued prior to May 19, 2010, as Tier 1 capital. As a non-advanced approaches banking organization, we have elected to exclude the effects of certain accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") items included in stockholders’ equity for the determination of regulatory capital and capital ratios under the Basel III Capital Rules.
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In November 2017, the federal banking regulators issued a final rule to extend certain transition periods related to the regulatory capital treatment under the capital rules for certain items (including certain deferred tax assets, mortgage servicing rights, investments in non-consolidated financial entities and minority interest limitations) until January 1, 2020 when final rules to simplify the regulatory treatment of those items took effect. The relief provided under the final rule applies to banking organizations that are not subject to the advanced approaches framework, such as the Company and the Bank.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published the last version of the Basel III regulatory reforms, which are commonly referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel IV standards, which will be generally effective on January 1, 2022, revise, among other things the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to banking organizations that are subject to the advanced approaches framework. The impact of the Basel IV standards on us and our Bank will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal banking regulators.
In February 2019, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued a final rule (the “2019 CECL Rule”) that revised certain capital regulations to account for changes to credit loss accounting under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). The 2019 CECL Rule included a transition option that allows banking organizations to phase in, over a three-year period, the day-one adverse effects of adopting the new accounting standard related to the measurement of current expected credit losses (“CECL”) on their regulatory capital ratios (three-year transition option). In March 2020, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued an interim final rule that maintains the three-year transition option of the 2019 CECL Rule and also provides banking organizations that were required under GAAP to implement CECL before the end of 2020 the option to delay for two years an estimate of the effect of CECL on regulatory capital, relative to the incurred loss methodology’s effect on regulatory capital, followed by a three-year transition period (five-year transition option). We adopted CECL on January 1, 2020 and have elected to utilize the five-year transition option.
Regulators may change capital and liquidity requirements, including previous interpretations of practices related to risk weights, which could require an increase to the allocation of capital to assets held by our Bank. Regulators could also require us to make retroactive adjustments to financial statements to reflect such changes. A regulatory capital ratio or category may not constitute an accurate representation of the Bank’s overall financial condition or prospects. Our regulatory capital status is addressed in more detail under the heading “Liquidity and Capital Resources” within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and in Note 13 - Regulatory Restrictions in the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (the “FDICIA”) established a system of prompt corrective action regulations and policies to resolve the problems of undercapitalized insured depository institutions. Under this system, insured depository institutions are ranked in one of five capital categories as described below. Regulators are required to take mandatory supervisory actions and are authorized to take other discretionary actions of increasing severity with respect to insured depository institutions in the three undercapitalized categories. The five capital categories for insured depository institutions under the prompt corrective action regulations consist of:
Well capitalized - equals or exceeds a 10% total risk-based capital ratio, 8% Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and 5% leverage ratio and is not subject to any written agreement, order or directive requiring it to maintain a specific level for any capital measure;
Adequately capitalized - equals or exceeds an 8% total risk-based capital ratio, 6% Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and 4% leverage ratio;
Undercapitalized - total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, or a Tier 1 risk-based ratio of less than 6%, or a leverage ratio of less than 4%;
Significantly undercapitalized - total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, or a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4%, or a leverage ratio of less than 3%; and
Critically undercapitalized - a ratio of tangible equity to total assets equal to or less than 2%.
The prompt corrective action regulations provide that an institution may be downgraded to the next lower category if its regulator determines, after notice and opportunity for hearing or response, that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition or has received and not corrected a less-than-satisfactory rating for any of the categories of asset quality, management, earnings or liquidity in its most recent examination.
Federal bank regulatory agencies are required to implement arrangements for prompt corrective action for institutions failing to meet minimum requirements to be at least adequately capitalized. FDICIA imposes an increasingly stringent array of restrictions, requirements and prohibitions as an organization’s capital levels deteriorate. A bank rated "adequately capitalized" or below may not accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits unless it receives a waiver from the FCIC. A "significantly undercapitalized" institution is subject to mandated capital raising activities, restrictions on interest rates paid and transactions with affiliates, removal of management and other restrictions. The OCC has only very limited discretion in dealing with a
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"critically undercapitalized" institution and generally must appoint a receiver or conservator (the FDIC) if the capital deficiency is not corrected promptly.
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended (the “FDIA”), “critically undercapitalized” banks may not, beginning 60 days after becoming critically undercapitalized, make any payment of principal or interest on their subordinated debt (subject to certain limited exceptions). In addition, under Section 18(i) of the FDIA, banks are required to obtain the advance consent of the FDIC to retire any part of their subordinated notes. Under the FDIA, a bank may not pay interest on its subordinated notes if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits, or distribute any of its capital assets, while it remains in default on any assessment due to the FDIC.
In December 2020, the FDIC issued a final rule that is designed to bring the brokered deposits regulations in line with modern deposit taking methods and generally reduces the amount of deposits that would be classified as brokered, which most directly affects banks rated as “adequately capitalized” or “undercapitalized”. The final rule will become effective on April 1, 2021, with an extended compliance date of January 1, 2022.
Federal bank regulators may set capital requirements for a particular banking organization that are higher than the minimum ratios when circumstances warrant. Federal Reserve and OCC guidelines provide that banking organizations experiencing significant growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. Concentration of credit risks, interest rate risk (imbalances in rates, maturities or sensitivities) and risks arising from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution’s ability to manage these risks, are important factors taken into account by regulatory agencies in assessing an organization’s overall capital adequacy.
The OCC and the Federal Reserve also use a leverage ratio as an additional tool to evaluate the capital adequacy of banking organizations. The leverage ratio is a company’s Tier 1 capital divided by its average total consolidated assets. A minimum leverage ratio of 3.0% is required for banks and bank holding companies that either have the highest supervisory rating or have implemented the appropriate federal regulatory authority’s risk-adjusted measure for market risk. All other banks and bank holding companies are required to maintain a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%, unless a different minimum is specified by an appropriate regulatory authority. In order to be considered well capitalized the leverage ratio must be at least 5.0%.
As of December 31, 2020, our Bank’s leverage ratio was 7.36% and, as a result, it is currently classified as “well capitalized” for purposes of the OCC’s prompt corrective action regulations.
The risk-based and leverage capital ratios established by federal banking regulators are minimum supervisory ratios generally applicable to banking organizations that meet specified criteria, assuming that they otherwise have received the highest regulatory ratings in their most recent examinations. Banking organizations not meeting these criteria are expected to operate with capital positions in excess of the minimum ratios. Regulators can, from time to time, change their policies or interpretations of banking practices to require changes in risk weights assigned to our Bank's assets or changes in the factors considered in order to evaluate capital adequacy, which may require our Bank to obtain additional capital to support existing asset levels or future growth or reduce asset balances in order to meet minimum acceptable capital ratios.
Liquidity Requirements.    U.S. bank regulators in September 2014 issued a final rule implementing the Basel III liquidity framework for certain U.S. banks - generally those having more than $50 billion of assets or whose primary federal banking regulator determines compliance with the liquidity framework is appropriate based on the organization's size, level of complexity, risk profile, scope of operations, U.S. or non-U.S. affiliations or risk to the financial system. One of the liquidity tests included in the new rule, referred to as the liquidity coverage ratio (“LCR”), is designed to ensure that a banking entity maintains an adequate level of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets equal to the entity’s expected net cash outflow for a 30-day time horizon (or, if greater, 25% of its expected total cash outflow) under an acute liquidity stress scenario.
The other test, referred to as the net stable funding ratio (“NSFR”), is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of banking entities over a one-year time horizon. These requirements encourage the covered banking entities to increase their holdings of U.S. Treasury securities and other sovereign debt as a component of assets, and also to increase the use of long-term debt as a funding source.
While the LCR and NSFR tests are not currently applicable to our Bank, and the proposed rules would increase substantially the $50 billion asset threshold, other relevant measures of liquidity are monitored by management and are reported to our board of directors. Regulators may change capital and liquidity requirements, including previous interpretations of practices related to risk weights, which could require an increase in liquid assets or in the necessary capital to support the assets held by our Bank. Regulators could also require us to make retroactive adjustments to financial statements and reported capital ratios to reflect such changes.
Stress Testing.    Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations published by the Federal Reserve and OCC, we were required to conduct an annual “stress test” of capital and consolidated earnings and losses under a base case and two severely adverse stress scenarios provided by bank regulatory agencies during the years 2016 to 2018. In response to this requirement we
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developed dedicated staffing, economic models, policies and procedures to implement stress testing on an annual basis, the results of which were furnished to regulators and published on our website, as well as conducting stress tests for internal use based upon economic scenarios we developed. The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (the “Regulatory Relief Act”), which amended portions of the Dodd-Frank Act, was enacted in 2018 and subsequently adopted, terminating our stress testing requirements. However, we have continued to perform certain stress tests internally and have incorporated the economic models and information developed through our stress testing program into our risk management and business, capital and liquidity planning activities, which are subject to continuing regulatory oversight.
Privacy and Data Security.    The financial privacy provisions of the GLB Act generally prohibit financial institutions, including our Bank, from disclosing non-public personal financial information about customers to non-affiliated third parties unless customers have the opportunity to “opt out” of the disclosure and have not elected to do so. Our Bank is required to comply with state laws regarding consumer privacy if they are more protective than the GLB Act.
In October 2016, the federal banking regulators jointly issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cyber risk management standards that are intended to increase the operational resilience of large and interconnected entities under their supervision. If established, the enhanced cyber risk management standards would be designed to help reduce the potential impact of a cyber-attack or other cyber-related failure on the financial system. The advance notice of proposed rulemaking addresses five categories of cyber standards: (1) cyber risk governance; (2) cyber risk management; (3) internal dependency management; (4) external dependency management; and (5) incident response, cyber resilience and situational awareness. In May 2019,the Federal Reserve announced that it would revisit the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the future. In December 2020, the federal banking agencies issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would require banking organizations to notify their primary federal regulator within 36 hours of becoming aware of a "computer-security incident" or a "notification incident." The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking also would require specific and immediate notifications by bank service providers that become aware of similar incidents.
In February 2018, the SEC published interpretive guidance to assist public companies in preparing disclosures about cybersecurity risks and incidents. These SEC guidelines, and any other regulatory guidance, are in addition to notification and disclosure requirements under state and federal banking law and regulations.
Privacy and data security areas are expected to receive increased attention at the federal level. An increasing number of state laws and regulations have been enacted in recent years to implement privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations, including data breach notification and data privacy requirements. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs that meet specified requirements. In addition, other nations in which our customers do business, such as the European Union, have adopted similar requirements. This trend of activity is expected to continue to expand, requiring continual monitoring of developments in the states and nations in which our customers are located and ongoing investments in our information systems and compliance capabilities.
Community Reinvestment Act.    The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (the “CRA”) requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practice. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit, making investments and providing community development services to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. Depository institutions are periodically examined for compliance with the CRA and are assigned one of four ratings. Our Bank is subject to examination by the OCC. In order for a financial holding company to commence new activity permitted by the BHCA, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. Our Bank's strategic focus on serving commercial customers in regional and national markets from a limited number of branches makes it more challenging for us to satisfy CRA requirements as compared to banks of comparable size that focus on providing retail banking services in markets where they maintain a network of full-service branches.
In December 2019, the OCC and the FDIC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to (i) clarify which activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) update where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) create a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) provide for more transparent, consistent, and timely CRA-related data collection, recordkeeping, and reporting. In May 2020, the OCC issued its final CRA rule, effective October 1, 2020. The FDIC has not finalized the revisions to its CRA rule.
The USA Patriot Act, the International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act and the Bank Secrecy Act.    A major focus of U.S. government policy regarding financial institutions in recent years has been combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other illegal payments. The USA Patriot Act of 2001 and the International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001 substantially broadened the scope of United States anti-money laundering laws and penalties, specifically related to the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, and expanded the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. government in this area. Regulations issued under these laws impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and other suspicious activity and to verify the identity of their customers and apply additional scrutiny to customers considered
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to present greater than normal risk. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal, reputational and financial consequences for the institution. Because of the significance of regulatory emphasis on these requirements, we have expended, and expect to continue to expend, significant staffing, technology and financial resources to maintain programs designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and an effective audit function for testing our compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act on an ongoing basis.
The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (“AMLA”), which amends the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”), was enacted in January 2021. The AMLA is intended to be a comprehensive reform and modernization to U.S. bank secrecy and anti-money laundering laws. Among other things, it codifies a risk-based approach to anti-money laundering compliance for financial institutions; requires the development of standards for evaluating technology and internal processes for BSA compliance; expands enforcement- and investigation-related authority, including increasing available sanctions for certain BSA violations and instituting BSA whistleblower incentives and protections.
Office of Foreign Assets Control. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) is responsible for administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions against specified foreign parties, including countries and regimes, foreign individuals and other foreign organizations and entities. OFAC publishes lists of prohibited parties that are regularly consulted by our Bank in the conduct of its business in order to assure compliance. We are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, prohibited parties identified by OFAC, avoiding unlicensed trade and financial transactions with such parties and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with OFAC requirements could have serious legal, financial and reputational consequences for our Bank.
