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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 001-35727
Netflix, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware77-0467272
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
121 Albright Way,Los Gatos,California95032
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(408) 540-3700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per shareNFLXNASDAQ Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of March 31, 2024, there were 430,964,991 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001, outstanding.



Table of Contents
 
Page
Part I. Financial Information
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II. Other Information
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.

2

Table of Contents

NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except per share data)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Revenues
$9,370,440 $8,161,503 
Cost of revenues
4,977,073 4,803,625 
Marketing
654,340 555,362 
Technology and development
702,473 687,275 
General and administrative
404,020 400,924 
Operating income
2,632,534 1,714,317 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense
(173,314)(174,239)
Interest and other income (expense)
155,359 (71,204)
Income before income taxes
2,614,579 1,468,874 
Provision for income taxes(282,370)(163,754)
Net income
$2,332,209 $1,305,120 
Earnings per share:
Basic
$5.40 $2.93 
Diluted
$5.28 $2.88 
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding:
Basic
432,090 445,244 
Diluted
441,654 452,417 










See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Net income$2,332,209 $1,305,120 
Other comprehensive income:
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(73,052)25,611 
Cash flow hedges:
Net unrealized gains176,604  
Reclassification of net losses included in net income8,514  
Net change, net of income tax expense of $55 million and $0, respectively
185,118  
Total other comprehensive income112,066 25,611 
Comprehensive income$2,444,275 $1,330,731 























See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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NETFLIX, INC.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
   
Three Months Ended
   
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$2,332,209 $1,305,120 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Additions to content assets(3,728,967)(2,458,666)
Change in content liabilities(189,441)(354,791)
Amortization of content assets3,670,805 3,459,984 
Depreciation and amortization of property, equipment and intangibles87,234 90,335 
Stock-based compensation expense76,345 99,099 
Foreign currency remeasurement loss (gain) on debt(130,801)80,651 
Other non-cash items97,181 120,008 
Deferred income taxes(107,077)(98,782)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Other current assets38,049 (88,522)
Accounts payable(145,265)(89,668)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities251,782 185,299 
Deferred revenue26,515 (2,390)
Other non-current assets and liabilities(66,047)(68,937)
Net cash provided by operating activities2,212,522 2,178,740 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(75,714)(62,019)
Purchases of short-term investments (201,634)
Net cash used in investing activities(75,714)(263,653)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Repayments of debt(400,000) 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock268,881 26,028 
Repurchases of common stock(2,000,000)(400,101)
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(1,825) 
Net cash used in financing activities(2,132,944)(374,073)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash (95,790)26,423 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(91,926)1,567,437 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period 7,118,515 5,170,582 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period $7,026,589 $6,738,019 




See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share and par value data)

As of
   
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$7,024,766 $7,116,913 
Short-term investments20,973 20,973 
Other current assets
2,875,574 2,780,247 
Total current assets
9,921,313 9,918,133 
Content assets, net
31,662,100 31,658,056 
Property and equipment, net
1,501,168 1,491,444 
Other non-current assets
5,743,140 5,664,359 
Total assets
$48,827,721 $48,731,992 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Current content liabilities
$4,436,021 $4,466,470 
Accounts payable
607,348 747,412 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
1,977,428 1,803,960 
Deferred revenue
1,469,484 1,442,969 
Short-term debt
798,936 399,844 
Total current liabilities
9,289,217 8,860,655 
Non-current content liabilities
2,370,692 2,578,173 
Long-term debt
13,217,038 14,143,417 
Other non-current liabilities
2,585,364 2,561,434 
Total liabilities
27,462,311 28,143,679 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 4,990,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023; 430,964,991 and 432,759,584 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
5,489,850 5,145,172 
Treasury stock at cost (19,648,480 and 16,078,268 shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively)
(8,934,056)(6,922,200)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(111,879)(223,945)
Retained earnings
24,921,495 22,589,286 
Total stockholders’ equity
21,365,410 20,588,313 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$48,827,721 $48,731,992 




See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Total stockholders' equity, beginning balances$20,588,313 $20,777,401 
Common stock and additional paid-in capital:
Beginning balances
$5,145,172 $4,637,601 
Issuance of common stock268,333 25,695 
Stock-based compensation expense76,345 99,099 
Ending balances$5,489,850 $4,762,395 
Treasury stock:
Beginning balances
$(6,922,200)$(824,190)
Repurchases of common stock to be held as treasury stock(2,011,856)(404,730)
Ending balances$(8,934,056)$(1,228,920)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss:
Beginning balances
$(223,945)$(217,306)
Other comprehensive income112,066 25,611 
Ending balances$(111,879)$(191,695)
Retained earnings:
Beginning balances$22,589,286 $17,181,296 
Net income
2,332,209 1,305,120 
Ending balances$24,921,495 $18,486,416 
Total stockholders' equity, ending balances
$21,365,410 $21,828,196 





















