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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023

OR

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to           

Commission File Number: 001-36410

Phibro Animal Health Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

13-1840497

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

Glenpointe Centre East, 3rd Floor

300 Frank W. Burr Boulevard, Suite 21, Teaneck, New Jersey

07666-6712

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (201) 329-7300

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common Stock, $0.0001

par value per share

PAHC

Nasdaq Stock Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files.) Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its managements assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financing reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit reportYes No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock and Class B common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $271,929,241 as of December 31, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter based on the closing price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market. The registrant has no non-voting common stock.

As of August 25, 2023, there were 20,337,574 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 20,166,034 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on November 6, 2023 (hereinafter referred to as the “2023 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2023.

PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH CORPORATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary

3

Market Ranking and Other Industry Data

4

Trademarks, Service Marks and Trade Names

5

PART I

Item 1.

Business

6

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

27

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

52

Item 2.

Properties

52

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

53

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

53

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

54

Item 6.

(Reserved)

55

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

55

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

76

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

78

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

117

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

117

Item 9B.

Other Information

117

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

117

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

118

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

118

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

118

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

118

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

118

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

119

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

123

SIGNATURES

124

2

Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical or current fact included in this report are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements discuss our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements may include words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “outlook,” “potential,” “project,” “projection,” “plan,” “intend,” “seek,” “may,” “could,” “would,” “will,” “should,” “can,” “can have,” “likely,” the negatives thereof and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of the timing or nature of future operating or financial performance or other events. For example, all statements we make relating to our estimated and projected earnings, revenues, costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates and financial results, our plans and objectives for future operations, growth or initiatives, strategies, or the expected outcome or impact of pending or threatened litigation are forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those that we expected. Examples of such risks and uncertainties include:

outbreaks of animal diseases could significantly reduce demand for our products or availability of raw materials;
perceived adverse effects on human health linked to the consumption of food derived from animals that utilize our products could cause a decline in the sales of those products;
restrictions on the use of antibacterials in food-producing animals may become more prevalent;
the potential Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) withdrawal of approval of our Mecadox® (carbadox) product;
a material portion of our sales and gross profits are generated by antibacterials and other related products;
competition in each of our markets from a number of large and small companies, some of which have greater financial, research and development (“R&D”), production and other resources than we have;
our business may be negatively affected by weather conditions and the availability of natural resources;
the negative effects of a pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease in humans, such as COVID-19, on our business, financial results, manufacturing facilities and supply chain, as well as our customers, protein processors and markets;
climate change could have a material adverse impact on our operations and our customers’ businesses;
actions of regulatory bodies, including obtaining approvals related to the testing, manufacturing and marketing of certain of our products;
the continuing trend toward consolidation of certain customer groups as well as the emergence of large buying groups;
our ability to control costs and expenses;
any unforeseen material loss or casualty;
misuse or extra-label use of our products;
exposure relating to rising costs and reduced customer income;
heightened competition, including those from generics and those deriving from advances in veterinary medical practices and animal health technologies;
unanticipated safety or efficacy concerns;
our dependence on suppliers having current regulatory approvals;
our raw materials are subject to price fluctuations and their availability can be limited;

3

natural and man-made disasters, including but not limited to fire, snow and ice storms, flood, hail, hurricanes and earthquakes;
business interruption from political and social instability, including crime, civil disturbance, terrorist activities, outbreaks of disease and pandemics and armed conflicts, such as the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
terrorist attacks, particularly attacks on or within markets in which we operate;
risks related to changes in tax rates and exposure;
our ability to successfully implement our strategic initiatives;
our reliance on the continued operation of our manufacturing facilities and application of our intellectual property;
adverse U.S. and international economic market conditions, including currency fluctuations;
failure of our product approval, R&D, acquisition and licensing efforts to generate new products;
the risks of product liability claims, legal proceedings and general litigation expenses;
the impact of current and future laws and regulatory changes, including risks related to the protection of our customers’ privacy and risks related to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations;
modification of foreign trade policy may harm our food animal product customers;
our dependence on our Israeli and Brazilian operations;
impact of increased or decreased inventory levels at our direct customers or channel distributors;
our substantial level of indebtedness and related debt-service obligations;
restrictions imposed by covenants in our debt agreements;
the risk of work stoppages; and
other factors as described in “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, or cautionary statements, are disclosed under “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” All forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this report in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

We caution you that the important factors referenced above may not contain all of the factors that are important to you. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will realize the results or developments we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the consequences we anticipate or affect us or our operations in the way we expect. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be made that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

Market, Ranking and Other Industry Data

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this report concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on management estimates. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. We believe these estimates are reasonable as of the date of this report, or if an earlier date is specified, as of such earlier date. However, this information may prove to be inaccurate because of the method by which we obtained some of the data for

4

our estimates or because this information is subject to change and cannot always be verified due to limits on the availability and reliability of independent sources, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties inherent in any statistical survey of market shares. In addition, purchasing patterns and consumer preferences can and do change. As a result, you should be aware that market share, ranking and other similar data set forth in this report, and estimates and beliefs based on such data, may not be reliable.

Trademarks, Service Marks and Trade Names

The following trademarks and service marks used throughout this report belong to, are licensed to, or are otherwise used by us in our business: AB20®; Animate®; Aviax®; Aviax Plus®; Avi-Carb®; Banminth®; Bloat Guard®; Cellerate Yeast Solutions®; Carbigen®; Cerdimix®; Cerditac®; Coxistac®; EASE®; Emulsigen®; Eskalin®; Gemstone®; Lactrol®; Magni-Phi®; MB-1®; Mecadox®; MicroLife®; MJPRRS®; MVP adjuvants®; Neo-Terramycin®; Nicarb®; Nicarmix®; OmniGen®; Phi-Shield®; pHi-Tech®; Phivax®; Polygen®; Posistac®; Provia Prime; Rejensa®; Rumatel®; Salmin Plus®; Stafac®; TAbic®; Tailor-Made®; Terramycin®; V.H.; V-Max®; and Vistore®.

5

PART I

Item 1.   Business

Overview

Phibro Animal Health Corporation is a leading global diversified animal health and mineral nutrition company. We strive to be a trusted partner with livestock producers, farmers, veterinarians and consumers who raise and care for farm and companion animals by providing solutions to help them maintain and enhance the health of their animals. We market approximately 770 product lines in over 80 countries to approximately 4,000 customers. We develop, manufacture and market a broad range of products for food and companion animals including poultry, swine, beef and dairy cattle, aquaculture and dogs. Our products help prevent, control and treat diseases and support nutrition to help improve animal health and well-being. We sell animal health and mineral nutrition products either directly to integrated poultry, swine and cattle producers or through animal feed manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors and veterinarians.

Our products include:

Animal health products such as antibacterials, anticoccidials, nutritional specialty products, and vaccines and vaccine adjuvants that help improve the animal’s health and therefore improve performance, food safety and animal welfare. Our Animal Health segment also includes antibacterials and other processing aids used in the ethanol fermentation industry.
Mineral nutrition products that fortify the animal’s diet and help maintain optimal health.

We have focused our efforts in regions where the majority of livestock production is consolidated in large commercial farms. We believe we are well positioned to grow our sales with our established network of sales, marketing and distribution professionals in markets in North America, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe and Africa.

We are investing resources to further develop products for the companion animal sector. Our business is currently concentrated in the livestock sector.

In addition to animal health and mineral nutrition products, we manufacture and market specific ingredients for use in the personal care, industrial chemical and chemical catalyst industries. We sell performance products directly to customers in the aforementioned industries.

Our Class A common stock trades on the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “PAHC.” Our Class B common stock is not listed or traded on any stock exchange. We are a Delaware corporation.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context requires otherwise, references in this report to “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Company,” “Phibro,” “PAHC” and similar expressions refer to Phibro Animal Health Corporation and its subsidiaries.

For discussion regarding the impact of the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine on our financial results, see Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Business Segments

We manage our business in three segments — Animal Health, Mineral Nutrition, and Performance Products — each with its own dedicated management and sales team, for enhanced focus and accountability. Net sales by segments, species and regions were:

Segments

Change

Percentage of total

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

Animal Health

    

$

660

    

$

607

    

$

546

    

$

53

    

9

%  

$

61

    

11

%  

67

%  

64

%  

65

%

Mineral Nutrition

 

243

 

260

 

221

 

(17)

 

(6)

%  

 

39

 

18

%  

25

%  

28

%  

26

%

Performance Products

 

75

 

76

 

67

 

(0)

 

(0)

%  

 

9

 

13

%  

8

%  

8

%  

8

%

Total

$

978

$

942

$

833

$

36

 

4

%  

$

109

 

13

%  

  

 

  

 

  

6

Species

Change

Percentage of total

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

Poultry

    

$

331

    

$

319

    

$

297

    

$

12

    

4

%  

$

22

    

7

%  

34

%  

34

%  

36

%

Dairy

190

186

169

4

2

%

17

10

%  

19

%  

20

%  

20

%

Cattle

128

127

106

1

1

%

21

20

%  

13

%  

13

%  

13

%

Swine

 

89

 

80

 

79

 

9

 

11

%  

 

1

 

1

%  

9

%  

8

%  

9

%

Other (1)

 

240

 

230

 

182

 

10

 

4

%  

 

48

 

26

%  

25

%  

24

%  

22

%

Total

$

978

$

942

$

833

$

36

 

4

%  

$

109

 

13

%  

  

 

  

 

  

Regions (2)

Change

Percentage of total

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

United States

    

$

579

    

$

562

    

$

495

    

$

17

    

3

%  

$

67

    

13

%  

59

%  

60

%  

59

%

Latin America and Canada

220

191

166

29

15

%  

25

15

%  

22

%  

20

%  

20

%

Europe, Middle East and Africa

118

122

114

(5)

(4)

%  

8

7

%  

12

%  

13

%  

14

%

Asia Pacific

 

61

 

67

 

58

 

(5)

 

(8)

%  

 

9

 

15

%  

6

%  

7

%  

7

%

Total

$

978

$

942

$

833

$

36

 

4

%  

$

109

 

13

%  

  

 

  

 

  

(1)Other includes sales related to: Performance Products customers; the ethanol industry; aquaculture and other animal species; adjuvants for animal vaccine manufacturers; and Mineral Nutrition other customers.
(2)Net sales by region are based on country of destination.

Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.

Adjusted EBITDA by segment was:

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

Change

Percentage of total(2)

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

Animal Health

    

$

136

    

$

124

    

$

124

    

$

12

    

10

%  

$

0

    

0

%  

84

%  

79

%  

82

%

Mineral Nutrition

17

24

17

(7)

(28)

%  

7

40

%  

11

%  

15

%  

11

%

Performance Products

9

9

9

1

7

%  

(1)

(8)

%  

6

%  

6

%  

6

%

Corporate

 

(50)

 

(46)

 

(43)

 

(4)

 

10

%  

 

(3)

 

7

%  

Total

$

113

$

111

$

108

$

2

 

2

%  

$

3

 

3

%  

  

 

  

 

  

(1)See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — General description of non-GAAP financial measures” for description of Adjusted EBITDA.
(2)Before unallocated corporate costs.

Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.

Net identifiable assets by segment were:

Net Identifiable Assets

Change

Percentage of total

 

As of June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

Animal Health

    

$

699

    

$

655

    

$

595

    

$

44

    

7

%  

$

60

    

10

%  

72

%  

70

%  

71

%

Mineral Nutrition

76

87

68

(12)

(13)

%  

19

29

%  

8

%  

9

%  

8

%

Performance Products

50

39

37

10

26

%  

3

7

%  

5

%  

4

%  

4

%

Corporate

 

147

 

150

 

141

 

(3)

 

(2)

%  

 

9

 

6

%  

15

%  

16

%  

17

%

Total

$

971

$

932

$

841

$

40

 

4

%  

$

91

 

11

%  

  

 

  

 

  

7

Corporate assets include cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, debt issuance costs, income tax related assets and certain other assets.

Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.

Animal Health

Our Animal Health business develops, manufactures and markets about 270 product lines, including:

antibacterials, which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that cause infections in animals; anticoccidials, which inhibit the growth of coccidia (parasites) that damage the intestinal tract of animals; and related products (MFAs and other);
nutritional specialty products, which support nutrition to help improve health and performance (nutritional specialties); and
vaccines, which induce an increase in antibody levels against a specific virus or bacterium, thus preventing disease due to infection with wild strains of that virus or bacterium (vaccines).

Our animal health products help our customers prevent, control and treat diseases and support nutrition to help improve health and well-being, enabling our customers to more efficiently produce high-quality, wholesome and affordable animal protein products for human consumption. We develop, manufacture and market a broad range of animal health products for food animals including poultry, swine, beef and dairy cattle and aquaculture. We provide technical and product support directly to our customers to ensure the optimal use of our products. The animal health industry and demand for many of our animal health products in a particular region are affected by changing disease pressures and by weather conditions, as usage of our products follows varying weather patterns and seasons. As a result, we may experience regional and seasonal fluctuations in our animal health segment.

We continue to build our companion animal business and pipeline. Our Rejensa® joint supplement for dogs continues to gain customer acceptance. Our companion animal development pipeline includes an early-stage atopic dermatitis compound, a novel Lyme vaccine delivery system product, a potential treatment for mitral heart valve disease in dogs, a pain product and two early-stage oral care compounds.

Animal Health net sales by product group and regions were:

Product Groups

Change

Percentage of total

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

MFAs and other

    

$

387

    

$

362

    

$

330

    

$

26

    

7

%  

$

32

    

10

%  

59

%  

60

%  

60

%

Nutritional specialties

 

173

 

157

 

143

 

15

 

10

%  

 

14

 

10

%  

26

%  

26

%  

26

%

Vaccines

 

100

 

88

 

73

 

12

 

13

%  

 

15

 

21

%  

15

%  

15

%  

13

%

Animal Health

$

660

$

607

$

546

$

53

 

9

%  

$

61

 

11

%  

  

 

  

 

  

Regions(1)

Change

Percentage of total

 

For the Year Ended June 30

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

    

2023 / 2022

    

2022 / 2021

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

 

($ in millions)

United States

    

$

277

    

$

248

    

$

227

    

$

29

    

12

%  

$

21

    

9

%  

42

%  

41

%  

42

%

Latin America and Canada

207

175

151

32

18

%

24

16

%  

31

%  

29

%  

28

%

Europe, Middle East and Africa

116

120

110

(4)

(3)

%

10

9

%  

18

%  

20

%  

20

%

Asia Pacific

 

60

 

64

 

58

 

(4)

 

(6)

%  

 

6

 

10

%  

9

%  

11

%  

11

%

Total

$

660

$

607

$

546

$

53

 

9

%  

$

61

 

11

%  

  

 

  

 

  

(1)Net sales by region are based on country of destination.

Certain amounts and percentages may reflect rounding adjustments.

8

MFAs and Other

Our MFAs and other products primarily consist of concentrated medicated products administered through animal feeds, commonly referred to as Medicated Feed Additives (“MFAs”). Our MFAs and other products primarily consist of the production and sale of antibacterials (including Stafac®, Terramycin®, Neo-Terramycin® and Mecadox®) and anticoccidials (including Nicarb®, Aviax®, Aviax Plus®, Coxistac™ and amprolium). Antibacterials inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that cause infections in animals, while anticoccidials inhibit growth of coccidia (parasites) that damage the intestinal tract of animals. The “MFAs and other products” product group also includes antibacterial products and other processing aids used in the ethanol fermentation industry.

Approximately 44% of our MFAs and other sales in the fiscal year 2023 were to the poultry industry, with sales to swine, beef and dairy cattle and other customers accounting for the remainder. We market our MFAs and other products in all regions where we do business.

Nutritional Specialties

Nutritional specialty products enhance nutrition to help improve health and performance in areas such as immune system function and digestive health. Many of our proprietary nutritional specialty products have been developed through applied research in cooperation with private research companies or by leading universities with whom we collaborate and then further develop through commercial trials with customers. Our nutritional specialty products include the OmniGen® family of products, patented nutritional specialty products that have been shown in several studies to help maintain a cow’s healthy immune system; Animate®, an anionic nutritional specialty product that helps optimize the health and performance of the transition dairy cow; Magni-Phi®, a proprietary nutritional specialty product that has been shown to help improve intestinal health and immune response in poultry; Provia PrimeTM/MicroLife® Prime, a four-strain direct-fed microbial product for optimization of gut health, which leads to better pathogen control and improved performance in poultry; and, Cellerate Yeast Solutions®, a line of proprietary yeast culture products that are used to help improve digestive health, which may lead to improved animal health and performance.

We are also a developer, manufacturer and marketer of microbial products and bioproducts for a variety of applications serving animal health and nutrition, environmental, industrial and agricultural customers. We market our nutritional specialty products in all regions in which we operate.

