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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023
OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 001-35727
Netflix, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware77-0467272
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
121 Albright Way,Los Gatos,California95032
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(408) 540-3700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per shareNFLXNASDAQ Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of March 31, 2023, there were 444,536,878 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001, outstanding.



Table of Contents
 
Page
Part I. Financial Information
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II. Other Information
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 6.

2

Table of Contents

NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except per share data)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Revenues
$8,161,503 $7,867,767 
Cost of revenues
4,803,625 4,284,705 
Marketing
555,362 555,978 
Technology and development
687,275 657,530 
General and administrative
400,924 397,928 
Operating income
1,714,317 1,971,626 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense
(174,239)(187,579)
Interest and other income (expense)
(71,204)195,645 
Income before income taxes
1,468,874 1,979,692 
Provision for income taxes(163,754)(382,245)
Net income
$1,305,120 $1,597,447 
Earnings per share:
Basic
$2.93 $3.60 
Diluted
$2.88 $3.53 
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding:
Basic
445,244 444,146 
Diluted
452,417 452,984 










See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
3

Table of Contents
NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Net income$1,305,120 $1,597,447 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments
25,611 (33,675)
Comprehensive income$1,330,731 $1,563,772 
























See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
4

Table of Contents
NETFLIX, INC.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
   
Three Months Ended
   
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$1,305,120 $1,597,447 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Additions to content assets(2,458,666)(3,584,164)
Change in content liabilities(354,791)(347,149)
Amortization of content assets3,459,984 3,166,365 
Depreciation and amortization of property, equipment and intangibles90,335 74,602 
Stock-based compensation expense99,099 119,209 
Foreign currency remeasurement loss (gain) on debt80,651 (161,821)
Other non-cash items120,008 101,968 
Deferred income taxes(98,782)(68,906)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Other current assets(88,522)41,157 
Accounts payable(89,668)(215,444)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities185,299 350,763 
Deferred revenue(2,390)16,743 
Other non-current assets and liabilities(68,937)(167,931)
Net cash provided by operating activities2,178,740 922,839 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(62,019)(121,158)
Acquisitions (124,521)
Purchases of short-term investments(201,634) 
Net cash used in investing activities(263,653)(245,679)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Repayments of debt (700,000)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock26,028 13,678 
Repurchases of common stock(400,101) 
Net cash used in financing activities(374,073)(686,322)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash 26,423 (11,448)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash1,567,437 (20,610)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period 5,170,582 6,055,111 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period $6,738,019 $6,034,501 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
5

Table of Contents
NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share and par value data)

As of
   
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$6,714,594 $5,147,176 
Short-term investments1,112,910 911,276 
Other current assets
2,655,119 3,208,021 
Total current assets
10,482,623 9,266,473 
Content assets, net
32,349,184 32,736,713 
Property and equipment, net
1,413,094 1,398,257 
Other non-current assets
5,245,444 5,193,325 
Total assets
$49,490,345 $48,594,768 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Current content liabilities
$4,344,580 $4,480,150 
Accounts payable
591,987 671,513 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
1,718,069 1,514,650 
Deferred revenue
1,262,271 1,264,661 
Short-term debt
399,163  
Total current liabilities
8,316,070 7,930,974 
Non-current content liabilities
2,908,029 3,081,277 
Long-term debt
14,037,965 14,353,076 
Other non-current liabilities
2,400,085 2,452,040 
Total liabilities
27,662,149 27,817,367 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 4,990,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022; 444,536,878 and 445,346,776 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
4,762,395 4,637,601 
Treasury stock at cost (2,786,534 and 1,564,478 shares at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
(1,228,920)(824,190)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(191,695)(217,306)
Retained earnings
18,486,416 17,181,296 
Total stockholders’ equity
21,828,196 20,777,401 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$49,490,345 $48,594,768 




See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
6

Table of Contents
NETFLIX, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Total stockholders' equity, beginning balances$20,777,401 $15,849,248 
Common stock and additional paid-in capital:
Beginning balances
$4,637,601 $4,024,561 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options
25,695 11,810 
Stock-based compensation expense99,099 119,209 
Ending balances$4,762,395 $4,155,580 
Treasury stock:
Beginning balances
$(824,190)$(824,190)
Repurchases of common stock to be held as treasury stock(404,730)— 
Ending balances$(1,228,920)$(824,190)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss:
Beginning balances
$(217,306)$(40,495)
Other comprehensive income (loss)25,611 (33,675)
Ending balances$(191,695)$(74,170)
Retained earnings:
Beginning balances$17,181,296 $12,689,372 
Net income
1,305,120 1,597,447 
Ending balances$18,486,416 $14,286,819 
Total stockholders' equity, ending balances
$21,828,196 $17,544,039 





