See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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NETFLIX, INC.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying interim consolidated financial statements of Netflix, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (the “Company”) have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S.”) and are consistent in all material respects with those applied in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on January 26, 2024. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the amortization of content assets and the recognition and measurement of income tax assets and liabilities. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On a regular basis, the Company evaluates the assumptions, judgments and estimates. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The interim financial information is unaudited, but reflects all normal recurring adjustments that are, in the opinion of management, necessary to fairly present the information set forth herein. The interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full year.
The following is provided to update the Company’s significant accounting policies previously described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company uses derivative instruments to manage foreign exchange risk related to its ongoing business operations with the primary objective of reducing earnings and cash flow volatility associated with fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.
The Company recognizes derivative instruments at fair value as either assets (presented in “Other current assets” and “Other non-current assets”) or liabilities (presented in “Accrued expenses and other liabilities'' and “Other non-current liabilities”) on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company classifies derivative instruments in the Level 2 category within the fair value hierarchy.
Cash flow hedges
The Company enters into forward contracts to manage the foreign exchange risk on forecasted revenue transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, as well as the foreign exchange risk on forecasted transactions and firm commitments related to the licensing and production of foreign currency-denominated content assets. These forward contracts are designated as cash flow hedges of foreign currency firm commitments and forecasted transactions and generally have maturities of 24 months or less. The hedging contracts may reduce, but do not entirely eliminate, the effect of foreign currency exchange movements, and the Company may choose not to hedge certain exposures.
The gain or loss on derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges of forecasted foreign currency revenue is initially reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) and reclassified into “Revenues” on the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same period the forecasted transaction affects earnings. The gain or loss on derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges of firmly committed or forecasted transactions related to the licensing and production of content assets is initially reported as a component of AOCI and reclassified into “Cost of Revenues” on the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same period the hedged transaction affects earnings, which occurs as the underlying hedged content assets are amortized. Cash flows from hedging activities are classified in the same category as the cash flows for the underlying item being hedged within "Net cash provided by operating activities" on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
In the event that the likelihood of occurrence of the underlying forecasted transactions is determined to be probable not to occur, the gains or losses on the related cash flow hedges are reclassified from AOCI to “Interest and other income (expense)” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the period of dedesignation.
Derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments
The Company enters into forward contracts to manage the foreign exchange risk on intercompany transactions and monetary assets and liabilities that are not denominated in the functional currencies of the Company and its subsidiaries. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedging instruments and may reduce, but do not entirely eliminate, the effect of foreign currency exchange movements. The gain or loss on derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded in “Interest and other income (expense)” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Cash flows related to these derivative instruments are classified within "Net cash provided by operating activities" on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
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See Note 7 Derivative Financial Instruments to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding the Company’s derivative financial instruments.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company grants non-qualified stock options to its employees on a monthly basis. For certain executive officers, the Company grants restricted stock units ("RSUs") and performance-based restricted stock units ("PSUs"). Stock-based compensation expense is based on the fair value of the stock awards at the grant date and is recognized, net of forfeitures, over the requisite service period. See Note 9 Stockholders' Equity to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding stock-based compensation.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, which requires public entities to disclose information about their reportable segments’ significant expenses and other segment items on an interim and annual basis. Public entities with a single reportable segment are required to apply the disclosure requirements in ASU 2023-07, as well as all existing segment disclosures and reconciliation requirements in ASC 280 on an interim and annual basis. ASU 2023-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-07.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures, which requires public entities, on an annual basis, to provide disclosure of specific categories in the rate reconciliation, as well as disclosure of income taxes paid disaggregated by jurisdiction. ASU 2023-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-09.


2. Revenue Recognition
The following tables summarize streaming revenues, paid net membership additions (losses), and ending paid memberships by region for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023, respectively. Hedging gains and losses are included in “Streaming revenues” for the three months ended March 31, 2024. No hedge gains and losses were recognized as “Streaming revenues” in the comparative prior year period. See Note 7 Derivative Financial Instruments for further information.

United States and Canada (UCAN)
As of/Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
 (in thousands)
Streaming revenues$4,224,315 $3,608,645 
Paid net membership additions2,530 102 
Paid memberships at end of period (1)82,658 74,398 

Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)
As of/Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
 (in thousands)
Streaming revenues$2,958,193 $2,517,641 
Paid net membership additions2,916 644 
Paid memberships at end of period (1)91,729 77,373 



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Latin America (LATAM)
As of/Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
 (in thousands)
Streaming revenues$1,165,008 $1,070,192 
Paid net membership additions (losses)1,723 (450)
Paid memberships at end of period (1)47,720 41,249 

Asia-Pacific (APAC)
As of/Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
 (in thousands)
Streaming revenues$1,022,924 $933,523 
Paid net membership additions2,157 1,455 
Paid memberships at end of period (1)47,495 39,478 
(1) A paid membership (also referred to as a paid subscription) is defined as a membership that has the right to receive Netflix service following sign-up and a method of payment being provided, and that is not part of a free trial or certain other promotions that may be offered by the Company to new or rejoining members. Certain members have the option to add extra member sub accounts. These extra member sub accounts are not included in paid memberships. A membership is canceled and ceases to be reflected in the above metrics as of the effective cancellation date. Voluntary cancellations generally become effective at the end of the prepaid membership period. Involuntary cancellations, as a result of a failed method of payment, become effective immediately. Memberships are assigned to territories based on the geographic location used at time of sign-up as determined by the Company’s internal systems, which utilize industry standard geo-location technology.
Deferred revenue consists of membership fees billed that have not been recognized, as well as gift cards and other prepaid memberships that have not been fully redeemed. As of March 31, 2024, total deferred revenue was $1,469 million, the vast majority of which was related to membership fees billed that are expected to be recognized as revenue within the next month. The remaining deferred revenue balance, which is related to gift cards and other prepaid memberships, will be recognized as revenue over the period of service after redemption, which is expected to occur over the next 12 months. The $27 million increase in deferred revenue as compared to the balance of $1,443 million as of December 31, 2023 is a result of the increase in membership fees billed due to increased memberships and price increases.