Safe and Sound Banking Practices; Enforcement.    Banks and bank holding companies are prohibited from engaging in unsafe and unsound banking practices. Bank regulators have broad authority to prohibit and penalize activities of bank holding companies and their subsidiaries which represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or which constitute violations of laws, regulations or written directives of or agreements with regulators. Regulators have considerable discretion in identifying what they deem to be unsafe and unsound practices and in pursuing enforcement actions in response to them.
The FDIA requires federal bank regulatory agencies to prescribe, by regulation or guideline, operational and managerial standards for all insured depository institutions that relate to, among other things: (i) internal controls, information systems and audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate exposure; (v) asset growth and quality; and (vi) compensation and benefits. Federal banking agencies have adopted regulations and Interagency Guidelines Prescribing Standards for Safety and Soundness to implement these requirements, which regulators use to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. If a regulator determines that a bank fails to meet any standards prescribed by the guidelines, the bank may be required to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance, and agree to specific deadlines for the submission to and review by the regulator of reports confirming progress in implementing the safety and soundness compliance plan. Failure to implement such a plan may result in an enforcement action against the bank.
Enforcement actions against us, our Bank and our officers and directors may include the issuance of a written directive, the issuance of a cease-and-desist order that can be judicially enforced, the imposition of civil money penalties, the issuance of directives to increase capital, the issuance of formal and informal agreements, the issuance of removal and prohibition orders against officers or other institution-affiliated parties, the imposition of restrictions and sanctions under prompt corrective action regulations, the termination of deposit insurance (in the case of our Bank) and the appointment of a conservator or receiver for our Bank. Civil money penalties can be as high as $1.0 million for each day a violation continues.
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders.    Our Bank is subject to Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended (the "FRA") which places limits on, among other covered transactions, the amount of loans or extensions of credit to affiliates that may be made by our Bank. Extensions of credit to affiliates must be adequately collateralized by specified amounts and types of collateral. Section 23A also limits the amount of loans or advances made by our Bank to third party borrowers that are collateralized by our or our subsidiaries' respective securities or obligations. Our Bank is also subject to Section 23B of the FRA, which, among other things, prohibits an institution from engaging in transactions with affiliates unless the transactions are on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to such institution or its subsidiaries, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliates.
We are subject to restrictions on extensions of credit to insiders (namely executive officers, directors, and 10% stockholders) and their related interests. These restrictions are contained in the FRA and Federal Reserve Regulation O and apply to all insured institutions as well as their subsidiaries and holding companies. These restrictions include limits on loans to any individual insider and such insider's related interests and certain conditions that must be met before such loans can be made. There is also an aggregate limitation on all loans to insiders and their related interests, which cannot exceed the institution’s total unimpaired capital and surplus, unless the FDIC determines that a lesser amount is appropriate. Insiders are subject to enforcement actions for knowingly accepting loans in violation of applicable restrictions. Additional restrictions on transactions with affiliates and insiders are discussed in the Dodd-Frank Act section below.
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Restrictions on Payment of Dividends by Our Bank.    The sole source of funding of our parent company financial obligations has consisted of proceeds of capital markets transactions and cash payments from our Bank for debt service and dividend payments with respect to our preferred stock issued to us by the Bank. We may in the future seek to rely upon receipt of dividends paid by our Bank to meet our financial obligations. Our Bank is subject to statutory dividend restrictions. Under such restrictions, national banks may not, without the prior approval of the OCC, declare dividends in excess of the sum of the current year’s net profits plus the retained net profits from the prior two years, less any required transfers to surplus. The Basel III Capital Rules further limit the amount of dividends that may be paid by our Bank. In addition, under the FDICIA, our Bank may not pay any dividend if it is undercapitalized or if payment would cause it to become undercapitalized.
Limits on Compensation.    The Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC in 2010 issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies for executive management of banks and bank holding companies. This guidance was intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine their safety and soundness by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The objective of the guidance is to assure that incentive compensation arrangements (i) provide incentives that do not encourage excessive risk-taking, (ii) are compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) are supported by strong corporate governance, including oversight by the board of directors. In 2016, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the SEC proposed rules that would, depending upon the assets of the institution, directly regulate incentive compensation arrangements and would require enhanced oversight and recordkeeping. As of December 31, 2020, these rules have not been implemented.
Deposit Insurance.    Our Bank’s deposits are insured through the DIF, which is administered by the FDIC, up to limits established by applicable law, currently $250,000 per depositor. The FDIC determines quarterly deposit insurance assessments consisting of a percentage of an assessment base equal to our Bank’s average consolidated total assets less average tangible equity capital and the assignment of one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors. The FDIC has the discretion to adjust an institution’s risk rating and may terminate its insurance of deposits upon a finding that the institution engaged or is engaging in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC or written agreement entered into with the FDIC. The FDIC may also prohibit any FDIC-insured institution from engaging in any activity it determines to pose a serious risk to the DIF.
For 2020, minimum and maximum assessment rates (inclusive of possible adjustments) for institutions the size of our Bank ranged from 1.5 to 40 basis points. As a “large” institution for purposes of determining FDIC insurance assessments, our Bank was until December 31, 2018, subject to additional surcharges to rebuild the DIF to a reserve ratio (DIF balance divided by total insured deposits) equal to 1.35%.
The Dodd-Frank Act.    The Dodd-Frank Act became law in 2010 and has had a broad impact on the financial services industry, imposing significant regulatory and compliance changes. A significant volume of financial services regulations required by the Dodd-Frank Act have not yet been finalized by banking regulators, Congress continues to consider legislation that would make significant changes to the law and courts are addressing significant litigation arising under the Act, making it difficult to predict the ultimate effect of the Dodd-Frank Act on our business. The following discussion provides a brief summary of certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that may have an effect on us.
The Dodd-Frank Act significantly reduces the ability of national banks to rely upon federal preemption of state consumer financial laws and permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations. Although the OCC, as the primary regulator of national banks, has the ability to make preemption determinations where certain conditions are met, the broad rollback of federal preemption has the potential to create a patchwork of federal and state compliance obligations and enforcement. This may result in significant state regulatory requirements applicable to us and certain of our lending activities, with potentially significant changes in our operations and increases in our compliance costs.
The Dodd-Frank Act generally enhances the restrictions on transactions with affiliates under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered credit transactions must be satisfied. Insider transaction limitations are expanded through the strengthening of restrictions on loans to insiders and the expansion of the types of transactions subject to the various limits, including derivatives transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements and securities lending or borrowing transactions. Restrictions are also placed on certain asset sales to and from an insider to an institution, including requirements that such sales be on market terms and, in certain circumstances, approved by the institution’s board of directors.
The Dodd-Frank Act increases the risk of “secondary actor liability” for lenders that provide financing or other services to customers offering financial products or services to consumers, as our Bank does in our mortgage finance, mortgage correspondent aggregation and lender finance lines of business. The Dodd-Frank Act can impose liability on a service provider for knowingly or recklessly providing substantial assistance to a customer found to have engaged in unfair, deceptive or abusive
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practices that injure a consumer. This exposure contributes to increased compliance and other costs in connection with the administration of credit extended to entities engaged in providing financial products and services to consumers.
The Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities, require changes to certain of our business practices, impose upon us more stringent compliance, capital, liquidity and leverage requirements or otherwise adversely affect our business. These developments may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make changes to our business as necessary to comply with new and changing statutory and regulatory requirements.
The Volcker Rule.    The Dodd-Frank Act amended the BHCA to require the federal financial regulatory agencies to adopt rules that prohibit banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading in designated types of financial instruments and from investing in and sponsoring certain hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule has not had a material effect on our operations since we do not engage in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule. Unanticipated effects of the Volcker Rule’s provisions or future interpretations may have an adverse effect on our business or services provided to our Bank by other financial institutions.
Future Legislation and Regulation. Laws, regulations and policies are continually under review by Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. In addition to the specific legislation and regulations described above, future legislation and regulations or changes to existing statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to us and our subsidiaries may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in adverse and unpredictable ways and increase our reporting requirements and compliance costs. The substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof, cannot be predicted.
Available Information
Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, we are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that we file electronically with the SEC.
We make available, free of charge through our website, our reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Additionally, we have adopted and posted on our website a code of business conduct that applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. The address for our website is www.texascapitalbank.com. Any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct applicable to our executive officers will be posted on our website within four days of such amendment or waiver. We will provide a printed copy of any of the aforementioned documents to any requesting stockholder. 
ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to risk. The following discussion, along with management’s discussion and analysis and our financial statements and footnotes, sets forth the most significant risks and uncertainties that we believe could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or that management currently deems immaterial may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There is no assurance that this discussion covers all potential risks that we face. The occurrence of the described risks could cause our results to differ materially from those described in our forward-looking statements included elsewhere in this report or in our other filings with the SEC and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the most significant risks and uncertainties that we believe could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition to the following summary, you should consider the other information set forth in this “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this report before investing in our securities.
Credit Risks
We must effectively manage our credit risks.
A significant portion of our assets consists of commercial loans, which involve a high degree of credit risk.
We are subject to risks arising from conditions in the real estate market, as a significant portion of our loans are secured by commercial and residential real estate.
Our future profitability depends, to a significant extent, upon our middle market business customers.
Our business is concentrated in Texas; our energy industry exposure could adversely affect our performance.
Our mortgage correspondent aggregation business subjects us to additional risks.
We must effectively manage our counterparty risk.
We must maintain an appropriate allowance for credit losses.
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Changes in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results.
Liquidity Risks
We must effectively manage our liquidity risk.
Our growth plans are dependent on the availability of capital and funding.
We are dependent on funds obtained from borrowing or capital transactions or from our Bank to fund our obligations.
Market Risks
We must effectively manage our interest rate risks.
We may be adversely affected by changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, for our variable rate loans, derivative contracts and other financial assets and liabilities.
Strategic Risks
We must be effective in developing and executing new lines of business and new products and services while managing associated risks.
We compete with many banks and other financial service providers.
We must effectively execute our business strategy in order to continue our asset and earnings growth.
Operational Risks
We, our vendors and customers must effectively manage our information systems risk which may experience disruption, failure or breach in security.
Our operations rely extensively on a broad range of external vendors.
We must continue to attract, retain and develop key personnel.
Our accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on management judgment, which may prove inadequate or be adversely impacted by inaccurate assumptions or models.
Our risk management strategies and processes may not be effective; our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.
Our business is susceptible to fraud.
Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision.
We must maintain adequate regulatory capital to support our business objectives.
We are subject to claims and litigation in the ordinary course of our business, including claims that may not be covered by our insurers.
Other Risks Affecting Our Business
Our business faces unpredictable economic and business conditions.
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting us and our customers, employees and third-party service providers, and the adverse impacts on our business, financial position, operations and prospects have been and are expected to continue to be significant.
As a participating lender in the Small Business Administration’s PPP, we may be subject to additional risks regarding our Bank’s processing of PPP loans and are dependent on the federal government’s continuation and support of the program.
The impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) on us and our customers contributes to uncertainty and risk related to our customers’ future demand for credit and our future results.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.
Severe weather, earthquakes, other natural disasters, pandemics, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could significantly impact our business.
Risks Relating to Our Securities
Our stock price can be volatile.
The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies.
Our preferred stock is thinly traded.
An investment in our securities is not an insured deposit.
The holders of our indebtedness and preferred stock have rights that are senior to those of our common stockholders.
We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock.
Federal legislation and regulations impose restrictions on the ownership of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law may make it more difficult for you to receive a change in control premium.
Our Bank is subject to regulatory and contractual limitations on the payment of its subordinated notes.
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Risk Factors Associated With Our Business
Credit Risks
We must effectively manage our credit risks.    The risk of non-payment of loans is inherent in commercial banking, which may result from many factors, including:
Adverse changes in local, U.S. and global economic and industry conditions;
Business and market disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and governmental restrictions imposed in response to the pandemic;
Declines in the value of collateral, including asset values that are directly or indirectly related to external factors such as commodity prices, real estate values or interest rates;
Concentrations of credit associated with specific loan categories, industries or collateral types; and
Exposures to individual borrowers and to groups of entities that may be affiliated on some basis that individually and/or collectively represent a larger percentage of our total loans or capital than might be considered common at other banks of similar size.
We rely heavily on information provided by third parties when originating and monitoring loans. If this information is intentionally or negligently misrepresented and we do not detect such misrepresentations, the credit risk associated with the transaction may be increased. Although we attempt to manage our credit risk by carefully monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific loan categories and industries and through prudent loan approval and monitoring practices in all categories of our lending, we cannot assure you that our approval and monitoring procedures will reduce these lending risks. Our significant number of large credit relationships (above $20 million) could exacerbate credit problems precipitated by a regional or national economic downturn. Competitive pressures could erode underwriting standards, leading to a decline in general credit quality and increases in credit defaults and non-performing asset levels. If our credit portfolio management routines, policies and procedures are not able to adequately adapt to changes in economic, competitive or other conditions that affect customers and the quality of the loan portfolio, we may incur increased losses that could adversely affect our financial results and lead to increased regulatory scrutiny, restrictions on our lending activity or financial penalties.