Vaccines

Our vaccine products are primarily focused on preventing diseases in poultry, swine, beef and dairy cattle and aquaculture. We market our vaccine products to protect animals from either viral or bacterial disease challenges in all regions in which we operate.

We have developed and market approximately 345 licensed vaccine presentations for the prevention of diseases in poultry, including vaccines to protect against Infectious Bursal Disease, Infectious Bronchitis, Newcastle Disease, Reovirus, Salmonella and Coryza.

We develop, manufacture and market autogenous vaccines against animal diseases for swine, poultry and beef and dairy cattle in the United States and Brazil. Our autogenous bacterial and viral vaccines enable us to produce custom vaccines for veterinarians that contain antigens specific to each farm, allowing Phibro to provide comprehensive and customized health management solutions to our customers. Our autogenous vaccine products include the Tailor-Made® and Phi-Shield® lines of vaccines and the MJPRRS® vaccine. We also develop, manufacture and market adjuvants to animal vaccine manufacturers globally.

We have developed TAbic®, an innovative and proprietary delivery platform for vaccines. TAbic is a patented technology for formulation and delivery of vaccine antigens in effervescent tablets, packaged in sealed aluminum blister packages. The technology replaces the glass bottles that are in common use today, and offers significant sustainability advantages including reduced storage requirements, customer handling and disposal. Several of our vaccine products are available in the patented TAbic format.

We also focus on innovation to produce new antigens or new presentations of antigens, and have developed new vaccines and related technologies, such as:

9

MB-1®, a live attenuated vaccine for Infectious Bursal disease, developed from the M.B. strain, adapted for in-ovo or subcutaneous injection at the hatchery;
TAbic® IB VAR206, a live attenuated virus vaccine for Infectious Bronchitis developed from a unique genotype 2 variant strain;
The inactivated subunit Infectious Bursal Disease Virus;
Salmin Plus®, the first multi-variant inactivated vaccine containing Salmonella Enteritis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis;
EASE® (Enhanced Antigen Surface Expression), a new bacterial growth procedure to improve the performance of our vaccines; and
pHi-Tech®, a portable electronic vaccination device and software that ensures proper delivery of vaccines and provides health management information.

We continue to invest in a vaccine production facility in Sligo, Ireland to manufacture poultry vaccines, with our first commercial sale of product from this facility having occurred in fiscal year 2022, and longer-term expectations to add swine and cattle vaccines production at this facility. Installation of additional machinery and equipment is planned while we continue to submit necessary registrations on a country-by-country basis in order to obtain regulatory approvals needed to sell these products to a broader geographic market.

We recently completed construction of and received regulatory approval for a new vaccine production facility in Guarulhos, Brazil to manufacture and market autogenous vaccines that combat disease in swine, poultry and aquaculture.

Mineral Nutrition

Our Mineral Nutrition business manufactures and markets approximately 420 formulations and concentrations of trace minerals such as zinc, manganese, copper, iron and other compounds, with a focus on customers in North America. Our customers use these products to fortify the daily feed requirements of their animals’ diets and maintain an optimal balance of trace elements in each animal. We manufacture and market a broad range of mineral nutrition products for food animals including poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle. Volume growth in the mineral nutrition sector is primarily driven by livestock production and customer inventory levels, while pricing is largely based on costs of the underlying commodity metals. Demand for our mineral nutrition products can vary due to changes in customer buying patterns, seasonal variability and weather conditions in a particular region, which may cause animal feed consumption to fluctuate.

Performance Products

Our Performance Products business manufactures and markets specialty ingredients for use in the personal care, industrial chemical and chemical catalyst industries, predominantly in the United States.

Our Products

Animal Health

MFAs and Other

Our MFAs and other products primarily consist of the production and sale of antibacterials (Stafac, Terramycin, Neo-Terramycin and Mecadox) and anticoccidials (Nicarb, Aviax, Aviax Plus, Coxistac and amprolium). We sell our MFAs and other products in all regions where we do business.

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Antibacterials and Anticoccidials

We manufacture and market a broad range of antibacterials and other medicated products to the global livestock industry. These products provide therapeutic benefits for the animals while helping to control pathogens that have a negative impact on animal health and productivity. The table below presents our core MFA products:

    

    

Market Entry of 

    

Product

Active Ingredient 

 

Active Ingredient 

Description 

Terramycin®

 

oxytetracycline

 

1951

 

Antibacterial with multiple applications for a wide number of species

Nicarb®

 

nicarbazin

 

1954

 

Anticoccidial for poultry

Amprolium

 

amprolium

 

1960

 

Anticoccidial for poultry and cattle

Bloat Guard®

 

poloxalene

 

1967

 

Anti-bloat treatment for cattle

Banminth®

 

pyrantel tartrate

 

1972

 

Anthelmintic for livestock

Mecadox®

 

carbadox

 

1972

 

Antibacterial for enteric pathogens in swine including Salmonellosis and dysentery

Stafac®/Eskalin®/V-Max®

 

virginiamycin

 

1975

 

Antibacterial used to prevent and control diseases in poultry, swine and cattle

Coxistac® /Posistac®

 

salinomycin

 

1979

 

Anticoccidial for poultry, cattle and swine

Rumatel®

 

morantel tartrate

 

1981

 

Anthelmintic for livestock

Cerditac®/Cerdimix®

 

oxibendazole

 

1982

 

Anthelmintic for livestock

Aviax®

 

semduramicin

 

1995

 

Anticoccidial for poultry

Neo-Terramycin®

 

oxytetracycline + neomycin

 

1999

 

Combination of two antibacterials with multiple applications for a wide number of species

Aviax Plus®/Avi-Carb®

 

semduramicin + nicarbazin

 

2010

 

Anticoccidial for poultry

Antibacterials are biological or chemical products used in the animal health industry to treat or to prevent bacterial diseases, thereby promoting animal health, resulting in more efficient livestock production. Several factors contribute to limit the efficiency, weight gain and feed conversions of livestock production, including stress, poor nutrition, environmental and management challenges and disease. Antibacterials help prevent, control and treat disease in livestock, which can also lead to improved overall health of the animals, improved rate of weight gain and more efficient feed conversion. Our antibacterial products include:

Virginiamycin.   Virginiamycin is an antibacterial marketed under the brand names Stafac® to poultry, swine and cattle producers, Eskalin® to dairy cows and beef cattle producers and V-Max® for beef cattle producers. Virginiamycin is used primarily to prevent necrotic enteritis in chickens, treat and control Swine Dysentery and aid in the prevention or reduce the incidence of rumen acidosis and liver abscesses in cattle. Our experience in the development and production of virginiamycin has enabled us to develop significant intellectual property through trade secret know-how, which has helped protect against competition from generics. We are the sole worldwide manufacturer and marketer of virginiamycin.
Carbadox.   We market carbadox under the brand name Mecadox® for use in swine feeds to control swine Salmonellosis and Swine Dysentery and, as a result, improve animal health and production efficiencies. Mecadox is sold primarily in the United States to feed companies and large integrated swine producers.
Oxytetracycline and Neomycin.   Terramycin® utilizes the active ingredient oxytetracycline and Neo-Terramycin® combines the active ingredients neomycin and oxytetracycline to prevent, control and treat a wide range of diseases in chickens, turkeys, cattle, swine and aquaculture. We sell Terramycin and Neo-Terramycin products primarily to livestock and aquaculture producers, feed companies and distributors.

Anticoccidials are produced through fermentation or chemical synthesis and are primarily used to prevent and control the disease coccidiosis in poultry and cattle, thereby promoting intestinal health, resulting in healthier animals. Coccidiosis is a disease of the digestive tract that has considerable health consequences to livestock and, as a result, is of

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great concern to livestock producers. We sell our anticoccidials primarily to integrated poultry producers and feed companies and to international animal health companies. Our anticoccidial products include:

Nicarbazin.   We produce and market nicarbazin, a broad-spectrum anticoccidial used for coccidiosis prevention in poultry. We market nicarbazin under the trademarks Nicarb® and Nicarmix® and as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.
Amprolium.   We produce and market amprolium primarily as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.
Salinomycin and Semduramicin.   We produce and market Coxistac®, Aviax®/Aviax Plus®/Avi-Carb® and Posistac®, which are in a class of compounds known as ionophores, to combat coccidiosis in poultry and increase feed efficiency in swine.

Anthelmintics are used to treat infestations of parasitic intestinal worms. Our anthelmintic products include Rumatel® and Banminth®, which are both marketed to control major internal nematode parasites in beef and dairy cattle and swine.

Bloat Guard® is an anti-bloat treatment used in cattle to control bloat in animals grazing on legume or wheat-pasture.

Other includes products used in the ethanol fermentation industry, including antimicrobials, yeasts, process cleaning, corn oil recovery and other processing aids.

Nutritional Specialties

Our primary nutritional specialty products have been identified, developed and commercialized by our staff of nutritionists and veterinarians working with private research companies, leading universities and customers with whom we collaborate. For those of our nutritional specialty products that are not proprietary or exclusive to us, we typically maintain unique supply agreements or exclusive distributor status with the product developers giving us preferential access to trademarks, territories and research data.

Our nutritional specialty products include:

    

Market 

    

Product

 

Entry 

Description 

AB20®

 

1989

 

Natural flow agent that improves overall feed quality

Animate®

 

1999

 

Maintains proper blood calcium levels in dairy cows during critical transition period

OmniGen®

 

2004

 

Optimize immune function in dairy cows and improve productivity

Magni-Phi®

 

2015

 

Proprietary blend that helps to improve intestinal health and immune response which may lead to improved absorption and utilization of nutrients for poultry

Cellerate Yeast Solutions®

 

2017

 

Proprietary yeast culture products for all classes of livestock to help improve digestive health

Provia Prime™/MicroLife® Prime

 

2019

 

4-way combination direct-fed microbial for optimization of gut health, which leads to better pathogen control in poultry

AB20® is a natural flow agent that, when added to feed, improves the overall feed quality. The product is one of the most thoroughly researched in the flow agent product category.

Animate® is a patented anionic mineral supplement that helps optimize the health and performance of the transition dairy cow and improves profitability for dairy producers.

OmniGen® is a proprietary nutritional specialty product line designed to help maintain a cow’s healthy immune system, improve their natural response to potential environmental stressors and health challenges, and improve productivity.

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Magni-Phi® is a proprietary blend of saponins, triterpenoids and polyphenols (classes of phytogenic feed additives or natural botanicals) that helps improve intestinal health and immune response which may lead to improved absorption and utilization of nutrients for poultry.

Cellerate Yeast Solutions® is a line of proprietary yeast culture and yeast culture blends with yeast fractions and/or live cell yeast used in all classes of livestock and companion animals for improved digestive health. Improved digestive health may lead to improved animal health and performance.

Provia Prime™ and MicroLife® Prime represent a proprietary combination of four strains of bacillus-based direct-fed microbials that have been shown to promote beneficial gut bacteria, which can help promote health, immunity and productivity in poultry, which leads to lower pathogen challenges in commercial poultry production. Phibro continues to work in the development of new bacillus-based products, which are being developed for multiple animal species.

We market nutritional specialty products to livestock producers with the support of key influencers, such as animal nutritionists and veterinarians.

Vaccines

We develop, manufacture and market fully licensed and autogenous vaccines for poultry, swine, beef and dairy cattle and aquaculture globally. We also develop, manufacture and market vaccination devices. We produce vaccines that protect animals from either viral or bacterial disease challenges. Our vaccine products include:

    

Market 

    

Product

 

Entry 

Description 

V.H.TM

 

1974

 

Live vaccine for the prevention of Newcastle Disease in poultry

Tailor-Made® Vaccines

 

1982

 

Autogenous vaccines against either bacterial or viral diseases in poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle in the U.S.

MVP adjuvants®

 

1982

 

Components of veterinary vaccines that enhance the immune response to a vaccine

TAbic® M.B.

 

2004

 

Live vaccine for the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease in poultry

MJPRRS®

 

2007

 

Autogenous vaccine for the prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (“PRRS”) in swine

TAbic® IB VAR

 

2009

 

Live vaccine for the prevention of Infectious Bronchitis variant 1 strain 233A in poultry

TAbic® IB VAR206

 

2010

 

Live vaccine for the prevention of Infectious Bronchitis variant 206 in poultry

MB-1®

 

2017

 

Live vaccine for the prevention of Infections Bursal Disease in the hatchery in poultry

pHi-Tech®

 

2019

 

Portable electronic vaccination device and software that ensures proper delivery of vaccines and provides health management information

Phivax® SLE

2019

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine for the control of Salmonella infection in poultry

Phi-Shield® Vaccines

2023

Autogenous vaccines against either bacterial or viral diseases in poultry, swine and aquaculture in Brazil

The V.H. strain of Newcastle Disease vaccine is a pathogenic strain and is effective when applied by aerosol, coarse spray, drinking water or eye-drops. It has been used successfully under various management and climate conditions in many breeds of poultry.

Tailor-Made® vaccines are autogenous vaccines against either bacterial or viral diseases which contain antigens specific to each farm. We manufacture and sell these vaccines to U.S. veterinarians for use primarily in swine, poultry and beef and dairy cattle.

MVP adjuvants® are integral components used in veterinary vaccines which enhance the immune response to a vaccine. Our adjuvants include Emulsigen®, Emulsigen® D, Emulsigen® P, Carbigen® and Polygen®.

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The M.B. strain of Gumboro vaccine is an intermediate virulence live vaccine strain used for the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease in poultry. The intermediate strain was developed to provide protection against the new field epidemic virus, which is more virulent than those previously encountered.

MJPRRS®, an autogenous vaccine for swine, is administered to pregnant sows to protect their offspring from PRRS. This vaccine includes multiple PRRS isolates representing different virus strains of PRRS.

TAbic® IB VAR and TAbic® IB VAR206 vaccines are intermediate virulence live vaccine strains used for the prevention of infectious bronchitis in poultry. Both vaccines have become significant tools in the increasing fight against infectious bronchitis in regions throughout the world.

MB-1® is a live attenuated vaccine for Infectious Bursal disease in poultry, developed from the M.B. strain, adapted for in-ovo or subcutaneous injection in the hatchery.

pHi-Tech® is a portable electronic vaccination device and software that ensures proper delivery of vaccines and provides health management information.

Phivax® SLE is a vaccine used as an aid in the reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in layers and breeder broiler chickens.

Phi-Shield® vaccines are autogenous vaccines against either bacterial or viral diseases which contain antigens specific to each farm. We manufacture and sell these vaccines to Brazilian producers for use primarily in swine, poultry and aquaculture.

We focus on innovation to produce new antigens or new presentations of antigens, and have developed new vaccines, such as the inactivated subunit Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Egg Drop Syndrome vaccines, being sold as monovalent vaccines or in combinations with other antigens.

Mineral Nutrition

Our mineral nutrition products principally include inorganic and organic compounds of copper, zinc, cobalt, iron, selenium, manganese, magnesium and iodine.

Our mineral nutrition products also include GemStone®, our exclusive line of chelated organic trace minerals, including zinc, manganese, copper and iron glycine chelates. Our formulas feature high metal content to ensure greater mineral presence and preserve critical ration space. Each product is also highly chelated for superior bioavailability to maximize mineral absorption and minimize environmental impact. These organic trace minerals are available in a highly concentrated, easy-flowing granule.

Our mineral nutrition products also include the Vistore® portfolio of products, our chloride mineral option of value-driven trace mineral offerings. Our formulas feature high metal content to ensure optimal mineral presence and preserve critical ration space. High bioavailability also promotes maximized absorption for enhanced results and minimized waste.

Our major mineral nutrition customers are U.S. regional and national feed companies, distributors, co-ops, pre-mixers, integrated swine, beef and poultry producers and pet food manufacturers. The majority of our customers have nutrition staffs who determine their specific formulas for custom trace mineral premixes. Trace mineral costs and our selling prices fluctuate with commodity markets, and therefore, these products are price sensitive. Their sale requires a focused effort on cost and inventory management, quality control, customer service, pricing and logistics execution to be profitable.

Performance Products

Our Performance Products business manufactures and markets specialty ingredients for use in the personal care, industrial chemical and chemical catalyst industries. We operate the business through our PhibroChem (a division of PAHC), Ferro Metal and Chemical Corporation Limited and Phibro-Tech, Inc. (“Phibro-Tech”) business units.

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Sales and Marketing

Our sales organization includes sales, marketing and technical support employees. In markets where we do not have a direct commercial presence, we generally contract with distributors that provide logistics and sales and marketing support for our products. Together, our Animal Health and Mineral Nutrition businesses have a sales, marketing and technical support organization of more than 400 employees and approximately 195 distributors who market our portfolio of approximately 690 product lines to livestock producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, animal feed companies and distributors in over 80 countries.