See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
7

Table of Contents
NETFLIX, INC.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying interim consolidated financial statements of Netflix, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (the “Company”) have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S.”) and are consistent in all material respects with those applied in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on January 26, 2023. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the amortization of content assets and the recognition and measurement of income tax assets and liabilities. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On a regular basis, the Company evaluates the assumptions, judgments and estimates. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The interim financial information is unaudited, but reflects all normal recurring adjustments that are, in the opinion of management, necessary to fairly present the information set forth herein. The interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full year.
There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies as compared to the significant accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.


2. Revenue Recognition
The Company's primary source of revenues is from monthly membership fees. Members are billed in advance of the start of their monthly membership and revenues are recognized ratably over each monthly membership period. Revenues are presented net of the taxes that are collected from members and remitted to governmental authorities. The Company is the principal in all its relationships where partners, including consumer electronics (“CE”) manufacturers, multichannel video programming distributors (“MVPDs”), mobile operators and internet service providers (“ISPs”), provide access to the service as the Company retains control over service delivery to its members. Typically, payments made to the partners, such as for marketing, are expensed. However, if there is no distinct service provided in exchange for the payments made to the partners or if the price that the member pays is established by the partners and there is no standalone price for the Netflix service (for instance, in a bundle), these payments are recognized as a reduction of revenues.
The following tables summarize revenues, paid net membership additions, and ending paid memberships by region for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, respectively:

United States and Canada (UCAN)
As of/ Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Revenues$3,608,645 $3,350,424 
Paid net membership additions (losses)102 (636)
Paid memberships at end of period (1)74,398 74,579 

Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)
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As of/ Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Revenues$2,517,641 $2,561,831 
Paid net membership additions (losses)644 (303)
Paid memberships at end of period (1)77,373 73,733 

Latin America (LATAM)
As of/ Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Revenues$1,070,192 $998,948 
Paid net membership additions (losses)(450)(351)
Paid memberships at end of period (1)41,249 39,610 

Asia-Pacific (APAC)
As of/ Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
 (in thousands)
Revenues$933,523 $916,754 
Paid net membership additions (losses)1,455 1,087 
Paid memberships at end of period (1)39,478 33,719 
(1) A paid membership (also referred to as a paid subscription) is defined as a membership that has the right to receive Netflix service following sign-up and a method of payment being provided, and that is not part of a free trial or certain other promotions that may be offered by the Company to new or rejoining members. Certain members have the option to add extra member sub accounts. These extra member sub accounts are not included in paid memberships. A membership is canceled and ceases to be reflected in the above metrics as of the effective cancellation date. Voluntary cancellations generally become effective at the end of the prepaid membership period. Involuntary cancellations, as a result of a failed method of payment, become effective immediately. Memberships are assigned to territories based on the geographic location used at time of sign-up as determined by the Company’s internal systems, which utilize industry standard geo-location technology.
Total U.S. revenues, inclusive of DVD revenues not reported in the tables above, were $3.3 billion and $3.1 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. DVD revenues were $32 million and $40 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Deferred revenue consists of membership fees billed that have not been recognized, as well as gift cards and other prepaid memberships that have not been fully redeemed. As of March 31, 2023, total deferred revenue was $1,262 million, the vast majority of which was related to membership fees billed that are expected to be recognized as revenue within the next month. The remaining deferred revenue balance, which is related to gift cards and other prepaid memberships, will be recognized as revenue over the period of service after redemption, which is expected to occur over the next 12 months. Total deferred revenue as of March 31, 2023 remained relatively flat as compared to the balance of $1,265 million as of December 31, 2022.