A significant portion of our assets consists of commercial loans, which involve a high degree of credit risk. We generally invest a greater proportion of our assets in commercial loans to business customers than other banking institutions of our size, and our business plan calls for continued efforts to increase our assets invested in these loans. At December 31, 2020, approximately 36% of our LHI portfolio was comprised of commercial loans. Commercial loans may involve a higher degree of credit risk than other types of loans due, in part, to their larger average size, the effects of changing economic conditions on the businesses of our commercial loan customers, the dependence of borrowers on operating cash flow to service debt and our reliance upon collateral which may not be readily marketable. Due to the greater proportion of these commercial loans in our portfolio and because the balances of these loans are, on average, larger than other categories of loans, losses incurred on a relatively small number of commercial loans could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to risks arising from conditions in the real estate market, as a significant portion of our loans are secured by commercial and residential real estate. At December 31, 2020, approximately 61% of our loans held for investment portfolio was comprised of loans with real estate as the primary component of collateral. Our real estate lending activities, and our exposure to fluctuations in real estate collateral values, are significant and may increase as our assets increase. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a relatively short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located, in response to factors such as economic downturns, changes in the economic health of industries heavily concentrated in a particular area and in response to changes in market interest rates, which influence capitalization rates used to value revenue-generating commercial real estate. If the value of real estate serving as collateral for our loans declines materially, a significant part of our loan portfolio could become under-collateralized and losses incurred upon borrower defaults would increase. Conditions in certain segments of the real estate industry, including homebuilding, lot development and mortgage lending, may have an effect on values of real estate pledged as collateral for our loans. The inability of purchasers of real estate, including residential real estate, to obtain financing may weaken the financial condition of our borrowers who are dependent on the sale or refinancing of property to repay their loans. Changes in the economic health of certain industries can have a significant impact on other sectors or industries which are directly or indirectly associated with those industries, and may impact the value of real estate in areas where such industries are concentrated.
Our future profitability depends, to a significant extent, upon our middle market business customers. Our future profitability depends, to a significant extent, upon revenue we receive from middle market business customers, and their ability to continue to meet their loan obligations. Adverse economic conditions or other factors affecting this market segment, and our failure to timely identify and react to unexpected economic downturns, may have a greater adverse effect on us than on other financial
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institutions that have a more diversified customer base. Additionally, our inability to grow our middle market business customer base in a highly competitive market could affect our future growth and profitability.
Our business is concentrated in Texas; our energy industry exposure could adversely affect our performance. Although more than 50% of our loan exposure is outside of Texas and more than 50% of our deposits are sourced outside of Texas, our Texas concentration remains significant compared to other peer banks. A majority of our loans held for investment, excluding mortgage finance loans and other national lines of business, are to businesses with headquarters or operations in Texas. As a result, our financial condition and results of operations may be strongly affected by any prolonged period of economic recession or other adverse business, economic or regulatory conditions affecting Texas businesses and financial institutions. While the Texas economy is more diversified than in the 1980’s, the energy sector continues to play an important role. At December 31, 2020 our outstanding energy loans represented 3% of total loans held for investment. Furthermore, energy production and related industries represent a significant part of the economies in some of the primary markets in which we operate. Our energy loans consist primarily of producing reserve-based loans to exploration and production companies with a smaller portion of our loan balances attributable to royalty owners, midstream operators, saltwater disposal and other service companies whose businesses primarily relate to production, not exploration and development, of oil and gas. These businesses have been significantly affected by volatility in oil and natural gas prices, reserve depletion curves, material declines in the level of drilling and production activity in Texas and in other areas of the United States and material fluctuations in investor interest in oil and gas exploration and production investments. We experienced an increase in non-performing assets and higher charge-offs primarily related to energy loans during 2017, and they still remain elevated compared to the overall loan portfolio. There is no assurance that we will not be materially adversely impacted by the direct and indirect effects of current and future conditions in the energy industry in Texas and nationally.
Our mortgage correspondent aggregation business subjects us to additional risks. In 2015, we launched our mortgage correspondent aggregation (“MCA”) business, a correspondent lending program that complements our mortgage warehouse lending business, in 2015. Volatility in the mortgage industry has caused uncertainty related to the pricing of the mortgage loans that we seek to purchase, as well as uncertainty in the pricing of those loans when they are sold or securitized. Similar uncertainty exists with respect to volatility in the value of mortgage servicing rights ("MSRs") on our balance sheet. This volatility may cause the actual returns on mortgage sales or securitization transactions to be less than anticipated, which could adversely affect our overall loans held for sale volumes and the profitability of this line of business. Fluctuations in the value of MSRs that we hold on our balance sheet could require that we recognize impairments in the value of such assets and/or actual losses on the disposition of such assets. Additionally, non-bank competitors may have a pricing advantage as they are not subject to the same capital maintenance requirements relative to mortgage loans and MSRs as our Bank.
Our MCA business subjects us to additional interest rate risk and price risk, which may have an adverse effect on our business. The persistent low interest rate environment has in certain cases resulted in an increase in the value of MSRs, causing other market participants and competitors who are planning to hold MSRs for a longer term to be more aggressive in their pricing of the underlying loan purchases than a participant like our Bank that does not plan to hold MSRs on a long-term basis. While we believe market and competitive conditions may improve in the future, a prolonged low interest rate environment could adversely affect the economics of our MCA business over a longer period of time. Conversely, an environment of rising interest rates could have a significant effect on loan volumes in our MCA business if refinancing and home purchase activities are reduced.
We have entered into loan purchase commitments and forward sales commitments in connection with the MCA business, as well as interest rate swap futures and forward sale commitments of mortgage-backed securities in connection with holding MSRs. While we believe that our hedging strategies will be successful in mitigating our exposure to interest rate risk associated with the purchase of mortgage loans held for sale and holding of MSRs, no hedging strategy can completely protect us. Poorly designed strategies, improperly executed transactions, or inaccurate assumptions regarding future interest rates or market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are from time to time required to hold or repurchase mortgage loans or reimburse investors as a result of breaches in contractual representations and warranties under the agreements pursuant to which we purchase and sell mortgage loans. While our agreements with the originators and sellers of mortgage loans provide us with legal recourse against them that may allow us to recover some or all of our losses, these companies are frequently not financially capable of paying large amounts of damages and as a result we can offer no assurance that we will not bear all of the risk of loss.
We may incur other costs and losses as a result of actual or alleged violations of regulations related to the origination and purchase of residential mortgage loans. The origination of residential mortgage loans is governed by a variety of federal and state laws and regulations, which are frequently changing. We sell residential mortgage loans that we have purchased or that we have originated to various parties, including Ginnie Mae and GSEs such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and other financial institutions that purchase mortgage loans for investment or private label securitization. We may also pool FHA-insured and VA-guaranteed mortgage loans which back securities issued by Ginnie Mae. Our accrued mortgage repurchase liability represents management’s best estimate of the probable loss that we may expect to incur for the representations and warranties in
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the contractual provisions of our sales of mortgage loans, but there is no assurance that our losses will not materially exceed such amounts.
We must effectively manage our counterparty risk. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. Our Bank has exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, and other financial market participants. Many of these transactions expose our Bank to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, our Bank’s credit risk may be increased when the collateral securing its loans cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of its credit or derivative exposure. Any such losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We must maintain an appropriate allowance for credit losses. Our experience in the banking industry indicates that some portion of our loans will become delinquent, and some may only be partially repaid or may never be repaid at all. We maintain an allowance for credit losses on loans, which is a reserve established through a provision for credit losses charged to expense each quarter, that is consistent with management’s assessment of the collectability of the loan portfolio in light of the amount of loans committed and outstanding and current and future economic conditions and market trends. When specific loan losses are identified, the amount of the expected loss is removed, or charged-off, from the allowance. Our methodology for establishing the appropriateness of the allowance for credit losses on loans depends on our subjective application of risk grades as indicators of each borrower’s ability to repay specific loans, together with our assessment of how actual or projected changes in competitor underwriting practices, competition for borrowers and depositors and other conditions in our markets are likely to impact improvement or deterioration in the collectability of our loans as compared to our historical experience.
Our business model makes our Bank more vulnerable to changes in underlying business credit quality than other banks with which we compete. We have a substantially larger percentage of commercial, real estate and other categories of business loans relative to total assets than most other banks in our market and our individual loans are generally larger as a percentage of our total earning assets than other banks. We have substantially increased our liquidity in recent years, and these funds have primarily been invested in low-yielding deposits with federal agencies and other financial institutions. And, we have had a substantially smaller portion of our assets consists of securities and other earning asset categories that can be less vulnerable to changes in local, regional or industry-specific economic trends, causing our potential for credit losses to be more severe than other banks. However, during 2020, we began deploying some of our excess liquidity into securities to improve income, but the most significant portion of earning assets still remains in loans. Our business model has focused on growth in various loan categories that can be more sensitive to changes in economic trends. We believe our ability to maintain an above-peer rate of growth in commercial loans is dependent on maintaining above-peer credit quality metrics. The failure to maintain above-peer credit quality metrics would have a material adverse impact on our growth and profitability. Historically, we have sought to take action prior to economic downturns by slowing growth rates and decreasing the risk level of our assets by, among other things, allowing runoff of loans that we believe may not perform well during a weakening or declining economic environment.
If our assessment of inherent risk and losses in our loan portfolio is inaccurate, or economic and market conditions or our borrowers' financial performance experience material unanticipated changes, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the allowance may become inadequate, requiring larger provisions for loan losses that can materially decrease our earnings. Certain of our loans individually represent a significant percentage of our total allowance for credit losses. Adverse collection experience in a relatively small number of these loans could require an increase in the provision for credit losses. Federal regulators periodically review our allowance for credit losses and, based on their judgments, which may be different than ours, may require us to change classifications or grades of loans, increase the allowance for credit losses or recognize further loan charge-offs. Any increase in the allowance for credit losses or in the amount of loan charge-offs required by our methodology or regulatory agencies could have a negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results. The Financial Accounting Standards Board and the SEC may change the financial accounting and reporting standards, or the interpretation of those standards, that govern the preparation of our external financial statements from time to time. The impact of these changes or the application thereof on our financial condition and operations can be difficult to predict.
For example, we adopted ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) on January 1, 2020 which replaced the incurred loss methodology for determining our provision for credit losses and allowance for credit losses with the CECL model. Implementation of CECL requires that we determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected future credit losses on loans in the provision for credit losses in the period when the loans are booked. Our adoption of CECL resulted in an increase to the allowance for credit losses by $9.1 million. The impact of CECL in future periods will be significantly influenced by the composition, characteristics and quality of our loan portfolio, as well as the prevailing economic conditions and forecasts utilized. Should these factors materially change, we may be required to increase or decrease our allowance for credit losses, decreasing or increasing our reported income, and introducing additional volatility into our reported earnings.
Liquidity Risks
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We must effectively manage our liquidity risk. Our Bank requires liquidity in the form of available funds to meet its deposit, debt and other obligations as they come due, borrower requests to draw on committed credit facilities as well as unexpected demands for cash payments. While we are not subject to Basel III liquidity regulations, the adequacy of our liquidity is a matter of regulatory interest given the significant portion of our balance sheet represented by loans as opposed to securities and other more marketable investments. Our Bank’s principal source of funding consists of customer deposits, supplemented by our short-term and long-term borrowings, including federal funds purchased and FHLB borrowings. We also rely on the availability of the mortgage secondary market provided by Ginnie Mae and the GSEs to support the liquidity of our residential mortgage assets. A substantial majority of our Bank’s liabilities consist of demand, savings, checking and money market deposits, which are payable on demand or upon relatively short notice. By comparison, a substantial portion of our assets are loans, most of which, excluding our mortgage finance loans and mortgage loans held for sale, cannot be collected or sold in so short a time frame, creating the potential for an imbalance in the availability of liquid assets to satisfy depositors and loan funding requirements.
We have historically held smaller balances of marketable securities than many of our competitors, limiting our ability to increase our liquidity by completing market sales of these assets. During 2020, we deployed some of our excess liquidity into marketable securities. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of securities and loans and other sources, or an inability to access the capital markets, could have a substantial negative effect on our Bank’s liquidity. We actively manage our available sources of funds to meet our expected needs under normal and financially stressed conditions, but there is no assurance that our Bank will be able to make new loans, meet ongoing funding commitments to borrowers and replace maturing deposits and advances as necessary under all possible circumstances. Our Bank’s ability to obtain funding could be impaired by factors beyond its control, such as disruptions in financial markets, negative expectations regarding the financial services industry generally or in our markets or negative perceptions of our Bank, including our credit ratings.
Our Bank sources a significant volume of its demand deposits from financial services companies, mortgage finance customers and other commercial sources, resulting in a larger percentage of large deposits and a smaller number of sources of deposits than would be typical of other banks in our markets, creating concentrations of deposits that carry a greater risk of unexpected material withdrawals. In recent periods over half of our total deposits have been attributable to customers whose balances exceed the $250,000 FDIC insurance limit. Many of these customers actively monitor our financial condition and results of operations and could withdraw their deposits quickly upon the occurrence of a material adverse development affecting our Bank or their businesses. Significant deterioration in our credit quality or a downgrade in our credit ratings could affect funding sources such as financial institutions and broker dealers. In response to this risk we have increased our liquidity and developed more sophisticated techniques for monitoring and planning for changes in liquidity and capital over the past several years, but there is no assurance that we will maintain or have access to sufficient funding and capital to fully mitigate our liquidity risk.