In markets where we have a direct commercial presence, we sell our animal health and mineral nutrition products through our local sales offices, either directly to integrated poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle producers or through commercial animal feed manufacturers, wholesalers and distributors. Our sales representatives visit our customers, including livestock producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, animal feed companies and distributors, to inform, promote and sell our products and services. In direct service markets, our technical operations specialists provide scientific consulting focused on disease management and herd management, and training and education on diverse topics, including responsible product use.

We sell our Performance Products through our local sales offices to the personal care, industrial chemical and chemical catalyst industries. We market these products predominately in the United States.

Customers

We have approximately 4,000 customers, of which approximately 3,800 customers are served by our Animal Health and Mineral Nutrition businesses. We consider a diverse set of livestock producers, including poultry and swine operations and beef and dairy cattle farmers, to be the primary customers of our livestock products. We sell our animal health and mineral nutrition products directly to livestock and aquaculture producers and to distributors that typically re-sell the products to livestock producers. We sell our companion animal product using a distributor calling on veterinary clinics. We do not consider the business to be dependent on a single customer or a few customers, and we believe the loss of any one customer would not have a material adverse effect on our results.

We typically sell pursuant to purchase orders from customers and generally do not enter into long-term delivery contracts.

Product Registrations, Patents and Trademarks

We own certain product registrations, patents, trade names and trademarks, and use know-how, trade secrets, formulae and manufacturing techniques, which assist in maintaining the competitive positions of certain of our products. We believe that technology is an important component of our competitive position, and it provides us with low-cost positions enabling us to produce high quality products. Patents protect some of our technology, but a significant portion of our competitive advantage is based on know-how built up over many years of commercial operation, which is protected as trade secrets. We own, or have exclusive rights to use under license, approximately 282 patents or pending applications in more than 30 countries but we believe that no single patent is of material importance to our business and, accordingly, that the expiration or termination thereof would not materially affect our business.

We market our animal health products under hundreds of governmental product registrations approving many of our products with respect to animal drug safety and efficacy. The use of many of our medicated products is regulated by authorities that are specific to each country, e.g., the FDA in the United States, Health Canada in Canada and European Food Safety Authority (“EFSA”) and the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) in Europe. Medicated product registrations and requirements are country- and product-specific for each country in which they are sold. We continuously monitor, maintain and update the appropriate registration files pertaining to such regulations and approvals. In certain countries where we work with a third-party distributor, local regulatory requirements may require registration in the name of such distributor. As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 1,055 Animal Health product registrations globally, including approximately 390 MFA registrations, 345 vaccine registrations (including autogenous vaccines) and 320 registrations for nutritional specialty products. Our MFA global registrations included approximately 90 registrations for virginiamycin.

Additionally, many of our vaccine products are based on proprietary master seeds, proprietary adjuvant formulations or patented virus grouping technology. We actively seek to protect our proprietary information, including our trade

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secrets and proprietary know-how, by seeking to require our employees, consultants, advisors and partners to enter into confidentiality agreements and other arrangements upon the commencement of their employment or engagement.

We seek to file and maintain trademark registrations around the world based on commercial activities in most regions where we have, or desire to have, a business presence for a particular product or service. We currently maintain, or have rights to use under license, approximately 3,700 trademark registrations or pending applications globally, identifying goods and services related to our business.

Our technology, brands and other intellectual property are important elements of our business. We rely on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as non-disclosure agreements, to protect our intellectual property rights. Our policy is to vigorously protect, enforce and defend our rights to our intellectual property, as appropriate.

Compliance with Government Regulation

Many of our animal health and mineral nutrition products require licensing by a governmental agency before marketing. To maintain compliance with these regulatory requirements, we have established processes, systems and dedicated resources with end-to-end involvement from product concept to launch and maintenance in the market. Our regulatory function seeks to engage in dialogue with various global agencies regarding their policies that relate to animal health products. For products that are currently subject to formal licensing by government agencies, our business relies on the ongoing approval and/or periodic re-approval of those licenses. Failure to maintain and, where applicable, renew those licenses for any reason including, but not limited to, changing regulations, more stringent technical, legal or regulatory requirements, or failure of the company or its agents to make timely, complete or accurate submissions, could result in suspension or loss of the company’s rights to market its products in one or more countries.

United States

In the United States, governmental oversight of animal nutrition and health products is conducted primarily by the FDA and/or the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) has jurisdiction over certain products applied topically to animals or to premises to control external parasites and shares regulatory jurisdiction of ethanol manufactured in biofuel manufacturing facilities with the FDA.

The FDA regulates foods intended for human consumption and, through the Center for Veterinary Medicine (“CVM”), regulates the manufacture and distribution of animal drugs marketed in the U.S. including those administered to animals from which human foods are derived. All manufacturers of animal health pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States, must show their products to be safe, effective and produced by a consistent method of manufacture as defined under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. To protect the food and drug supply, the FDA develops technical standards for human and animal drug safety, effectiveness, labeling and Good Manufacturing Practice. The CVM evaluates data necessary to support approvals of veterinary drugs. Drug sponsors are required to file reports of certain product quality defects and adverse events in accordance with agency requirements.

FDA approval of Type A/B/C Medicated Feed Articles and drugs is based on satisfactory demonstration of safety, efficacy, manufacturing quality standards and appropriate labeling. Efficacy requirements are based on the desired label claim and encompass all species for which label indication is desired. Safety requirements include target animal safety and, in the case of food animals, human food safety (“HFS”). HFS reviews include drug residue levels and the safety of those residue levels. In addition to the safety and efficacy requirements for animal drugs used in food-producing animals, environmental safety must be demonstrated. Depending on the compound, the environmental studies may be quite extensive and expensive. In many instances, the regulatory hurdles for a drug that will be used in food-producing animals are at least as stringent as, if not more so than, those required for a drug used in humans. In addition, certain safety requirements relating to antimicrobial resistance must be met for antimicrobial products.

The CVM Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation is responsible for reviewing information submitted by drug sponsors who wish to obtain approval to manufacture and sell animal drugs. A new animal drug is deemed unsafe unless there is an approved New Animal Drug Application (“NADA”). Virtually all animal drugs are “new animal drugs” within the meaning of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. An approved Abbreviated New Animal Drug Application (“ANADA”) is a generic equivalent of an NADA previously approved by the FDA. Both are regulated by the FDA. The drug development process for human therapeutics is generally more involved than that for animal drugs. However, because human food safety and environmental safety are issues for food-producing animals, the animal drug approval process for food-producing animals typically takes longer than for companion animals.

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The FDA may deny an NADA or ANADA if applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied, require additional testing or information, or require post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of a product. There can be no assurances that FDA approval of any NADA or ANADA will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. Moreover, if regulatory approval of a product is granted, such approval may entail limitations on the indicated uses for which it may be marketed. Finally, product approvals may be withdrawn if compliance with regulatory standards is not maintained or if problems occur following initial marketing. Among the conditions for NADA or ANADA approval is the requirement that the prospective manufacturer’s quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations. A manufacturing facility is periodically inspected by the FDA for determination of compliance with cGMP after an initial pre-approval inspection. Certain subsequent manufacturing changes must be approved by the FDA prior to implementation. In complying with standards set forth in these regulations, manufacturers must continue to expend time, monies and effort in the area of production and quality control to ensure compliance. The process of seeking FDA approvals can be costly, time consuming and subject to unanticipated and significant delays. There can be no assurance that such approvals will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. Any delay in obtaining or any failure to obtain FDA or foreign government approvals, or the suspension or revocation of such approvals, would adversely affect our ability to introduce and market our products and to generate revenue.

The issue of the potential for increased bacterial resistance to certain antibiotics used in certain food-producing animals is the subject of discussions on a worldwide basis and, in certain instances, has led to government restrictions on the use of antibiotics in these food-producing animals. The sale of antibiotics is a material portion of our business. Legislative bills are introduced in the United States Congress from time to time that, if adopted, could have an adverse effect on our business. One of these initiatives is a proposed bill called the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act, which has been introduced in almost every Congress since the mid 2000’s. To date, such bills have not had sufficient support to become law. Should statutory, regulatory or other developments result in restrictions on the sale of our products, it could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

The USDA regulates the U.S. veterinary vaccines through the Center for Veterinary Biologics (“CVB”), which implements the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act to assure that pure, safe, potent and effective veterinary biologics are available for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. The CVB monitors and inspects vaccine products and the manufacturing facilities.

The EPA has established and monitors the Renewable Fuel Standard program, for which some of our biofuel manufacturing facilities must comply. Compliance includes generating and tracking renewable identification numbers documentation over transfer, blending and exporting, and quarterly reporting.

Virginiamycin. In November 2004, the CVM released a draft for comment of its risk assessment of streptogramin resistance for treatment of certain infections in humans attributable to the use of streptogramins in animals (the “risk assessment”). The risk assessment was initiated after approval of a human drug called Synercid® (quinupristin/dalfopristin) for treating vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (“VREf”), which led to increased attention regarding the use of streptogramins in animals. Synercid and virginiamycin (the active ingredient in our Stafac product) are both members of the streptogramin class of antimicrobial drugs. The risk assessment was unable to produce any firm conclusions as to whether, and, if so, how much, the use of virginiamycin in food animals contributes to the occurrence of streptogramin-resistant infections in humans via a foodborne pathway.

In classifying streptogramins in 2003 as a “medically important antimicrobial” (“MIA”) on the CVM’s Guidance for Industry (“GFI”) 152 list, a guidance document for evaluating the microbial safety of antimicrobial new animal drugs on food for human consumption, the FDA’s stated concern was the potential impact on use of Synercid for treating VREf in humans. In 2010, the U.S. label for Synercid was changed and the VREf indication was removed. The FDA determined that data submitted by the sponsor of Synercid failed to verify clinical benefit of the product for the treatment of VREf infections in humans. We requested that the FDA remove the streptogramin class of antimicrobials from GFI 152 to reflect that they are not “medically important” for human therapy, however, the FDA declined our request. The FDA has recently issued a draft of GFI 152 and the streptogram class of antimicrobials was still included as medically important. Phibro submitted comments again to the open docket recommending that streptogramins be listed as not medically important, particularly in light of the recent withdrawal of Synercid from the U.S. market by the sponsor. There is no certainty surrounding the outcome of the current review of the GFI 152 list and actions that may be taken by the FDA.

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MIAs. Effective January 2017, the CVM’s revised Veterinary Feed Directive (“VFD”) regulations, which included changes to the control and use of antimicrobial products for use in animal feed, require that affected antimicrobial products may only be used if authorized by a veterinarian in accordance with the regulations. Prior to implementation of the revised VFD regulations, many approved antimicrobial products could be obtained and used without formal veterinary authorization.

In January 2017, the FDA and industry, including us, completed the process of label changes for MIA products to remove production claims and to limit the use of MIAs to those uses that are considered necessary for assuring animal health, namely for the prevention, control and/or treatment of disease, and that MIA use in food-producing animals should include veterinary oversight or consultation. The label changes were the result of recommendations from the CVM, as described in GFI 213 (“New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered in or on Medicated Feed or Drinking Water of Food-Producing Animals: Recommendations for Drug Sponsors for Voluntarily Aligning Product Use Conditions with GFI 209”) and GFI 209 (“The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals”).

Carbadox. In April 2016, the FDA began initial steps to withdraw approval of carbadox (the active ingredient in our Mecadox product) via a regulatory process known as a Notice of Opportunity for Hearing (“NOOH”), due to concerns that certain residues from the product may persist in animal tissues for longer than previously determined. Carbadox has been approved and sold in the United States for 50 years and is a widely used treatment for controlling bacterial diseases in swine, including Salmonella and swine dysentery. In the years following, Phibro has continued an ongoing process of responding collaboratively and transparently to the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (“CVM”) inquiries and has provided extensive and meticulous research and data that confirmed the safety of carbadox. In July 2020, the FDA announced it would not proceed to a hearing on the scientific concerns raised in the 2016 NOOH, consistent with the normal regulatory procedure, but instead announced that it was withdrawing the 2016 NOOH and issuing a proposed order to review the regulatory method for carbadox. Phibro reiterated the safety of carbadox and the appropriateness of the regulatory method and offered to work with the CVM to generate additional data to support the existing regulatory method or select a suitable alternative regulatory method.

In March 2022, the FDA held a Part 15 virtual public hearing seeking data and information related to the safety of carbadox in which Phibro participated and again detailed the extensive research and data that confirm the safety of carbadox. In the event the FDA continues to assert that carbadox should be removed from the market, we will argue that we are entitled to and expect to have a full evidentiary hearing on the merits before an administrative law judge. Should we be unable to successfully defend the safety of the product, the loss of carbadox sales will have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Sales of Mecadox (carbadox) for the year ended June 30, 2023 were approximately $20 million. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Mecadox continues to be available for use by swine producers.

Manufacturing. The FDA routinely carries out audits related to cGMP standards for manufacturing facilities that make veterinary drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients approved for sale in the U.S. The FDA inspectors may make observations during these inspections, which may require corrective action in order for the manufacturing facility to remain in compliance with cGMP standards. Failure to take such corrective actions could result in the manufacturing facility being ineligible to receive future FDA approvals. In very serious cases of noncompliance with cGMP standards, the FDA may issue a warning letter which could result in products produced in such manufacturing facilities to be ineligible for sale in the U.S. Although it is our objective to remain in full conformance with U.S. cGMP standards, we have in the past received adverse observations and may in the future receive adverse observations or warning letters. Failure to comply with cGMP standards could have a material impact on our business and financial results.

European Union

European Union (“E.U.”) legislation requires that veterinary medicinal products must have a marketing authorization before they are placed on the market in the European Union. A veterinary medicinal product must meet certain quality, safety, efficacy and environmental criteria to receive a marketing authorization. The European Medicines Agency (and its main veterinary scientific committee, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use) and the national authorities in the various E.U. Member States, are responsible for administering this regime.

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A separate E.U. regime applies to feed additives. It provides for a re-registration process for existing additives and this process is ongoing. For certain types of additives, the authorizations are not generic in nature (so that they can be relied upon by any operator) but are limited to the company that obtained the marketing authorization. They are known as Brand Specific Approvals (“BSA”). The system is similar to the U.S. system, where regulatory approval is for the formulated product or “brand.”

The EFSA is responsible for the E.U. risk assessment regarding food and feed safety. Operating under the European Commission, in close collaboration with national authorities and in open consultation with its stakeholders, the EFSA provides independent scientific advice and communication on existing and emerging risks. The EFSA may issue advice regarding the process of adopting or revising European legislation on food or feed safety, deciding whether to approve regulated substances such as pesticides and food additives, or developing new regulatory frameworks and policies, for instance, in the field of nutrition. The EFSA aims to provide appropriate, consistent, accurate and timely communications on food safety issues to all stakeholders and the public at large, based on the Authority’s risk assessments and scientific expertise. The containment of antimicrobial resistance is one of the key areas of concern for the EFSA, EMA, the European Commission and its Directorates, the European Parliament and European Member State Governments.

A number of manufacturers, including us, submitted dossiers in order to re-register various anticoccidials for the purpose of obtaining regulatory approval from the European Commission. The BSA for our nicarbazin product was published in October 2010. Our reauthorization submission was made on time and is pending. We sell nicarbazin under our own BSA and as an active ingredient for another marketer’s product that has obtained a BSA and is sold in the European Union. Similarly, a BSA for our semduramicin product, Aviax, was published in 2006 and our reauthorization submission was made on time and is pending. We have submitted a dossier for reauthorization in accordance with the requirements of the EFSA and responded to requests for additional information from the EFSA by submitting additional data for each product. The current BSAs remain valid while the EFSA reviews the additional data we have submitted. There can be no guarantee that these submissions will be reviewed favorably or in a timely manner. Failure to gain reauthorization in a timely manner could have an adverse financial impact on our business.

The Delegating and Implementing Acts under E.U. Regulation 2019/6 includes provisions that could require animals or animal origin products imported into the E.U. from other countries to be produced under the same conditions as are required in the E.U. This may preclude the use of veterinary products not approved in the E.U. or require animal health products to be used in the manner approved in the E.U. If such restrictions are implemented, they could result in a reduction or elimination of the use of our products, especially our antibacterial products, in countries that export animals or animal origin products to the E.U. and other countries that align their regulations with E.U. regulations.

Brazil

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Production and Supply (“MAPA”) is the regulatory body in Brazil responsible for the regulation and control of pharmaceuticals, biologicals and medicinal feed additives for animal use. MAPA’s regulatory activities are conducted through the Secretary of Agricultural Defense and its Livestock Products Inspection Department. These activities include the inspection and licensing of both manufacturing and commercial establishments for veterinary products, as well as the submission, review and approval of pharmaceuticals, biologicals and medicinal feed additives.