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3. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock and, when dilutive, potential outstanding shares of common stock during the period. Potential shares of common stock are calculated using the treasury-stock method and consist of incremental shares issuable upon the assumed exercise of stock options and vesting of time-based and performance-based restricted stock units. The computation of earnings per share is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
(in thousands, except per share data)
Basic earnings per share:
Net income
$2,332,209 $1,305,120 
Shares used in computation:
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding432,090 445,244 
Basic earnings per share$5.40 $2.93 
Diluted earnings per share:
Net income
$2,332,209 $1,305,120 
Shares used in computation:
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding432,090 445,244 
Effect of dilutive stock-based awards9,564 7,173 
Weighted-average number of shares441,654 452,417 
Diluted earnings per share$5.28 $2.88 

The following table summarizes the potential shares of common stock excluded from the diluted calculation as their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Stock-based awards685 5,847 
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4. Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Short-term Investments
The Company classifies short-term investments, which consist of marketable securities with original maturities in excess of 90 days as available-for-sale. The Company does not buy and hold securities principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future. The Company’s policy is focused on the preservation of capital, liquidity and return. From time to time, the Company may sell certain securities but the objectives are generally not to generate profits on short-term differences in price.
The following tables summarize the Company's cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investments as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:

 As of March 31, 2024
 Cash and cash equivalentsShort-term investmentsOther Current AssetsNon-current AssetsTotal
 (in thousands)
Cash$6,169,888 $ $1,690 $78 $6,171,656 
Level 1 securities:
Money market funds573,922   55 573,977 
Level 2 securities:
Time Deposits (1)280,956 20,973   301,929 
$7,024,766 $20,973 $1,690 $133 $7,047,562 


 As of December 31, 2023
 Cash and cash equivalentsShort-term investmentsOther Current AssetsNon-current AssetsTotal
 (in thousands)
Cash$5,986,629 $ $1,466 $81 $5,988,176 
Level 1 securities:
Money market funds925,652   55 925,707 
Level 2 securities:
Time Deposits (1)204,632 20,973   225,605 
$7,116,913 $20,973 $1,466 $136 $7,139,488 
(1) The majority of the Company's time deposits are international deposits, which mature within one year.
Other current assets include restricted cash for deposits related to self-insurance. Non-current assets include restricted cash related to letter of credit agreements. The fair value of cash equivalents and short-term investments included in the Level 2 category is based on observable inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets at the measurement date; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly.
See Note 6 Debt and Note 7 Derivative Financial Instruments to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding the fair value of the Company’s senior notes and derivative financial instruments.

12



5. Balance Sheet Components

Content Assets, Net
Content assets consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Licensed content, net
$12,549,546 $12,722,701 
Produced content, net
Released, less amortization
9,917,832 9,843,150 
In production
8,242,560 8,247,578 
In development and pre-production
952,162 844,627 
19,112,554 18,935,355 

Content assets, net
$31,662,100 $31,658,056 
As of March 31, 2024, the amount of accrued participations and residuals was not material.
The following table represents the amortization of content assets:
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Licensed content$1,835,117 $1,723,678 
Produced content1,835,688 1,736,306 
Total$3,670,805 $3,459,984 




13


Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment and accumulated depreciation consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Estimated Useful Lives
(in thousands)
Land
$88,468 $88,429 
Buildings
156,345 150,736 30 years
Leasehold improvements
1,043,759 1,032,492 Over life of lease
Furniture and fixtures
139,968 144,737 
3 years
Information technology
399,742 414,092 3 years
Corporate aircraft
99,175 99,175 
8-10 years
Machinery and equipment
10,632 10,334 
3-5 years
Capital work-in-progress
447,682 406,492 
Property and equipment, gross
2,385,771 2,346,487 
Less: Accumulated depreciation
(884,603)(855,043)
Property and equipment, net
$1,501,168 $1,491,444 


Leases
The Company has entered into operating leases primarily for real estate. Operating leases are included in "Other non-current assets" on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets, and represent the Company’s right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The Company’s obligations to make lease payments are included in "Accrued expenses and other liabilities" and "Other non-current liabilities" on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Information related to the Company's operating right-of-use assets and related operating lease liabilities were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Cash paid for operating lease liabilities$125,306 $113,407 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease obligations183,962 20,894 

As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net$2,159,325 $2,076,899 
Current operating lease liabilities397,628 383,312 
Non-current operating lease liabilities2,098,004 2,046,801 
Total operating lease liabilities$2,495,632 $2,430,113 






14


Other Current Assets
Other current assets consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Trade receivables
$1,228,691 $1,287,054 
Prepaid expenses
454,145 408,936 
Other
1,192,738 1,084,257 
Total other current assets
$2,875,574 $2,780,247 