One potential source of liquidity for our Bank consists of “brokered deposits” arranged by brokers acting as intermediaries, typically larger money-center financial institutions. We receive deposits provided by certain of our customers in connection with our delivery of other financial services to them or their customers which are subject to regulatory classification as “brokered deposits” even though we consider these to be relationship deposits and they are not subject to the typical risks or market pricing associated with conventional brokered deposits.
If we do not maintain our regulatory capital above the level required to be well capitalized we would be required to obtain FDIC consent for us to continue to accept deposits classified as brokered deposits, and there can be no assurance that the FDIC would consent under any circumstances. We could also be required to suspend or eliminate deposit gathering from any source classified as “brokered” deposits. The FDIC can change the definition of brokered deposits or extend the classification to deposits not currently classified as brokered deposits. These non-traditional deposits are subject to greater operational and reputational risk of unexpected withdrawal than traditional demand and time deposits, particularly those provided by consumers. A significant decrease in our balances of relationship brokered deposits could have a material adverse effect upon our financial condition and results of operations. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations below for further discussion of our liquidity.
Our growth plans are dependent on the availability of capital and funding. Our historical ability to raise capital through the sale of capital stock and debt securities may be affected by economic and market conditions or regulatory changes that are beyond our control. Adverse changes in our operating performance or financial condition could make raising additional capital difficult or more expensive or limit our access to customary sources of funding, including inter-bank borrowings, repurchase agreements and borrowings from the Federal Reserve Bank ("FRB") or the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB"). Unexpected changes in requirements for capital resulting from regulatory actions could require us to raise capital at a time, and at a price, that might be unfavorable, or could require that we forego continuing growth or reduce our current loan portfolio. We cannot offer assurance that capital and funding will be available to us in the future, in needed amounts, upon acceptable terms or at all. Our efforts to raise capital could require the issuance of securities at times and with maturities, conditions and rates that are disadvantageous, and which could have a dilutive impact on our current stockholders. Factors that could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital or necessary funding include conditions in the capital markets, our financial performance, our credit ratings, regulatory actions and general economic conditions. Increases in our cost of capital, including dilution and
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increased interest or dividend requirements, could have a direct adverse impact on our operating performance and our ability to achieve our growth objectives. Trust preferred securities are no longer viable as a source of new long-term debt capital as a result of regulatory changes. The treatment of our existing trust preferred securities as capital may be subject to further regulatory change prior to their maturity, which could require the Company to seek additional capital.
Our mortgage finance business has experienced, and will likely continue to experience, highly variable usage of our funding capacity resulting from seasonal demands for credit, surges in consumer demand driven by changes in interest rates and month-end “spikes” of residential mortgage closings. These spikes could also result in our Bank having capital ratios that are below internally targeted levels or even levels that could cause our Bank to not be well capitalized and could affect liquidity levels. At the same time managing this risk by declining to respond fully to the needs of our customers could severely impact our business. We have responded to these variable funding demands by, among other things, increasing the extent of participations sold in our mortgage loan interests, as needed, and by maintaining a substantial borrowing relationship with the FHLB. Our mortgage finance customers have in recent periods provided significant low-cost deposit balances associated with the borrower escrow accounts created at the time certain mortgage loans are funded, which have benefitted our liquidity and net interest margin. In response to competitive pressures, we sometimes find it necessary to pay interest on some of these accounts, as regulations allow or require and this trend may continue, which can affect our ability to reduce our costs of funds. Individual escrow account balances also experience significant variability monthly as principal and interest payments, as well as ad valorem taxes and insurance premiums, are paid periodically. While the short average holding period of our mortgage interests of approximately 20 days will allow us, if necessitated by a funding shortfall, to rapidly decrease the size of the portfolio and its associated capital and funding requirements, any such action might significantly damage our business and important mortgage finance relationships.
We are dependent on funds obtained from borrowing or capital transactions or from our Bank to fund our obligations. We are a financial holding company engaged in the business of managing, controlling and operating our Bank. We conduct no material business or other activity at the parent company level other than activities incidental to holding equity and debt investments in our Bank. As a result, we rely on the proceeds of capital transactions, borrowings under our revolving line of credit, payments of interest and principal on loans made to our Bank and dividends on preferred stock issued by our Bank to pay our operating expenses, to satisfy our obligations to debtholders and to pay dividends on our preferred stock. The profitability of our Bank is subject to fluctuation based upon, among other things, the cost and availability of funds, changes in interest rates and economic conditions in general. Our Bank’s ability to pay dividends to us is subject to regulatory limitations that can, under certain adverse circumstances, prohibit the payment of dividends to us. Our right to participate in any distribution from the liquidation or sale of our Bank’s assets is subject to the prior claims of our Bank’s creditors.
If we are unable to access funds from capital transactions, borrowing under our revolving line of credit or dividends or interest on loan payments from our Bank, we may be unable to satisfy our obligations to creditors or debtholders or pay dividends on our preferred stock. Changes in our Bank’s operating results or capital requirements could require us to convert subordinated notes or preferred stock of our bank held by us into common equity, reducing our cash flow available to meet our obligations.
Market Risks
We must effectively manage our interest rate risk. Our profitability is dependent to a large extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income paid to us on our loans and investments and the interest we pay to third parties such as our depositors, lenders and debtholders. Changes in interest rates can impact our profits and the fair values of certain of our assets and liabilities. Models that we use to forecast and plan for the impact of rising and falling interest rates may be incorrect or fail to consider the impact of competition and other conditions affecting our loans and deposits.
Periods of unusually low or volatile interest rates have a material effect on our earnings. During the first quarter of 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve reduced the target Federal Funds rate to between zero and 0.25%, and there is an expectation that Federal Reserve policy will maintain a low interest rate environment for the foreseeable future.
Increases in interest rates and economic conditions affecting consumer demand for housing can have a material impact on the volume of mortgage originations and refinancings, adversely affecting the profitability of our mortgage finance business. Interest rate risk can also result from mismatches between the dollar amounts of repricing or maturing assets and liabilities and from mismatches in the timing and rates at which our assets and liabilities reprice. We actively monitor and manage the balances of our maturing and repricing assets and liabilities to reduce the adverse impact of changes in interest rates, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to avoid material adverse effects on our net interest margin in all market conditions.
Rising interest rates in prior periods have increased our interest expense, with a commensurate adverse effect on our net interest income, and may be expected to do so in future periods. In a rising rate environment, competition for cost-effective deposits increase, making it more costly for us to fund loan growth. Rapid and unexpected volatility in interest rates creates additional uncertainty and potential for adverse financial effects. There can be no assurance that we will not be materially adversely affected by future changes in interest rates.
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We may be adversely affected by changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, for our variable rate loans, derivative contracts and other financial assets and liabilities. Our business relies upon a large volume of loans, derivative contracts and other financial instruments which are directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR to establish their interest rate and/or value. The administrator of LIBOR has proposed to extend publication of the most commonly used U.S. Dollar LIBOR settings to June 30, 2023 and to cease publishing other LIBOR settings on December 31, 2021. The U.S. federal banking agencies have issued guidance strongly encouraging banking organizations to cease using U.S. dollar LIBOR as a reference rate in new contracts as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021. It is not possible to know whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may have on the financial markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.
While we have established a working group consisting of key stakeholders from throughout the company to monitor developments relating to LIBOR uncertainty and changes and to guide the Bank’s response, the impact of these developments on our business and financial results is not yet known. The transition from LIBOR may cause us to incur increased costs and face additional risks. Uncertainty as to the nature of alternative reference rates and as to potential changes in or other reforms to LIBOR may adversely affect LIBOR rates and the value of LIBOR-based loans originated prior to 2021. If LIBOR rates are no longer available, any successor or replacement interest rates may perform differently, which may affect our net interest income, change our market risk profile and require changes to our risk, pricing and hedging strategies. Any failure to adequately manage this transition could adversely impact our reputation.
Strategic Risks
We must be effective in developing and executing new lines of business and new products and services while managing associated risks. Our business strategy requires that we develop and grow new lines of business and offer new products and services within existing lines of business in order to compete successfully in offering a premier and differentiated client banking experience to ensure future client acquisition and retention of existing clients and realize our strategic priorities for both loans and deposits. Substantial costs, risks and uncertainties are associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. Developing and marketing new activities requires that we invest significant time and resources before new sources of revenues, funding and profits can be realized. Timetables for the development and launch of new activities may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible or their realization may be delayed. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, receipt of necessary licenses or permits, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also adversely impact the successful execution of new activities. New activities necessarily entail additional risks and may present additional risks to the effectiveness of our system of internal controls and risk management strategies. All service offerings, including current offerings and new activities, may become more risky due to changes in economic, competitive and market conditions beyond our control. Our regulators could determine that our risk management practices are not adequate or our capital levels are not sufficiently in excess of well-capitalized levels and take action to restrain our growth. Failure to successfully manage these risks, generally and to the satisfaction of our regulators, in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We compete with many banks and other financial service providers. Competition among providers of financial services in our markets, in Texas, regionally and nationally, is intense. We compete with other financial and bank holding companies, state and national commercial banks, savings and loan associations, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerages, insurance companies, mortgage banking companies, money market mutual funds, asset-based non-bank lenders, government sponsored or subsidized lenders and other financial services providers. Many of these competitors have substantially greater financial resources, lending limits and technological resources and larger branch networks than we do, and are able to offer a broader range of products and services than we can, including systems and services that could more effectively protect customers from cyber threats. Many competitors offer lower interest rates and more liberal loan terms that appeal to borrowers but adversely affect net interest margin and assurance of repayment. We are increasingly faced with competition in many of our products and services by non-bank providers who may have competitive advantages of size, access to potential customers and fewer regulatory requirements. Failure to compete effectively for deposit, loan and other banking customers in any of our lines of business could cause us to lose market share, slow or reverse our growth rate or suffer adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations.
We must effectively execute our business strategy in order to continue our asset and earnings growth. Our core strategy is to develop our business principally through organic growth by offering a premier and differentiated banking experience to companies in high-value business segments. Our prospects for continued growth must be considered in light of the risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered by growing companies. In order to execute our business strategy successfully, we must, among other things:
continue to identify and expand into suitable markets and lines of business, in Texas, regionally and nationally;
develop new products and services and execute our full range of products and services more efficiently and effectively;
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attract and retain qualified bankers in each of our targeted market segments to build our customer base;
respond to market opportunities promptly and nimbly while balancing the demands of risk management and compliance with regulatory requirements;
expand our loan portfolio in an intensely competitive environment while maintaining credit quality;
attract sufficient deposits and capital to fund our anticipated loan growth and satisfy regulatory requirements;
control expenses; and
acquire and maintain sufficient qualified staffing and information technology and operational resources to support growth and compliance with regulatory requirements.
Failure to effectively execute our business strategy could have a material adverse effect on our business, future prospects, financial condition or results of operations.
Operational Risks
We, our vendors and customers must effectively manage our information systems risk which may experience disruption, failure or breach in security.. We, our vendors and customers all rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our respective businesses, store sensitive data and work effectively together. The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. Our ability to compete successfully depends in part upon our ability to use technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands. Many of our larger competitors invest substantially greater resources in technological capabilities than we do. We may not be able to effectively protect, develop and manage mission critical systems and IT infrastructure to support strategic business initiatives, which could impair our ability to achieve financial, operational, compliance and strategic objectives and negatively affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our communications and information systems and those of our vendors and customers remain vulnerable to unexpected disruptions, failures and cyber-attacks. Any disruption, failure or breach in security of these systems could result in significant disruption to our operations. Information security breaches and cyber-security-related incidents include, but are not limited to, attempts to access information, including customer and company information, malicious code, computer viruses and denial of service attacks that could result in unauthorized access, misuse, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service or other events. These types of threats may derive from human error, fraud or malice on the part of external or internal parties or may result from accidental technological failure. The risk, frequency and intensity of such attacks is escalating, including as a result of remote working arrangements implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication of these threats. Material failures or interruptions of these systems could impair our ability to serve our customers and to operate our business and could damage our reputation, result in a loss of business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny or enforcement or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability. While we have developed extensive recovery plans, we cannot assure that those plans will be effective to prevent adverse effects upon us and our customers resulting from system failures.
Cloud technologies are also critical to the operation of our systems, and our reliance on cloud technologies is growing. Service disruptions in cloud technologies may lead to delays in accessing, or the loss of, data that is important to our businesses and may hinder our clients’ access to our products and services.
We collect and store sensitive data, including personally identifiable information of our customers and employees and in the ordinary course of business must allow certain of our vendors access to that data. Breaches of our systems or our vendors' or customers’ systems, thefts of data and other breaches and criminal activity may result in significant costs to respond, liability for customer losses if we or our vendors are at fault, damage to our customer relationships, regulatory scrutiny and enforcement and loss of future business opportunities due to reputational damage. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because attempted security breaches, particularly cyber-attacks and intrusions, or disruptions will occur in the future, and because the techniques used in such attempts are constantly evolving and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.
