10-K 1 mar-q42015x10k.htm 10-K 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2015
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File No. 1-13881
 
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
52-2055918
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
10400 Fernwood Road, Bethesda, Maryland
20817
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code (301) 380-3000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value
(253,481,935 shares outstanding as of February 5, 2016)
 
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Chicago Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a small reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer  x
  
Accelerated filer  o
  
Non-accelerated filer  o
  
Smaller reporting company  o
 
  
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2015, was $14,801,193,156

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement prepared for the 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into
Part III of this report.





MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS
FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015
 
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




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Throughout this report, we refer to Marriott International, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, as “we,” “us,” or “the Company.”
Beginning in 2013, we changed our financial reporting cycle to a calendar year-end reporting cycle and an end-of-month quarterly reporting cycle. Historically, our fiscal year was a 52-53 week fiscal year that ended on the Friday nearest to December 31. Unless otherwise specified, each reference to a particular year means the fiscal year ended on the date and containing the specified number of days that we show in the table under the caption “Fiscal Year” in Footnote No. 1, “Basis of Presentation,” to the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In order to make this report easier to read, we also refer throughout to (i) our Consolidated Financial Statements as our “Financial Statements,” (ii) our Consolidated Statements of Income as our “Income Statements,” (iii) our Consolidated Balance Sheets as our “Balance Sheets,” (iv) our properties, brands, or markets in the United States (“U.S.”) and Canada as “North America” or “North American,” and (v) our properties, brands, or markets outside of the United States and Canada as “International.” References throughout to numbered “Footnotes” refer to the numbered Notes to our Financial Statements that we include in the Financial Statements section of this report.
PART I

Item 1.    Business.
Corporate Structure and Business
We are a worldwide operator, franchisor, and licensor of hotels and timeshare properties under numerous brand names at different price and service points. Consistent with our focus on management, franchising, and licensing, we own very few of our lodging properties. We also operate, market, and develop residential properties and provide services to home/condominium owner associations.
We were organized as a corporation in Delaware in 1997 and became a public company in 1998 when we were “spun off” as a separate entity by the company formerly named “Marriott International, Inc.” We operate, franchise, or license 4,424 properties worldwide, with 759,330 rooms as of year-end 2015. We believe that our portfolio of brands is the broadest of any lodging company in the world. Our principal brands are listed in the following table:
•      The Ritz-Carlton®
•      Gaylord Hotels®
•      Bulgari® Hotels & Resorts
•      AC Hotels by Marriott®
•      EDITION®
•      Courtyard by Marriott® (“Courtyard®”)
•      JW Marriott®
•      Residence Inn by Marriott® (“Residence Inn®”)
•      Autograph Collection® Hotels
•      SpringHill Suites by Marriott® (“SpringHill Suites®”)
•      Renaissance® Hotels
•      Fairfield Inn & Suites by Marriott® (“Fairfield Inn & Suites®”)
•      Marriott Hotels®
•      TownePlace Suites by Marriott® (“TownePlace Suites®”)
•      Delta Hotels and Resorts®
•      Protea Hotels®
•      Marriott Executive Apartments®
•      Moxy Hotels®
•      Marriott Vacation Club®
 
As of year-end 2015, we group operations into three business segments: North American Full-Service, North American Limited-Service, and International, and provide financial information by segment for 2015, 2014, and 2013 in Footnote No. 16, “Business Segments” and Footnote No. 12, “Property and Equipment.”
Pending Combination with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc.
On November 15, 2015, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) to combine with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. (“Starwood”). The Merger Agreement provides for the Company to combine with Starwood in a series of transactions after which Starwood will be an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Starwood Combination”). If these transactions are completed, shareholders of Starwood will receive 0.920 shares of our Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, and $2.00 in cash, without interest, for each share of Starwood common stock, par value $0.01 per share, that they own immediately before these transactions. We expect that the combination will close in mid-2016, after customary conditions are satisfied, including shareholder approvals, required antitrust approvals, and the