6. Debt
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had aggregate outstanding notes of $14,016 million, net of $61 million of issuance costs, with varying maturities (the "Notes"). Of the outstanding balance, $799 million, net of issuance costs, is classified as short-term debt on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had aggregate outstanding notes of $14,543 million, net of $65 million of issuance costs. Each of the Notes were issued at par and are senior unsecured obligations of the Company. Interest is payable semi-annually at fixed rates. A portion of the outstanding Notes is denominated in foreign currency (comprised of €5,170 million) and is remeasured into U.S. dollars at each balance sheet date (with remeasurement gain totaling $131 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024).
The following table provides a summary of the Company's outstanding debt and the fair values based on quoted market prices in less active markets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:
Principal Amount at ParLevel 2 Fair Value as of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Issuance DateMaturityMarch 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in millions)(in millions)
5.750% Senior Notes
$ $400 February 2014March 2024$ $400 
5.875% Senior Notes
800 800 February 2015February 2025803 807 
3.000% Senior Notes (1)
507 519 April 2020June 2025503 516 
3.625% Senior Notes
500 500 April 2020June 2025490 491 
4.375% Senior Notes
1,000 1,000 October 2016November 2026985 996 
3.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,401 1,434 May 2017May 20271,416 1,454 
4.875% Senior Notes
1,600 1,600 October 2017April 20281,598 1,621 
5.875% Senior Notes
1,900 1,900 April 2018November 20281,976 2,009 
4.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,187 1,215 October 2018May 20291,256 1,300 
6.375% Senior Notes
800 800 October 2018May 2029853 872 
3.875% Senior Notes (1)
1,295 1,325 April 2019November 20291,325 1,372 
5.375% Senior Notes
900 900 April 2019November 2029920 931 
3.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,187 1,215 October 2019June 20301,199 1,237 
4.875% Senior Notes
1,000 1,000 October 2019June 2030994 1,012 
$14,077 $14,608 $14,318 $15,018 
(1) The following Senior Notes have a principal amount denominated in euro: 3.000% Senior Notes for €470 million, 3.625% Senior Notes for €1,300 million, 4.625% Senior Notes for €1,100 million, 3.875% Senior Notes for €1,200 million, and 3.625% Senior Notes for €1,100 million.
In the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repaid upon maturity the $400 million aggregate principal amount of its 5.750% Senior Notes.
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Each of the Notes are repayable in whole or in part upon the occurrence of a change of control, at the option of the holders, at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% of the principal plus accrued interest. The Company may redeem the Notes prior to maturity in whole or in part at an amount equal to the principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest and an applicable premium. The Notes include, among other terms and conditions, limitations on the Company's ability to create, incur or allow certain liens; enter into sale and lease-back transactions; create, assume, incur or guarantee additional indebtedness of certain of the Company's subsidiaries; and consolidate or merge with, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of the Company's and its subsidiaries assets, to another person. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all related covenants.
Revolving Credit Facility
On March 6, 2023, the Company amended its $1 billion unsecured revolving credit facility ("Revolving Credit Agreement") to replace the London interbank offered rate to a variable secured overnight financing rate (the “Term SOFR Rate”) as the rate to which interest payments are indexed, among other things. The Revolving Credit Agreement matures on June 17, 2026. Revolving loans may be borrowed, repaid and reborrowed until June 17, 2026, at which time all amounts borrowed must be repaid. The Company may use the proceeds of future borrowings under the Revolving Credit Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of March 31, 2024, no amounts have been borrowed under the Revolving Credit Agreement.
The borrowings under the Revolving Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, of either (i) a floating rate equal to a base rate (the “Alternate Base Rate”) or (ii) a rate equal to the Term SOFR Rate (or the applicable benchmark replacement), plus a margin of 0.75%. The Alternate Base Rate is defined as the greatest of (A) the rate of interest published by the Wall Street Journal, from time to time, as the prime rate, (B) the federal funds rate, plus 0.500% and (C) the Term SOFR Rate for a one-month tenor, plus 1.00%. The Term SOFR Rate is the forward-looking secured overnight financing rate administered by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or a successor administrator, for the relevant interest period, but in no event shall the Term SOFR Rate be less than 0.00% per annum.
The Company is also obligated to pay a commitment fee on the undrawn amounts of the Revolving Credit Agreement at an annual rate of 0.10%. The Revolving Credit Agreement requires the Company to comply with certain covenants, including covenants that limit or restrict the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to incur debt and limit or restrict the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries to grant liens and enter into sale and leaseback transactions; and, in the case of the Company or a guarantor, merge, consolidate, liquidate, dissolve or sell, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all related covenants.
Subsequent to March 31, 2024, the Company entered into a five-year, $3 billion unsecured revolving credit facility (the “New Revolving Credit Agreement”), which terminated and replaced the Revolving Credit Agreement. Refer to Note 12, Subsequent Event, for additional details.


7. Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company uses derivative instruments to manage foreign exchange risk related to its ongoing business operations with the primary objective of reducing earnings and cash flow volatility associated with fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.

Notional Amount of Derivative Contracts
The net notional amounts of the Company’s outstanding derivative instruments were as follows:
As of 
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts
Cash flow hedges
$9,734,421 $8,783,273 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts526,681  
Total
$10,261,102 $8,783,273 
Fair Value of Derivative Contracts
The fair value of the Company’s outstanding derivative instruments was as follows:

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 As of March 31, 2024
Derivative AssetsDerivative Liabilities
 Other current assetsOther non-current assetsAccrued expenses and other liabilitiesOther non-current liabilities
 (in thousands)
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts$102,960 $27,812 $41,788 $7,548 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts2,975  628  
Total$105,935 $27,812 $42,416 $7,548 
 As of December 31, 2023
Derivative AssetsDerivative Liabilities
 Other current assetsOther non-current assetsAccrued expenses and other liabilitiesOther non-current liabilities
 (in thousands)
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts$26,416 $4,518 $140,089 $46,575 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts    
Total$26,416 $4,518 $140,089 $46,575 
The Company classifies derivative instruments in the Level 2 category within the fair value hierarchy. These instruments are valued using industry standard valuation models that use observable inputs such as interest rate yield curves, and forward and spot prices for currencies.
As of March 31, 2024, the pre-tax net accumulated gain on our foreign currency cash flow hedges included in AOCI on the Consolidated Balance Sheets expected to be recognized in earnings within the next 12 months is $60 million.
Master Netting Agreements
In order to mitigate counterparty credit risk, the Company enters into master netting agreements with its counterparties for its foreign currency exchange contracts which permit the parties to settle amounts on a net basis under certain conditions. The Company has elected to present its derivative assets and liabilities on a gross basis on its Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company also enters into collateral security arrangements with its counterparties that require the parties to post cash collateral when certain contractual thresholds are met. No cash collateral was received or posted by the Company as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
The potential offsetting effect to the Company’s derivative assets and liabilities under its master netting agreements and collateral security agreements were as follows:

 As of March 31, 2024
Gross Amount Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 Gross Amount Recognized in the Consolidated Balance SheetsGross Amount Offset in the Consolidated Balance SheetsNet Amount Presented in the Consolidated Balance SheetsFinancial InstrumentsCollateral Received and PostedNet Amount
 (in thousands)
Derivative assets$133,747 $ $133,747 $(29,781)$ $103,966 
Derivative liabilities49,964  49,964 (29,781) 20,183 

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 As of December 31, 2023
Gross Amount Not Offset in the Consolidated Balance Sheets
 Gross Amount Recognized in the Consolidated Balance SheetsGross Amount Offset in the Consolidated Balance SheetsNet Amount Presented in the Consolidated Balance SheetsFinancial InstrumentsCollateral Received and PostedNet Amount
 (in thousands)
Derivative assets$30,934 $ $30,934 $(27,246)$ $3,688 
Derivative liabilities186,664  186,664 (27,246) 159,418 

Effect of Derivative Instruments on Consolidated Financial Statements
The pre-tax gains (losses) on the Company’s cash flow hedges recognized in AOCI were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Cash flow hedges:
Foreign exchange contracts (1)
Amount included in the assessment of effectiveness$229,144 $ 
Total$229,144 $ 
(1) No amounts were excluded from the assessment of effectiveness.
The gains (losses) on derivative instruments recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2024
RevenuesCost of RevenuesInterest and other income (expense)
(in thousands)
Total amounts presented in the Consolidated Statements of Operations$9,370,440 $4,977,073 $155,359 
Gains (losses) on derivatives in cash flow hedging relationship
Foreign exchange contracts
Amount of gains (losses) reclassified from AOCI(11,241)194  
Gains (losses) on derivatives not designated as hedging instruments
Foreign exchange contracts  4,266 
No gains or losses on derivative instruments were recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the three months ended March 31, 2023.


