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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______ to _______

Commission File Number: 001-16391

Axon Enterprise, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

86-0741227

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

17800 North 85th Street

85255

Scottsdale, Arizona

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(480) 991-0797

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share

AXON

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 762(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes      No  

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $14.3 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on The NASDAQ Global Select Market.

The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 23, 2024 was 75,302,832

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Parts of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be prepared and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

AXON ENTERPRISE, INC.

INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023

PART I

    

Page

Item 1.

Business

6

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

15

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

39

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

40

Item 2.

Properties

43

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

43

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

43

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

43

Item 6.

[Reserved]

44

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

45

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

61

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

62

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

104

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

104

Item 9B.

Other Information

107

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspection

107

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

107

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

107

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

107

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

108

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

108

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

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Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

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PART I

Statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), including statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions and strategies regarding the future. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe-harbor provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements give our current expectations or forecasts of future events; they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “estimate,” and similar expressions, as well as statements in future tense, identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

We cannot guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized, although we believe we have been prudent in our plans and assumptions. Achievement of future results is subject to risks, uncertainties and potentially inaccurate assumptions. Many events beyond our control may determine whether results we anticipate will be achieved. Should known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could differ materially from past results and those anticipated, estimated or projected. You should bear this in mind as you consider forward-looking statements. This report lists various important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical and expected results. These factors are intended as cautionary statements for investors within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Readers can find them under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and investors should refer to them. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, you should not consider any such list to be a complete set of all potential risks or uncertainties.

Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Form 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our filings with the SEC may be accessed at the SEC’s web site at www.sec.gov.

Risk Factor Summary

The following is only a summary of the principal risks that may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The following should be read in conjunction with the more complete discussion of the risks we face, which are set forth more fully in “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Strategic Risks

If law enforcement agencies do not continue to purchase and use our products and services, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.
If our TASER conducted energy devices (“CEDs”) do not continue to be widely accepted, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be diminished.
If we are unable to design, introduce, sell and deploy new products or new product features successfully, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
We face risks associated with rapid technological change and new competing products.
Our future success is dependent on our ability to expand sales through direct sales and distributors and our inability to increase direct sales or recruit new distributors would negatively affect our sales.
Negative publicity could adversely impact sales, which could cause our revenues or operating results to decline.
Acquisitions of, or investments in, other products, technologies or businesses could disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value, and adversely affect our operating results.
Our failure to retain executive officers, including Patrick W. Smith, could adversely impact our business.

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Operational Risks

Unavailability of materials or higher costs could adversely affect our financial results.
Material adverse developments in domestic and global economic conditions, or the occurrence of other world events, could materially adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.
To the extent demand for our products increases, our future success will be dependent upon our ability to manage our growth and to increase manufacturing production capacity.
Delays in product development schedules could adversely affect our revenues and cash flows.
We expend significant resources in anticipation of a sale and may receive no revenue in return.
Changes in civil forfeiture laws may affect our customers’ ability to purchase our products.
If our security measures or those of our third-party providers, including cloud storage providers, are breached and unauthorized access is obtained to customers’ data or our data, our network, data centers and service may be perceived as not being secure, customers may curtail or stop using our products and services, and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities.
Catastrophic events could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
Uncertainty in the development, deployment and use of artificial intelligence (“AI”) in our products and services, as well as our business more broadly, could adversely affect our business and reputation.
Defects or disruptions in our services could impact demand for our services and subject us to substantial liability.
Defects in our products could reduce demand for our products or result in product recalls and result in a loss of sales, delay in market acceptance and damage to our reputation.
Our international operations expose us to additional risks that could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
We depend on our ability to attract and retain our key management, sales and technical personnel.
If we fail to comply with federal, state or local regulations applicable to TASER 10, we may be subject to governmental actions or litigation that could materially harm our business.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or identify a material weakness or significant deficiency, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected, investor confidence could diminish, and the value of our common stock may decline.

Financial Risks

An increasing percentage of our revenue is derived from subscription billing arrangements that may result in delayed cash collections and may increase customer credit risk on receivables and contract assets.
Our gross margin is dependent on a number of factors, including our product mix, cost structure and acquisitions we may make, any of which could cause our gross margin to decline.
Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) revenue for Axon Evidence is recognized over the terms of the contracts, which may be several years, and, as such, trends in new business may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.
Most of our end-user customers are subject to budgetary and political constraints that may delay or prevent sales.
Due to government funding rules, certain of our contracts are subject to various cancellation clauses, which could allow our customers to cancel or not exercise options to renew contracts in the future.
The open bidding process creates uncertainty in predicting future contract awards.
We maintain most of our cash balances, some of which are not insured, at two depository institutions.
Stock transactions may have a material, unpredictable impact on our results of operations and may result in dilution to existing shareholders.
Our financial performance is subject to risks associated with changes in the value of the U.S. dollar versus local currencies.

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Unanticipated changes in our effective tax rate and additional tax liabilities may impact our operating results and financial condition.
Our revenues and operating results may fluctuate unexpectedly, which may cause our stock price to decline.
Our profitability could suffer from declines in fair value or impairment of our investments, including our strategic investments, and could fluctuate if the fair values of our investments increase.

Legal and Compliance Risks

We may face personal injury, wrongful death, product liability and other liability claims that harm our reputation and adversely affect our sales and financial condition.
Other litigation, government inquiries and regulatory actions may subject us to significant costs and judgments and divert management attention from our business.
We have been, and may be in the future, subject to intellectual property infringement and other claims, which could incur substantial litigation costs, result in significant damages awards, inhibit our use of certain technologies, and divert management attention from our business.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brands and products may decrease and we may lose our competitive market advantage.
We may be unable to enforce patent rights internationally, which may limit our ability to prevent our product features from being used by competitors in some foreign jurisdictions.
The use of open source software in our products, services and technologies may expose us to additional risks and harm our intellectual property. 
A variety of new and existing laws and/or interpretations could materially and adversely affect our business.
We are subject to evolving corporate governance and public disclosure regulations and expectations that could expose us to numerous risks.
Our amended and restated bylaws include exclusive forum provisions that could increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit the ability of our shareholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum viewed by shareholders as more favorable for disputes.

Risks Related to our Convertible Notes

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow to pay our substantial debt.
The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our operating results.
Conversion of the Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our shareholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
Changes in the accounting treatment for the Notes may have a material effect on our reported financial results.
The convertible note hedge and warrant transactions may affect the value of the Notes and our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the convertible note hedge transactions.

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Item 1.    Business

Overview

Axon Enterprise, Inc. (“Axon,” the “Company,” “we” or “us”) is a market-leading provider of law enforcement technology solutions with a mission to protect life in service of promoting peace, justice and strong institutions. In 2022, we announced our moonshot goal to cut gun-related deaths between police and the public in the United States in half by 2033.

Axon is building the public safety operating system of the future by integrating a suite of hardware devices and cloud software solutions that not only revolutionize modern policing but also cater to federal agencies, corrections, justice and enterprise-level security needs. Axon’s suite includes cloud-hosted digital evidence management, productivity and real-time operations software, body-worn cameras, in-car cameras, TASER energy devices, robotic security and training solutions.

Our hardware and software solutions advance our long-term strategic vision of (i) obsoleting the bullet, (ii) reducing social conflict, (iii) enabling a fair and effective justice system, and (iv) building for racial equity, diversity, and inclusion. Our products solve some of society's most challenging problems and our mission attracts top talent. We aim to invent and deliver public safety products that progressively make the right things easier and the wrong things harder every day.

Our research & development (“R&D”) investments support continuous innovation on behalf of our customers. Our financial strategy is to build highly recurring, highly profitable businesses and to drive growth through this purposeful product innovation.

Axon’s operations comprise two reportable segments:

1.TASER: Axon is the market leader in the development, manufacture and sale of CEDs, which we sell under our brand name, TASER.
2.Software and Sensors: We develop, manufacture and sell fully integrated hardware and cloud-based software solutions that enable law enforcement to capture, securely store, manage, share and analyze video and other digital evidence. Our software offerings also support productivity and real-time operations.

Further information about our reportable segments and sales by geographic region is included in Notes 1, 2 and 19 of the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. For future contracted revenue by reportable segment, refer to Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Axon employees are distributed across multiple geographies and report to work via a remote-hybrid model, which leverages both in-person collaboration environments as well as cloud-based software tools that enable remote productivity. Our headquarters in Scottsdale, Arizona and our software hub in Seattle, Washington house the majority of our in-person employees located in the United States, including members of our executive management team, and sales, marketing, certain engineering, manufacturing, finance and other administrative support functions. We also have subsidiaries and / or offices located in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom and Vietnam.

Key Product Category Revenue Drivers: What We Offer

Axon products are generally cloud-connected, designed to drive better outcomes and customer experiences, and sold via mutually reinforcing integrated bundles. Our key revenue drivers belong to three broad product categories:

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Software: Axon is building a suite of cloud-based, SaaS solutions that integrate with our sensors and TASER devices to benefit customers and drive annual recurring revenue, which totaled $697 million1 as of December 31, 2023. We have many SaaS solutions, which can best be trisected into three categories: digital evidence management, productivity and real-time operations solutions. Axon Evidence is the world’s largest cloud-hosted public safety data repository of public safety video data and other types of digital evidence. Our productivity suite, which includes Axon Records, is designed to save officers time spent writing reports and doing paperwork. Our real-time operations capabilities, which include Axon Respond, integrates location data, signal alerts and video feeds to provide a complete picture of evolving situations.
Sensors: Axon devices address many needs, including transparency, real-time situational awareness, and accurate capture and integration of evidence with software workflows. Product categories within sensors include Axon Body cameras, Axon Fleet in-car systems, and other devices that work with our software. Our software solutions also support an open ecosystem of connected devices produced by other vendors.
TASER: We develop smart devices, tools and services that support public safety officers in de-escalating situations, avoiding or minimizing use of force and aiding consumer personal protection. These tools include TASER devices, virtual reality (“VR”) training services and consumer devices. Research has shown that TASER devices are the most effective less-than-lethal force option, with the lowest likelihood of injury to officers and assailants. Since our inception in 1993, TASER devices have been adopted by a majority of U.S. state and local law enforcement and are used daily to help keep communities safe. Global adoption of TASER devices remains early and we are expanding into new geographies. Axon VR solutions make public safety training more accessible, relevant and affordable — with the goal of using new immersive VR technologies to better prepare officers for real-life situations in the field.

Sales and Distribution: Who We Sell To and Where We Deliver

We think of our core customers as falling into roughly four categories of funding sources: U.S. state and local governments, the U.S. federal government, international government customers and commercial enterprises. Additionally, the types of customers who find value in our product offerings are expanding beyond law enforcement to include attorneys, corrections, fire and emergency medical services personnel and the U.S. military.

Axon’s sales force and strong customer relationships represent key strategic advantages. The majority of our revenues are generated via direct sales, including our online store, although we do leverage distribution partners and third-party resellers.

No customer represented more than 10% of total net sales for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 or 2021.

We are diversifying into new markets by adding new types of customer profiles, or users, and by adding to our core customer base. In recent years, we have been investing in sales personnel to capture these new markets, and we continue to focus on strategic headcount additions to support key new markets and new products.

Governmental agencies generally have the ability to terminate our contracts, in whole or in part, for reasons including non-appropriation of funds. We continue to monitor developments in federal government funding.

1 Calculated as monthly recurring license, integration, warranty, and storage revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. Annual recurring revenue is a performance indicator that management believes provides more visibility into the growth of our revenue generated by our highest margin, recurring services. Annual recurring revenue should be viewed independently of revenue and deferred revenue because it is an operating measure and is not intended to be combined with or to replace GAAP revenue or deferred revenue, as they can be impacted by contract start and end dates and renewal rates. Annual recurring revenue is not intended to be a replacement or forecast of revenue or deferred revenue.

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Resources

Manufacturing and Supply Chain

We perform light manufacturing, final assembly and final test operations at our facilities in Scottsdale, Arizona, and own substantially all of the equipment required to develop, prototype, manufacture and assemble our finished products. We have continued to maintain both our ISO 9001 and our ISO 9001:2015 certifications.

We continue to take steps to diversify our supply chain and global manufacturing footprint, which positions us well to manage supply chain disruptions. Material availability has mostly stabilized from prior supply chain challenges while general levels of risk continue to exist in all businesses that manufacture products. Supplier decommitments remain a top area of risk. However, we have put programs in place to mitigate this risk. We proactively manage our supply chain down to third tier suppliers to overcome material shortages as they arise. These actions align to our strategic model to help meet strong product demand while also preparing us to stagger factory work schedules as needed, which enables us to meet compressed build schedules over short periods of time. We continue to adjust strategic inventory levels in both raw and finished goods based on areas of risk to mitigate potential supply disruptions.

In light of our broad domestic and international supplier base, we are continuously monitoring our supply chain to manage through potential impacts, identifying alternate shipping and logistic sources, and working with foreign regulators to ensure that our suppliers can provide parts.

Even as we continue to expand our second sourcing of materials across our supply chain, we still obtain some unique components from single source suppliers.  However, because we own substantially all of the injection molded component tooling used in their production, we believe we could obtain alternative suppliers in most cases with varying levels of interruption. In addition, we also have programs to hold additional raw materials (such as resins and critical semiconductors) to mitigate supply and better manage costs.  For additional discussion of sources and availability of raw materials, refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We provide limited manufacturer’s warranties on our Axon devices and CEDs, and customers also have the option to purchase extended warranties. For additional information about our warranties, refer to Note 1 in the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Intellectual Property

We protect our intellectual property with U.S. and international patents and trademarks. Our patents and pending patent applications relate to technology used by us in connection with our products. We also rely on international treaties, organizations and laws to protect our intellectual property. As of December 31, 2023, we hold over 300 U.S. patents,  over 125 U.S. registered trademarks, over 240 international patents and over 450 international registered trademarks, as well as numerous patent and trademark applications pending.

We continuously assess whether and where to seek formal protection for particular innovations and technologies based on such factors as the commercial significance to our operations and our competitors’ operations in particular countries and regions, our strategic technology or product directions in different countries, and the degree to which intellectual property laws exist and are meaningfully enforced in different jurisdictions. We have the exclusive rights to many Internet domain names, primarily including “Axon.com,” “Evidence.com” and “TASER.com.”  We also vigorously protect our intellectual property, including patents, trademarks and trade secrets against third-party infringement.

Confidentiality agreements are used with employees, consultants and key suppliers to help ensure the confidentiality of our trade secrets.

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Competition

Sensors — Connected Cameras and Digital Evidence Management Software: The body-worn camera and in-car video/automatic license plate readers industry is highly competitive.  Our competition includes Axis Communications AB, Digital Ally Inc., Getac Technology Corporation, Halo Body Cameras, i-PRO, LensLock Inc., Motorola Solutions, Reveal Media, Safe Fleet, Utility Associates, Versaterm Inc., Wolfcom Enterprises, Wrap Technologies Inc. and Zepcam B.V., Applied Concepts Inc., Genetec Inc. and Insight LPR.

The market for software solutions to improve public safety agency workflows is both highly fragmented and highly competitive. Our cloud-based digital evidence management system, Axon Evidence, competes with both cloud-based platforms and on-premises based systems designed by third-parties or developed internally by an agency's technology staff. Our competition includes FileOnQ, FotoWare, Genetec Inc., IBM, i-PRO, Motorola Solutions, NICE, OpenText Corporation, Oracle, QueTel Corporation, Revir Technologies, Utility Associates and Vidizmo, LLC, among others.

Key competitive factors in this product category include product performance, product features (including live-streaming, GPS tracking and pre-event buffering), battery life, product quality and warranty, total cost of ownership, data security, data and information workflows, company reputation and financial strength, and customer satisfaction and relationships.