Other Countries

We are subject to regulatory requirements governing investigation, clinical trials and marketing approval for animal drugs in many other countries in which our products are sold. The regulatory approval process includes similar risks to those associated with the FDA and European Commission approvals set forth above.

Global Policy and Guidance

Country-specific regulatory laws have provisions that include requirements for certain labeling, safety, efficacy and manufacturers’ quality procedures (to assure the consistency of the products), as well as company records and reports. With the exception of Australia, Canada, Japan and New Zealand, most other countries’ regulatory agencies will generally refer to the FDA, USDA, European Union and other international animal health entities, including the World

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Organization for Animal Health, Codex Alimentarius Commission, the recognized international standard-setting body for food (“Codex”), before establishing their own standards and regulations for veterinary pharmaceuticals and vaccines.

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives is an international expert scientific committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. It provides risk assessments and safety evaluations of residues of veterinary drugs in animal products as well as exposure and residue definition and maximum residue limit proposals for veterinary drugs in traded food commodities. These internationally published references may also be used by national authorities when setting domestic standards. We work with the national authorities to establish acceptable safe levels of residual product in food-producing animals after treatment. This in turn enables the calculation of appropriate withdrawal times for our products prior to an animal entering the food chain.

In July 2014, the Codex adopted risk management advice language for a number of compounds including carbadox. The advice language states “authorities should prevent residues of carbadox in food. This can be accomplished by not using carbadox in food producing animals.” The advice language is to provide advice only and is not binding on individual national authorities, and almost all national authorities already have long-established regulatory standards for carbadox, including prohibiting the use of carbadox in swine production within their territory, prohibiting the importation of pork from swine that are fed carbadox, or permitting the importation of pork from swine that are fed carbadox provided there is no detection of carbadox residues in the meat. The advice language may be considered by national authorities in making future risk management determinations. To the extent additional national authorities elect to follow the advice and prohibit the use of carbadox in food-producing animals and/or the importation of pork from swine that are fed carbadox, such decisions could have an adverse effect on our sales of carbadox in those countries or in countries that produce meat for export to those countries.

Advertising and Promotion Review

Promotion of animal health products is controlled by regulations in many countries. These rules generally restrict advertising and promotion to those approved claims and uses that have been reviewed and endorsed by the applicable agency. We conduct a review of promotion material for compliance with the local and regional requirements in the markets where we sell animal health products.

Food Safety Inspection Service/Generally Recognized As Safe

The FDA is authorized to determine the safety of substances (including “generally recognized as safe” or “GRAS” substances, and food and feed additives), as well as prescribing safe conditions of use. The FDA, which has the responsibility for determining the safety of substances, together with the Food Safety and Inspection Service, the food safety branch within the USDA, maintain the authority in the United States to determine that new substances and new uses of previously approved substances are suitable for use in meat, milk and poultry products.

Competition

We are engaged in highly competitive industries and, with respect to all our major products, face competition from a substantial and continually evolving number of global and regional competitors. Some competitors have greater financial, R&D, manufacturing and other resources than we have. Our competitive position is based principally on our product registrations, customer service and support, breadth of product line, product quality, manufacturing technology, facility locations and product prices. We face competition in every market in which we participate. Many of our products face competition from products that may be used as an alternative or substitute.

There has been, and there may continue to be, consolidation in the animal health market, which could strengthen our competitors. Our competitors can be expected to continue to improve the design and performance of their products and to introduce new products with competitive price and performance characteristics. There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient resources to maintain our current competitive position, however, we believe the following strengths create sustainable competitive advantages that will enable us to continue our growth as a leader in our industry.

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Products Aligned with Need for Increased Protein Production

Increased scarcity of natural resources is increasing the need for efficient production of food animals such as poultry, swine and cattle. Our animal health products, including our MFAs, vaccines and nutritional specialty products, help prevent and manage disease outbreaks and enhance nutrition to help support natural defenses against diseases. These products are often critical to our customers’ efficient production of healthy animals. Our leading MFAs product franchise, Stafac/V-Max/Eskalin, is approved in over 30 countries for use in poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle and is regarded as one of the leading MFA products for production animals. Our nicarbazin and amprolium MFAs are globally recognized anticoccidials. Our nutritional specialty product offerings such as OmniGen-AF and Animate are used increasingly in the global dairy industry, and Magni-Phi and Provia Prime/MicroLife Prime are rapidly becoming important products for poultry producers. Our vaccine products are effective against critical diseases in poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle.

Global Presence with Existing Infrastructure in Key High-Growth Markets

We have an established direct presence in many important emerging markets, and we believe we are a leader in many of the emerging markets in which we operate. Our existing operations and established sales, marketing and distribution network in over 80 countries provide us with opportunities to take advantage of global growth opportunities. Outside of the United States, our global footprint reaches to key high growth regions (countries where the livestock production growth rate is expected to be higher than the average growth rate) including Brazil and other countries in South America, China, India and Southeast Asia, Mexico, Turkey, Australia, Canada, Poland and other Eastern European countries and South Africa and other countries in Africa. Our operations in countries outside of the United States contributed approximately 58% of our Animal Health segment revenues for the year ended June 30, 2023.

Leading Positions in High Growth Sub-sectors of the Animal Health Market

We are a global leader in the development, manufacture and commercialization of MFAs and nutritional specialty products for the animal health market. We believe we are well positioned in the fastest growing food animal species segments of the animal health market with significant presence in poultry and swine. We believe our sales of MFA products were third largest in the animal health market.

Diversified and Complementary Product Portfolio with Strong Brand Name Recognition

We market products across the three largest livestock species (poultry, swine, and beef and dairy cattle) and aquaculture and in the major product categories (MFAs, vaccines and nutritional specialty products). We believe our diversity of species and product categories enhances our sales mix and lowers our sales concentration risk. The complementary nature of our Animal Health and Mineral Nutrition portfolio provides us with unique cross-selling opportunities that can be used to gain access to new customers or deepen our relationships with existing customers. We believe we have strong brand name recognition for the Phibro name and for many of our animal health and mineral nutrition products, and we believe Phibro vaccines are recognized as an industry standard in efficacy against highly virulent disease challenges. Our diverse portfolio of products also allows us to address the distinct growing conditions of livestock in different regions.

Experienced Sales Force and Technical Support Staff with Strong, Consultative Customer Relationships

Within our Animal Health and Mineral Nutrition segments, utilizing both our sales, marketing and technical support organization of approximately 400 employees and a broad distribution network, we market our portfolio of more than 690 product lines to livestock producers and veterinarians in over 80 countries. We interact with customers at both their corporate and operating level, which we believe allows us to develop an in-depth understanding of their needs. Our technical support and research personnel are also important contributors to our overall sales effort. We have a total of approximately 120 technical, field service and quality control/quality assurance personnel throughout the world. These professionals interface directly with our key customers to provide practical solutions to derive optimum benefits from our products.

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Experienced, Committed Employees and Management Team

We have a diverse and highly skilled team of animal health professionals, including technical and field service personnel located in key countries throughout the world. These individuals have extensive field experience and are vital to helping us maintain and grow our business. Many of our field team have more than 20 years of experience in the animal health industry and many have been with us for more than 10 years.

We have a strong management team with a proven track record of success at both the corporate and operating levels. The executive management team has diverse backgrounds and on average more than 30 years of experience the animal health or related industry.

Human Capital

As of June 30, 2023, we had 1,920 employees in 52 locations spanning 33 countries. Certain of our Brazilian employees are covered by multi-employer regional industry-specific unions. Certain of our Israeli employees are covered by site-specific collective bargaining agreements. Certain employees globally are covered by individual employment agreements.

We strive to nurture a strong culture that empowers team members and provides opportunities for growth and development. The Denison Organization Culture survey was administered to all employees globally in 2021 and 2017, with at least a 75 percent response rate each time. Phibro employee engagement and commitment scores remained consistent at 82 percent favorable for engagement and 76 percent favorable for commitment. We are intently focused on maintaining these results across the organization.

At Phibro we view the strength of our team as a critical component of our success. The following principles, which guide our decisions and actions, provide an overview of how we approach management of human capital resources.

Our Most Valuable Asset – The Company and its Employees

We recognize that our employees provide the competitive edge needed to compete successfully in world markets. We adhere to human resources policies and practices that meet the needs of the business and the individual, so that we can attract and retain the highest caliber employees. Talent development is a strategic priority at Phibro, and we offer opportunities for growth at all levels of the company. Our goal is to ensure we have the right colleagues with the right skills in the right roles and with the appropriate support to build leadership capabilities and drive organizational results. As business priorities evolve and we seek to innovate, we work to nurture and develop current talent to best serve future needs. We take a programmatic and focused approach to developing our people.

Achievement of business objectives and the fulfillment of individual career aspirations are reinforced by our competitive compensation and benefit programs, comprehensive training and development programs, health and safety programs that promote and safeguard employees’ well-being, and work environments that are conducive to the successful application of skills and knowledge. In addition to traditional professional development, we offer a robust, cloud-based online training curriculum from one of the leading providers of development material for learning-focused organizations.

Employee safety is paramount. We have implemented our Road to Zero initiative, which utilizes teaming concepts to elevate employee involvement in project-based improvement activities. Participation drives a strong culture of safety and quality. Road to Zero provides a formal system for engagement, shared responsibility, leadership opportunities, meaningful contributions and accountability. We have and will continue to take the necessary daily precautions as recommended by local government authorities to keep our employees safe.

Strength Through Diversity, Equity & Inclusion (DEI)

We create a positive and supportive work environment for our employees. Our approach enables opportunity for inclusion and encourages diverse perspectives and thinking to maximize the achievement of innovative and successful outcomes. We aim to protect employees from being discriminated against because of gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status, race, religion, political beliefs, ethnic background, country of origin, language or non-job-related disabilities, and we follow these same principles when recruiting new talent to our organization. We offered training

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courses to our employees during fiscal year 2023 covering Diversity, Equity & Inclusion as well as Sensitivity and Unconscious Bias.

Respecting Employees

Phibro employees are our greatest strength and most valuable asset. When we equip team members to apply their skills, talent and passions to contribute and make a positive impact, everyone succeeds. When we thrive as individuals and teams, the Company thrives. We promote from within wherever possible, safeguard the confidentiality of employee records and keep employees informed of issues affecting them.

Cultivating One Leader at a Time

Our proprietary Leadership Model is a framework that guides how our people plan and act to advance company priorities. We strive for each executive/manager/employee to be consistently challenged to:

See what needs to be done (strategy, vision, growth);
Get it done (execution); and
Get it done the right way (how you do it).

Recognizing that leadership may be exhibited differently by an individual contributor versus a first-line manager versus an upper-level manager, all Phibro employees are consistently expected to demonstrate leadership behaviors.

Manufacturing

The Animal Health business segment manufactures many products internally and supplements that production with contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) as necessary.

We manufacture active pharmaceutical ingredients for certain of our antibacterial and anticoccidial products in Guarulhos, Brazil and Braganca Paulista, Brazil. We manufacture active pharmaceutical ingredients for certain of our anticoccidial and antimicrobial products in Neot Hovav, Israel. We produce vaccines in Beit Shemesh, Israel, Sligo, Ireland, Omaha, Nebraska, and Guarulhos, Brazil. We produce adjuvants in Omaha, Nebraska. We produce pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and other animal health products in Petach Tikva, Israel. We produce certain of our nutritional specialty products in Quincy and Chillicothe, Illinois and Sarasota, Florida. We produce certain of our mineral nutrition products in Quincy, Illinois and Omaha, Nebraska.

We supplement internal manufacturing and production capabilities with CMOs. We purchase certain active pharmaceutical ingredients for other medicated products from CMOs in China, India and other locations. We then formulate the final dosage form in our facilities and in contract facilities located in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa and the United States.

We purchase certain raw materials necessary for the commercial production of our products from a variety of third-party suppliers. Such raw materials are generally available from multiple sources, are purchased worldwide and are normally available in quantities adequate to meet the needs of the Company’s business.

We believe that our existing facilities, as supplemented by CMOs, are adequate for our current requirements and for our operations in the foreseeable future.

Research and Development

Most of our manufacturing facilities have chemists and technicians on staff involved in product development, quality assurance, quality control and providing technical services to customers. Research, development and technical service efforts are conducted by our veterinarians (DVMs) and nutritionists at various facilities.

We operate Animal Health R&D and product testing at several of our domestic and international facilities. We also engage various independent contract research organizations to undertake research and development activities.

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These facilities provide R&D services relating to: fermentation development and micro-biological strain improvement; vaccine development; chemical synthesis and formulation development; nutritional specialty product development; and ethanol-related products.

Environmental, Health and Safety

Our operations and properties are subject to Environmental Laws (as defined below) and regulations. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, expenses to attain and maintain compliance with Environmental Laws. While we believe that our operations are currently in material compliance with Environmental Laws, we have, from time to time, received notices of violation from governmental authorities, and have been involved in civil or criminal action for such violations. Additionally, at various sites, our subsidiaries are engaged in continuing investigation, remediation and/or monitoring to address contamination associated with historical operations. We maintain accruals for costs and liabilities associated with Environmental Laws, which we currently believe are adequate. In many instances, it is difficult to predict the ultimate costs under Environmental Laws and the time period during which such costs are likely to be incurred.

Governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with their regulations. Violators of Environmental Laws may be subject to civil, criminal and administrative penalties, injunctions or both. Failure to comply with Environmental Laws may result in the temporary or permanent suspension of operations and/or permits, limitations on production, or increased operating costs. In addition, private plaintiffs may initiate lawsuits for personal injury, property damage, diminution in property value or other relief as a result of our operations. Environmental Laws, and the interpretation or enforcement thereof, are subject to change and may become more stringent in the future, potentially resulting in substantial future costs or capital or operating expenses. We devote considerable resources to complying with Environmental Laws and managing environmental liabilities. We have developed programs to identify requirements under and maintain compliance with Environmental Laws; however, we cannot predict with certainty the impact of increased and more stringent regulation on our operations, future capital expenditure requirements, or the cost of compliance. Based upon our experience to date, we believe that the future cost of compliance with existing Environmental Laws, and liabilities for known environmental claims pursuant to such Environmental Laws, will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows or liquidity.

Environmental, Health and Safety Regulations

The following summarizes the principal Environmental Laws affecting our business.

Waste Management.   Our operations are subject to statutes and regulations addressing the contamination by, and management of, hazardous substances and solid and hazardous wastes. In the United States, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (“CERCLA”), also known as the “Superfund” law, and comparable state laws, generally impose strict joint and several liability for costs of investigation and remediation and related liabilities, on defined classes of  “potentially responsible parties” (“PRPs”). PRPs can be required to bear all of such costs regardless of fault, the legality of the original disposal or ownership of the disposal site. We have been, and may become, subject to liability under CERCLA for cleanup costs or investigation or clean up obligations or related third-party claims in connection with releases of hazardous substances at or from our current or former sites or offsite waste disposal facilities used by us, including those caused by predecessors or relating to divested properties or operations.

We must also comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended (“RCRA”), and comparable state laws regulating the treatment, storage, disposal, remediation and transportation of solid and hazardous wastes. These laws impose management requirements on generators and transporters of such wastes and on the owners and operators of treatment, storage and disposal facilities. As current or historic recyclers of chemical waste, certain of our subsidiaries have been, and are likely to be, the focus of extensive compliance reviews by environmental regulatory authorities under RCRA. Our subsidiary Phibro-Tech currently has a RCRA operating permit for its Santa Fe Springs, California facility, for which a renewal application is under review and a draft permit has been issued for public review and comment. Phibro-Tech initially submitted an application for renewal of its permit for the Santa Fe Springs facility in 1996. We are unable to predict when the State of California will make a final permitting decision. Until the State of California issues its final decision on the renewal application, the facility is continuing to operate under the exiting permit. Phibro-Tech has updated its permit application on several occasions, and Department of Toxic Substances Control has approved a number of permit modifications to the existing permit. In addition, because we or our

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subsidiaries have closed several facilities that had been the subject of RCRA permits, we or our subsidiaries have been and will be required to investigate and remediate certain environmental contamination conditions at these closed plant sites within the requirements of RCRA corrective action programs.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.   We must comply with regulations related to the discharge of pollutants to the waters of the United States without governmental authorization, including those pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

Chemical Product Registration Requirements.   We must comply with regulations related to the testing, manufacturing, labeling, registration and safety analysis of our products in order to distribute many of our products, including, for example, in the United States, the federal Toxic Substances Control Act and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, and in the European Union, the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (“REACH”).

