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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 10-K



(MARK ONE)    

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

or the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                                    TO                                   

Commission file number 000-23877

Heritage Commerce Corp
(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

California
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  77-0469558
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

150 Almaden Boulevard
San Jose, California 95113

(Address of Principal Executive Offices including Zip Code)

(408) 947-6900
(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, no par value   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K, or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer" and "small reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer ý   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting
company)
  Smaller reporting company o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý

         The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2015, based upon the closing price on that date of $9.61 per share as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, and 15,578,339 shares held, was approximately $149.7 million.

         As of February 29, 2016, there were 32,121,885 shares of the Registrant's common stock (no par value) outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 26, 2016 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report. The proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the Registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2015.  

   


Table of Contents


HERITAGE COMMERCE CORP

INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015

 
   
  Page

 

PART I.

   

Item 1.

 

Business

 
3

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

  25

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

  44

Item 2.

 

Properties

  44

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

  46

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

  46

 

PART II.

 
 

Item 5.

 

Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 
47

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

  50

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

  51

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

  88

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

  89

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures

  89

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

  89

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

  90

 

PART III.

 
 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 
90

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

  91

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

  91

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

  91

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

  91

 

PART IV.

 
 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 
91

Signatures

  92

Financial Statements

  94

Exhibit Index

  159

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

        This Report on Form 10-K contains various statements that may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Rule 175 promulgated thereunder, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, Rule 3b-6 promulgated thereunder and are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These forward-looking statements often can be, but are not always, identified by the use of words such as "assume," "expect," "intend," "plan," "project," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "anticipate," "may," "might," "should," "could," "goal," "potential" and similar expressions. We base these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events, our assumptions regarding these events and our knowledge of facts at the time the statements are made. These statements include statements relating to our projected growth, anticipated future financial performance, and management's long-term performance goals, as well as statements relating to the anticipated effects on results of operations and financial condition.

        These forward looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties that may be outside our control and our actual results could differ materially from our projected results. In addition, our past results of operations do not necessarily indicate our future results. The forward looking statements could be affected by many factors, including but not limited to:

    local, regional, and national economic conditions and events and their impact on us and our customers;

    changes in the financial performance or condition of the Company's customers;

    volatility in credit and equity markets and its effect on the global economy;

    competition for loans and deposits and failure to attract or retain deposits and loans;

    our ability to increase market share and control expenses;

    our ability to develop and promote customer acceptance of new products and services in a timely manner;

    risks associated with concentrations in real estate related loans;

    other than temporary impairment charges to our securities portfolio;

    an oversupply of inventory and deterioration in values of California commercial real estate;

    a prolonged slowdown in construction activity;

    changes in the level of nonperforming assets and charge offs and other credit quality measures, and their impact on the adequacy of the Company's allowance for loan losses and the Company's provision for loan losses;

    the effects of and changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve Board;

    changes in inflation, interest rates, and market liquidity which may impact interest margins and impact funding sources;

    our ability to raise capital or incur debt on reasonable terms;

    regulatory limits on Heritage Bank of Commerce's ability to pay dividends to the Company;

    changes in our capital management policies, including those regarding business combinations, dividends, and share repurchases, among others;

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    operational issues stemming from, and/or capital spending necessitated by, the potential need to adapt to industry changes in information technology systems, on which we are highly dependent;

    the ability to keep pace with, and implement on a timely basis, technological changes;

    the impact of cyber security attacks or other disruptions to the Company's information systems and any resulting compromise of data or disruptions in service;

    changes in the competitive environment among financial or bank holding companies and other financial service providers;

    the effect and uncertain impact on the Company of the enactment of the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated by supervisory and oversight agencies implementing the new legislation;

    significant changes in applicable laws and regulations, including those concerning taxes, banking and securities;

    the effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board and other accounting standard setters;

    the costs and effects of legal and regulatory developments, including resolution of legal proceedings or regulatory or other governmental inquiries, and the results of regulatory examinations or reviews;

    the successful integration of the business, employees and operations of Focus Business Bank with the Company and our ability to achieve the projected synergies of this acquisition within expected time frame; and

    our success in managing the risks involved in the foregoing factors.

        We are not able to predict all the factors that may affect future results. You should not place undue reliance on any forward looking statement, which speaks only as of the date of this Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by applicable laws or regulations, we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


PART I

ITEM 1 — BUSINESS

General

        Heritage Commerce Corp, a California corporation organized in 1997, is a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended. We provide a wide range of banking services through Heritage Bank of Commerce, our wholly-owned subsidiary. Heritage Bank of Commerce is a California state-chartered bank headquartered in San Jose, California and has been conducting business since 1994.

        Heritage Bank of Commerce is a multi-community independent bank that offers a full range of commercial banking services to small and medium-sized businesses and their owners, managers and employees. We operate through 11 full service branch offices located entirely in the southern and eastern regions of the general San Francisco Bay Area of California in the counties of Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Benito. Our market includes the headquarters of a number of technology based companies in the region commonly known as "Silicon Valley."

        Our lending activities are diversified and include commercial, real estate, construction and land development, consumer and Small Business Administration ("SBA") guaranteed loans. We generally lend

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in markets where we have a physical presence through our branch offices. We attract deposits throughout our market area with a customer-oriented product mix, competitive pricing, and convenient locations. We offer a wide range of deposit products for business banking and retail markets. We offer a multitude of other products and services to complement our lending and deposit services. In addition, Bay View Funding provides factoring financing throughout the United States.

        As a bank holding company, Heritage Commerce Corp is subject to the supervision of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve"). We are required to file with the Federal Reserve reports and other information regarding our business operations and the business operations of our subsidiaries. As a California chartered bank, Heritage Bank of Commerce is subject to primary supervision, periodic examination, and regulation by the Department of Business Oversight — Division of Financial Institutions ("DBO"), and by the Federal Reserve, as its primary federal regulator.

Recent Acquisitions

        We have grown over the past five years through the acquisitions discussed below, as well as through organic growth.

    Focus Business Bank

        On August 20, 2015, we completed the acquisition of Focus Business Bank ("Focus Bank") for an aggregate transaction value of $66.6 million. We acquired from Focus Bank total assets, at fair value, of approximately $438.8 million, loans (including loans held-for-sale) of $174.8 million, at fair value, and deposits of $405.1 million, at fair value, and one branch in San Jose, California. We issued approximately 5,456,713 shares of our common stock to Focus Bank shareholders, at an exchange ratio of 1.8235 shares of Heritage Commerce Corp common stock per Focus Bank share.

    Bay View Funding

        On November 1, 2014, Heritage Bank of Commerce acquired CSNK Working Capital Finance Corp, d/b/a "Bay View Funding" ("Bay View Funding") for approximately $22.5 million. Bay View Funding provides business essential working capital factoring financing to various industries throughout the United States.

        Our principal executive office is located at 150 Almaden Boulevard, San Jose, California 95113, telephone number: (408) 947-6900.

        At December 31, 2015, we had consolidated assets of $2.36 billion, deposits of $2.06 billion and shareholders' equity of $245.4 million.

        When we use "we", "us", "our" or the "Company", we mean the Company on a consolidated basis with Heritage Bank of Commerce. When we refer to "HCC" or the "holding company", we are referring to Heritage Commerce Corp on a standalone basis. When we use "HBC", we mean Heritage Bank of Commerce on a standalone basis.

        The Internet address of the Company's website is "http://www.heritagecommercecorp.com." The Company makes available free of charge through the Company's website, the Company's annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports. The Company makes these reports available on its website on the same day they appear on the Securities and Exchange Commission's ("SEC") website.

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Heritage Bank of Commerce

        Heritage Bank of Commerce ("HBC") is a California state-chartered bank headquartered in San Jose, California. It was incorporated in November 1993 and opened for business in January 1994. HBC operates through eleven full service branch offices. The locations of HBC's current offices are:

San Jose:   Administrative Office
Main Branch
150 Almaden Boulevard
San Jose, CA 95113
  Los Gatos:   Branch Office
15575 Los Gatos Boulevard
Suite B
Los Gatos, CA 95032

Danville:

 

Branch Office
387 Diablo Road
Danville, CA 94526

 

Morgan Hill:

 

Branch Office
18625 Sutter Boulevard
Suite 100
Morgan Hill, CA 95037

Fremont:

 

Branch Office
3137 Stevenson Boulevard
Fremont, CA 94538

 

Pleasanton:

 

Branch Office
300 Main Street
Pleasanton, CA 94566

Gilroy:

 

Branch Office
7598 Monterey Street
Suite 110
Gilroy, CA 95020

 

Sunnyvale:

 

Branch Office
333 W. El Camino Real
Suite 150
Sunnyvale, CA 94087

Hollister:

 

Branch Office
351 Tres Pinos Road
Suite 102A
Hollister, CA 95023

 

Walnut Creek:

 

Branch Office
101 Ygnacio Valley Road
Suite 100
Walnut Creek, CA 94596

Los Altos:

 

Branch Office
419 South San Antonio Road
Los Altos, CA 94022

 

 

 

 

    Bay View Funding

        Bay View Funding provides business-essential working capital factoring financing to various industries throughout the United States. Bay View Funding's administrative offices are located at 2933 Bunker Hill Lane, Santa Clara, CA 95054.

    Lending Activities

        Our commercial loan portfolio is comprised of operating secured and unsecured loans advanced for working capital, equipment purchases and other business purposes. Generally short-term loans have maturities ranging from thirty days to one year, and "term loans" have maturities ranging from one to five years. Short-term business loans are generally intended to finance current transactions and typically provide for periodic principal payments, with interest payable monthly. Term loans generally provide for floating or fixed interest rates, with monthly payments of both principal and interest. Repayment of secured and unsecured commercial loans depends substantially on the borrower's underlying business, financial condition and cash flows, as well as the sufficiency of the collateral. Compared to real estate, the collateral may be more difficult to monitor, evaluate and sell. It may also depreciate more rapidly than real estate. Such risks can be significantly affected by economic conditions. HBC's commercial loans, except for the factored receivables at Bay View Funding, are primarily originated for locally-oriented commercial activities in communities where HBC has a physical presence through its branch offices.

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        HBC actively engages in SBA lending. HBC has been designated as an SBA Preferred Lender since 1999.

        Our factoring receivables portfolio is originated by Bay View Funding. Factored receivables are receivables that have been transferred by the originating organization and typically have not been subject to previous collection efforts. These receivables are acquired from a variety of companies, including but not limited to service providers, transportation companies, manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, apparel companies, advertisers, and temporary staffing companies.

        The commercial real estate loan portfolio is comprised of loans secured by commercial real estate. These loans are generally advanced based on the borrower's cash flow, and the underlying collateral provides a secondary source of payment. HBC generally restricts real estate term loans to no more than 75% of the property's appraised value or the purchase price of the property, depending on the type of property and its utilization. HBC offers both fixed and floating rate loans. Maturities on such loans are generally restricted to between five and ten years (with amortization ranging from fifteen to twenty-five years and a balloon payment due at maturity, and amortization of thirty years on loans secured by apartments); however, SBA and certain real estate loans that can be sold in the secondary market may be advanced for longer maturities. Commercial real estate loans typically involve large balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. Since payments on these loans are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties, as well as the business and financial condition of the borrower, repayment of such loans may be subject to adverse conditions in the real estate market, adverse economic conditions or changes in applicable government regulations. If the cash flow from the project decreases, or if leases are not obtained or renewed, the borrower's ability to repay the loan may be impaired.

        We make commercial construction loans for rental properties, commercial buildings and homes built by developers on speculative, undeveloped property. We also make construction loans for homes built by owner occupants. The terms of commercial construction loans are made in accordance with our loan policy. Advances on construction loans are made in accordance with a schedule reflecting the cost of construction, but are generally limited to a 75% loan-to- completed-appraised-value ratio. Repayment of construction loans on non-residential properties is normally expected from the property's eventual rental income, income from the borrower's operating entity or the sale of the subject property. In the case of income-producing property, repayment is usually expected from permanent financing upon completion of construction. At times we provide the permanent mortgage financing on our construction loans on income-producing property. Construction loans are interest-only loans during the construction period, which typically do not exceed 18 months. If HBC provides permanent financing the short-term loan converts to permanent, amortizing financing following the completion of construction. Generally, before making a commitment to fund a construction loan, we require an appraisal of the property by a state-certified or state-licensed appraiser. We review and inspect properties before disbursement of funds during the term of the construction loan. The repayment of construction loans is dependent upon the successful and timely completion of the construction of the subject property, as well as the sale of the property to third parties or the availability of permanent financing upon completion of all improvements. Construction loans expose us to the risk that improvements will not be completed on time, and in accordance with specifications and projected costs. Construction delays, the financial impairment of the builder, interest rate increases or economic downturn may further impair the borrower's ability to repay the loan. In addition, the borrower may not be able to obtain permanent financing or ultimate sale or rental of the property may not occur as anticipated. HBC utilizes underwriting guidelines to assess the likelihood of repayment from sources such as sale of the property or permanent mortgage financing prior to making the construction loan.

        Our home equity line portfolio is comprised of home equity lines of credit to customers in our markets. Home equity lines of credit are underwritten in a manner such that they result in credit risk that is substantially similar to that of residential mortgage loans. Nevertheless, home equity lines of credit have greater credit risk than residential mortgage loans because they are often secured by mortgages that are

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subordinated to the existing first mortgage on the property, which we may or may not hold, and they are not covered by private mortgage insurance coverage.

        The consumer loan portfolio is composed of miscellaneous consumer loans including loans for financing automobiles, various consumer goods and other personal purposes. Consumer loans are generally secured. Repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan, and the remaining deficiency may not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. In addition, consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower's continued financial stability, which can be adversely affected by job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount which can be recovered on such loans.

        As of December 31, 2015, the percentage of our total loans for each of the principal areas in which we directed our lending activities were as follows: (i) commercial and industrial 41% (including SBA loans and factored receivables); (ii) real estate secured loans 46%; (iii) land and construction loans 6%; and (iv) consumer (including home equity) 7%. While no specific industry concentration is considered significant, our lending operations are located in market areas dependent on technology and real estate industries and their supporting companies.

    Investments

        Our investment policy is established by the Board of Directors. The general investment strategies are developed and authorized by our Finance and Investment Committee of the Board of Directors. The investment policy is reviewed annually by the Finance and Investment Committee, and any changes to the policy are subject to approval by the full Board of Directors. The overall objectives of the investment policy are to maintain a portfolio of high quality and diversified investments to maximize interest income over the long term and to minimize risk, to provide collateral for borrowings, and to provide additional earnings when loan production is low. The policy dictates that investment decisions take into consideration the safety of principal, liquidity requirements and interest rate risk management. All securities transactions are reported to the Board of Directors' Finance and Investment Committee on a monthly basis.

    Sources of Funds

        Deposits traditionally have been our primary source of funds for our investment and lending activities. We also are able to borrow from the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco and the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco to supplement cash flow needs. Our additional sources of funds are scheduled loan payments, maturing investments, loan repayments, income on other earning assets, and the proceeds of loan sales and securities sales.

        Interest rates, maturity terms, service fees and withdrawal penalties are established on a periodic basis. Deposit rates and terms are based primarily on current operating strategies and market interest rates, liquidity requirements and our deposit growth goals.

        We offer a wide range of deposit products for retail and business banking markets including checking accounts, interest-bearing transaction accounts, savings accounts, time deposits and retirement accounts. Our branch network enables us to attract deposits from throughout our market area with a customer-oriented product mix, competitive pricing, and convenient locations. HBC joined the Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service (CDARS®) program in August 2008, which enables our local customers to obtain expanded FDIC insurance coverage on their deposits.

    Other Banking Services

        We offer a multitude of other products and services to complement our lending and deposit services. These include cashier's checks, traveler's checks, bank-by-mail, ATMs, night depositories, safe deposit

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boxes, direct deposit, automated payroll services, electronic funds transfers, online banking, online bill pay, homeowner association services, and other customary banking services. HBC currently operates ATMs at five different locations. In addition, we have established a convenient customer service group accessible by toll-free telephone to answer questions and promote a high level of customer service. HBC does not have a trust department. In addition to the traditional financial services offered, HBC offers remote deposit capture, automated clearing house origination, electronic data interchange and check imaging. HBC continues to investigate products and services that it believes addresses the growing needs of its customers and to analyze other markets for potential expansion opportunities.

Correspondent Banks

        Correspondent bank deposit accounts are maintained to enable the Company to transact types of activity that it would otherwise be unable to perform or would not be cost effective due to the size of the Company or volume of activity. The Company has utilized several correspondent banks to process a variety of transactions.

Competition

        The banking and financial services business in California generally, and in the Company's market areas specifically, is highly competitive. The industry continues to consolidate and unregulated competitors have entered banking markets with products targeted at highly profitable customer segments. Many larger unregulated competitors are able to compete across geographic boundaries, and provide customers with meaningful alternatives to most significant banking services and products. These consolidation trends are likely to continue. The increasingly competitive environment is a result primarily of changes in regulation, changes in technology and product delivery systems, and the consolidation among financial service providers.

        With respect to commercial bank competitors, the business is dominated by a relatively small number of major banks that operate a large number of offices within our geographic footprint. For the combined Santa Clara, Alameda and Contra Costa county region, the three counties within which the Company operates, the top three institutions are all multi-billion dollar entities with an aggregate of 268 offices that control a combined 56.54% of deposit market share based on June 30, 2015 FDIC market share data. HBC ranks sixteenth with 0.76% share of total deposits based on June 30, 2015 market share data. These banks have, among other advantages, the ability to finance wide-ranging advertising campaigns and to allocate their resources to regions of highest yield and demand. Larger banks are seeking to expand lending to small businesses, which are traditionally community bank customers. They can also offer certain services that we do not offer directly, but may offer indirectly through correspondent institutions. By virtue of their greater total capitalization, these banks also have substantially higher lending limits than we do. For customers whose needs exceed our legal lending limit, we arrange for the sale, or "participation," of some of the balances to financial institutions that are not within our geographic footprint.

        In addition to other large regional banks and local community banks, our competitors include savings institutions, securities and brokerage companies, asset management groups, mortgage banking companies, credit unions, finance and insurance companies, internet-based companies, and money market funds. In recent years, we have also witnessed increased competition from specialized companies that offer wholesale finance, credit card, and other consumer finance services, as well as services that circumvent the banking system by facilitating payments via the internet, wireless devices, prepaid cards, or other means. Technological innovations have lowered traditional barriers of entry and enabled many of these companies to compete in financial services markets. Such innovation has, for example, made it possible for non-depository institutions to offer customers automated transfer payment services that previously were considered traditional banking products. In addition, many customers now expect a choice of delivery channels, including telephone and smart phones, mail, personal computer, ATMs, self-service branches, and/or in-store branches.

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        Strong competition for deposits and loans among financial institutions and non-banks alike affects interest rates and other terms on which financial products are offered to customers. Mergers between financial institutions have placed additional pressure on other banks within the industry to remain competitive by streamlining operations, reducing expenses, and increasing revenues. Competition has also intensified due to Federal and state interstate banking laws enacted in the mid-1990's, which permit banking organizations to expand into other states. The relatively large and expanding California market has been particularly attractive to out of state institutions. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 has made it possible for full affiliations to occur between banks and securities firms, insurance companies, and other financial companies, and has also intensified competitive conditions.

        In order to compete with the other financial service providers, the Company principally relies upon community-oriented, personalized service, local promotional activities, personal relationships established by officers, directors, and employees with its customers, and specialized services tailored to meet its customers' needs. Our "preferred lender" status with the Small Business Administration allows us to approve SBA loans faster than many of our competitors. In those instances where the Company is unable to accommodate a customer's needs, the Company seeks to arrange for such loans on a participation basis with other financial institutions or to have those services provided in whole or in part by its correspondent banks. See Item 1 — "Business — Correspondent Banks."

Economic Conditions, Government Policies, Legislation, and Regulation

        The Company's profitability, like most financial institutions, is primarily dependent on interest rate differentials. In general, the difference between the interest rates paid by HBC on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and other borrowings, and the interest rates received by HBC on interest earning assets, such as loans extended to customers and securities held in the investment portfolio, will comprise the major portion of the Company's earnings. These rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the control of the Company and HBC, such as inflation, recession and unemployment, and the impact which future changes in domestic and foreign economic conditions might have on the Company cannot be predicted.

        The Company's business is also influenced by the monetary and fiscal policies of the federal government and the policies of regulatory agencies, particularly the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve implements national monetary policies (with objectives such as curbing inflation and combating recession) through its open-market operations in U.S. Government securities by adjusting the required level of reserves for depository institutions subject to its reserve requirements, and by varying the target Federal funds and discount rates applicable to borrowings by depository institutions. The actions of the Federal Reserve in these areas influence the growth of bank loans, investments, and deposits and also affect interest earned on interest earning assets and paid on interest bearing liabilities. The nature and impact of any future changes in monetary and fiscal policies on the Company cannot be predicted.

        From time to time, federal and state legislation is enacted which may have the effect of materially increasing the cost of doing business, limiting or expanding permissible activities, or affecting the competitive balance between banks and other financial services providers.

        In addition, the various bank regulatory agencies often adopt new rules and regulations and policies to implement and enforce existing legislation. It cannot be predicted whether, or in what form, any such legislation or regulations or changes in policy may be enacted or the extent to which the business of the Company would be affected thereby.

        The Company cannot predict whether or when potential legislation will be enacted and, if enacted, the effect that it, or any implemented regulations and supervisory policies, would have on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the outcome of any examination, litigation or investigation

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initiated by state or federal authorities may result in necessary changes in our operations and increased compliance costs.

    The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

        The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act financial reform legislation ("Dodd-Frank"), significantly revised and expanded the rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority of the federal bank regulatory agencies. Dodd-Frank followed the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in response to the economic downturn and financial industry instability. Dodd-Frank authorized the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") responsible for consumer protection in the financial services industry.Certain provisions of Dodd-Frank will significantly impact, or already are affecting, our operations and expenses, including, for example, changes in Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") assessments, the permitted payment of interest on demand deposits, and enhanced compliance requirements. Some of the rules and regulations promulgated or yet to be promulgated under Dodd-Frank will apply directly only to institutions much larger than ours, but could indirectly impact smaller banks, either due to competitive influences or because certain required practices for larger institutions may subsequently become expected "best practices" for smaller institutions. We expect that we may need to devote even more management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements under Dodd-Frank.

Supervision and Regulation

    Introduction

        Banking is a complex, highly regulated industry. Regulation and supervision by federal and state banking agencies are intended to maintain a safe and sound banking system, protect depositors and the FDIC's insurance fund, and to facilitate the conduct of sound monetary policy. In furtherance of these goals, Congress and the states have created several largely autonomous regulatory agencies and enacted numerous laws that govern banks, bank holding companies and the financial services industry. Consequently, the growth and earnings performance of the Company can be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the requirements of applicable state and federal statues, regulations and the policies of various governmental regulatory authorities, including the Federal Reserve, FDIC, and the DBO.

        The system of supervision and regulation applicable to financial services businesses governs most aspects of the business of the Company, including: (i) the scope of permissible business; (ii) investments; (iii) reserves that must be maintained against deposits; (iv) capital levels that must be maintained; (v) the nature and amount of collateral that may be taken to secure loans; (vi) the establishment of new branches; (vii) mergers and consolidations with other financial institutions; and (viii) the payment of dividends.

        Set forth below is a description of the significant elements of the laws and regulations applicable to HCC and HBC. The description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies that are described. Also, such statutes, regulations and policies are continually under review by the U.S. Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. A change in statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to HCC or HBC could have a material effect on our business.

    Heritage Commerce Corp

        General.    As a bank holding company, HCC is registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended ("BHCA"), and is subject to regulation and periodic examination by the Federal Reserve. HCC is also required to file periodic reports of its operations and any additional information regarding its activities and those of its subsidiaries as may be required by the Federal Reserve.

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        HCC is also a bank holding company within the meaning of Section 1280 of the California Financial Code. Consequently, HCC is subject to examination by, and may be required to file reports with, the DBO. The DBO approval may be required for certain mergers and acquisitions.

        SEC and Nasdaq.    HCC's stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (under the trading symbol "HTBK"), and HCC is subject to rules and regulations of The NASDAQ Stock Market, including those related to corporate governance. HCC is also subject to the periodic reporting requirements of Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") which requires HCC to file annual, quarterly and other current reports with the SEC. HCC is subject to additional regulations including, but not limited to, the proxy and tender offer rules promulgated by the SEC under Sections 13 and 14 of the Exchange Act, the reporting requirements of directors, executive officers and principal shareholders regarding transactions in the HCC's common stock and short swing profits rules promulgated by the SEC under Section 16 of the Exchange Act, and certain additional reporting requirements by principal shareholders of HCC promulgated by the SEC under Section 13 of the Exchange Act.

        The Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.    HCC is subject to the accounting oversight and corporate governance requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including: (i) required executive certification of financial presentations; (ii) increased requirements for board audit committees and their members; (iii) enhanced disclosure of controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting; (iv) enhanced controls over, and reporting of, insider trading; and (v) increased penalties for financial crimes and forfeiture of executive bonuses in certain circumstances.

        Permitted Activities.    In general, the BHCA limits the business of bank holding companies to banking, managing or controlling banks and other activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto.

        Bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be treated as "financial holding companies" may engage in a broad range of additional activities that are (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activities or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally. These activities include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and making merchant banking investments. We have not elected to be treated as a financial holding company and currently have no plans to make a financial holding company election.

        The BHCA does not place territorial restrictions on permissible non-banking activities of bank holding companies. The Federal Reserve has the power to order any bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable grounds to believe that continuing such activity, ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company.

        Affiliate Transactions.    Transactions between affiliates are subject to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. Regulation W codifies interpretive guidance with respect to affiliate transactions. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B: (i) limit the extent to which a financial institution or its subsidiaries may engage in covered transactions (A) with an affiliate (as defined in such sections) to an amount equal to 10% of such institution's capital and surplus and (B) with all affiliates in the aggregate to an amount equal to 20% of such capital and surplus; and (ii) require all transactions with an affiliate, whether or not covered transactions, to be on terms substantially the same or at least as favorable to the institution or subsidiary, the terms provided or that would be provided to a nonaffiliate. Dodd-Frank enhances the requirements for certain transactions with affiliates, including an expansion of the definition of "covered transactions" and increasing the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be maintained. The term "covered transaction" includes the making of loans, purchase of assets, issuance of a guarantee and other similar types of transactions.

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        Source of Strength Doctrine.    Federal Reserve policy requires bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. Under this policy the holding company is expected to commit resources to support its bank subsidiary, including at times when the holding company may not be in a financial position to provide it. It is the Federal Reserve's position that bank holding companies should stand ready to use their available resources to provide adequate capital to their subsidiary banks during periods of financial stress or adversity. Bank holding companies must also maintain the financial flexibility and capital raising capacity to obtain additional resources for assisting their subsidiary bank. A bank holding company's failure to meet its source-of-strength obligations may constitute an unsafe and unsound practice or a violation of the Federal Reserve's regulations or both. The source-of-strength doctrine most directly affects bank holding companies where a bank holding company's subsidiary bank fails to maintain adequate capital levels. In such a situation, the subsidiary bank will be required by the bank's federal regulator to take "prompt corrective action." Any capital loans by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. The BHCA provides that in the event of a bank holding company's bankruptcy any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a bank subsidiary will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

        Sound Banking Practices.    Bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in activities that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or that constitute violation of law or regulations. Under certain conditions the Federal Reserve may conclude that certain actions of a bank holding company such as a payment of a cash dividend, would constitute an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve also has the authority to regulate the debt of bank holding companies, including the authority to impose interest rate ceilings and reserve requirements on such debt. Under certain circumstances the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to file written notice and obtain its approval prior to purchasing or redeeming its equity securities, unless certain conditions are met.

        Acquisitions.    The BHCA, the Bank Merger Act, the California Financial Code and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of commercial banks and other FDIC-insured depository institutions. HCC must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before: (i) acquiring more than 5% of the voting stock of any FDIC-insured depository institution or other bank holding company (other than directly through our bank); (ii) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or bank holding company; or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. Under the Bank Merger Act, the prior approval of the Federal Reserve is required for HBC to merge with another bank or purchase all or substantially all of the assets or assume any of the deposits of another FDIC-insured depository institution. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, bank regulators consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position and managerial resources of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant's performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 ("CRA"), the applicant's compliance with fair housing and other consumer protection laws and the effectiveness of all organizations involved in combating money laundering activities. In addition, failure to implement or maintain adequate compliance programs could cause bank regulators not to approve an acquisition where regulatory approval is required or to prohibit an acquisition even if approval is not required.

        HCC is also subject to the Change in Bank Control Act of 1978 (the "Control Act") and related Federal Reserve regulations, which provide that any person who proposes to acquire at least 10% (but less than 25%) of any class of a bank holding company's voting securities is presumed to control the company (unless the company is not publicly held and some other shareholder owns a greater percentage of voting stock). Any person who would be presumed to acquire control or who proposes to acquire control of more than 25% of any class of a bank holding company's voting securities or who proposes to acquire actual

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control must provide the Federal Reserve with at least 60 days prior written notice of the acquisition. The Federal Reserve may disapprove a proposed acquisition if: (i) it would result in adverse competitive effects; (ii) the financial condition of the acquiring person might jeopardize the target institution's financial stability or prejudice the interests of depositors; (iii) the competence, experience or integrity of any acquiring person indicates that the proposed acquisition would not be in the best interests of the depositors or the public; or (iv) the acquiring person fails to provide all of the information required by the Federal Reserve Board. Any proposed acquisition of the voting securities of a bank holding company that is subject to approval under the BHCA is not subject to the Control Act notice requirements. Any company that proposes to acquire "control", as those terms are defined in the BHCA and Federal Reserve regulations, of a bank holding company or to acquire 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank holding company would be required to seek the Federal Reserve's prior approval under the BHCA to become a bank holding company.

        Tie-in Arrangements.    Federal law prohibits a bank holding company and any subsidiary banks from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with the extension of credit. Thus, for example, HBC may not extend credit, lease or sell property, or furnish any services, or fix or vary the consideration for any of the foregoing on the condition that: (i) the customer must obtain or provide some additional credit, property or services from or to HBC other than a loan, discount, deposit or trust services; (ii) the customer must obtain or provide some additional credit, property or service from or to HCC or HBC; or (iii) the customer must not obtain some other credit, property or services from competitors, except reasonable requirements to assure soundness of credit extended.

    Heritage Bank of Commerce

        General.    As a California commercial bank whose deposits are insured by the FDIC, HBC is subject to regulation, supervision, and regular examination by the FDIC, the DBO and by the Federal Reserve as HBC's primary Federal regulator. The regulations of these agencies govern most aspects of a bank's business. California banks are also subject to federal statutes and regulations including Federal Reserve Regulation O and Federal Reserve Act Sections 23A and 23B and Regulation W.

        Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act ("FDIA") and the California Financial Code, California state chartered commercial banks may generally engage in any activity permissible for national banks. Therefore, HBC may form subsidiaries to engage in the many so-called "closely related to banking" or "nonbanking" activities commonly conducted by national banks in operating subsidiaries or subsidiaries of bank holding companies. Further, California banks may conduct certain "financial" activities in a subsidiary to the same extent as may a national bank, provided the bank is and remains "well-capitalized," "well-managed" and in satisfactory compliance with the CRA.

        HBC is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") of San Francisco. Among other benefits, each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region and makes available loans or advances to its members. Each FHLB is financed primarily from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. As an FHLB member HBC is required to own a certain amount of capital stock in the FHLB. At December 31, 2015, HBC was in compliance with the FHLB's stock ownership requirement. Federal Reserve stock is carried at cost and may be sold back to the Federal Reserve at its carrying value. Cash dividends received are reported as income.

        Depositor Preference.    In the event of the "liquidation or other resolution" of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors including the parent bank holding company with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.

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        Brokered Deposit Restrictions.    Well-capitalized institutions are not subject to limitations on brokered deposits, while an adequately capitalized institution is able to accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits only with a waiver from the FDIC and subject to certain restrictions on the yield paid on such deposits. Undercapitalized institutions are generally not permitted to accept, renew, or roll over brokered deposits. HBC is eligible to accept brokered deposits without limitations.

        Loans to One Borrower.    With certain limited exceptions, the maximum amount that a California bank may lend to any borrower at any one time (including the obligations to the bank of certain related entities of the borrower) may not exceed 25 percent (and unsecured loans may not exceed 15 percent) of the bank's shareholders' equity, allowance for loan loss, and any capital notes and debentures of the bank.

        Loans to Directors, Executive Officers and Principal Shareholders.    The authority of HBC to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and principal shareholders, including their immediate family members and corporations and other entities that they control, is subject to substantial restrictions and requirements under Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation O promulgated thereunder, as well as the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002. These statutes and regulations impose specific limits on the amount of loans HBC may make to directors and other insiders, and specified approval procedures must be followed in making loans that exceed certain amounts. In addition, all loans HBC makes to directors and other insiders must satisfy the following requirements:

    the loans must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with persons not affiliated with HCC or HBC;

    HBC must follow credit underwriting procedures at least as stringent as those applicable to comparable transactions with persons who are not affiliated with HCC or HBC; and

    the loans must not involve a greater than normal risk of non-payment or include other features not favorable to HBC.

        Furthermore, HBC must periodically report all loans made to directors and other insiders to the bank regulators, and these loans are closely scrutinized by the regulators for compliance with Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation O. Each loan to directors or other insiders must be pre-approved by the HBC board of directors with the interested director abstaining from voting.

        Community Reinvestment Act.    The CRA is intended to encourage insured depository institutions, while operating safely and soundly, to help meet the credit needs of their communities. The CRA specifically directs the federal bank regulatory agencies, in examining insured depository institutions, to assess their record of helping to meet the credit needs of their entire community, including low-and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The CRA further requires the agencies to take a financial institution's record of meeting its community credit needs into account when evaluating applications for, among other things, domestic branches, consummating mergers or acquisitions or holding company formations.

        The federal banking agencies have adopted regulations which measure a bank's compliance with its CRA obligations on a performance based evaluation system. This system bases CRA ratings on an institution's actual lending service and investment performance rather than the extent to which the institution conducts needs assessments, documents community outreach or complies with other procedural requirements. The ratings range from "outstanding" to a low of "substantial noncompliance." HBC had a CRA rating of "satisfactory" as of its most recent regulatory examination.

        Environmental Regulation.    Federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding the discharge of harmful materials into the environment may have an impact on HBC. Since HBC is not involved in any business that manufactures, uses or transports chemicals, waste, pollutants or toxins that might have a material adverse effect on the environment, HBC's primary exposure to environmental laws is through its lending activities and through properties or businesses HBC may own, lease or acquire. Based on a general

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survey of HBC's loan portfolio, conversations with local appraisers and the type of lending currently and historically done by HBC, management is not aware of any potential liability for hazardous waste contamination that would be reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on the Company as of December 31, 2015.

        Safeguarding of Customer Information and Privacy.    The Federal Reserve and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. These guidelines require financial institutions to create, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. HBC has adopted a customer information security program to comply with such requirements.

        Financial institutions are also required to implement policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, financial institutions must provide explanations to consumers on policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information and, except as otherwise required by law, prohibits disclosing such information. HBC has implemented privacy policies addressing these restrictions which are distributed regularly to all existing and new customers of HBC.

        Anti-Money Laundering and the USA PATRIOT ACT.    A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, or the USA Patriot Act, substantially broadened the scope of United States anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the United States. Financial institutions are also prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must use enhanced due diligence procedures in their dealings with certain types of high-risk customers and implement a written customer identification program. Financial institutions must take certain steps to assist government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering and report certain types of suspicious transactions. Regulatory authorities routinely examine financial institutions for compliance with these obligations, and failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these obligations.

        Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation.    The U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"), administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. HCC and HBC are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of and transactions with such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.

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    The Dodd-Frank Wall Street and Consumer Protection Regulation Act

        The implementation and impact of legislation and regulations enacted since 2008 in response to the U.S. economic downturn and financial industry instability continued through 2015 as modest recovery returned to many institutions in the banking sector. Certain provisions of Dodd-Frank, which was enacted in 2010, are now effective and have been fully implemented, including: (i) revisions in the deposit insurance assessment base for FDIC insurance and a permanent increase in coverage to $250,000; (ii) the permissibility of paying interest on business checking accounts; (iii) the removal of barriers to interstate branching; (iv) required disclosure and shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation; (v) final new capital rules; (vi) a final rule to implement the so called Volcker rule restrictions on certain proprietary trading and investment activities; and (vii) final rules and increased enforcement action by the CFPB.

        Many aspects of Dodd-Frank are still subject to rulemaking and will take effect over several years, making it difficult to anticipate the overall financial impact on the Company, its customers or the financial services industry more generally. However, certain provisions of Dodd-Frank will significantly impact or already are affecting our operations and expenses, including but not limited to changes in FDIC assessments, the permitted payment of interest on demand deposits, and enhanced compliance requirements. Some of the rules and regulations promulgated or yet to be promulgated under Dodd-Frank will apply directly only to institutions much larger than ours, but could indirectly impact smaller banks, either due to competitive influences or because certain required practices for larger institutions may subsequently become expected "best practices" for smaller institutions. We expect that we may need to devote even more management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with statutory and regulatory requirements under Dodd-Frank.

    The Volcker Rule

        In December 2013, the federal bank regulatory agencies adopted final rules that implement a part of Dodd-Frank commonly referred to as the "Volcker Rule." Under these rules and subject to certain exceptions, banking entities are restricted from engaging in activities that are considered proprietary trading and from sponsoring or investing in certain entities, including hedge or private equity funds that are considered "covered funds." These rules became effective April 1, 2014, although certain provisions are subject to delayed effectiveness under rules promulgated by the Federal Reserve. HCC and HBC held no investment positions at December 31, 2015 which were subject to the final rule. Therefore, while these new rules may require us to conduct certain internal analysis and reporting, we believe that they will not require any material changes in our operations or business.

    Deposit Insurance

        The FDIC is an independent federal agency that insures deposits up to prescribed statutory limits of federally insured banks and savings institutions and safeguards the safety and soundness of the banking and savings industries. The FDIC insures HBC's customer deposits through the Deposit Insurance Fund (the "DIF") up to prescribed limits for each depositor. Pursuant to Dodd-Frank, the maximum deposit insurance amount has been permanently increased to $250,000. The amount of FDIC assessments paid by each DIF member institution is based on its relative risk of default as measured by regulatory capital ratios and other supervisory factors.

        HBC is subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. In October 2010, the FDIC adopted a revised restoration plan to ensure that the DIF's designated reserve ratio ("DRR") reaches 1.35% of insured deposits by September 30, 2020, the deadline mandated by Dodd-Frank. However, financial institutions like HBC with assets of less than $10 billion are exempted from the cost of this increase. The restoration plan proposed an increase in the DRR to 2% of estimated insured deposits as a

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long-term goal for the fund. The FDIC also proposed future assessment rate reductions in lieu of dividends when the DRR reaches 1.5% or greater.

        The FDIC redefined its deposit insurance premium assessment base from an institution's total domestic deposits to its total assets less tangible equity, effective in the second quarter of 2011. The changes to the assessment base necessitated changes to assessment rates which also became effective April 1, 2011. The revised assessment rates are lower than prior rates, but the assessment base is larger and approximately the same amount of assessment revenue is being collected by the FDIC.

        We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. If there are additional bank or financial institution failures or if the FDIC otherwise determines, we may be required to pay even higher FDIC premiums than the recently increased levels. These announced increases and any future increases in FDIC insurance premiums may have a material and adverse effect on our earnings and could have a material adverse effect on the value of or market for our common stock.

        In addition to DIF assessments, banks must pay quarterly assessments that are applied to the retirement of Financing Corporation ("FICO") bonds issued in the 1980's to assist in the recovery of the savings and loan industry. The FICO assessment amount fluctuates quarterly, but was 0.00145% of average total assets less average tangible equity for the third quarter of 2015. As of the date of this report, the Company had not received the FICO assessment for the fourth quarter of 2015. Those assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation bonds mature in 2019.

        The FDIC may terminate a depository institution's deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution's financial condition is unsafe or unsound or that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices that pose a risk to the DIF or that may prejudice the interest of the bank's depositors. The termination of deposit insurance for a bank would also result in the revocation of the bank's charter by the DBO.

    Capital Adequacy Requirements

        HCC and HBC are subject to the regulations of the Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC, respectively, governing capital adequacy. These agencies have adopted risk-based capital guidelines to provide a systematic analytical framework which makes regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banking organizations, considers off-balance sheet exposures in evaluating capital adequacy, and minimizes disincentives to holding liquid, low-risk assets. Capital levels, as measured by these standards, are also used to categorize financial institutions for purposes of certain prompt corrective action regulatory provisions.

        Prior to January 1, 2015, the guidelines included a minimum required ratio of qualifying Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital to total risk weighted assets of 8% or total risk-based capital ratio, and a minimum required ratio of Tier 1 capital to total risk weighted assets of 4% or Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio. The guidelines also provided for a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to average assets, or "leverage ratio," of 3% for institutions having the highest regulatory rating, and 4% for all other institutions.

        Tier 1 capital was generally defined as the sum of core capital elements, less goodwill and other intangible assets, accumulated other comprehensive income, disallowed deferred tax assets, and certain other deductions. The following items were defined as core capital elements: (i) common shareholders' equity; (ii) qualifying non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus (and, in the case of holding companies, senior perpetual preferred stock issued to the U.S. Treasury Department pursuant to the Troubled Asset Relief Program); (iii) minority interests in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries; and (iv) "restricted" core capital elements (which include qualifying trust preferred securities) up to 25% of all core capital elements. Tier 2 capital included the following supplemental capital elements: (i) allowance for loan and lease losses (but not more than 1.25% of an institution's risk-weighted assets);

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(ii) perpetual preferred stock and related surplus not qualifying as core capital; (iii) hybrid capital instruments, perpetual debt and mandatory convertible debt instruments; and (iv) term subordinated debt and intermediate-term preferred stock and related surplus. The maximum amount of Tier 2 capital was capped at 100% of Tier 1 capital.

        As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, HBC's and the consolidated Company's regulatory capital ratios all exceeded regulatory requirements. See Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation — Capital Resources.

        In July 2013, the federal bank regulators approved final rules, or the capital rules, implementing the Basel Committee's December 2010 final capital framework for strengthening international capital standards, known as Basel III, and various provisions of Dodd-Frank . The capital rules substantially revise the risk-based capital requirements applicable to bank holding companies and banks, including HCC and HBC, compared to the previous risk-based capital rules. The capital rules revise the components of capital and address other issues affecting the numerator in regulatory capital ratio calculations. Subject to a phase-in period for various provisions, the capital rules became effective for HCC and HBC beginning on January 1, 2015.

        The Basel III capital rules: (i) introduce a new capital measure called "common equity tier 1" and related regulatory capital ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets; (ii) specify that Tier 1 capital consists of common equity Tier 1 and "Additional Tier 1 capital" instruments meeting certain revised requirements; (iii) mandate that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to common equity Tier 1 and not to the other components of capital; and (iv) expand the scope of the deductions from and adjustments to capital as compared to existing regulations. Under the Basel III capital rules, for most banking organizations, the most common form of Additional Tier 1 capital is noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and the most common form of Tier 2 capital is subordinated debt and a portion of the allowance for loan and lease losses, which in each case, are subject to the Basel III capital rules' specific requirements. Under the Basel III capital rules, the following are the initial minimum capital ratios applicable to HCC and HBC as of January 1, 2015:

    4.5% common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets;

    6.0% Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 plus Additional Tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;

    8.0% total capital (Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and

    4.0% Tier 1 leverage ratio.

        The Basel III capital rules also introduce a new "capital conservation buffer," for banking organizations to maintain a common equity Tier 1 ratio more than 2.5% above these minimum risk-weighted asset ratios. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. The implementation of the capital conservation buffer was phased in beginning on January 1, 2016 at 0.625% and will be phased in over a four-year period (increasing by that amount on each subsequent January 1, until it reaches 2.5% on January 1, 2019). Thus, when fully phased-in on January 1, 2019, HCC and HBC will be required to maintain this additional capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1, resulting in the following minimum capital ratios:

    4.5% common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets, plus the capital conservation buffer, or a minimum ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7%;

    6.0% Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets, plus the capital conservation buffer, or a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8.5%;

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    8.0% total capital to risk-weighted assets, plus the capital conservation buffer, or a minimum total capital ratio of at least 10.5%; and

    4.0% Tier 1 leverage ratio.

        The Basel III capital rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to common equity Tier 1. These include, for example, the requirement that: (i) mortgage servicing rights; (ii) deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that could not be realized through net operating loss carrybacks, and (iii) significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from common equity Tier 1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of common equity Tier 1 or all such items, in the aggregate, exceed 15% of common equity Tier 1. Implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to common equity Tier 1 began on January 1, 2015 and will be phased-in over a four-year period (beginning at 40% on January 1, 2015 and an additional 20% per year thereafter). In addition, HCC and HBC made a one-time election as permitted under the Basel III capital rules to continue the current capital standards under which the effects of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss ("AOCI") items included in shareholders' equity (for example, unrealized gains or losses on securities held in the available-for-sale portfolio) under U.S. GAAP are excluded for the purposes of determining regulatory capital ratios. HCC and HBC made this election in order to avoid significant variations in the level of capital depending upon the impact of interest rate fluctuations on the fair value of its available-for-sale securities portfolio.

        With respect to HBC, the Basel III capital rules also revise the "prompt corrective action" regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA, as discussed below under "Prompt Corrective Action Provisions."

        The capital rules also increase the required capital for certain categories of assets, including higher-risk construction real estate loans, certain past-due or nonaccrual loans, and certain exposures related to securitizations. The capital rules adopt the same risk weightings for residential mortgages that existed under previous risk-based capital rules.

        Based on existing capital levels at December 31, 2015, HCC and HBC meet all capital adequacy requirements under the Basel III capital rules on a fully phased-in basis.

        For more information on the Company's capital, see Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation — Capital Resources.

        The appropriate federal banking agency may under certain circumstances reclassify a well capitalized insured depository institution as adequately capitalized. An institution may be reclassified if the appropriate federal banking agency determines (after notice and opportunity for a hearing) that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition or deems the institution to be engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice. The appropriate agency is also permitted to require an adequately capitalized or undercapitalized institution to comply with the supervisory provisions as if the institution were in the next lower category (but not treat a significantly undercapitalized institution as critically undercapitalized) based on supervisory information other than the capital levels of the institution.

        At each successively lower capital category, an insured bank is subject to increased restrictions on its operations. For example, a bank is generally prohibited from paying management fees to any controlling persons or from making capital distributions if to do so would make the bank "undercapitalized." Asset growth and branching restrictions apply to undercapitalized banks, which are required to submit written capital restoration plans meeting specified requirements (including a guarantee by the parent holding company, if any). "Significantly undercapitalized" banks are subject to broad regulatory authority, including among other things, capital directives, forced mergers, restrictions on the rates of interest they may pay on deposits, restrictions on asset growth and activities, and prohibitions on paying bonuses or increasing compensation to senior executive officers without FDIC approval. Even more severe restrictions apply to "critically undercapitalized" banks. Most importantly, except under limited circumstances, not

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later than 90 days after an insured bank becomes critically undercapitalized the appropriate federal banking agency is required to appoint a conservator or receiver for the bank.

    Consumer Financial Protection

        We are subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that extensively govern our relationship with our customers. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act and these laws' respective state-law counterparts, as well as state usury laws and laws regarding unfair and deceptive acts and practices. These and other federal laws, among other things, require disclosures of the cost of credit and terms of deposit accounts, provide substantive consumer rights, prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, regulate the use of credit report information, provide financial privacy protections, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive practices, restrict our ability to raise interest rates and subject us to substantial regulatory oversight. Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorneys' fees. Federal bank regulators, state attorneys general and state and local consumer protection agencies may also seek to enforce consumer protection requirements and obtain these and other remedies, including regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, action by the state and local attorneys general in each jurisdiction in which we operate and civil money penalties. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in our failure to obtain any required bank regulatory approval for merger or acquisition transactions we may wish to pursue or our prohibition from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.

        Dodd-Frank created a new, independent federal agency, the CFPB, which was granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB is also authorized to engage in consumer financial education, track consumer complaints, request data and promote the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities. Although all institutions are subject to rules adopted by the CFPB and examination by the CFPB in conjunction with examinations by the institution's primary federal regulator, the CFPB has primary examination and enforcement authority over institutions with assets of $10 billion or more. The FDIC has primary responsibility for examination of HBC and enforcement with respect to federal consumer protection laws so long as HBC has total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, and state authorities are responsible for monitoring our compliance with all state consumer laws. The CFPB also has the authority to require reports from institutions with less than $10 billion in assets, such as HBC, to support the CFPB in implementing federal consumer protection laws, supporting examination activities, and assessing and detecting risks to consumers and financial markets.

        The consumer protection provisions of Dodd-Frank and the examination, supervision and enforcement of those laws and implementing regulations by the CFPB have created a more intense and complex environment for consumer finance regulation. The CFPB has significant authority to implement and enforce federal consumer finance laws, including the Truth in Lending Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and new requirements for financial services products provided for in Dodd-Frank, as well as the authority to identify and prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices. The review of products and practices to prevent such acts and practices is a continuing focus of the CFPB, and of banking regulators more broadly. The ultimate impact of this heightened scrutiny is uncertain but could result in changes to pricing, practices, products and procedures. It could also result in increased costs related to regulatory oversight, supervision and examination, additional remediation efforts and possible penalties. In addition, Dodd-Frank provides the CFPB with broad supervisory, examination and enforcement authority over various consumer financial products and services, including the ability to require reimbursements and other payments to customers for alleged legal violations and to impose significant penalties, as well as

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injunctive relief that prohibits lenders from engaging in allegedly unlawful practices. The CFPB also has the authority to obtain cease and desist orders providing for affirmative relief or monetary penalties. Dodd-Frank does not prevent states from adopting stricter consumer protection standards. State regulation of financial products and potential enforcement actions could also adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

    Prompt Corrective Action Provisions

        Federal law requires each federal banking agency to take prompt corrective action to resolve the problems of insured financial institutions, including but not limited to those that fall below one or more prescribed minimum capital ratios. Prior to January 1, 2015, the federal banking agencies had by regulation defined the following five capital categories: (i) "well capitalized" (total risk-based capital ratio of 10%, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%, and leverage ratio of 5%); (ii) "adequately capitalized" (total risk-based capital ratio of 8%, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4%, and leverage ratio of 4%, or 3% if the institution receives the highest rating from its primary regulator); (iii) "undercapitalized" (total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4%, or leverage ratio of less than 4%, or 3% if the institution receives the highest rating from its primary regulator); (iv) "significantly undercapitalized" (total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 3%, or leverage ratio less than 3%); and (v) "critically undercapitalized" (tangible equity to total assets less than 2%). As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, both HCC and HBC were deemed to be well capitalized for regulatory capital purposes.

        The Basel III capital rules, as promulgated by the Federal Reserve, revise the current prompt corrective action requirements effective January 1, 2015. Under the new rules, a financial institution will be: (i) "well capitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5% or greater, and a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater, and is not subject to any order or written directive by any such regulatory authority to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure; (ii) "adequately capitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5% or greater, and a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater; (iii) "undercapitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 4.5%, or a leverage ratio of less than 4.0%; (iv) "significantly undercapitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 3.0%, or a leverage ratio of less than 3.0%; and (v) "critically undercapitalized" if the institution's tangible equity (defined as Tier 1 capital plus non-Tier 1 perpetual preferred stock) is equal to or less than 2.0% of average quarterly tangible assets. As of December 31, 2015, both HCC and HBC were deemed to be well capitalized for regulatory purposes.

    Enforcement Authority

        The federal and California regulatory structure gives the bank regulatory agencies extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies with respect to the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes. The regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines to assist in identifying and addressing potential safety and soundness concerns before an institution's capital becomes impaired. The guidelines establish operational and managerial standards generally relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate exposure; (v) asset growth and asset quality; and (vi) compensation, fees, and benefits. Further, the regulatory agencies have adopted safety and soundness guidelines for asset quality and for evaluating and monitoring earnings to ensure that earnings are sufficient for the maintenance of adequate capital and reserves.

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        If, as a result of an examination the DBO or the Federal Reserve should determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, or other aspects of HBC's operations are unsatisfactory or that HBC or its management is violating or has violated any law or regulation, the DBO and the Federal Reserve, and separately the FDIC as insurer of the HBC's deposits, have residual authority to:

    require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice;

    direct an increase in capital and the maintenance of higher specific minimum capital ratios, which may preclude HBC from being deemed well capitalized and restrict its ability to accept certain brokered deposits;

    restrict HBC's growth geographically by products and services or by mergers and acquisitions, including bidding in FDIC receiverships for failed banks;

    enter into or issue informal or formal enforcement actions, including required board of birectors' resolutions, memoranda of understanding, written agreements and consent or cease and desist orders or prompt corrective action orders to take corrective action and cease unsafe and unsound practices;

    require prior approval of senior executive officer or director changes, remove officers and directors and assess civil monetary penalties; and

    take possession of and close and liquidate HBC or appoint the FDIC as receiver.

    Dividends

        It is the Federal Reserve's policy that bank holding companies should generally pay dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization's expected future needs and financial condition. It is also the Federal Reserve's policy that bank holding companies should not maintain dividend levels that undermine their ability to be a source of strength to its banking subsidiaries. Additionally, in consideration of the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong.

        HBC is a legal entity that is separate and distinct from its holding company. HCC receives cash through dividends paid by HBC. Future cash dividends by HBC will depend upon management's assessment of future capital requirements, contractual restrictions, and other factors. The ability of the Board of Directors of HBC to declare a cash dividend to HCC is subject to California law, which restricts the amount available for cash dividends to the lesser of a bank's retained earnings or net income for its last three fiscal years (less any distributions to shareholders made during such period). Where this test is not met, cash dividends may still be paid, with the prior approval of the DBO in an amount not exceeding the greatest of: (i) retained earnings of the bank; (ii) the net income of the bank for its last fiscal year; or (iii) the net income of the bank for its current fiscal year. A California bank may also with the prior approval of the DBO and approval of the bank's shareholders distribute a dividend in connection with a reduction of capital of the bank. If the DBO determines that the shareholders' equity of the bank paying the dividend is not adequate or that the payment of the dividend would be unsafe or unsound for the bank, the DBO may order the bank not to pay the dividend. Since HBC is a FDIC insured institution, it is also possible, depending upon its financial condition and other factors that the FDIC could assert that the payment of dividends or other payments might, under some circumstances, constitute an unsafe or unsound practice and thereby prohibit such payments.

        The California General Corporation Law prohibits HCC from making distributions, including dividends, to holders of its common stock or preferred stock unless either of the following tests are

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satisfied: (i) the amount of retained earnings immediately prior to the distribution equals or exceeds the sum of (A) the amount of the proposed distribution plus (B) any cumulative dividends in arrears on all shares having a preference with respect to the payment of dividends over the class or series to which the applicable distribution is being made; or (ii) immediately after the distribution, the value of HCC's consolidated assets would equal or exceed the sum of its total liabilities, plus the amounts that would be payable to satisfy the preferential rights of other shareholders upon a dissolution that are superior to the rights of the shareholders receiving the distribution.

    Stock Redemptions and Repurchases

        It is an essential principle of safety and soundness that a banking organization's redemption and repurchases of regulatory capital instruments, including common stock, from investors be consistent with the organization's current and prospective capital needs. In assessing such needs, the board of directors and management of a bank holding company should consider the factors discussed previously under "Dividends". The risk-based capital rule directs bank holding companies to consult with the Federal Reserve before redeeming any equity or other capital instrument included in Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital prior to stated maturity, if such redemption could have a material effect on the level or composition of the organization's capital base. Bank holding companies experiencing financial weaknesses, or that are at significant risk of developing financial weaknesses, must consult with the appropriate Federal Reserve supervisory staff before redeeming or repurchasing common stock or other regulatory capital instruments for cash or other valuable consideration. Similarly, any bank holding company considering expansion, either through acquisitions or through new activities, also generally must consult with the appropriate Federal Reserve supervisory staff before redeeming or repurchasing common stock or other regulatory capital instruments for cash or other valuable consideration. In evaluating the appropriateness of a bank holding company's proposed redemption or repurchase of capital instruments, the Federal Reserve will consider the potential losses that the holding company may suffer from the prospective need to increase reserves and write down assets from continued asset deterioration and the holding company's ability to raise additional common stock and other Tier 1 capital to replace capital instruments that are redeemed or repurchased. A bank holding company must inform the Federal Reserve of a redemption or repurchase of common stock or perpetual preferred stock for cash or other value resulting in a net reduction of the bank holding company's outstanding amount of common stock or perpetual preferred stock below the amount of such capital instrument outstanding at the beginning of the quarter in which the redemption or repurchase occurs. In addition, a bank holding company must advise the Federal Reserve sufficiently in advance of such redemptions and repurchases to provide reasonable opportunity for supervisory review and possible objection should the Federal Reserve determine a transaction raises safety and soundness concerns.

        Regulation Y requires that a bank holding company that is not well capitalized or well managed, or that is subject to any unresolved supervisory issues, provide prior notice to the Federal Reserve for any repurchase or redemption of its equity securities for cash or other value that would reduce by 10% or more the holding company's consolidated net worth aggregated over the preceding 12-month period.

    Incentive Compensation

        Dodd-Frank requires the federal bank regulators and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, including HCC and HBC, having at least $1 billion in total assets that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. In addition, these regulators must establish regulations or guidelines requiring enhanced disclosure to regulators of incentive-based compensation arrangements. The agencies have proposed such regulations, but the regulations have not

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been finalized. If the regulations are adopted in the form initially proposed, they will impose limitations on the manner in which we may structure compensation for our executives.

        The proposed regulations apply to incentive compensation paid to "covered persons" at covered financial institutions, including executive officers, employees, directors and principal shareholders (those who own 10% or more of the institution's shares). The proposed regulations prohibit a covered financial institution from creating or maintaining an incentive-based compensation arrangement that encourages inappropriate risks by providing a covered person either (i) with excessive compensation, or (ii) with incentive-based compensation that could lead to material financial loss to the financial institution. Under the proposed regulations incentive-based compensation is excessive if amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services provided by the covered person taking into consideration factors listed in the regulations, including the financial condition of the covered financial institution and practices at comparable institutions. A compensation arrangement would be considered able to lead to material financial loss unless, it: (i) balances risk and financial reward (for example by using deferral of payment); (ii) is compatible with effective controls and risk management; and (iii) is supported by strong corporate governance. Under the proposed regulations covered financial institutions must also maintain policies and procedures governing the award of incentive-based compensation in line with the institution's size, complexity and business activities and the scope and nature of its use of incentive-based compensation.

        The Federal Reserve and FDIC have also issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization's incentive compensation arrangements should: (i) provide incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk; (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management; and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization's board of directors.

        The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as us, that are not "large, complex banking organizations." These reviews will be tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization's activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the organization's supervisory ratings, which can affect the organization's ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the organization's safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

        The scope, content and application of the U.S. banking regulators' policies on incentive compensation continue to evolve. It cannot be determined at this time whether compliance with such policies will adversely affect the ability of the Company to hire, retain and motivate key employees.

    Other Pending and Proposed Legislation

        Other legislative and regulatory initiatives which could affect HCC, HBC and the banking industry in general may be proposed or introduced before the United States Congress, the California legislature and other governmental bodies in the future. Such proposals, if enacted, may further alter the structure, regulation and competitive relationship among financial institutions, and may subject HCC or HBC to increased regulation, disclosure and reporting requirements. In addition, the various banking regulatory agencies often adopt new rules and regulations to implement and enforce existing legislation. It cannot be predicted whether, or in what form, any such legislation or regulations may be enacted or the extent to which the business of HCC or HBC would be affected thereby.

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ITEM 1A — RISK FACTORS

        Our business, financial condition and results of operations are subject to various risks, including those discussed below. The risks discussed below are those that we believe are the most significant risks, although additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem less significant may also adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, perhaps materially.


Risks Relating to Our Industry

Our business may be adversely affected by business and economic conditions.

        Our business activities and earnings are affected by general business conditions in the United States and in our local market area. These conditions include short-term and long-term interest rates, inflation, unemployment levels, monetary supply, consumer confidence and spending, political issues, legislative and regulatory changes, broad trends in industry and finance, fluctuations in both debt and equity capital markets, and the strength of the economy in the United States generally and in our market area in particular, all of which are beyond the Company's control. While there are signs of economic conditions improving, the U.S. budget deficit and uncertainty in European economies underline that the economy remains uncertain. Business activity across a wide range of industries and regions is greatly affected. Local and state governments are in difficulty due to the reduction in sales taxes resulting from the lack of consumer spending and property taxes resulting from declining property values. Financial institutions continue to be affected by long-term unemployment and underemployment rates and a stricter regulatory environment. While our market areas have not experienced the same degree of challenge in unemployment as other areas, the effects of these issues have trickled down to households and businesses in our markets. There can be no assurance that the recent economic improvement is sustainable and credit worthiness of our borrowers will not deteriorate. Deterioration in economic conditions could result in an increase in loan delinquencies and non-performing assets, decreases in loan collateral values and a decrease in demand for the Company's products and services, among other things, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Disruptions and volatility in the domestic interest rate environment and credit markets, including changes in interest spreads and the yield curve, could negatively impact business and the value of certain assets.

        Higher interest rates could negatively affect demand for new loans and reduce the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations. The Company's loan portfolio consists of 54% of loans at variable rates and subject to higher interest costs as interest rates increase. The increase in interest rates could lead to increased delinquencies if highly-leveraged customers are unable to pay the higher interest costs and otherwise meet their obligations. These circumstances could not only result in increased loan defaults and charge-offs, but require increases to the allowance for loan losses which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

        Furthermore, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in an attempt to help the overall economy has, among other things, kept interest rates low through its targeted Federal funds rate. In addition, deflationary pressures, while possibly lowering our operating costs, could have a significant negative effect on our borrowers, especially our business borrowers, and the values of underlying collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect our financial performance.

The impact of new capital rules will impose enhanced capital adequacy requirements on us and may materially affect our operations.

        In 2013, the banking regulatory agencies and the Federal Reserve approved a new rule that substantially amend the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to us. The final rule implements the "Basel III" regulatory capital reforms and changes required by Dodd-Frank. The final rule includes new minimum risk-based capital and leverage ratios which became effective for us on January 1, 2015, and

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refines the definition of what constitutes "capital" for purposes of calculating these ratios. The new minimum capital requirements to be considered "adequately capitalized" are: (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 to risk-based assets capital ratio of 6.0% (which was increased from 4.0%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 8.0%, (which was unchanged from the previous rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0%.

        The final rule also established a "capital conservation buffer" of 2.5% above the new regulatory minimum capital ratios to be considered "adequately capitalized", and when fully effective in 2019, will result in the following minimum capital ratios: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%; (ii) a Tier 1 to risk-based assets capital ratio of 8.5%; and (iii) a total capital ratio of 10.5%. The new capital conservation buffer requirement began to be phased in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and will increase each year until fully implemented in January 2019. If an institution does not meet or exceed these minimum capital ratios it will be subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses if its capital level falls below the "adequately capitalized" ratios plus the buffer amount. These limitations will establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that can be utilized for such activities.

        The application of more stringent capital requirements for us could, among other things, result in lower returns on equity, require the raising of additional capital, and result in regulatory actions such as a prohibition on the payment of dividends or on the repurchase shares if we were unable to comply with such requirements. Furthermore, the imposition of liquidity requirements in connection with the implementation of Basel III could result in our having to restructure our business models or increase our holdings of liquid assets. Implementation of changes in asset risk weightings for risk-based capital calculations, items included or deducted in calculating regulatory capital or additional capital conservation buffers could result in management modifying our business strategy.

The implementation of final rules under the many provisions of Dodd-Frank could adversely affect us.

        Regulation of the financial services industry is undergoing major changes from the enactment and ongoing implementation of Dodd-Frank. Certain provisions of Dodd-Frank are effective and have been fully implemented, including the revisions in the deposit insurance assessment base for FDIC insurance and the permanent increase in FDIC coverage to $250,000; the permissibility of paying interest on business checking accounts; the removal of remaining barriers to interstate branching and required disclosure and shareholder advisory votes on executive compensation. Other recent actions to implement the final Dodd-Frank provisions included: (i) final new capital rules; (ii) a final rule to implement the "Volcker Rule" restrictions on certain proprietary trading and investment activities; and (iii) the promulgation of final rules and increased enforcement action by the CFPB. The full implementation of certain final rules is delayed or phased in over several years; therefore, as yet we cannot definitively assess what may be the short or longer term specific or aggregate effect of the full implementation of Dodd-Frank on us.


Risks Related to Our Market and Business

We are subject to credit risk.

        There are inherent risks associated with our lending activities. These risks include, among other things, the impact of changes in interest rates and changes in the economic conditions in the markets where we operate as well as those across the United States and abroad. Increases in interest rates and/or weakening economic conditions could adversely impact the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans or the value of the collateral securing these loans. We are also subject to various laws and regulations that affect our lending activities. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could subject us to regulatory enforcement action that could result in the assessment of significant civil money penalties against us.

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        We seek to mitigate the risks inherent in our loan portfolio by adhering to specific underwriting practices. Although we believe that our underwriting criteria are appropriate for the various kinds of loans we make, we may incur losses on loans that meet our underwriting criteria, and these losses may exceed the amounts set aside as reserves in our allowance for loan losses. The value of real estate collateral supporting many construction and land development loans, land loans, commercial loans and multi-family loans may decline. Negative developments in the financial industry and credit markets may adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual loan losses which could adversely affect our earnings.

        We maintain an allowance for loan losses for probable incurred losses in the portfolio. The allowance is established through a provision for loan losses based on management's evaluation of the risks inherent in the loan portfolio and the general economy. The allowance is also appropriately increased for new loan growth. The allowance is based upon a number of factors, including the size of the loan portfolio, asset classifications, economic trends, industry experience and trends, industry and geographic concentrations, estimated collateral values, management's assessment of the credit risk inherent in the portfolio, historical loan loss experience and loan underwriting policies. The allowance is only an estimate of the probable incurred losses in the loan portfolio and may not represent actual losses realized over time, either of losses in excess of the allowance or of losses less than the allowance.

        In addition, we evaluate all loans identified as impaired loans and allocate an allowance based upon our estimation of the potential loss associated with those problem loans. While we strive to carefully manage and monitor credit quality and to identify loans that may be deteriorating, at any time there are loans included in the portfolio that may result in losses, but that have not yet been identified as non-performing or potential problem loans. Through established credit practices, we attempt to identify deteriorating loans and adjust the allowance for loan losses accordingly. However, because future events are uncertain and because we may not successfully identify all deteriorating loans in a timely manner, there may be loans that deteriorate in an accelerated time frame. We cannot be sure that we will be able to identify deteriorating loans before they become nonperforming assets, or that we will be able to limit losses on those loans that have been so identified. Changes in economic, operating and other conditions which are beyond our control, including interest rate fluctuations, deteriorating values in underlying collateral (most of which consists of real estate), and changes in the financial condition of borrowers, may cause our estimate of probable losses or actual loan losses to exceed our current allowance. As a result, future additions to the allowance may be necessary. Further, because the loan portfolio contains a number of commercial real estate, construction, and land development loans with relatively large balances, deterioration in the credit quality of one or more of these loans may require a significant increase to the allowance for loan losses. Our regulators, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses by recognizing additional provisions for loan losses charged to expense, or to decrease our allowance for loan losses by recognizing loan charge-offs, net of recoveries. Any such additional provisions for loan losses or charge-offs, as required by these regulatory agencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        In December 2012, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued a proposed Accounting Standards Update, Financial Instruments: Credit Losses, which establishes a new impairment framework also known as the "current expected credit loss model." In contrast to the incurred loss model currently used by financial entities like us, the current expected credit loss model requires an allowance be recognized based on the expected credit losses (i.e., all contractual cash flows that the entity does not expect to collect from financial assets or commitments to extend credit). It requires the consideration of more forward-looking information than is permitted under current U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. In addition to relevant information about past events and current conditions, such as borrowers'

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current creditworthiness, quantitative and qualitative factors specific to borrowers, and the economic environment in which the entity operates, the new model requires consideration of reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the expected collectability of the financial assets' remaining contractual cash flows, and evaluation of the forecasted direction of the economic cycle, as well as time value of money. This proposed impairment framework is expected to have wide reaching implications to financial institutions such as us. The allowance for loan losses could potentially increase due to a larger volume of financial assets that fall within the scope of the proposed model, resulting in an adverse impact on net income, volatility in earnings and higher capital requirements. The full effect of the implementation of this new model is unknown until the proposed guidance is finalized.

Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        At December 31, 2015, nonperforming loans were 0.47% of the total loan portfolio and nonperforming assets were 0.29% of total assets. Nonperforming assets adversely affect our earnings in various ways. We do not record interest income on nonaccrual loans or foreclosed assets, thereby adversely affecting our income, and increasing our loan administration costs. Upon foreclosure or similar proceedings, we record the repossessed asset at the estimated fair value, less costs to sell, which may result in a write down or losses. A significant increase in the level of nonperforming assets from current levels would increase our risk profile and may impact the capital levels our regulators believe are appropriate in light of the increased risk profile. While we reduce problem assets through collection efforts, asset sales, workouts, restructurings and otherwise, decreases in the value of the underlying collateral, or in these borrowers' performance or financial condition, whether or not due to economic and market conditions beyond our control, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management and our directors, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities.

Our business is subject to interest rate risk and variations in interest rates may negatively affect our financial performance.

        Our earnings and cash flows are highly dependent upon net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest earning assets such as loans and securities and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowed funds.

        Interest rates are sensitive to many factors outside our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Federal Reserve, which regulates the supply of money and credit in the United States. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but could also affect our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, and the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities. Our portfolio of securities is subject to interest rate risk and will generally decline in value if market interest rates increase, and generally increase in value if market interest rates decline.

        In response to the recessionary state of the national economy, the housing market and the volatility of financial markets, the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve ("FOMC") started a series of decreases in Federal funds target rate with seven decreases in 2008, bringing the target rate to a historically low range of 0% to 0.25% until December 2015. In December 2015, the FMOC increased the Federal funds rate to a range of 0.25% to 0.50%.

        Changes in interest rates and monetary policy can impact the demand for new loans, the credit profile of our borrowers, the yields earned on loans and securities and rates paid on deposits and borrowings. Given our current volume and mix of interest bearing liabilities and interest earning assets, we would

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expect our interest rate spread (the difference in the rates paid on interest bearing liabilities and the yields earned on interest earning assets) as well as net interest income to increase if interest rates rise and, conversely, to decline if interest rates fall. Additionally, increasing levels of competition in the banking and financial services business may decrease our net interest spread as well as net interest margin by forcing us to offer lower lending interest rates and pay higher deposit interest rates. Although we believe our current level of interest rate sensitivity is reasonable, significant fluctuations in interest rates (such as a sudden and substantial increase in Prime and Overnight Fed Funds rates) as well as increasing competition may require us to increase rates on deposits at a faster pace than the yield we receive on interest earning assets increases. The impact of any sudden and substantial move in interest rates and/or increased competition may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition as our net interest income (including the net interest spread and margin) may be negatively impacted.

        Additionally, a sustained decrease in market interest rates could adversely affect our earnings. When interest rates decline borrowers tend to refinance higher-rate, fixed-rate loans to lower rates, prepaying their existing loans. Under those circumstances we would not be able to reinvest those prepayments in assets earning interest rates as high as the rates on the prepaid loans. In addition, our commercial real estate and commercial loans, which carry interest rates that, in general, adjust in accordance with changes in the prime rate, will adjust to lower rates. We are also significantly affected by the level of loan demand available in our market. The inability to make sufficient loans directly affects the interest income we earn. Lower loan demand will generally result in lower interest income realized as we place funds in lower yielding investments.

Increased deposit insurance costs and changes in deposit regulation may adversely affect our results of operations.

        As a result of recent economic conditions and the enactment of Dodd-Frank, the FDIC has increased the deposit insurance assessment rates in recent years and thus raised deposit premiums for insured depository institutions. If these increases are insufficient for the Deposit Insurance Fund to meet its funding requirements, further special assessments or increases in deposit insurance premiums may be required which we may be required to pay. We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. If there are additional banks or financial institution failures, we may be required to pay even higher FDIC premiums than the recently increased levels. Any future additional assessments, increases or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums may materially adversely affect our results of operations.

Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our financial condition.

        Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a downturn in markets in which our loans are concentrated or adverse regulatory action against us. Our ability to acquire deposits or borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a severe disruption of the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole. Many if not all of these same factors could also significantly raise the cost of deposits to our Company and/or to the banking industry in general. This in turn could negatively affect the amount of interest we pay on our interest-bearing liabilities which could have an adverse impact on our interest rate spread and profitability.

If we lost a significant portion of our low-cost deposits, our liquidity and profitability would be negatively impacted.

        Our profitability depends in part on our success in attracting and retaining a stable base of low-cost deposits. At December 31, 2015, 40% of our deposit base was comprised of noninterest bearing deposits.

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While we generally do not believe these core deposits are sensitive to interest rate fluctuations, the competition for these deposits in our markets is strong and customers are increasingly seeking investments that are safe, including the purchase of U.S. Treasury securities and other government guaranteed obligations as well as the establishment of accounts at the largest, most-well capitalized banks. If we were to lose a significant portion of our low-cost deposits, our liquidity and profitability would be negatively impacted.

Our results of operations may be adversely affected by other-than-temporary impairment charges relating to our securities portfolio.

        We may be required to record future impairment charges on our securities if they suffer declines in value that we consider other-than-temporary. Numerous factors, including the lack of liquidity for re-sales of certain securities, the absence of reliable pricing information for securities, adverse changes in the business climate, adverse regulatory actions or unanticipated changes in the competitive environment, could have a negative effect on our securities portfolio and results of opearations in future periods. Significant impairment accounting charges could also negatively impact our regulatory capital ratios.

We depend on cash dividends from our subsidiary bank to pay cash dividends to our shareholders and to meet our cash obligations.

        As a holding company, dividends from our subsidiary bank provide a substantial portion of our cash flow used to pay cash dividends on our common and preferred stock and other obligations. Various statutory provisions restrict the amount of dividends HBC can pay to HCC without regulatory approval. See "Item 1 — Business — Supervision and Regulation — Dividends."

We may need to raise additional capital in the future and such capital may not be available when needed or at all.

        We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things, conditions in the capital markets at that time which are outside of our control, and our financial performance. We cannot be assured that such capital will be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Any occurrence that may limit our access to the capital markets may adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital. Moreover, if we need to raise capital in the future, we may have to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital and would have to compete with those institutions for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our profitability is dependent upon the economic conditions of the markets in which we operate.

        We operate primarily in Santa Clara County, Contra Costa County, Alameda County, and San Benito County and, as a result, our financial condition and results of operations are subject to changes in the economic conditions in those areas. Our success depends upon the business activity, population, income levels, deposits and real estate activity in these markets. Although our customers' business and financial interests may extend well beyond these market areas, adverse economic conditions that affect these market areas could reduce our growth rate, affect the ability of our customers to repay their loans to us and generally affect our financial condition and results of operations. Our lending operations are located in market areas dependent on technology and real estate industries and their supporting companies. Thus, our borrowers could be adversely impacted by a downturn in these sectors of the economy that could reduce the demand for loans and adversely impact the borrowers' ability to repay their loans, which would, in turn, increase our nonperforming assets. Because of our geographic concentration, we are less able than regional or national financial institutions to diversify our credit risks across multiple markets.

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The small to medium-sized businesses to which we lend may have fewer financial resources to weather a downturn in the economy which could materially harm our operating results and financial condition.

        We serve the banking and financial services needs of small and medium-sized businesses. Small to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand and compete and may experience significant volatility in operating results. Any one or more of these factors may impair a borrower's ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small to medium-sized business often depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two persons or a small group of persons, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay a loan. Economic downturns and other events that negatively impact our market areas could cause us to incur substantial credit losses that could negatively affect our results of business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our loan portfolio has a large concentration of real estate loans in California which involve risks specific to real estate values.

        A downturn in our real estate markets in California could adversely affect our business because many of our loans are secured by real estate. Real estate lending (including commercial, land development and construction) is a large portion of our loan portfolio. At December 31, 2015, approximately $786.9 million, or 58% of our loan portfolio, was secured by various forms of real estate, including residential and commercial real estate. Included in the $786.9 million of loans secured by real estate were $349.7 million (or 44%) of owner-occupied loans. The real estate securing our loan portfolio is concentrated in California. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located. Real estate values and real estate markets are generally affected by changes in national, regional or local economic conditions, the rate of unemployment, fluctuations in interest rates and the availability of loans to potential purchasers, changes in tax laws and other governmental statutes, regulations and policies and acts of nature, such as earthquakes and natural disasters particular to California. Additionally, commercial real estate lending typically involves larger loan principal amounts and the repayment of the loans generally is dependent, in large part, on sufficient income from the properties securing the loans to cover operating expenses and debt service. If real estate values including values of land held for development decline, the value of real estate collateral securing our loans could be significantly reduced. Our ability to recover on defaulted loans by foreclosing and selling the real estate collateral would then be diminished and we would be more likely to suffer losses on defaulted loans.

        In addition, banking regulators now give commercial real estate loans extremely close scrutiny due to risks relating to the cyclical nature of the real estate market, and related risks for lenders with high concentrations of such loans. The regulators have required banks with relatively high levels of commercial real estate loans to implement enhanced underwriting standards, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress testing, which has resulted in higher allowances for possible loan losses. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses would adversely affect our net income, and any requirement that we maintain higher capital levels could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our construction and land development loans are based upon estimates of costs and value associated with the complete project. These estimates may be inaccurate and we may be exposed to more losses on these projects than on other loans.

        At December 31, 2015, land and construction loans, including land acquisition and development totaled $84.4 million or 6% of our loan portfolio. This amount was comprised of 16% owner occupied and 84% non-owner occupied construction and land loans. Risk of loss on a construction loan depends largely upon whether our initial estimate of the property's value at completion of construction equals or exceeds

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the cost of the property construction (including interest) and the availability of permanent take-out financing. During the construction phase, a number of factors can result in delays and cost overruns. Because of the uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, as well as the market value of the completed project, it is relatively difficult to evaluate accurately the total funds required to complete a project and the related loan-to-value ratio. As a result, construction loans often involve the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment dependent primarily on the completion of the project and the ability of the borrower to sell the property, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If estimates of value are inaccurate or if actual construction costs exceed estimates, the value of the property securing the loan may be insufficient to ensure full repayment. If our appraisal of the value of the completed project proves to be overstated, our collateral may be inadequate for the repayment of the loan upon completion of construction of the project. If we are forced to foreclose on a project prior to or at completion due to a default, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover all of the unpaid balance of and accrued interest on the loan as well as related foreclosure and holding costs. In addition, we may be required to fund additional amounts to complete the project and may have to hold the property for an unspecified period of time.

Our use of appraisals in deciding whether to make a loan on or secured by real property does not ensure the value of the real property collateral.

        In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is conducted, and an error in fact or judgment could adversely affect the reliability of an appraisal. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to decrease. As a result of any of these factors the value of collateral backing a loan may be less than estimated, and if a default occurs we may not recover the outstanding balance of the loan.

Repayment of our commercial loans is often dependent on the cash flows of the borrower, which may be unpredictable, and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value.

        At December 31, 2015, commercial loans totaled $556.5 million or 41% of our loan portfolio, (including SBA guaranteed loans and factored receivables). Commercial lending involves risks that are different from those associated with residential and commercial real estate lending. Real estate lending is generally considered to be collateral based lending with loan amounts based on predetermined loan to collateral values and liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral being viewed as the primary source of repayment in the event of borrower default. Our commercial loans are primarily made based on the cash flows of the borrowers and secondarily on any underlying collateral provided by the borrowers. A borrower's cash flows may be unpredictable, and collateral securing those loans may fluctuate in value. Although commercial loans are often collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, or other business assets, the liquidation of collateral in the event of default is often an insufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories may be obsolete or of limited use, among other things.

We must effectively manage our growth strategy.

        We seek to expand our franchise safely and consistently. A successful growth strategy requires us to manage multiple aspects of the business simultaneously, such as following adequate loan underwriting standards, balancing loan and deposit growth without increasing interest rate risk or compressing our net interest margin, maintaining sufficient capital, and recruiting, training and retaining qualified professionals.

        As part of our general growth strategy we may expand into additional communities or attempt to strengthen our position in our current markets by opening new offices, subject to any regulatory constraints on our ability to open new offices. To the extent that we are able to open additional offices, we are likely to

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experience the effects of higher operating expenses relative to operating income from the new operations for a period of time which may have an adverse effect on our levels of reported net income, return on average equity and return on average assets.

New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks.

        From time to time, we may implement or may acquire new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and new products and services we may invest significant time and resources. We may not achieve target timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and new products or services and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as regulatory compliance obligations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable to identify and acquire other financial institutions and successfully integrate our acquired businesses, our business and earnings may be negatively affected.

        We plan to continue to grow our business organically. However, from time to time, we may consider potential acquisition opportunities that we believe support our business strategy and may enhance our profitability. We face significant competition from numerous other financial services institutions, many of which will have greater financial resources than we do, when considering acquisition opportunities. Accordingly, attractive acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying or completing any future acquisitions.

        Acquisitions of financial institutions involve operational risks and uncertainties and acquired companies may have unforeseen liabilities, exposure to asset quality problems, key employee and customer retention problems and other problems that could negatively affect our organization. We may not be able to complete future acquisitions and, if we do complete such acquisitions, we may not be able to successfully integrate the operations, management, products and services of the entities that we acquire and eliminate redundancies. The integration process could result in the loss of key employees or disruption of the combined entity's ongoing business or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers and employees or achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction. The integration process may also require significant time and attention from our management that they would otherwise direct at servicing existing business and developing new business. We may not be able to realize any projected cost savings, synergies or other benefits associated with any such acquisition we complete. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future transaction. Our inability to find suitable acquisition candidates and failure to successfully integrate the entities we acquire into our existing operations may increase our operating costs significantly and adversely affect our business and earnings.

        In addition, we must generally satisfy a number of meaningful conditions prior to completing any acquisition, including, in certain cases, federal and state bank-regulatory approval. Bank regulators consider a number of factors when determining whether to approve a proposed transaction, including the effect of the transaction on financial stability and the ratings and compliance history of all institutions involved, including the CRA, examination results and anti-money laundering and Bank Secrecy Act compliance records of all institutions involved. The process for obtaining required regulatory approvals has become substantially more difficult as a result of the financial crisis, which could affect our future business.

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We may fail to pursue, evaluate or complete strategic and competitively significant business opportunities as a result of our inability, or our perceived inability, to obtain any required regulatory approvals in a timely manner or at all.

We may experience goodwill impairment.

        If our estimates of segment fair value change due to changes in our businesses or other factors, we may determine that impairment charges on goodwill recorded as a result of acquisitions are necessary. Estimates of fair value are determined based on a complex model using cash flows, the fair value of our Company as determined by our stock price, and company comparisons. If management's estimates of future cash flows are inaccurate, fair value determined could be inaccurate and impairment may not be recognized in a timely manner. If the fair value of the Company declines, we may need to recognize goodwill impairment in the future which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and capital levels.

Our decisions regarding the fair value of assets acquired could be different than initially estimated, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects.

        In business combinations, we acquire significant portfolios of loans that are marked to their estimated fair value. There is no assurance that the acquired loans will not suffer deterioration in value. The fluctuations in national, regional and local economic conditions, including those related to local residential, commercial real estate and construction markets, may increase the level of charge-offs in the loan portfolio that we acquire and correspondingly reduce our net income. These fluctuations are not predictable, cannot be controlled and may have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition, even if other favorable events occur.

We have a significant deferred tax asset and cannot assure that it will be fully realized.

        Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the expected future tax amounts for the temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities computed using enacted tax rates. We regularly assess available positive and negative evidence to determine whether it is more likely than not that our net deferred tax asset will be realized. Realization of a deferred tax asset requires us to apply significant judgment and is inherently speculative because it requires estimates that cannot be made with certainty. At December 31, 2015, we had a net deferred tax asset of $22.2 million. If we were to determine at some point in the future that we will not achieve sufficient future taxable income to realize our net deferred tax asset, we would be required, under generally accepted accounting principles, to establish a full or partial valuation allowance which would require us to incur a charge to operations for the period in which the determination was made.

We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.

        Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and liquidity of other financial institutions. Financial institutions are often interconnected as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other business relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, and other institutional clients. Defaults by financial services institutions, even rumors or questions about one or more financial institutions or the financial services industry in general, could lead to market wide liquidity problems and further, could lead to losses or defaults by the Company or other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of the applicable counterparty or client. In addition our credit risk may increase when the collateral held by us cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due to us. Any such losses could materially and adversely affect our financial condition.

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We face strong competition from financial service companies and other companies that offer banking services.

        We face substantial competition in all phases of our operations from a variety of different competitors. Our competitors, including larger commercial banks, community banks, savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies, insurance companies, securities dealers, brokers, mortgage bankers, investment advisors, money market mutual funds and other financial institutions, compete with lending and deposit gathering services offered by us. Many of these competing institutions have much greater financial and marketing resources than we have. Due to their size, many competitors can achieve larger economies of scale and may offer a broader range of products and services than we can. If we are unable to offer competitive products and services, our business may be negatively affected. Some of the financial services organizations with which we compete are not subject to the same degree of regulation as is imposed on bank holding companies and federally insured financial institutions or are not subject to increased supervisory oversight arising from regulatory examinations. As a result, these non-bank competitors have certain advantages over us in accessing funding and in providing various services.

        We anticipate intense competition will be continued for the coming year due to the recent consolidation of many financial institutions and more changes in legislature, regulation and technology. Further, we expect loan demand to continue to be challenging due to the uncertain economic climate and the intensifying competition for creditworthy borrowers, both of which could lead to loan rate concession pressure and could impact our ability to generate profitable loans. We expect we may see tighter competition in the industry as banks seek to take market share in the most profitable customer segments, particularly the small business segment and the mass-affluent segment, which offers a rich source of deposits as well as more profitable and less risky customer relationships. Further, with the rebound of the equity markets our deposit customers may perceive alternative investment opportunities as providing superior expected returns. Technology and other changes have made it more convenient for bank customers to transfer funds into alternative investments or other deposit accounts such as online virtual banks and non-bank service providers. The current low interest rate environment could increase such transfers of deposits to higher yielding deposits or other investments. Efforts and initiatives we undertake to retain and increase deposits, including deposit pricing, can increase our costs. When our customers move money into higher yielding deposits or in favor of alternative investments, we can lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, thus increasing our funding costs.

        New technology and other changes are allowing parties to effectuate financial transactions that previously required the involvement of banks. For example, consumers can maintain funds in brokerage accounts or mutual funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as "disintermediation," could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and access to lower cost deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to extensive government regulation that could limit or restrict our activities which in turn may adversely impact our ability to increase our assets and earnings.

        We operate in a highly regulated environment and are subject to supervision and regulation by a number of governmental regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve, the DBO and the FDIC. Regulations adopted by these agencies, which are generally intended to provide protection for depositors and customers rather than for the benefit of shareholders, govern a comprehensive range of matters relating to ownership and control of our common stock, our acquisition of other companies and businesses, permissible activities for us to engage in, maintenance of adequate capital levels, and other aspects of our operations. These bank regulators possess broad authority to prevent or remedy unsafe or unsound practices or violations of law. The laws and regulations applicable to the banking industry could change at

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any time and we cannot predict the effects of these changes on our business and profitability. Increased regulation could increase our cost of compliance and adversely affect profitability. Moreover, certain of these regulations contain significant punitive sanctions for violations, including monetary penalties and limitations on a bank's ability to implement components of its business plan, such as expansion through mergers and acquisitions or the opening of new branch offices. In addition, changes in regulatory requirements may add costs associated with compliance efforts. Furthermore, government policy and regulation, particularly as implemented through the Federal Reserve System, significantly affect credit conditions. As a result of the negative financial market and general economic trends, there is a potential for new federal or state laws and regulation regarding lending and funding practices and liquidity standards. Bank regulatory agencies have been and are expected to be aggressive in responding to concerns and trends identified in examinations, including the expected issuance of formal enforcement orders. Negative developments in the financial industry and the impact of new legislation and regulation in response to those developments could negatively impact our business, business, results of operations and financial condition.

We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.

        The Bank Secrecy Act, the USA Patriot Act of 2001, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, and Internal Revenue Service. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Loans that we make through certain federal programs are dependent on the federal government's continuation and support of these programs and on our compliance with their requirements.

        We participate in various U.S. government agency guarantee programs, including programs operated by the Small Business Administration. We are responsible for following all applicable U.S. government agency regulations, guidelines and policies whenever we originate loans as part of these guarantee programs. If we fail to follow any applicable regulations, guidelines or policies associated with a particular guarantee program, any loans we originate as part of that program may lose the associated guarantee exposing us to credit risk we would not otherwise be exposed to or underwritten as part of our origination process for U.S. government agency guaranteed loans, or result in our inability to continue originating loans under such programs. The loss of any guarantees for loans we have extended under U.S. government agency guarantee programs or the loss of our ability to participate in such programs could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Technology is continually changing and we must effectively implement new technologies.

        The financial services industry is undergoing technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology driven products and services. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables us to reduce costs. Our future success will depend in part upon

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our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our market areas. In order to anticipate and develop new technology, we employ a qualified staff of internal information system specialists and consider this area a core part of our business. We do not develop our own software products, but have been able to respond to technological changes in a timely manner through association with leading technology vendors. Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. If we are unable to make such investments, or we are unable to respond to technological changes in a timely manner, our operating costs may increase which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If our information systems were to experience a system failure, our business and reputation could suffer.

        We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. The computer systems and network infrastructure we use could be vulnerable to unforeseen problems. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to minimize service disruptions by protecting our computer equipment, systems, and network infrastructure from physical damage due to fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or a similar catastrophic event. We have protective measures in place to prevent or limit the effect of the failure or interruption of our information systems, and will continue to upgrade our security technology and update procedures to help prevent such events. However, if such failures or interruptions were to occur, they could result in damage to our reputation, a loss of customers, increased regulatory scrutiny, or possible exposure to financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The occurrence of fraudulent activity, breaches or failures of our information security controls or cybersecurity-related incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        As a financial institution we are susceptible to fraudulent activity, information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents that may be committed against us or our customers which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or our customers, disclosure or misuse of our information or our customer information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our customers, litigation, or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, on-line banking, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include fraudulent or unauthorized access to systems used by us or our customers, denial or degradation of service attacks, and malware or other cyber-attacks. In recent periods, there continues to be a rise in electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cyber-attacks within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector due to cyber criminals targeting commercial bank accounts. Consistent with industry trends we have also experienced an increase in attempted electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents in recent periods. Moreover, in recent periods, several large corporations, including financial institutions and retail companies, have suffered major data breaches, in some cases exposing not only confidential and proprietary corporate information, but also sensitive financial and other personal information of their customers and employees and subjecting them to potential fraudulent activity. Some of our customers may have been affected by these breaches which increase their risks of identity theft, credit card fraud and other fraudulent activity that could involve their accounts with us.

        Information pertaining to us and our customers is maintained and transactions are executed on the networks and systems of ours, our customers and certain of our third party partners, such as our online banking or core systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information as well as execution of transactions over these systems are essential to protect us and our customers against fraud and security breaches and to maintain our customers' confidence. Breaches of information security also

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may occur, and in infrequent, incidental, cases have occurred, through intentional or unintentional acts by those having access to our systems or our customers' or counterparties' confidential information, including employees. In addition, increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third-party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our customers and underlying transactions as well as the technology used by our customers to access our systems. Although we have developed and continue to invest in systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent security breaches and cyber-attacks and periodically test our security, our inability to anticipate, or failure to adequately mitigate, breaches of security could result in: losses to us or our customers; our loss of business and/or customers; damage to our reputation; the incurrence of additional expenses; disruption to our business; our inability to grow our online services or other businesses; additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties; or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability — any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        More generally, publicized information concerning security and cyber-related problems could inhibit the use or growth of electronic or web-based applications or solutions as a means of conducting commercial transactions. Such publicity may also cause damage to our reputation as a financial institution. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We rely on third party service providers.

        We rely on external vendors to provide certain products and services necessary to maintain our day-to-day operations. Accordingly, our operations are exposed to risk that these vendors will not perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service agreements. The failure of external vendors to perform in accordance with the contractual terms of a service agreement because of changes in a vendor's organization structure, financial condition, support for existing products and services or strategic focus or for any other reason could be disruptive to our operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Additionally, we outsource our data processing to an external vendor. If this vendor encounters difficulties or if we have difficulty in communicating with the vendor, it will significantly affect our ability to adequately process and account for customer transactions, which would in turn significantly affect our ability to conduct our business operations. Furthermore, a breach of the vendor's technology may also cause reimbursable loss to our consumer and business customers through no fault of our own. Fraud attacks targeting customer-controlled devices, plastic payment card terminals and merchant data collection points provide another source of potential loss, again through no fault of our own. Liability arising from such a security breach or fraud attack could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties.

        In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information. We also may rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. For example, under our accounts receivable financing arrangements, we rely on information, such as invoices, contracts and other supporting documentation, provided by our customers and their account debtors to determine the amount of credit to extend. Similarly, in deciding whether to extend credit, we may rely upon our customers' representations that their financial statements conform to U.S. GAAP (or other applicable accounting standards in foreign markets) and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the customer. Our financial condition, results of operations, financial

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reporting or reputation could be negatively affected if we rely on materially misleading, false, inaccurate or fraudulent information.

Our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

        Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of the Company's controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on analytical and forecasting models.

        Processes that management uses to estimate our probable credit losses and to measure the fair value of financial instruments, as well as the processes used to estimate the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, depend upon the use of analytical and forecasting models. These models reflect assumptions that may not be accurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if these assumptions are accurate, the models may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in their design or their implementation.

        If the models that management uses for interest rate risk and asset-liability management are inadequate, we may incur increased or unexpected losses upon changes in market interest rates or other market measures. If the models that management uses for determining our probable credit losses are inadequate, the allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to support future charge-offs. If the models that management uses to measure the fair value of financial instruments are inadequate, the fair value of such financial instruments may fluctuate unexpectedly or may not accurately reflect what we could realize upon sale or settlement of such financial instruments. Any such failure in management's analytical or forecasting models could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in accounting standards could materially impact our financial statements.

        From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board or the SEC may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. In addition, the bodies that interpret the accounting standards (such as banking regulators or outside auditors) may change their interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. These changes may be beyond our control, can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition or results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retrospectively, or apply an existing standard differently, also retrospectively, in each case resulting in our revising or restating prior period financial statements.

Adverse results from litigation or governmental investigations can impact our business practices and operating results.

        We are currently involved in certain legal proceedings and may from time to time be involved in governmental investigations and inquiries relating to matters that arise in connection with the conduct of our business. While we have not recognized a material accrual liability for lawsuits and claims filed or pending against us to date, the outcome of litigation and other legal and regulatory matters is inherently uncertain and it is possible that the actual results of one or more of such matters currently pending or threatened may be substantially higher than the amounts reserved, or judgments may be rendered, or fines or penalties assessed in matters for which we have no reserves. Adverse outcomes in lawsuits or

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investigations may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that may adversely affect our operating results or financial condition as well as our ability to conduct our businesses as they are presently being conducted.

Our risk management framework may not be effective which could have a material adverse effect on our strategic planning and our mitigation of risks and/or losses as well as have adverse regulatory consequences.

        Our risk management framework seeks to mitigate risk and loss to us. We have established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor, report and analyze the types of risk to which we are subject, including liquidity risk, credit risk, market risk, interest rate risk, operational risk, legal and compliance risk, and reputational risk, among others. However, as with any risk management framework, there are inherent limitations to our risk management strategies as there may exist or develop in the future risks that we have not appropriately anticipated or identified. If our risk management framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. We may also be subject to potentially adverse regulatory consequences.

We are exposed to the risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which we take title.

        In the course of our business, when a borrower defaults on a loan secured by real property, we generally purchase the property in foreclosure or accept a deed to the property surrendered by the borrower. We may also take over the management of properties when owners have defaulted on loans. While we have guidelines intended to exclude properties with an unreasonable risk of contamination, hazardous substances may exist on some of the properties that we own, manage or occupy and unknown hazardous risks could impact the value of real estate collateral. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial and exceed the value of the property. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. If we become subject to significant environmental liabilities, business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We are subject to a variety of operational risks, the manifestation of any one of which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders and the risk of unauthorized transactions or operational errors by employees, including clerical or record-keeping errors or errors resulting from faulty or disabled computer or telecommunications systems.

        Because the nature of the financial services business involves a high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and successfully rectified. Our necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process transactions and our large transaction volume may further increase the risk that technical flaws or employee tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses that are difficult to detect. We also may be subject to disruptions of our operating systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond our control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages, natural disasters, disease pandemics or other damage to property or physical assets), which may give rise to disruption of service to customers and to financial loss or liability. The occurrence of any of these risks could diminish our ability to operate our business (for example, by requiring us to expend significant resources to correct the defect),

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as well as potential liability to customers, reputational damage and regulatory intervention, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Reputational risk can adversely affect our business.

        Threats to our reputation can come from many sources, including adverse sentiment about financial institutions generally, unethical practices, employee misconduct, failure to deliver minimum standards of service or quality, compliance deficiencies, and questionable or fraudulent activities of our customers. We have policies and procedures in place to protect our reputation and promote ethical conduct, but these policies and procedures may not be fully effective. Negative publicity regarding our business, employees, or customers, with or without merit, may result in the loss of customers, investors and employees, costly litigation, a decline in revenues and increased governmental regulation.

We are dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect our prospects.

        Competition for qualified employees and personnel in the banking industry is intense and there are a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of, and experience in, the California community banking industry. The process of recruiting personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategies is often lengthy. Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to attract and retain qualified management, loan origination, finance, administrative, marketing and technical personnel and upon the continued contributions of our management and personnel. In particular, our success has been and continues to be highly dependent upon the abilities of key executives, including our Chief Executive Officer and certain other key employees.

Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could significantly impact our business.

        Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. For example, our primary market areas in California are subject to earthquakes and fires. Operations in our market could be disrupted by both the evacuation of large portions of the population as well as damage and or lack of access to our banking and operation facilities. While we have not experienced such event to date, other severe weather or natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism or other adverse external events may occur in the future. Although management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Securities

Our securities are not an insured deposit.

        Our securities are not bank deposits and, therefore, are not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in our securities is inherently risky for the reasons described in this section and elsewhere in this report and is subject to the same market forces that affect the price of securities in any company.

Our outstanding Series C Preferred Stock impacts net income available to our common shareholders and earnings per common share, and conversion of our Series C Preferred Stock will be dilutive to holders of our common stock.

        The dividends declared and the accretion on our outstanding Series C Preferred Stock reduce the net income available to common shareholders and our earnings per common share. Our Series C Preferred

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Stock will also receive preferential treatment in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up. The ownership interest of our existing holders of common stock will be diluted to the extent our Series C Preferred Stock is automatically converted into common stock. The Series C Preferred Stock is convertible into an aggregate of 5,601,000 shares of our common stock upon a transfer of the Series C Preferred Stock to a transferee not affiliated with the holder in a widely dispersed offering. The shares of common stock underlying the Series C Preferred Stock represent approximately 17% of the shares of our common stock outstanding on December 31, 2015.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, and this may make it difficult for you to resell shares of common stock owned by you at times or at prices you find attractive.

        The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks, has experienced significant volatility. In some cases, the markets have produced downward pressure on stock prices for certain issuers without regard to those issuers' underlying financial strength. As a result, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate more than usual and cause significant price variations to occur.

        The trading price of the shares of our common stock will depend on many factors, which may change from time to time and which may be beyond our control, including, without limitation, our financial condition, performance, creditworthiness and prospects, future sales or offerings of our equity or equity related securities, and other factors identified above under "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements," "Risk Factors" and below. These broad market fluctuations have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:

    actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;

    changes in financial estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to our common stock or those of other financial institutions;

    failure to meet analysts' revenue or earnings estimates;

    speculation in the press or investment community generally or relating to our reputation, our operations, our market area, our competitors or the financial services industry in general;

    strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, restructurings, dispositions or financings;

    actions by our current shareholders, including institutional investors;

    fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;

    future sales of our equity, equity related or debt securities;

    proposed or adopted regulatory changes or developments;

    anticipated or pending investigations, proceedings, or litigation that involve or affect us;

    trading activities in our common stock, including short selling;

    domestic and international economic factors unrelated to our performance; and

    general market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry.

The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies.

        Although our common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq, its trading volume is generally less than that of other, larger financial services companies, and investors are not assured that a liquid market

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will exist at any given time for our voting common stock. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace at any given time of willing buyers and sellers of our voting common stock. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. Given the lower trading volume of our voting common stock, significant sales of our voting common stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause our stock price to fall.

Federal and state law may limit the ability of another party to acquire us, which could cause the price of our securities to decline.

        Federal law prohibits a person or group of persons "acting in concert" from acquiring "control" of a bank holding company unless the Federal Reserve has been given 60 days prior written notice of such proposed acquisition and within that time period the Federal Reserve has not issued a notice disapproving the proposed acquisition or extending for up to another 30 days the period during which such a disapproval may be issued. An acquisition may be made prior to the expiration of the disapproval period if the Federal Reserve issues written notice of its intent not to disapprove the action. Under a rebuttable presumption established by the Federal Reserve, the acquisition of 10% or more of a class of voting stock of a bank or bank holding company with a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act would, under the circumstances set forth in the presumption, constitute the acquisition of control. In addition, any "company" would be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve under the BHCA, before acquiring 25% (5% in the case of an acquirer that is, or is deemed to be, a bank holding company) or more of any class of voting stock, or such lesser number of shares as may constitute control.

        Under the California Financial Code, no person may, directly or indirectly, acquire control of a California state bank or its holding company unless the DBO has approved such acquisition of control. A person would be deemed to have acquired control of HBC if such person, directly or indirectly, has the power: (i) to vote 25% or more of the voting power of HBC; or (ii) to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of HBC. For purposes of this law, a person who directly or indirectly owns or controls 10% or more of our outstanding common stock would be presumed to control HBC.

        These provisions of federal and state law may prevent a merger or acquisition that would be attractive to shareholders and could limit the price investors would be willing to pay in the future for our securities.

We may raise additional capital, which could have a dilutive effect on the existing holders of our securities and adversely affect the market price of our securities.

        We are not restricted from issuing additional shares of common stock or securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or represent the right to receive shares of common stock. We frequently evaluate opportunities to access the capital markets taking into account our regulatory capital ratios, financial condition and other relevant considerations and, subject to market conditions, we may take further capital actions. Such actions could include, among other things, the issuance of additional shares of common stock or other securities in public or private transactions in order to further increase our capital levels above the requirements for a "well capitalized" institution established by the federal bank regulatory agencies as well as other regulatory targets. These issuances could dilute ownership interests of investors and could dilute the per share book value of our common stock.

The issuance of additional shares of preferred stock could adversely affect holders of common stock, which may negatively impact an investment in our securities.

        Our board of directors is authorized to issue additional classes or series of preferred stock without any action on the part of the shareholders, except in certain circumstances. Our board of directors also has the power, without shareholder approval except in certain circumstances, to set the terms of any such classes or series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights and preferences over

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the common stock with respect to dividends or upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our business and other terms. If we issue preferred stock in the future that has a preference over the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of the common stock, then the rights of holders of the common stock or the market price of the common stock could be adversely affected.

ITEM 1B — UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        None.

ITEM 2 — PROPERTIES

        The main and executive offices of HCC and HBC are located at 150 Almaden Boulevard in San Jose, California 95113, with branch offices located at 15575 Los Gatos Boulevard in Los Gatos, California 95032, at 387 Diablo Road in Danville, California 94526, at 3137 Stevenson Boulevard in Fremont, California 94538, at 300 Main Street in Pleasanton, California 94566, at 101 Ygnacio Valley Road in Walnut Creek, California 94596, at 18625 Sutter Boulevard in Morgan Hill, California 95037, at 7598 Monterey Street in Gilroy, California 95020, at 419 S. San Antonio Road in Los Altos, California 94022, at 333 W. El Camino Real in Sunnyvale, California 94087, and at 351 Tres Pinos Road in Hollister, California 95023. BVF's administrative offices are located at 2933 Bunker Hill Lane, Santa Clara, CA 95054.

Main Offices

        The main offices of HBC are located at 150 Almaden Boulevard in San Jose, California on the first three floors in a fifteen-story Class-A type office building. All three floors, consisting of approximately 35,547 square feet, are subject to a direct lease dated April 13, 2000, as amended, which expires on May 31, 2020. The current monthly rent payment is $104,864 with annual increases of 3% until the lease expires. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In January of 1997, the Company leased approximately 1,255 square feet (referred to as the "Kiosk") located next to the primary operating area at 150 Almaden Boulevard in San Jose, California to be used for meetings, staff training and marketing events. The current monthly rent payment is $3,702 with annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on May 31, 2020. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In June of 2015, the Company amended its primary lease at 150 Almaden Boulevard in San Jose, California to include 4,484 square feet of expansion space in a five-story Class-B type office building located at 100 W. San Fernando Street, San Jose, California, adjacent to the main offices. The current monthly rent payment is $10,762 with 3% annual increases until the lease expires on May 31, 2020. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

Branch Offices

        In May of 2006, the Company leased approximately 2,505 square feet on the first floor in a three-story multi-tenant multi-use building located at 7598 Monterey Street in Gilroy, California. The current monthly rent payment is $5,389 until the lease expires on September 30, 2016. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for two additional periods of five years each.

        In June of 2007, as part of the acquisition of Diablo Valley Bank, the Company took ownership of an 8,285 square foot one-story commercial office building, including the land, located at 387 Diablo Road in Danville, California.

        In June of 2008, the Company leased approximately 5,213 square feet on the first floor in a two-story multi-tenant office building located at 419 S. San Antonio Road in Los Altos, California. The current

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monthly rent payment is $26,773 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on April 30, 2018. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for two additional periods of five years each.

        In September of 2010, the Company extended its lease for approximately 4,096 square feet in an one-story stand-alone office building located at 300 Main Street in Pleasanton, California. The current monthly rent payment is $16,619 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on October 31, 2017.

        In September of 2012, the Company leased, effective March 1, 2013, approximately 3,172 square feet in an one-story multi-tenant multi-use building located at 3137 Stevenson Boulevard in Fremont, California. The monthly rent payment is $7,452 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on February 29, 2020. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of four years and another additional period of three years.

        In June of 2013, the Company leased approximately 3,022 square feet on the first floor of a three-story multi-tenant office building located at 333 West El Camino Real in Sunnyvale, California. The current monthly rent payment is $12,025 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on May 31, 2018. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In October of 2013, the Company extended its lease for approximately 1,920 square feet in a one story stand-alone building located in an office complex at 15575 Los Gatos Boulevard in Los Gatos, California. The current monthly rent payment is $6,009 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on November 30, 2018. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In April of 2014, the Company leased approximately 3,391 square feet in a multi-tenant commercial center located at 351 Tres Pinos in Hollister, CA. The current monthly rent payment is $4,336 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires on June 30, 2019. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In May of 2014, the Company extended its lease for approximately 3,850 square feet on the first floor in a four story multi-tenant office building located at 101 Ygnacio Valley Road in Walnut Creek, California. The current monthly rent payment is $13,879 and is subject to 3% annual increases until the lease expires on August 15, 2021. In addition, the Company modified its lease to include 1,461 square feet of expansion space, which Company may take possession of a portion or portions at any time throughout the extended lease period. The current monthly rent for the expansion space is $1,632 and is subject to annual increases of 3% until the lease expires. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

        In August of 2014, the Company amended and extended its lease at 18625 Sutter Boulevard in Morgan Hill, California to include approximately 4,716 square feet in a one story multi-tenant office building located. The current monthly rent payment is $6,013 with annual increases of 2% until the lease expires on October 31, 2021. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of five years.

Bay View Funding Office

        In April 2013, Bay View Funding leased approximately 7,440 square feet of a two-story multi-tenant office building located at 2933 Bunker Hill Lane, Santa Clara, CA 95054. The current monthly rent payment is $17,479 until the lease expires on February 28, 2017. The Company has reserved the right to extend the term of the lease for one additional period of two years.

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        For additional information on operating leases and rent expense, refer to Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements following "Item 15 — Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules."

ITEM 3 — LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

        The Company is involved in certain legal actions arising from normal business activities. Management, based upon the advice of legal counsel, believes the ultimate resolution of all pending legal actions will not have a material effect on the financial statements of the Company.

ITEM 4 — MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

        Not Applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5 — MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

        The Company's common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "HTBK."

        The information in the following table for 2015 and 2014 indicates the high and low closing prices for the common stock, based upon information provided by the NASDAQ Global Select Market and cash dividend payment for each quarter presented.

 
  Stock Price    
 
 
  Dividend
Per Share
 
Quarter
  High   Low  

Year ended December 31, 2015:

                   

Fourth quarter

  $ 12.25   $ 10.28   $ 0.08  

Third quarter

  $ 11.83   $ 9.45   $ 0.08  

Second quarter

  $ 9.75   $ 8.75   $ 0.08  

First quarter

  $ 9.14   $ 8.21   $ 0.08  

Year ended December 31, 2014:

   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Fourth quarter

  $ 8.98   $ 8.24   $ 0.05  

Third quarter

  $ 8.46   $ 7.94   $ 0.05  

Second quarter

  $ 8.31   $ 7.77   $ 0.04  

First quarter

  $ 8.38   $ 7.81   $ 0.04  

        The closing price of our common stock on February 29, 2016 was $9.33 per share as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

        As of February 29, 2016, there were approximately 630 holders of record of common stock. There are no other classes of common equity outstanding.

Dividend Policy

        The amount of future dividends will depend upon our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors, and will be determined by our board of directors on a quarterly basis. It is Federal Reserve policy that bank holding companies generally pay dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization's expected future needs and financial condition. It is also Federal Reserve policy that bank holding companies not maintain dividend levels that undermine the holding company's ability to be a source of strength to its banking subsidiaries. Additionally, in consideration of the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. Under the federal Prompt Corrective Action regulations, the Federal Reserve or the FDIC may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if the holding company's bank subsidiary is classified as undercapitalized.

        As a holding company, our ability to pay cash dividends is affected by the ability of our bank subsidiary, HBC, to pay cash dividends. The ability of HBC (and our ability) to pay cash dividends in the future and the amount of any such cash dividends is and could be in the future further influenced by bank regulatory requirements and approvals and capital guidelines.

        The decision whether to pay dividends will be made by our board of directors in light of conditions then existing, including factors such as our results of operations, financial condition, business conditions,

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regulatory capital requirements and covenants under any applicable contractual arrangements, including agreements with regulatory authorities.

        For information on the statutory and regulatory limitations on the ability of the Company to pay dividends and on HBC to pay dividends to HCC see "Item 1 — Business — Supervision and Regulation — Dividends."

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

        The following table provides information as of December 31, 2015 regarding equity compensation plans under which equity securities of the Company were authorized for issuance:

 
  Number of securities to
be issued upon exercise of
outstanding options,
warrants and rights
(a)
  Weighted average
exercise price of
outstanding options,
warrants and rights
(b)
  Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column (a))
(c)

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders

  1,775,027(1)   $10.62   940,985(2)

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A


(1)
Consists of 1,163,745 options to acquire shares under the Company's Amended and Restated 2004 Equity Plan and 611,282 options to acquire shares under the Company's 2013 Equity Incentive Plan

(2)
Available under the Company's 2013 Equity Incentive Plan.

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Performance Graph

        The following graph compares the stock performance of the Company from December 31, 2010 to February 29, 2016, to the performance of several specific industry indices. The performance of the S&P 500 Index, NASDAQ Stock Index and NASDAQ Bank Stocks were used as comparisons to the Company's stock performance. Management believes that a performance comparison to these indices provides meaningful information and has therefore included those comparisons in the following graph.

GRAPHIC

        The following chart compares the stock performance of the Company from December 31, 2010 to February 29, 2016, to the performance of several specific industry indices. The performance of the S&P 500 Index, NASDAQ Stock Index and NASDAQ Bank Stocks were used as comparisons to the Company's stock performance.

 
  Period Ending  
Index
  12/31/10   12/31/11   12/31/12   12/31/13   12/31/14   12/31/15   02/29/16  

Heritage Commerce Corp*

    100     105     155     184     196     266     207  

S&P 500*

    100     100     113     147     164     163     154  

NASDAQ — Total US*

    100     98     114     157     179     189     172  

NASDAQ Bank Index*

    100     88     101     141     145     154     136  

*
Source: SNL Financial Bank Information Group — (434) 977-1600

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ITEM 6 — SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following table presents a summary of selected financial information that should be read in conjunction with the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto following "Item 15 — "Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules."


SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 
  AT OR FOR YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,  
 
  2015   2014   2013   2012   2011  
 
  (Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 

INCOME STATEMENT DATA:

                               

Interest income

  $ 78,743   $ 59,256   $ 52,786   $ 52,565   $ 52,031  

Interest expense

    2,422     2,153     2,600     4,187     5,875  

Net interest income before provision for loan losses

    76,321     57,103     50,186     48,378     46,156  

Provision (credit) for loan losses

    32     (338 )   (816 )   2,784     4,469  

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

    76,289     57,441     51,002     45,594     41,687  

Noninterest income

    8,985     7,746     7,214     8,865     8,422  

Noninterest expense

    58,673     44,222     40,470     39,061     38,537  

Income before income taxes

    26,601     20,965     17,746     15,398     11,572  

Income tax expense

    10,104     7,538     6,206     5,489     201  

Net income

    16,497     13,427     11,540     9,909     11,371  

Dividends and discount accretion on preferred stock

    (1,792 )   (1,008 )   (336 )   (1,206 )   (2,333 )

Net income available to common shareholders

    14,705     12,419     11,204     8,703     9,038  

Less: undistributed earnings allocated to Series C Preferred Stock

    (912 )   (1,342 )   (1,687 )   (1,527 )   (1,589 )

Distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to common shareholders

  $ 13,793   $ 11,077   $ 9,517   $ 7,176   $ 7,449  

PER COMMON SHARE DATA:

                               

Basic net income(1)

  $ 0.48   $ 0.42   $ 0.36   $ 0.27   $ 0.28  

Diluted net income(2)

  $ 0.48   $ 0.42   $ 0.36   $ 0.27   $ 0.28  

Book value per common share(3)

  $ 7.03   $ 6.22   $ 5.84   $ 5.71   $ 5.30  

Tangible book value per common share(4)              

  $ 5.35   $ 5.60   $ 5.78   $ 5.63   $ 5.20  

Pro forma book value per common share assuming Series C

                               

Preferred Stock was converted into common stock(5)

  $ 6.51   $ 5.74   $ 5.43   $ 5.32   $ 4.98  

Pro forma tangible book value per share, assuming Series C

                               

Preferred Stock was converted into common stock(6)

  $ 5.07   $ 5.23   $ 5.38   $ 5.25   $ 4.90  

Dividend payout ratio(7)

    65.09 %   42.88 %   16.60 %   N/A     N/A  

Weighted average number of shares outstanding — basic

    28,567,213     26,390,615     26,338,161     26,303,245     26,266,584  

Weighted average number of shares outstanding — diluted

    28,786,078     26,526,282     26,386,452     26,329,336     26,270,394  

Common shares outstanding at period end

    32,113,479     26,503,505     26,350,938     26,322,147     26,295,001  

Pro forma common shares outstanding at period end, assuming Series C

                               

Preferred Stock was converted into common stock(8)

    37,714,479     32,104,505     31,951,938     31,923,147     31,896,001  

BALANCE SHEET DATA:

                               

Securities (available-for sale and held-to-maturity)

  $ 494,390   $ 301,697   $ 376,021   $ 419,384   $ 380,455  

Net loans

  $ 1,339,790   $ 1,070,264   $ 895,749   $ 793,286   $ 743,891  

Allowance for loan losses

  $ 18,926   $ 18,379   $ 19,164   $ 19,027   $ 20,700  

Goodwill and other intangible assets

  $ 54,182   $ 16,320   $ 1,527   $ 2,000   $ 2,491  

Total assets

  $ 2,361,579   $ 1,617,103   $ 1,491,632   $ 1,693,312   $ 1,306,194  

Total deposits

  $ 2,062,775   $ 1,388,386   $ 1,286,221   $ 1,479,368   $ 1,049,428  

Subordinated debt

  $   $   $   $ 9,279   $ 23,702  

Short-term borrowings

  $ 3,000   $   $   $   $  

Total shareholders' equity

  $ 245,436   $ 184,358   $ 173,396   $ 169,741   $ 197,831  

SELECTED PERFORMANCE RATIOS:(9)

                               

Return on average assets

    0.86 %   0.88 %   0.81 %   0.73 %   0.89 %

Return on average tangible assets

    0.88 %   0.88 %   0.81 %   0.73 %   0.89 %

Return on average equity

    8.04 %   7.44 %   6.77 %   5.75 %   6.02 %

Return on average tangible equity

    9.41 %   7.60 %   6.84 %   5.83 %   6.11 %

Net interest margin (fully tax equivalent)

    4.41 %   4.10 %   3.84 %   3.88 %   3.94 %

Efficiency ratio, excluding impairment of goodwill

    68.78 %   68.19 %   70.51 %   68.24 %   70.61 %

Average net loans (excludes loans held-for-sale) as a percentage of average deposits

    70.82 %   74.54 %   67.26 %   67.98 %   75.91 %

Average total shareholders' equity as a percentage of average total assets

    10.73 %   11.85 %   11.90 %   12.72 %   14.82 %

SELECTED ASSET QUALITY DATA:(10)

                               

Net (recoveries) charge-offs to average loans              

    –0.04 %   0.05 %   –0.11 %   0.57 %   1.12 %

Allowance for loan losses to total loans

    1.39 %   1.69 %   2.09 %   2.34 %   2.71 %

Nonperforming loans to total loans plus nonaccrual loans — loans held-for-sale

    0.47 %   0.54 %   1.29 %   2.24 %   2.20 %

Nonperforming assets

  $ 6,742   $ 6,551   $ 12,393   $ 19,464   $ 19,142  

HERITAGE COMMERCE CORP CAPITAL RATIOS:

                               

Total risk-based

    12.5 %   13.9 %   15.3 %   16.2 %   21.9 %

Tier 1 risk-based

    11.4 %   12.6 %   14.0 %   15.0 %   20.6 %

Common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital

    10.4 %   N/A     N/A     N/A     N/A  

Leverage

    8.6 %   10.6 %   11.2 %   11.5 %   15.3 %

Notes:

(1)
Represents distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to common shareholders, divided by the average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the respective period. See Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements.

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(2)
Represents distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to common shareholders, divided by the average number of shares of common stock and common stock-equivalents outstanding for the respective period. See Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements.

(3)
Represents shareholders' equity minus preferred stock divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the end of the period indicated. See Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Series C Preferred Stock.

(4)
Represents shareholders' equity minus preferred stock, minus goodwill and other intangible assets divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the end of period indicated. See Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Series C Preferred Stock.

(5)
Represents shareholders' equity minus preferred stock divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the end of the period indicated, assuming 21,004 shares of Series C Preferred Stock were converted into 5,601,000 shares of common stock. See Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Series C Preferred Stock.

(6)
Represents shareholders' equity minus preferred stock, minus goodwill and other intangible assets divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the end of period indicated, assuming 21,004 shares of Series C Preferred Stock were converted into 5,601,000 shares of common stock. See Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Series C Preferred Stock.

(7)
Percentage is calculated based on dividends paid on common stock and Series C Preferred Stock (on an as converted basis) divided by net income.

(8)
Assumes 21,004 shares of Series C Preferred Stock were converted into 5,601,000 shares of common stock at December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011.

(9)
Average balances used in this table and throughout this Annual Report are based on daily averages.

(10)
Average loans and total loans exclude loans held for sale.

ITEM 7 — MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        The following discussion provides information about the results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, and capital resources of Heritage Commerce Corp (the "Company" or "HCC"), its wholly-owned subsidiary, Heritage Bank of Commerce (the "Bank" or "HBC"), and HBC's wholly-owned subsidiary, BVF/CSNK Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation ("BVF") and its subsidiary CSNK Working Capital Finance Corp, a California Corporation, dba Bay View Funding ("CSNK"). BVF and CSNK are collectively referred to as "Bay View Funding." This information is intended to facilitate the understanding and assessment of significant changes and trends related to our financial condition and the results of operations. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes presented elsewhere in this report. Unless we state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise, references to the "Company," "Heritage," "we," "us," and "our," in this Report on Form 10-K refer to Heritage Commerce Corp and its subsidiaries.

        On August 20, 2015, the Company completed the acquisition of Focus Business Bank ("Focus"), which is discussed in more detail below, and in Notes 1, 8, and 9 to the consolidated financial statements.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

        The preparation of financial statements in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP") requires management to make a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, income and expense in the financial statements. Various elements of our accounting policies, by their nature, involve the application of highly sensitive and judgmental estimates and assumptions. Some of these policies and estimates relate to matters that are highly complex and contain inherent uncertainties. It is possible that, in some instances, different estimates and assumptions could reasonably have been made and used by management, instead of those we applied, which might have produced different results that could have had a material effect on the financial statements.

        We have identified the following accounting policies and estimates that, due to the inherent judgments and assumptions and the potential sensitivity of the financial statements to those judgments and assumptions, are critical to an understanding of our financial statements. We believe that the judgments, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the Company's financial statements are appropriate. For a further description of our accounting policies, see Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the financial statements included in this Form 10-K.

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Use of Estimates

        The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Allowance for Loan Losses

        The allowance for loan losses is an estimate of the losses in our loan portfolio. The allowance is only an estimate of the inherent loss in the loan portfolio and may not represent actual losses realized over time, either of losses in excess of the allowance or of losses less than the allowance. Our accounting for estimated loan losses is discussed under the heading "Allowance for Loan Losses" and disclosed primarily in Notes 1 and 4 to the consolidated financial statements.

Loan Sales and Servicing

        The amounts of gains recorded on sales of loans and the initial recording of servicing assets and Interest-only ("I/O") strips are based on the estimated fair values of the respective components. In recording the initial value of the servicing assets and the fair value of the I/O strips receivable, the Company uses estimates which are made on management's expectations of future prepayment and discount rates as discussed in Notes 1 and 5 to the consolidated financial statements.

Stock Based Compensation

        We grant stock options to purchase our common stock and restricted stock to our employees and directors under the 2013 Equity Incentive Plan. Additionally, we have outstanding options that were granted under option plans from which we no longer make grants. The benefits provided under all of these plans are subject to the provisions of accounting guidance related to share-based payments. Our results of operations for fiscal years 2015, 2014, and 2013 were impacted by the recognition of non-cash expense related to the fair value of our share-based compensation awards.

        The determination of fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model is affected by our stock price, as well as the input of other subjective assumptions. These assumptions include, but are not limited to, the expected term of stock options and our stock price volatility. Our stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and changes in the assumptions can materially affect the fair value estimates.

        Accounting guidance requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. If actual forfeitures vary from our estimates, we will recognize the difference in compensation expense in the period the actual forfeitures occur.

Business Combinations

        The Company accounts for acquisitions of businesses using the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method, assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. This fair value may differ from the cost basis recorded on the acquired institution's financial statements. Management performs an initial assessment to determine which assets and liabilities must be designated for fair value analysis. Management typically engages experts in the field of valuation to perform the valuation of significant assets and liabilities and, after assessing the resulting fair value computation, will utilize such value in computing the initial purchase accounting adjustments for the acquired assets. It is possible that these values could be viewed differently through either alternative

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valuation approaches or if performed by different experts. Management is responsible for determining that the values determined by experts are reasonable. Any excess of the purchase price over amounts allocated to the acquired assets, including identifiable intangible assets, and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. The fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed are subject to adjustment during the first twelve months after the acquisition date if additional information becomes available to indicate a more accurate or appropriate value for an asset or liability. See Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 8 — Business Combinations and Note 9 — Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the financial statements in this Form 10-K.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

        Goodwill and intangible assets are evaluated at least annually for impairment or more frequently if events or circumstances, such as changes in economic or market conditions, indicate that impairment may exist. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment or one level below an operating segment for which discrete financial information is available and regularly reviewed by management. If the fair value of the reporting unit including goodwill is determined to be less than the carrying amount of the reporting unit, a further test is required to measure the amount of impairment. If an impairment loss exists, the carrying amount of the goodwill is adjusted to a new cost basis. For purposes of the goodwill impairment test, the valuation of the Company is based on a weighted blend of the income approach and market approach. The income approach estimates the fair value of the Company based on the present value of discounted cash flows from operations. The market approach considers key pricing multiples of similar companies. Management believes the assumptions used in these calculations are consistent with current industry practice for valuing similar types of companies. On November 1, 2014, estimated goodwill of $13.0 million resulted from the acquisition of Bay View Funding. On August 20, 2015, estimated goodwill of $32.6 million resulted from the merger of Focus. At December 31, 2015, goodwill from the Bay View Funding acquisition was $13.0 million, and goodwill from the Focus acquisition was $32.6 million.

        Intangible assets consist of core deposit and customer relationship intangible assets arising from the acquisition of Diablo Valley Bank in June 2007, a core deposit intangible asset arising from the Focus acquisition in August 2015, and a below market lease, customer relationship and brokered relationship, and a non-compete agreement intangible assets arising from the acquisition of Bay View Funding in November 2014. These assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Impairment testing of these assets is performed at the individual asset level. Impairment exists if the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value at the date of the impairment test. For intangible assets, estimates of expected future cash flows (cash inflows less cash outflows) that are directly associated with an intangible asset are used to determine the fair value of that asset. Management makes certain estimates and assumptions in determining the expected future cash flows from core deposit and customer relationship intangibles including account attrition, expected lives, discount rates, interest rates, servicing costs and other factors. Significant changes in these estimates and assumptions could adversely impact the valuation of these intangible assets. If an impairment loss exists, the carrying amount of the intangible asset is adjusted to a new cost basis. The new cost basis is then amortized over the remaining useful life of the asset.

        Our accounting policy for goodwill and other intangible assets is disclosed primarily in Notes 1 and 9 to the consolidated financial statements.

Deferred Tax Assets

        Our net deferred income tax asset arises from temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities reported in the financial statements and the amounts used for income tax return purposes. Our accounting for deferred tax assets is discussed under the heading "Income Tax Expense" and disclosed primarily in Notes 1 and 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

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Segment Reporting

        HBC is a commercial bank serving customers located in Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Benito counties of California. Bay View Funding provides business-essential working capital factoring financing to various industries throughout the United States. No customer accounts for more than 10 percent of revenue for HBC or the Company. The Company's management uses segments results in its operating and strategic planning. The operating segments are Banking and Factoring.

Executive Summary

        This summary is intended to identify the most important matters on which management focuses when it evaluates the financial condition and performance of the Company. When evaluating financial condition and performance management looks at certain key metrics and measures. The Company's evaluation includes comparisons with peer group financial institutions and its own performance objectives established in the internal planning process.

        The primary activity of the Company is commercial banking. The Company's operations are located in the southern and eastern regions of the general San Francisco Bay Area of California in the counties of Santa Clara, Alameda and Contra Costa. The largest city in this area is San Jose and the Company's market includes the headquarters of a number of technology based companies in the region known commonly as Silicon Valley. The Company's customers are primarily closely held businesses and professionals. Bay View Funding, a subsidiary of HBC, is based in Santa Clara and provides business essential working capital factoring financing to various industries throughout the United States.

Performance Overview

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, net income was $16.5 million, or $0.48 per average diluted common share, compared to $13.4 million, or $0.42 per average diluted common share, for the year ended December 31, 2014, and $11.5 million, or $0.36 per average diluted common share, for the year ended December 31, 2013. The Company's annualized return on average tangible assets was 0.88% and annualized return on average tangible equity was 9.41% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 0.88% and 7.60%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2014, and 0.81% and 6.84% for the year ended December 31, 2013.

Bay View Funding Acquisition

        On November 1, 2014, the Company acquired Bay View Funding by purchasing all of the outstanding common stock from the stockholders of Bay View Funding for an aggregate purchase price of $22.52 million. Bay View Funding became a wholly owned subsidiary of HBC. Based in Santa Clara, California, Bay View Funding, provides business essential working capital factoring financing to various industries throughout the United States. Bay View Funding's results of operations have been included in the Company's results beginning November 1, 2014. The following table reflects selected financial information for Bay View Funding at December 31, 2015:

 
  2015   2014  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Total factored receivables at December 31,

  $ 40,059   $ 40,012  

Average factored receivables for the year ended December 31,

  $ 42,091   $ 7,104  

Total full time equivalent employees at December 31,

    36     36  

Focus Business Bank Merger

        On August 20, 2015, the Company completed the merger of HBC with Focus for an aggregate transaction value of $66.6 million. Shareholders of Focus received a fixed exchange ratio at closing of

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1.8235 shares of the Company's common stock for each share of Focus common stock. The Company issued 5,456,713 shares of the Company's common stock to Focus shareholders for a total value of $58.3 million based on the Company's closing stock price of $10.68 on August 20, 2015. In addition, the Company paid cash to the Focus holders of in-the-money stock options totaling $8.3 million.

        The Focus acquisition added total assets, at fair value, of approximately $438.8 million, $174.8 million in loans (including loans held-for-sale), at fair value, and $405.1 million in deposits, at fair value, at August 20, 2015. Focus's results of operations have been included in the Company's results of operations beginning August 21, 2015. The one-time pre-tax severance, retention, acquisition and integration costs totaled $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.

2015 Highlights

        The following are major factors that impacted the Company's results of operations:

    The fully tax equivalent ("FTE") net interest margin increased 31 basis points to 4.41% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 4.10% for the year ended December 31, 2014. The improvement in the net interest margin for the full year of 2015 was primarily due to revenue realized from the higher yielding Bay View Funding factored receivables portfolio, the accretion of the loan purchase discount from the Focus acquisition in loan interest income, and a special dividend paid by the FHLB in the second quarter of 2015, partially offset by the temporary investment of excess liquidity from the Focus acquisition.

    Net interest income increased 34% to $76.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $57.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, primarily due to loans acquired in the Focus acquisition, organic growth in the loan portfolio, contributions to revenue from Bay View Funding, the accretion of the loan purchase discount in loan interest income from the Focus transaction, and increases in core deposits.

    There was a $32,000 provision for loan losses for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to a $338,000 credit provision for loan losses for the year ended December 31, 2014.

    Noninterest income increased to $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $7.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, primarily due to a $642,000 gain on the sale of securities in the fourth quarter of 2015, and the full year impact of fee income from Bay View Funding.

    Noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $58.7 million, compared to $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2015, was primarily due to costs related to the integration of Focus, and the additional operating costs of Focus and Bay View Funding. Noninterest expense included total Focus pre tax acquisition and integration costs of $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Of the total acquisition and integration costs, salaries and employee benefits (including severance and retention expenses) were $2.9 million, and other expenses related to the Focus acquisition and integration were $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.

    The efficiency ratio for the year ended December 31, 2015 was 68.78%, compared to 68.19% for the year ended December 31, 2014.

    Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $10.1 million, compared to $7.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2015 was 38.0%, compared to 36.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2015, was primarily due to an increase in taxable income with a limited amount of tax deductions.

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        The following are important factors in understanding our current financial condition and liquidity position:

    Primarily due to the Focus acquisition and internal growth, cash, Federal funds sold, interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions and securities available-for-sale increased 122% to $729.2 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $328.7 million at December 31, 2014.

    Securities held-to-maturity, at amortized cost, were $109.3 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $95.4 million at December 31, 2014.

    Loans, excluding loans held-for-sale, increased 25% to $1.36 billion at December 31, 2015, from $1.09 billion at December 31, 2014, which included an increase of $113.4 million, or 10%, in the Company's legacy loan portfolio, and $156.7 million from the Focus loan portfolio.

    Classified assets (net of SBA guarantees) were $20.5 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $16.0 million at December 31, 2014. The increase in classified assets at December 31, 2015 from December 31, 2014 was primarily due to the Focus acquisition. At December 31, 2015, $10.6 million of the classified assets were from the Company's legacy loan portfolio, and $9.9 million of the classified assets were from the Focus loan portfolio.

    The allowance for loan losses at December 31, 2015 was $18.9 million, or 1.39% of total loans, representing 296.74% of nonperforming loans. The allowance for loan losses at December 31, 2014 was $18.4 million, or 1.69% of total loans, representing 313.90% of nonperforming loans.

    Nonperforming assets were $6.7 million, or 0.29% of total assets at December 31, 2015, compared to $6.6 million, or 0.41% of total assets at December 31, 2014. At December 31, 2015, $6.0 million of the NPAs were from the Company's legacy loan portfolio, and $734,000 of the NPAs were from the Focus loan portfolio.

    Net loan recoveries were $515,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to net loan charge-offs of $447,000 for the year ended December 31, 2014.

    Total deposits increased $674.4 million, or 49%, to $2.06 billion at December 31, 2015, compared to $1.39 billion at December 31, 2014, which included an increase of $297.5 million, or 21%, in the Company's legacy deposit portfolio, and $376.9 million from the Focus deposit portfolio.

    The ratio of noncore funding (which consists of time deposits $250,000 and over, CDARS deposits, brokered deposits, securities under agreement to repurchase and short-term borrowings) to total assets was 7.93% at December 31, 2015, compared to 12.54% at December 31, 2014.

    The loan to deposit ratio was 65.87% at December 31, 2015, compared to 78.41% at December 31, 2014.

    As of January 1, 2015, along with other community banking organizations, the Company and the Bank became subject to new capital requirements, and certain provisions of the new rules are being phased in through 2019 under the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III. The Company's consolidated capital ratios exceeded regulatory guidelines and the Bank's capital ratios exceeded the regulatory

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      guidelines for a well-capitalized financial institution under the Basel III regulatory requirements at December 31, 2015.

 
   
   
  Transitional
Minimum
Regulatory
Requirement
Effective
January 1, 2015
   
  Well-capitalized
by Regulatory
Definition
Under FDICIA(2)
Effective
January 1, 2015
 
 
  At December 31, 2015   Minimum
Regulatory
Requirement(1)
Effective
January 1, 2019
 
Capital Ratios
  Heritage
Commerce
Corp
  Heritage
Bank of
Commerce
 

Total Risk-Based

    12.5 %   12.6 %   8.0 %   10.5 %   10.0 %

Tier 1 Risk-Based

    11.4 %   11.4 %   6.0 %   8.5 %   8.0 %

Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-based

    10.4 %   11.4 %   4.5 %   7.0 %   6.5 %

Leverage

    8.6 %   8.6 %   4.0 %   4.0 %   5.0 %

(1)
Includes 2.5% capital conservation buffer

(2)
Only applies to HBC

Deposits

        The composition and cost of the Company's deposit base are important in analyzing the Company's net interest margin and balance sheet liquidity characteristics. Except for brokered time deposits, the Company's depositors are generally located in its primary market area. Depending on loan demand and other funding requirements, the Company also obtains deposits from wholesale sources including deposit brokers. HBC is a member of the Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service ("CDARS") program. The CDARS program allows customers with deposits in excess of FDIC insured limits to obtain coverage on time deposits through a network of banks within the CDARS program. Deposits gathered through this program are considered brokered deposits under regulatory guidelines. The Company has a policy to monitor all deposits that may be sensitive to interest rate changes to help assure that liquidity risk does not become excessive due to concentrations.

        Total deposits were $2.06 billion at December 31, 2015, compared to $1.39 billion at December 31, 2014, which included an increase of $297.5 million, or 21%, in the Company's legacy deposit portfolio, and $376.9 million from the Focus deposit portfolio. Deposits (excluding all time deposits and CDARS deposits) increased $686.4 million, or 61%, to $1.81 billion at December 31, 2015, from $1.13 billion at December 31, 2014.

        The Company had $17.8 million in brokered deposits at December 31, 2015, compared to $28.1 million at December 31, 2014. Deposits from title insurance companies, escrow accounts and real estate exchange facilitators increased to $49.1 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $41.5 million at December 31, 2014. Certificates of deposit from the State of California totaled $78.0 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $98.0 million at December 31, 2014. CDARS money market and time deposits increased to $7.6 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $11.2 million at December 31, 2014.

Liquidity

        Our liquidity position refers to our ability to maintain cash flows sufficient to fund operations and to meet obligations and other commitments in a timely fashion. At December 31, 2015, we had $344.1 million in cash and cash equivalents and approximately $445.1 million in available borrowing capacity from various sources including the FHLB, the FRB, and Federal funds facilities with several financial institutions. The Company also had $358.3 million (at fair value) in unpledged securities available at December 31, 2015. Our loan to deposit ratio increased to 65.87% at December 31, 2015, compared to 78.41% at December 31, 2014.

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Lending

        Our lending business originates primarily through our branch offices located in our primary markets. In addition, Bay View Funding provides factoring financing throughout the United States. Total loans, excluding loans held-for-sale, increased $270.2 million, or 25%, to $1.36 billion at December 31, 2015, compared to $1.09 billion at December 31, 2014, which included an increase of $113.4 million, or 10%, in the Company's legacy loan portfolio, and $156.7 million from the Focus loan portfolio. The total loan portfolio remains well diversified with commercial and industrial ("C&I") loans accounting for 41% of the portfolio at December 31, 2015, which included $40.1 million of factored receivables at Bay View Funding. Commercial and residential real estate loans accounted for 46% of the total loan portfolio at December 31, 2015, of which 42% were owner-occupied by businesses. Consumer and home equity loans accounted for 7% of the total loan portfolio, and land and construction loans accounted for the remaining 6% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2015. C&I line usage was 39% at December 31, 2015, compared to 42% at December 31, 2014.

Net Interest Income

        The management of interest income and expense is fundamental to the performance of the Company. Net interest income, the difference between interest income and interest expense, is the largest component of the Company's total revenue. Management closely monitors both total net interest income and the net interest margin (net interest income divided by average earning assets). Net interest income increased 34% to $76.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $57.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, primarily due to loans acquired in the Focus acquisition, organic growth in the loan portfolio, contributions to interest income from Bay View Funding, the accretion of the loan purchase discount in loan interest income from the Focus transaction, and increases in core deposits.

        The Company, through its asset and liability policies and practices, seeks to maximize net interest income without exposing the Company to an excessive level of interest rate risk. Interest rate risk is managed by monitoring the pricing, maturity and repricing options of all classes of interest bearing assets and liabilities. This is discussed in more detail under "Liquidity and Asset/Liability Management." In addition, we believe there are measures and initiatives we can take to improve the net interest margin, including increasing loan rates, adding floors on floating rate loans, reducing nonperforming assets, managing deposit interest rates, and reducing higher cost deposits.

        The net interest margin is also adversely impacted by the reversal of interest on nonaccrual loans and the reinvestment of loan payoffs into lower yielding investment securities and other short-term investments.

Management of Credit Risk

        We continue to proactively identify, quantify, and manage our problem loans. Early identification of problem loans and potential future losses helps enable us to resolve credit issues with potentially less risk and ultimate losses. We maintain an allowance for loan losses in an amount that we believe is adequate to absorb probable incurred losses in the portfolio. While we strive to carefully manage and monitor credit quality and to identify loans that may be deteriorating, circumstances can change at any time for loans included in the portfolio that may result in future losses, that as of the date of the financial statements have not yet been identified as potential problem loans. Through established credit practices, we adjust the allowance for loan losses accordingly. However, because future events are uncertain, there may be loans that deteriorate some of which could occur in an accelerated time frame. As a result, future additions to the allowance for loan losses may be necessary. Because the loan portfolio contains a number of commercial loans, commercial real estate, construction and land development loans with relatively large balances, deterioration in the credit quality of one or more of these loans may require a significant increase to the allowance for loan losses. Future additions to the allowance may also be required based on changes

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in the financial condition of borrowers, such as have resulted due to the current, and potentially worsening, economic conditions. Additionally, Federal and state banking regulators, as an integral part of their supervisory function, periodically review our allowance for loan losses. These regulatory agencies may require us to recognize further loan loss provisions or charge-offs based upon their judgments, which may be different from ours. Any increase in the allowance for loan losses would have an adverse effect, which may be material, on our financial condition and results of operation.

        Further discussion of the management of credit risk appears under "Provision for Loan Losses" and "Allowance for Loan Losses."

Noninterest Income

        While net interest income remains the largest single component of total revenues, noninterest income is an important component. A portion of the Company's noninterest income is associated with its SBA lending activity, consisting of gains on the sale of loans sold in the secondary market and servicing income from loans sold with servicing retained. Other sources of noninterest income include loan servicing fees, service charges and fees, cash surrender value from company owned life insurance policies, and gains on the sale of securities.

Noninterest Expense

        Management considers the control of operating expenses to be a critical element of the Company's performance. Noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $58.7 million, compared to $44.2 million a year ago. The increase in noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2015 was primarily due to costs related to the integration of Focus, and the additional operating costs of Focus and Bay View Funding. Noninterest expense included total Focus pre-tax acquisition and integration costs of $6.4 million for year ended December 31, 2015. Of the total acquisition and integration costs, salaries and employee benefits (including severance and retention expenses) were $2.9 million, and other expenses related to the Focus acquisition and integration were $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Capital Management

        As part of its asset and liability management process, the Company continually assesses its capital position to take into consideration growth, expected earnings, risk profile and potential strategic activities that it may choose to pursue.

Results of Operations

        The Company earns income from two primary sources. The first is net interest income, which is interest income generated by earning assets less interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities. The second is noninterest income, which primarily consists of gains on the sale of loans, loan servicing fees, customer service charges and fees, the increase in cash surrender value of life insurance, and gains on the sale of securities. The majority of the Company's noninterest expenses are operating costs that relate to providing a full range of banking services to our customers.

Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin

        The level of net interest income depends on several factors in combination, including growth in earning assets, yields on earning assets, the cost of interest-bearing liabilities, the relative volumes of earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, and the mix of products that comprise the Company's earning assets, deposits, and other interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest income can also be impacted by the reversal of interest on loans placed on nonaccrual status, and recovery of interest on loans that have been on nonaccrual and are either sold or returned to accrual status. To maintain its net interest margin, the Company must manage the relationship between interest earned and paid.

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        The following Distribution, Rate and Yield table presents for each of the past three years, the average amounts outstanding for the major categories of the Company's balance sheet, the average interest rates earned or paid thereon, and the resulting net interest margin on average interest earning assets for the periods indicated. Average balances are based on daily averages.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2015   2014   2013  
 
  Average
Balance
  Interest
Income /
Expense
  Average
Yield /
Rate
  Average
Balance
  Interest
Income /
Expense
  Average
Yield /
Rate
  Average
Balance
  Interest
Income /
Expense
  Average
Yield /
Rate
 
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Assets:

                                                       

Loans, gross(1)

  $ 1,186,096   $ 68,259     5.75 % $ 992,376   $ 49,207     4.96 % $ 845,303   $ 41,570     4.92 %

Securities — taxable

    246,084     6,707     2.73 %   251,077     7,117     2.83 %   329,012     8,937     2.72 %

Securities — exempt from Federal tax(2)

    86,589     3,358     3.88 %   79,939     3,115     3.90 %   61,636     2,355     3.82 %

Federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions

    239,123     1,594     0.67 %   96,534     907     0.94 %   93,985     749     0.80 %

Total interest earning assets(2)

    1,757,892     79,918     4.55 %   1,419,926     60,346     4.25 %   1,329,936     53,611     4.03 %

Cash and due from banks

    34,196                 25,829                 23,510              

Premises and equipment, net

    7,463                 7,343                 7,500              

Goodwill and other intangible assets

    29,780                 3,746                 1,774              

Other assets

    83,090                 66,428                 68,678              

Total assets

  $ 1,912,421               $ 1,523,272               $ 1,431,398              

Liabilities and shareholders' equity:

                                                       

Deposits:

                                                       

Demand, noninterest-bearing

  $ 630,198               $ 463,134               $ 427,299              

Demand, interest-bearing

   
317,219
   
585
   
0.18

%
 
207,359
   
341
   
0.16

%
 
172,615
   
246
   
0.14

%

Savings and money market

    433,123     894     0.21 %   363,903     671     0.18 %   308,510     544     0.18 %

Time deposits — under $100

    20,631     61     0.30 %   20,448     63     0.31 %   23,069     80     0.35 %

Time deposits — $100 and Over

    204,982     658     0.32 %   196,118     629     0.32 %   194,587     747     0.38 %

Time deposits — brokered

    25,154     199     0.79 %   36,440     319     0.88 %   75,968     745     0.98 %

CDARS — money market and time deposits

    12,078     6     0.05 %   15,380     9     0.06 %   17,996     7     0.04 %

Total interest-bearing deposits

    1,013,187     2,403     0.24 %   839,648     2,032     0.24 %   792,745     2,369     0.30 %

Total deposits

    1,643,385     2,403     0.15 %   1,302,782     2,032     0.16 %   1,220,044     2,369     0.19 %

Subordinated debt

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
5,816
   
229
   
3.94

%

Short-term borrowings

    629     19     3.02 %   4,003     121     3.02 %   129     2     1.55 %

Total interest-bearing liabilities

    1,013,816     2,422     0.24 %   843,651     2,153     0.26 %   798,690     2,600     0.33 %

Total interest-bearing liabilities and demand, noninterest-bearing / cost of funds

    1,644,014     2,422     0.15 %   1,306,785     2,153     0.16 %   1,225,989     2,600     0.21 %

Other liabilities

    63,253                 35,973                 35,018              

Total liabilities

    1,707,267                 1,342,758                 1,261,007              

Shareholders' equity

    205,154                 180,514                 170,391              

Total liabilities and shareholders' equity

  1,912,421               1,523,272               1,431,398              

Net interest income(2) / margin

          77,496     4.41 %         58,193     4.10 %         51,011     3.84 %

Less tax equivalent adjustment(2)

          (1,175 )               (1,090 )               (825 )      

Net interest income

        $ 76,321               $ 57,103               $ 50,186        

(1)
Includes loans held-for-sale. Yields and amounts earned on loans include loan fees and costs. Nonaccrual loans are included in average balance.

(2)
Reflects tax equivalent adjustment for tax exempt income based on a 35% federal tax rate.

        The Volume and Rate Variances table below sets forth the dollar difference in interest earned and paid for each major category of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities for the noted periods, and the amount of such change attributable to changes in average balances (volume) or changes in average interest rates. Volume variances are equal to the increase or decrease in the average balance multiplied by prior period rates and rate variances are equal to the increase or decrease in the average rate multiplied by

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the prior period average balance. Variances attributable to both rate and volume changes are equal to the change in rate multiplied by the change in average balance and are included below in the average volume column.

 
  2015 vs. 2014   2014 vs. 2013  
 
  Increase (Decrease)
Due to Change in:
  Increase (Decrease)
Due to Change in:
 
 
  Average
Volume
  Average
Rate
  Net
Change
  Average
Volume
  Average
Rate
  Net
Change
 
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Income from the interest earning assets:

                                     

Loans, gross

  $ 11,197   $ 7,855   $ 19,052   $ 7,280   $ 357   $ 7,637  

Securities — taxable

    (147 )   (263 )   (410 )   (2,194 )   374     (1,820 )

Securities — exempt from Federal tax(1)

    256     (13 )   243     711     49     760  

Federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions

    947     (260 )   687     24     134     158  

Total interest income on interest earning assets(1)

    12,253     7,319     19,572     5,821     914     6,735  

Expense from the interest-bearing liabilities:

                                     

Demand, interest-bearing

    212     32     244     65     30     95  

Savings and money market

    130     93     223     116     11     127  

Time deposits — under $100

        (2 )   (2 )   (9 )   (8 )   (17 )

Time deposits — $100 and over

    30     (1 )   29     6     (124 )   (118 )

Time deposits — brokered

    (89 )   (31 )   (120 )   (350 )   (76 )   (426 )

CDARS — money market and time deposits

    (2 )   (1 )   (3 )   (2 )   4     2  

Subordinated debt

                (229 )       (229 )

Short-term borrowings

    (102 )       (102 )   117     2     119  

Total interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities

    179     90     269     (286 )   (161 )   (447 )

Net interest income(1)

  $ 12,074   $ 7,229     19,303   $ 6,107   $ 1,075     7,182  

Less tax equivalent adjustment(1)          

                (85 )               (265 )

Net interest income

              $ 19,218               $ 6,917  

(1)
Reflects tax equivalent adjustment for tax exempt income based on a 35% federal tax rate.

        Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2015 increased 34% to $76.3 million, compared to $57.1 million a year ago, primarily due to loans acquired in the Focus acquisition, organic growth in the loan portfolio, contributions to interest income from Bay View Funding, and the accretion of the loan purchase discount in loan interest income from the Focus transaction. Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2014 increased 14% to $57.1 million, compared to $50.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily as a result of growth in the loan portfolio, and two months of interest income from Bay View Funding.

        The Company's net interest margin (FTE), expressed as a percentage of average earning assets was 4.41% for 2015, an increase of 31 basis points compared to 4.10% for 2014. The increase year to year is primarily due to revenue from the higher yielding Bay View Funding factored receivables portfolio, the accretion of the loan purchase discount in loan interest income, and a special dividend of $203,000 paid by the FHLB in the second quarter of 2015, partially offset by the temporary investment of excess liquidity from the Focus acquisition. The Company's net interest margin for 2014 increased 26 basis points from 3.84% for 2013, primarily the result of loan growth, two months of revenue from Bay View Funding, higher yields on securities, and a lower cost of funds.

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        The yield on the loan portfolio was 5.75% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 4.96% for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in the yield on the loan portfolio for the year ended December 31, 2015 reflects the accretion of the loan purchase discount of $1.4 million in loan interest income from the Focus transaction, and the full year impact of the higher yielding Bay View Funding factored receivables portfolio. Excluding the accretion of the loan purchase discount, the yield on the loan portfolio was 5.62% for the year ended December 31, 2015. The remaining balance of the purchase discount on the Focus loan portfolio was $3.9 million at December 31, 2015.

        At December 31, 2015, Federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions totaled $320.0 million. Average Federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions were $228.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $86.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, and $83.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.

        A substantial portion of the Company's earning assets are variable-rate loans that re-price when the Company's prime lending rate is changed, in contrast to a large base of core deposits that are generally slower to re-price. This causes the Company's balance sheet to be asset-sensitive which means that, all else being equal, the Company's net interest margin will be lower during periods when short-term interest rates are falling and higher when rates are rising.

Provision for Loan Losses

        Credit risk is inherent in the business of making loans. The Company establishes an allowance for loan losses through charges to earnings, which are shown in the statements of operations as the provision for loan losses. Specifically identifiable and quantifiable known losses are promptly charged off against the allowance. The provision for loan losses is determined by conducting a quarterly evaluation of the adequacy of the Company's allowance for loan losses and charging the shortfall, if any, to the current quarter's operations. This has the effect of creating variability in the amount and frequency of charges to the Company's earnings. The provision for loan losses and level of allowance for each period are dependent upon many factors, including loan growth, net charge-offs, changes in the composition of the loan portfolio, delinquencies, management's assessment of the quality of the loan portfolio, the valuation of problem loans and the general economic conditions in the Company's market area.

        The provision for loan losses for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $32,000, compared to a $338,000 credit to the provision for loan losses for the year ended December 31, 2014. The allowance for loan losses related to the commercial portfolio decreased $439,000 at December 31, 2015 from December 31, 2014, as a result of a credit to the provision for loan losses of $789,000 related to the commercial loan portfolio, and net recoveries of $350,000. The decrease in the allowance for loan losses was primarily due to a decline in the Company's legacy problem loans. The allowance for loan losses related to the real estate portfolio increased $1.0 million at December 31, 2015 from December 31, 2014, as a result of a provision for loan losses of $862,000 and net recoveries of $144,000. The increase in the allowance for loan losses was primarily due to an increase in the balance of real estate loans outstanding.

        The allowance for loan losses totaled $18.9 million, or 1.39% of total loans at December 31, 2015, compared to $18.4 million, or 1.69% of total loans at December 31, 2014, and $19.2 million, or 2.09% of total loans at December 31, 2013. The allowance for loan losses to total loans decreased at December 31, 2015, compared to December 31, 2014, primarily due to the impact of the Focus loan portfolio, which was marked to fair value on the acquisition date. Excluding the $141.6 million (at fair value) Focus loan portfolio at December 31, 2015, the allowance for loan losses was 1.55% of total loans. The allowance for loan losses decreased at December 31, 2014, compared to December 31, 2013, primarily due to increasing loan balances with no default histories, coupled with the decrease in nonperforming assets, improving the quality of the loan portfolio overall. Net recoveries totaled $515,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to net charge-offss of $447,000 for the year ended December 31, 2014, and net recoveries of $953,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013. Provisions for loan losses are charged to operations to

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bring the allowance for loan losses to a level deemed appropriate by the Company based on the factors discussed under "Allowance for Loan Losses."

Noninterest Income

        The following table sets forth the various components of the Company's noninterest income:

 
  Year Ended December 31,   Increase
(decrease)
2015 versus 2014
  Increase
(decrease)
2014 versus 2013
 
 
  2015   2014   2013   Amount   Percent   Amount   Percent  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Service charges and fees on deposit accounts

  $ 2,803   $ 2,519   $ 2,457   $ 284     11 % $ 62     3 %

Increase in cash surrender value of life insurance

    1,697     1,600     1,654     97     6 %   (54 )   –3 %

Servicing income

    1,143     1,296     1,446     (153 )   –12 %   (150 )   –10 %

Gain on sales of SBA loans

    843     971     449     (128 )   –13 %   522     116 %

Gain on sales of securities

    642     97     38     545     562 %   59     155 %

Other

    1,857     1,263     1,170     594     47 %   93     8 %

Total

  $ 8,985   $ 7,746   $ 7,214   $ 1,239     16 % $ 532     7 %

        The increase in noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to the year ended December 31, 2014, was primarily due to a $642,000 gain on the sale of securities in the fourth quarter of 2015, and the full year impact of fee income from Bay View Funding. The increase in noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to the year ended December 31, 2013, was primarily due to a higher gain on sales of SBA loans.

        The Company received gross proceeds of $71.8 million on investment securities available-for-sale it sold during the fourth quarter of 2015 with a book value totaling $71.2 million, resulting in a gain on sale of securities of $637,000. There was also a $5,000 gain on a bond that was called in the fourth quarter of 2015 included in gain on sale of securities. The Company sold $108.6 million of investment securities available-for-sale for a net gain of $97,000 during the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to a $38,000 gain during the year ended December 31, 2013.

        A portion of the Company's noninterest income is associated with its SBA lending activity, as gain on sales of loans sold in the secondary market and servicing income from loans sold with servicing rights retained. During 2015, SBA loan sales resulted in a $843,000 gain, compared to a $971,000 gain on sales of SBA loans in 2014, and a $449,000 gain on sales of SBA loans in 2013. The servicing assets that result from the sales of SBA loans with servicing retained are amortized over the expected term of the loans using a method approximating the interest method. Servicing income generally declines as the respective loans are repaid.

        The increase in cash surrender value of life insurance approximates a 3.11% after tax yield on the policies. To realize this tax advantaged yield the policies must be held until death of the insured individuals, who are current and former officers and directors of the Company.

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Noninterest Expense

        The following table sets forth the various components of the Company's noninterest expense:

 
  Year Ended December 31,   Increase
(decrease)
2015 versus 2014
  Increase
(decrease)
2014 versus 2013
 
 
  2015   2014   2013   Amount   Percent   Amount   Percent  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Salaries and employee benefits

  $ 35,146   $ 26,250   $ 23,450   $ 8,896     34 % $ 2,800     12 %

Occupancy and equipment

    4,300     4,053     4,043     247     6 %   10     0 %

Acquisition and integration related costs(1)

    3,546     895         2,651     296 %   895     N/A  

Professional fees

    1,828     1,891     2,588     (63 )   –3 %   (697 )   –27 %

Data processing

    1,371     969     1,078     402     41 %   (109 )   –10 %

Software subscriptions

    1,214     999     1,289     215     22 %   (290 )   –22 %

Insurance expense

    1,127     1,126     1,032     1     0 %   94     9 %

FDIC deposit insurance premiums

    1,092     892     894     200     22 %   (2 )   0 %

Correspondent bank charges

    1,021     760     684     261     34 %   76     11 %

Amortization on intangible assets

    1,043     510     473     533     105 %   37     8 %

Foreclosed assets

    (94 )   53     (251 )   (147 )   –277 %   304     121 %

Other

    7,079     5,824     5,190     1,255     22 %   634     12 %

Total

  $ 58,673   $ 44,222   $ 40,470   $ 14,451     33 % $ 3,752     9 %

(1)
Does not include one-time pre-tax severance and retention cost of $2.9 million, which is included in salaries and employee benefits for the year ended December 31, 2015.

        The following table indicates the percentage of noninterest expense in each category:

 
  2015   2014   2013  
 
  Amount   Percent of
Total
  Amount   Percent of
Total
  Amount   Percent of
Total
 
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Salaries and employee benefits

  $ 35,146     61 % $ 26,250     59 % $ 23,450     58 %

Occupancy and equipment

    4,300     7 %   4,053     9 %   4,043     10 %

Acquisition and integration related costs(1)

    3,546     6 %   895     2 %       0 %

Professional fees

    1,828     3 %   1,891     4 %   2,588     6 %

Data processing

    1,371     2 %   969     2 %   1,078     3 %

Software subscriptions

    1,214     2 %   999     2 %   1,289     3 %

Insurance expense

    1,127     2 %   1,126     3 %   1,032     3 %

FDIC deposit insurance premiums

    1,092     2 %   892     2 %   894     2 %

Correspondent bank charges

    1,021     2 %   760     2 %   684     2 %

Amortization on intangible assets

    1,043     1 %   510     1 %   473     1 %

Foreclosed assets

    (94 )   0 %   53     0 %   (251 )   –1 %

Other

    7,079     12 %   5,824     14 %   5,190     13 %

Total

  $ 58,673     100 % $ 44,222     100 % $ 40,470     100 %

(1)
Does not include one-time pre-tax severance and retention cost of $2.9 million, which is included in salaries and employee benefits for the year ended December 31, 2015.

        Noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2015 increased 33% to $58.7 million, compared to $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase from year to year was primarily due to costs related to the integration of Focus, and the additional operating costs of Focus and Bay View

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Funding. Noninterest expense included total Focus pre tax acquisition and integration costs of $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Of the total acquisition and integration costs, salaries and employee benefits (including severance and retention expenses) were $2.9 million, and other expenses related to the Focus acquisition and integration were $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Full-time equivalent employees were 260, 242, and 193 at December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively.

        Noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2014 increased 9% to $44.2 million, compared to $40.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase from year to year was primarily due to increased salaries and employee benefits expense. The increase in noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2014 was primarily due to two months of operating expenses incurred by Bay View Funding, one-time costs related to the Bay View Funding acquisition, and higher salaries and employee benefits costs, which were partially offset by lower professional fees, software subscriptions, and data processing expense.

Income Tax Expense

        The Company computes its provision for income taxes on a monthly basis. The effective tax rate is determined by applying the Company's statutory income tax rates to pre-tax book income as adjusted for permanent differences between pre-tax book income and actual taxable income. These permanent differences include, but are not limited to increases in the cash surrender value of life insurance policies, interest on tax-exempt securities, certain expenses that are not allowed as tax deductions, and tax credits.

        The Company's Federal and state income tax expense in 2015 was $10.1 million, compared to $7.5 million in 2014, and $6.2 million in 2013. The following table shows the effective income tax rates for the dates indicated:

 
  For the Year Ended
December 31,
 
 
  2015   2014   2013  

Effective income tax rate

    38.0 %   36.0 %   35.0 %

        The difference in the effective tax rate compared to the combined Federal and state statutory tax rate of 42% is primarily the result of tax exempt securities, the Company's investment in life insurance policies whose earnings are not subject to taxes, tax credits related to investments in low income housing limited partnerships, and Enterprise Zone hiring credits.

        The Company adopted the proportional amortization method of accounting for its low income housing investments in the third quarter of 2014. The Company quantified the impact of adopting the proportional amortization method compared to the equity method to its current year and prior period financial statements. The Company determined that the adoption of the proportional amortization method did not have a material impact to its financial statements. The low income housing investment losses, net of the tax benefits received, are included in income tax expense for all periods reflected on the consolidated income statements.

        Some items of income and expense are recognized in different years for tax purposes than when applying generally accepted accounting principles leading to timing differences between the Company's actual tax liability, and the amount accrued for this liability based on book income. These temporary differences comprise the "deferred" portion of the Company's tax expense or benefit, which is accumulated on the Company's books as a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability until such time as they reverse.

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        Realization of the Company's deferred tax assets is primarily dependent upon the Company generating sufficient future taxable income to obtain benefit from the reversal of net deductible temporary differences and utilization of tax credit carryforwards and the net operating loss carryforwards for Federal and California state income tax purposes. The amount of deferred tax assets considered realizable is subject to adjustment in future periods based on estimates of future taxable income. Under generally accepted accounting principles a valuation allowance is required to be recognized if it is "more likely than not" that the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The determination of the realizability of the deferred tax assets is highly subjective and dependent upon judgment concerning management's evaluation of both positive and negative evidence, including forecasts of future income, cumulative losses, applicable tax planning strategies, and assessments of current and future economic and business conditions.

        The Company had the net deferred tax assets of $22.2 million and $18.5 million at December 31, 2015, and December 31, 2014, respectively. After consideration of the matters in the preceding paragraph, the Company determined that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 will be fully realized in future years.

Business Segment Information

        The following presents the Company's operating segments. Transactions between segments consist primarily of borrowed funds. Intersegment interest expense is allocated to the Factoring segment based on the Company's prime rate and funding costs. The provision for loan loss is allocated based on the segment's allowance for loan loss determination which considers the effects of charge-offs. Noninterest income and expense directly attributable to a segment are assigned to it. Taxes are paid on a consolidated basis and allocated for segment purposes. The Factoring segment includes only factoring originated by Bay View Funding, which has been included in the results of operations since the acquisition on November 1, 2014.

 
  For the Twelve Months Ended
Deember 31, 2015
 
 
  Banking(1)   Factoring   Consolidated  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Interest income

  $ 66,306   $ 12,437   $ 78,743  

Intersegment interest allocations

    1,087     (1,087 )    

Total interest expense

    2,422         2,422  

Net interest income

    64,971     11,350     76,321  

Provision (credit) for loan losses

    (156 )   188     32  

Net interest income after provision

    65,127     11,162     76,289  

Noninterest income

    8,234     751     8,985  

Noninterest expense

    51,438     7,235     58,673  

Intersegment expense allocations

    386     (386 )    

Income before income taxes

    22,309     4,292     26,601  

Income tax expense

    8,301     1,803     10,104  

Net income

  $ 14,008   $ 2,489   $ 16,497  

Total assets

  $ 2,306,543   $ 55,036   $ 2,361,579  

Loans, net of deferred fees

  $ 1,318,657   $ 40,059   $ 1,358,716  

Goodwill

  $ 32,620   $ 13,044   $ 45,664  

(1)
Includes the holding company's results of operations.

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  For the Twelve Months Ended
Deember 31, 2014
 
 
  Banking(1)   Factoring(2)   Consolidated  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Interest income

  $ 57,178   $ 2,078   $ 59,256  

Intersegment interest allocations

    31     (31 )    

Total interest expense

    2,033     120     2,153  

Net interest income

    55,176     1,927     57,103  

Provision (credit) for loan losses

    (338 )       (338 )

Net interest income after provision

    55,514     1,927     57,441  

Noninterest income

    7,662     84     7,746  

Noninterest expense

    43,132     1,090     44,222  

Income before income taxes

    20,044     921     20,965  

Income tax expense

    7,151     387     7,538  

Net income

  $ 12,893   $ 534   $ 13,427  

Total assets

  $ 1,561,911   $ 55,192   $ 1,617,103  

Loans, net of deferred fees

  $ 1,048,631   $ 40,012   $ 1,088,643  

Goodwill

  $   $ 13,044   $ 13,044  

(1)
Includes the holding company's results of operations.

(2)
Includes two months of Bay View Funding's results of operations.

        Banking.    For the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, our banking segment's net income increased to $14.0 million, compared with $12.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2014. Net interest income increased to $65.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, compared to $55.2 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2014. The increase in net interest income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, compared to the comparable periods in 2014, was primarily as a result of the Focus acquisition and organic growth in the loan portfolio and core deposits. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, noninterest expense was $51.4 million, compared to $43.1 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2014. The increase in noninterest expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, was primarily due to one-time costs related to the Focus transaction, and the additional operating costs of Focus. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, the credit provision for loan losses was $156,000, compared with a credit for loan losses of $338,000, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2014.

        Factoring.    Bay View Funding's primary business operation is purchasing and collecting factored receivables. Factored receivables are receivables that have been transferred by the originating organization and typically have not been subject to previous collection efforts. In a factoring transaction, Bay View Funding directly purchases the receivables generated by its clients at a discount to their face value. The transactions are structured to provide the clients with immediate working capital when there is a mismatch between payments to the client for a good or service and the incurrence of operating costs required to provide for such good or service. The average life of the factored receivables is 33 days. The balance of the purchased receivables as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $40.1 million and $40.0 million, respectively. Bay View Funding's results of operations have been included in the Company's results beginning November 1, 2014. For the twleve months ended December 31, 2015, Bay View Funding provided net interest income of $11.3 million, noninterest income of $751,000, and $2.5 million of the Company's net income. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2014, two months of Bay View Funding's results of operations provided net interest income of $1.9 million, noninterest income of $84,000, and $534,000 of the Company's net income.

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Financial Condition

        As of December 31, 2015, total assets were $2.36 billion, an increase of 46% compared to $1.62 billion at December 31, 2014. The investment securities available-for-sale portfolio totaled $385.1 million at December 31, 2015, an increase of 87% from $206.3 million at December 31, 2014. In addition, securities held-to-maturity totaled $109.3 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $95.4 million at December 31, 2014. The total loan portfolio, excluding loans held-for-sale, was $1.36 billion, an increase of 25% from $1.09 billion at year-end 2014, which included an increase of $113.4 million, or 10%, in the Company's legacy loan portfolio, and $141.6 million from the Focus loan portfolio.

        Total deposits increased $674.4 million, or 49%, to $2.06 billion at December 31, 2015, compared to $1.39 billion at December 31, 2014, which included an increase of $297.5 million, or 21%, in the Company's legacy deposit portfolio, and $376.9 million from the Focus deposit portfolio. Deposits (excluding all time deposits and CDARS deposits) increased $686.4 million, or 61%, to $1.81 billion at December 31, 2015, from $1.13 billion at December 31, 2014.

Securities Portfolio

        The following table reflects the balances for each category of securities at year-end:

 
  December 31,  
 
  2015   2014   2013  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Securities available-for-sale (at fair value):

                   

Agency mortgage-backed securities

  $ 324,230   $ 154,172   $ 207,644  

U.S. Treasury

    30,003          

Trust preferred securities

    15,132     15,300     20,410  

U.S. Government sponsored entities

    9,041          

Corporate bonds

    6,673     36,863     52,046  

Total

  $ 385,079   $ 206,335   $ 280,100  

Securities held-to-maturity (at amortized cost):

                   

Municipals — Tax Exempt

  $ 93,518   $ 79,882   $ 79,989  

Agency mortgage-backed securities

    15,793     15,480     15,932  

  $ 109,311   $ 95,362   $ 95,921  

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        The table below summarizes the weighted average life and weighted average yields of securities as of December 31, 2015:

 
  Weighted Average Life  
 
  Within One
Year or Less
  After One and
Within Five
Years
  After Five and
Within Ten
Years
  After Ten
Years
  Total  
 
  Amount   Yield   Amount   Yield   Amount   Yield   Amount   Yield   Amount   Yield  
 
  (Dollars in thousands)
 

Securities available-for-sale (at fair value):

                                                             

Agency mortgage-backed securities

  $       $ 129,882     2.47 % $ 190,326     2.33 % $ 4,022     2.65 % $ 324,230     2.39 %

U.S. Treasury

            30,003     1.15 %                   30,003     1.15 %

Trust preferred securities

                            15,132     5.95 %   15,132     5.95 %

U.S. Government sponsored entities

    1,996     0.66 %   2,984     0.99 %   4,061     2.04 %           9,041     1.39 %

Corporate bonds

            6,673     2.87 %                   6,673     2.87 %

Total

  $ 1,996     0.66 % $ 169,542     2.23 % $ 194,387     2.32 % $ 19,154     5.26 % $ 385,079     2.42 %

Securities held-to-maturity (at amortized cost):

                                                             

Municipals — Tax Exempt(1)

  $ 2,733     3.69 % $ 20,816     3.65 % $ 42,703     4.00 % $ 27,266     3.80 % $ 93,518     3.85 %

Agency mortgage-backed securities

            5,579     2.47 %           10,214     3.27 %   15,793     2.99 %

Total

  $ 2,733     3.69 % $ 26,395     3.40 % $ 42,703     4.00 % $ 37,480     3.65 % $ 109,311     3.73 %