Productivity and Real-Time Operations Software — Records Management System (“RMS”) and Computer Aided Dispatch (“CAD”): The RMS and CAD verticals are highly competitive and highly fragmented. We have identified more than 50 software providers, including 365Labs, Beacon Software Solutions Inc., Caliber Public Safety (parent, Harris Computer Systems), Central Square Technologies (formerly Superion, TriTech and Aptean), CivicEye, Core Technology Corporation, CSI Technology Group, EForce Software, Executive Information Services Inc., Hexagon AB, Kologik, LawSoft Inc., Mark43 Inc, Motorola Solutions, Niche Technology Inc., Saab, SmartCop, SOMA Global, Sopra Steria, Southern Software, Sun Ridge Systems Inc. and Tyler Technologies. In addition, not all law enforcement agencies use software for report writing — some still use paper. We believe our network of camera sensors and digital evidence management platform give us a strategic advantage in these product categories. Our Axon Respond offering competes both with real-time operations platforms that ingest body camera video feeds, like Genetec's Citigraf, Motorola’s CommandCentral Aware and Utility Associates’ Titan, as well as platforms that ingest video feeds exclusively from surveillance cameras, like Hexagon's Connect, Live Earth and Spatialitics's GeoShield among others.

TASER for Professional Users: Our CEDs compete with a variety of less-lethal alternatives to firearms, including rubber bullets or rubber baton rounds, such as those made by Combined Systems, Inc.; pepper spray, pepper spray projectiles, such as those made by Byrna Technologies Inc. (dba Fox Labs), SABRE Corporation and Mace Security International, Inc.; traditional stun guns, such as those made by UZI and Jolt; hand-held remote restraint devices involving a tether, such as the one made by Wrap Technologies Inc.; laser dazzlers that cause temporary blindness, such as the one made by B.E. Meyers & Co., Inc.; stun grenades, such as those made by Combined Systems, Inc.; long-range acoustic devices, such as the one made by Genasys Inc.; and police batons and night sticks, such as those made by Monadnock and by Armament Systems and Procedures, Inc. TASER devices offer advanced technology, versatility, portability, effectiveness, built-in accountability systems and low injury rates, which enable us to compete effectively against other less-lethal alternatives. TASER devices also offer connectivity to our cloud network, which allows law enforcement agencies and other professional users to more effectively manage their less-lethal programs and automate use-of-force reporting.

The key competitive factors in this product category include a device’s accuracy, effectiveness, reputation, safety, cost, ease of use, and exceptional customer experience. The design maturity of the TASER platform, as well as our development and sale of a multi-shot device, are also key competitive differentiators. We are aware of competitors providing competing CED products primarily outside of the United States.

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VR De-Escalation Training for Law Enforcement, Corrections and Private Security: Our VR Training platform competes with several other companies in the space who offer simulation scenarios, including simulated training on the use of both lethal and less-lethal alternatives. Our competition in this space includes Adaptive VR Ltd., Apex Officer, Hologate GmbH, InVeris Training Solutions Inc., Laser Shot Inc., MILO, Street Smarts VR, Ti Training Corp, V-Armed, VirTra Inc. and Wrap Technologies.

Key competitive factors in this product category include scale of content library, integration to additional sensors and devices (e.g. haptic suit, TASER), ease of use, visual fidelity and realism, quality of immersion experience (enhanced by capabilities such as eye tracking and speech recognition) and portability.

TASER for Personal Safety: In the private citizen space, TASER devices compete with firearms and with other less-than-lethal self-defense options such as stun guns and pepper spray-based products, including pepper guns and miniature spray cans. Leading competitors in the less-than-lethal space include Byrna Technologies, Inc., Mace, PepperBall, SABRE, Salt Supply Co. and Vipertek. The TASER StrikeLight competes in the flashlight category, in which there are dozens, if not hundreds, of competitors, including tactical flashlight providers with and without stun-gun capabilities.

TASER Bolt and TASER Pulse are not stun guns, and have different capabilities, including neuromuscular incapacitation functionality. The broader market for personal safety and home defense is far-reaching, and categories range from threat detection and accountability (dash and doorbell cameras), to home security (home alarms, locks and response services) to personal defense (firearms, stun guns, TASER devices, pepper spray, tactical flashlights and personal alarms), to personal tracking and emergency notification mobile applications.

The primary benefit of TASER devices is in less-lethal incapacitation. Other competitive factors include a device’s cost, effectiveness, safety, ease of use, and available training options.

Axon Air: Our end-to-end drone management software platform competes with a select set of companies in the space who offer drone programs and flight management software solutions. Our competition in this space includes Aerodome Inc., Auterion Ltd., Motorola Solutions’ CAPE, Paladin Drones’ Watchtower and Votix, LLC, among a few others.  Key competitive factors in this product category include integration and compatibility with various drone hardware providers and other technology systems used by first responders (e.g., digital evidence management), drone program management and real-time situational awareness capabilities, intuitiveness of the user interface, the level of training and customer support provided (particularly for the drone-as-first-responder use case), the customization and flexibility allowed by the platform to meet specific operational needs and requirements of different customers (e.g., customizable flight restrictions) and the autonomy capabilities provided by the platform (e.g., creation of autonomous missions). 

Our indoor tactical drone hardware platform, Sky-Hero, competes with a few other companies in the space, including Brinc, Indoor Robotics and XTEND. Key competitive factors in this product category include variety and weight limits of compatible payloads, battery life and associated flight range, maneuverability and size, autonomy and onboard intelligence (including ability to navigate in GPS denied environments), sensor and imaging technology, durability and robustness of the drone, cost and maintenance required, reliability and security of communication and control systems, the simplicity of the drone piloting user interface and the training required to operate the drones. 

Non-Axon trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Seasonality

We have historically experienced higher net sales in our fourth quarter compared to other quarters in our fiscal year due primarily to municipal budget cycles. Additionally, new product introductions can significantly impact the cadence of net sales, product costs and operating expenses. Municipal law enforcement budgets tend to feature a mix of fiscal years that end in either June, September or December, while U.S. federal budget year end is in September. However, historical seasonal patterns, municipal budgets or historical patterns of product introductions should not be considered reliable indicators of our future net sales or financial performance.

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Governmental Regulation

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad that involve matters central to our business, including laws and regulations related to: privacy and data protection, security, retention and deletion; rights of publicity; content; intellectual property; regulation of certain of our CEDs as firearms; advertising; marketing; distribution; electronic contracts and other communications; competition; consumer protection; telecommunications; product liability; taxation; labor and employment; sustainability; economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions; securities; and online payment services. There are a number of legislative proposals in the United States, at both the federal and state level, that could impose new obligations in areas affecting our business. Foreign laws and regulations can impose different obligations or be more restrictive than those in the United States.

These U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations, which in some cases can be enforced by private parties in addition to government entities, are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change. As a result, the application, interpretation, and enforcement of these laws and regulations are often uncertain and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Legal and Compliance Risks - A variety of new and existing laws and/or interpretations could materially and adversely affect our business.”

Radio Spectrum and Unmanned Aerial and Ground-Based Robotic Devices

Certain of our products utilize radio spectrum to provide wireless voice, data and video communications services. The allocation of spectrum is regulated in the United States and other countries and limited spectrum space is allocated to wireless services and specifically to public safety users. We manufacture and market products in spectrum bands already made available by regulatory bodies. If current products do not comply with the regulations set forth by these regulatory bodies, we may be unable to sell our products or could incur penalties. Our results could be negatively affected by the rules and regulations adopted from time to time by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (“ISED”), the European Union Directorate-General for Environment or regulatory bodies in other countries. Regulatory changes in current spectrum bands may also require modifications to some of our products so they can continue to be manufactured and marketed.

Axon body-worn cameras, docks, Axon Fleet vehicle cameras and Axon Signal devices are subject to the FCC’s rules and regulations in the United States, as well as rules and regulations as applicable outside of the United States. These regulations affect CEDs with Axon Signal technology, including the TASER 7, Signal Performance Power Magazine (“SPPM”), TASER 10, and future CEDs implementing wireless technology. Compliance with government regulations could increase our operations and product costs and impact our future financial results.

Additionally, some of our products depend on drones or other unmanned aerial and ground-based systems that operate on the radio spectrum. The FCC, the Federal Aviation Administration and other agencies at the federal, state and local levels (as well as in foreign jurisdictions) are beginning to address some of the numerous certification, regulatory and legal challenges associated with drones, but a comprehensive set of standards and enforcement procedures has yet to be developed. Changes to the regulation of drones or other unmanned aerial systems may impact our future financial results.

Axon and TASER Devices

For our TASER products, we rely on the opinions of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (“ATF”), including the determination that a device that does not expel projectiles by the action of an explosive is not classified as a firearm. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Legal and Compliance Risks - A variety of new and existing laws and/or interpretations could materially and adversely affect our business.”

Federal regulation of sales in the United States: The majority of our currently offered CEDs are not classified as firearms regulated by the ATF. However, the ATF regulates TASER 10 as a firearm under the Gun Control Act of 1968 (“GCA”) due to a technological advancement specific to the propulsion design of TASER 10 cartridges. In the event we make TASER 10 available to our private citizen and enterprise customers, demand could be substantially reduced as a result of this classification because non-governmental end-users would be required to comply with

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federal, state or local firearm transfer requirements prior to purchasing TASER 10. In addition, the implications of such classification on use-of-force standards and regulations could impact our ability to sell TASER 10 to law enforcement and government entities. Because Axon must maintain a federal firearms license to manufacture and sell TASER 10, we are subject to periodic compliance inspections by the ATF. License violations discovered by the ATF can result in fines, penalties, warning letters or license revocation, leading to disruptions in operations. Further, we are required to administer, track and remit firearm excise taxes as applicable.

Our CED products are also subject to testing, safety and other standards by organizations such as the American National Standards Institute, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Underwriters Laboratories. These regulations also affect CEDs with Axon Signal technology, including SPPM technology, and TASER 7 and TASER 10 battery packs.

Federal regulation of international sales: Our CEDs are considered a “crime control” product by the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”) for export directly from the United States, which requires us to obtain an export license from the DOC for the export of our CED devices from the United States to any country other than Canada. Future products and services may require classifications from the DOC before they may be shipped internationally. Our inability to obtain DOC export licenses or classifications on a timely basis for sales of our products and services to our international customers could significantly and adversely affect our international sales. Although TASER 10 is regulated by the ATF for domestic sales, the DOC has ruled that the product’s unique propulsion design has no impact on its export classification and that the TASER 10 model’s export classification remains consistent with all other TASER CED models.

Federal regulation of foreign national employees: Our CED development and production is also considered controlled “technology” by the DOC and is categorized as a “deemed export” for any foreign national employees exposed to the technology within the United States. Consequently, we must obtain export licenses from the DOC for any deemed export within the United States made to a foreign national employee exposed to the controlled technology. Deemed export licenses are subject to DOC approvals and issued licenses require annual status reports for the stated employees. Inability to obtain proper licensing could curtail the Company’s ability to execute R&D and production related to CED technology.

State and local regulation: Our CEDs are controlled, restricted or, less frequently, prohibited by some state and local governments. Other jurisdictions may ban or restrict the sale of our TASER-branded devices, or restrict their use through changes to use-of-force laws or regulations, and our product sales may be significantly affected by additional state, county and city governmental regulation. The change in TASER 10’s propulsion design may impact how TASER 10 is regulated at the state and/or local level depending on each state’s firearm laws.

International regulation of foreign imports and sales: Certain jurisdictions prohibit, restrict or require a permit for the importation, sale, possession or use of CEDs, including in some countries by law enforcement agencies, limiting our international sales opportunities.

U.S. and international regulation of component movements globally: We rely on a global supply chain of components across our product lines with most final assembly occurring in the United States. Export of these components from abroad is subject to shifting regulatory landscapes imposed by both the foreign government and U.S. authorities upon import. Abrupt changes to these regulations can result in delays or interruptions to final product supplies. Additionally, ATF regulation of certain imports of TASER 10 components may limit Axon’s supply chain agility.

International regulation of foreign-based operations: We maintain foreign operations in several countries globally for purposes of logistics, sales, general and administrative (“SG&A”) services, and R&D support. Depending on these activities, regulations can include business activity licensing and registration, import permits and recordkeeping, warehousing and storage security and permitting, and government reporting.  Any failure to comply with these requirements could limit our ability to sell, support or develop our products and services both internationally and in the United States.

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Privacy Regulations

We are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations associated with the collection, processing, storage and transmission of personally identifiable information and other sensitive and confidential information. This data is wide ranging and relates to our employees, customers and other third parties, including the subjects of law enforcement. Our compliance obligations include those prescribed under laws and regulations that dictate whether, how and under what circumstances we can receive, process, hold and/or transfer certain data that is critical to our operations, including data shared between countries or regions in which we operate and data shared among our products and services. If one or more of the legal mechanisms for transferring data from other countries to the United States is invalidated, if we are unable to transfer data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, or if we are prohibited from sharing data among our products and services, it could affect the manner in which we provide our products and services or adversely affect our financial results. Countries may also pass legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data or similar requirements that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our products and services and expose us to significant penalties for non-compliance. The European Parliament adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), effective May 2018, that extended the scope of European privacy laws to any entity that controls or processes personal data of E.U. residents in connection with the offer of goods or services or the monitoring of behavior and imposes compliance obligations concerning the handling of personal data. Further, Vietnam's Personal Data Protection Decree (“PDPD”), which entered into force July 1, 2023, applies to organizations (wherever based) so long as they participate in personal data processing in Vietnam. We are also subject to U.S. laws and regulations, including the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which provides for enhanced consumer protections for California residents, a private right of action for data breaches and statutory fines and damages for data breaches or other California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) violations, as well as a requirement of “reasonable” cybersecurity, which could subject us to additional compliance costs as well as potential fines, individual claims, class actions and commercial liabilities.

Any inability, or perceived inability, by us to adequately address privacy concerns, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards and guidance, contractual obligations or other legal obligations, even if unfounded, could result in significant regulatory and third-party liability, increased costs, disruption of our business and operations, and a loss of confidence and other reputational damage. Furthermore, as new privacy related laws and regulations are implemented, the time and resources needed for us to comply with such laws and regulations continues to increase and become a significant compliance workstream.

Environmental Regulations

We are subject to various U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing the environment, including restricting the presence of certain substances in our products and making us financially responsible for the collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of such products. In addition, further environmental or climate change disclosure legislation may be enacted in other jurisdictions, including the United States (under federal and state laws) and other countries, the cumulative impact of which could be significant. For example, in September 2023, California passed the Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act and the Climate-Related Financial Risk Act, requiring increased climate-related reporting.

The European Union has published Directives on the restriction of certain hazardous substances in electronic and electrical equipment (the “RoHS Directive”) and on electronic and electrical waste management (the “WEEE Directive”). The RoHS Directive restricts the use of a number of substances, including lead. The WEEE Directive directs members of the European Union to enact laws, regulations and administrative provisions to ensure that producers of electric and electronic equipment are financially responsible for the collection, recycling, treatment and environmentally responsible disposal of certain products sold into the European Union. In addition, similar environmental legislation has been enacted in other jurisdictions, including the United States (under federal and state laws) and other countries.

In addition, the European Union has defined a regulation for the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals that places responsibility on companies to manage the risks from chemicals contained in products and to provide safety information about such substances. Manufacturers and importers are required to gather information on the properties of the chemical substances in their products and provide for their safe handling. As of

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January 5, 2021, companies supplying products in the European Union containing substances of very high concern as identified by the European Union have to submit information on these products to the European Chemicals Agency. The information in their database is then made available to waste operators and consumers.

Other countries have adopted chemical restrictions regulations, including the United States, Canada and Australia. New, or changes in, environmental safety laws, regulations or rules could also lead to increased costs of compliance, including remediations of any discovered issues and changes to our operations, which may be significant. Any failures to comply could result in significant expenses, delays or fines and could adversely affect our financial results.

Human Capital Resources

Our success depends on the continued service of our employees and on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate top talent. To facilitate this, we strive to create a diverse and inclusive environment at Axon, with equitable opportunities for employee growth and development, supported by strong compensation and benefits and by programs that build connections between our employees and their communities. Axon’s mission is central to our recruiting and retention efforts.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 3,330 full-time employees and approximately 930 temporary employees (which include contractors, interns and individual consultants). During 2023, the number of full-time employees increased by 512 or 18%, primarily in sales operations, R&D and other support organizations.

Our employees are not covered by any collective bargaining agreement, and we have never experienced a work stoppage.

We believe that our relations with our employees are strong. We closed the year with our regrettable attrition rate2 less than 1%, well under the annual goal of 2.5%. Employees reported a higher than 88% satisfaction score for feeling proud to work at Axon during 2023’s employee engagement survey and an 82% satisfaction score on recommending Axon as a great place to work.