Air Emissions.   Our operations are subject to the U.S. Clean Air Act (the “CAA”) and comparable U.S. state and foreign statutes and regulations, which regulate emissions of various air pollutants and contaminants. Certain of the CAA’s regulatory programs are the subject of ongoing review and/or are subject to ongoing litigation, such as the rules establishing new Maximum Achievable Control Technology for industrial boilers; significant expenditures may be required to meet current and emerging air quality standards. Regulatory agencies can also impose administrative, civil and criminal penalties for non-compliance with air permits or other air quality regulations. States may choose to set more stringent air emissions rules than those in the CAA. State, national and international authorities have also issued requirements focusing on greenhouse gas reductions. In the United States, the EPA has promulgated federal greenhouse gas regulations under the CAA affecting certain sources. In addition, a number of state, local and regional greenhouse gas initiatives are also being developed or are already in place. In Israel and Brazil, implementation of the Kyoto Protocol requirements regarding greenhouse gas emission reductions consists of energy efficiency regulations, carbon dioxide emissions allowances trading and renewable energy requirements.

Capital Expenditures

We have incurred and expect to continue to incur costs to maintain compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Our capital expenditures relating to environmental, health and safety regulations were $2.4 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023. See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety Regulations” for further descriptions. Our environmental capital expenditure plans cover, among other things, the currently expected costs associated with known permit requirements relating to facility improvements.

Contamination and Hazardous Substance Risks

Investigation, Remediation and Monitoring Activities.   Certain of PAHC’s subsidiaries that are currently or were historically engaged in recycling and other activities involving hazardous materials have been required to perform site investigations at their active, closed and former facilities and neighboring properties. Contamination of soil, groundwater and other environmental media has been identified or is suspected at several of these locations, including Santa Fe Springs, California; Powder Springs, Georgia; Union, Illinois; Sewaren, New Jersey; Sumter, South Carolina; and Joliet, Illinois, and regulatory authorities have required, and will continue to require, further investigation, corrective action and monitoring over future years. These subsidiaries also have been, and in the future may be, required to undertake additional capital improvements as part of these actions. In addition, RCRA and other applicable statutes and regulations require these subsidiaries to develop closure and post-closure plans for their facilities and in the event of a facility closure, obtain a permit that sets forth a closure plan for investigation, remediation and monitoring and requires post-closure monitoring and maintenance for up to 30 years. We believe we are in material compliance with these requirements and maintain adequate reserves to complete remediation and monitoring obligations at these locations.

In connection with past acquisitions and divestitures, we have undertaken certain indemnification obligations that require us, or may in the future require us, to conduct or finance environmental cleanups at sites we no longer own or operate. Under the terms of the sale of the former facility in Joliet, Illinois, Phibro-Tech remains responsible for any required investigation and remediation of the site attributable to conditions at the site at the time of the February 2011 sale date, and we believe we have sufficient reserves to cover the cost of the remediation.

Participating Responsible Parties (“PRPs”) at Omega Chemical Superfund Site.   The EPA is investigating and planning for the remediation of offsite contaminated groundwater that has migrated from the Omega Chemical

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Corporation Superfund Site (“Omega Chemical Site”), which is upgradient of Phibro-Tech’s Santa Fe Springs, California facility. The EPA has entered into a settlement agreement with a group of companies that sent chemicals to the Omega Chemical Site for processing and recycling (“OPOG”) to remediate the contaminated groundwater that has migrated from the Omega Chemical Site in accordance with a general remedy selected by EPA. The EPA has named Phibro-Tech and certain other subsidiaries of PAHC as PRPs due to groundwater contamination from Phibro-Tech’s Santa Fe Springs facility that has allegedly commingled with contaminated groundwater from the Omega Chemical Site. In September 2012, the EPA notified approximately 140 PRPs, including Phibro-Tech and the other subsidiaries, that they have been identified as potentially responsible for remedial action for the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site and for EPA oversight and response costs. Phibro-Tech contends that any groundwater contamination at its site is localized and due to historical operations that pre-date Phibro-Tech and/or contaminated groundwater that has migrated from upgradient properties. In addition, a successor to a prior owner of the Phibro-Tech site has asserted that PAHC and Phibro-Tech are obligated to provide indemnification for its potential liability and defense costs relating to the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site. PAHC and Phibro-Tech have vigorously contested this position and have asserted that the successor to the prior owner is required to indemnify Phibro-Tech for its potential liability and defense costs. Furthermore, several members of OPOG filed a complaint under CERCLA and RCRA in the United States District Court for the Central District of California against many of the PRPs allegedly associated with the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site (including Phibro-Tech) for contribution toward past and future costs associated with the investigation and remediation of the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site, and the United States Department of Justice, on behalf of the EPA, sent Phibro-Tech and certain other PRPs a pre-litigation notice letter in August 2022 regarding potential CERCLA Sec. 107 cost recovery claims seeking unrecovered past costs related to the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site, along with a declaration allocating liability for future costs.

In February 2023, the plaintiffs in the OPOG lawsuit, and certain defendants in the OPOG lawsuit, including Phibro-Tech, signed a definitive settlement agreement that provides for a “cash-out” settlement, with contribution protection, for Phibro-Tech and its affiliates (as well as certain other defendants) releasing Phibro-Tech and its affiliates from liability for contamination of the groundwater plume affected by the Omega Chemical Site (with certain exceptions), including past and future EPA response costs that were the subject of the August 2022 pre-litigation letter sent by the DOJ on behalf of the EPA. As part of the settlement, Phibro-Tech also resolved all claims for indemnification and contribution between Phibro-Tech and the successor to the prior owner of the Phibro-Tech site. The definitive settlement agreement contemplates cash payments by Phibro-Tech and one of its affiliates over a period ending in February 2024. The definitive settlement agreement is subject to formal approval by the EPA, the DOJ and the district court. During the year ended June 30, 2023, we recognized expenses for the definitive settlement agreement and other related costs, which are included in our consolidated statement of operations as selling, general and administrative expenses.

Potential Claims.   In addition to cleanup obligations, we could also be held liable for all consequences arising out of human exposure to hazardous substances or other environmental damage, which liability may not be covered by insurance.

Environmental Accruals and Financial Assurance.   We have established environmental accruals to cover known remediation and monitoring costs at certain of our current and former facilities. Our accruals for environmental liabilities are recorded by calculating our best estimate of probable and reasonably estimable future costs using current information that is available at the time of the accrual. Our accruals for environmental liabilities totaled $8.5 million and $4.3 million as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

In certain instances, regulatory authorities have required us to provide financial assurance for estimated costs of remediation, corrective action, monitoring and closure and post-closure plans. Our subsidiaries, in most instances, have chosen to provide the required financial assurance by means of surety bonds or letters of credit issued pursuant to our revolving credit facility. As of June 30, 2023, surety bonds and letters of credit provided $12.9 million of financial assurance.

Workplace Health and Safety

We are committed to manufacturing safe products and achieving a safe workplace. Our Environmental Health and Safety (“EHS”) Global Director, along with regional and site-based EHS professionals, manage environmental, health and safety matters throughout the Company. The site managers are responsible for implementing the established EHS

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controls. To protect employees, we have established health and safety policies, programs and processes at all our manufacturing sites. An external EHS audit is performed at each of our sites as needed based on the conditions at the respective sites.

Where You Can Find More Information

We are subject to the information and periodic and current reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and, in accordance therewith, will file periodic and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Such periodic and current reports, proxy statements and other information will be available to the public on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and through our website at www.pahc.com. None of the information accessible on or through our website is incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1A.   Risk Factors

Risk Factors Summary

For a summary of risk factors, see our “Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary” on page 3.

Risk Factors

You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the following risk factors, before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock. If any of the following risks occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operation or cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In any such case, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks below are not the only ones the Company faces. Additional risks not currently known to the Company or that the Company presently deems immaterial may also impair its business operations. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The Company’s results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks it faces described below and elsewhere. See also “Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary.”

Risk Factors Relating to Our Business

Outbreaks of animal diseases could significantly reduce demand for our products.

Sales of our food animal products could be materially adversely affected by the outbreak of disease carried by food animals, which could lead to the widespread death or precautionary destruction of food animals as well as the reduced consumption and demand for animal protein. The demand for our products could be significantly affected by outbreaks of animal diseases, and such occurrences may have a material adverse impact on the sale of our products and our financial condition and results of operations. The outbreaks of disease are beyond our control and could significantly affect demand for our products and consumer perceptions of certain meat products. An outbreak of disease could result in governmental restrictions on the import and export of chicken, pork, beef or other products to or from our customers. This could also create adverse publicity that may have a material adverse effect on our ability to sell our products successfully and on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, outbreaks of disease carried by animals may reduce regional or global sales of particular animal-derived food products or result in reduced exports of such products, either due to heightened export restrictions or import prohibitions, which may reduce demand for our products due to reduced herd or flock sizes.

In recent years, outbreaks of African Swine Fever, primarily in China, have reduced animal populations and have reduced consumer demand for pork in the affected markets. In the past decade, there has been substantial publicity regarding H1N1, known as North American (or Swine) Influenza and, H5N1, known as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, in both the human population and among birds. According to the WHO, in 2022, 67 countries in five continents reported H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza outbreaks in poultry and wild birds to the World Organization for Animal Health, with more than 131 million domestic poultry lost due to death or culling in affected farms and villages. There have also been concerns relating to E. coli in beef and Salmonella in poultry and other food poisoning micro-organisms in meats and other foods. Consumers may associate human health fears with animal diseases, food, food production or food animals whether or not it is scientifically valid, which may have an adverse impact on the

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demand for animal protein. Occurrences of this type could significantly affect demand for animal protein, which in turn could affect the demand for our products in a manner that has a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Also, the outbreak of any highly contagious disease near our main production sites could require us to immediately halt production of our products at such sites or force us to incur substantial expenses in procuring raw materials or products elsewhere.

Outbreaks of an exotic or highly contagious disease in a country where we produce our products may result in other countries halting importation of our products for fear that our product may be contaminated with the exotic organism.

Perceived adverse effects on human health linked to the consumption of food derived from animals that utilize our products could cause a decline in the sales of those products.

Our business depends heavily on a healthy and growing livestock industry. Some in the public perceive risks to human health related to the consumption of food derived from animals that utilize certain of our products, including certain of our MFA products. In particular, there is increased focus in the United States, the E.U., China and other countries on the use of antimicrobials in the livestock industry. In the United States, this focus is primarily on the use of medically important antimicrobials, which include classes that are prescribed in animal and human health and are listed in the Appendix of the FDA-CVM Guidance for Industry (GFI) 152. As defined by the FDA, medically important antimicrobials (“MIAs”) include classes that are prescribed in animal and human health and are listed in the Appendix of GFI 152. Our products that contain virginiamycin, oxytetracycline or neomycin are classified by the FDA as medically important antimicrobials and are included in the GFI 152 list. The FDA announced its intention to further review the GFI 152 list and to review labeling directions of products on the GFI 152 list, which may lead to increased restrictions on the use of these products. In addition to the United States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the E.U., Australia and Canada have promulgated rating lists for antimicrobials that are used in veterinary medicine and that include certain of our products. The classification of our products as MIAs or similar listings may lead to a decline in the demand for and production of food products derived from animals that utilize our products and, in turn, demand for our products. Rules or regulations adopted by any territory that restrict the use of our products, especially our antibacterial products, which require animals or animal origin products imported into that territory to be produced under the same conditions as are required within the territory could result in a reduction or elimination of the use of our products in countries that export animals or animal origin products to such territories. Livestock producers may experience decreased demand for their products or reputational harm as a result of evolving consumer views of nutrition and health-related concerns, animal rights and other concerns. Any reputational harm to the livestock industry may also extend to companies in related industries, including us. In addition, campaigns by interest groups, activists and others with respect to perceived risks associated with the use of our products in animals, including position statements by livestock producers and their customers based on non-use of certain medicated products in livestock production, whether or not scientifically supported, could affect public perceptions and reduce the use of our products. Those adverse consumer views related to the use of one or more of our products in animals could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Restrictions on the use of antibacterials in food-producing animals may become more prevalent.

The issue of the potential transfer of antibacterial resistance from bacteria from food-producing animals to human bacterial pathogens, and the causality and impact of that transfer, are the subject of global scientific and regulatory discussion. Antibacterials refer to molecules that can be used to treat or prevent bacterial infections and are a sub-categorization of the products that make up our medicated feed additives portfolios. In some countries, this issue has led to government restrictions on the use of specific antibacterials in some food-producing animals, regardless of the route of administration (in feed, water, intra-mammary, topical, injectable or other route of administration). These restrictions include prohibitions on use of antibacterials for non-therapeutic uses, preventative use, duration of use and requiring veterinary oversight to use products. These restrictions are more prevalent in countries where animal protein is plentiful and governments are willing to take action even when there is scientific uncertainty.

Effective January 1, 2017, we voluntarily removed non-therapeutic claims from several of our antibacterial products sold in the United States, in order to align with the FDA’s GFI 209 and GFI 213. The FDA objective, as described in GFI 209 and GFI 213, was to eliminate the production (non-therapeutic) uses of medically important antimicrobials administered in feed or water to food producing animals while providing for the continued use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals for treatment, control and prevention of disease (“therapeutic” use) under the

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supervision of a veterinarian. The FDA indicated that it took this action to help preserve the efficacy of medically important antimicrobials to treat infections in humans.

Our global sales of antibacterials, anticoccidials and other products, including our Mecadox product, were $387 million, $362 million and $330 million for the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We cannot predict whether concerns regarding the use of antibacterials will result in additional restrictions, expanded regulations or consumer preferences to discontinue or reduce use of antibacterials in food-producing animals, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

If the FDA withdraws approval of our Mecadox (carbadox) product, the loss of sales of such product could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our Mecadox (carbadox) product has been approved for use in food animals in the United States for over 50 years. Certain regulatory bodies have raised concerns about the possible presence of certain residues of our carbadox product in meat from animals that consume the product. The product was banned for use in the European Union in 1998 and has been banned in several other countries outside the United States.

In April 2016, the FDA began initial steps to withdraw approval of carbadox via a regulatory process known as a Notice of Opportunity for Hearing (“NOOH”), due to concerns that certain residues from the product may persist in animal tissues for longer than previously determined. In the years following, Phibro has continued an ongoing process of responding collaboratively and transparently to the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (“CVM”) inquiries and has provided extensive and meticulous research and data that confirmed the safety of carbadox. In July 2020, the FDA announced it would not proceed to a hearing on the scientific concerns raised in the 2016 NOOH, consistent with the normal regulatory procedure, but instead announced that it was withdrawing the 2016 NOOH and issuing a proposed order to review the regulatory method for carbadox. Phibro reiterated the safety of carbadox and the appropriateness of the regulatory method and offered to work with the CVM to generate additional data to support the existing regulatory method or select a suitable alternative regulatory method.

In the event the FDA continues to assert that carbadox should be removed from the market, we will argue that we are entitled to and expect to have a full evidentiary hearing on the merits before an administrative law judge. Should we be unable to successfully defend the safety of the product, the loss of carbadox sales will have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Sales of Mecadox (carbadox) for the year ended June 30, 2023, were approximately $20 million.

See also “ — We are subject to product registration and authorization regulations in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate and/or distribute our products, including the United States and member states of the European Union”; “Business —Compliance with Government Regulation — United States — Carbadox”; and “Business — Compliance with Government Regulation — Global Policy and Guidance.”

A material portion of our sales are generated by antibacterials and other related products.

Our medicated products business is comprised of a relatively small number of compounds and accounted for approximately 40% of net sales for each of the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022. The significant loss of antibacterial or other related product sales for any reason, including product bans or restrictions, public perception, competition or any of the other risks related to such products as described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our business may be negatively affected by weather conditions and the availability of natural resources.

The animal health industry and demand for many of our animal health products in a particular region are affected by changing disease pressures and by weather conditions, as usage of our products follows varying weather patterns and weather-related pressures from pests and diseases. As a result, we may experience regional and seasonal fluctuations in our results of operations.

In addition, livestock producers depend on the availability of natural resources, including abundant rainfall to sustain large supplies of drinking water, grasslands and grain production. Their animals’ health and their ability to operate could be adversely affected if they experience a shortage of fresh water due to human population growth or

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floods, droughts or other weather conditions. In the event of adverse weather conditions or a shortage of fresh water, livestock producers may purchase less of our products.

Adverse weather conditions, including excessive cold or heat, natural disasters, floods, droughts and other events, could negatively impact our livestock customers by impairing the health or growth of their animals or the production or availability of feed. Such events can also interfere with our customers’ operations due to power outages, fuel shortages, damage to their farms or facilities or disruption of transportation channels. In addition, droughts can lead to reduced availability of grazing pastures, forcing cattle producers to cull their herds. Fewer heads of cattle could result in reduced demand for our products. Further heat waves may cause stress in animals and lead to increased vulnerability to disease, reduced fertility rates and reduced milk production. Adverse weather conditions and natural disasters may also have a material impact on the aquaculture business. Changes in water temperatures could affect the timing of reproduction and growth of various fish species, as well as trigger the outbreak of certain water borne diseases.