Breaches can be perpetrated by unknown third parties, but could also be facilitated by employees either inadvertently or by consciously attempting to create disruption or certain acts of fraud. Our customers and employees have been, and will continue to be, targeted by parties using fraudulent e-mails and other communications in attempts to misappropriate passwords, bank account information or other personal information or to introduce viruses or other malware through "Trojan horse" programs to our information systems, the information systems of our merchants or third-party service providers and/or our customers' computers. Although we, with the help of third-party service providers, will continue to implement information security technology solutions and establish operational procedures to protect sensitive data, there can be no assurance that these
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measures will be effective. We advise and provide training to our customers and evaluate and impose security requirements on our vendors regarding protection of their respective information systems, but there is no assurance that these actions will have the intended positive effects or will be effective to prevent losses. In some cases we may elect to contribute to the cost of responding to cybercrime against our customers, even when we are not at fault, in order to maintain valuable customer relationships. Successful cyber-attacks on our Bank, vendors or customers may affect the reputation of our Bank, and failure to meet customer expectations could have a material impact on our ability to attract and retain deposits as a primary source of funding.
A security breach or other significant disruption of our information systems or those related to our customers, merchants and our third party vendors, including as a result of cyber-attacks, could (i) disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of certain of our customers; (ii) result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or our customers; (iii) result in a violation of applicable privacy, data breach and other laws, subjecting us to additional regulatory scrutiny and exposing us to civil litigation, governmental fines and possible financial liability; (iv) require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result; or (v) harm our reputation or cause a decrease in the number of customers that choose to do business with us. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations rely extensively on a broad range of external vendors. We rely on a large number of vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain our day-to-day operations, particularly in the areas of operations, treasury management systems, information technology and security. This reliance exposes us to the risk that these vendors will not perform as required by our agreements as well as risks resulting from disruptions in communications with our vendors, cyber-attacks and security breaches at our vendors, failure of a vendor to provide services for other reasons and poor performance of services. An external vendor’s failure to perform in any of these areas could be disruptive to our operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as cause reputational damage. External vendors who must have access to our information systems in order to provide their services have been identified as significant sources of information technology security risk. While we have implemented an active program of oversight to address this risk, there can be no assurance that we will not experience material security breaches associated with our vendors.
We must continue to attract, retain and develop key personnel. Our success depends to a significant extent upon our ability to attract, develop and retain experienced bankers in each of our lines of business and markets as well as managers in operational areas, compliance and other support areas to build and maintain the infrastructure and controls required to support continuing loan and deposit growth. Competition for the best people in our industry can be intense, and there is no assurance that we will continue to have the same level of success in this effort that has supported our historical results. Factors that affect our ability to attract, develop and retain key employees include our compensation and benefits programs, our profitability, our ability to establish appropriate succession plans for key talent, our reputation for rewarding and promoting qualified employees and market competition for employees with certain skills, including information systems development and security. The cost of employee compensation is a significant portion of our operating expenses and can materially impact our results of operations. The unanticipated loss of the services of key personnel could have an adverse effect on our business. Although we have entered into employment agreements with certain key employees, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in retaining them.
Our accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on management judgment, which may prove inadequate or be adversely impacted by inaccurate assumptions or models. The processes we use to estimate expected credit losses for purposes of establishing the allowance for credit losses and to measure the fair value of financial instruments, certain of our liquidity and capital planning tools, as well as the processes we use to estimate the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, all depend upon management’s judgment. Management’s judgment and the data relied upon by management may be based on assumptions that prove to be inaccurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Additionally, CECL requires the application of greater management judgment that is supported by new models and more data elements, including macroeconomic forecasts, than the previous allowance standard. Our adoption of the CECL model is expected to increase the complexity, and associated risk, of the analysis and processes relying on management judgment, which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Our risk management strategies and processes may not be effective; our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented. We continue to invest in the development of risk management techniques, strategies, assessment methods and related controls and monitoring approaches on an ongoing basis. However, these risk management strategies and processes may not be fully effective in mitigating our risk exposure in all economic market environments or against all types of risk. Any failures in our risk management strategies and processes to accurately identify, quantify and monitor our risk exposure could limit our ability to effectively manage our risks. Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls over financial reporting, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and management judgment and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures or
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failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business is susceptible to fraud. Our business exposes us to fraud risk from our loan and deposit customers, the parties they do business with, as well as from our employees, contractors and vendors. We rely on financial and other data from new and existing customers which could turn out to be fraudulent when accepting such customers, executing their financial transactions and making and purchasing loans and other financial assets. In times of increased economic stress we are at increased risk of fraud losses. We believe we have underwriting and operational controls in place to prevent or detect such fraud, but we cannot provide assurance that these controls will be effective in detecting fraud or that we will not experience fraud losses or incur costs or other damage related to such fraud, at levels that adversely affect our financial results or reputation. Our lending customers may also experience fraud in their businesses which could adversely affect their ability to repay their loans or make use of our services. Our exposure and the exposure of our customers to fraud may increase our financial risk and reputation risk as it may result in unexpected loan losses that exceed those that have been provided for in our allowance for credit losses.
Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision. We, as a bank holding company and financial holding company, and our Bank as a national bank, are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision, and the potential for regulatory enforcement actions, that impact our business on a daily basis. See the discussion above at Business - Regulation and Supervision. These regulations affect our lending practices, permissible products and services and their terms and conditions, customer relationships, capital structure, investment practices, accounting, financial reporting, operations and our ability to grow, among other things. These regulations also impose obligations to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identities of our customers.
The level of regulatory scrutiny that we are subject to may fluctuate over time, based on numerous factors, including as a result of the upcoming change in the U.S. presidential administration. In addition, Congress, state legislatures, and federal and state regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Material changes in regulation and requirements imposed on financial institutions, such as the Dodd-Frank Act, Basel III Capital Rules, European Union's General Data Protection Regulations and California Consumer Privacy Act CCPA result in additional costs, impose more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer and increase the ability of non-bank financial services providers to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Such changes could result in new regulatory obligations which could prove difficult, expensive or competitively impractical to comply with if not equally imposed upon non-bank financial services providers with whom we compete.
We are subject to a continuous program of examinations by our regulators concerning, among other things, lending practices, reserve methodology, compliance with changing regulations and interpretations, BSA/AML compliance, our management of interest rate, liquidity, capital and operational risk, enterprise risk management, regulatory and financial accounting practices and policies and related matters, which can divert management’s time and attention from focusing on our business. We devote a significant amount of management time and expense to enhancing the infrastructure to support our compliance obligations, which can pose significant regulatory enforcement, financial and reputational risks if not appropriately addressed.
The Regulatory Relief Act passed on May 22, 2018, has provided a limited degree of regulatory relief for institutions of our size. Uncertainty regarding how our regulators will evaluate capital and liquidity planning going forward remains a risk. We continue to increase our capital and liquidity and expand our regulatory compliance staffing and systems in order to address continuing regulatory requirements. There is no assurance that our financial performance in future years will not be similarly burdened.
We expend substantial effort and incur costs to maintain and improve our systems, controls, accounting, operations, information security, compliance, audit effectiveness, analytical capabilities, staffing and training in order to satisfy regulatory requirements. We cannot offer assurance that these efforts will be accepted by our regulators as satisfying the legal and regulatory requirements applicable to us. Failure to comply with relevant laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur.
We must maintain adequate regulatory capital to support our business objectives. Under regulatory capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements, we must satisfy capital requirements based upon quantitative measures of assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items. Our satisfaction of these requirements is subject to qualitative judgments by regulators that may differ materially from management’s and that are subject to being determined retroactively for prior periods. Additionally, regulators can make subjective assessments about the adequacy of capital levels, even if our Bank's
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reported capital exceeds the “well-capitalized” requirements. Our ability to maintain our status as a financial holding company and to continue to operate our Bank as we have in recent periods is dependent upon a number of factors, including our Bank qualifying as “well capitalized” and “well managed” under applicable prompt corrective action regulations and upon our company qualifying on an ongoing basis as “well capitalized” and “well managed” under applicable Federal Reserve regulations.
Failure to meet regulatory capital standards could have a material adverse effect on our business, including damaging the confidence of customers in us, adversely impacting our reputation and competitive position and retention of key personnel. Any of these developments could limit our access to:
brokered deposits;
the Federal Reserve discount window;
advances from the FHLB;
capital markets transactions; and
development of new financial services.
Failure to meet regulatory capital standards may also result in higher FDIC assessments. If we fall below guidelines for being deemed “adequately capitalized” the OCC or Federal Reserve could impose restrictions on our activities and a broad range of regulatory requirements in order to effect “prompt corrective action.” The capital requirements applicable to us are in a process of continuous evaluation and revision in connection with actions of the Basel Committee, our regulators and the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act. We cannot predict the final form, or the effects, of these regulations on our business, but among the possible effects are requirements that we slow our rate of growth or obtain additional capital which could reduce our earnings or dilute our existing stockholders.
We are subject to claims and litigation in the ordinary course of our business, including claims that may not be covered by our insurers. Customers and other parties we engage with assert claims and take legal action against us on a regular basis and we regularly take legal action to collect unpaid borrower obligations, realize on collateral and assert our rights in commercial and other contexts. These actions frequently result in counter-claims against us. Litigation arises in a variety of contexts, including lending activities, employment practices, commercial agreements, fiduciary responsibility related to our wealth management services, intellectual property rights and other general business matters.
Claims and legal actions may result in significant legal costs to defend us or assert our rights and may result in reputational damage that adversely affects existing and future customer relationships. If claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us we may suffer significant financial liability or adverse effects upon our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See Legal Proceedings below for additional disclosures regarding legal proceedings.
We purchase insurance coverage to mitigate a wide range of operating risks, including general liability, errors and omissions, professional liability, business interruption, cyber-crime, fraud and property loss, for events that may be materially detrimental to our Bank or customers. There is no assurance that our insurance will be adequate to protect us against material losses in excess of our coverage limits or that insurers will perform their obligations under our policies without attempting to limit or exclude coverage. We could be required to pursue legal actions against insurers to obtain payment of amounts we are owed, and there is no assurance that such actions, if pursued, would be successful.
Other Risks Affecting Our Business
Our business faces unpredictable economic and business conditions. Our business is directly impacted by general economic and business conditions in Texas, the United States and internationally. The credit quality of our loan portfolio necessarily reflects, among other things, the general economic conditions in the areas in which we and our customers conduct our respective businesses. Our continued financial success can be affected by other factors that are beyond our control, including:
national, regional and local economic conditions;
the value of the U.S. Dollar in relation to the currencies of other advanced and emerging market countries;
the performance of both domestic and international equity and debt markets and valuation of securities traded on recognized domestic and international exchanges;
general economic consequences of international conditions, such as weakness in European and South American sovereign debt and currencies and the U.K.'s referendum to exit from the European Union, and the impact of those conditions on the US and global economies;
legislative and regulatory changes impacting our industry;
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the financial health of our customers and economic conditions affecting them and the value of our collateral, including effects from the COVID-19 pandemic and the continued price volatility of oil and gas and other commodities;
the incidence of fraud, illegal payments, security breaches and other illegal acts among or impacting our Bank and our customers;
structural changes in the markets for origination, sale and servicing of residential mortgages;
changes in governmental economic and regulatory policies, including the extent and timing of intervention in credit markets by the Federal Reserve or withdrawal from that intervention, generally as well as changes attributable to presidential and congressional elections;
changes in the availability of liquidity at a systemic level; and
material inflation or deflation.
Substantial deterioration in any of the foregoing conditions can have a material adverse effect on our prospects and our results of operations and financial condition. There is no assurance that we will be able to return to our historical rate of growth or our profitability. Our Bank's customer base is primarily commercial in nature, and our Bank does not have a significant retail branch network or retail consumer deposit base. In periods of economic downturn, business and commercial deposits may be more volatile than traditional retail consumer deposits. As a result, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected to a greater degree by these uncertainties than competitors having a larger retail customer base.
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting us and our customers, employees and third-party service providers, and the adverse impacts on our business, financial position, operations and prospects have been and are expected to continue to be significant. As a result of the unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and disruption in financial markets and in governmental, commercial and consumer activity caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, business and consumer customers of the Bank are experiencing varying degrees of financial distress, which is expected to increase over coming months and will likely adversely affect their ability to timely pay interest and principal on their loans and the value of the collateral securing their obligations. This in turn has influenced the recognition of credit losses in our loan portfolios and has increased our allowance for credit losses, particularly as businesses remain closed and as more customers are expected to draw on their lines of credit or seek additional loans to help finance their businesses. Disruptions to our customers’ businesses could also result in declines in, among other things, wealth management revenue. These developments as a consequence of the pandemic are materially impacting our business and the businesses of our customers and are expected to have a material adverse effect on our financial results, as evidenced by our results for the prior quarters in 2020.