Diversity and Inclusion

We embrace diversity, equity and inclusion. A truly innovative workforce needs to be diverse, leverage the skills and perspectives of a wealth of backgrounds and experiences, and ensure that all employees are equitably empowered to succeed. We continue to focus on the hiring, retention, development and advancement of women and underrepresented communities. We are focused on recruiting diverse candidates and on internal talent development of our diverse leaders so that they can advance their careers and move into leadership positions.

Our Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) are company-sponsored, employee-led communities that address specific needs, priorities and barriers to success for each community of focus. These groups provide a forum for employees to discuss problems and craft solutions for each community of focus, while also creating leadership and professional development opportunities for members. Throughout 2023 we continued to see active participation in all six of our ERGs — Axon Allies for LGBTQ+ employees, APIA for Asian Pacific Islander employees, HOLA for Hispanic employees, Axon Mosaic for Black employees, Axon Vets for service veterans, and Women at Axon. Each group is inclusive of employees who identify as members of each community, as well as allies.

We believe that our ability to retain our workforce is dependent upon fostering an environment that is sustainably safe, respectful, fair and inclusive of everyone and promotes diversity, equity and inclusion inside and outside of our business. Internally, we continue to listen to our employees with town hall sessions, provide expert-led webinars and host community round tables.

2 Regrettable attrition is defined as rolling 12-month attrition of employees rated as top performing in the prior performance rating cycle.

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In 2022, we formed the Ethics & Equity Advisory Council (“EEAC”) to ensure that ethics and equity are at the forefront of our services and product development. The EEAC functions as an impartial advocate for marginalized voices, actively engaging in partnership spaces such as conferences and community events. EEAC members offer critical evaluations of Axon’s products in accordance with ethical standards and aid in training product managers on equitable development practices. While EEAC members play a crucial role in providing feedback and shaping product development, it is important to note that they do not define Axon’s ethical guidelines, approve or disprove product development, engage in sales activities, or serve as the exclusive source of community perspectives or recommendations.

Health and Safety

The health and safety of our employees is of utmost importance to us. We conduct regular self-assessments and audits to ensure compliance with our health and safety guidelines and regulatory requirements. Our ultimate goal is to achieve a level of work-related injuries as close to zero as possible through continuous investment in our safety programs. We provide protective gear (e.g. eye protection, masks and gloves) as required by applicable standards and as appropriate given employee job duties.

To promote mental and emotional wellbeing, all full-time employees are provided free access by Axon to Modern Health. Modern Health is a 24/7 resource that includes individualized virtual coaching and therapy in addition to access to articles and activities offering guidance on maintaining emotional balance.

Additionally, we have a Wellness Incentive Program for our domestic employees that incentivizes healthy lifestyles. The program rewards employees for completing a variety of well-being activities that help foster their financial wellness, mental health, social wellbeing, community engagement and nutrition. 

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Arizona in September 1993 as ICER Corporation. We changed our name to AIR TASER, Inc. in December 1993 and to TASER International, Incorporated in April 1998. In January 2001, we reincorporated in Delaware as TASER International, Inc. and, in April 2017, changed our name to Axon Enterprise, Inc.

Available Information

Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the SEC are available free of charge on our website at http://investor.axon.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file with or furnish to the SEC such material. The information on our website, including information about our trademarks, is not incorporated by reference into or otherwise a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

Because of the following factors, as well as other variables affecting our operating results, our past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of our future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate our results or trends in future periods. You should carefully consider the trends, risks and uncertainties described below and other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent reports filed with or furnished to the SEC before making any investment decision with respect to our securities. If any of the following trends, risks or uncertainties actually occurs or continues, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially adversely affected, the trading prices of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.

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Strategic Risks

We are substantially dependent on acceptance of our products and services by law enforcement agencies throughout the world. If law enforcement agencies do not continue to purchase and use our products and services, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

Our largest customer segment is U.S. state and local law enforcement. Axon has a customer relationship with a substantial number of state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States. At any point, whether or not related to the performance of our products and services, law enforcement agencies may elect to no longer purchase or use our CEDs or other products and services. For example, we believe that in the past our sales were adversely impacted by negative coverage and publicity surrounding our products and services and their use. If law enforcement agencies no longer purchase our products and services, or materially decrease their purchases, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

We substantially depend on sales of our TASER CEDs, and if these products do not continue to be widely accepted, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be diminished.

In each of the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we derived a significant portion of our revenues from sales of TASER brand devices and related cartridges, whether on a standalone basis or as part of a bundled offering, and expect to depend on sales of these products for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. The acceptance of these devices is critical to our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition. If we are unable to continue to meet customer demands or to achieve more widespread market acceptance of these products, our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

Demand for these offerings is affected by a number of factors (some of which are beyond our control), including continued market acceptance of these products by our customers, technological change and growth or contraction of the economy in general. Our TASER CEDs and other offerings or products could fail to maintain or attain sufficient customer acceptance for many reasons, including:

our failure to predict market demand accurately in terms of product functionality and to supply offerings that meet this demand;
real or perceived defects, errors or failures;
negative publicity about their performance or effectiveness;
delays in releasing to the market our improved offerings or enhancements;
introduction or anticipated introduction of competing products; and
budget constraints or other limitations for our customers.

A decrease in the selling prices of or demand for these products, or their failure to maintain broad market acceptance, would significantly harm our competitive position, growth prospects, operating results and financial condition.

If we are unable to design, introduce, sell and deploy new products or new product features successfully, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.

Our future success will depend on our ability to develop new products or new product features that achieve market acceptance in a timely and cost-effective manner. The development of new products and new product features is complex, time-consuming and expensive, and we may experience delays in completing the development and introduction of new products. We may choose to carry higher levels of inventory to mitigate the risk of production delays, which may in turn expose us to an increased risk of obsolescence.

We have devoted, and continue to devote, significant resources to develop and deploy our cloud-based productivity and real-time operations SaaS solutions, which we continue to broadly deploy to a large number of customers. Customers’ requirements for these products are complex and varied. If we cannot develop scalable solutions that can be consistently configured for customers with minimal effort or grow a professional services team

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that can consistently configure our products to meet the requirements of large numbers of customers in a timely and cost-effective manner, our ability to broadly scale our cloud-based productivity and real-time operations SaaS solutions could be negatively impacted, and our business prospects, operating results and financial condition could be negatively impacted.

We cannot provide any assurance that products that we may develop in the future will achieve market acceptance. If we fail to develop new products or new product features on a timely basis that achieve market acceptance, our business, financial results and competitive position could be adversely affected.

We face risks associated with rapid technological change and new competing products.

The technology associated with law enforcement devices and software is receiving significant attention and is rapidly evolving. The introduction of products embodying new technologies (such as the use of AI and machine learning) and the emergence of new industry standards can render existing products obsolete and unmarketable. Additionally, our products are expected to meet and keep pace with evolving security standards and requirements of our industry and customers, including those of the U.S. federal government and international governments. While we have some patent protection in certain key areas of our Axon device, CED and SaaS technology, new technology may result in competing products that operate outside our patents and could present significant competition for our products, which could adversely affect our business, financial results and competitive position. Additionally, our competitors may develop competing technologies or products that provide superior features or are less expensive than our products, or our competitors may respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns, have greater financial, marketing, manufacturing and other resources than we do, or may be more successful in attracting potential customers, employees and strategic partners. If we are not able to compete effectively, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.

Our future success is dependent on our ability to expand sales through direct sales and distributors and our inability to increase direct sales or recruit new distributors would negatively affect our sales.

Our distribution strategy is to pursue sales through multiple channels, which are principally direct sales and independent distributors. We are focusing on direct sales to larger agencies through our regional sales managers and our inability to grow sales to these agencies in this manner would materially adversely affect our business prospects, operating results and financial condition. In addition, our inability to establish relationships with and retain law enforcement equipment distributors, who we believe can successfully sell our products, would materially adversely affect our business prospects, operating results and financial condition. If we do not competitively price our products, meet the requirements of our distributors or end-users, provide adequate marketing support, or comply with the terms of our distribution arrangements, our distributors may fail to aggressively market our products or may terminate their relationships with us. These developments would likely have a material adverse effect on our sales. Our reliance on the sales of our products by others also makes it more difficult to predict our revenues, cash flow and operating results.

In certain states and foreign jurisdictions, we have decided to pursue sales directly with law enforcement customers, rather than working through established distribution channels. Our customers may have strong working relationships with distributors, and we may face resistance to this change. If we do not overcome this resistance and effectively build a direct relationship with our customers, sales may be adversely affected.

Negative publicity could adversely impact sales, which could cause our revenues or operation results to decline.

Our business is dependent upon the reputation of the Axon brand. If we are unable to maintain the position of the Axon brand, our business may be adversely affected by diminishing the appeal of the brand to our customer base. This could result in lower sales and earnings.

In addition, unfavorable media or investor and analyst reports related to our industry, company, brand, marketing, personnel, operations, business performance or prospects may affect our stock price and the performance of our business, regardless of accuracy. Furthermore, the speed at which negative publicity is disseminated has increased dramatically through the use of electronic communication, including social media outlets, websites and other digital platforms. Our success in maintaining and enhancing our brand depends on our ability to adapt to this rapidly changing

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media environment. Adverse publicity or negative commentary from any media outlets could damage our reputation and reduce the demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our business and financial results.

Acquisitions of, or investments in, other products, technologies or businesses could disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value, and adversely affect our operating results.

Our business strategy has in the past and may in the future include acquiring or making investments in other complementary products, technologies or businesses. Identifying and negotiating these transactions can be time-consuming, difficult and expensive, and our ability to close these transactions has in the past and may in the future be subject to third-party approvals, such as government regulatory approvals and clearances, which are beyond our control. Consequently, we can make no assurance that these transactions once undertaken and announced, will close. 

These kinds of acquisitions or investments may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. If we acquire businesses, technologies or products, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations, technologies or products successfully, or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

inability to integrate or benefit from acquired products, technologies or businesses in a profitable manner;
inability to correct or achieve regulatory approvals or certifications;
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition, including potential liabilities due to litigation and potential identified or unknown security vulnerabilities in acquired technologies that expose us to additional security risks or delay our ability to integrate the acquired products into our offerings or recognize the benefits of our investment;
differences between our values and those of an acquired company, as well as potential disruptions to our workplace culture or how we are perceived by investors;
incurrence of acquisition-related costs, including costs related to integration activities;
difficulty integrating the accounting and information systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;
inability to augment the acquired technologies and platforms to the levels that are consistent with our brand and reputation;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;
challenges converting the acquired company’s revenue recognition policies and forecasting the related revenues, including subscription-based revenues and software license revenues;
potential write-offs of acquired assets or investments, and potential financial and credit risks associated with acquired customers;
difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business onto our platform and contract terms;
diversion of management’s attention and other company resources;
harm to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;
the potential loss of key employees;

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use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

We cannot assure you that the anticipated benefits of any acquisition or investment would be realized or that we would not be exposed to unknown liabilities or risks. Integrating an acquired technology, asset or business into our operations can be challenging, complex and costly and we cannot assure you that we will be successful or that the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions that we complete will be realized or outweigh their costs. If our integration and development efforts are not successful and the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions that we complete are not achieved, our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.

In connection with these types of transactions, we may issue additional equity securities that would dilute our shareholders, use cash that we may need in the future to operate our business, incur debt on terms unfavorable to us or that we are unable to repay, incur large charges or substantial liabilities, encounter difficulties integrating diverse business cultures and values, and become subject to adverse tax consequences, substantial depreciation, or deferred compensation charges. These challenges could adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

We are highly dependent on the services of our executive officers, including Patrick W. Smith, our Chief Executive Officer. Our failure to retain executive officers could adversely impact our business.

Our future success depends upon our ability to retain executive officers, including Patrick W. Smith, and any failure to do so could adversely impact our business, prospects, new product development, financial condition and operating results.

Among other qualifications, Patrick W. Smith is the founder of Axon and brings extensive executive leadership experience in the technology industry, including the management of worldwide operations, sales, service and support as well as technology innovation as an inventor listed on 52 U.S. patents. Mr. Smith has been instrumental in building the public safety operating system of the future by integrating a suite of hardware devices and cloud software solutions that lead to modern policing and help save lives. From the early days of founding the organization to today as a market leader, Mr. Smith’s expertise has brought forth entirely new product categories, including the less-lethal TASER de-escalation platform, body-worn cameras and cloud software that lead to modernized public safety.

The loss of any of our senior management, including Patrick W. Smith, could interrupt our ability to execute our business plan, as such individuals may be difficult to replace.

Operational Risks

Unavailability of materials or higher costs could adversely affect our financial results.

We depend on certain domestic and international suppliers for the delivery of components used in the assembly of our products. Our reliance on third-party suppliers creates risks related to our potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of components or sub-assemblies and reduced control over pricing and timing of delivery of components and sub-assemblies, including single or sole-source components used in the manufacture of our products. Specifically, we depend on suppliers of sub-assemblies, machined parts, injection molded plastic parts, printed circuit boards, custom wire fabrications and other miscellaneous customer parts for our products. Although we have and are implementing additional long-term agreements with strategic suppliers to mitigate the risk of supply continuity, there remains risk across our supply chain while we extend our supplier contract program, and there is no guarantee that supply will not be interrupted. Additionally, if our suppliers do not accurately forecast and effectively allocate production or if they are not willing to allocate sufficient production to us, or they decommit to us previously agreed-to supply levels, it may reduce our access to components and require us to search for new suppliers. As the scale of our hardware production increases, we will also need to accurately forecast, purchase, warehouse and transport components at high volumes to our manufacturing facilities. If we are unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to our actual needs, we may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation and write-off costs, which may harm our business and financial results.

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Due to the unique requirements of TASER 10, including the regulation of certain TASER 10 components for import into the United States and export from foreign sources, we purchase our raw materials from a limited number of suppliers. Some of the raw materials that are used in TASER 10 may be subject to fluctuations in market price, which we may be unable to pass through to our customers to offset market fluctuations. Because of the unique requirements of TASER 10, we cannot change suppliers easily. We may be slower to establish alternative sources of supply for TASER 10 components as we continue to refine the design of the product. Any delay or interruption in the supply of the raw materials that are used in TASER 10 could impair our ability to manufacture and deliver TASER 10, harm our reputation or cause a reduction in revenues.

A significant number of our raw materials or components comprise petroleum-based products or incur some form of landed cost associated with transporting the raw materials or components to our facility. Our freight and import costs and the timely delivery of our products could be adversely impacted by the materialization or re-emergence of a number of factors that could reduce the profitability of our operations, including: higher fuel costs (including increased petroleum prices as a result of, among other things, climate change-related regulations); potential port closures or shipping disruptions; customs clearance issues; increased government regulation or regulatory changes for imports of foreign products into the United States and exports from foreign sources; delays created by terrorist attacks or threats, public health issues, national disasters or work stoppages; and other matters. We are also subject to supply chain disruption should we learn that any of our suppliers is in violation of legislation that bans the import of goods based on their method of production, such as using forced labor or otherwise. This may also result in negative publicity regarding our production methods, and alleged unethical or illegal practices of any of our suppliers could adversely affect our reputation. Any interruption of supply for any material components of our products could significantly delay the shipment of our products and have a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and financial condition. For example, there have been and may continue to be disruptions in the semi-conductor supply chain that could negatively impact our ability to make our products.  

Domestic or international geopolitical or other events, including the imposition of new or increased tariffs and/or quotas by the U.S. Government on any of these raw materials or components and other government trade policies, could adversely impact the supply and cost of these raw materials or components, and could adversely impact our revenues, profitability and financial condition. In particular, the implementation of tariffs and trade restrictions as well as changes in trade policies between the United States and China have in the past led to some increases in our supply costs and have made it more difficult to obtain suppliers, and may in the future have an adverse effect on our supply chain from a cost and sourcing perspective. We source certain raw materials from China, as do some of our suppliers. We may be unable to transition away from China to other jurisdictions or obtain secondary sources for raw materials, which could result in a material adverse effect on component availability and could result in a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and financial condition.

Material adverse developments in domestic and global economic conditions, or the occurrence of other world events, could materially adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.