8. Commitments and Contingencies

Content
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had $24.2 billion of obligations comprised of $4.4 billion included in "Current content liabilities" and $2.4 billion of "Non-current content liabilities" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and $17.4 billion of obligations that are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as they did not yet meet the criteria for recognition.
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $21.7 billion of obligations comprised of $4.5 billion included in "Current content liabilities" and $2.6 billion of "Non-current content liabilities" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and $14.6 billion of obligations that are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as they did not yet meet the criteria for recognition.
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The expected timing of payments for these content obligations is as follows:
As of 
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
Less than one year
$11,066,048 $10,328,923 
Due after one year and through three years
9,378,186 8,784,302 
Due after three years and through five years
2,820,168 2,016,358 
Due after five years
930,598 583,766 
Total content obligations
$24,195,000 $21,713,349 
Content obligations include amounts related to the acquisition, licensing and production of content. Obligations that are in non-U.S. dollar currencies are translated to the U.S. dollar at period end rates. An obligation for the production of content includes non-cancelable commitments under creative talent and employment agreements as well as other production related commitments. An obligation for the acquisition and licensing of content is incurred at the time the Company enters into an agreement to obtain future titles. Once a title becomes available, a content liability is recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Certain agreements include the obligation to license rights for unknown future titles, the ultimate quantity and/or fees for which are not yet determinable as of the reporting date. Traditional film output deals, or certain TV series license agreements where the number of seasons to be aired is unknown, are examples of such license agreements. The Company does not include any estimated obligation for these future titles beyond the known minimum amount. However, the unknown obligations are expected to be significant.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, in the normal course of its operations, the Company is subject to litigation matters and claims, including claims relating to employee relations, business practices and patent infringement. Litigation can be expensive and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict and the Company's view of these matters may change in the future as the litigation and events related thereto unfold. The Company expenses legal fees as incurred. The Company records a provision for contingent losses when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. An unfavorable outcome to any legal matter, if material, could have an adverse effect on the Company's operations or its financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
The Company is involved in litigation matters not listed herein but does not consider the matters to be material either individually or in the aggregate at this time. The Company's view of the matters not listed may change in the future as the litigation and events related thereto unfold.
Non-Income Taxes
The Company is routinely under audit by various tax authorities with regard to non-income tax matters. The subject matter of non-income tax audits primarily arises from disputes on the tax treatment and tax rate applied to our revenue in certain jurisdictions. We accrue non-income taxes that may result from examinations by, or any negotiated agreements with, these tax authorities when a loss is probable and reasonably estimable.
Similar to other U.S. companies doing business in Brazil, the Company is involved in a number of matters with Brazilian tax authorities regarding non-income tax assessments. Although the Company believes it has meritorious defenses to these matters, there is inherent complexity and uncertainty with respect to these matters, and the final outcome may be materially different from our expectations. The current potential exposure with respect to the various issues with Brazilian tax authorities regarding non-income tax assessments is estimated to be approximately $300 million, which is expected to increase over time.
Guarantees— Indemnification Obligations
In the ordinary course of business, the Company has entered into contractual arrangements under which it has agreed to provide indemnification of varying scope and terms to business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of the Company’s breach of such agreements and out of intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. In these circumstances, payment may be conditional on the other party making a claim pursuant to the procedures specified in the particular contract.
The Company's obligations under these agreements may be limited in terms of time or amount, and in some instances, the Company may have recourse against third parties for certain payments. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and certain of its officers that will require it, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. The terms of such obligations vary.
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It is not possible to make a reasonable estimate of the maximum potential amount of future payments under these or similar agreements due to the conditional nature of the Company’s obligations and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. No amount has been accrued in the accompanying consolidated financial statements with respect to these indemnification obligations.

9. Stockholders’ Equity
Equity Incentive Plans
The Netflix, Inc. 2020 Stock Plan is a stockholder-approved plan that provides for the grant of incentive stock options to employees and for the grant of non-statutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock and restricted stock units to employees, directors and consultants.
Stock Option Activity
Stock options are generally vested in full upon grant date and exercisable for the full ten-year contractual term regardless of employment status. Stock options granted to certain named executive officers vest on the one-year anniversary of the grant date, subject to the employee’s continuous employment or service with the Company through the vesting date.
The following table summarizes the activities related to the Company’s stock options:
Options Outstanding
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
(per share)
Balances as of December 31, 202319,695,109 $268.86 
Granted
198,574 526.29
Exercised
(1,768,956)151.68 
Expired
(1,181)57.46 
Balances as of March 31, 202418,123,546 $283.13 
Vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 202418,123,546 $283.13 
Exercisable as of March 31, 202417,919,888 $281.72 

Restricted Stock Unit Activity
The Company grants time-based restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards and performance-based restricted stock unit (“PSU”) awards to certain executive officers. RSU awards vest quarterly over a three-year period subject to the executive’s continued employment or service with the Company through the vesting date. PSU awards have performance periods ranging from one to three years and vest depending on the Company’s achievement of predetermined market-based performance targets.
The following table summarizes the activities related to the Company’s unvested RSUs and PSUs:
Unvested Restricted Stock Units
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Grant-Date Fair Value
(per share)
Balances as of December 31, 2023 $ 
Granted
159,978 686.36
Vested
(6,663)562.00 
Forfeited
  
Balances as of March 31, 2024153,315 $691.76 
Stock-based Compensation
Total stock-based compensation expense was $76 million and $99 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.


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Stock Repurchases
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $5 billion of its common stock, with no expiration date, and in September 2023, the Board of Directors increased the share repurchase authorization by an additional $10 billion, also with no expiration date. Stock repurchases may be effected through open market repurchases in compliance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act, including through the use of trading plans intended to qualify under Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, privately-negotiated transactions, accelerated stock repurchase plans, block purchases, or other similar purchase techniques and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. The Company is not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares, and the timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including the Company’s stock price, general economic, business and market conditions, and alternative investment opportunities. The Company may discontinue any repurchases of its common stock at any time without prior notice. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repurchased 3,566,965 shares for an aggregate amount of $2.0 billion. As of March 31, 2024, $6.4 billion remains available for repurchases. Shares repurchased by the Company are accounted for when the transaction is settled. As of March 31, 2024, there were no unsettled share repurchases. Direct costs incurred to acquire the shares are included in the total cost of the shares.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The following tables summarize the changes in accumulated balances of other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign Currency Translation
Adjustments
Change in Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Cash Flow HedgesTax (expense) benefitTotal
(in thousands)
Balances as of December 31, 2023$(103,922)$(155,730)$35,707 $(223,945)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
(73,052)229,144 (52,540)103,552 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 11,047 (2,533)8,514 
Net change in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
(73,052)240,191 (55,073)112,066 
Balances as of March 31, 2024$(176,974)$84,461 $(19,366)$(111,879)
Foreign Currency Translation
Adjustments
Change in Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Cash Flow HedgesTax (expense) benefitTotal
(in thousands)
Balances as of December 31, 2022$(217,306)$ $ $(217,306)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
25,611   25,611 
Net change in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
25,611   25,611 
Balances as of March 31, 2023$(191,695)$ $ $(191,695)
The following table summarizes the amounts reclassified from AOCI to the Consolidated Statement of Operations:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2024
RevenuesCost of RevenuesProvision for Income TaxesTotal Reclassifications
(in thousands)
Gains (losses) on derivatives in cash flow hedging relationship
Foreign exchange contracts
Amount of gains (losses) reclassified from AOCI$(11,241)$194 $2,533 $(8,514)
No gains or losses on derivative instruments were reclassified from AOCI into the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the three months ended March 31, 2023.

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10. Income Taxes
 Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$282,370 $163,754 
Effective tax rate11 %11 %

The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 differed from the Federal statutory rate primarily due to the foreign-derived intangible income deduction and excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation.


11. Segment and Geographic Information

The Company operates as one operating segment. The Company's chief operating decision maker ("CODM") is its co-chief executive officers, who review financial information presented on a consolidated basis for the purposes of making operating decisions, assessing financial performance and allocating resources.
Total U.S. revenues were $3.9 billion and $3.3 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. See Note 2 Revenue Recognition for additional information about streaming revenue by region.
The Company's long-lived tangible assets, as well as the Company's operating lease right-of-use assets recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, were located as follows:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in thousands)
United States$2,747,928 $2,724,710 
International912,565 843,633 


12. Subsequent Event

On April 12, 2024, the Company entered into a new five-year revolving credit agreement that provides for a $3 billion unsecured revolving credit facility, subject to certain terms and conditions as set forth therein. Revolving loans will bear interest, at the Company’s option, at either (i) a floating rate per annum equal to a base rate (the “Alternate Base Rate”) plus an applicable margin or (ii) a per annum rate equal to an adjusted term SOFR rate (the “Adjusted Term SOFR Rate”) plus an applicable margin. The applicable margin for Alternate Base Rate loans will range from 0% to 0.25%, and the applicable margin for Adjusted Term SOFR Rate loans will range from 0.75% to 1.25%, each based on the Company’s credit ratings. As of April 22, 2024, there were no borrowings outstanding under the credit agreement.



Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Forward-Looking Statements
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: our core strategy; our ability to improve our content offerings and service; our future financial performance, including expectations regarding revenues, deferred revenue, operating income and margin, net income, expenses, and profitability; liquidity, including the sufficiency of our capital resources, net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, and access to financing sources; capital allocation strategies, including any stock repurchases or repurchase programs; seasonality; impact of foreign exchange rate fluctuations, including on net income, revenues and average revenues per paying member; expectations regarding hedging activity; impact of interest rate fluctuations; adequacy of existing facilities; future regulatory changes and their impact on our business; intellectual property; price changes and testing; accounting treatment for changes related to content assets; acquisitions; membership growth, including impact of content and pricing changes on membership growth; member viewing patterns; future contractual obligations, including unknown content obligations and timing of payments; our global content and marketing investments, including investments in original programming; content amortization; resolution of tax examinations; tax expense; unrecognized tax benefits; deferred tax assets; and our ability to effectively manage change and growth. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause
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actual results and events to differ materially from those included in forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on January 26, 2024, in particular the risk factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A. 
We assume no obligation to revise or publicly release any revision to any forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless required by law.
Investors and others should note that we announce material financial and other information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.netflix.net), SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts. We use these channels, as well as social media and blogs to communicate with our members and the public about our company, our services and other issues. It is possible that the information we post on social media and blogs could be deemed to be material information. Therefore, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in our company to review the information we post on the social media channels and blogs listed on our investor relations website.