In order to protect the health of our customers and employees, and to comply with applicable government directives, we have modified our business practices, including restricting employee travel, directing employees to work from home insofar as is possible, cancelling in-person meetings and implementing our business continuity plans and protocols to the extent necessary. We may take further such actions that we determine are in the best interest of our employees, customers and communities or as may be required by government order. These actions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and similar actions by our vendors and business partners, have not materially impaired our ability to support our employees, conduct our business and serve our customers, but there is no assurance that these actions will be sufficient to successfully mitigate the risks presented by COVID-19 or that our ability to operate will not be materially affected going forward. For instance, our business operations may be disrupted if key personnel or significant portions of our employees are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, if any of our vendors or business partners become unable to continue to provide their products and services, which we rely upon to maintain our day-to-day operations, our ability to serve our customers could be impacted.
COVID-19 does not yet appear to be contained and could affect significantly more households and businesses. Given the ongoing and dynamic nature of the circumstances, it is not possible to accurately predict the extent, severity or duration of these conditions or when normal economic and operating conditions will resume. For this reason, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic affects our business, operations and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios and credit ratings, is highly uncertain and unpredictable and depends on, among other things, new information that may emerge concerning the scope, duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, actions taken by governmental authorities and other parties in response to the pandemic, the scale of distribution and public acceptance of any vaccines for COVID-19 and the effectiveness of such vaccines in stemming or stopping the spread of COVID-19. The adverse impact on the markets in which we operate and on our business, operations and financial condition is expected to remain elevated until the pandemic subsides.
As a participating lender in the Small Business Administration’s PPP, we may be subject to additional risks regarding our Bank’s processing of PPP loans and are dependent on the federal government’s continuation and support of the program. Due to the short timeframe between the passing of the CARES Act and the beginning of the PPP, there is some ambiguity in the laws, rules and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP. Several other large banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP. We may be exposed to the risk of
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litigation, from both customers and non-customers who approached our Bank requesting PPP loans, regarding the process and procedures used by our Bank in processing applications for the PPP. Any such litigation filed against the Company or the Bank may be costly, regardless of the outcome, and result in significant financial liability or adversely affect our reputation. Any financial liability, litigation costs or reputational damage caused by PPP-related litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, while the PPP loans are fully guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (the “SBA”) and we believe that the majority of these loans will be forgiven, there can be no assurance that the borrowers will use or have used the funds appropriately or will have satisfied the staffing or payment requirements to qualify for forgiveness in whole or in part. Any portion of the loan that is not forgiven must be repaid by the borrower. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded or serviced by our Bank, which may or may not be related to an ambiguity in the laws, rules or guidance regarding operation of the PPP, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if we have already been paid under the guaranty, seek recovery from us of any loss related to the deficiency.
The impact of the Tax Act on us and our customers contributes to uncertainty and risk related to our customers' future demand for credit and our future results. The extent to which increased economic activity expected to result from the Tax Act has spurred additional economic activity or affected the extent of borrowing by our customers is unclear, although the continuation of the current economic expansion provides some evidence of a positive effect. At the same time, some of our customers may have elected to use their additional cash flow from lower taxes to fund their business, decreasing borrowing needs. The elimination of the federal income tax deductibility of business interest expense for a significant number of our customers effectively increases the cost of borrowing and makes equity or hybrid funding relatively more attractive. This could have a long-term negative impact on business customer borrowing. We realized a significant increase in our after-tax net income available to stockholders attributable to the Tax Act beginning in 2018, but there is no guarantee that future years' results will have the same benefit. The continued compression of net interest margin at our bank and for competitor banks indicates that some or all of the expected benefit from the Tax Act has been lost as the banks and financial services companies we compete with have elected to lower interest rates and fees and we have responded in order to remain competitive. Additionally, the tax benefits could be repealed as a result of future political or regulatory actions, including as a result of changes proposed by the new U.S. presidential administration. There is no assurance that the current or anticipated benefits of the Tax Act will be realized in future periods.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities. A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. There is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties, and that we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property's value by limiting our ability to use or sell it. Although we have policies and procedures requiring environmental review before initiating any foreclosure action on real property, these reviews may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Future laws or regulations or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws and regulations may increase our exposure to environmental liability.
Severe weather, earthquakes, other natural disasters, pandemics, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could significantly impact our business. Severe weather, earthquakes, other natural disasters, pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), acts of war or terrorism and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. Recent hurricanes caused extensive flooding and destruction along the coastal areas of Texas and in other areas in the US, including communities where we conduct business. Although management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Our Securities
Our stock price can be volatile. Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for you to resell your common stock when you want and at prices you find attractive. Our stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors including, among other things:
actual or anticipated variations in quarterly and annual results of our operations;
changes in recommendations by securities analysts;
changes in composition and perceptions of the investors who own our stock and other securities;
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changes in ratings from national rating agencies on publicly or privately-owned debt securities and deposits in our Bank;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
news reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry, including regulatory actions against other financial institutions;
actual or expected economic conditions that are perceived to affect our company such as changes in commodity prices, real estate values or interest rates;
perceptions in the marketplace regarding us and/or our competitors;
new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;
changes in government regulations and interpretation of those regulations, changes in our practices requested or required by regulators and changes in regulatory enforcement focus;
impacts and disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic; and
geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts.
General market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes or credit loss trends, could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.
The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies. Although our common stock is traded on Nasdaq, the trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies. Given the lower trading volume of our common stock, significant sales of our common stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause our stock price to fall. In addition, a substantial majority of common stock outstanding is held by institutional investors, and trading activity involving large positions may increase volatility of the stock price. Concentration of ownership by institutional investors and inability to execute trades covering large numbers of shares can increase volatility of stock price. Changes in general economic outlook or perspectives on our business or prospects by our institutional investors, whether factual or speculative, can have a major impact on our stock price.
Our preferred stock is thinly traded. There is only a limited trading volume in our preferred stock due to the small size of the issue and its largely institutional holder base. Significant sales of our preferred stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause the price of the preferred stock to fall substantially.
An investment in our securities is not an insured deposit. Our common stock, preferred stock and indebtedness are not bank deposits and, therefore, are not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in our common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report and is subject to the same market forces that affect the price of securities of any company. As a result, if you acquire our common stock, preferred stock or indebtedness, you may lose some or all of your investment.
The holders of our indebtedness and preferred stock have rights that are senior to those of our common stockholders. As of December 31, 2020, we had $111.0 million outstanding in subordinated notes issued by our holding company and $113.4 million outstanding in junior subordinated notes that are held by statutory trusts which issued trust preferred securities to investors. At December 31, 2020, our Bank had $175.0 million in subordinated notes outstanding. Payments of the principal and interest on our trust preferred securities are conditionally guaranteed by us to the extent not paid by each trust, provided the trust has funds available for such obligations.
Our subordinated notes and junior subordinated notes are senior to our shares of preferred stock and common stock in right of payment of dividends and other distributions. We must be current on interest and principal payments on our indebtedness before any dividends can be paid on our preferred stock or our common stock. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our indebtedness must be satisfied before any distributions can be made to our preferred or common stockholders. If certain conditions are met, we have the right to defer interest payments on the junior subordinated debentures (and the related trust preferred securities) at any time or from time to time for a period not to exceed 20 consecutive quarters in a deferral period, during which time no dividends may be paid to holders of our preferred stock or common stock. Because our Bank’s subordinated notes are obligations of the Bank, they would in liquidation of our Bank or sale of its assets receive payment before any amounts would be payable to holders of our common stock, preferred stock or subordinated notes.
At December 31, 2020, we had issued and outstanding 6 million shares of our 6.50% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, having an aggregate liquidation preference of $150.0 million. Our preferred stock is senior to our shares of common stock in right of payment of dividends and other distributions. We must be current on dividends payable to holders of
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preferred stock before any dividends can be paid on our common stock. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our preferred stock must be satisfied before any distributions can be made to our common stockholders.
We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock. We have not paid dividends on our common stock and we do not expect to do so for the foreseeable future. Our ability to pay dividends is limited by regulatory restrictions and the need to maintain sufficient consolidated capital. The ability of our Bank to pay dividends to us is limited by its obligation to maintain sufficient capital and by other regulatory restrictions as discussed above under the heading Supervision and Regulation - Restrictions on Payment of Dividends by Our Bank.
Federal legislation and regulations impose restriction on the ownership of our common stock. The ability of a third party to acquire us is limited under applicable U.S. banking laws and regulations. The BHCA requires any bank holding company (as defined therein) to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve prior to acquiring, directly or indirectly, more than 5% of our outstanding Common Stock. Any “company” (as defined in the BHCA) other than a bank holding company would be required to obtain Federal Reserve approval before acquiring “control” of us. “Control” generally means (i) the ownership or control of 25% or more of a class of voting securities, (ii) the ability to elect a majority of the directors or (iii) the ability otherwise to exercise a controlling influence over management and policies. A holder of 25% or more of our outstanding Common Stock, other than an individual, is subject to regulation and supervision as a bank holding company under the BHCA. In addition, under the CIBC Act and the Federal Reserve’s regulations thereunder, any person, either individually or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, is required to provide notice to the Federal Reserve prior to acquiring, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of our outstanding common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law may make it more difficult for you to receive a change in control premium. Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make a merger, tender offer or proxy contest more difficult, even if such events were perceived by many of our stockholders as beneficial to their interests. These provisions include advance notice for nominations of directors and stockholders' proposals, and authority to issue “blank check” preferred stock with such designations, rights and preferences as may be determined from time to time by our board of directors. In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law which, in general, prevents an interested stockholder, defined generally as a person owning 15% or more of a corporation's outstanding voting stock, from engaging in a business combination with our company for three years following the date that person became an interested stockholder unless certain specified conditions are satisfied.
Our Bank is subject to regulatory and contractual limitation on the payment of its subordinated notes. Under the FDIA, “critically undercapitalized” banks may not, beginning 60 days after becoming critically undercapitalized, make any payment of principal or interest on their subordinated debt (subject to certain limited exceptions). In addition, under Section 18(i) of the FDIA, our Bank is required to obtain the advance consent of the FDIC to retire any part of its subordinated notes. Under the FDIA, a bank may not pay interest on its subordinated notes if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits, or distribute any of its capital assets, while it remains in default on any assessment due to the FDIC.
Our Bank’s subordinated indebtedness is unsecured and subordinate and junior in right of payment to the Bank’s obligations to its depositors, its obligations under banker’s acceptances and letters of credit, its obligations to any Federal Reserve Bank, certain obligations to the FDIC, and its obligations to its other creditors, whether now outstanding or hereafter incurred, except any obligations which expressly rank on a parity with or junior to the subordinated notes.
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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters is located in downtown Dallas, Texas. These facilities, which we lease, house our executive and primary administrative offices, as well as the principal banking headquarters of Texas Capital Bank. We also lease other facilities in our primary market regions of Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Austin and San Antonio, as well as in California, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri and New York, some of which operate as full-service banking centers. We also lease an operations center in Richardson, Texas that houses our loan and deposit operations and our customer call center.
ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is subject to various claims and legal actions that may arise in the course of conducting its business. Management does not expect the disposition of any of these matters to have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial statements or results of operations. 
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TCBI”. On February 8, 2021, there were approximately 175 holders of record of our common stock.
Stock Performance Graph
The following table and graph sets forth the cumulative total stockholder return for the Company’s common stock for the five-year period ending on December 31, 2020, compared to an overall stock market index (Russell 2000 Index) and the Company’s peer group index (Nasdaq Bank Index). The Russell 2000 Index and Nasdaq Bank Index are based on total returns assuming reinvestment of dividends. The graph assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2015. The performance graph represents past performance and should not be considered to be an indication of future performance.
 
12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
Texas Capital Bancshares, Inc.$100.00 $158.64 $179.89 $103.38 $114.87 $120.40 
Russell 2000 Index (RTY)100.00 119.30 134.87 118.81 146.70 173.09 
Nasdaq Bank Index (CBNK)100.00 134.52 139.44 115.35 139.62 125.29 


tcbi-20201231_g1.jpg
Source: Bloomberg
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ITEM 6.    SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
You should read the selected financial data presented below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. 
 At or For the Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019201820172016
Consolidated Operating Data
Interest income$1,056,912 $1,365,312 $1,164,193 $879,299 $703,408 
Interest expense188,086 385,592 249,333 117,971 63,594 
Net interest income868,826 979,720 914,860 761,328 639,814 
Provision for credit losses258,000 75,000 87,000 44,000 77,000 
Net interest income after provision for credit losses610,826 904,720 827,860 717,328 562,814 
Non-interest income185,516 92,440 78,024 74,256 60,780 
Non-interest expense704,396 600,850 532,533 466,858 384,097 
Income before income taxes91,946 396,310 373,351 324,726 239,497 
Income tax expense25,657 84,295 79,964 128,645 86,078 
Net income66,289 312,015 293,387 196,081 153,419 
Preferred stock dividends9,750 9,750 9,750 9,750 9,750 
Net income available to common stockholders$56,539 $302,265 $283,637 $186,331 $143,669 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
Total assets$37,726,096 $32,548,069 $28,257,767 $25,075,645 $21,697,134 
Loans held for sale283,165 2,577,134 1,969,474 1,011,004 968,929 
Loans held for investment (LHI)15,351,451 16,476,413 16,690,550 15,366,252 13,001,011 
Loans held for investment, mortgage finance9,079,409 8,169,849 5,877,524 5,308,160 4,497,338 
Liquidity assets(1)9,032,807 4,263,766 2,865,874 2,727,581 2,725,645 
Investment securities3,196,970 239,871 120,216 23,511 24,874 
Demand deposits12,740,947 9,438,459 7,317,161 7,812,660 7,994,201 
Total deposits30,996,589 26,478,593 20,606,113 19,123,180 17,016,831 
Federal funds purchased and repurchase agreements111,751 141,766 641,174 365,040 109,575 
Other borrowings3,000,000 2,400,000 3,900,000 2,800,000 2,000,000 
Subordinated notes282,490 282,129 281,767 281,406 281,044 
Trust preferred subordinated debentures113,406 113,406 113,406 113,406 113,406 
Stockholders’ equity2,871,224 2,801,321 2,480,308 2,190,072 1,997,890 

(1)Liquidity assets include federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits in other banks.