Various factors contribute to the uncertain economic environment, including the ongoing conflicts in Gaza and Ukraine, the increase in, and volatility of, interest rates, high inflation, an actual recession or fears of a recession, trade policies and tariffs and geopolitical tensions. Our inability to offset price inflation in our materials, components, shipping or labor through increased prices to customers with long-term fixed-price contracts and formula-based or long-term fixed-price contracts with suppliers could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Global supply chain and labor market challenges could also negatively affect our performance as well as the performance of our suppliers. Interest rate increases have also created financial market volatility and could further negatively impact financial markets, lead to an economic downturn or recession or have an adverse effect on our financial results. Economic slowdowns can also negatively impact municipal and state tax collections and put pressure on law enforcement budgets, which may increase the risk that our customers will be unable to appropriate funds for existing or future contracts with us. In addition, geopolitical risks could affect our customers’ budgets and policies. These and other factors may adversely affect customer demand and ability to pay, cause decrease in sales, and negatively impact the realizability of our accounts and notes receivable and contract assets.

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To the extent demand for our products increases, our future success will be dependent upon our ability to manage our growth and to increase manufacturing production capacity.

To the extent demand for our products increases significantly in future periods, one of our key challenges will be to increase our production capacity to meet sales demand while maintaining product quality. Our primary strategies to accomplish this include introducing additional shifts, increasing the physical size of our assembly facilities, the hiring of additional production staff, and the implementation of additional customized manufacturing automation equipment. As we develop additional products, we may need to bring new equipment on-line, implement new systems, technology, methods and processes and hire personnel with different qualifications. The costs associated with implementing new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, including the purchase of new equipment, and any resulting delays, inefficiencies and loss of sales, could harm our financial results. The investments we make in equipment, technologies or personnel may not yield the anticipated labor and material efficiencies, and we may experience difficulty in attracting and retaining qualified personnel. Our inability to meet any future increase in sales demand or effectively manage our expansion could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, operating results and financial condition.

Delays in product development schedules may adversely affect our revenues and cash flows.

The development of CEDs, devices, sensors and software is a complex and time-consuming process. To achieve market acceptance for our products, we must effectively anticipate customer requirements, and we must offer products that meet changing customer demands in a timely and cost-effective manner. Customers may require product features and capabilities that our current products do not have. If we fail to develop products that satisfy customer requirements, our ability to create or increase demand for our products will be harmed.

Without the timely and cost-effective introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our offerings will likely become less competitive over time, in which case our competitive position and operating results could suffer. New products, and services, as well as enhancements to existing products and services, can require long development and testing periods and may require significant investment, including substantial R&D, development of different engineering and manufacturing workflows, and adjustments to our data and analytics infrastructure. Our focus on our SaaS platform also presents complex development issues. Significant delays in new product or service releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could adversely affect our business, growth prospects, operating results, cash flows and competitive position.

We expend significant resources in anticipation of a sale due to our lengthy sales cycle and may receive no revenue in return.

Generally, law enforcement and corrections agencies consider a wide range of issues before committing to purchase our products, including product benefits, training costs, the cost to use our products in addition to, or in place of, other products, budget constraints and product reliability, safety and efficacy. Because we sell to various types of government entities of multiple sizes, including national agencies, state agencies, county agencies and municipal agencies, which can require varying levels of approvals followed by appropriations, the length of our sales cycle may range from a few weeks to as long as several years. Adverse publicity surrounding our products or the safety of such products has in the past, and could in the future, lengthen our sales cycle with customers. We believe that in the past our sales were adversely impacted by negative coverage and publicity surrounding our products or the use of our products. We may incur substantial selling costs and expend significant effort in connection with the evaluation of our products by potential customers before they place an order. If these potential customers do not purchase our products, we will have expended significant resources and received no revenue in return.

Changes in civil forfeiture laws may affect our customers’ ability to purchase our products.

Some of our customers use funds seized through civil forfeiture proceedings to fund the purchase of our products. From time to time, civil forfeiture proceedings have in the past received and may in the future receive media scrutiny and public criticism. Legislative changes could impact our customers’ ability to seize funds or use seized funds to fund purchases. Changes in civil forfeiture statutes or regulations could limit the amount of funds available to our customers, which could adversely affect the sale of our products.

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If our security measures or those of our third-party providers, including cloud storage providers, are breached and unauthorized access is obtained to customers’ data or our data, our network, data centers and service may be perceived as not being secure, customers may curtail or stop using our products and services, and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities.

Security breaches of Axon body-worn cameras, docks, Axon Fleet vehicle cameras, Axon Signal devices and Axon Evidence and other cloud services or products could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of our customers’ data. Additionally, breaches of our network or data security measures or those of our third-party providers, including cloud storage providers, could disrupt the security of our internal systems and business applications, impair our ability to provide products and services to our customers and protect the privacy of their data, result in product development delays, result in theft or misuse of our intellectual property or other assets, require us to allocate more resources to improve technologies, or otherwise adversely affect our business. Any security breach could result in a loss of confidence in the security of our services, damage our reputation, disrupt our business, lead to legal liability, and negatively impact our future sales.

Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently, grow more complex over time, and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Moreover, our security measures and those of our third-party service providers or customers have not in the past and may not in the future immediately detect such security breaches if they occur. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our data and user data, to prevent data loss, and to prevent or detect security breaches, we have been in the past and expect to continue to be a frequent target of third-party cybersecurity intrusion attempts and we cannot assure that such measures will provide absolute security. We may incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyber-attacks.

We devote significant resources to engineer secure products and ensure security vulnerabilities are mitigated, and we require our third-party service providers to do so as well; however, security breaches that have not had a material effect on our business or our third-party service providers have occurred and will continue to occur, including as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise. Remote-work arrangements may also make our systems and employees more susceptible to attack. Breaches could occur during transfer of data to data centers or at any time, and result in unauthorized physical or electronic access to our data or our customers’ data. Third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing sensitive information such as usernames, passwords or other information in order to gain access to our data or our customers’ data. Additionally, hackers may develop and deploy viruses, worms and other malicious software programs that attack or gain access to our networks and data centers. Recent developments in the threat landscape include use of AI and machine learning, as well as an increased number of cyber extortion and ransomware attacks, with higher financial ransom demand amounts and increasing sophistication and variety of ransomware techniques and methodology. Increasing socioeconomic and political instability in some countries has heightened these risks. In addition, retaliatory acts by foreign governments in response to Western sanctions could include cyber-attacks that could directly or indirectly impact our operations.

A security breach could expose us to a risk of loss or inappropriate use of proprietary and sensitive data, or the denial of access to this data. A real or perceived security breach could also result in a loss of confidence in the security of our products and services, disrupt our business, damage our reputation, subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or investigations or otherwise subject us to legal liability, negatively impact our future sales and significantly harm our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition. Even the perception of inadequate security may damage our reputation and negatively affect our ability to win new customers or retain existing customers.

Catastrophic events could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.

A disruption or failure of our systems or operations in the event of a major earthquake, weather event (including those caused or exacerbated by the effects of climate change), fire, explosion, failure to contain hazardous materials, industrial accident, utility failure, cyber-attack, terrorist attack, public health crisis, pandemic, or other catastrophic event could cause delays in completing sales, providing products and services, or performing other mission-critical functions. A catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical operations, or of the

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capacity, reliability or security of our information technology systems, could harm our ability to conduct normal business activities and our operating results as well as expose us to claims, litigation and governmental investigations and fines. In addition, catastrophes may put pressure on federal, state and municipal government budgets, which may increase the risk that our customers will be unable to appropriate funds for existing or future contracts with us. These and other factors may adversely affect customer demand and ability to pay, cause decrease in sales, and negatively impact the realizability of our accounts receivable and contract assets.

Public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 global pandemic have adversely affected workforces, economies, and financial markets globally, and led to an economic downturn in the past and may do so again in the future. As an essential provider of products and services for law enforcement and other first responders, we remain focused on protecting the health and well-being of our employees while assuring the continuity of our business operations.

If our backup and mitigation plans are not sufficient to minimize business disruption, our financial results could be adversely affected. We are continuously monitoring our operations and intend to take appropriate actions to mitigate the risks arising from catastrophic events, but there can be no assurances that we will be successful in doing so.

Uncertainty in the development, deployment and use of AI in our products and services, as well as our business more broadly, could adversely affect our business and reputation.

We are building and expect to use systems and tools that incorporate AI-based technologies, including generative AI, for customers and our workforce. As with many new and emerging technologies, AI presents numerous risks and challenges that could adversely affect our business. The development, adoption and use of generative AI technology remains in early stages, and ineffective or inadequate AI or generative AI development or deployment practices by us or third parties could result in unintended consequences. For example, AI algorithms that we use may be flawed or may be (or may be perceived to be) based on datasets that are biased or insufficient. In addition, any latency, disruption or failure in our AI systems or infrastructure could result in delays or errors in our offerings. Developing, testing and deploying resource-intensive AI systems may require additional investment and increase our costs. There also may be real or perceived social harm, unfairness or other outcomes that undermine public confidence in the deployment and use of AI. In addition, third parties may deploy AI technologies in a manner that reduces customer demand for our products and services. Any of the foregoing may result in decreased demand for our products and services or harm to our business, financial results or reputation.  

The legal and regulatory landscape surrounding AI technologies is rapidly evolving and uncertain, including in relation to the areas of intellectual property, cybersecurity, and privacy and data protection. For example, there is uncertainty around the validity and enforceability of intellectual property rights related to our development, deployment and use of AI. Compliance with new or changing laws, regulations or industry standards relating to AI may impose significant operational costs and may limit our ability to develop, deploy or use AI technologies. Failure to appropriately respond to this evolving landscape may result in legal liability, regulatory action, or brand and reputational harm.

Defects or disruptions in our services could impact demand for our services and subject us to substantial liability.

We currently serve our Axon Evidence customers from third-party cloud storage providers based in the United States and other countries. The use of these cloud storage providers gives us greater flexibility in efficiently delivering a more tailored, scalable customer experience, but also exposes us to additional risks and vulnerabilities. Lack of availability of this infrastructure could be due to a number of potential causes, including technical failures, natural disasters, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent. Interruptions in our service, or loss or corruption of digital evidence, may reduce our revenue, cause us to issue credits or pay penalties, cause customers to file litigation against us, cause customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our business will also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our service is unreliable.

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Since our customers use our services for important aspects of their operations, any errors, defects, disruptions in service or other performance problems could hurt our reputation and may damage our customers’ operations. As a result, customers could elect not to renew our services or to delay or withhold payment to us. We could also lose future sales or customers may make warranty or other claims against us, which could result in an increase in our warranty expense, an increase in collection cycles for and decline in the collectability of accounts receivable or in the convertibility of contract assets to cash, and an increase in the expense and risk of litigation.

Defects in our products could reduce demand for our products or result in product recalls and result in a loss of sales, delay in market acceptance and damage to our reputation.

Complex components and assemblies used in our products may contain undetected defects that could be subsequently discovered at any point in the life of the product. Errors or defects in our products may only be discovered after they have been tested, commercialized and deployed. If that is the case, we may incur significant additional development costs and product recall, repair or replacement costs, or liability for personal injury or property damage caused by such errors or defects. Our reputation or brand may be damaged as a result of these problems and may result in difficulty retaining current customers and securing new contracts. Defects in our products could result in a loss of sales, delay in market acceptance, damage to our reputation and increased warranty costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial results and competitive position.

Additionally, we are subject to the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Act of 1972, as amended by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, which empowers the Consumer Products Safety Commission to exclude from the market products that are found to be unsafe or hazardous, and similar laws under foreign jurisdictions. Under certain circumstances, the Consumer Products Safety Commission or comparable foreign agency could require us to repurchase or recall one or more of our products. If we were required to remove, or we voluntarily remove, our products from the market, our reputation could be tarnished, and we might have large quantities of finished products that we could not sell.

Our international operations expose us to additional risks that could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our international operations are significant, and we plan to continue growing internationally by acquiring existing entities and/or setting up new legal entities in new markets. In certain international markets, we have limited operating experience and may not benefit from first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. Our international operations expose us to other risks, including:

restrictions on foreign ownership and investments and stringent foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned in countries outside the United States;
import and export requirements, tariffs, trade disputes and barriers, product certification requirements, sanctions and customs classifications that may prevent us from offering products or providing services in a particular country or obtaining necessary parts and components to manufacture products;
longer payment cycles in some countries, increased credit risk, and higher levels of payment fraud;
uncertainty regarding liability for our products and services, including uncertainty resulting from local laws and lack of legal precedent; and
different labor laws and customs, existence of workers’ councils and labor unions, and other challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences.

In addition, our suite of TASER devices are regulated by the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security and require licenses for export abroad. Changes in U.S. foreign policy, foreign governmental status and evolving international human rights policy objectives may impact Axon’s ability to obtain licenses.

Changes to foreign political, economic, regulatory, tax, social and labor conditions may adversely harm our business. Compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations makes it harder to do business in certain

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jurisdictions, potentially decreases sales, and increases our cost of doing business. These numerous and sometimes conflicting laws and regulations include, among others, environmental regulations, climate- and sustainability-related regulations, tax and statutory financial regulations, customs and duties regulations, internal control and disclosure rules, privacy and data protection requirements, anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, and competition regulations, among others.

Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our directors, officers or employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially adversely affect our brand, international growth efforts, ability to attract and retain employees, business and operating results. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our directors, officers, employees, contractors or agents will not violate our policies.

We depend on our ability to attract and retain our key management, sales and technical personnel.

Our success depends upon the continued service of our key management personnel. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified technical employees. Our ability to compete effectively and our future success depends on our continuing to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel. In addition, our compensation arrangements, such as our equity incentives, may not always be successful in attracting new employees and retaining and motivating our existing employees. Restrictive immigration policy and regulatory changes may also affect our ability to hire, mobilize, or retain some of our global talent.  Although we have employment agreements with our officers and other members of our executive management team, the employment of such persons is “at-will” and either we or the employee can terminate the employment relationship at any time, subject to the applicable terms of the employment agreements. In particular, we expect to continue to face significant challenges in hiring personnel, particularly for executive-level engineering talent, whether as a result of competition with other companies or other factors.

We have had and expect to continue to have unique equity incentives designed to attract and retain long-term employees. We utilize these plans to align pay and performance and drive shareholder returns while reducing near-term cash expenditures. Our equity incentives and ongoing stock and option grants are subject to having sufficient shares under our stock plan and any new plans or increases in the number of shares available for grant under existing plans must be approved by our shareholders. If we are unable to obtain shareholder approval, we may be unable to attract and retain top talent, including senior executives. Our ability to attract, retain and motivate employees may also be adversely affected by stock price volatility. The loss of the service of one or more of our key personnel could adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

If we fail to comply with federal, state or local regulations applicable to our firearm product, TASER 10, we may be subject to governmental actions or litigation that could materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

TASER 10 is primarily regulated by the ATF, which licenses the manufacture, sale and import of firearms in the United States. The primary federal laws are the National Firearms Act of 1934, the GCA and the Firearms Owners’ Protection Act of 1986, which have been amended from time to time. 

The ATF conducts periodic audits of our Arizona facilities that hold federal firearms licenses. If we fail to comply with ATF rules and regulations, the ATF may limit our TASER 10 activities or growth, fine us, or, ultimately, suspend our ability to produce and sell the TASER 10 product line. There are also various state and local laws, regulations and ordinances relating to firearm characteristics, features and sales. Axon and local distributors must comply with state and local laws, regulations and ordinances pertaining to firearm and magazine sales in the jurisdictions where TASER 10 is sold. Additionally, certain TASER 10 components are regulated for import into the United States by the ATF and are subject to ATF import permits that limit Axon’s ability to source from some suppliers leading to a potential decrease in supply chain agility. Supply chain constraints or an inability to source TASER 10 components could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. 

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Federal and state legislatures frequently consider legislation relating to the regulation of firearms, including the amendment or repeal of existing legislation. Existing laws may also be affected by future judicial rulings and interpretations. These possible changes to existing legislation or the enactment of new legislation may seek to restrict the makeup of a firearm, mandate the use of certain technologies in a firearm, remove existing legal defenses in lawsuits, set minimum age limits to purchase certain firearms, or ban the sale and, in some cases, the ownership of various types of firearms and accessories. Such restrictions or bans could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or identify a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner could be adversely affected, investor confidence in our company could diminish, and the value of our common stock may decline.