Overview
We are one of the world’s leading entertainment services with over 269 million paid memberships in over 190 countries enjoying TV series, films and games across a wide variety of genres and languages. Members can play, pause and resume watching as much as they want, anytime, anywhere, and can change their plans at any time.
Our core strategy is to grow our business globally within the parameters of our operating margin target. We strive to continuously improve our members’ experience by offering compelling content that delights them and attracts new members. We seek to drive conversation around our content to further enhance member joy, and we are continuously enhancing our user interface to help our members more easily choose content that they will find enjoyable.
Our membership growth exhibits a seasonal pattern that reflects variations when consumers buy internet-connected screens and when they tend to increase their viewing. Historically, the fourth quarter represents our greatest streaming membership growth. In addition, our membership growth can be impacted by our content release schedule and changes to pricing and plans.

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Results of Operations

The following represents our consolidated performance highlights:
As of/Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
(in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Financial Results:
Streaming revenues
$9,370,440 $8,130,001 $1,240,439 15 %
DVD revenues (1)— 31,502 (31,502)(100)%
Total revenues$9,370,440 $8,161,503 $1,208,937 15 %
Operating income$2,632,534 $1,714,317 $918,217 54 %
Operating margin28 %21 %%
Global Streaming Memberships:
Paid net membership additions9,326 1,751 7,575 433 %
Paid memberships at end of period269,602 232,498 37,104 16 %
Average paying memberships
264,939 231,623 33,316 14 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership
$11.79 $11.70 $0.09 %
Constant currency change (2)%

(1) We discontinued our DVD-by-mail service in September 2023. The discontinuance of our DVD business had an immaterial impact on our operations and
financial results.
(2) We believe the non-GAAP financial measure of constant currency revenue is useful in analyzing the underlying trends in average monthly revenue per paying membership (ARM) absent foreign currency fluctuations. However, this non-GAAP financial measure should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, or superior to other financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.
In order to exclude the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations on ARM, we calculate current period revenue assuming foreign exchange rates had remained constant with foreign exchange rates from each of the corresponding months of the prior-year period and exclude the impact of hedging gains or losses realized as revenues. Constant currency percentage change in ARM is calculated as the percentage change between current period constant currency ARM and the prior comparative period ARM. The impact of hedging gains or losses is excluded from both the current and prior periods. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, our revenues would have been approximately $271 million higher excluding the impact of hedging and had foreign currency exchange rates remained constant with those for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased seven percentage points as compared to the prior comparative period, primarily due to revenues growing at a faster rate as compared to the growth in cost of revenues, general and administrative expenses, and technology and development expenses, partially offset by higher growth in marketing expenses as compared to the growth in revenues.

Streaming Revenues
We primarily derive revenues from monthly membership fees for services related to streaming content to our members. We offer a variety of streaming membership plans, the price of which varies by country and the features of the plan. As of March 31, 2024, pricing on our paid plans ranged from the U.S. dollar equivalent of $1 to $28 per month, and pricing on our extra member sub accounts ranged from the U.S. dollar equivalent of $2 to $8 per month. We expect that from time to time the prices of our membership plans in each country may change and we may test other plan and price variations.
We also earn revenue from advertisements presented on our streaming service, consumer products and various other sources. Revenues earned from sources other than monthly membership fees were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023.
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Three Months Ended
Change
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Streaming revenues
$9,370,440 $8,130,001 $1,240,439 15 %

Streaming revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased 15% as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to the growth in average paying memberships and price increases, partially offset by unfavorable changes in foreign exchange rates.
The following tables summarize streaming revenue and other streaming membership information by region for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Hedging gains and losses are included in “Streaming revenues” for the three months ended March 31, 2024. No hedging gains and losses were recognized as “Streaming revenues” in the comparative prior year period.