Adverse weather events and natural disasters may also interfere with and negatively impact operations at our manufacturing sites, research and development facilities and offices, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, especially if the impact of an event or disaster is frequent or prolonged.

A pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease in humans, such as COVID-19, may materially and adversely affect our business and our financial results.

Our business is exposed to risks associated with public health crises, including epidemics and pandemics such as the novel coronavirus and its variants (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected workforces, customers, suppliers, consumer sentiment, economies and financial markets and led to an economic downturn in many countries in which we operate. Disruptions due to a resurgence of COVID-19 or other similar health epidemics could negatively impact our manufacturing facilities, and our logistics and supply chain operations, as well as those of our customers, third-party manufacturers, suppliers and end users of our products who raise animals or who process meat, milk, eggs and seafood for human consumption and may result in a period of economic and business disruption and could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial results.

The COVID-19 pandemic and similar outbreaks could lead to decreased demand for protein, which may lead to end users of our products reducing their herd or flock sizes. In addition, demand for protein could be reduced because consumers may associate human health fears related to COVID-19 of other outbreaks with animal diseases, food, food production or food animals, whether it is scientifically valid. Reductions in demand for animal protein resulting from these factors could in turn affect the demand for our products in a manner that has a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The impact of a pandemic or similar public health crises is uncertain and subject to change and could also exacerbate the other risks discussed in this “Risk Factors” section. We cannot predict with certainty the full scope and severity of any potential disruptions to our business, operating results, cash flows and/or financial condition, but we expect that the resulting adverse impact on our business and financial results could be material.

Climate change could have a material adverse impact on our operations and our customers’ businesses.

Our operations, and the activities of our customers, could be disrupted by climate change. The physical impact of climate change may prompt shifts in regulations or consumer preferences which in turn could have negative consequences for our and our customers’ businesses. Climate change may negatively impact our customers’ operations, particularly those in the livestock industry, through climate-related impacts such as increased air and water temperatures, rising water levels and increased incidence of disease in livestock. Potential physical risks from climate change may include altered distribution and intensity of rainfall, prolonged droughts or flooding, increased frequency of wildfires and other natural disasters, rising sea levels and a rising heat index, any of which could cause negative impacts to our and our customers’ businesses. If such events affect our customers’ businesses, they may purchase fewer of our products, and our revenues may be negatively impacted. Climate driven changes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

There has been a broad range of proposed and promulgated state, national and international regulations aimed at reducing the effects of climate change. Such regulations could result in additional costs to maintain compliance and

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additional income or other taxes. Climate change regulations continue to evolve, and it is not possible to accurately estimate potential future compliance costs.

The testing, manufacturing and marketing of certain of our products are subject to extensive regulation by numerous government authorities in the United States and other countries, including, but not limited to, the FDA.

Among other requirements, FDA approval of antibacterials and other medicated products, including the manufacturing processes and facilities used to produce such products, is required before such products may be marketed in the United States. Further, cross-clearance approvals are generally required for such products to be used in combination in animal feed. Similarly, marketing approval by a foreign governmental authority is typically required before such products may be marketed in a particular foreign country. In addition to approval of the product and its labeling, regulatory authorities typically require approval and periodic inspection of the manufacturing facilities. In order to obtain FDA approval of a new animal health product, we must, among other things, demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA that the product is safe and effective for its intended uses and that we are capable of manufacturing the product with procedures that conform to FDA’s current cGMP regulations, which must be followed at all times.

Audits related to cGMP standards are typically carried out by the FDA on a two-year cycle. We are routinely subject to these inspections and respond to the FDA to address any concerns they may make in their inspectional observations (Form 483). Although it is our objective to remain in full conformance with U.S. cGMP standards, there can be no assurance that future inspections will not raise adverse inspectional observations. Failure to comply with cGMP standards could have a material impact on our business and financial results.

The process of seeking FDA approvals can be costly, time-consuming, and subject to unanticipated and significant delays. There can be no assurance that such approvals will be granted to us on a timely basis, or at all. Any delay in obtaining or any failure to obtain FDA or foreign government approvals or the suspension or revocation of such approvals would adversely affect our ability to introduce and market medicated feed additive products and to generate product revenue. For more information on FDA and foreign government approvals and cGMP issues, see “Business — Compliance with Government Regulation.”

We may experience declines in the sales volume and prices of our products as the result of the continuing trend toward consolidation of certain customer and distributor groups as well as the emergence of large buying groups.

We make a majority of our sales to integrated poultry, swine and beef and dairy cattle operations and to a number of regional and national feed companies, distributors, co-ops and blenders. Food animal producers, particularly, swine and poultry producers, and our distributors have seen recent consolidation in their industries. Significant consolidation of our customers and distributors may result in these groups gaining additional purchasing leverage and consequently increasing the product pricing pressures facing our business. Additionally, the emergence of large buying groups potentially could enable such groups to attempt to extract price discounts on our products. Moreover, if, as a result of increased leverage, customers require us to reduce our pricing such that our gross margins are diminished, we could decide not to sell our products to a particular customer, which could result in a decrease in our revenues. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our products and replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of our competitors. The result of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to risk based on customer exposure to rising costs and reduced customer income.

Livestock producers may experience increased feed, fuel, transportation and other key costs or may experience decreased animal protein prices or sales, inflationary pressures as a result of interest rate increases or otherwise and including as a result of the uncertainties and potential economic downturn relating to a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic or relating to the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine. International sanctions, trade disputes and tariffs could reduce demand for our customers’ products. These trends could cause deterioration in the financial condition of our livestock producer customers, potentially inhibiting their ability to purchase our products or pay us for products delivered. Our livestock producer customers may offset rising costs by reducing spending on our products, including by switching to lower-cost alternatives to our products.

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Generic products may be viewed as more cost-effective than certain of our products.

We face competition from products produced by other companies, including generic alternatives to certain of our products. We depend primarily on trade secrets to provide us with competitive advantages for many of our products. The protection afforded is limited by the availability of new competitive products or generic versions of existing products that can successfully compete with our products. As a result, we may face competition from new competitive products or lower-priced generic alternatives to many of our products. Generic competitors are becoming more aggressive in terms of pricing, and generic products are an increasing percentage of overall animal health sales in certain regions. If animal health customers increase their use of new or existing generic products, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Advances in veterinary medical practices and animal health technologies could negatively affect the market for our products.

The market for our products could be impacted negatively by the introduction and/or broad market acceptance of newly developed or alternative products that address the diseases and conditions for which we sell products, including “green” or “holistic” health products or specially bred disease-resistant animals. In addition, technological breakthroughs by others may obviate our technology and reduce or eliminate the market for our products. Introduction or acceptance of such products or technologies could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The misuse or extra-label use of our products may harm our reputation or result in financial or other damages.

Our products have been approved for use under specific circumstances for, among other things, the prevention, control and/or treatment of certain diseases and conditions in specific species, in some cases subject to certain dosage levels or minimum withdrawal periods prior to the slaughter date. There may be increased risk of product liability if livestock producers or others attempt any extra-label use of our products, including the use of our products in species for which they have not been approved, or at dosage levels or periods prior to withdrawal that have not been approved. If we are deemed by a governmental or regulatory agency to have engaged in the promotion of any of our products for extra-label use, such agency could request that we modify our training or promotional materials and practices and we could be subject to significant fines and penalties. The imposition of such fines and penalties could also affect our reputation and position within the industry. Even if we were not responsible for having promoted the extra-label use, concerns could arise about the safety of the resulting meat in the human food supply. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The public perception of the safety, quality and efficacy of certain of our animal health products may harm our reputation.

The public perception of the safety, quality and efficacy of certain of our animal health products, whether or not these concerns are scientifically or clinically supported, may lead to product recalls, withdrawals, suspensions or declining sales as well as product liability and other claims.

Regulatory actions based on these types of safety, quality or efficacy concerns could impact all, or a significant portion of a product’s sales and could, depending on the circumstances, materially adversely affect our results of operations.

In addition, we depend on positive perceptions of the safety, quality and efficacy of our products, and animal health products generally, by our customers, veterinarians and end-users, and such concerns may harm our reputation. In some countries, these perceptions may be exacerbated by the existence of counterfeit versions of our products, which, depending on the legal and law enforcement recourse available in the jurisdiction where the counterfeiting occurs, may be difficult to police or stop. These concerns and the related harm to our reputation could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, regardless of whether such reports are accurate.

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We are dependent on suppliers having current regulatory approvals, and the failure of those suppliers to maintain these approvals or other challenges in replacing any of those suppliers could affect our supply of materials or affect the distribution or sale of our products.

Suppliers and third-party contract manufacturers for our animal health and mineral nutrition products or the active pharmaceutical ingredients or other materials we use in our products, like us, are subject to extensive regulatory compliance. If any one of these third parties discontinues its supply to us because of changes in the regulatory environment to which such third parties are subject, significant regulatory violations or for any other reason, or an adverse event occurs at one of their facilities, the interruption in the supply of these materials could decrease sales of our affected products. In this event, we may seek to enter into agreements with third parties to purchase active ingredients, raw materials or products or to lease or purchase new manufacturing facilities. We may be unable to find a third party willing or able to provide the necessary products or facilities suitable for manufacturing pharmaceuticals on terms acceptable to us or the cost of those pharmaceuticals may be prohibitive. If we have to obtain substitute materials or products, additional regulatory approvals will likely be required, as approvals are typically specific to a single product produced by a specified manufacturer in a specified facility and there can be no assurances that such regulatory approvals will be obtained. As such, the use of new facilities also requires regulatory approvals. While we take measures where economically feasible and available to secure back-up suppliers, the continued receipt of active ingredients or products from a sole source supplier could create challenges if a sole source was interrupted. We may not be able to provide adequate and timely product to eliminate any threat of interruption of supply of our products to customers and these problems may materially adversely impact our business.

The raw materials used by us and our third-party contract manufacturers in the manufacture of our products can be subject to price fluctuations and their availability can be limited.

While the selling prices of our products tend to increase or decrease over time with the cost of raw materials, such changes may not occur simultaneously or to the same degree. The costs of certain of our significant raw materials are subject to considerable volatility, and we generally do not engage in activities to hedge the costs of our raw materials and our third-party contract manufacturers may demand price increases related to increases in the costs of raw materials. In addition, we may be subject to new or increased tariffs on imported raw materials with limited ability to pass those increased costs through to our customers. Although no single raw material accounted for more than 5% of our cost of goods sold for the year ended June 30, 2023, volatility in raw material costs can result in significant fluctuations in our costs of goods sold of the affected products. The costs of raw materials used by our Mineral Nutrition business are particularly subject to fluctuations in global commodities markets and cost changes in the underlying commodities markets typically lead directly to a corresponding change in our revenues. Although we attempt to adjust the prices of our products to reflect significant changes in raw material costs, we may not be able to pass any increases in raw material costs through to our customers in the form of price increases. Significant increases in the costs of raw materials, if not offset by product price increases, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. The supply of certain of our raw materials is dependent on third party suppliers. There is no guarantee that supply shortages or disruptions of such raw materials will not occur and the likelihood of such supply shortages and disruptions has been, and may continue to be, increased due to global supply chain disruptions, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine. In addition, if any one of these third parties discontinues its supply to us, or an adverse event occurs at one of their facilities, the interruption in the supply of these materials could decrease sales of our affected products. In the event that we cannot procure necessary major raw materials from other suppliers, the occurrence of any of these may have an adverse impact on our business.

Our revenues are dependent on the continued operation of our various manufacturing facilities.

Although presently all our manufacturing facilities are considered to be in good condition, the operation of our manufacturing facilities involves many risks which could cause product interruptions, including the breakdown, failure or substandard performance of equipment, construction delays, mislabeling, shortages of materials, labor problems, power outages, political and social instability, the improper installation or operation of equipment, natural disasters, terrorist activities, armed conflicts, the outbreak of any highly contagious diseases, such as COVID-19 in humans or African Swine Fever in swine, near our production sites and the need to comply with environmental and other directives of governmental agencies. In addition, regulatory authorities such as the FDA typically require approval and periodic inspection of the manufacturing facilities to confirm compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, and those requirements may be enforced by various means, including seizures and injunctions. Certain of our product lines are

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manufactured at a single facility, and certain of our product lines are manufactured at a single facility with limited capacity at a second facility, and production would not be easily transferable to another site. The occurrence of material operational problems, including but not limited to the above events, may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our manufacturing network may be unable to meet the demand for our products or we may have excess capacity if demand for our products changes. The unpredictability of a product’s regulatory or commercial success or failure, the lead time necessary to construct highly technical and complex manufacturing sites and shifting customer demand (including as a result of market conditions or entry of branded or generic competition) increase the potential for capacity imbalances. In addition, construction of manufacturing sites is expensive, and our ability to recover costs will depend on the market acceptance and success of the products produced at the new sites, which is uncertain.

We could be subject to changes in our tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or foreign tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities.

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Changes in the relevant tax laws, regulations and interpretations could adversely affect our future effective tax rates. Modifications to key elements of the U.S. or international tax framework could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements.

Our consolidated effective tax rate is subject to potential risks that various taxing authorities may challenge the pricing of our cross-border arrangements and subject us to additional tax, adversely affecting our expected consolidated effective tax rate and our tax liability. If our effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S. or other material foreign jurisdictions, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, our tax returns and other tax filings and positions are subject to review by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations or the effects on our consolidated financial statements.

A significant portion of our operations are conducted in foreign jurisdictions and are subject to the economic, political, legal and business environments of the countries in which we do business.

Our international operations could be limited or disrupted by any of the following:

volatility in the international financial markets;
compliance with governmental controls;
difficulties enforcing contractual and intellectual property rights;
compliance with a wide variety of laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and similar non-U.S. laws and regulations;
compliance with foreign labor laws;
compliance with Environmental Laws;
burdens to comply with multiple and potentially conflicting foreign laws and regulations, including those relating to EHS requirements;
changes in laws, regulations, government controls or enforcement practices with respect to our business and the businesses of our customers;
political and social instability, including crime, civil disturbance, terrorist activities, outbreaks of disease and pandemics and armed conflicts, such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
trade restrictions, export controls and sanctions laws and restrictions on direct investments by foreign entities, including restrictions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury;
government limitations on foreign ownership;

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government takeover or nationalization of businesses;
changes in tax laws and tariffs;
changes in the economic, business, competitive and regulatory environment, including changes in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar or high inflation;
imposition of anti-dumping and countervailing duties or other trade-related sanctions;
costs and difficulties and compliance risks in staffing, managing and monitoring international operations;
corruption risk inherent in business arrangements and regulatory contacts with foreign government entities;
longer payment cycles and increased exposure to counterparty risk; and
additional limitations on transferring personal information between countries or other restrictions on the processing of personal information.

The multinational nature of our business subjects us to potential risks that various taxing authorities may challenge the pricing of our cross-border arrangements and subject us to additional tax, adversely impacting our effective tax rate and our tax liability.

In addition, international transactions may involve increased financial and legal risks due to differing legal systems and customs, as well as restrictions and sanctions that may be imposed on one or more persons and/or jurisdictions in which we operate, including those arising from the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Compliance with these requirements may prohibit the import or export of certain products and technologies or may require us to obtain a license before importing or exporting certain products or technology. A failure to comply with any of these laws, regulations or requirements could result in civil or criminal legal proceedings, monetary or non-monetary penalties, or both, disruptions to our business, limitations on our ability to import and export products and services, and damage to our reputation. In addition, variations in the pricing of our products in different jurisdictions may result in the unauthorized importation of our products between jurisdictions. While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, any of them could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Changes in any of these laws, regulations or requirements, or the political environment in a particular country, may affect our ability to engage in business transactions in certain markets, including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings.

We are subject to product registration and authorization regulations in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate and/or distribute our products, including the United States and member states of the European Union.

We are subject to regulations related to testing, manufacturing, labeling, registration and safety analysis in order to lawfully distribute many of our products, including for example, in the United States, the Federal Toxic Substances Control Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and in the European Union, the Regulation on REACH. We are also subject to similar requirements in many of the other jurisdictions in which we operate and/or distribute our products. In some cases, such registrations are subject to periodic review by relevant authorities. Such regulations may lead to governmental restrictions or cancellations of, or refusal to issue, certain registrations or authorizations, or cause us or our customers to make product substitutions in the future. Such regulations may also lead to increased third party scrutiny and personal injury or product liability claims. Compliance with these regulations can be difficult, costly and time consuming and liabilities or costs relating to such regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have significant assets located outside the United States and a significant portion of our sales and earnings is attributable to operations conducted abroad that may be adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and other inherent risks.

As of June 30, 2023, we had manufacturing and direct sales operations in 25 countries and sold our products in over 80 countries. Our operations outside the United States accounted for 58% and 56% of our consolidated assets as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and 41% and 40% of our consolidated net sales for the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our foreign operations are subject to currency exchange fluctuations and restrictions, political instability in some countries, and uncertainty of, and governmental control over, commercial rights.