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3. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of outstanding shares of common stock and, when dilutive, potential outstanding shares of common stock during the period. Potential shares of common stock consist of incremental shares issuable upon the assumed exercise of stock options. The computation of earnings per share is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
(in thousands, except per share data)
Basic earnings per share:
Net income
$1,305,120 $1,597,447 
Shares used in computation:
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding445,244 444,146 
Basic earnings per share$2.93 $3.60 
Diluted earnings per share:
Net income
$1,305,120 $1,597,447 
Shares used in computation:
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding445,244 444,146 
Employee stock options7,173 8,838 
Weighted-average number of shares
452,417 452,984 
Diluted earnings per share$2.88 $3.53 

Employee stock options with exercise prices greater than the average market price of the common stock were excluded from the diluted calculation as their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive. The following table summarizes the potential shares of common stock excluded from the diluted calculation:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Employee stock options5,847 2,749 
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4. Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Short-term Investments
The Company’s investment policy is consistent with the definition of available-for-sale securities. The Company does not buy and hold securities principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future. The Company’s policy is focused on the preservation of capital, liquidity and return. From time to time, the Company may sell certain securities but the objectives are generally not to generate profits on short-term differences in price. The following tables summarize the Company's cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investments as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022:

 As of March 31, 2023
 Cash and cash equivalentsShort-term investmentsOther Current AssetsNon-current AssetsTotal
 (in thousands)
Cash$3,787,630 $ $3,889 $19,483 $3,811,002 
Level 1 securities:
Money market funds2,561,649   53 $2,561,702 
Level 2 securities:
Time Deposits (1)365,315 1,112,910   $1,478,225 
$6,714,594 $1,112,910 $3,889 $19,536 $7,850,929 


 As of December 31, 2022
 Cash and cash equivalentsShort-term investmentsOther Current AssetsNon-current AssetsTotal
 (in thousands)
Cash$4,071,584 $ $3,410 $19,874 $4,094,868 
Level 1 securities:
Money market funds569,826   122 569,948 
Level 2 securities:
Time Deposits (1)505,766 911,276   1,417,042 
$5,147,176 $911,276 $3,410 $19,996 $6,081,858 
(1) The majority of the Company's time deposits are domestic deposits, which mature within one year.
Other current assets include restricted cash for deposits related to self insurance and letter of credit agreements. Non-current assets include restricted cash related to letter of credit agreements. The fair value of cash equivalents and short-term investments included in the Level 2 category is based on observable inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets at the measurement date; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly.
See Note 6 Debt to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding the fair value of the Company’s senior notes.
There were no material gross realized gains or losses in the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

11


5. Balance Sheet Components

Content Assets, Net
Content assets consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Licensed content, net
$12,533,388 $12,732,549 
Produced content, net
Released, less amortization
9,306,337 9,110,518 
In production
9,872,138 10,255,940 
In development and pre-production
637,321 637,706 
19,815,796 20,004,164 

Content assets, net
$32,349,184 $32,736,713 

As of March 31, 2023, approximately $5,430 million, $2,781 million, and $1,952 million of the $12,533 million unamortized cost of the licensed content is expected to be amortized in each of the next three years.  As of March 31, 2023, approximately $3,553 million, $2,393 million, and $1,692 million of the $9,306 million unamortized cost of the produced content that has been released is expected to be amortized in each of the next three years.
As of March 31, 2023, the amount of accrued participations and residuals was not material.
The following table represents the amortization of content assets:
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Licensed content$1,723,678 $1,884,438 
Produced content1,736,306 1,281,927 
Total$3,459,984 $3,166,365 


12


Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment and accumulated depreciation consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Estimated Useful Lives
(in thousands)
Land
$86,452 $85,005 
Buildings
60,420 52,106 30 years
Leasehold improvements
1,050,836 1,040,570 Over life of lease
Furniture and fixtures
153,836 153,682 
3 years
Information technology
443,073 442,681 3 years
Corporate aircraft
115,578 115,578 
8-10 years
Machinery and equipment
27,068 26,821 
3-5 years
Capital work-in-progress
284,181 235,555 
Property and equipment, gross
2,221,444 2,151,998 
Less: Accumulated depreciation
(808,350)(753,741)
Property and equipment, net
$1,413,094 $1,398,257 


Leases
The Company has entered into operating leases primarily for real estate. Operating leases are included in "Other non-current assets" on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets, and represent the Company’s right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The Company’s obligations to make lease payments are included in "Accrued expenses and other liabilities" and "Other non-current liabilities" on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Information related to the Company's operating right-of-use assets and related operating lease liabilities were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Cash paid for operating lease liabilities$113,407 $103,141 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease obligations20,894 141,298 

As of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net$2,175,020 $2,227,122 
Current operating lease liabilities363,304 355,985 
Non-current operating lease liabilities2,155,415 2,222,503 
Total operating lease liabilities$2,518,719 $2,578,488 






13


Other Current Assets
Other current assets consisted of the following:
As of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Trade receivables
$1,025,509 $988,898 
Prepaid expenses
485,997 392,735 
Other
1,143,613 1,826,388 
Total other current assets
$2,655,119 $3,208,021 
The decrease in Other was primarily driven by receipt of amounts due under a modified content licensing arrangement.


6. Debt
As of March 31, 2023, the Company had aggregate outstanding notes of $14,437 million, net of $76 million of issuance costs, with varying maturities (the "Notes"). Of the outstanding balance, $399 million, net of issuance costs, is classified as short-term debt on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had aggregate outstanding notes of $14,353 million, net of $79 million of issuance costs. Each of the Notes were issued at par and are senior unsecured obligations of the Company. Interest is payable semi-annually at fixed rates. A portion of the outstanding Notes is denominated in foreign currency (comprised of €5,170 million) and is remeasured into U.S. dollars at each balance sheet date (with remeasurement loss totaling $81 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023).
The following table provides a summary of the Company's outstanding debt and the fair values based on quoted market prices in less active markets as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
Principal Amount at ParLevel 2 Fair Value as of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Issuance DateMaturityMarch 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in millions)(in millions)
5.750% Senior Notes
$400 $400 February 2014March 2024$404 $404 
5.875% Senior Notes
800 800 February 2015February 2025817 811 
3.000% Senior Notes (1)
510 503 April 2020June 2025503 495 
3.625% Senior Notes
500 500 April 2020June 2025487 479 
4.375% Senior Notes
1,000 1,000 October 2016November 2026991 980 
3.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,412 1,391 May 2017May 20271,403 1,338 
4.875% Senior Notes
1,600 1,600 October 2017April 20281,610 1,557 
5.875% Senior Notes
1,900 1,900 April 2018November 20282,002 1,930 
4.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,194 1,177 October 2018May 20291,222 1,151 
6.375% Senior Notes
800 800 October 2018May 2029862 830 
3.875% Senior Notes (1)
1,303 1,284 April 2019November 20291,283 1,201 
5.375% Senior Notes
900 900 April 2019November 2029917 885 
3.625% Senior Notes (1)
1,194 1,177 October 2019June 20301,153 1,078 
4.875% Senior Notes
1,000 1,000 October 2019June 2030998 944 
$14,513 $14,432 $14,652 $14,083 
(1) The following Senior Notes have a principal amount denominated in euro: 3.000% Senior Notes for €470 million, 3.625% Senior Notes for €1,300 million, 4.625% Senior Notes for €1,100 million, 3.875% Senior Notes for €1,200 million, and 3.625% Senior Notes for €1,100 million.
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Each of the Notes are repayable in whole or in part upon the occurrence of a change of control, at the option of the holders, at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% of the principal plus accrued interest. The Company may redeem the Notes prior to maturity in whole or in part at an amount equal to the principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest and an applicable premium. The Notes include, among other terms and conditions, limitations on the Company's ability to create, incur or allow certain liens; enter into sale and lease-back transactions; create, assume, incur or guarantee additional indebtedness of certain of the Company's subsidiaries; and consolidate or merge with, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of the Company's and its subsidiaries assets, to another person. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all related covenants.
Revolving Credit Facility
On March 6, 2023, the Company amended its $1 billion unsecured revolving credit facility ("Revolving Credit Agreement") to replace the London interbank offered rate to a variable secured overnight financing rate (the “Term SOFR Rate”) as the rate to which interest payments are indexed, among other things. The Revolving Credit Agreement matures on June 17, 2026. Revolving loans may be borrowed, repaid and reborrowed until June 17, 2026, at which time all amounts borrowed must be repaid. The Company may use the proceeds of future borrowings under the Revolving Credit Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of March 31, 2023, no amounts have been borrowed under the Revolving Credit Agreement.
The borrowings under the Revolving Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, of either (i) a floating rate equal to a base rate (the “Alternate Base Rate”) or (ii) a rate equal to the Term SOFR Rate (or the applicable benchmark replacement), plus a margin of 0.75%. The Alternate Base Rate is defined as the greatest of (A) the rate of interest published by the Wall Street Journal, from time to time, as the prime rate, (B) the federal funds rate, plus 0.500% and (C) the Term SOFR Rate for a one-month tenor, plus 1.00%. The Term SOFR Rate is the forward-looking secured overnight financing rate administered by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or a successor administrator, for the relevant interest period, but in no event shall the Term SOFR Rate be less than 0.00% per annum.
The Company is also obligated to pay a commitment fee on the undrawn amounts of the Revolving Credit Agreement at an annual rate of 0.10%. The Revolving Credit Agreement requires the Company to comply with certain covenants, including covenants that limit or restrict the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to incur debt and limit or restrict the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries to grant liens and enter into sale and leaseback transactions; and, in the case of the Company or a guarantor, merge, consolidate, liquidate, dissolve or sell, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all related covenants.


7. Commitments and Contingencies

Content
As of March 31, 2023, the Company had $21.5 billion of obligations comprised of $4.3 billion included in "Current content liabilities" and $2.9 billion of "Non-current content liabilities" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and $14.3 billion of obligations that are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as they did not yet meet the criteria for asset recognition.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $21.8 billion of obligations comprised of $4.5 billion included in "Current content liabilities" and $3.1 billion of "Non-current content liabilities" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and $14.2 billion of obligations that are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as they did not yet meet the criteria for asset recognition.
The expected timing of payments for these content obligations is as follows:
As of 
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Less than one year
$9,771,665 $10,038,483 
Due after one year and through three years
9,536,111 9,425,551 
Due after three years and through five years
1,964,812 2,124,307 
Due after five years
253,283 243,606 
Total content obligations
$21,525,871 $21,831,947 
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Content obligations include amounts related to the acquisition, licensing and production of content. Obligations that are in non-U.S. dollar currencies are translated to the U.S. dollar at period end rates. An obligation for the production of content includes non-cancelable commitments under creative talent and employment agreements as well as other production related commitments. An obligation for the acquisition and licensing of content is incurred at the time the Company enters into an agreement to obtain future titles. Once a title becomes available, a content liability is recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Certain agreements include the obligation to license rights for unknown future titles, the ultimate quantity and/or fees for which are not yet determinable as of the reporting date. Traditional film output deals, or certain TV series license agreements where the number of seasons to be aired is unknown, are examples of such license agreements. The Company does not include any estimated obligation for these future titles beyond the known minimum amount. However, the unknown obligations are expected to be significant.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, in the normal course of its operations, the Company is subject to litigation matters and claims, including claims relating to employee relations, business practices and patent infringement. Litigation can be expensive and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict and the Company's view of these matters may change in the future as the litigation and events related thereto unfold. The Company expenses legal fees as incurred. The Company records a provision for contingent losses when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. An unfavorable outcome to any legal matter, if material, could have an adverse effect on the Company's operations or its financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
The Company is involved in litigation matters not listed herein but does not consider the matters to be material either individually or in the aggregate at this time. The Company's view of the matters not listed may change in the future as the litigation and events related thereto unfold.
Indemnification
In the ordinary course of business, the Company has entered into contractual arrangements under which it has agreed to provide indemnification of varying scope and terms to business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of the Company’s breach of such agreements and out of intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. In these circumstances, payment may be conditional on the other party making a claim pursuant to the procedures specified in the particular contract.
The Company's obligations under these agreements may be limited in terms of time or amount, and in some instances, the Company may have recourse against third parties for certain payments. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and certain of its officers that will require it, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. The terms of such obligations vary.
It is not possible to make a reasonable estimate of the maximum potential amount of future payments under these or similar agreements due to the conditional nature of the Company’s obligations and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. No amount has been accrued in the accompanying consolidated financial statements with respect to these indemnification obligations.


8. Stockholders’ Equity
Stock Option Plan
In June 2020, the Company's stockholders approved the 2020 Stock Plan, which was adopted by the Company’s Board of Directors in March 2020 subject to stockholder approval. The 2020 Stock Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options to employees and for the grant of non-statutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock and restricted stock units to employees, directors and consultants.
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A summary of the activities related to the Company’s stock option plans is as follows:
Options Outstanding
Shares
Available
for Grant
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
(per share)
Weighted-Average
Remaining
Contractual Term
(in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Balances as of December 31, 202216,454,103 19,896,861 $242.22 
Granted
(591,343)591,343 317.39
Exercised
— (412,158)62.29 
Expired
— (574)13.14 
Balances as of March 31, 202315,862,760 20,075,472 $248.14 5.58$2,545,760 
Vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 202320,075,472 $248.14 5.58$2,545,760 
Exercisable as of March 31, 202320,014,050 $247.85 5.56$2,544,913 

The aggregate intrinsic value in the table above represents the total pretax intrinsic value (the difference between the Company’s closing stock price on the last trading day of the first quarter of 2023 and the exercise price, multiplied by the number of in-the-money options) that would have been received by the option holders had all option holders exercised their options on the last trading day of the first quarter of 2023. This amount changes based on the fair market value of the Company’s common stock.
A summary of the amounts related to option exercises, is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
(in thousands)
Total intrinsic value of options exercised$116,310 $114,762 
Cash received from options exercised26,028 13,678 
Stock-based Compensation
Stock options are generally vested in full upon grant date and exercisable for the full ten year contractual term regardless of employment status. Stock options granted to certain named executive officers vest on the one-year anniversary of the grant date, subject to the employee’s continuous employment or service with the Company through the vesting date. The following table summarizes the assumptions used to value option grants using the lattice-binomial model and the valuation data:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Dividend yield % %
Expected volatility46 %38 %
Risk-free interest rate3.63 %1.71 %
Suboptimal exercise factor4.22 4.71 
Weighted-average fair value (per share)$186 $228 
Total stock-based compensation expense (in thousands)$99,099 $119,209 
Total income tax impact on provision (in thousands)$21,711 $26,413 

Stock Repurchases
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $5 billion of its common stock, with no expiration date. Stock repurchases may be effected through open market repurchases in compliance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act, including through the use of trading plans intended to qualify under Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, privately-negotiated transactions, accelerated stock repurchase plans, block purchases, or other similar purchase techniques and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. The Company is not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares, and the timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including the Company’s stock price, general economic, business and market conditions, and alternative investment
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opportunities. The Company may discontinue any repurchases of its common stock at any time without prior notice. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company repurchased 1,222,056 shares for an aggregate amount of $400 million. As of March 31, 2023, $4.0 billion remain available for repurchases. Shares repurchased by the Company are accounted for when the transaction is settled. As of March 31, 2023, there were no unsettled share repurchases. Direct costs incurred to acquire the shares are included in the total cost of the shares.


9. Income Taxes
 Three Months Ended
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$163,754 $382,245 
Effective tax rate11 %19 %
The effective tax rates for the three months ended March 31, 2023 differed from the Federal statutory rate primarily due to the impact of international provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, research and development credits, and the recognition of excess tax benefits of stock-based compensation. The effective tax rates for the three months ended March 31, 2022 differed from the Federal statutory rate primarily due to an increase in foreign taxes, offset by the impact of international provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and the recognition of excess tax benefits of stock-based compensation.
The decrease in the effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022 was primarily due to a decrease in foreign taxes. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company recognized a discrete tax benefit related to the excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation of $24 million, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2022 of $25 million.
Gross unrecognized tax benefits were $234 million and $227 million as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The gross unrecognized tax benefits, if recognized by the Company, will result in a reduction of approximately $162 million to the provision for income taxes thereby favorably impacting the Company’s effective tax rate.
The Company files U.S. Federal, state and foreign tax returns. The Company is currently under examination by the IRS for the years 2016 through 2018 and is subject to examination for 2019 through 2022. The foreign and state tax returns for the years 2015 through 2022 are subject to examination by various states and foreign jurisdictions. While the Company is in various stages of inquiries and examinations by federal, state and foreign taxing authorities, we believe that our tax positions will more likely than not be sustained. Nonetheless, it is possible that future obligations related to these matters could arise.
Given the potential outcome of the current examinations as well as the impact of the current examinations on the potential expiration of the statute of limitations, it is reasonably possible that the balance of unrecognized tax benefits could significantly change within the next twelve months. However, an estimate of the range of reasonably possible adjustments cannot be made at this time.

10. Segment and Geographic Information

The Company operates as one operating segment. The Company's chief operating decision maker ("CODM") is its co-chief executive officers, who review financial information presented on a consolidated basis for the purposes of making operating decisions, assessing financial performance and allocating resources.
Total U.S. revenues were $3.3 billion and $3.1 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. See Note 2 Revenue Recognition for additional information about streaming revenue by region.
The Company's long-lived tangible assets, as well as the Company's operating lease right-of-use assets recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, were located as follows:
As of
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(in thousands)
United States$2,721,743 $2,745,071 
International866,371 880,308 



Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

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Forward-Looking Statements
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: our core strategy; our ability to improve our content offerings and service; our future financial performance, including expectations regarding revenues, deferred revenue, operating income and margin, net income, expenses, and profitability; liquidity, including the sufficiency of our capital resources, net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, access to financing sources, and free cash flows; capital allocation strategies, including any stock repurchases or repurchase programs; seasonality; stock price volatility; impact of foreign exchange rate fluctuations, including on net income, revenues and average revenues per paying member; impact of interest rate fluctuations; adequacy of existing facilities; future regulatory changes and their impact on our business; intellectual property; price changes and testing; impact of recently adopted accounting pronouncements; accounting treatment for changes related to content assets; acquisitions; membership growth, including impact of content and pricing changes on membership growth; partnerships; member viewing patterns; dividends; future contractual obligations, including unknown content obligations and timing of payments; our global content and marketing investments, including investments in original programming; content amortization; resolution of tax examinations; tax expense; unrecognized tax benefits; deferred tax assets; and our ability to effectively manage change and growth. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those included in forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on January 26, 2023, in particular the risk factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A. 
We assume no obligation to revise or publicly release any revision to any forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless required by law.
Investors and others should note that we announce material financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.netflix.net), SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts. We use these channels, as well as social media and blogs to communicate with our members and the public about our company, our services and other issues. It is possible that the information we post on social media and blogs could be deemed to be material information. Therefore, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in our company to review the information we post on the social media channels and blogs listed on our investor relations website.


Overview
We are one of the world’s leading entertainment services with over 232 million paid memberships in over 190 countries enjoying TV series, films and games across a wide variety of genres and languages. Members can play, pause and resume watching as much as they want, anytime, anywhere, and can change their plans at any time.
Our core strategy is to grow our business globally within the parameters of our operating margin target. We strive to continuously improve our members’ experience by offering compelling content that delights them and attracts new members. We seek to drive conversation around our content to further enhance member joy, and we are continuously enhancing our user interface to help our members more easily choose content that they will find enjoyable.
Our membership growth exhibits a seasonal pattern that reflects variations when consumers buy internet-connected screens and when they tend to increase their viewing. Historically, the fourth quarter represents our greatest streaming membership growth. In addition, our membership growth can be impacted by our content release schedule and changes to pricing.

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Results of Operations

The following represents our consolidated performance highlights:
As of/ Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
(in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Financial Results:
Streaming revenues
$8,130,001 $7,827,957 $302,044 %
DVD revenues (1)31,502 39,810 (8,308)(21)%
Total revenues$8,161,503 $7,867,767 $293,736 %
Operating income$1,714,317 $1,971,626 $(257,309)(13)%
Operating margin21 %25 %(4)%
Global Streaming Memberships:
Paid net membership additions (losses)1,751 (203)1,954 963 %
Paid memberships at end of period232,498 221,641 10,857 %
Average paying memberships
231,623 221,743 9,880 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership
$11.70 $11.77 $(0.07)(1)%

(1) In April 2023, we announced our plans to discontinue our DVD-by-mail service, which we do not expect to have a material effect on our operations or financial results.
Consolidated revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2023 increased 4% as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2022. The increase in our consolidated revenues was due to the 4% growth in average paying memberships, partially offset by a 1% decrease in average monthly revenue per paying membership. The decrease in average monthly revenue per paying membership was primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to certain foreign currencies and changes in plan mix, partially offset by our price changes.
Operating expenses grew at a faster rate than revenue, which was unfavorably impacted by fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, resulting in a decrease in operating margin as compared to the prior comparative period.

Streaming Revenues
We primarily derive revenues from monthly membership fees for services related to streaming content to our members. We offer a variety of streaming membership plans, the price of which varies by country and the features of the plan. As of March 31, 2023, pricing on our paid plans ranged from the U.S. dollar equivalent of $1 to $26 per month. We expect that from time to time the prices of our membership plans in each country may change and we may test other plan and price variations.
The following tables summarize streaming revenue and other streaming membership information by region for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.


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United States and Canada (UCAN)
As of/ Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Revenues$3,608,645 $3,350,424 $258,221 %
Paid net membership additions (losses)102 (636)738 116 %
Paid memberships at end of period74,398 74,579 (181)— %
Average paying memberships74,347 74,897 (550)(1)%
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$16.18 $14.91 $1.27 %
Constant currency change (1)%

Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)
As of/ Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Revenues$2,517,641 $2,561,831 $(44,190)(2)%
Paid net membership additions (losses)644 (303)947 313 %
Paid memberships at end of period77,373 73,733 3,640 %
Average paying memberships77,051 73,885 3,166 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$10.89 $11.56 $(0.67)(6)%
Constant currency change (1)%

Latin America (LATAM)
As of/ Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Revenues$1,070,192 $998,948 $71,244 %
Paid net membership additions (losses)(450)(351)(99)(28)%
Paid memberships at end of period41,249 39,610 1,639 %
Average paying memberships41,474 39,786 1,688 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$8.60 $8.37 $0.23 %
Constant currency change (1)%

Asia-Pacific (APAC)
As of/ Three Months EndedChange
 March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
 (in thousands, except revenue per membership and percentages)
Revenues$933,523 $916,754 $16,769 %
Paid net membership additions (losses)1,455 1,087 368 34 %
Paid memberships at end of period39,478 33,719 5,759 17 %
Average paying memberships38,751 33,176 5,575 17 %
Average monthly revenue per paying membership$8.03 $9.21 $(1.18)(13)%
Constant currency change (1)(6)%
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(1) We believe constant currency information is useful in analyzing the underlying trends in average monthly revenue per paying membership. In order to exclude the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations on average monthly revenue per paying membership, we estimate current period revenue assuming foreign exchange rates had remained constant with foreign exchange rates from each of the corresponding months of the prior-year period. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, our revenues would have been approximately $346 million higher had foreign currency exchange rates remained constant with those for the three months ended March 31, 2022.

Cost of Revenues
Amortization of content assets makes up the majority of cost of revenues. Expenses associated with the acquisition, licensing and production of content (such as payroll and related personnel expenses, costs associated with obtaining rights to music included in our content, overall deals with talent, miscellaneous production related costs and participations and residuals), streaming delivery costs and other operations costs make up the remainder of cost of revenues. We have built our own global content delivery network (“Open Connect”) to help us efficiently stream a high volume of content to our members over the internet. Delivery expenses, therefore, include equipment costs related to Open Connect, payroll and related personnel expenses and all third-party costs, such as cloud computing costs, associated with delivering content over the internet. Other operations costs include customer service and payment processing fees, including those we pay to our integrated payment partners, as well as other costs incurred in making our content available to members.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenues
$4,803,625$4,284,705$518,92012 %
As a percentage of revenues
59 %54 %

The increase in cost of revenues was primarily due to a $294 million increase in content amortization relating to our existing and new content, including more exclusive and original programming. Other costs of revenues increased $225 million, primarily due to an increase in other content expenses in the three months ended March 31, 2023 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Marketing
Marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising expenses and certain payments made to our marketing and advertising sales partners, including consumer electronics (“CE”) manufacturers, multichannel video programming distributors (“MVPDs”), mobile operators, and internet service providers (“ISPs”). Advertising expenses include promotional activities such as digital and television advertising. Marketing expenses also include payroll and related expenses for personnel that support marketing activities.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
(in thousands, except percentages)
Marketing
$555,362$555,978$(616)— %
As a percentage of revenues
%%

Marketing expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2023 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2022 remained relatively flat.
Technology and Development
Technology and development expenses consist primarily of payroll and related expenses for technology personnel responsible for making improvements to our service offerings, including testing, maintaining and modifying our user interface, our recommendations, merchandising and infrastructure. Technology and development expenses also include costs associated with general use computer hardware and software.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
(in thousands, except percentages)
Technology and development
$687,275$657,530$29,745%
As a percentage of revenues
%%

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The increase in technology and development expenses was primarily due to a $26 million increase in personnel-related costs.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related expenses for corporate personnel. General and administrative expenses also include professional fees and other general corporate expenses.
Three Months EndedChange
March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
Q1'23 vs. Q1'22
(in thousands, except percentages)
General and administrative
$400,924$397,928$