United States and Canada (UCAN)
As of/Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Streaming revenues$4,224,315 $3,608,645 $615,670 17 %
Paid net membership additions2,530 102 2,428 2,380 %
Paid memberships at end of period82,658 74,398 8,260 11 %
Average paying memberships81,393 74,347 7,046 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$17.30 $16.18 $1.12 %
Constant currency change%
Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)
As of/Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Streaming revenues$2,958,193 $2,517,641 $440,552 17 %
Paid net membership additions2,916 644 2,272 353 %
Paid memberships at end of period91,729 77,373 14,356 19 %
Average paying memberships90,271 77,051 13,220 17 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$10.92 $10.89 $0.03 — %
Constant currency change— %
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Latin America (LATAM)
As of/Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Streaming revenues$1,165,008 $1,070,192 $94,816 %
Paid net membership additions (losses)1,723 (450)2,173 483 %
Paid memberships at end of period47,720 41,249 6,471 16 %
Average paying memberships46,859 41,474 5,385 13 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$8.29 $8.60 $(0.31)(4)%
Constant currency change16 %
Asia-Pacific (APAC)
As of/Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Streaming revenues$1,022,924 $933,523 $89,401 10 %
Paid net membership additions2,157 1,455 702 48 %
Paid memberships at end of period47,495 39,478 8,017 20 %
Average paying memberships46,417 38,751 7,666 20 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$7.35 $8.03 $(0.68)(8)%
Constant currency change(4)%
Cost of Revenues
Amortization of content assets makes up the majority of cost of revenues. Expenses associated with the acquisition, licensing and production of content (such as payroll, stock-based compensation, facilities, and other related personnel expenses, costs associated with obtaining rights to music included in our content, overall deals with talent, miscellaneous production related costs and participations and residuals), streaming delivery costs and other operations costs make up the remainder of cost of revenues. We have built our own global content delivery network (“Open Connect”) to help us efficiently stream a high volume of content to our members over the internet. Delivery expenses, therefore, include equipment costs related to Open Connect, payroll and related personnel expenses and all third-party costs, such as cloud computing costs, associated with delivering content over the internet. Other operations costs include customer service and payment processing fees, including those we pay to our integrated payment partners, as well as other costs incurred in making our content available to members.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenues
$4,977,073$4,803,625$173,448 %
As a percentage of revenues
53 %59 %
The increase in cost of revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 is primarily due to a $211 million increase in content amortization relating to our existing and new content, partially offset by a $38 million decrease in other cost of revenues.
Marketing
Marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising expenses and certain payments made to our marketing and advertising sales partners, including consumer electronics (“CE”) manufacturers, multichannel video programming distributors (“MVPDs”), mobile operators, and internet service providers (“ISPs”). Advertising expenses include promotional activities such as digital and television advertising. Marketing expenses also include payroll, stock-based compensation, facilities, and other related expenses for personnel that support sales and marketing activities.
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Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
(in thousands, except percentages)
Marketing
$654,340$555,362$98,978 18 %
As a percentage of revenues
%%
The increase in marketing expenses was primarily due to a $65 million increase in advertising expenses due to the timing of content releases, coupled with a $27 million increase in personnel-related costs.
Technology and Development
Technology and development expenses consist primarily of payroll, stock-based compensation, facilities, and other related expenses for technology personnel responsible for making improvements to our service offerings, including testing, maintaining and modifying our user interface, our recommendations, merchandising and infrastructure. Technology and development expenses also include costs associated with general use computer hardware and software.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
(in thousands, except percentages)
Technology and development
$702,473$687,275$15,198 %
As a percentage of revenues
%%
Technology and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 remained relatively flat.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll, stock-based compensation, facilities, and other related expenses for corporate personnel. General and administrative expenses also include professional fees and other general corporate expenses.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
(in thousands, except percentages)
General and administrative
$404,020$400,924$3,096 %
As a percentage of revenues
%%
General and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 remained relatively flat.
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Interest Expense
Interest expense consists primarily of the interest associated with our outstanding debt obligations, including the amortization of debt issuance costs. See Note 6 Debt in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for further detail on our debt obligations.
 Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Interest expense$173,314$174,239$(925)(1)%
As a percentage of revenues%%
Interest expense primarily consists of interest on our Notes of $173 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 remained relatively flat.
Interest and Other Income (Expense)
Interest and other income (expense) consists primarily of foreign exchange gains and losses on foreign currency denominated balances and interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments.
 Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Interest and other income (expense)$155,359$(71,204)$226,563318 %
As a percentage of revenues%(1)%
Interest and other income (expense) increased in the three months ended March 31, 2024 primarily due to foreign exchange gains of $94 million, compared to losses of $107 million for the corresponding period in 2023. In the three months ended March 31, 2024, the foreign exchange gains were primarily driven by the non-cash gain of $131 million from the remeasurement of our €5,170 million Senior Notes, partially offset by the remeasurement of cash and content liability positions in currencies other than the functional currencies. In the three months ended March 31, 2023, the foreign exchange losses were primarily driven by the non-cash loss of $81 million from the remeasurement of our €5,170 million Senior Notes, coupled with the remeasurement of cash and content liability positions in currencies other than the functional currencies. The change in foreign currency gains and losses was coupled with a $19 million increase in interest income earned due to higher average interest rates for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the corresponding period in 2023.
Provision for Income Taxes
 Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Q1'24 vs. Q1'23
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$282,370 $163,754 $118,616 72 %
Effective tax rate11 %11 %
The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 remained relatively flat as compared to the same period in 2023.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As ofChange
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
March 31, 2024 vs. December 31, 2023
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investments$7,047,562 $7,139,488 $(91,926)(1)%
Short-term and long-term debt14,015,974 14,543,261 (527,287)(4)%

Cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investments decreased $92 million in the three months ended March 31, 2024 primarily due to the repurchase of stock and repayment of debt, partially offset by cash provided by operations.
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Debt, net of debt issuance costs, decreased $527 million primarily due to the repayment upon maturity of the $400 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.750% Senior Notes in the three months ended March 31, 2024, coupled with the remeasurement of our euro-denominated notes. The amount of principal and interest on our outstanding notes due in the next twelve months is $1,476 million. As of March 31, 2024, no amounts had been borrowed under the $1 billion Revolving Credit Agreement. See Note 6 Debt in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
We anticipate that we may periodically raise additional debt capital. Our ability to obtain this or any additional financing that we may choose or need, including for the refinancing of upcoming maturities or potential strategic acquisitions and investments, will depend on, among other things, our development efforts, business plans, operating performance and the condition of the capital markets at the time we seek financing. We may not be able to obtain such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our common stock, and our stockholders may experience dilution.
In March 2021, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $5 billion of our common stock, with no expiration date, and in September 2023, the Board of Directors increased the share repurchase authorization by an additional $10 billion, also with no expiration date. Stock repurchases may be effected through open market repurchases in compliance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act, including through the use of trading plans intended to qualify under Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, privately-negotiated transactions, accelerated stock repurchase plans, block purchases, or other similar purchase techniques and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. We are not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares, and the timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including our stock price, general economic, business and market conditions, and alternative investment opportunities. We may discontinue any repurchases of our common stock at any time without prior notice. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repurchased 3,566,965 shares of common stock for an aggregate amount of $2.0 billion. As of March 31, 2024, $6.4 billion remains available for repurchases.
Our primary uses of cash include the acquisition, licensing and production of content, marketing programs, streaming delivery and personnel-related costs, as well as strategic acquisitions and investments. Cash payment terms for non-original content have historically been in line with the amortization period. Investments in original content, and in particular content that we produce and own, require more cash upfront relative to licensed content. For example, production costs are paid as the content is created, well in advance of when the content is available on the service and amortized. We expect to continue to significantly invest in global content, particularly in original content, which will impact our liquidity. We currently anticipate that cash flows from operations, available funds and access to financing sources, including our revolving credit facility, will continue to be sufficient to meet our cash needs for the next twelve months and beyond.
Our material cash requirements from known contractual and other obligations primarily relate to our content, debt and lease obligations. As of March 31, 2024, the expected timing of those payments are as follows:

Payments due by Period
Contractual obligations (in thousands):TotalNext 12 MonthsBeyond 12 Months
Content obligations (1)
$24,195,000 $11,066,048 $13,128,952 
Debt (2)
17,171,547 1,476,407 15,695,140 
Operating lease obligations (3)
2,977,341 500,327 2,477,014 
Total
$44,343,888