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 At or For the Year Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
Other Financial Data
Income per share
Basic$1.12 $6.01 $5.68 $3.76 $3.10 
Diluted1.12 5.99 5.64 3.71 3.07 
Book value per common share53.92 52.67 46.42 41.09 37.33 
Tangible book value per common share(1)53.57 52.31 46.05 40.71 36.93 
Weighted average shares
Basic50,430,326 50,286,300 49,936,702 49,587,169 46,239,210 
Diluted50,582,979 50,419,204 50,272,872 50,259,834 46,765,902 
Selected Financial Ratios
Performance Ratios
Net interest margin2.39 %3.28 %3.78 %3.49 %3.14 %
Return on average assets0.18 %1.01 %1.16 %0.86 %0.73 %
Return on average common equity2.10 %11.95 %12.80 %9.46 %9.16 %
Efficiency ratio(2)66.81 %56.04 %53.63 %55.87 %54.82 %
Non-interest expense to average earning assets1.93 %2.00 %2.19 %2.12 %1.88 %
Asset Quality Ratios
Allowance for credit losses on loans to LHI1.04 %0.79 %0.85 %0.89 %0.96 %
Net charge-offs (recoveries) to average LHI0.80 %0.31 %0.37 %0.16 %0.29 %
Allowance for credit losses on loans to non-accrual loans2.1x.9x2.4x1.8x1.0x
Non-accrual loans to LHI0.50 %0.91 %0.36 %0.49 %0.96 %
Total NPAs to LHI plus OREO0.50 %0.91 %0.36 %0.55 %1.07 %
Capital and Liquidity Ratios
CET19.35 %8.88 %8.58 %8.45 %8.97 %
Total capital ratio12.09 %11.37 %11.31 %11.50 %12.48 %
Tier 1 capital ratio10.25 %9.75 %9.53 %9.52 %10.23 %
Tier 1 leverage ratio7.52 %8.42 %9.87 %9.15 %9.34 %
Total common equity to total assets7.21 %8.15 %8.25 %8.14 %8.52 %
Tangible common equity to total tangible assets(3)7.13 %8.07 %8.18 %8.06 %8.43 %
Average LHI, net to average total deposits80.07 %95.73 %102.74 %97.56 %95.82 %

(1)Stockholders' equity excluding preferred stock, less goodwill and intangibles, divided by shares outstanding at period end.
(2)Non-interest expense divided by the sum of net interest income and non-interest income.
(3)Stockholders' equity excluding preferred stock, less accumulated other comprehensive income and goodwill and intangibles, divided by total assets, less accumulated other comprehensive income and goodwill and intangibles.
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Selected Consolidated Financial Data and the audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Certain risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, may cause actual results to differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements appearing in this discussion and analysis. Refer to "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our 2019 Annual Report on Form 10K filed with the SEC on February 12, 2020, for discussion of our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements and financial analysis contained in this report that are not historical facts may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may also be contained in our future filings with SEC, in press releases and in oral and written statements made by us or with our approval that are not statements of historical fact and constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance taking into account all information available to us at the time such statements are made. Words such as “believes,” “expects,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “goals,” “objectives,” “expects,” “intends,” “seeks,” “likely,” “targeted,” “continue,” “remain,” “will,” “should,” “may” and other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements about the credit quality of our loan portfolio, general economic conditions in the United States and in our markets, including the continued impact on our customers from volatility in oil and gas prices, the material risks and uncertainties for the U.S. and world economies, and for our business, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, expectations regarding rates of default and loan losses, volatility in the mortgage industry, our business strategies and our expectations about future financial performance, future growth and earnings, the appropriateness of our allowance for credit losses and provision for credit losses, the impact of changing regulatory requirements and legislative changes on our business, increased competition, interest rate risk, new lines of business, new product or service offerings and new technologies.
Forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which change over time, are based on management’s expectations and assumptions at the time the statements are made and are not guarantees of future results. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:
Deterioration of the credit quality of our loan portfolio or declines in the value of collateral related to external factors such as commodity prices, real estate values or interest rates, increased default rates and loan losses or adverse changes in the industry concentrations of our loan portfolio.
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting us and our customers, employees and third-party service providers; the adverse impacts of the pandemic on our business, financial position, operations and prospects have been material. It is not possible to accurately predicts the extent, severity or duration of the pandemic or when normal economic and operational conditions will return.
Operational issues stemming from, and/or capital spending necessitated by, the potential need to adapt to industry changes in information technology systems, on which we are highly dependent.
Changes in interest rates, which may affect our net income and other future cash flows, or the market value of our assets, including the market value of investment securities.
Changes in our ability to access the capital markets, including changes in our credit ratings.
Changes in the value of commercial and residential real estate securing our loans or in the demand for credit to support the purchase and ownership of such assets.
Changing economic conditions or other developments adversely affecting our commercial, entrepreneurial and professional customers.
Adverse economic conditions and other factors affecting our middle market customers and their ability to continue to meet their loan obligations.
The failure to correctly assess and model the assumptions supporting our allowance for credit losses, causing it to become inadequate in the event of deteriorations in loan quality and increases in charge-offs, or increases or decreases to our allowance for credit losses as a result of the implementation of CECL.
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Changes in the U.S. economy in general or the Texas economy specifically resulting in deterioration of credit quality, increases in non-performing assets or charge-offs or reduced demand for credit or other financial services we offer, including the effects from declines in the level of drilling and production related to volatility in oil and gas prices and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Adverse changes in economic or market conditions, in Texas, the United States or internationally, that could affect the credit quality of our loan portfolio or our operating performance.
Unanticipated effects from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 may limit its benefits or adversely impact our business, which could include decreased demand for borrowing by our middle market customers or increased price competition that offsets the benefits of decreased federal income tax expense.
Unexpected market conditions or regulatory changes that could cause access to capital market transactions and other sources of funding to become more difficult to obtain on terms and conditions that are acceptable to us.
The inadequacy of our available funds to meet our deposit, debt and other obligations as they become due, or our failure to maintain our capital ratios as a result of adverse changes in our operating performance or financial condition, or changes in applicable regulations or regulator interpretation of regulations impacting our business or the characterization or risk weight of our assets.
The failure to effectively balance our funding sources with cash demands by depositors and borrowers.
The failure to manage information systems risk or to prevent cyber-incidents against us, our customers or our third party vendors, or to manage risks from failures, disruptions or security breaches affecting us, our customers or our third party vendors, which risks have been materially enhanced by our increased reliance on technology to support associates working outside our offices.
The costs and effects of cyber-incidents or other failures, disruptions or security breaches of our systems or those our third-party providers.
The failure to effectively manage our interest rate risk resulting from unexpectedly large or sudden changes in interest rates, maturity imbalances in our assets and liabilities, potential adverse effects to our borrowers including their inability to repay loans with increased interest rates and the impact to our net interest income from the increasing cost of interest-bearing deposits.
The failure of our enterprise risk management framework, our compliance program, or our corporate governance and supervisory oversight functions to timely identify and address emerging risks adequately, which may result in unexpected losses.
Uncertainty regarding the future of the London Interbank Offered Rate LIBOR, and the expected transition away from LIBOR toward new interest rate benchmarks.
Legislative and regulatory changes imposing further restrictions and costs on our business, a failure to maintain well capitalized or well managed status or regulatory enforcement actions against us, and uncertainty related to future implementation and enforcement of regulatory requirements resulting from the current political environment.
Changes in the monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. Government, including policies of the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Federal Reserve.
The effect of changes in laws, regulations, policies and guidelines (including, among others, laws, regulations, policies and guidelines concerning taxes, banking, securities and monetary and fiscal policies) with which we and our subsidiaries must comply under the new Biden Administration and the effects of any such changes on our business and results of operations;
The failure to successfully execute our business strategy, which may include expanding into new markets, developing and launching new lines of business or new products and services within the expected timeframes and budgets or to successfully manage the risks related to the development and implementation of these new businesses, products or services.
The failure to identify, attract and retain key personnel or the loss of key individuals or groups of employees.
Increased or more effective competition from banks and other financial service providers in our markets.
Structural changes in the markets for origination, sale and servicing of residential mortgages.
Uncertainty in the pricing of mortgage loans that we purchase, and later sell or securitize, as well as competition for the MSRs related to these loans and related interest rate risk or price risk resulting from retaining MSRs, and the potential effects of higher interest rates on our MCA loan volumes.
Changes in accounting principles, policies, practices or guidelines.
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Volatility in the market price of our common stock.
Material failures of our accounting estimates and risk management processes based on management judgment, or the supporting analytical and forecasting models.
Failure of our risk management strategies and procedures, including failure or circumvention of our controls.
Credit risk resulting from our exposure to counterparties.
An increase in the incidence or severity of fraud, illegal payments, security breaches and other illegal acts impacting our Bank and our customers.
The failure to maintain adequate regulatory capital to support our business.
Unavailability of funds obtained from borrowing or capital transactions or from our Bank to fund our obligations.
Incurrence of material costs and liabilities associated with legal and regulatory proceedings, investigations, inquiries and related matters with respect to the financial services industry, including those directly involving us or our Bank and arising from our participation in government stimulus programs responding to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Environmental liability associated with properties related to our lending activities.
Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other external events.
Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed in our forward-looking statements and from our historical financial results due to the factors discussed elsewhere in this report or disclosed in our other SEC filings. Forward-looking statements included herein speak only as of the date hereof and should not be relied upon as representing our expectations or beliefs as of any date subsequent to the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to revise any forward-looking statements contained in this report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The factors discussed herein are not intended to be a complete summary of all risks and uncertainties that may affect our businesses. Though we strive to monitor and mitigate risk, we cannot anticipate all potential economic, operational and financial developments that may adversely impact our operations and our financial results. Forward-looking statements should not be viewed as predictions and should not be the primary basis upon which investors evaluate an investment in our securities.
Overview of Our Business Operations
We commenced our banking operations in December 1998. An important aspect of our growth strategy has been our ability to effectively service and manage a large number of loans and deposit accounts in multiple markets in Texas, as well as several lines of business serving a regional or national clientele of commercial borrowers. Accordingly, we have created an operations infrastructure sufficient to support our lending and banking operations that we continue to build out as needed to serve a larger customer base and specialized industries.
On December 9, 2019, we and IBTX entered into the Merger Agreement to combine the companies in an all-stock merger of equals. On May 22, 2020, we and IBTX mutually agreed to terminate the Merger Agreement. The termination was approved by each company's board of directors after careful consideration of the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global markets and on the companies' ability to fully realize the benefits expected to be achieved through the merger. Neither party paid a termination fee in connection with the termination of the Merger Agreement.
In response to the pressures of the current economic environment and a refinement of our strategy, we took actions during the second and third quarters of 2020 which are expected to decrease our non-interest expenses, including a workforce reduction and write-offs of certain software assets. While these expenses, as well as merger-related expenses incurred in the first half of 2020, had a significant impact on our year-to-date operating results, we believe that we are better positioned to improve our core profitability going forward as the non-interest expense items are not expected to recur in future periods. During the fourth quarter of 2020, we did experience improvements in non-interest expense as a result of these actions, specifically in salaries and employee benefits due to the workforce reduction and in communications and technology expense related to lower software amortization expense as compared to the third quarter of 2020. We continue to focus on balance sheet strength and while we intend to operate with above-average liquidity in response to the uncertain economic environment, we believe opportunities exist to improve core earnings by reducing or replacing higher cost funding sources and improving the earning asset mix.
Our organic growth model and the depth of talent on our team have built a resilient business with lasting client relationships and a record of value creation through dynamic markets and business cycles.