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completion of Starwood’s previously announced spin-off of its vacation ownership business, or another spin-off, split-off, analogous disposition, or sale of its vacation ownership business.
Company-Operated Properties
At year-end 2015, we operated 1,116 properties (300,305 rooms) under long-term management agreements with property owners, 41 properties (9,206 rooms) under long-term lease agreements with property owners (management and lease agreements together, “the Operating Agreements”), and six properties (1,437 rooms) that we own. In addition, we operated under long-term management agreements 41 home and condominium products (4,203 units) for which we manage the related owners’ associations.
Terms of our management agreements vary, but we earn a management fee that is typically composed of a base management fee, which is a percentage of the revenues of the hotel, and an incentive management fee, which is based on the profits of the hotel. Our management agreements also typically include reimbursement of costs of operations (both direct and indirect). Such agreements are generally for initial periods of 20 to 30 years, with options for us to renew for up to 50 or more additional years. Our lease agreements also vary, but may include fixed annual rentals plus additional rentals based on a percentage of annual revenues in excess of a fixed amount. Many of our Operating Agreements are subordinated to mortgages or other liens securing indebtedness of the owners. Many of our Operating Agreements also permit the owners to terminate the agreement if we do not meet certain performance metrics and financial returns fail to meet defined levels for a period of time and we have not cured such deficiencies. In certain circumstances, some of our management agreements allow owners to convert company-operated properties to franchised properties under our brands.
For lodging facilities that we operate, we generally are responsible for hiring, training, and supervising the managers and employees who are needed to operate the facilities and for purchasing supplies, and owners are required to reimburse us for those costs. We provide centralized reservation services and national advertising, marketing, and promotional services, as well as various accounting and data processing services, and owners are also required to reimburse us for those costs.
Franchised, Licensed, and Unconsolidated Joint Venture Properties
We have franchising, licensing, and joint venture programs that permit other hotel owners and operators and Marriott Vacations Worldwide Corporation (“MVW”), our former timeshare subsidiary that we spun off in 2011, to use many of our lodging brand names and systems. Under our franchising program, we generally receive an initial application fee and continuing royalty fees, which typically range from four to six percent of room revenues for all brands, plus two to three percent of food and beverage revenues for certain full-service hotels. We are a partner in unconsolidated joint ventures that manage hotels. Some of these joint ventures also provide services to franchised hotels. We recognize our share of these joint ventures’ net income or loss in the “Equity in earnings (losses)” caption of our Income Statements. Franchisees and joint ventures contribute to our national marketing and advertising programs and pay fees for use of our centralized reservation systems. Under license agreements with us, MVW is both the exclusive developer and operator of timeshare, fractional, and related products under the Marriott brand and the exclusive developer of fractional and related products under The Ritz-Carlton brand. We receive license fees under licensing agreements with MVW consisting of a fixed annual fee, adjusted for inflation, of $50 million plus two percent of the gross sales price paid to MVW for initial developer sales of interests in vacation ownership units and residential real estate units and one percent of the gross sales price paid to MVW for resales of interests in vacation ownership units and residential real estate units, in each case that are identified with or use the Marriott or The Ritz-Carlton marks.
At year-end 2015, we had 3,074 franchised properties (420,562 rooms), 88 unconsolidated joint venture properties (10,810 rooms), and 58 licensed timeshare, fractional, and related properties (12,807 units).
Residential
We use or license our trademarks for the sale of residential real estate, typically in conjunction with hotel development and receive branding fees for sales of such branded residential real estate by others. Residences are typically constructed and sold by third-party owners with limited amounts, if any, of our capital at risk. We have used or licensed our The Ritz-Carlton, Bulgari Hotels & Resorts, EDITION, Autograph Collection Hotels, JW Marriott, and Marriott Hotels brand names and trademarks for residential real estate sales. While the worldwide residential market is very large, we believe the luxurious nature of our residential properties, the quality and exclusivity associated with our brands, and the hospitality services that we provide, all serve to make our residential properties distinctive.

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Seasonality
In general, business at company-operated and franchised properties fluctuates only moderately with the seasons and is relatively stable. Business at some resort properties may be seasonal depending on location.
Relationship with Major Customer
We operate a number of properties under long-term management agreements that are owned or leased by Host Hotels & Resorts, Inc. (“Host”). In addition, Host is a partner in several partnerships that own properties operated by us under long-term management agreements. See Footnote No. 18, “Relationship with Major Customer,” for more information.
Intellectual Property
We operate in a highly competitive industry and our brand names, trademarks, service marks, trade names, and logos are very important to the sales and marketing of our properties and services. We believe that our brand names and other intellectual property have come to represent the highest standards of quality, caring, service, and value to our customers and the traveling public. Accordingly, we register and protect our intellectual property where we deem appropriate and otherwise protect against its unauthorized use.