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Changes in the relative values of currencies take place from time to time and could in the future adversely affect our results of operations as well as our ability to meet interest and principal obligations on our indebtedness. To the extent that the U.S. dollar fluctuates relative to the applicable foreign currency, our results are favorably or unfavorably affected. We may from time to time manage this exposure by entering into foreign currency contracts. Such contracts generally are entered into with respect to anticipated costs denominated in foreign currencies for which timing of the payment can be reasonably estimated. No assurances can be given that such hedging activities will not result in, or will be successful in preventing, losses that could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. There are times when we do not hedge against foreign currency fluctuations and therefore are subject to the risks associated with fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

In addition, international manufacturing, sales and raw materials sourcing are subject to other inherent risks, including possible nationalization or expropriation, labor unrest, political instability, price and exchange controls, limitation on foreign participation in local enterprises, health-care regulation, export duties and quotas, domestic and international customs and tariffs, compliance with export controls and sanctions laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other laws and regulations governing international trade, unexpected changes in regulatory environments, difficulty in obtaining distribution and support, and potentially adverse tax consequences. Although such risks have not had a material adverse effect on us in the past, these factors could have a material adverse impact on our ability to increase or maintain our international sales or on our results of operations in the future.

We have manufacturing facilities located in Israel and a portion of our net sales and earnings is attributable to products produced and operations conducted in Israel.

Our Israeli manufacturing facilities and local operations accounted for 27% and 28% of our consolidated assets, as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, and 19% and 19% of our consolidated net sales for the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We maintain manufacturing facilities in Israel, which manufacture:

anticoccidials and antimicrobials, most of which are exported;
vaccines, a substantial portion of which are exported; and
animal health pharmaceuticals, nutritional specialty products and trace minerals for the domestic animal industry.

A substantial portion of this production is exported from Israel to major world markets. Accordingly, our Israeli operations are dependent on foreign markets and the ability to reach those markets. Hostilities between Israel and its neighbors may hinder Israel’s international trade. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Certain countries, companies and organizations continue to participate in a boycott of Israeli firms and other companies doing business in Israel or with Israeli companies. We do not believe that the boycott has had a material adverse effect on us, but we cannot provide assurance that restrictive laws, policies or practices directed toward Israel or Israeli businesses will not have an adverse impact on our operations or expansion of our business. Our business, financial condition and results of operations in Israel may be adversely affected by factors outside of our control, such as currency fluctuations, energy shortages and other political, social and economic developments in or affecting Israel, including as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel.

We have manufacturing facilities located in Brazil and a portion of our sales and earnings is attributable to products produced and operations conducted in Brazil.

Our Brazilian manufacturing facilities and local operations accounted for 14% and 12% of our consolidated assets, as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and 16% and 15% of our consolidated net sales for the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We maintain manufacturing facilities in Brazil, which manufacture virginiamycin, semduramicin, salinomycin and nicarbazin. Our Brazilian facilities also produce Stafac, Aviax, Aviax Plus, Coxistac, Nicarb, Kamoran®, and Terramycin granular formulations. A substantial portion of the production is exported from Brazil to major world markets. Accordingly, our Brazilian operations are dependent on foreign markets and the ability to reach those markets.

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Our business, financial condition and results of operations in Brazil may be adversely affected by factors outside of our control, such as currency fluctuations, energy shortages and other political, social and economic developments in or affecting Brazil, including as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.

Certain of our employees are covered by collective bargaining or other labor agreements.

As of June 30, 2023, approximately 290 of our Israeli employees and 460 of our Brazilian employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements. We believe we have satisfactory relations with our employees. There can be no assurance that we will not experience a work stoppage or strike at our manufacturing facilities. A prolonged work stoppage or strike at any of our manufacturing facilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The loss of key personnel may disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.

Our operations and future success are dependent on the continued efforts of our senior executive officers and other key personnel. Although we have entered into employment agreements with certain executives, we may not be able to retain all of our senior executive officers and key employees. These senior executive officers and other key employees may be hired by our competitors, some of which have considerably more financial resources than we do. The loss of the services of any of our senior executive officers or other key personnel, or the inability to hire and retain qualified employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our R&D relies on evaluations in animals, which may become subject to bans or additional regulations.

As a company that produces animal health medicines and vaccines, evaluation of our existing and new products in animals is required in order to be able to register our products. Animal testing in certain industries has been the subject of controversy and adverse publicity. Some organizations and individuals have attempted to ban animal testing or encourage the adoption of additional regulations applicable to animal testing. To the extent that the activities of such organizations and individuals are successful, our R&D, and by extension our financial condition and results of operations, could be materially adversely affected. In addition, negative publicity about us or our industry could harm our reputation.

Our operations, properties and subsidiaries are subject to a wide variety of complex and stringent federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations.

We are subject to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing pollution; protection of the environment; the use, management and release of hazardous materials, substances and wastes; air emissions; greenhouse gas emissions; water use, supply and discharges; the investigation and remediation of contamination; the manufacture, distribution and sale of regulated materials, including pesticides; the importing, exporting and transportation of products; and the health and safety of our employees and the public (collectively, “Environmental Laws”). See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety.”

Pursuant to Environmental Laws, certain of our subsidiaries are required to obtain and maintain numerous governmental permits, licenses, registrations, authorizations and approvals, including “RCRA Part B” hazardous waste permits, to conduct various aspects of their operations (collectively “Environmental Permits”), any of which may be subject to suspension, revocation, modification, termination or denial under certain circumstances or which may not be renewed upon their expiration for various reasons, including noncompliance. See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety.” These Environmental Permits can be difficult, costly and time consuming to obtain and may contain conditions that limit our operations. Additionally, any failure to obtain and maintain such Environmental Permits could restrict or otherwise prohibit certain aspects of our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have expended, and may be required to expend in the future, substantial funds for compliance with Environmental Laws. As recyclers of hazardous metal-containing chemical wastes, certain of our subsidiaries have been, and are likely to be, the focus of extensive compliance reviews by environmental regulatory authorities under Environmental Laws, including those relating to the generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes under the RCRA. In the past, some of our subsidiaries have paid fines and entered into consent orders to address alleged environmental violations. See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety.” We cannot

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assure you that our operations or activities or those of certain of our subsidiaries, including with respect to compliance with Environmental Laws, will not result in civil or criminal enforcement actions or private actions, regulatory or judicial orders enjoining or curtailing operations or requiring corrective measures, installation of pollution control equipment or remedial measures or costs, revocation of required Environmental Permits, or fines, penalties or damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we cannot predict the extent to which Environmental Laws, and the interpretation or enforcement thereof, may change or become more stringent in the future, each of which may affect the market for our products or give rise to additional capital expenditures, compliance costs or liabilities that could be material.

Our operations or products may impact the environment or cause or contribute to contamination or exposure to hazardous substances.

Given the nature of our current and former operations, particularly at our chemical manufacturing sites, we have incurred, are currently incurring and may in the future incur liabilities under CERCLA, or under other federal, state, local and foreign Environmental Laws related to releases of or contamination by hazardous substances, with respect to our current or former sites, adjacent or nearby third-party sites, or offsite disposal locations. See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety.” Certain Environmental Laws, including CERCLA, can impose strict, joint, several and retroactive liability for the cost of investigation and cleanup of contaminated sites on owners and operators of such sites, as well as on persons who dispose of or arrange for disposal of hazardous substances at such sites. Accordingly, we could incur liability, whether as a result of government enforcement or private claims, for known or unknown liabilities at, or caused by migration from or hazardous waste transported from, any of our current or former facilities or properties, including those owned or operated by predecessors or third parties. See “Business — Environmental, Health and Safety.” Such liability could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The nature of our current and former operations also exposes us to the risk of claims under Environmental Laws. We could be subject to claims by environmental regulatory authorities, individuals and other third parties seeking damages for alleged personal injury, property damage and damages to natural resources resulting from hazardous substance contamination or human exposure caused by our operations, facilities or products, and there can be no assurance that material costs and liabilities will not be incurred in connection with any such claims. Our insurance may not be sufficient to cover any of these exposures, product, injury or damage claims.

Furthermore, regulatory agencies are showing increasing concern over the impact of animal health products and livestock operations on the environment. This increased regulatory scrutiny may necessitate that additional time and resources be spent to address these concerns for both new and existing products and could affect product sales and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We cannot assure you that our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances will not materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We have been and may continue to be subject to claims of injury from direct exposure to certain of our products that constitute or contain hazardous substances and from indirect exposure when such substances are incorporated into other companies’ products.

Because certain of our products constitute or contain hazardous substances, and because the production of certain chemicals involves the use, handling, processing, storage and transportation of hazardous substances, from time to time we are subject to claims of injury from direct exposure to such substances and from indirect exposure when such substances are incorporated into other companies’ products. There can be no assurance that as a result of past or future operations, there will not be additional claims of injury by employees or members of the public due to exposure, or alleged exposure, to such substances. We are also party to a number of claims and lawsuits arising out of the normal course of business, including product liability claims and allegations of violations of governmental regulations, and face present and future claims with respect to workplace exposure, workers’ compensation and other matters. In most cases, such claims are covered by insurance and, where applicable, workers’ compensation insurance, subject to policy limits and exclusions; however, our insurance coverage, to the extent available, may not be adequate to protect us from all liabilities that we might incur in connection with the manufacture, sale and use of our products. Insurance is expensive and, in the future, may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. A successful claim or series of claims brought against us in excess of our insurance coverage could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition

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and results of operations. In addition, any claims, even if not ultimately successful, could adversely affect the marketplace’s acceptance of our products.

We are subject to risks from litigation that may materially impact our operations.

We face an inherent business risk of exposure to various types of claims and lawsuits. We are involved in various legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. Although it is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of every pending claim or lawsuit or the range of probable loss, we believe these pending lawsuits and claims will not individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. However, we could, in the future, be subject to various lawsuits, including intellectual property, product liability, personal injury, product warranty, environmental or antitrust claims, among others, and incur judgments or enter into settlements of lawsuits and claims that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period.

We are subject to risks that may not be covered by our insurance policies.

In addition to pollution and other environmental risks, we are subject to risks inherent in the animal health, mineral nutrition and performance products industries, such as explosions, fires, spills or releases. Any significant interruption of operations at our principal facilities could have a material adverse effect on us. We maintain general liability insurance, pollution legal liability insurance and property and business interruption insurance with coverage limits that we believe are adequate. Because of the nature of industry hazards, it is possible that liabilities for pollution and other damages arising from a major occurrence may not be covered by our insurance policies or could exceed insurance coverages or policy limits or that such insurance may not be available at reasonable rates in the future. Any such liabilities, which could arise due to injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage or suspension of operations, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Adverse U.S. and international economic and market conditions may adversely affect our product sales and business.

Current U.S. and international economic and market conditions are uncertain. The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected international economic conditions and financial markets and led to economic downturns in many countries in which we operate. Our revenues and operating results may be affected by uncertain or changing economic and market conditions, including as a result of a resurgence of COVID-19 pandemic or other similar public health crises, and other challenges faced in the credit markets and financial services industry.

Economic, business, political and financial disruptions from the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the imposition of sanctions and business disruptions as well as inflation, could also have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition, and liquidity. Certain of our customers and suppliers could be affected directly by an economic downturn and could face credit issues or cash flow problems that could give rise to payment delays, increased credit risk, bankruptcies and other financial hardships that could decrease the demand for our products or hinder our ability to collect amounts due from customers. Customers may seek lower price alternatives to our products if they are negatively impacted by poor economic conditions. Furthermore, our exposure to credit and collectability risk and cybersecurity risk is higher in certain international markets and as a result of the crisis resulting from the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, our ability to mitigate such risks may be limited. While we have procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit and collectability risk and we have defensive measures in place to prevent and mitigate cyberattacks, there can be no assurance that such procedures and measures will effectively limit such risks and avoid losses.

If domestic and global economic and market conditions remain uncertain or persist or deteriorate further, we may experience material impacts on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Adverse economic conditions impacting our customers, including, among others, increased taxation, higher unemployment, lower customer confidence in the economy, higher customer debt levels, lower availability of customer credit, higher interest rates and hardships relating to declines in the stock markets, could cause purchases of meat products to decline, resulting in a decrease in purchases of our products, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation. Adverse economic and market conditions could also negatively impact our business by negatively affecting the parties with whom we do business, including among others, our customers, our manufacturers and our suppliers.

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We may not be able to realize the expected benefits of our investments in emerging markets.

We have been taking steps to take advantage of the rise in global demand for animal protein in emerging markets, including by expanding our manufacturing presence, sales, marketing and distribution in these markets. Failure to continue to maintain and expand our business in emerging markets could also materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Some countries within emerging markets may be especially vulnerable to periods of local, regional or global economic, political or social instability or crisis. For example, our sales in certain emerging markets have suffered from extended periods of disruption due to natural disasters. Furthermore, we have also experienced lower than expected sales in certain emerging markets due to local, regional and global restrictions on banking and commercial activities in those countries. For all these and other reasons, sales within emerging markets carry significant risks.

Modification of foreign trade policy may harm our food animal product customers.

Changes in laws, agreements and policies governing foreign trade in the territories and countries where our customers do business could negatively impact such customers’ businesses and adversely affect our results of operations. A number of our customers, particularly U.S.-based food animal producers have benefited from free trade agreements, including, in the past, the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”). The U.S., Canada and Mexico reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement. Any other changes to international trade agreements or policies could harm our customers, and as a result, negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, in response to new U.S. tariffs affecting foreign imports, some foreign governments, including China, have instituted or are considering instituting tariffs on certain U.S. goods. While the scope and duration of these and any future tariffs remain uncertain, tariffs imposed by the U.S. or foreign governments on our customers’ products, or on our products or the active pharmaceutical ingredients or other components thereof, could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Our product approval, R&D, acquisition and licensing efforts may fail to generate new products and product lifecycle developments.

Our future success depends on both our existing product portfolio, including our ability to obtain cross-clearances enabling the use of our medicated products in conjunction with other products, approval for use of our products with new species, approval for new claims for our products, approval of our products in new markets and our pipeline of new products, including new products that we may develop through joint ventures and products that we are able to obtain through license or acquisition. The majority of our R&D programs focus on product lifecycle development, which is defined as R&D programs that leverage existing animal health products by adding new species or claims, achieving approvals in new markets or creating new combinations and reformulations. We commit substantial effort, funds and other resources to expanding our product approvals and R&D, both through our own dedicated resources and through collaborations with third parties.

We may be unable to determine with accuracy when or whether any of our expanded product approvals for our existing product portfolio or any of our products now under development will be approved or launched, or we may be unable to obtain expanded product approvals or develop, license or otherwise acquire product candidates or products. In addition, we cannot predict whether any products, once launched, will be commercially successful or will achieve sales and revenues that are consistent with our expectations. The animal health industry is subject to regional and local trends and regulations and, as a result, products that are successful in some of our markets may not achieve similar success when introduced into new markets. Furthermore, the timing and cost of our R&D may increase, and our R&D may become less predictable. For example, changes in regulations applicable to our industry may make it more time-consuming and/or costly to research, test and develop products.

Products in the animal health industry are sometimes derived from molecules and compounds discovered or developed as part of human health research. We may enter into collaboration or licensing arrangements with third parties to provide us with access to compounds and other technology for purposes of our business. Such agreements are typically complex and require time to negotiate and implement. If we enter into these arrangements, we may not be able to maintain these relationships or establish new ones in the future on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, any collaboration that we enter into may not be successful, and the success may depend on the efforts and actions of our

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collaborators, which we may not be able to control. If we are unable to access human health-generated molecules and compounds to conduct R&D on cost-effective terms, our ability to develop new products could be limited.

The actual or purported intellectual property rights of third parties may negatively affect our business.

A third party may sue us, our distributors or licensors, or otherwise make a claim, alleging infringement or other violation of the third-party’s patents, trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names or other intellectual property rights. If we do not prevail in this type of litigation, we may be required to:

pay monetary damages;
obtain a license in order to continue manufacturing or marketing the affected products, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all; or
stop activities, including any commercial activities, relating to the affected products, which could include a recall of the affected products and/or a cessation of sales in the future.

The costs of defending an intellectual property claim could be substantial and could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition, even if we successfully defend such claims. We may also incur costs in connection with an obligation to indemnify a distributor, licensor or other third party. Moreover, even if we believe that we do not infringe a validly existing third-party patent, we may choose to license such patent, which would result in associated costs and obligations.