Preparing our consolidated financial statements involves a number of complex manual and automated processes, which are dependent upon individual data input or review and require significant management judgment. One or more of these processes may result in errors that may not be detected and could result in a material misstatement or other errors in our consolidated financial statements. Such errors may be more likely to occur when implementing new systems and processes, particularly when implementing evolving and complex accounting rules. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) requires, among other things, that as a publicly-traded company we disclose whether our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. While we continually undertake steps to improve our internal control over financial reporting as our business changes, we may not be successful in making the improvements and changes necessary to be able to identify and remediate control deficiencies or material weaknesses on a timely basis. For example, we identified a material weakness in our internal controls over revenue recognition and the reporting of deferred revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 which has been remediated as further discussed in “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.” If we are unable to successfully remediate any future material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected; our liquidity, access to capital markets and perceptions of our creditworthiness may be adversely affected; we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities laws, stock exchange listing requirements and debt instruments’ covenants regarding the timely filing of periodic reports; we may be subject to regulatory investigations and penalties; investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting; we may suffer defaults under our debt instruments; and our stock price may decline.

Financial Risks

An increasing percentage of our revenue is derived from subscription billing arrangements that may result in delayed cash collections and may increase customer credit risk on receivables and contract assets.

Our strategy includes continuing to shift an increasing amount of our business to a subscription model, to better match the municipal budgeting process of our customers as well as to allow for multiple product offerings to be bundled into existing subscriptions. This is in contrast to a traditional CED sale in which the entire amount being charged for the hardware is invoiced upon shipment. This impacts liquidity in a commensurate fashion, with the cash for the subscription or installment purchase received in multiple installments rather than up front. While we record an estimate of expected credit losses and perform ongoing reviews of trade accounts receivables, if we become aware of information related to the creditworthiness of a major customer, or if future actual default rates on receivables in general differ from those currently anticipated, we may have to adjust our expected credit loss reserve, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

Our gross margin is dependent on a number of factors, including our product mix, cost structure and acquisitions we may make, any of which could cause our gross margin to decline.

Our gross margin could decline in future periods due to adverse impacts from various factors, including:

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changes in product mix;
changes in shipment volume;
increased warranty costs;
sales discounts;
entry into new markets or growth in lower margin markets, including markets with different pricing and cost structures, through acquisitions or internal development;
our ability to reduce production costs;
increases in material, labor or other manufacturing-related costs or higher supply chain logistics costs;
excess inventory and obsolescence charges;
increased amortization of purchased intangible assets, especially from acquisitions; and
how well we execute on our strategy and operating plans.

Any one of these factors or the cumulative effects of certain of these factors may result in significant fluctuations in our gross margin. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet internal expectations or those of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. Failure to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons may adversely affect the market price of our stock.

SaaS revenue for Axon Evidence is recognized over the terms of the contracts, which may be several years, and, as such, trends in new business may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.

Our SaaS service revenue is generally recognized ratably over the terms of the contracts, which generally range from one to ten years. As a result, most of the SaaS revenue we report each quarter is the result of agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, current trends, whether positive or negative, in this portion of our business may not be fully reflected in our revenue results for several periods, and a decline in new or renewed SaaS contracts in any period may not be immediately reflected in our reported financial results for that period, but may result in a decline in our revenue in future reporting periods. If any of our assumptions about revenue from our SaaS delivery model prove incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected.

Most of our end-user customers are subject to budgetary and political constraints that may delay or prevent sales.

Most of our end-user customers are government agencies. These agencies often do not set their own budgets and therefore, have limited control over the amount of money they can spend. In addition, these agencies experience political pressure that may dictate the manner in which they spend money. As a result, even if an agency wants to acquire our products, it may be unable to purchase them due to budgetary or political constraints, particularly in challenging economic environments. There can be no assurance that the economic, budgeting or political issues will not worsen and adversely impact sales of our products. Some government agency orders may also be canceled or substantially delayed due to budgetary, political or other scheduling delays, which frequently occur in connection with the acquisition of products by such agencies, and such cancellations may accelerate or be more severe than we have experienced historically. federal agencies may be particularly impacted by governmental impasse regarding continued government funding and debt limit constraints, which has resulted in shutdowns of the federal government in 2018 and 2019.

Due to government funding rules, certain of our contracts are subject to appropriation, termination for convenience, or similar cancellation clauses, which could allow our customers to cancel or not exercise options to renew contracts in the future.

Although we have entered into contracts for the delivery of products and services in the future and anticipate the contracts will be completed, if agencies do not appropriate money in future year budgets, terminate contracts for

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convenience or if other cancellation clauses are invoked, revenue and cash associated with these bookings will not ultimately be recognized, and could result in a reduction to bookings and revenue. Termination without cause provisions generally allow agencies to terminate a contract at any time and enable us to recover only our costs incurred or committed and settlement expenses and profit, if any, on the work completed prior to termination. We may or may not be able to recover all the costs incurred during the start-up phase of a terminated contract. The unexpected termination of significant contracts could result in significant revenue shortfalls. If revenue shortfalls occur and are not offset by corresponding reductions in expenses, our business could be adversely affected. We cannot anticipate if, when, or to what extent our customers might terminate their contracts with us.

The open bidding process creates uncertainty in predicting future contract awards.

Many governmental agencies purchase products and services through an open bidding process. Generally, a governmental entity will publish an established list of requirements requesting potential vendors to propose solutions for the established requirements. To respond successfully to these requests for proposals, we must accurately estimate our cost structure for servicing a proposed contract, the time required to establish operations for the proposed customer, and the likely terms of any other third-party proposals submitted. We cannot guarantee that we will win any bids in the future through the request for proposal process, or that any winning bids will ultimately result in contracts on favorable terms. Our contracts typically run for a fixed number of years and may be extended for an additional specified number of years if the contracting entity or its agent elects to do so. When these contracts expire, they may be opened for bidding by competing bidders, and there is no guarantee that the contracts will be renewed or extended. Our customers may elect to open bidding processes up earlier than anticipated, resulting in increased competition prior to the anticipated end of contracts. Our failure to secure contracts through the open bidding process, or to secure such contracts on favorable terms, may adversely affect our revenues and gross margins.

We maintain most of our cash balances, some of which are not insured, at two depository institutions.

We maintain the majority of our cash and cash equivalents accounts at two depository institutions. As of December 31, 2023, the aggregate balances in such accounts at these two institutions were $560.4 million. Our balances with these and other institutions regularly exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits for domestic deposits and various foreign deposit insurance programs covering our deposits in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom and Vietnam.

We could suffer losses with respect to the uninsured balances if the depository institutions failed (such as the bank failures at several U.S. banks in spring 2023) and the institution’s assets were insufficient to cover its deposits and/or the governments did not take actions to support deposits in excess of existing insurance limits. Any such losses or delays in access to funds as a result of such events could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.

Stock transactions may have a material, unpredictable impact on our results of operations and may result in dilution to existing shareholders.

We have historically granted and expect to continue to grant stock-based compensation to key employees and non-employee directors as a means of attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel. All stock-based awards are required to be recognized in our financial statements based on their grant date fair values. The amount recognized for stock compensation expense could vary depending on a number of assumptions or changes that may occur.

Changes in the subjective and probability-based assumptions can materially affect the estimates of the fair value of the awards and timing of recognition of stock-based compensation expense and, consequently, the related amount recognized in our statements of operations and comprehensive income.

As we continue to mature, the incentives to attract, retain and motivate employees provided by our equity awards or by future arrangements may not be as effective as in the past. We may also issue equity securities to pay for acquisitions and grant stock-based awards to retain the employees of acquired companies. If we issue significant equity to attract additional employees, to retain our existing employees, or related to acquisitions, we could incur substantial

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additional share-based compensation expense and the ownership of our existing shareholders would be further diluted, which could depress the market price of our stock.

Our financial performance is subject to risks associated with changes in the value of the U.S. dollar versus local currencies.

For current and potential international customers whose contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, the relative change in local currency values creates relative fluctuations in our product pricing. These changes in international end-user costs may result in lost orders and reduce the competitiveness of our products in certain foreign markets. Additionally, intercompany sales to our non-U.S. dollar functional currency international subsidiaries are transacted in U.S. dollars, which could increase our foreign exchange rate risk caused by foreign currency transaction gains and losses.

For non-U.S. dollar denominated sales, weakening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar generally leads us to raise international pricing, potentially reducing demand for our products. Should we decide not to raise local prices to fully offset the dollar’s strengthening, the U.S. dollar value of our foreign currency denominated sales and earnings would be adversely affected. We do not currently engage in hedging activities related to fluctuations in foreign currency. Fluctuations in foreign currency could result in a change in the U.S. dollar value of our foreign denominated assets and liabilities, including accounts receivable. Therefore, the U.S. dollar equivalent collected on a given sale could be less than the amount invoiced causing the sale to be less profitable than contemplated.

We also import selected components that are used in the manufacturing of some of our products. Although our purchase orders are generally in U.S. dollars, weakness in the U.S. dollar could lead to price increases for the components.

Unanticipated changes in our effective tax rate and additional tax liabilities may impact our operating results and financial condition.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various jurisdictions outside of the United States. Our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates. Our tax expense could also be impacted by changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in excess tax benefits related to exercises of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and our ability to utilize them, the applicability of withholding taxes, and changes in our liability for unrecognized tax benefits.

We are subject to potential tax examinations in multiple jurisdictions. While we regularly evaluate new information that may change our judgment resulting in recognition, derecognition or change in measurement of a tax position taken, there can be no assurance that the final determination of any examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Our tax provision could also be impacted by changes in U.S. federal, state and local or foreign tax laws, including fundamental tax law changes applicable to corporate multinationals, and proposals by the current U.S. President or Congress.

Additionally, we may be subject to additional tax liabilities due to changes in non-income-based taxes resulting from changes in U.S. federal, state and local or foreign tax laws, changes in taxing jurisdictions’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies and positions, results of tax examinations, settlements or judicial decisions, changes in accounting principles, changes to our business operations, including acquisitions, as well as the evaluation of new information that results in a change to a tax position taken in a prior period.

Further, recommendations from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) regarding a global minimum income tax and other changes are being considered and/or implemented in jurisdictions where we operate. We believe enactment of the recommended framework in jurisdictions where we operate will result in minimal impacts to our financial results in the near term. The impact of any new tax legislation may differ materially from our estimates due to future regulatory guidance or changes in our interpretations or assumptions we have made.

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Our revenues and operating results may fluctuate unexpectedly from quarter-to-quarter, which may cause our stock price to decline.

Our revenues and operating results have varied significantly in the past and may vary significantly in the future due to various factors, including:

budgetary cycles of municipal, state and federal law enforcement and corrections agencies;
market acceptance of our products and services;
the timing of large domestic and international orders;
the outcome of any existing or future litigation;
adverse publicity surrounding our products, the safety of our products, or the use of our products;
changes in our sales mix;
new product introduction costs;
increased raw material expenses;
changes in our operating expenses, including stock-based compensation expense;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates, inflation and interest rates;
inventory obsolescence;
changes in warranty reserve;
existing or future tariffs; and
regulatory changes that may affect the marketability of our products and services.

As a result of these and other factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful in the short term, and our performance in a particular period may not be indicative of our performance in any future period. Fluctuations in our revenues and operating results may also cause our stock price to decline.

Our profitability could suffer from declines in fair value or impairment of our investments, including our strategic investments, and could fluctuate if the fair values of our investments increase.

We invest a portion of available funds in a portfolio consisting of equity securities of various types. Our equity investments consist of investments in both marketable and non-marketable securities. Investments in marketable securities are measured at fair value on a recurring basis. We have elected to apply the measurement alternative for non-marketable securities. Under the alternative, we measure investments without readily determinable fair values at cost, less impairment, adjusted by observable price changes and we assess for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Our future investment income may fall short of expectations due to changes in interest rates, or due to certain inherent risks involved in investments in early-stage privately held companies. For example, we have recognized and may in the future recognize an unrealized loss on an investment if we determine that our carrying amount for an investment without a readily determinable fair value is not expected to be fully recovered, which would cause our earnings performance to suffer from such losses. By contrast, we have recorded and may in the future record an unrealized gain on an investment if we determine the fair value exceeds the carrying amount, which would benefit our earnings performance.

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Legal and Compliance Risks

We may face personal injury, wrongful death, product liability and other liability claims that harm our reputation and adversely affect our sales and financial condition.

Our CED products are often used in aggressive confrontations that may result in serious, permanent bodily injury or death to those involved. Our CED products may be associated with these injuries. A person, or the family members of a person, injured or killed in a confrontation or otherwise in connection with the use of our products, may bring legal action against us to recover damages on the basis of a number of theories, including wrongful death, personal injury, negligent design, defective product, product performance issues, or inadequate warnings or training. We are currently subject to a number of such lawsuits and have been and may be in the future subject to significant adverse judgments and settlements. We may also be subject to lawsuits involving allegations of criminal misuse of our products. We have no control over how our products are used by our customers or other end-users and cannot assure they are used consistent with our specifications, design and warnings. While our products are designed to be non-lethal, we cannot guarantee they will be used in a manner consistent with their intended use and any misuse exposes us to litigation, reputational harm and controversy.

Although we maintain product liability insurance in amounts that we believe are reasonable, we may not be able to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, and product liability claims could result in a potential award of monetary damages in excess of the amount of insurance coverage available to us. Because we manufacture and sell CEDs, insurance carriers may decide not to insure our products or our company in the future.

Similar to product liability claims, we face exposure to class action lawsuits related to the design, performance, safety, pricing or advertising of our products. Such class action lawsuits could also result in substantial monetary judgments, defense costs, business distraction, reallocation of internal resources, injunctions related to the sale of products, and potentially harm our reputation.

If successful, wrongful death, personal injury, misuse and other claims could result in adverse judgments or unfavorable settlements. We incur significant legal expenses in defending these cases, and significant litigation could result in a diversion of management’s attention and resources and could also result in negative publicity about our products. The outcome of any litigation is inherently uncertain and there can be no assurance that our existing or any future litigation will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

Other litigation, government inquiries and regulatory actions may subject us to significant costs and judgments and divert management attention from our business.

We have been and could in the future be involved in numerous other litigation, government inquiries and regulatory matters relating to our products, contracts, employees and business relationships, including litigation against persons or entities we believe have infringed on our intellectual property, infringement litigation filed against us, litigation against a competitor, antitrust litigation, and enforcement actions filed against us. See discussion of litigation in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Such matters have resulted, and are expected to continue to result in, substantial costs to us, including in the form of attorneys’ fees and costs, damages, fines or other penalties, whether pursuant to an adverse judgment or settlement, and diversion of our management’s attention, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

We have been, and may be in the future, subject to intellectual property infringement and other claims, which could incur substantial litigation costs, result in significant damages awards, inhibit our use of certain technologies, and divert management attention from our business.

Many companies own intellectual property rights that are directly or indirectly related to public safety technologies. These companies periodically demand licensing agreements or engage in litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of their patents, trademarks, copyrights or trade secrets. Non-practicing entities

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also have patents they have been granted or otherwise acquired, including patents that are directly or indirectly related to public safety technologies. These entities may seek compensation for perceived infringement of their patents, including by filing claims against us, independent of the merit of any such claims. As we enter new markets, expand into new product categories, and otherwise offer new products, services and technologies, additional intellectual property claims may be filed against us by these companies, entities and other third parties. Our use of AI tools in our business may increase the likelihood that third parties will claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights. Intellectual property claims may also be filed against us as our current products, services and technologies gain additional market share.

If our products, services or technologies were found to infringe a third-party’s proprietary rights, we could be forced to discontinue use of the protected technology or enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements in order to be able to sell our products, services or technologies. Such royalty and licensing agreements may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. We could also be required to pay substantial damages, fines or other penalties, indemnify customers or distributors, cease the manufacture, use or sale of infringing products or processes, make proprietary source code publicly available, and/or expend significant resources to develop or acquire non-infringing technologies. Our suppliers may not provide, or we may not be able to obtain, intellectual property indemnification sufficient to offset all damages, fines or other penalties resulting from any claims of intellectual property infringement brought against us or our customers. There is no guarantee that our use of conventional technology searching and brand clearance searching will identify all potential rights holders. Rights holders may demand payment for past infringements and/or force us to accept costly license terms or discontinue use of protected technology and/or works of authorship that may include, for example, photos, videos and software. Our current R&D focus on developing software-based products, including that which is related to AI or VR, increases this risk.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brands and products may decrease and we may lose our competitive market advantage.

Our future success depends upon our proprietary technology. Our protective measures for this proprietary technology include patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secret protection. However, these protective measures, as well as our efforts to pursue such protective measures, may prove inadequate. For example, the value of intellectual property protection in certain countries may not be apparent until after such protection can no longer be pursued. As such, our intellectual property protection may not extend to all countries in which our products are distributed or will be distributed in the future. Though we work to protect our innovations, we may not be able to obtain protection for certain innovations. For example, we may be unable to patent some software-based products. Furthermore, any use of AI tools to create content or code that may be incorporated into our products or services may also impact our ability to obtain or successfully defend certain intellectual property rights. The scope of any patent protection we have obtained, or may obtain, may not prevent others from developing and selling competing products. Despite our efforts, any intellectual property protection we obtain may be later determined to be insufficient or ineffective.

Our protective measures may prove inadequate for reasons outside of our control. Varying intellectual property laws across countries may lead to differences in protection between such countries. In certain countries in which our products are distributed, the ability to effectively enforce intellectual property rights may not exist. Patent requirements differ by country and certain domestic or international laws may prohibit us from satisfying these requirements, creating a risk that some of our international patents may become unenforceable. Patents for older technologies, such as those first introduced in our M26 and X26 models of CEDs, have expired or will expire due to statutory limits on patent term. Despite policies and efforts to maintain secrecy of trade secrets and other confidential information, such information could be compromised by employees, partners or other third parties.

Once established, there is no guarantee that our intellectual property rights will remain in force. Issued patents may be re-examined and subsequently ruled invalid or unenforceable. Our registered trademarks may also be diminished or lost. For example, there is a risk that our “TASER” trademark could become synonymous with the general product category of “conducted energy devices” resulting in claims of genericness that could interfere with our enforcement efforts and create customer confusion as to product source. The right to stop others from misusing our trademarks and service marks in commerce depends, to some extent, on our ability to show evidence of enforcement of our rights against such misuse in commerce. Our efforts to stop improper use, if ineffective, may lead

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to loss of trademark and service mark rights, brand loyalty and notoriety among our customers and prospective customers.

Inability to protect our intellectual property could negatively impact our commercial efforts and competitive market advantage. Regardless of outcome, the prosecution of patent and other intellectual property claims is both costly and time-consuming. Unauthorized use of our proprietary technology could divert our management’s attention from our business and could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and operating results.

We may be unable to enforce patent rights internationally, which may limit our ability to prevent our product features from being used by competitors in some foreign jurisdictions.

Our U.S. patents protect us from imported infringing products coming into the United States from abroad. We have filed applications for patents in foreign countries; however, these may be inadequate to protect markets for our products in these foreign countries. Each patent is examined and granted according to the law of the country where it was filed independent of whether a U.S. patent on similar technology was granted. Certain foreign countries have patent working requirements that require a patent owner to practice a patented invention within the respective country. A patent in a foreign country may be subject to cancellation, forfeiture, compulsory license or other penalty if the claimed invention has not been worked in that country. Meeting the requirements of working an invention differs by country and ranges from sales in the country to manufacturing in the country. U.S. export law, or the laws of some foreign countries, may prohibit us from satisfying the requirements for working the invention, creating a risk that some of our international patents may become unenforceable. In a country in which we do not have a patent or a country in which our patent in that country is unenforceable or unenforced, other companies and makers of similar products may be able to copy our products or features of our products without consequence, thus limiting our ability to capture market share or protect our technology, which could materially harm our growth prospects and operating results.

The use of open source software in our products, services and technologies may expose us to additional risks and harm our intellectual property.

Open source software is typically freely accessible, usable and modifiable. Certain open source software licenses require a user who intends to distribute the open source software as a component of the user’s software to disclose publicly part or all of the source code to the user’s software or require the user of such software to make any derivative works of the open source code available to others on potentially unfavorable terms or at no cost. The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that those licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products, services and technologies. In that event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, to re-develop our products, to discontinue sales of our products or to release our proprietary software code under the terms of an open source license, any of which could harm our business. Although we aim to avoid any use of open source software in our products, services and technologies, and otherwise only use open source software available under permissive open source licenses, it is possible that other manners of use, including those that a third party may allege to be in breach of a corresponding open source license, may have inadvertently occurred in deploying our products, services and technologies. If a third-party software provider has incorporated certain types of open source software into software we license from such third party for our products, services and technologies without our knowledge, we could be required to disclose the source code to our products, services and technologies. This could harm our intellectual property position as well as our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

A variety of new and existing laws and/or interpretations could materially and adversely affect our business.

As detailed in “Item I. Business – Government Regulation,” we are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad that involve matters central to our business, including laws and regulations related to: privacy, data protection, security, retention and deletion; rights of publicity; content; intellectual property; regulation of certain of our CEDs as firearms; advertising; marketing; distribution; electronic contracts and other communications; competition; consumer protection; telecommunications; product liability; taxation; labor and employment; sustainability; economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions; securities law; and online payment

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services. The introduction of new products, expansion of our activities in certain jurisdictions, or other actions that we may take may subject us to additional laws, regulations or other government scrutiny. In addition, foreign privacy, data protection, content, competition, sustainability and other laws and regulations can impose different obligations or be more restrictive than those in the United States.

These U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations, which in some cases can be enforced by private parties in addition to government entities, are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change. As a result, the application, interpretation, and enforcement of these laws and regulations are often uncertain and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. New laws and regulations (or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations) may require us to incur substantial costs, expose us to unanticipated civil or criminal liability, or cause us to change our business practices.

The cost of compliance with these laws and regulations is high and is likely to increase in the future. Additionally, these laws and regulations, or any associated inquiries or investigations or other government actions, may delay or impede the development of new products, result in negative publicity, cause customers to delay purchases, require significant management time and attention, and subject us to remedies that may harm our business, including fines or demands or orders that we modify or cease existing business practices. For example, as has been reported in the press, there is a grand jury investigation being conducted by the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Illinois. We have fully cooperated with the investigation and continue to do so. While we conducted an extensive internal investigation into, among other things, lobbying activities, and have found no indication of any wrongdoing by any Axon employee, there can be no assurance that this matter will not harm our business.

Radio Spectrum and Unmanned Aerial and Ground-Based Robotic Devices

Certain of our products utilize radio spectrum to provide wireless voice, data and video communications services. The allocation of spectrum is regulated in the United States and other countries and limited spectrum space is allocated to wireless services and specifically to public safety users. We manufacture and market products in spectrum bands already made available by regulatory bodies. If current products do not comply with the regulations set forth by these regulatory bodies, we may be unable to sell our products or could incur penalties. Our results could be negatively affected by the rules and regulations adopted from time to time by the FCC, ISED, the European Union Directorate-General for Environment or regulatory bodies in other countries. Regulatory changes in current spectrum bands may also require modifications to some of our products so they can continue to be manufactured and marketed.

Axon body-worn cameras, docks, Axon Fleet vehicle cameras and Axon Signal devices are subject to the FCC’s rules and regulations in the United States, as well as rules and regulations as applicable outside of the United States. These regulations affect CEDs with Axon Signal technology, including the TASER 7, SPPM, TASER 10, and future CEDs implementing wireless technology. Compliance with government regulations could increase our operations and product costs and impact our future financial results.

Additionally, some of our products depend on drones or other unmanned aerial and ground-based systems that operate on the radio spectrum. The FCC, the Federal Aviation Administration and other agencies at the federal, state and local levels (as well as in foreign jurisdictions) are beginning to address some of the numerous certification, regulatory and legal challenges associated with drones, but a comprehensive set of standards and enforcement procedures has yet to be developed. Changes to the regulation of drones or other unmanned aerial systems may impact our future financial results.

Axon and TASER Devices

For our TASER products, we rely on the opinions of the ATF, including the determination that a device that does not expel projectiles by the action of an explosive is not classified as a firearm. Changes in laws, regulations and interpretations outside of our control may result in our products being classified or reclassified as firearms. If this were to occur, our private citizen demand could be substantially reduced because consumers would be required to comply with federal, state or local firearm transfer requirements prior to purchasing our products.

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Federal regulation of sales in the United States: The majority of our currently offered CEDs are not classified as firearms regulated by the ATF. However, the ATF regulates TASER 10 as a firearm under the GCA due to a technological advancement specific to the propulsion design of TASER 10 cartridges. In the event we make TASER 10 available to our private citizen and enterprise customers, demand could be substantially reduced as a result of this classification because non-governmental end-users would be required to comply with federal, state or local firearm transfer requirements prior to purchasing TASER 10. In addition, the implications of such classification on use-of-force standards and regulations could impact our ability to sell TASER 10 to law enforcement and government entities. Because Axon must maintain a federal firearms license to manufacture and sell TASER 10, we are subject to periodic compliance inspections by the ATF. License violations discovered by the ATF can result in fines, penalties, warning letters or license revocation, leading to disruptions in operations. Further, we are required to administer, track and remit firearm excise taxes as applicable.

Our CED products are also subject to testing, safety and other standards by organizations such as the American National Standards Institute, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Underwriters Laboratories. These regulations also affect CEDs with Axon Signal technology, including SPPM technology, and TASER 7 and TASER 10 battery packs.

Federal regulation of international sales: Our CEDs are considered a “crime control” product by the DOC for export directly from the United States which requires us to obtain an export license from the DOC for the export of our CED devices from the United States to any country other than Canada. Future products and services may require classifications from the DOC before they may be shipped internationally. Our inability to obtain DOC export licenses or classifications on a timely basis for sales of our products and services to our international customers could significantly and adversely affect our international sales. Although TASER 10 is regulated by the ATF for domestic sales, the DOC has ruled that the product’s unique propulsion design has no impact on its export classification and that the TASER 10 model’s export classification remains consistent with all other TASER CED models.

Federal regulation of foreign national employees: Our CED development and production is also considered controlled “technology” by the DOC and is categorized as a “deemed export” for any foreign national employees exposed to the technology within the United States. Consequently, we must obtain export licenses from the DOC for any deemed export within the United States made to a foreign national employee exposed to the controlled technology. Deemed export licenses are subject to DOC approvals and issued licenses require annual status reports for the stated employees. Inability to obtain proper licensing could curtail the Company’s ability to execute R&D and production related to CED technology.

State and local regulation: Our CEDs are controlled, restricted or, less frequently, prohibited by some state and local governments. Other jurisdictions may ban or restrict the sale of our TASER-branded devices, or restrict their use through changes to use-of-force laws or regulations, and our product sales may be significantly affected by additional state, county and city governmental regulation. The change in TASER 10’s propulsion design may impact how TASER 10 is regulated at the state and/or local level depending on each state’s firearm laws.

International regulation of foreign imports and sales: Certain jurisdictions prohibit, restrict, or require a permit for the importation, sale, possession or use of CEDs, including in some countries by law enforcement agencies, limiting our international sales opportunities.

U.S. and international regulation of component movements globally: We rely on a global supply chain of components across our product lines with most final assembly occurring in the United States. Export of these components from abroad is subject to shifting regulatory landscapes imposed by both the foreign government and U.S. authorities upon import. Abrupt changes to these regulations can result in delays or interruptions to final product supplies. Additionally, ATF regulation of certain imports of TASER 10 components may limit Axon’s supply chain agility.

International regulation of foreign-based operations: We maintain foreign operations in several countries globally for purposes of logistics, SG&A services and R&D support. Depending on these activities, applicable regulations include business activity licensing and registration, import permits and recordkeeping, warehousing and

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storage security and permitting, and government reporting.  Any failure to comply with these requirements could limit our ability to sell, support or develop our products and services both internationally and in the United States.

Privacy Regulations

We are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations associated with the collection, processing, storage and transmission of personally identifiable information and other sensitive and confidential information. This data is wide ranging and relates to our employees, customers and other third parties, including the subjects of law enforcement. Our compliance obligations include those prescribed under laws and regulations that dictate whether, how and under what circumstances we can receive, process, hold and/or transfer certain data that is critical to our operations, including data shared between countries or regions in which we operate and data shared among our products and services. If one or more of the legal mechanisms for transferring data from other countries to the United States is invalidated, if we are unable to transfer data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, or if we are prohibited from sharing data among our products and services, it could affect the manner in which we provide our products and services or adversely affect our financial results. Countries may also pass legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data or similar requirements that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our products and services and expose us to significant penalties for non-compliance. The European Parliament adopted the GDPR, effective May 2018, that extended the scope of European privacy laws to any entity that controls or processes personal data of E.U. residents in connection with the offer of goods or services or the monitoring of behavior and imposes compliance obligations concerning the handling of personal data. Further, Vietnam's PDPD, which entered into force July 1, 2023, applies to organizations (wherever based) so long as they participate in personal data processing in Vietnam. We are also subject to U.S. laws and regulations, including the CPRA, which provides for enhanced consumer protections for California residents, a private right of action for data breaches and statutory fines and damages for data breaches or other CCPA violations, as well as a requirement of “reasonable” cybersecurity, which could subject us to additional compliance costs as well as potential fines, individual claims, class actions and commercial liabilities.

Any inability, or perceived inability, by us to adequately address privacy concerns, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards and guidance, contractual obligations or other legal obligations, even if unfounded, could result in significant regulatory and third-party liability, increased costs, disruption of our business and operations, and a loss of confidence and other reputational damage. Furthermore, as new privacy- related laws and regulations are implemented, the time and resources needed for us to comply with such laws and regulations continues to increase and become a significant compliance workstream.

Environmental Regulations

We are subject to various U.S. federal, state, local and international laws and regulations governing the environment, including restricting the presence of certain substances in our products and making us financially responsible for the collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of such products. In addition, further environmental or climate change disclosure legislation may be enacted in other jurisdictions, including the United States (under federal and state laws) and other countries, the cumulative impact of which could be significant. For example, in September 2023, California passed the Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act and the Climate-Related Financial Risk Act, requiring increased climate-related reporting. See “Item 1. Business – Governmental Regulation – Environmental Regulations.” New, or changes in, environmental safety laws, regulations or rules could also lead to increased costs of compliance, including remediations of any discovered issues, and changes to our operations, which may be significant. Any failures to comply could result in significant expenses, delays or fines and could adversely affect our financial results.

Our business is subject to evolving corporate governance and public disclosure regulations and expectations, including with respect to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, that could expose us to numerous risks.

We are subject to changing rules and regulations promulgated by a number of governmental and self-regulatory organizations, including the SEC, the Nasdaq Stock Market and the Financial Accounting Standards Board. These rules and regulations continue to evolve in scope and complexity and many new requirements have been created in

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response to laws enacted by Congress, making compliance more difficult and uncertain. In addition, increasingly regulators, customers, investors, employees and other stakeholders are focusing on ESG matters and related disclosures. These changing rules, regulations and stakeholder expectations have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and increased management time and attention spent complying with or meeting such regulations and expectations. For example, developing and acting on initiatives within the scope of ESG, and collecting, measuring and reporting ESG-related information and metrics can be costly, difficult and time-consuming and is subject to evolving reporting standards, including the SEC’s recently proposed climate-related reporting requirements, and similar proposals by other domestic or international regulatory bodies. Foreign governments have also enacted legislation to address ESG issues, such as the UK Modern Slavery Act.

Additionally, unfavorable perception regarding our social initiatives, governance practices, diversity initiatives, the perceived or actual impacts of our products and services, environmental policies or other growing concerns of our stakeholders, could adversely affect our reputation. Any negative effect on our reputation could have an adverse effect on the size of our customer base, which could adversely affect our business and financial results. We have been, and may be in the future, subject to informal private or public inquiries and formal proxy proposals by activists urging us to take certain corporate actions related to ESG matters, which may not be aligned with our best interests. These activities may adversely affect our business in a number of ways, since responding to inquiries or proposals can be costly, time-consuming, and disruptive to our operations and could meaningfully divert our resources, including the attention of our management team and our employees.

We may also communicate certain initiatives and goals, regarding environmental matters, diversity, responsible sourcing and social investments and other ESG-related matters, in our SEC filings or in other public disclosures. These initiatives and goals within the scope of ESG could be difficult and expensive to implement, the technologies needed to implement them may not be cost effective and may not advance at a sufficient pace, and we could be criticized for the accuracy, adequacy or completeness of the disclosure. Further, statements about our ESG-related initiatives and goals, and progress against those goals, may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. In addition, we could be criticized for the scope or nature of such initiatives or goals, or for any revisions to these goals. Given the dynamic nature of ESG expectations, standards and regulations, which may change over time, we may from time to time need to update or otherwise revise our current practices, initiatives and goals, including in response to legislative or legal developments. If our ESG-related data, processes and reporting are incomplete or inaccurate, or if we fail to achieve progress with respect to our goals within the scope of ESG on a timely basis, or at all, we may be exposed to potential liability or litigation, and our reputation, business, financial performance and growth could be adversely affected.

Our amended and restated bylaws include exclusive forum provisions that could increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit the ability of the our shareholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum viewed by shareholders as more favorable for disputes.

Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Chancery Court of the State of Delaware will be, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or shareholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers governed by the internal affairs doctrine. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws also provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any claim arising under the Securities Act. The exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated bylaws does not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

The choice of forum provision may increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Axon or Axon’s directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against Axon or Axon’s directors, officers and other

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employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.

Risks Related to our Convertible Notes

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow to pay our substantial debt.

As of December 31, 2023, we had outstanding an aggregate principal amount of $690.0 million of our 0.50% convertible senior notes due 2027 (the “Notes” or “2027 Notes”). Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations, including the Notes.

The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled to convert their Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Notes, we would be required to settle any converted principal amount of such Notes through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Notes as a current, rather than long-term, liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

Conversion of the Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our shareholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the Notes may dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders. Upon conversion of the Notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock in respect of the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted. If we elect to settle the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the market price of our common stock.

Changes in the accounting treatment for the Notes could have a material effect on our reported financial results.

We have adopted Accounting Standards Update 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”) as of January 1, 2022. Accordingly, we do not bifurcate the liability and equity components of the Notes on our balance sheet and we use the if-converted method of calculating diluted earnings per share. Under the if-converted method, diluted earnings per share will generally be calculated assuming that all the Notes were converted solely into shares of common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive, which could adversely affect our diluted earnings per share. Because the principal amount of the Notes upon conversion is required to be paid in cash, and only the excess is permitted to be settled in shares, the application of the if-converted method will produce a similar result as the treasury stock method prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06. The effect of the treasury stock method is that the

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shares issuable upon conversion of such Notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of such Notes exceeds their principal amount. 

In accordance with ASU 2020-06, the Notes are reflected as a liability on our consolidated balance sheets, with the initial carrying amount equal to the principal amount of the Notes, net of issuance costs. The issuance costs have been treated as a debt discount for accounting purposes, which is and will be amortized into interest expense over the term of the Notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we recognize for the Notes for accounting purposes is greater than the cash interest payments payable on the Notes, resulting in lower reported income.

We cannot be sure whether future changes made to the current accounting standards related to the Notes will not have a material effect on our reported financial results.

The convertible note hedge and warrant transactions may affect the value of the Notes and our common stock.

In connection with the pricing of the Notes, we have entered into convertible note hedge transactions with the option counterparties. We have also entered into warrant transactions with the option counterparties. The convertible note hedge transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of Notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted Notes, as the case may be. However, the warrant transactions could have a dilutive effect on our common stock to the extent that the market price per share of our common stock exceeds the strike price of the warrants.

In addition, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions following the pricing of the Notes and prior to the maturity of the Notes (and are likely to do so in connection with any conversion of the Notes or redemption or repurchase of the Notes). This activity could cause or avert an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock.

In addition, if any such convertible note hedge and warrant hedging transactions fail to become effective, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates may unwind their hedge positions with respect to our common stock, which could adversely affect the value of our common stock.

The potential effect, if any, of these transactions and activities on the market price of our common stock will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of our common stock.

We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the convertible note hedge transactions.

The option counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the convertible note hedge transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties will not be secured by any collateral.

If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the convertible note hedge transactions with such option counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the option counterparties.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

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Item 1C.    Cybersecurity

Our business is highly dependent on our information systems, including our ability to operate them effectively and to successfully implement new technologies, methods and processes, as well as adequate controls and cybersecurity incident recovery plans. We rely on our information systems to manage our business, data, communications, supply chain, ordering, pricing, billing, inventory replenishment, accounting functions and other processes. In addition, we must protect the confidentiality and integrity of the data of our business, employees, customers and other third parties. Our business involves the collection, processing, storage and transmission of personally identifiable information and other sensitive and confidential information. This data is wide ranging and relates to our employees, customers and third parties, including the subjects of law enforcement. Our compliance obligations include those prescribed under the laws and regulations that dictate whether, how and under what circumstances we can receive, process, hold and/or transfer certain data that is critical to our operations, including data shared between countries or regions in which we operate and data shared among our products and services.

As part of our company-wide culture of security, we maintain a formal cybersecurity and information security program that is aligned with the standards set forth by the International Organization for Standardization (“ISO”), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Systems and Organization Controls 2, the Criminal Justice Information Services, the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The Company’s Information Security Team maintains the program, which is designed to ensure proper monitoring, prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity vulnerabilities, including the prompt investigation and management of all reported or discovered security events, including cybersecurity threats and incidents, in the ordinary course of the business of the Company.

Our cybersecurity and information security program is designed to comply with key global financial regulations and cybersecurity laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The program includes taking several proactive steps to prepare for attempts to compromise our information systems. To provide for the availability of critical data and systems, maintain regulatory compliance, manage our material cybersecurity risks, and protect against, detect and respond to cybersecurity threats and incidents, we undertake the below listed activities:

closely monitor emerging data protection laws and implement changes to our processes designed to comply;
undertake regular reviews (at least annually) of our consumer facing and internal policies and statements related to cybersecurity;
proactively inform our customers of substantive changes related to customer data handling;
conduct annual information security training for all our employees;
recruit and retain highly skilled cybersecurity professionals, and provide regular training and development opportunities for our cybersecurity and information security employees;
conduct regular phishing email simulations for all employees and all contractors with access to corporate email systems to enhance awareness and responsiveness to such possible threats;
through policy, practice and contract (as applicable), require employees, as well as third parties who provide services on our behalf, to treat customer information and data with care;
perform due diligence on third-party vendors and, based on our risk assessment, put in place contractual undertakings and oversight to manage and reduce the risks associated with third-party vendors;
run tabletop exercises to simulate a response to a cybersecurity incident and use the findings to improve our technologies, methods and processes;
conduct regular risk assessments of our information systems to identify weaknesses, and develop and implement mitigations to improve our cybersecurity and information security program;

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conduct regular security assessments, vulnerability scans, and penetration tests (including by third-party assessment firms) of products systems and internal systems to discover vulnerabilities and apply appropriate mitigations within standardized timelines;
maintain, implement, evaluate and update our cybersecurity technologies to address threats and vulnerabilities; and
carry information security risk insurance that provides protection against the potential losses arising from a cybersecurity incident.

Third Party Monitoring and External Reviews

Axon utilizes the assistance of third-party technology and providers to support our objective of protecting our information, information systems and network. Services provided by third parties to assess the performance of our cybersecurity risk management systems and procedures and to identify cybersecurity risks to the Company include assessing products and internal systems for vulnerabilities, incident response services such as computer forensics, internal and external audits for security certifications globally and overall security program maturity evaluations. Axon and our service providers have also developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our and our customers’ data, to prevent data loss, and to prevent or detect cybersecurity threats and incidents.

Material findings, notable weaknesses and suggestions are presented to the Enterprise Risk and Compliance Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors (the “ERC Committee”) as discussed below.

Cybersecurity Management Team

Our cybersecurity and information security program, which includes data privacy, is the responsibility of our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”), who oversees our global information security program. Our current CISO has served in various information technology and information security roles over the past 20 years, having built the Company’s information security program over the last 10 years, and serving as CISO since December 2017. We expect our current CISO to transition his responsibilities to our new CISO over the coming quarter.  Our new CISO brings diverse perspectives and significant skills and experience leading security organizations across a number of technology companies.

Our CISO attends quarterly meetings of the Company’s Disclosure Committee and provides input on the Company’s disclosures in its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Annual Reports on Form 10-K, including the relevant risk factors set forth therein. The Company’s CISO, along with the Information Security Team, also leads our Security Incident Response Team, which is responsible for investigating suspected cybersecurity threats and incidents. In the event of a possibly material cybersecurity incident, the Information Security Team also includes the following executive team members: Corporate General Counsel, Chief Legal Officer, Chief Accounting Officer, Chief Financial Officer and, to the extent practicable or relevant, other senior executives.

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Board of Directors Oversight

As a part of its oversight of the key risks facing the Company, our Board of Directors devotes significant time and attention to data and systems protection, including cybersecurity and information security risk. While the Audit Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Audit Committee”) reviews any significant legal, compliance or regulatory matters that may have a material impact on the Company’s business, financial statements or compliance policies generally, it does so in consultation with our ERC Committee with respect to any such matters that involve cybersecurity, data privacy or information technology. The Chair of our ERC Committee is also a member of our Audit Committee, which facilitates close coordination between the two committees on cybersecurity, data privacy and information technology matters.

Our ERC Committee oversees our overall approach to enterprise risk management, of which cybersecurity is an important component. The ERC Committee and its Chair, in coordination with the Information Security Team and CISO, regularly review the categories of risk the Company faces, including any cybersecurity risk exposures, as well as the likelihood of occurrence, the potential impact of those risks, and the steps management has taken to monitor, mitigate and control such exposures. To facilitate these reviews, the Information Security Team and CISO report at least quarterly to the ERC Committee with respect to cybersecurity risks, including those identified through review of our business, of rising threats in the industry, and of the current state of the Company’s cybersecurity and information security program. The ERC Committee makes regular reports to the full Board of Directors regarding updates on cybersecurity and other risks.

Incident Response and Assessment Policies and Procedures

Axon has implemented our cybersecurity and information security program and cybersecurity incident response plan to protect our and our customers’ data from, and mitigate the effects of, unintentional disclosure as well as cybersecurity threats and incidents of all severity levels. Our program and response plan outline actions to be taken after identifying a suspected cybersecurity threat or incident and the people responsible for managing those actions. We have also implemented disclosure controls and procedures for determining the materiality of a cybersecurity incident to outline disclosure and communications responsibilities during cybersecurity incidents of all severity levels.

In the event of a possibly material cyber incident, the Security Incident Response Team, under the direction of the Corporate General Counsel and/or the Chief Legal Officer, would collect and document information relevant to materiality and make a threshold determination as to whether such cybersecurity incident (including those occurring on the information systems of third parties) is potentially material. The Security Incident Response Team would meet with the Chair of the ERC Committee to review the preliminary findings of the Security Incident Response Team, including the possible factors in determining materiality. If the Security Incident Response Team and the Chair of the ERC Committee determine that the cybersecurity incident warrants further review after consideration of such findings and factors, the Audit Committee would be convened for a meeting (to which all members of the ERC Committee would be invited) to review the cybersecurity incident and the findings of the Security Incident Response Team and the Chair of the ERC Committee. The Audit Committee would then make a materiality determination consistent with SEC guidance and by considering relevant quantitative and qualitative factors, informed by any recommendations of the ERC Committee and/or its Chair.

Any materiality assessment that results in a determination that a cybersecurity incident is not material would be reported by the Information Security Team, or appropriate members of management, to the ERC Committee at its next scheduled meeting.

At this time, we have not identified any risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations or financial conditions. However, we face certain ongoing risks from cybersecurity threats that, if realized, are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. See “Risk Factors—If our security measures or those of our third-party cloud storage providers are breached and unauthorized access is obtained to customers’ data or our data, our network, data centers and products and services may be perceived as not being secure, customers may curtail or stop using our service and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities” and “Risk Factors—Catastrophic events could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.

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Item 2.     Properties

Our corporate headquarters and manufacturing facilities are based in an approximately 100,000 square foot facility in Scottsdale, Arizona, which we own. As of December 31, 2023, we had more than 15 leased locations including Phoenix and Scottsdale, Arizona; East Point, Georgia; Seattle, Washington; Melbourne and Sydney, Australia; Brussels, Belgium; Daventry and London, England; Tampere, Finland; Frankfurt, Germany; Delhi, India; Amsterdam, Netherlands; and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We also own a parcel of land located in Scottsdale, Arizona on which we intend to develop a new campus.

We believe our existing facilities are well maintained and in good operating condition. We also believe we have adequate manufacturing capacity for our existing product lines. To the extent that we introduce new products in the future, we will likely need to acquire additional facilities to locate the associated production lines. However, we believe we can acquire or lease such facilities on reasonable terms. We continue to make investments in capital equipment as needed to meet anticipated demand for our products.

The majority of our locations support both of our reportable segments, except for our Vietnam and Seattle, Washington locations, which primarily support our Software & Sensors segment.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

See discussion of litigation in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which discussion is incorporated by reference herein.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted under the symbol “AXON” on The NASDAQ Global Select Market.

Holders

As of December 31, 2023, there were 209 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividends

To date, we have not declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

In February 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to acquire up to $50.0 million of our outstanding common stock subject to stock market conditions and corporate considerations. The stock repurchase program does not have a stated expiration date. During the year ended December 31, 2023, no common

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shares were purchased under the program. As of December 31, 2023, $16.3 million remained available under the plan for future purchases.

Stock Performance Graph

The following stock performance graph compares the performance of our common stock to the NASDAQ Composite Index, Russell 2000 Index, Russell Midcap Index, and S&P 500 Index.

The graph covers the period from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our stock and in each index was $100 at December 31, 2018, and that all dividends were reinvested. We do not pay dividends on our common stock.

Graphic

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

    

2023

Axon Enterprise, Inc.

$

100.00

$

167.50

$

280.07

$

358.86

$

379.22

$

590.32

NASDAQ Composite

100.00

136.69

198.10

242.03

163.28

236.17

Russell 2000

100.00

125.52

150.58

172.90

137.56

160.85

Russell Midcap Index

100.00

130.54

152.87

187.39

154.94

181.63

S&P 500

100.00

131.49

155.68

200.37

164.08

207.21

We have historically included the Russell 2000 and Russell Midcap as a point of reference in our Comparative Stock Performance chart; however, we have made the decision to remove the Russell 2000 and Russell Midcap from this chart beginning with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2024.

Index data copyright NASDAQ; Russell Investments; and Standard and Poor’s, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

Item 6.    [Reserved]

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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is designed to provide a reader of our consolidated financial statements with a narrative from the perspective of our management on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and certain other factors that may affect our future results. Our MD&A should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The various sections of our MD&A contain a number of forward-looking statements, all of which are based on our current expectations and could be affected by the uncertainties and risk factors described throughout this filing. The tables in the MD&A sections below are derived from exact numbers and may have immaterial rounding differences.

Our MD&A discusses our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. For a discussion and analysis of the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, please refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023.

Overview

Axon’s product suite includes cloud-hosted digital evidence management, productivity and real-time operations software, body-worn cameras, in-car cameras, TASER energy devices, robotic security and training solutions. Our financial strategy is to build highly recurring, highly profitable businesses. Axon products are generally cloud-connected, designed to drive better outcomes and customer experiences, and sold via mutually reinforcing integrated bundles.

Axon’s operations comprise two reportable segments:

1.TASER: Axon is the market leader in the development, manufacture and sale of CEDs, which we sell under our brand name, TASER.
2.Software and Sensors: We develop, manufacture and sell fully integrated hardware and cloud-based software solutions that enable law enforcement to capture, securely store, manage, share and analyze video and other digital evidence. Our software offerings also support productivity and real-time operations.

We derive revenue from two primary sources: (i) the sale of physical products, including Axon cameras, Axon Signal-enabled devices, CEDs, corresponding hardware extended warranties, and related accessories such as Axon docks, cartridges and batteries, among others, and (ii) subscriptions to our Axon Evidence digital evidence management SaaS offering (including data storage fees and other ancillary services), which includes varying levels of support. To a lesser extent, we also recognize revenue from training, professional services and other software and SaaS services.

Some of our products and services are sold on a standalone basis. We also bundle our hardware products and services together and sell them to our customers in single transactions, where the customer can make payments over a multi-year period. These sales may include payments for upfront hardware and services, as well as payments for hardware and services to be provided by us at a future date.

Our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 were $1.6 billion, an increase of $373.5 million, or 31.4%, from the prior year. We had income from operations of $154.8 million in 2023 compared to income from operations of $93.3 million in the prior year. Gross margin dollars increased by $226.7 million in 2023 but remained relatively flat as a percentage of revenue compared to 2022. Operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $165.2 million, reflecting an increase of $97.2 million in salaries, benefits and bonus expense and an increase in stock compensation of $23.2 million primarily related to an increase in headcount. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded net income of $174.2 million, which reflected net unrealized losses of $80.5 million related to impairment and observable price changes for our existing investments and related warrants, interest income, net of $42.1 million, and an unrealized gain of $38.7 million on marketable securities related to our investment in Cellebrite DI Ltd.

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(“CLBT”). This represented an increase of $27.1 million over net income of $147.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, which included an unrealized gain of $131.9 million related to observable price changes for our existing investments and related warrants and an unrealized loss of $32.9 million related to CLBT for the prior year.

Results of Operations

The following table presents data from our consolidated statements of operations as well as the percentage relationship to total net sales of items included in our statements of operations (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

 

2023

    

2022

 

Net sales from products

    

$

967,711

    

61.9

%  

$

801,388

67.3

%

Net sales from services

 

595,680

 

38.1

 

388,547

 

32.7

Net sales

 

1,563,391

 

100.0

 

1,189,935

 

100.0

Cost of product sales

 

450,718

 

28.8

 

363,219

 

30.5

Cost of service sales

 

157,291

 

10.1

 

98,078

 

8.3

Cost of sales

 

608,009

 

38.9

 

461,297

 

38.8

Gross margin

 

955,382

 

61.1

 

728,638

 

61.2

Operating expenses:

  

 

Sales, general and administrative

 

496,874

 

31.8

 

401,575

 

33.7

Research and development

 

303,719

 

19.4

 

233,810

 

19.7

Total operating expenses

 

800,593

 

51.2

 

635,385

 

53.4

Income from operations

 

154,789

 

9.9

 

93,253

 

7.8

Interest income, net

42,112

2.7

4,294

0.4

Other income (loss), net

 

(41,901)

 

(2.7)

 

98,971

 

8.3

Income before provision for income taxes

 

155,000

 

9.9

 

196,518

 

16.5

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

(19,227)

 

(1.2)

 

49,379

 

4.1

Net income

 

$

174,227

 

11.1

%  

$

147,139

 

12.4

%

Net sales to the United States and other countries are summarized as follows (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

 

2023

2022

 

United States

    

$

1,338,208

    

86

%  

$

987,975

    

83

%

Other Countries

 

225,183

 

14

 

201,960

 

17

Total

$

1,563,391

 

100

%  

$

1,189,935

 

100

%

International revenue increased in 2023, driven by strength in our Americas region, but decreased as a percentage of total revenue compared to 2022.

Our operations comprise two reportable segments. In both segments, we report sales of products and services.

The TASER segment includes the manufacture and sale of CEDs, batteries, accessories and extended warranties, digital subscription training content, VR training content, TASER Evidence.com license revenue, and other professional services tied to TASER and VR deployments.
The Software and Sensors segment includes the sales of sensors, including body-worn cameras, in-car cameras, other hardware sensors, warranties on sensors, and other products, as well as recurring cloud-hosted software revenue, related non-recurring professional services revenue, and revenue from certain software, including on-premise licenses.

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For the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

Net Sales

Net sales by product line were as follows for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

    

Dollar

    

Percent

 

2023

2022

Change

Change

 

TASER segment:

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

TASER Devices (Professional)

$

333,923

21.4

%  

$

282,698

23.8

%  

$

51,225

 

18.1

%

Cartridges

 

193,285

 

12.4

 

181,686

 

15.3

 

11,599

 

6.4

Axon Evidence and Cloud Services

 

34,775

 

2.2

 

18,752

 

1.6

 

16,023

 

85.4

Extended Warranties

 

31,689

 

2.0

 

29,008

 

2.4

 

2,681

 

9.2

Other (1)

 

18,933

 

1.2

 

19,422

 

1.6

 

(489)

 

(2.5)

TASER segment

 

612,605

 

39.2

 

531,566

 

44.7

 

81,039

 

15.2

Software and Sensors segment:

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

Axon Body Cameras and Accessories

 

183,023

 

11.7

 

157,281

 

13.2

 

25,742

 

16.4

Axon Fleet Systems

 

118,129

 

7.6

 

63,017

 

5.3

 

55,112

 

87.5

Axon Evidence and Cloud Services

 

566,183

 

36.2

 

371,889

 

31.2

 

194,294

 

52.2

Extended Warranties

 

62,577

 

4.0

 

49,765

 

4.2

 

12,812

 

25.7

Other (2)

 

20,874

 

1.3

 

16,417

 

1.4

 

4,457

 

27.1

Software and Sensors segment

 

950,786

 

60.8

 

658,369

 

55.3

 

292,417

 

44.4

Total net sales

$

1,563,391

 

100.0

%  

$

1,189,935

 

100.0

%  

$

373,456

 

31.4

%

(1) TASER segment “Other” includes smaller categories, such as VR hardware, CED training revenue such as revenue associated with our Master Instructor School, and TASER consumer device sales.

(2) Software and Sensors segment “Other” includes revenue from items including Signal Sidearm, Interview Room and Axon Air.

Net sales for the TASER segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $81.0 million, or 15.2%, primarily due to an increase of $51.2 million in TASER devices (professional) and an $11.6 million increase in cartridge revenue. The increase in TASER devices (professional) revenue was the result of increased unit sales and premium product mix. We continue to see strong adoption of our next generation product, TASER 10, which began shipping in the first quarter of 2023. The increase in cartridge revenue was primarily attributable to growing sales of next generation TASER products. Net sales for Axon Evidence and cloud services increased $16.0 million due to an increase in the number of cloud-connected TASER devices in the field, as well as an increase in VR revenue.

Net sales for the Software and Sensors segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $292.4 million, or 44.4%, as we continue to add users and associated devices to our network. The increase in the aggregate number of users and average revenue per user, driven primarily by software add-ons, drove the majority of the increase in Axon Evidence and cloud services revenue of $194.3 million in addition to increased professional services revenue associated with new product installations, including Axon Fleet cameras. The $55.1 million increase in Axon Fleet systems revenue was primarily driven by higher unit sales. Net sales of Axon Body cameras and accessories increased $25.7 million on higher volume driven by demand for our next generation product, Axon Body 4, which began shipping at the end of the second quarter of 2023. An increase in cameras and docks in the field drove the $12.8 million increase in extended warranties, as most of those devices are sold with extended warranties.

Future Contracted Revenue - As of December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022

Total company future contracted revenue represents remaining performance obligation and includes both recognized contract liabilities as well as amounts that will be invoiced and recognized in future periods. The remaining performance obligations are limited only to arrangements that meet the definition of a contract under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 as of December 31, 2023. We currently expect to recognize between 15% to 25%

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of this balance over the next 12 months, and generally expect the remainder to be recognized over the following ten years, subject to risks related to delayed deployments, budget appropriation or other contract cancellation clauses. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $7.1 billion of future contracted revenue, an increase from $4.6 billion as of December 31, 2022.

Gross Margin

Gross margin (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

Dollar

Percent

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

TASER gross margin

370,628

336,609

34,019

10.1

%

TASER gross margin as % of TASER net sales

60.5%

63.3%

Software and Sensors gross margin

584,754

392,029

192,725

49.2

Software and Sensors gross margin as % of Software and Sensors net sales

61.5%

59.5%

Total gross margin

$

955,382

$

728,638

$

226,744

 

31.1

%

Gross margin as % of net sales

61.1

%  

 

61.2

%  

Gross margin increased $226.7 million to $955.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $728.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. As a percentage of net sales, gross margin decreased slightly to 61.1% for 2023 from 61.2% for 2022. The decrease was due to lower gross margin in our TASER segment and was partially offset by higher gross margin in our Software and Sensors segment.

As a percentage of total segment net sales, gross margin for the TASER segment decreased to 60.5% for the year ended December 31, 2023, from 63.3% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to inventory reserve charges realized in the first quarter of 2023 and warranty reserve charges recognized in the fourth quarter of 2023 related to a TASER 7 production issue that largely occurred in March 2023, combined with the launch of TASER 10, which is still ramping up toward full-scale manufacturing.

Within the Software and Sensors segment, gross margin as a percentage of total segment net sales increased to 61.5% for the year ended December 31, 2023 from 59.5% for the year ended December 31, 2022. Within the Software and Sensors segment, hardware gross margin was 45.6% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 42.1% for the same period in 2022, while service margin decreased to 72.6% from 73.3%, respectively, during each of those same time periods. The increase in gross margin was driven by a premium product mix and scale efficiencies, partially offset by a higher mix of lower-margin professional services revenue.

We anticipate an increase in stock-based compensation expense reflected within cost of goods sold as a result of RSUs granted in January 2024 that generally vest in five annual installments from March 2024 through March 2028. These RSUs were granted to employees whose compensation was under a specified threshold, including production-line employees. As further discussed in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included within this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Patrick W. Smith, our Chief Executive Officer, agreed to compensation in a lesser amount than the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors was otherwise willing to provide so that the Company could instead provide enhanced compensation opportunities to other employees of the Company. If instead he had accepted higher compensation, it would have been reflected in SG&A expenses over a similar period.

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Sales, General and Administrative Expenses

SG&A expenses (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

Dollar

Percent

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Salaries, benefits and bonus

$

215,100

$

160,936

$

54,164

33.7

%  

Sales and marketing

91,716

72,451

19,265

26.6

Stock-based compensation

58,533

51,301

7,232

14.1

Other

131,525

116,887

14,638

12.5

Total sales, general and administrative expenses

$

496,874

$

401,575

$

95,299

 

23.7

%

SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales

31.8

%  

33.7

%  

SG&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $95.3 million, or 23.7%, as compared to the prior year. Salaries, benefits and bonus expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $54.2 million as compared to the prior year. Of the total increase, $32.1 million is attributable to an increase in salaries and related primarily to increased headcount, and $9.0 million is attributable to payroll taxes related to the vesting of the final three tranches of our 2019 eXponential Stock Performance Plan (“2019 XSPP”) and the exercise of options under the 2018 grant of stock options to Mr. Smith (the “2018 CEO Performance Award”). The remaining increase is primarily attributable to increased payroll taxes and 401(k) matching related to the increase in salaries in addition to higher self-insured medical expense related to increased medical plan enrollment and higher claims during the current year.

Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $19.3 million as compared to the prior year, driven by a $16.3 million increase in commissions expense tied to higher revenues. Sales and marketing expenses were also impacted by an increase of $3.6 million related to in-person events in 2023, including our annual user conference, Axon Accelerate.

Stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $7.2 million as compared to the prior year, which is primarily attributable to increased headcount combined with a $4.9 million increase in expenses related to the vesting of the final three tranches of the 2019 XSPP. Partially offsetting the increases was a decrease of $11.5 million related to the 2018 CEO Performance Award as the award became fully amortized with the vesting of the final two tranches.  

Other SG&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased by $14.6 million as compared to the prior year, reflecting higher headcount and the following:

Travel expenses increased $4.8 million, reflecting increased in-person customer and vendor meetings. Increased travel costs per trip also impacted travel expenses.
Professional, consulting and lobbying expenses increased $4.2 million, driven primarily by transaction costs related to business acquisitions and strategic investments.

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Research and Development Expenses

R&D expenses (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

Dollar

Percent

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Salaries, benefits and bonus

$

178,658

$

135,596

$

43,062

31.8

%  

Stock-based compensation

66,230

50,268

15,962

31.8

Indirect manufacturing costs and supplies

25,343

18,955

6,388

33.7

Other

33,488

28,991

4,497

15.5

Total research and development expenses

$

303,719

$

233,810

$

69,909

 

29.9

%

R&D expenses as a percentage of net sales

19.4

%

19.7

%

Within the TASER segment, R&D expenses increased $10.8 million, or 20.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2023. An increase of $8.0 million in salaries, benefits and bonus expense and an increase of $2.4 million in stock-based compensation expense reflected higher headcount.

R&D expense for the Software and Sensors segment increased $59.1 million, or 32.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, and decreased as a percentage of sales to 25.4% compared to 27.7% in the prior year. An increase of $35.0 million related to salaries, benefits and bonus expense reflected increased headcount.  Additionally, there was an increase of $13.6 million in stock-based compensation expense related to increased headcount. Internal cloud costs increased $5.8 million related to software product development, and professional and consulting expenses increased $4.7 million primarily related to the launch of new products.

Interest Income, Net

Interest income, net, was as follows (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Interest income

$

49,107

$

4,782

Interest expense

(6,995)

(488)

Total interest income, net

$

42,112

$

4,294

The increase in interest income for the year ended December 31, 2023 is primarily related to higher balances of available-for-sale securities during the year. Interest expense increased from $0.5 million from the prior year to $7.0 million primarily related to our 2027 Notes, which were issued in December 2022. For additional information regarding our Notes, refer to Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements included within this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Other Income (Loss), Net

Other income (loss), net, was as follows (dollars in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Unrealized gain (loss) on fair value adjustments of strategic investments, net

(80,485)

131,883

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net

38,700

(32,900)

Gain (loss) on foreign currency transactions, net

(504)

(929)

Other, net

388

917

Other income (loss), net

$

(41,901)

$

98,971

50

Table of Contents

In 2023, we recorded a net unrealized impairment loss of $71.9 million for an existing strategic investment and related warrants and an unrealized loss of $8.6 million related to observable price changes for our existing investments and related warrants.

In 2022, we recorded an unrealized gain of $131.9 million related to observable price changes for our investments in certain strategic investments and related warrants and the exercise of warrants in one of our strategic investees.

Provision for Income Taxes

The provision for income taxes was a benefit of $19.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The effective income tax rate for 2023 was (12.4)%. The benefits related to excess stock-based compensation of $106.5 million and R&D credits of $26.2 million were partially offset by the tax effects of permanently non-deductible expenses for executive compensation of $77.4 million.

The provision for income taxes was an expense of $49.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The effective income tax rate for 2022 was 25.1%. The benefits related to excess stock-based compensation of $4.6 million and R&D credits of $13.3 million, and a deduction for foreign-derived intangible income of $2.6 million were partially offset by the tax effects of permanently non-deductible expenses for executive compensation of $5.8 million, an increase in uncertain tax benefits of $3.2 million, and other permanently non-deductible expenses of $1.8 million. Additionally, we recorded a $10.2 million increase to our valuation allowance as of December 31, 2022 related to state R&D tax credits that may not be utilized prior to expiration and an unrealized investment loss.

Net Income

We recorded net income of $174.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to a net income of $147.1 million in 2022. Net income per basic share was $2.35 and diluted net income per share was $2.31 for 2023, compared to net income per basic share of $2.07 and diluted net income per share of $2.03 for 2022.

Three Months Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to September 30, 2023

Net sales by product line were as follows (dollars in thousands):

    

Three Months Ended

    

Three Months Ended

    

Dollar

    

Percent

December 31, 2023

September 30, 2023

Change

Change

TASER segment:

TASER Devices (Professional)

$

94,758

 

21.9

%  

$

86,718

 

21.0

%  

$

8,040

 

9.3

%

Cartridges

 

43,781

 

10.1

 

54,279

 

13.1

 

(10,498)

 

(19.3)

Axon Evidence and Cloud Services

 

10,105

 

2.4

 

8,975

 

2.2

 

1,130

 

12.6

Extended Warranties

 

8,226

 

1.9

 

8,078

 

1.9

 

148

 

1.8

Other (1)

4,473

1.0

4,520

1.1

(47)

(1.0)

TASER segment