4


Our Brand Portfolio
At year-end 2015, we operated, franchised, or licensed properties in the following geographical regions:
 
 
North America
 
Europe
 
Middle East & Africa
 
Asia Pacific
 
Caribbean & Latin America
 
Total
 
 
U.S.
Canada
 
 
 
 
 
Properties
39
 
1
 
12
 
10
 
27
 
7
 
96
Rooms
11,572
 
267
 
2,929
 
3,166
 
7,231
 
1,966
 
27,131
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
10
 
6
 
8
 
6
 
32
Properties
 
 
2
 
 
1
 
 
3
Rooms
 
 
143
 
 
59
 
 
202
Countries and Territories
 
 
2
 
 
1
 
 
3
Properties
2
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
4
Rooms
568
 
 
251
 
 
 
 
819
Countries and Territories
1
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
3
Properties
24
 
1
 
6
 
4
 
29
 
13
 
77
Rooms
13,938
 
221
 
2,065
 
2,708
 
11,764
 
3,346
 
34,042
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
6
 
3
 
7
 
9
 
27
Properties
53
 
2
 
30
 
1
 
3
 
6
 
95
Rooms
12,675
 
460
 
4,344
 
446
 
785
 
4,098
 
22,808
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
13
 
1
 
3
 
6
 
25
Properties
80
 
2
 
36
 
3
 
31
 
8
 
160
Rooms
26,798
 
561
 
8,632
 
921
 
12,116
 
2,565
 
51,593
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
16
 
2
 
7
 
8
 
35
Properties
327
 
15
 
94
 
18
 
45
 
27
 
526
Rooms
129,070
 
5,355
 
23,071
 
6,206
 
15,804
 
7,771
 
187,277
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
19
 
8
 
9
 
16
 
54
Properties
 
36
 
 
 
 
 
36
Rooms
 
9,385
 
 
 
 
 
9,385
Countries and Territories
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
1
Properties
 
 
5
 
6
 
15
 
2
 
28
Rooms
 
 
408
 
759
 
2,774
 
240
 
4,181
Countries and Territories
 
 
5
 
4
 
5
 
2
 
16
Properties
5
 
 
 
 
 
 
5
Rooms
8,098
 
 
 
 
 
 
8,098
Countries and Territories
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
Properties
5
 
 
78
 
 
 
 
83
Rooms
911
 
 
9,551
 
 
 
 
10,462
Countries and Territories
1
 
 
6
 
 
 
 
7
Properties
891
 
25
 
49
 
5
 
37
 
30
 
1,037
Rooms
124,630
 
4,411
 
9,220
 
1,041
 
9,243
 
4,872
 
153,417
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
18
 
3
 
8
 
15
 
46
Properties
669
 
21
 
3
 
3
 
 
1
 
697
Rooms
81,387
 
3,025
 
307
 
301
 
 
109
 
85,129
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
3
 
3
 
 
1
 
9
Properties
334
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
336
Rooms
39,451
 
299
 
 
 
 
 
39,750
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
2

5


 
 
North America
 
Europe
 
Middle East & Africa
 
Asia Pacific
 
Caribbean & Latin America
 
Total
 
 
U.S.
Canada
 
 
 
 
 
Properties
743
 
18
 
 
 
2
 
5
 
768
Rooms
67,946
 
2,024
 
 
 
314
 
788
 
71,072
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
 
 
1
 
1
 
4
Properties
263
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
270
Rooms
26,272
 
856
 
 
 
 
 
27,128
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
2
Properties
 
 
 
102
 
 
 
102
Rooms
 
 
 
9,609
 
 
 
9,609
Countries and Territories
 
 
 
8
 
 
 
8
Properties
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
1
Rooms
 
 
162
 
 
 
 
162
Countries and Territories
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
1
Residences (1)
Properties
31
 
2
 
2
 
 
2
 
5
 
42
Rooms
3,623
 
214
 
106
 
 
63
 
252
 
4,258
Countries and Territories
1
 
1
 
2
 
 
2
 
2
 
8
   Timeshare (2)
Properties
45
 
 
5
 
 
3
 
5
 
58
Rooms
10,540
 
 
919
 
 
332
 
1,016
 
12,807
Countries and Territories
1
 
 
3
 
 
1
 
3
 
8
 
Total Properties
3,511
 
132
 
325
 
152
 
195
 
109
 
4,424
 
Total Rooms
557,479
 
27,078
 
62,108
 
25,157
 
60,485
 
27,023
 
759,330
(1) 
Figures include home and condominium products for which we manage the related owners’ association.
(2) 
Timeshare properties are licensed by MVW under the Marriott Vacation Club, The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club, The Ritz-Carlton Residences, and Grand Residences by Marriott brand names.
The Ritz-Carlton is a luxury hospitality brand where the genuine care and comfort of guests is the highest mission. Ritz-Carlton properties provide the finest personal service and facilities for its guests so that they will enjoy a warm, relaxed, yet refined ambience. The Ritz-Carlton experience enlivens the senses, instills well-being, and fulfills even the unexpressed wishes and needs of its guests. Established in 1983 with the purchase of The Ritz-Carlton, Boston and the rights to the name, the brand has grown worldwide with award-winning luxury hotels, residences, golf communities, elegant spas, innovative retail outlets, and acclaimed restaurants.
Bulgari Hotels & Resorts, developed in partnership with jeweler and luxury goods designer Bulgari Spa, is a collection of sophisticated, intimate luxury properties located in exclusive destinations. With properties in London, Milan, and Bali and food and beverage outlets in Tokyo, premium individuality is the rule - no detail is too small, no experience too grand. Each intimate location offers guests an exclusive celebration of contemporary design and superior service.
EDITION is a luxury lifestyle hotel brand that combines a personal, individualized, and unique hotel experience with the global reach and scale of Marriott International and creative vision of Ian Schrager. EDITION encompasses not only great design and true innovation, but also great personal, friendly, modern service as well as outstanding, one-of-a-kind food, beverage, and entertainment offerings. Each hotel with its rare individuality, authenticity, originality, and unique ethos reflects the best of the cultural and social milieu of its location and of the time.
JW Marriott is a global luxury brand of beautiful hotels and resorts located in gateway cities and exotic destinations around the world. JW Marriott properties have awe-inspiring spaces influenced by modern residential design, exceptional amenities and culinary experiences, and warm and engaging associates delivering intuitive service. JW Marriott's elegant yet approachable positioning provides a differentiated offering in the luxury hotel market, bridging the gap between full-service hotel brands and the super luxury brands at the top of the tier.
Autograph Collection Hotels are high personality upper-upscale and luxury independent hotels that deliver unique experiences and design across a global portfolio. Each property has been selected for its originality, rich character, uncommon details, remarkable design, or for its best-in-class resort amenities. From iconic to chic and artsy to luxurious, Autograph Collection is designed to attract guests who prefer original, locally authentic, and unique hotel experiences that other conventional brands do not offer.

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Renaissance Hotels is a global, full-service brand in the upper-upscale tier that targets lifestyle-oriented business travelers. Each Renaissance hotel offers its own personality, local flavor, and distinctive style. Innovations include the Navigator program, which helps guests discover the soul of the neighborhood, and Evenings at Renaissance, which helps guests experience the unexpected with live music, mixology demonstrations, art exhibits, and more in the comfort of the hotel lobby bars and lounges. The diverse portfolio of properties includes historic icons, modern boutiques, resorts, and convention hotels.
Marriott Hotels is the Company’s global flagship premium brand, primarily serving business and leisure upper-upscale travelers and meeting groups. Marriott Hotels properties deliver premium choices, sophisticated style, and well-crafted details. Properties are located in downtown, urban, and suburban areas, near airports, and at resort locations. Typically, properties offer well-appointed guest rooms, convention and banquet facilities, destination-driven restaurants and lounges, concierge lounges, fitness centers, and swimming pools. Many resort properties have additional recreational facilities, such as tennis courts, golf courses, additional restaurants and lounges, and spa facilities.
Delta Hotels and Resorts is a full-service brand, primarily serving business travelers within the upscale and upper-upscale tiers. Delta Hotels and Resorts are focused on elevating and delivering on the essentials of business travel, through pragmatic and efficient design, thoughtfully appointed guest rooms, large functional work spaces, and complimentary Wi-Fi. Located in gateway cities, suburban areas, near airports, and resort locations, properties also feature flexible meeting spaces, food and beverage options, and premium fitness centers.
Marriott Executive Apartments provides international, five-star serviced apartments in emerging market gateway cities, designed for business executives who require housing outside their home country, usually for a month or longer. These one-, two-, and three-bedroom apartments are designed with upscale finishes, amenities, and services, including on-site gyms and other recreational facilities, a 24-hour front desk, weekly housekeeping services, laundry facilities within the apartment, and often on-site restaurants.
Gaylord Hotels offers guests an entertaining, upscale experience at world-class group and convention-oriented hotels. Gaylord Hotels is a leader in the group and meetings business and complements the Company’s network of large convention hotels. Properties are designed to celebrate the heritage of their destinations near Washington, D.C., Nashville, Tennessee, Orlando, Florida, Dallas, Texas, and opening late 2018 in Aurora, Colorado. Gaylord Hotels properties typically have between 1,400 rooms and 2,900 rooms, 400,000 to 600,000 square feet of meeting and convention space, world-class dining and entertainment offerings, and retail outlets in magnificent settings.
AC Hotels by Marriott is designed to attract the next generation design-conscious business traveler in the upper-moderate tier, who seeks a sleek, modern hotel with unique European touches. With hotels across Europe, and now in North America, and coming soon to South America, AC Hotels by Marriott properties are located in destination, downtown, and lifestyle centers. Properties feature the “AC Lounge,” offering cocktails, tapas-inspired appetizers, and shareable plates, where guests can work and collaborate during the day and relax and unwind in the evening.
Courtyard is our hotel product designed for the upscale tier, and is focused primarily on transient business travel. Hotels feature functionally designed guest rooms and meeting rooms, and offer free Wi-Fi, a swimming pool, an exercise room, and The Bistro (a self-serve food store open 24 hours a day). Courtyard Refreshing Business lobby fuses functionality, aesthetics, and technology to offer guests greater control of their environment. High-tech and high-touch meet high-style, providing flexibility to work, relax, eat, drink, and socialize all at one's own pace.
Residence Inn is the leading upscale extended-stay hotel brand designed for frequent and extended stay business and leisure travelers staying five or more nights. Residence Inn provides upscale design and style with spacious suites that feature separate living, sleeping, and working areas, as well as kitchens with full-size appliances. Guests can maintain their own pace and routines through free Wi-Fi, on-site exercise rooms, and comfortable places to work and relax. Additional amenities include free hot breakfast, evening social events three times a week, free grocery shopping services, 24-hour friendly and knowledgeable staffing, and on-site laundry facilities.
SpringHill Suites is the largest all-suites style hotel brand in the upscale tier that delivers industry leading service to guests who are enthusiastic about travel. The brand delivers a fresh and interesting hotel, focused on fusing form and function with modern décor. The suites feature proprietary West Elm furniture as a new standard. In addition, properties offer enhanced food and beverage choices, with craft beers and wine available in most markets, free hot breakfast, and fitness and wellness zones.
Fairfield Inn & Suites is a well-established leader in the moderate tier and targets no-nonsense travelers seeking a stress-free stay experience. Fairfield is committed to supporting guests’ desire to maintain balance and momentum by providing healthy options with our free hot breakfast, 24/7 Corner Market offerings, and on property fitness facilities. The hotels feature a