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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
Impact on Our Financial Statements and Results of Operations
Financial institutions are dependent upon the ability of their loan customers to meet their loan obligations and the availability of their workforce and vendors. As a result of the shelter-at-home mandate that was in force early in the second quarter of 2020, commercial activity throughout the state of Texas, as well as nationally, decreased significantly. As of December 31, 2020, most regions in Texas have allowed businesses to re-open at limited capacities and with caution as to social-distancing and other restrictions. Commercial activity has improved, but has not returned to the levels existing prior to the outbreak of the pandemic. This continued depression in commercial activity may result in our customers' inability to meet their loan obligations to us. In addition, the economic pressures and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in changes in consumer spending behaviors, which may negatively impact the demand for loans and other services we offer. Our business and consumer customers are experiencing varying degrees of financial distress, which is expected to continue into the first quarter of 2021, especially if COVID-19 infections increase and new economic restrictions are mandated. Our borrowing base includes customers in industries such as energy, hotel/lodging, restaurants, entertainment, retail and commercial real estate, all of which have been and are likely to continue to be significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We recognize that these industries may take longer to recover as consumers may be hesitant to return to full social interaction or may change their spending habits on a more permanent basis as a result of the pandemic. We continue to monitor these customers closely.
Future economic conditions are subject to significant uncertainty. We have taken deliberate actions to ensure that we have the balance sheet strength to serve our clients and communities, including increases in liquidity and managing our assets and liabilities in order to maintain a strong capital position. Current economic pressures and their effects on our customers, coupled with the implementation of the CECL expected loss methodology for determining our allowance for credit losses, have contributed to a substantially increased provision for credit losses in 2020. We continue to monitor closely the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers, as well as the effects of the CARES Act and the new Act. Uncertainties associated with the pandemic include the duration of the outbreak, the impact to our customers, employees and vendors and the impact to the economy as a whole. COVID-19 has had, and is expected to continue to have, a significant adverse impact on our business, financial position and operating results. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our operations and financial results in 2021 cannot be reasonably or reliably estimated at this time.
Impact on our Business Operations
In order to protect the health of our customers and employees, and to comply with applicable government directives, we have modified our business practices, including restricting employee travel, directing employees to work from home insofar as is possible and implementing our business continuity plans and protocols to the extent necessary. Since early March 2020, a majority of our workforce has been working virtually with limited impact on the execution of our business and client experience. We expect to be able to continue with this strategy for the foreseeable future, but will begin transitioning employees back into the office in a phased approach when it is safe to do so. When the time comes to transition employees back into the office locations, our Business Continuity team has a plan in place to phase employees back into the office locations over an extended period of time. Our branch locations are currently open and operating during normal business hours, although customers are admitted into the branches only between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. We are taking additional precautions within our branch locations, including enhanced cleaning procedures, to ensure the safety of our customers and our employees.
Energy Portfolio
Outstanding energy loans totaled $766.2 million, or 3% of total loans held for investment, at December 31, 2020, compared to $1.4 billion, or 6% of total loans, at December 31, 2019. The decline in outstanding energy loans is due to our strategic de-risking of the energy portfolio as well as a heightened level of charge-offs in 2020 as we reached final resolution on a number of loans previously disclosed as problem loans. At December 31, 2020, energy non-accruals decreased to $51.7 million, compared to $125.0 million at December 31, 2019, further evidencing final resolution of previously disclosed problem loans.
Our energy loan portfolio is primarily comprised of loans to exploration and production (“E&P”) companies that are generally collateralized with proven reserves based on appropriate valuation standards that take into account the risk of oil and gas price volatility. At December 31, 2020, loans to E&P companies represented approximately 70% of total energy loans outstanding. The majority of this portfolio consists of first lien, senior secured, reserve-based loans, which we believe is the lowest-risk form of energy lending. At December 31, 2020 approximately 40% of our exposure was located in lower cost production areas such as the Permian Basin and Eagle Ford.
Year ended December 31, 2020 compared to year ended December 31, 2019
We reported net income of $66.3 million and net income available to common stockholders of $56.5 million, or $1.12 per diluted common share, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to net income of $312.0 million and net income
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available to common stockholders of $302.3 million, or $5.99 per diluted common share, for 2019. Return on average common equity ("ROE") was 2.10% and return on average assets ("ROA") was 0.18% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 11.95% and 1.01%, respectively, for 2019. The decline in net income, ROE and ROA for the year ended December 31, 2020 resulted primarily from a $183.0 million increase in the provision for credit losses, as well as a $103.5 million increase in non-interest expense, driven by the significant year-to-date 2020 expenses described below.

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Consolidated Daily Average Balances, Average Yields and Rates
 Year ended December 31,
  
202020192018
(in thousands except percentages)Average
Balance
Revenue /
Expense
Yield /
Rate
Average
Balance
Revenue /
Expense
Yield /
Rate
Average
Balance
Revenue /
Expense
Yield /
Rate
Assets
Investment Securities—taxable
$689,590 $10,112 1.47 %$37,574 $1,611 4.29 %$24,142 $849 3.52 %
Investment Securities—non-taxable(2)
195,741 9,320 4.76 %176,328 8,915 5.06 %46,553 2,512 5.40 %
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements
114,141 693 0.61 %73,946 1,529 2.07 %201,236 3,792 1.88 %
Interest-bearing Deposits in other banks
9,653,129 27,569 0.29 %3,483,254 71,093 2.04 %1,769,074 32,597 1.84 %
Loans held for sale1,114,311 36,369 3.26 %2,688,677 112,526 4.19 %1,561,530 71,240 4.56 %
Loans held for investment, mortgage finance
8,589,762 285,212 3.32 %6,999,585 241,665 3.45 %4,875,860 181,438 3.72 %
Loans held for investment(1)(2)
16,377,733 691,731 4.22 %16,803,930 934,228 5.56 %16,075,007 877,688 5.46 %
Less reserve for loan losses
248,563 — — 200,283 — — 183,863 — — 
Loans held for investment, net
24,718,932 976,943 3.95 %23,603,232 1,175,893 4.98 %20,767,004 1,059,126 5.10 %
Total earning assets36,485,844 1,061,006 2.91 %30,063,011 1,371,567 4.56 %24,369,539 1,170,116 4.80 %
Cash and other assets1,030,357 952,994 828,150 
Total assets$37,516,201 $31,016,005 $25,197,689 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Transaction deposits$4,090,591 $32,836 0.80 %$3,535,282 $68,908 1.95 %$3,044,300 $47,738 1.57 %
Savings deposits12,346,904 74,950 0.61 %9,780,532 168,856 1.73 %7,986,135 114,255 1.43 %
Time deposits2,867,579 38,331 1.34 %2,351,698 55,773 2.37 %1,292,864 23,123 1.79 %
Total interest-bearing deposits
19,305,074 146,117 0.76 %15,667,512 293,537 1.87 %12,323,299 185,116 1.50 %
Other borrowings3,115,416 22,006 0.71 %3,038,095 70,265 2.31 %2,102,404 42,738 2.03 %
Subordinated notes282,299 16,764 5.94 %281,936 16,764 5.95 %281,574 16,764 5.95 %
Trust preferred subordinated debentures
113,406 3,199 2.82 %113,406 5,026 4.43 %113,406 4,715 4.16 %
Total interest-bearing liabilities
22,816,195 188,086 0.82 %19,100,949 385,592 2.02 %14,820,683 249,333 1.68 %
Demand deposits11,567,549 8,989,104 7,890,304 
Other liabilities295,710 246,931 121,203 
Stockholders’ equity2,836,747 2,679,021 2,365,499 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$37,516,201 $31,016,005 $25,197,689 
Net interest income(2)$872,920 $985,975 $920,783 
Net interest margin2.39 %3.28 %3.78 %
Net interest spread2.09 %2.54 %3.12 %
Loan spread(3)3.43 %3.59 %4.04 %
(1)The loan averages include non-accrual loans which are stated net of unearned income. Loan interest income includes loan fees totaling $61.3 million, $57.1 million and $71.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(2)Taxable equivalent rates used where applicable.
(3)Yield on loans, net of reserves, less funding cost including all deposits and borrowed funds.
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Volume/Rate Analysis
The following table presents the changes in taxable-equivalent net interest income and identifies the changes due to differences in the average volume of earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities and the changes due to differences in the average interest rate on those assets and liabilities.
 Years Ended December 31,
 2020/20192019/2018
 Net
Change
Change Due To(1)Net
Change
Change Due To(1)
(in thousands)VolumeYield/Rate(2)VolumeYield/Rate(2)
Interest income:
Investment securities$8,906 $34,391 $(25,485)$7,165 $5,787 $1,378 
Loans held for sale(76,157)(61,542)(14,615)41,286 51,381 (10,095)
Loans held for investment, mortgage finance loans43,547 56,230 (12,683)60,227 78,979 (18,752)
Loans held for investment(242,497)(22,700)(219,797)56,540 38,729 17,811 
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements(836)1,092 (1,928)(2,263)(2,329)66 
Interest-bearing deposits in other banks(43,524)133,964 (177,488)38,496 36,304 2,192 
Total(310,561)141,435 (451,996)201,451 208,851 (7,400)
Interest expense:
Transaction deposits(36,072)10,856 (46,928)21,170 7,644 13,526 
Savings deposits(93,906)45,495 (139,401)54,601 27,534 27,067 
Time deposits(17,442)12,330 (29,772)32,650 15,517 17,133 
Other borrowings(48,259)1,741 (50,000)27,527 18,344 9,183 
Long-term debt(1,827)20 (1,847)311 20 291 
Total(197,506)70,442 (267,948)136,259 69,059 67,200 
Net interest income$(113,055)$70,993 $(184,048)$65,192 $139,792 $(74,600)
(1)Yield/rate and volume variances are allocated to yield/rate.
(2)Taxable equivalent rates used where applicable assuming a 21% tax rate.
Net Interest Income
Net interest income was $868.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $979.7 million for 2019. The decrease was primarily due to decreases in yields on earning assets and a shift in earning asset composition, partially offset by a decrease in funding costs.
Average earning assets for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased by $6.4 billion compared to the same period in 2019, and included a $671.4 million increase in average total investment securities, reflecting the deployment of excess liquidity into higher-yielding investment securities, a $1.1 billion increase in average total loans held for investment, primarily attributable to increases in average mortgage finance loans related to lower long-term interest rates, and a $6.2 billion increase in average liquidity assets, partially offset by a $1.6 billion decrease in average loans held for sale. The increase in average liquidity assets was the result of actions taken by management during 2020 to ensure that we have the balance sheet strength to serve our clients during the COVID-19 pandemic. While we intend to operate with above-average liquidity in response to the uncertain economic environment, we believe opportunities exist to improve core earnings by reducing or replacing higher-cost funding sources and improving the earning asset mix. The decrease in average loans held for sale compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 resulted from holding purchased loans for shorter durations than in prior periods in order to limit exposure to forbearance risk caused by current economic uncertainties. The decline in net interest income on loans held for sale resulting from shorter hold times was offset by an increase in non-interest income. Average interest-bearing liabilities increased $3.7 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily due to a $3.6 billion increase in average interest-bearing deposits. Average demand deposits for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased to $11.6 billion from $9.0 billion for 2019.
Net interest margin for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 2.39% compared to 3.28% for 2019. The decrease was primarily due to the effect of declining interest rates on earning asset yields and a shift in earning asset composition, primarily increases in lower-yielding liquidity assets and mortgage finance loans coupled with a decline in loans held for investment, excluding mortgage finance, partially offset by lower funding costs compared to 2019.
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The yield on total loans held for investment decreased to 3.95% for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 4.98% for 2019 and the yield on earning assets decreased to 2.91% for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 4.56% for 2019. The average cost of total deposits decreased to 0.47% for 2020 from 1.19% for 2019 and total funding costs, including all deposits, long-term debt and stockholders' equity decreased to 0.51% for 2020 compared to 1.25% for 2019.
Non-interest Income 
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)202020192018
Service charges on deposit accounts$11,620 $11,320 $12,787 
Wealth management and trust fee income9,998 8,810 8,148 
Brokered loan fees46,423 29,738 22,532 
Servicing income27,029 13,439 18,307 
Swap fees5,182 4,387 5,625 
Net gain/(loss) on sale of loans held for sale58,026 (20,259)(15,934)
Other(1)27,238 45,005 26,559 
Total non-interest income$185,516 $92,440 $78,024 
(1)Other non-interest income includes such items as letter of credit fees, bank owned life insurance ("BOLI") income, dividends on FHLB and FRB stock, income from legal settlements and other general operating income.
Non-interest income increased by $93.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 to $185.5 million, compared to $92.4 million for 2019. This increase was primarily due to a $78.3 million increase in net gain/(loss) on sale of loans held for sale, a $16.7 million increase in brokered loan fees and a $13.4 million increase in servicing income, partially offset by a $17.8 million decrease in other non-interest income. The increase in net gain/(loss) on sale of loans held for sale was due to favorable economics and lower hedge costs in 2020 as a result of holding purchased loans for shorter durations than in prior periods, which was offset by the decline in net interest income on loans held for sale noted above. The increase in brokered loans fees was due to an increase in total mortgage finance volumes in 2020, and the increase in servicing income was due to an increase in the outstanding balance of our servicing portfolio. The decrease in other non-interest income resulted primarily from the settlement of $15.0 million in legal claims in 2019 that did not recur in 2020.
Non-interest Expense 
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019(1)2018(1)
Salaries and employee benefits$340,529 $328,483 $300,899 
Net occupancy expense34,955 32,989 30,342 
Marketing23,581 53,355 39,335 
Legal and professional52,132 52,460