The intellectual property positions of animal health medicines and vaccines businesses frequently involve complex legal and factual questions, and an issued patent does not guarantee us the right to practice the patented technology or develop, manufacture or commercialize the patented product. We cannot be certain that a competitor or other third party does not have or will not obtain rights to intellectual property that may prevent us from manufacturing, developing or marketing certain of our products, regardless of whether we believe such intellectual property rights are valid and enforceable or we believe we would be otherwise able to develop a more commercially successful product, which may harm our financial condition and results of operations.

If our intellectual property rights are challenged or circumvented, competitors may be able to take advantage of our R&D efforts. We are also dependent upon trade secrets, which in some cases may be difficult to protect.

Our long-term success largely depends on our ability to market technologically competitive products. We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of intellectual property, including patent, trademark, trade dress, copyright, trade secret and domain name protection laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others, to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. If we fail to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property protection, we may not be able to prevent third parties from using our proprietary technologies or from marketing products that are very similar or identical to ours. Our currently pending or future patent applications may not result in issued patents, or be approved on a timely basis, or at all. Similarly, any term extensions that we seek may not be approved on a timely basis, if at all. In addition, our issued patents may not contain claims sufficiently broad to protect us against third parties with similar technologies or products or provide us with any competitive advantage, including exclusivity in a particular product area. The scope of our patent claims also may vary between countries, as individual countries have their own patent laws. For example, some countries only permit the issuance of patents covering a novel chemical compound itself, and its first use, and thus further methods of use for the same compound, may not be patentable. We may be subject to challenges by third parties regarding our intellectual property, including claims regarding validity, enforceability, scope and effective term. The validity, enforceability, scope and effective term of patents can be highly uncertain and often involve complex legal and factual questions and proceedings. Our ability to enforce our patents also depends on the laws of individual countries and each country’s practice with respect to enforcement of intellectual property rights. In addition, if we are unable to maintain our existing license agreements or other agreements pursuant to which third parties grant us rights to intellectual property, including because such agreements expire or are terminated, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Patent law changes in the United States and other countries may also weaken our ability to enforce our patent rights or make such enforcement financially unattractive. Any such changes could result in increased costs to protect our intellectual property or limit our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for our products in these jurisdictions.

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Additionally, certain foreign governments have indicated that compulsory licenses to patents may be granted in the case of national emergencies, which could diminish or eliminate sales and profits from those regions and materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Likewise, in the United States and other countries, we currently hold issued trademark registrations and have trademark applications pending, any of which may be the subject of a governmental or third-party objection, which could prevent the maintenance or issuance of the same and thus create the potential need to rebrand or relabel a product. As our products mature, our reliance on our trademarks to differentiate us from our competitors increases and as a result, if we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks and trade dress that infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our trademark rights, our business could be materially adversely affected.

Our competitive position is also dependent upon unpatented trade secrets, which in some cases may be difficult to protect. Others may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or may otherwise gain access to our trade secrets and trade secrets may be disclosed or we may not be able to protect our rights to unpatented trade secrets.

Many of our vaccine products and other products are based on or incorporate proprietary information, including proprietary master seeds and proprietary or patented adjuvant formulations. We actively seek to protect our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and proprietary know-how, by requiring our employees, consultants, other advisors and other third parties to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of their employment, engagement or other relationship. Despite these efforts and precautions, we may be unable to prevent a third party from copying or otherwise obtaining and using our trade secrets or our other intellectual property without authorization and legal remedies may not adequately compensate us for the damages caused by such unauthorized use. Further, others may independently and lawfully develop substantially similar or identical products that circumvent our intellectual property by means of alternative designs or processes or otherwise.

The misappropriation and infringement of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States, may occur even when we take steps to prevent it. In the future, we may be party to patent lawsuits and other intellectual property rights claims that are expensive and time consuming, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on our business and financial condition. In the future, we may not be able to enforce intellectual property that relates to our products for various reasons, including licensor restrictions and other restrictions imposed by third parties, and the costs of doing so may outweigh the value of doing so, and this could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial condition.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws or trade control laws, as well as other laws governing our operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our operations are subject to anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws that apply in countries where we do business. The FCPA, UK Bribery Act and other laws generally prohibit us and our employees and intermediaries from bribing, being bribed or making other prohibited payments to government officials or other persons to obtain or retain business or gain some other business advantage. We operate in a number of jurisdictions that pose a high risk of potential FCPA violations, and we participate in relationships with third parties whose actions could potentially subject us to liability under the FCPA or local anti-corruption laws. In addition, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our international operations might be subject or the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted.

We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security, the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and various non-U.S. government entities, including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, customs requirements, currency exchange regulations and transfer pricing regulations (collectively, the “Trade Control laws”).

There is no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anticorruption laws, including the FCPA or other legal requirements, including Trade Control laws. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws or Trade Control laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil

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penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Likewise, any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA other anti-corruption laws or Trade Control laws by U.S. or foreign authorities could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Increased regulation or decreased governmental financial support for the raising, processing or consumption of food animals could reduce demand for our animal health products.

Companies in the animal health industry are subject to extensive and increasingly stringent regulations. If livestock producers are adversely affected by new regulations or changes to existing regulations, they may reduce herd sizes or become less profitable and, as a result, they may reduce their use of our products, which may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, adverse regulations related, directly or indirectly, to the use of one or more of our products may injure livestock producers’ market position. More stringent regulation of the livestock industry or our products could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Also, many industrial producers, including livestock producers, benefit from governmental subsidies, and if such subsidies were to be reduced or eliminated, these companies may become less profitable and, as a result, may reduce their use of our products.

Increased or decreased inventory levels at our channel distributors can lead to fluctuations in our revenues and variations in payment terms extended to our distributors can impact our cash flows.

In addition to selling our products directly to customers, we also sell to distributors who, in turn, sell our products to third parties. Inventory levels at our distributors may increase or decrease as a result of various factors, including end customer demand, new customer contracts, the influence of competition, political and socio-economic climate, contractual obligations related to minimum inventory levels, changing perceptions, including those of alternative products, our ability to renew distribution contracts with expected terms, our ability to implement commercial strategies, regulatory restrictions, armed conflicts, unexpected customer behavior, proactive measures taken by us in response to shifting market dynamics and procedures and environmental factors beyond our control, including weather conditions or an outbreak of infectious disease such as COVID-19 or diseases carried by farm animals such as African Swine fever. These increases and decreases can lead to variations in our quarterly and annual revenues.

In addition, we have policies that govern the payment terms that we extend to our customers. From time to time, our distributors have requested exceptions to the payment term policies that we extend to them for various reasons, including consolidation amongst our distributors, changes in the buying patterns of end customers, as well as the perception of our distributors regarding the need to maintain certain inventory levels to avoid supply disruptions. Extensions of anticipated customer payment terms can impact our cash flows, liquidity and results of operations.

We have substantial debt and interest payment requirements that may restrict our future operations and impair our ability to meet our obligations under our indebtedness. Restrictions imposed by our outstanding indebtedness, including the restrictions contained in our 2021 Credit Facilities, may limit our ability to operate our business and to finance our future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities.

As of June 30, 2023, we had outstanding indebtedness (reflecting the principal amounts) of $273.8 million under our 2021 Term A loan (as defined below), $50.0 million under our 2023 Incremental Term loan (as defined below), $141.0 million of outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility, $11.7 million under our 2022 Term Loan (as defined below) and $2.5 million of outstanding letters of credit. Subject to restrictions in our 2021 Credit Facilities (as defined below), we may incur significant additional indebtedness. If we and our subsidiaries incur significant additional indebtedness, the related risks that we face could intensify.

Our substantial debt may have important consequences. For instance, it could:

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations, including those relating to the 2021 Credit Facilities;

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require us to dedicate a substantial portion of any cash flow from operations to the payment of interest and principal due under our debt, which will reduce funds available for other business purposes, including capital expenditures and acquisitions;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared with some of our competitors that may have less debt and better access to capital resources; and
limit our ability to obtain additional financing required to fund working capital and capital expenditures and for other general corporate purposes.

Our ability to satisfy our obligations and to reduce our total debt depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow, and future financings may not be available to provide sufficient net proceeds, to meet these obligations or to successfully execute our business strategy.

The terms of the 2021 Credit Facilities contain certain covenants that limit our ability and that of our subsidiaries to create liens, merge or consolidate, dispose of assets, incur indebtedness and guarantees, repurchase or redeem capital stock and indebtedness, make certain investments or acquisitions, enter into certain transactions with affiliates or change the nature of our business. As a result of these covenants and restrictions, we will be limited in how we conduct our business, and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We may not be able to maintain compliance with the covenants in any of our debt instruments in the future and, if we fail to do so, we may not be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and the related economic downturn in the debt markets. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness.

If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to dispose of material assets or operations, alter our dividend policy, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The instruments that govern our indebtedness may restrict our ability to dispose of assets and may restrict the use of proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations when due.

In addition, we conduct our operations through our subsidiaries. Accordingly, repayment of our indebtedness will depend on the generation of cash flow by our subsidiaries, including our international subsidiaries, and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Our subsidiaries may not have any obligation to pay amounts due on our indebtedness or to make funds available for that purpose. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity, and under certain circumstances, legal, tax and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries or may subject any transfer of cash from our subsidiaries to substantial tax liabilities. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.

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Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity and our ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness or pay dividends on our common stock.

We are subject to change of control provisions.

We are a party to certain contractual arrangements that are subject to change of control provisions. In this context, “change of control” is generally defined as including (a) any person or group, other than Mr. Jack C. Bendheim and his family and affiliates (the current holders of approximately 90.9% of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding common stock), becoming the beneficial owner of more than 50% of the total voting power of our stock, and (b) a change in any twelve month period in the majority of the members of the Board that is not approved by Mr. Bendheim and/or his family and affiliates or by the majority of directors in office at the start of such period.

Mr. Bendheim and his family and affiliates may choose to dispose of part or all of their stakes in us and/or may cease to exercise the current level of control they have over the appointment and removal of members of our Board. Any such changes may trigger a “change of control” event that could result in us being forced to repay the 2021 Credit Facilities (which includes our 2023 Incremental Term Loan) or lead to the termination of a significant contract to which we are a party. If any such event occurs, this may negatively affect our financial condition and operating results. In addition, we may not have sufficient funds to finance repayment of any of such indebtedness upon any such “change in control.”

We depend on sophisticated information technology and infrastructure.

We rely on various information systems to manage our operations, and we increasingly depend on third parties and applications on virtualized, or “cloud,” infrastructure to operate and support our information technology systems. These third parties include large established vendors as well as small, privately owned companies. Failure by these providers to adequately service our operations or a change in control or insolvency of these providers could have an adverse effect on our business, which in turn may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may be required to write down goodwill or identifiable intangible assets.

Under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), if we determine goodwill or identifiable intangible assets are impaired, we will be required to write down these assets and record a non-cash impairment charge. As of June 30, 2023, we had goodwill of $53.3 million and identifiable intangible assets, less accumulated amortization, of $55.0 million. Identifiable intangible assets consist primarily of developed technology rights and patents and customer relationships.

Determining whether an impairment exists and the amount of the potential impairment involves quantitative data and qualitative criteria that are based on estimates and assumptions requiring significant management judgment. Future events or new information may change management’s valuation of goodwill or an intangible asset in a short amount of time. The timing and amount of impairment charges recorded in our consolidated statements of operations and write-downs recorded in our consolidated balance sheets could vary if management’s conclusions change. Any impairment of goodwill or identifiable intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We may be unable to adequately protect our customers’ privacy or we may fail to comply with privacy laws.

The protection of customer, employee and company data is critical and the regulatory environment surrounding information security, storage, use, processing, disclosure and privacy is demanding, with the frequent imposition of new and changing requirements. In addition, our customers expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. Any actual or perceived significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, cyber-attack or corruption of customer, employee or company data or our failure to comply with federal, state, local and foreign privacy laws could damage our reputation and result in lost sales, fines and lawsuits. Despite our considerable efforts and technology to secure our computer network, security could be compromised, confidential information could be misappropriated or system disruptions could occur. Any actual or perceived access, disclosure or other loss of information or any significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, cyber-attack or corruption of customer, employee or company data or our failure to comply with federal, state, local and foreign privacy laws or contractual obligations with customers, vendors, payment processors and other

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third parties, could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws or contracts that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties, disruption of our operations and damage to our reputation, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, revenue and competitive position.

We may be subject to information technology system failures, network disruptions and breaches in data security.

We are increasingly dependent upon information technology systems and infrastructure to conduct critical operations and generally operate our business, which includes using information technology systems to process, transmit and store electronic information in our day-to-day operations, including customer, employee and company data. The COVID-19 pandemic and related quarantines, shelter-in-place and “social distancing” requirements, travel restrictions and other similar government orders, have resulted in a substantial portion of our employees working remotely and have increased our dependence on tools that facilitate employees working from home and gaining remote access to our information technology systems. As a result, any disruption to our information technology systems, our industrial machinery, software used in our manufacturing facilities, firmware or software embedded in our equipment or machinery, including from cyber incidents, could have a material adverse effect on our business. The increased use of these tools could also make our information technology systems more vulnerable to breaches of data security and cybersecurity attacks. The size and complexity of our computer systems make them potentially vulnerable to breakdown, malicious intrusion and random attack. We also store certain information with third parties. Our information systems and those of our third-party vendors are subjected to computer viruses or other malicious codes, unauthorized access attempts, and cyber, phishing or ransomware attacks and also are vulnerable to an increasing threat of continually evolving cybersecurity risks and external hazards. Disruption, degradation, or manipulation of these systems and infrastructure through intentional or accidental means could impact key business processes. Cyber-attacks against the Company’s systems and infrastructure could result in exposure of confidential information, the modification of critical data and/or the failure of critical operations. Likewise, improper or inadvertent employee behavior, including data privacy breaches by employees and others with permitted access to our systems may pose a risk that sensitive data may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public. Any such breach could compromise our networks, and the information stored therein could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Such attacks could result in our intellectual property and other confidential information being lost or stolen, disruption of our operations and other negative consequences, such as increased costs for security measures or remediation costs, and diversion of management attention. Although the aggregate impact on the Company’s operations and financial condition has not been material to date, the Company has been the target of events of this nature and expects them to continue as cyber-attacks are becoming more sophisticated and frequent, and the techniques used in such attacks change rapidly. The Company monitors its data, information technology and personnel usage of Company systems to reduce these risks and continues to do so on an ongoing basis for any current or potential threats.

If any of our operational technologies, software or hardware or other control systems are compromised, fail or have other significant shortcomings, it could disrupt our business, require us to incur substantial additional expenses or result in potential liability or reputational damage. While we have invested in protection of data and information technology, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent such breakdowns, cybersecurity attacks or breaches in our systems that could cause reputational damage, business disruption and legal and regulatory costs; could result in third-party claims; could result in compromise or misappropriation of our intellectual property, trade secrets and sensitive information; and could otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results.

Implementing new business lines or offering new products and services may subject us to additional risks.

From time to time, we may implement new business lines or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There may be substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts. We may invest significant time and resources in developing, marketing, or acquiring new lines of business and/or offering new products and services. Initial timetables for the introduction and development or acquisition of new lines of business and/or the offering of new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may prove to be unachievable. Our lack of experience or knowledge, as well as external factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the success of an acquisition or the implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. New business lines or new products and services within existing lines of business could affect the sales and profitability of existing lines of business or products and services. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the implementation or acquisition of new lines of business or the offering of new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock

Our multiple class structure and the concentration of our voting power with certain of our stockholders will limit your ability to influence corporate matters, and conflicts of interest between certain of our stockholders and us or other investors could arise in the future.

As of August 25, 2023, BFI Co., LLC (“BFI”) beneficially owns 59,480 shares of our Class A common stock and 20,166,034 shares of our Class B common stock, which together represent approximately 90.9% of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding common stock. As of August 25, 2023, our other stockholders collectively own interests representing approximately 9.1% of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding common stock. Because of our multiple class structure and the concentration of voting power with BFI, BFI will continue to be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval for so long as BFI holds common stock representing greater than 50% of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding common stock. BFI will therefore have significant influence over management and affairs and control the approval of all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of the Company or its assets, for the foreseeable future.

We are classified as a “controlled company” and, as a result, we qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. You will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.

BFI controls a majority of the combined voting power of all classes of our outstanding common stock. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under Nasdaq rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including:

the requirement that a majority of the Board consists of independent directors;
the requirement that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee and that it is composed entirely of independent directors; and
the requirement for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees.

We utilize and intend to continue to utilize these exemptions. As a result, while we currently have a majority of independent directors:

we may not have a majority of independent directors in the future;
we will not have a nominating and corporate governance committee; and
we will not be required to have an annual performance evaluation of the compensation committee.

Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.

Our stock price may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance.

The market price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, many of which we cannot control, including those described under “— Risk Factors Relating to Our Business” and the following: