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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2022

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO f

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 1-4825

WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY

A Washington CORPORATION

91-0470860

(IRS EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NO.)

220 OCCIDENTAL AVENUE SOUTH, SEATTLE, Washington 98104-7800 TELEPHONE (206) 539-3000

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

 

TITLE OF EACH CLASS

 

TRADING SYMBOL(S)

 

NAME OF EACH EXCHANGE

ON WHICH REGISTERED

Common Shares ($1.25 par value)

 

WY

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

 

 

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant based on the closing sale price as of the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter ended on June 30, 2022, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Price Transactions, was approximately $24.2 billion.

As of February 6, 2023, 732,347 thousand shares of the registrant’s common stock ($1.25 par value) were outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Notice of the 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and Proxy Statement for the company’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 12, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III.

WEYERHAEUSER COMPANY > 2022 ANNUAL REPORT AND FORM 10-K

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I

 

PAGE

ITEM 1.

OUR BUSINESS

1

 

WE CAN TELL YOU MORE

1

 

WHO WE ARE

1

 

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE (ESG) PRACTICES

2

 

WHAT WE DO

9

 

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

25

 

NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

26

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

30

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

31

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

41

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

42

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

42

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES — NOT APPLICABLE

 

PART II

 

 

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

42

ITEM 6.

[RESERVED] — NOT APPLICABLE

 

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (MD&A)

43

 

ECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS AFFECTING OUR OPERATIONS

44

 

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

45

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

46

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

51

 

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS, LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AND OTHER CONTINGENCIES

54

 

ACCOUNTING MATTERS

54

 

PERFORMANCE MEASURES

56

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

58

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

59

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

59

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS

60

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

61

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET

62

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS

63

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

64

 

INDEX FOR NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

65

 

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

66

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL
DISCLOSURE — NOT APPLICABLE

 

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

100

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION — NOT APPLICABLE

 

ITEM 9C.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS — NOT APPLICABLE

 

PART III

 

 

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

102

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION

102

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED
STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

102

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

102

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

102

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

102

 

EXHIBITS

103

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY — NOT APPLICABLE

 

 

SIGNATURES

106

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

OUR BUSINESS

Weyerhaeuser Company is one of the world's largest private owners of timberlands. We own or control 10.6 million acres of timberlands in the U.S. and manage an additional 14.1 million acres of timberlands under long-term licenses in Canada. We manage these timberlands on a sustainable basis in compliance with internationally recognized forestry standards. Our objective is to maximize the long-term value of timberlands we own. We analyze each timberland acre comprehensively to understand its highest-value use. We realize this value in many ways, most notably through growing and harvesting the trees, but also by selling properties when we can create incremental value. In addition, we focus on opportunities to realize value through lease and royalty agreements for the surface and subsurface rights that exist in our ownership.

We are also one of the largest manufacturers of wood products in North America. We manufacture and distribute high-quality wood products, including structural lumber, oriented strand board, engineered wood products and other specialty products. These products are primarily supplied to the residential, multi-family, repair and remodel, industrial and light commercial markets. We operate 35 manufacturing facilities in the United States and Canada.

Sustainability and citizenship are part of our core values. Our sustainably managed forests and our wood products play a critical role in mitigating climate change, and our carbon record shows that our net impact is significantly carbon negative. In addition to practicing sustainable forestry, we focus on energy and resource efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, conserving natural resources and offering sustainable products that meet our customers' needs. We operate with world-class safety results, actively support the communities in which we operate and communicate transparently with our investors and other stakeholders. We are recognized for our leading performance in the areas of ethics, citizenship and gender equality.

This portion of our Annual Report on Form 10-K provides detailed information about who we are and what we do. Unless otherwise specified, current information reported in this Form 10-K is as of or for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. Throughout this Form 10-K, unless specified otherwise, references to “we,” “our,” “us” and “the company” refer to the consolidated company. We break out financial information such as revenues, earnings and assets by the business segments that comprise our company. We also discuss the geographic areas where we do business.

 

 

WE CAN TELL YOU MORE

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

We meet the information reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by filing periodic reports (annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q), current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). These reports and statements, which contain information about our company’s business, financial results, corporate governance and other matters, as well as amendments to these reports and statements, are available at:

 

the SEC website — www.sec.gov and

our website (free of charge) — www.weyerhaeuser.com.

 

When we file or furnish information electronically with the SEC, it is also posted to our website.

 

 

WHO WE ARE

 

We were incorporated as Weyerhaeuser Timber Company in the state of Washington in January 1900, when Frederick Weyerhaeuser and 15 partners bought 900 thousand acres of timberland. Today, we are working to be the world's premier timber, land and forest products company for our shareholders, customers and employees.

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUST (REIT)

Weyerhaeuser Company is a REIT and REIT income can be distributed to shareholders without first paying corporate level tax, substantially eliminating the double taxation on income. We also own timberland assets through a subsidiary, Weyerhaeuser Timber Holdings, Inc., which qualifies as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (IRC), for tax years beginning 2022. We expect to derive most of our REIT income from our timberlands, including gains from the sales of our standing timber and rent from recreational leases. We are required to pay federal corporate income taxes on earnings of our Taxable REIT Subsidiaries (TRSs), which include our Wood Products segment and a portion of our Timberlands and Real Estate, Energy and Natural Resources segments.

 

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OUR BUSINESS SEGMENTS

In our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) section you will find discussion of our overall performance results for our business segments, which are as follows:

 

Timberlands;

Real Estate, Energy and Natural Resources (Real Estate & ENR) and

Wood Products.

 

Detailed financial information about our business segments and our geographic locations is provided in Note 2: Business Segments and Note 21: Geographic Areas.

EFFECT OF MARKET CONDITIONS

The health of the U.S. housing market strongly affects the performance of all our business segments. Our Wood Products segment primarily sells into the new residential building and repair and remodel markets. Demand for sawlogs within our Timberlands segment is directly affected by domestic production of wood-based building products as well as export markets. Seasonal weather patterns impact the level of construction activity in the U.S., generally characterized by a reduction in activity during the winter months, which in turn affects the demand for our logs and wood products. Our Real Estate, Energy and Natural Resources segment is affected by a variety of factors, including the general state of the economy, local real estate market conditions, the level of construction activity in the U.S., and the evolution of emerging renewable energy and carbon-related markets.

COMPETITION IN OUR MARKETS

We operate in highly competitive domestic and foreign markets, with numerous companies selling similar products. Many of our products also face competition from substitutes for wood products. We compete in our markets primarily through product quality, service levels and price. We are relentlessly focused on operational excellence, producing quality products customers want and are willing to pay for, at the lowest possible cost.

Our business segments’ competitive strategies are as follows:

 

Timberlands — Capture maximum timber value from every acre we own or manage.

Real Estate & ENR — Deliver premiums to timberland value by identifying and monetizing higher and better use lands and capturing the full value of surface and subsurface assets.

Wood Products — Manufacture high-quality structural lumber, oriented strand board and engineered wood products, as well as deliver complementary building products for residential, multi-family, industrial and light commercial applications at competitive costs.

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE (ESG) PRACTICES

 

Sustainability is one of the core values of our company and has been for over 100 years. We have spent decades building a solid foundation characterized by excellence in environmental stewardship, social responsibility and corporate governance. Maintaining a strong ESG foundation is a key component of our ability to drive long-term shareholder value, and these principles guide us in how we conduct our business every day. We successfully integrated sustainability into our business roadmaps, enabling employees across business lines to identify key sustainability levers and clearly see how their day-to-day work impacts our overall performance.

ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP

As a pioneer in sustainable forestry, we have environmental stewardship deeply rooted in our business and very much at the core of our company. To operate successfully, we need our forests to provide a sustainable supply of wood fiber now and long into the future. To ensure our forests remain healthy and valuable for decades to come, we protect and enhance the many additional benefits they provide, such as clean water, clean air, and critical areas for biodiversity. We also minimize our environmental footprint in our wood products manufacturing business, including reducing air emissions, minimizing waste and maximizing wood recovery. These actions are smart for our business, good for the environment and essential to how we run our operations sustainably.

PRACTICING SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY

As one of the world’s oldest and largest private timberland owners, we’ve been growing, harvesting and regrowing forests for more than a century. Our goal is to ensure a sustainable supply of wood for our customers, while protecting the other important benefits forests provide. We know forests can be managed on a sustainable basis indefinitely, and we have been proving it is possible for a very long time. We advocated for legislation in 1925 to encourage reforestation after harvest, which was an uncommon practice at the time. In 1937, we began research into sustainable yield forestry, which ensures harvesting does not diminish the forest’s ability to provide the same volume in the future. In 1938, we were one of the first companies to plant tree seedlings, and in 1941 we established the first certified tree farm in the U.S. We harvest, on

 

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average, only two percent of our forests each year, and 100 percent of our timberlands are reforested after harvesting. On average, we plant 130 to 150 million tree seedlings per year, which equates to about 250 trees planted per minute throughout the year.

CARBON RECORD

We are dedicated to maintaining a leadership position within our sector in the area of climate-related disclosures. In 2021, we reached a significant milestone in publishing our inaugural carbon record, which provides details of the total carbon impact enabled by our forests and wood products. Our carbon record shows that our net impact is significantly carbon negative, meaning we remove substantially more carbon from the atmosphere than we emit each year.

In total, our carbon emissions in 2021 were 7.4 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (mtCO2e), 0.9 million mtCO2e scope 1 and scope 2 emissions primarily attributable to fuel usage and purchased electricity within our Wood Products mills and 6.5 million mtCO2e scope 3 emissions primarily generated by customers who purchase our wood fiber and emissions associated with the products and services we buy. Our scope 1 and scope 2 emissions are calculated in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol's Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. In 2022, we obtained limited assurance for our 2020 and 2021 scope 1 and location-based scope 2 emissions from a third-party attestation provider. Our scope 3 emissions are calculated in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol's Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard.

Our sustainably managed forests play a critical role in helping to mitigate climate change. As our millions of acres of forests grow, they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in their trunks, limbs and roots, as well as in the soil. In 2021, our carbon removals totaled approximately 35 million mtCO2e. This was comprised of 14 million mtCO2e of direct carbon removals from our U.S. timberlands (the increase in above-ground carbon attributable to forest growth and management practices after we account for harvest and mortality) and an additional 21 million mtCO2e of scope 3 removals across our value chain (primarily carbon stored in our own long-lived wood products and products that our customers make from our logs).

In 2021, our forests contained between 2.3 billion and 3.6 billion mtCO2e. Approximately 1.0 billion mtCO2e was stored in our trees and roots, and an additional 1.3 billion to 2.6 billion mtCO2e was stored in soil and other biomass. After our trees are harvested, much of their carbon remains stored in the long-lived wood products made from them for the life of those products. After harvest, we plant millions more trees, which immediately begin absorbing more CO2 from the atmosphere, and the next round of wood products store more carbon yet again. Our managed forests also provide other climate benefits. They mature more quickly and are able to bank more carbon through faster, continuous rotations, all while maintaining the vast pool of carbon in the forest soil. In addition, using wood for construction requires less energy and results in fewer greenhouse gas emissions compared with other building materials, such as steel and concrete.

We have a science-based greenhouse gas emissions reduction target that has been approved by the Science Based Targets initiative at the most ambitious level, in alignment with the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degree Celsius. Our target includes a commitment to reduce our scope 1 and 2 emissions by 42 percent overall, and our scope 3 emissions by 25 percent per ton of production, both by 2030, measured against a 2020 baseline. In 2022, we also joined The Climate Pledge, committing to achieve net-zero carbon emissions across our value chain by 2040. We expect to achieve these targets primarily through energy efficiency projects, increased renewable energy usage and supplier engagement. As companies across our value chain work to reduce their emissions, which many of them are already doing or have committed to do, we expect our scope 3 emissions to decrease over time.

MAKING BETTER ENERGY CHOICES

In 2022, we committed to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Plants Program to improve energy efficiency at our manufacturing facilities by 10 percent between 2020 and 2030. This partnership requires us to adopt a company-wide goal to improve energy efficiency, annually report our progress to the DOE and develop an energy management plan. We developed a comprehensive wood products energy strategy and have begun implementation of this strategy by developing short-term action plans, evaluation tools and energy champions at all sites. We also fully integrated greenhouse gas and energy metrics into capital planning processes and conducted energy audits at multiple manufacturing sites. On average, we meet more than 70 percent of our energy needs in our manufacturing facilities from renewable biomass by using what would otherwise be wood waste from mill manufacturing residuals to create our own energy. This approach allows us to reduce our reliance on nonrenewable fossil fuels and purchased electricity. We also support other renewable energy solutions, such as wind and solar power, through our timberlands. In addition, we also supply other mills, companies and utilities with woody biomass that is used to produce renewable, carbon-neutral energy.

PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY

The forests we manage host hundreds of native vertebrate species, including large mammals such as deer, elk, cougar, black bear and bobcat, as well as a tremendous diversity of birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, native fish and other aquatic species. Many of these species prefer different forest age classes and forest structures, or other habitat features on the landscape, such as riparian areas. Since our timberlands contain a matrix of forest stand ages, along with other special areas we protect around streams and wetlands, these forests support a high level of native biodiversity. To preserve and protect this balance, we regularly conduct biodiversity assessments across our forests as part of our ongoing stewardship and forest management operations. These assessments include analyzing species occurrence data and assessing the presence of threatened, endangered, critically imperiled, imperiled and other regionally significant species. Conducting biodiversity assessments across our land base gives us necessary insights to help design and implement best practices for habitat conservation and species protection throughout the course of our forest management activities. These practices include leaving buffers along riparian areas, surveying sites for

 

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species occurrences prior to harvesting and thinning activities, managing for specific habitat using prescribed burns or thinning harvests, or refraining from harvesting during certain sensitive times.

IMPROVING CONSERVATION OUTCOMES

Ensuring our forests provide habitat features that support at-risk, sensitive or threatened and endangered species is a core component of our environmental stewardship. We pursue a number of programs to create and preserve critical habitat, including partnering on conservation easements and agreements, formal Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) with the U.S. federal government and mitigation banking. Conservation easements and other local agreements can assure sustainable forest practices and the long-term stewardship and protection of wildlife habitat, biodiversity and recreational access. These partnerships can be made with a variety of groups and organizations, and they allow natural resource management to continue, which helps protect the economic benefits of a working forest. HCPs are administered under the federal Endangered Species Act and help provide more specific guidance on the protection and enhancement of habitats for threatened and endangered species. We currently participate in HCPs and other conservation agreements in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Vermont and Washington. Authorized through the U.S. Clean Water Act, mitigation banking allows us to set aside certain areas of our timberlands to preserve, enhance or restore a wetland, stream or habitat area to make up for development by another entity in a similar nearby ecosystem. Mitigation banks are regulated and approved by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and a consortium of federal, state and local agencies. We currently operate 14 mitigation banks and projects, primarily in the U.S. South. Several other projects are in various stages of evaluation and development. Overall, we currently have approximately 4 million acres invested in these various conservation programs in our Northern, Southern and Western Timberlands, and we are always looking for new opportunities and partnerships to expand our impact.

CONTRIBUTING TO CLEAN WATER

Our forests are critical for providing clean water to communities in our watersheds. The trees, plants and soil absorb rain and snowmelt, allowing our forests to capture and slowly release clean water into the many streams, rivers and groundwater systems on our lands. Our sustainable forestry practices help us maintain our forests' ability to capture and filter water, ensuring our harvesting methods safeguard water quality for people, fish and countless other organisms. Because our forests rely on rainwater to grow, our company’s measurable impact on water use is limited to our Wood Products manufacturing sites and offices, where water is either recycled or treated on-site, evaporated while products are drying or delivered to a local, publicly-owned treatment facility.

MINIMIZING WASTE

On average, 95 percent of each log that enters our mills is turned into a useful product. The primary products we produce are solid lumber, wood panels and engineered wood products. Wood shavings, sawdust, chips and bark are sold or delivered to downstream customers who make other useful and essential products for society. Toilet paper, diapers, paper, cartons, boxes, bags, landscaping mulch and wood pellets are just a few of the countless products made from our wood fiber and forest and mill by-products. We are always looking for ways to reduce the amount of waste we generate, including finding responsible methods for reuse and recycling. On average, we reuse, recycle or repurpose 99 percent of potential waste in our operations. That is equal to approximately 12 billion pounds of material each year that otherwise would have found its way to a landfill.

VERIFYING WITH CERTIFICATION

To prove our forest management and wood fiber procurement practices are sustainable, we participate in independent certification programs for forest management, fiber sourcing and chain of custody. Our entire timberland portfolio is certified to the Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI) Forest Management Standard. That compares with only 11 percent of the world's forests that are certified today (the vast majority of these certified forests are in the Northern Hemisphere). Internationally recognized forest certification standards, such as SFI, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFCTM), the American Tree Farm System® (ATFS), and the Forest Stewardship Council®, provide customers and stakeholders with an objective, third-party determination of whether companies are implementing sustainable forestry practices and making products that come from legal and well-managed sources. We are vocal supporters of the importance of these standards and the use of independent, third-party audits to verify compliance and promote sustainable forestry around the world. At Weyerhaeuser, we choose to certify our timberlands and operations to SFI’s standards because they are strong, science-based standards that have effectively pushed forestry in a more sustainable direction. These standards are designed specifically for operations in North America, and we value SFI’s collaborative approach, especially around logger training and the requirement to invest in and apply research back into our operations. In addition to our forests, we certify all of our manufacturing facilities to the SFI Fiber Sourcing Standard, and select sites are certified to the SFI and PEFC Chain of Custody standards.

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Throughout our long history, social responsibility has been an integral part of how we do business. Our company needs diverse, talented workers to grow, innovate and thrive with us for decades to come. Because we depend so much on our people, we have a responsibility to do everything we can to create a safe, inclusive work environment where employees are proud to spend their entire careers. We also need strong communities around us, filled with people who trust and support our work.

 

 

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OUR PEOPLE BY THE NUMBERS

As of December 31, 2022, we employed 9,264 employees, including 7,906 in the United States, 1,347 in Canada, and 11 in Japan. Of these employees, 2,366 are members of unions covered by multi-year collective-bargaining agreements.

Our employees by business segment were as follows:

 

SEGMENT

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Timberlands

1,276

Real Estate & ENR

61

Wood Products

7,145

Corporate

782

Total

9,264

SAFETY

Safety is a core value at Weyerhaeuser, which means safety comes first in everything we do. We are deeply committed to eliminating serious and fatal injuries, and to ultimately achieving an injury-free workplace. Our industry-leading safety results are driven by:

 

caring leadership with a safety-focused “tone at the top”;

robust safety policies and practices;

engaged employees with regular safety training and education and

a strong company-wide focus on identifying and reducing hazards and risks.

 

We regularly review safety incidents, risk-identification reports and “near-miss” incidents and apply key learnings across our organization. Our efforts have resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in the number and severity of recordable injuries. This includes a drop in our Recordable Incident Rate, which is the number of Occupational Safety and Health Administration-defined recordable injuries and illnesses that occur per 100 workers working in one year, from 10 in 1990 to 1.62 in 2022.

PEOPLE DEVELOPMENT

Developing people is a core component of our sustainable business model, and we focus a great deal of energy and resources on training, coaching and career planning. We also connect key human capital management priorities, such as succession planning, leadership development and critical role placement, with our executive compensation programs by including these and related priorities in our senior executives’ annual cash bonus plan goals. To support our people development objectives we:

 

partner with our employees on individual development plans and provide a wide range of individual development tools;

annually enroll hundreds of our front-line, mid-level and executive leaders (future and current) in development programs;

engage in rigorous internal talent assessment and succession planning and

monitor and regularly review our strategies and action plans to address any workforce gaps in our organization, including gender, race and other underrepresented groups.

 

We also believe in the 70-20-10 approach to professional growth. This model acknowledges that at least 70 percent of development occurs on the job through direct experience and skill building. Another 20 percent comes from focused relationship building and exposure to projects, processes and perspectives outside one’s normal expertise. The final 10 percent is focused on targeted training courses and development programs that help our employees achieve their own specific career goals. We offer three classroom-based leadership development programs that focus on helping current and future leaders build their skills. In 2022, about 275 of our leaders participated in these programs. In addition, we expanded our online training offerings, which are accessible to all employees to take in support of their career development, and we offered a variety of virtually facilitated trainings on a range of topics to multiple teams. In 2022, our employees logged over 38,400 hours of training in our online learning management system, which tracks both virtual and classroom courses delivered.

DIVERSITY, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

Inclusion is a core value at Weyerhaeuser. Our senior management team and board of directors regularly review our diversity, equity and inclusion strategy and goals, which are focused on creating an inclusive environment, ensuring our policies and practices are equitable, and improving representation where we have gaps. To achieve this, we are focused on three key areas: leadership, people and culture. We have in place an Inclusion Council of 25 diverse employees from across our company and a dedicated director of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I) who works with our leaders to set annual goals, review our progress and adjust our approach to meet evolving best practices. The Council and our DE&I director provide insights and ideas to our senior management team, and they are actively engaged in helping us build an inclusive culture at all levels of the company. Our practices for achieving and maintaining a diverse, equitable and inclusive workplace include:

 

“no tolerance” policies regarding discrimination and harassment of employees, suppliers, customers and visitors;

recurrent reviews of pay equity and addressing of gaps;

 

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paid parental leave for all employees;

masked names on resumes and diverse hiring teams;

training on unconscious bias and harassment prevention;

inclusive leadership training integrated into our development programs;

employee-led resource groups;

ongoing company-wide communication on the importance of inclusion and

regular company-wide surveys and other means of anonymously collecting candid feedback to assist us in evaluating our inclusive culture and addressing any identified gaps.

 

In response to feedback surveys conducted for 2022, 82 percent of all employees agreed their work environment is inclusive. We publish our Employment Information Report (EEO-1) summary data in the sustainability section of our website.

 

We will continue to closely monitor evolving best practices and will make adjustments to our approach as we think necessary and appropriate.

COMPANY CULTURE

We consider our strong company culture to be a competitive advantage. We are intentional in our efforts to preserve the key positives of our workplace environment, as well as continuously improve and evolve our culture. At the heart of our culture is an unwavering commitment to our core values — safety, integrity, citizenship, sustainability and inclusion. These values are cited often by our employees and are visible throughout our organization. We also embrace five key behaviors that shape our culture and guide how we work together — urgency, accountability, courage, simplicity and innovation. To assess the health of our culture, we conduct regular company-wide surveys to collect candid feedback from employees and assess overall engagement. In 2022, we conducted an engagement survey of all employees, and our response rate was 75 percent. Our overall engagement favorability score from this group was 86 percent and our average favorability score on questions about the strength of our values was 84 percent. Another indicator we monitor to assess the strength of our company culture is voluntary turnover, which was 14 percent in 2022.

COMPETITIVE PAY & BENEFITS

We offer competitive compensation and benefits packages based on experience, knowledge and skill level that are designed to attract and retain talented employees and reward superior performance. Some of our benefits include paid parental leave for all employees, company match for retirement plans, comprehensive medical and dental coverage and paid time off.

SUPPORTING OUR COMMUNITIES

We operate in rural communities across North America, and we are proud to invest our time and money to help ensure they are thriving places to live and work. In 2022, we provided $5.6 million in charitable grants, in-kind donations and sponsorships in our communities, and our employees volunteered over 14,600 hours of their time to causes they care about. Through our company-wide employee giving platform, we provide an easy way for all employees to donate to charities using payroll deduction, and we offer company match programs for both employee donations and volunteerism hours.

PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Drawing on more than a century of experience in sustainable forestry, we share our story and expertise through tours of our forests and facilities across North America, and we also operate two centers that are open to the public and provide a range of experiential opportunities to learn about forestry, ecology and environmental issues. In Washington, our Mount St. Helens Forest Learning Center is full of exhibits that tell the story of Mount St. Helens and the return of the forest through interactive, hands-on activities and visual displays. In North Carolina, our Cool Springs Environmental Education Center offers a 1,700-acre working forest and outdoor classroom for visitors to explore forestry working in harmony with wildlife habitat, air quality, water quality and recreational activities.

STRONG GOVERNANCE

Our corporate governance practices and policies promote the long-term interests of our shareholders, strengthen the accountability of our board of directors and management and help build public trust in our company. Our governance framework is built on a foundation of written policies and guidelines that align with the principles set out in the corporate governance framework established by the Investor Stewardship Group, or ISG, for U.S.-listed companies. We modify and enhance our policies and guidelines on a continuous basis to reflect best practices and feedback from our shareholders.

BOARD COMPOSITION AND INDEPENDENCE

Our corporate governance guidelines and the listing requirements of the New York Stock Exchange require that a majority of the board be comprised of independent directors. Our current board composition far exceeds this requirement, as eight of our nine directors are independent, with the one exception being our chief executive officer. Four of our board members are women, including one woman of color, and we have appointed seven new directors to our board since 2015. Our board has chosen to separate the positions of board chair and chief executive officer, which strengthens the board’s independent oversight of the company’s performance and governance standards. All of our directors stand for election annually, and we have a majority voting standard in uncontested elections. The board has regular executive sessions of independent

 

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directors, and the Audit, Compensation, and Governance and Corporate Responsibility Committees are all composed solely of independent directors.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

Our compensation program is designed to reflect a strong pay-for-performance alignment that will result in superior financial results and create long-term value for shareholders. The Compensation Committee completes a risk assessment of the company’s compensation program on an annual basis and also reviews the program and considers feedback from shareholders to ensure that compensation is appropriately linked to performance against company strategy and is aligned with the interests of our shareholders. Some of our leading compensation practices include “double trigger” accelerated vesting of our long-term incentive equity awards upon a change in control, a “clawback” policy for recovery of incentive compensation in the event of a restatement of the financial or operating results of the company or one of our business segments, no executive perquisites other than limited relocation-related benefits and security services (when necessary), significant weighting of pay tied to performance-based compensation, significant portion of compensation in the form of equity awards with multi-year vesting, and balanced focus on both long-term strategic and financial objectives and shorter-term business objectives.

SHARE OWNERSHIP REQUIREMENTS

We have share ownership requirements for our executive officers and directors that require each of them to hold a multiple of his or her base salary (or cash compensation) in shares of Weyerhaeuser stock. The minimum holding requirement is 6x base salary for our chief executive officer, 2x base salary for our senior vice presidents, and 5x annual cash retainer for our non-employee directors. Until the required ownership levels are achieved, executives must retain 75 percent of the net profit shares acquired when restricted stock units (RSUs) and performance share units (PSUs) vest. Net profit shares are shares remaining after payment of taxes upon vesting. A director may sell shares issuable upon vesting of RSUs only for purposes of paying the taxes due upon vesting but must otherwise hold 100 percent of the net shares granted to him or her until the ownership requirement has been satisfied. Our Compensation Committee monitors and confirms that our directors and officers are in compliance with these requirements. Additionally, we have an anti-hedging and trading policy which prohibits our directors, executive officers, and employees who report directly to our executive officers from hedging their ownership of the company’s stock. The policy also prohibits directors and executive officers from pledging company stock, engaging in any short sales of company stock or trading company stock on margin.

CODE OF ETHICS

Integrity is a core value at Weyerhaeuser. We have a strong culture of ethics and integrity at every level of our company. Since our founding in 1900, we have consistently been recognized for our ethical business practices, compliance and high standards. In 2022, we were named for the 13th time as one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies® by Ethisphere Institute, a global leader in defining and advancing the standards of ethical business practices. Our Code of Ethics applies to all employees and members of our board, and it is an expression of our commitment and shared responsibility to conduct our business affairs ethically with stakeholders, including employees, communities, customers, suppliers, contractors and shareholders. Our employees also participate in regular compliance and ethics training, role-model and promote ethical behavior, and are instructed on how to communicate concerns of unethical behavior.

SHAREHOLDER ENGAGEMENT

We believe that maintaining regular and active dialogue with our shareholders is important for effective corporate governance as well as to our commitment to deliver sustainable, long-term value to our shareholders. We engage with our shareholders on a variety of topics throughout the year to ensure we are addressing questions and concerns, to seek input and to provide perspective on our policies and practices. Shareholder feedback is regularly reviewed and considered by the board and its committees and is reflected in adjustments and enhancements to our policies and practices. We remain committed to investing time with our shareholders to maintain transparency and to better understand their views on key issues.

SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

Shareholder Proxy Access

Our company Bylaws allow eligible shareholders to nominate candidates to the board of directors who are included in the company’s proxy statement and ballot. This process for inclusion of shareholder nominees in the proxy statement is in addition to previously existing Bylaw provisions that allow shareholders to nominate directors to the board without access to the company’s proxy statement.

Policy on Shareholder Approval of Rights Plans

Our board of directors maintains a shareholder rights plan policy that requires the board to obtain shareholder approval prior to adopting any shareholder rights plan. However, the board may act on its own to adopt a shareholder rights plan if a majority of the independent directors,

 

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exercising their fiduciary duties under Washington law, determine that such submission to shareholders would not be in the best interests of shareholders under the circumstances.

Shareholders' Right to Call Meetings

Our company Bylaws provide that special meetings of our shareholders may be called by shareholders representing at least 25 percent of the company’s outstanding shares if certain notice and other procedural requirements are followed and if the board determines that the matters of business to be brought before the meeting are appropriate for shareholder action under applicable law.

DISCIPLINED RISK MANAGEMENT

Making the right decisions for our business requires understanding risk. We use disciplined processes to manage our risks, which include, among other areas, environmental, safety, social, legal, operational and public-policy risks so our leaders and employees can make safe and informed decisions. Our enterprise risk management group evaluates the likelihood of various risks and determines the potential magnitude of impact to our company. The analysis is conducted under the guidance of our chief compliance officer, who reports to our senior vice president and general counsel and our Governance and Corporate Responsibility Committee, with assistance from other members of the management team, and is reviewed by our board of directors. We also conduct internal audits regularly to ensure compliance with environmental, safety, financial, disclosure and other regulations; voluntary standards; and our own company policies. When noncompliance issues are identified, we develop, implement and track corrective action plans to ensure timely resolution. An independent public accounting firm audits our accounting processes, financial reporting and internal controls on an ongoing basis. We also focus on managing cybersecurity risk through a program that includes information security training, systems testing, testing and audit of our IT controls, and alignment of our program with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (see further discussion in the Cybersecurity section below). We also maintain and regularly update other company policies that guide our business, inform our employees and help manage our identified risks, including the following: Anti-Bribery Policy; Anti-Discrimination, Anti-Harassment and Equal Employment Opportunity Policy; Chemical Management Policy; Code of Ethics; Environmental Policy; Health and Safety Policy; Human Rights Policy; Product Stewardship Policy; Supplier Code of Ethics; Sustainable Forestry Policy; Threatened and Endangered Species Policy; and Wood Procurement Policy.

CYBERSECURITY

Our risk management program includes focused efforts on managing cybersecurity risk, including the following:

A robust information security training program that requires all company employees with access to our networks to participate in regular and mandatory training on how to be aware of, and help defend against, cyber risks, combined with periodic testing to measure the efficacy of our training efforts.

Alignment of our program with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework to prevent, detect and respond to cyberattacks.

Ongoing adoption of a “zero trust” cybersecurity model.

Regular and robust testing of our systems to assess our vulnerability to cyber risk, which includes targeted penetration testing, tabletop incident response exercises, periodic audits of our systems by outside industry experts and regular vulnerability scanning.

Testing and audits of our IT-related internal controls over financial reporting by our independent external auditors.

A formal vendor risk assessment process to ensure any vendors with information access have appropriate security measures and practices in place.

Business continuity plans and critical recovery backup systems.

Insurance for damage to property caused by a cyberattack.

Members of management, including our chief information officer and our chief information security officer, regularly report on the company’s cybersecurity matters to both the Audit Committee of the board of directors and the full board, which has primary oversight responsibility in this area, as follows:

Our cybersecurity program and risks are specifically discussed at least three times per year (including as part of our discussions regarding enterprise risk management).

Our internal audit function’s reviews of our information security programs and controls are included in quarterly reports to the Audit Committee.

Current information security issues that arise during the year are discussed throughout the year if potentially significant to the company and are discussed with our chairman and Audit Committee chair between board meetings as appropriate.

We also manage cybersecurity risk by limiting our threat landscape. For example, we do not store, transmit or process many of the types of data commonly targeted in cyberattacks, such as consumer credit card or financial information, nor do we store or maintain significant proprietary data on our systems. Moreover, our businesses do not involve or represent national infrastructure, the likes of which are common targets of cyber attackers (e.g., energy, oil & gas, transportation, communications, banking and financial systems, etc.). We recognize that cyber threats are a permanent part of the risk landscape and that new threats are constantly evolving. For these and other reasons, cybersecurity is a top risk management priority at Weyerhaeuser.

 

 

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PARTICIPATING IN PUBLIC POLICY

Our ethical and transparent involvement in public policy includes coalition and relationship building, advocacy, political contributions and grassroots activities. As active members of our communities, we participate in the political process to help shape policy and legislation affecting our company and industry and do so without regard to the private political preferences of executives. All political contributions are managed by our government affairs team. Public policy and legislative priorities are reviewed annually with senior business leaders, our board of directors and our Governance and Corporate Responsibility Committee. We follow both the letter and the spirit of the laws governing lobbying. Our managers receive regular training on current laws and practices, and we work fairly and honestly with public officials at all levels. Some states allow companies to contribute directly to campaigns for state and local offices and for ballot measures. We file these contributions as required at state and local levels. We also sponsor a U.S. Weyerhaeuser Political Action Committee (WPAC), which solicits voluntary contributions from eligible shareholders, employees and our board of directors. WPAC contribution reports are filed with the Federal Election Commission, and we provide a summary of our annual WPAC political donations in the sustainability section of our website.

 

 

WHAT WE DO

 

This section provides information about how we:

 

grow and harvest trees,

maximize the value of every acre we own and

manufacture and sell wood products.

 

For each of our business segments, we provide details about what we do, where we do it, how much we sell and where we are headed.

TIMBERLANDS

Our Timberlands segment manages 10.6 million acres of private commercial timberlands in the U.S. We own 9.8 million of those acres and control the remaining acres through long-term contracts. In addition, we have renewable, long-term licenses on 14.1 million acres of Canadian timberlands.

WHAT WE DO

Forestry Management

Our Timberlands segment:

 

plants seedlings to reforest harvested areas using the most effective regeneration method for the site and species (natural regeneration is employed and managed in parts of Canada and the northern U.S.);

manages our timberlands as the trees grow to maturity;

harvests trees to be converted into wood products, such as lumber, pellets, pulp and paper;

manages the health of our forests to sustainably maximize harvest volumes, minimize risks, and protect unique environmental, cultural, historical and recreational value and

offer recreational access.

 

We seek to maximize the returns from our timberlands by selling delivered logs and through stumpage sales to both internal and external customers. We leverage our expertise in forestry using research and planning systems to optimize log production and innovative planting and harvesting techniques across varying terrain. We use intensive, customized silviculture to increase forest productivity and returns while managing our forests on a sustainable basis. We use our scale, infrastructure and supply chain expertise to deliver reliable and consistent supply to our customers.

Competitive factors within each of our market areas generally include price, species, grade, quality, proximity to wood-consuming facilities and the ability to consistently meet customer requirements. We compete in the marketplace through our ability to provide customers with a consistent and reliable supply of high-quality logs at scale volumes and competitive prices. Our customers also value our status as a SFI certified supplier.

Sustainable Forestry Practices

We manage our forests intensively to maximize the value of every acre and produce a sustainable supply of wood fiber for our customers. At the same time, we are careful to protect biological diversity, water quality and other ecosystem values. Our working forests also provide unique environmental, cultural, historical and recreational value. We work hard to protect these and other qualities, while still managing our forests to produce financially mature timber. We follow regulatory requirements, voluntary standards and certify 100 percent of our North American timberlands under the SFI Forest Management Standard.

 

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Canadian Forestry Operations

In Canada, we manage timberlands under long-term licenses that serve as the primary source of raw material for our manufacturing facilities in various provinces. When we harvest trees, we pay the provinces at stumpage rates set by the government. We transfer logs to our manufacturing facilities at cost and do not generate any significant profit from the harvest of timber from our licensed acres in Canada.

Timberlands Products

 

PRODUCTS

HOW THEY’RE USED

Delivered logs:

• Grade logs

• Fiber logs

Grade logs are made into lumber, plywood, veneer and other products used in residential homes, commercial structures, furniture, industrial and decorative applications. Fiber logs are sold to pulp, paper and oriented strand board mills to make products used for printing, writing, packaging, homebuilding and consumer products, as well as into renewable energy and pellets.

Timber

Standing timber is sold to third parties through stumpage sales.

Recreational leases

Timberlands are leased or permitted for recreational purposes.

Other products

Seed and seedlings grown in the U.S. and wood chips.

 

HOW WE MEASURE OUR PRODUCTS

We use multiple units of measure when transacting business including:

 

Thousand board feet (MBF) — used in the West to measure the expected lumber recovery from a tree or log and
Green tons (GT) — used in the South to measure weight; factors used for conversion to product volume can vary by species, size, location and season.

 

We report Timberlands volumes in ton equivalents.

WHERE WE DO IT

As of December 31, 2022, we sustainably managed timberlands in 17 states. This included owned or contracted acres in the following locations:

 

2.5 million acres in the western U.S. (Oregon and Washington);
6.8 million acres in the southern U.S. (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia) and
1.2 million acres in the northern U.S. (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and West Virginia).

 

In Canada, we manage timberlands under long-term licenses that provide raw material for our manufacturing facilities. These licenses are in Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Saskatchewan.

Our total timber inventory — including timber on owned and contracted land — is approximately 589 million tons. This timber inventory does not translate into a specific amount of lumber or panel products because the quantity of end products varies according to the age, species, size and quality of the timber and will change over time as these variables adjust.

We maintain our timber inventory in an integrated resource inventory system and geographic information system (GIS). The resource inventory component of the system is proprietary and is largely based on internally developed methods, including growth and yield models developed by our research and development organization. The GIS component is based on GIS software that is viewed as the standard in our industry.

Timber inventory data collection and verification techniques include the use of industry standard field sampling procedures as well as proprietary remote sensing technologies in some geographies. The data is collected and maintained at the timber stand level.

We also own and operate nurseries and seed orchards in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oregon, South Carolina and Washington.

 

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Summary of 2022 Standing Timber Inventory

 

 

 

MILLIONS OF TONS AT

 

GEOGRAPHIC AREA

 

DECEMBER 31, 2022

 

 

 

TOTAL INVENTORY(1)

 

U.S.:

 

 

 

West

 

 

 

Douglas fir/Cedar

 

 

152

 

Whitewood

 

 

23

 

Hardwood

 

 

13

 

Total West

 

 

188

 

South

 

 

 

Southern yellow pine

 

 

271

 

Hardwood

 

 

86

 

Total South

 

 

357

 

North

 

 

 

Conifer

 

 

18

 

Hardwood

 

 

26

 

Total North

 

 

44

 

Total Company

 

 

589

 

 

(1)
Inventory includes all conservation and non-harvestable areas.

 

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Summary of 2022 Timberland Locations

 

 

 

THOUSANDS OF ACRES AT

 

GEOGRAPHIC AREA

 

DECEMBER 31, 2022

 

 

 

FEE
OWNERSHIP

 

 

LONG-TERM
CONTRACTS

 

 

TOTAL
ACRES
(1)

 

U.S.:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oregon

 

 

1,420

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,420

 

Washington

 

 

1,126

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,126

 

Total West

 

 

2,546

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,546

 

South

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alabama

 

 

447

 

 

 

197

 

 

 

644

 

Arkansas

 

 

1,202

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

1,220

 

Florida

 

 

213

 

 

 

73

 

 

 

286

 

Georgia

 

 

583

 

 

 

48

 

 

 

631

 

Louisiana

 

 

1,006

 

 

 

353

 

 

 

1,359

 

Mississippi

 

 

1,116

 

 

 

36

 

 

 

1,152

 

North Carolina

 

 

635

 

 

 

 

 

 

635

 

Oklahoma

 

 

488

 

 

 

 

 

 

488

 

South Carolina

 

 

274

 

 

 

 

 

 

274

 

Texas

 

 

12

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

14

 

Virginia

 

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

 

120

 

Total South

 

 

6,096

 

 

 

727

 

 

 

6,823

 

North

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maine

 

 

833

 

 

 

 

 

 

833

 

New Hampshire

 

 

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

 

Vermont

 

 

86

 

 

 

 

 

 

86

 

West Virginia

 

 

253

 

 

 

 

 

 

253

 

Total North

 

 

1,196

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,196

 

Total Company

 

 

9,838

 

 

 

727

 

 

 

10,565

 

 

(1)
Acres include all conservation and non-harvestable areas.

We provide a year-round flow of logs to internal and external customers. We sell grade and fiber logs to manufacturers that produce a diverse range of products. We also sell standing timber to third parties and lease land for recreational purposes. Most of our timberlands are strategically located to take advantage of road, logging and transportation systems for efficient delivery of logs to customers.

Western United States

Our Western timberlands are well situated to serve the wood products and pulp markets in Oregon and Washington. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we sold 29 percent of our total Western log sales volume internally. Additionally, our location on the West Coast provides access to higher-value export markets for Douglas fir and whitewood logs to Japan, China and Korea. Our largest export market is Japan, where Douglas fir is the preferred species for higher-valued post and beam homebuilding. The size and quality of our Western timberlands, coupled with their proximity to several deep-water port facilities, competitively positions us to meet the needs of Pacific Rim log markets.

Our holdings are composed primarily of Douglas fir, a species highly valued for its structural strength, stiffness and appearance. Most of our lands are located on the west side of the Cascade Mountain Range with soil and rainfall conditions considered favorable for growing this species. Our standing timber inventory is comprised of 81 percent Douglas fir, 12 percent whitewood and 7 percent hardwood.

Our management systems and supply chain expertise provide us a competitive operating advantage in a number of areas including forestry and research, harvesting, marketing and logistics. Additionally, our scale, diversity of timberlands ownership and infrastructure on the West Coast allow us to consistently and reliably supply logs to our internal and external customers year-round.

We sell recreational use permits covering approximately 2 million acres of our owned Western timberlands.

 

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2022 Western U.S. Inventory by Species

 

img173859016_0.jpg 

 

2022 Western U.S. Inventory by Age / Species

 

img173859016_1.jpg 

 

The average age of timber harvested from our Western timberlands in 2022 was 48 years, excluding salvage volumes. In accordance with our sustainable forestry practices, we harvest and replant an average of 2 percent of our Western acreage each year.

Southern United States

Our Southern timberland ownership, covering 11 states, is well situated to serve domestic wood products and pulp markets, including third-party customers and our own mills. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we sold 22 percent of our total Southern log sales volume internally. Additionally, our Atlantic and Gulf coastal locations position us to serve an emerging Asian log export market. Our standing timber inventory is comprised of 76 percent Southern yellow pine and 24 percent hardwoods.

Operationally, we focus on efficiently harvesting and hauling logs from our ownership and capitalizing on our scale and supply chain expertise to consistently and reliably supply logs to our internal and external customers year-round.

We lease approximately 95 percent of our owned Southern acreage for recreational purposes.

2022 Southern U.S. Inventory by Species

 

img173859016_2.jpg 

 

 

 

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2022 Southern U.S. Inventory by Age / Species

 

img173859016_3.jpg 

 

The average age of timber harvested from our Southern timberlands in 2022 was 29 years. In accordance with our sustainable forestry practices, we harvest and replant an average of 3 percent of our acreage each year in the South.

Northern United States

Our Northern timberlands acres contain a diverse mix of temperate broadleaf hardwoods and mixed conifer species across timberlands located in four states. We grow over 40 species and market over 300 product grades to a diverse mix of customers.

Our large-diameter cherry, red oak and hard maple sawlogs and veneer logs serve domestic and export furniture markets. Our maple and other appearance woods are used in furniture and high-value decorative applications. In addition to high-value hardwood sawlogs, our mix includes hardwood fiber logs for pulp and oriented strand board applications. Hardwood pulpwood is a significant market in the Northern region and we have long-term supply agreements, primarily at market rates, for nearly 95 percent of our hardwood pulp production. Our competitive advantages include a merchandising program to capture the value of the premium hardwood logs.

2022 Northern U.S. Inventory by Species

 

img173859016_4.jpg 

 

2022 Northern U.S. Inventory by Age / Species

 

img173859016_5.jpg 

 

 

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The average age of timber harvested from our Northern timberlands in 2022 was 54 years. Timber harvested in the North is sold predominantly as delivered logs to domestic mills, including our manufacturing facilities. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we sold 6 percent of our total Northern log sales volume internally. In accordance with our sustainable forestry practices, we harvest an average of 1 percent of our acreage each year in the North. Regeneration is predominantly natural, augmented by planting where appropriate.

Canada — Licensed Forestlands

We manage forestlands in Canada under long-term licenses from the provincial governments to secure volume for our manufacturing facilities in various provinces. The provincial governments regulate the volume of timber that may be harvested each year through Annual Allowable Cuts (AAC), which are updated every 10 years. As of December 31, 2022, our AAC by province was:

 

Alberta — 2,221 thousand tons,
British Columbia — 547 thousand tons,
Ontario — 154 thousand tons and
Saskatchewan — 633 thousand tons.

 

When the volume is harvested, we pay the province for that volume at stumpage rates set by the government. The harvested logs are transferred to our manufacturing facilities at cost (stumpage plus harvest, haul and overhead costs less any margin on selling logs to third parties). Any profit from harvesting the log through converting to finished products is recognized at the respective mill in our Wood Products segment.

Summary of License Arrangements

 

 

 

THOUSANDS OF

 

 

 

ACRES AT

 

GEOGRAPHIC AREA

 

DECEMBER 31, 2022

 

 

 

TOTAL ACRES

 

Province:

 

 

 

Alberta

 

 

5,399

 

British Columbia

 

 

1,147

 

Ontario(1)

 

 

2,574

 

Saskatchewan(1)

 

 

4,987

 

Total Canada

 

 

14,107

 

 

(1)
License is managed by partnership.

HOW MUCH WE HARVEST

Our fee harvest volumes are managed sustainably across all regions to ensure the preservation of long-term economic value of the timber and to capture maximum value from the markets. This is accomplished by ensuring annual harvest schedules target financially mature timber and reforestation activities align with the growing of timber through its life cycle to financial maturity.

Five-Year Summary of Timberlands Fee Harvest Volumes

 

FEE HARVEST VOLUMES IN THOUSANDS OF TONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

West(1)

 

 

7,858

 

 

 

8,084

 

 

 

8,542

 

 

 

9,237

 

 

 

9,571

 

South

 

 

24,329

 

 

 

23,304

 

 

 

23,149

 

 

 

26,278

 

 

 

26,708

 

North(2)

 

 

974

 

 

 

1,085

 

 

 

1,226

 

 

 

2,042

 

 

 

2,129

 

Total

 

 

33,161

 

 

 

32,473

 

 

 

32,917

 

 

 

37,557

 

 

 

38,408

 

 

(1)
Western logs are primarily transacted in thousand board feet (MBF) but are converted to ton equivalents for external reporting purposes.
(2)
In November 2019, we sold our Michigan timberlands and in March 2020, we sold our Montana timberlands. Refer to Note 4: Timberland Acquisitions and Divestitures for further information.

 

 

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Five-Year Summary of Timberlands Fee Harvest Volumes — Percentage of Grade and Fiber

 

PERCENTAGE OF GRADE AND FIBER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2022

 

2021

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

West

 

Grade

 

89%

 

92%

 

90%

 

89%

 

90%

 

 

 

Fiber

 

11%

 

8%

 

10%

 

11%

 

10%

 

South

 

Grade

 

45%

 

49%

 

48%

 

49%

 

51%

 

 

 

Fiber

 

55%

 

51%

 

52%

 

51%

 

49%

 

North(1)

 

Grade

 

37%

 

51%

 

49%

 

37%

 

46%