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multi-functional lobby and guest rooms and suite rooms that are uniquely designed for restful sleep and productivity. Fairfield is our second largest distributed brand, located across three continents from urban gateway cities and exciting leisure destinations to secondary and tertiary markets.
TownePlace Suites is our extended-stay hotel brand in the upper-moderate tier, designed to appeal to business and leisure travelers who stay for five nights or more. Each suite provides functional spaces for living and working, including a full kitchen and a home office. Each hotel specializes in delivering service that helps guests make the best of long trips by helping them stay productive and upbeat. Additional amenities include daily housekeeping services, free hot breakfast, exercise facilities, a pool, 24-hour In A Pinch (food and beverage) Market, laundry facilities, and free Wi-Fi.
Protea Hotels is the leading hospitality brand in Africa and boasts the highest brand awareness and largest strategic footprint among all the major hospitality brands in Africa. Competing in the moderate and upper moderate tiers, Protea Hotels is ideal for both business and leisure travelers by offering properties in primary and secondary business centers and desirable leisure destinations. Protea Hotels offers modern facilities, proactive and friendly service, and consistent amenities such as full-service restaurants, meeting spaces, complimentary Wi-Fi, and well-appointed rooms, ensuring global standards for a high quality, relaxed, and successful stay.
Moxy Hotels is a design-led, lifestyle moderate tier brand with a chic, modern, and edgy personality. Moxy Hotels offers a vibrant and stylish public space and a fun, energetic, and lively social scene. The brand opened its first hotel in Italy in 2014 and is expanding to other European countries and the United States.
Licensed Brands
In 2011 we spun off our timeshare operations and timeshare development business through a special tax-free dividend to our shareholders of all of the issued and outstanding common stock of our then wholly owned subsidiary MVW. Before the spin-off, we developed, operated, marketed, and sold timeshare interval, fractional ownership, and residential properties as part of our former Timeshare segment under the brand names discussed below, and in conjunction with the spin-off, we entered into licensing agreements with MVW for those brands.
Under those licensing agreements, MVW is the exclusive worldwide developer, marketer, seller, and manager of vacation ownership and related products under the Marriott Vacation Club and Grand Residences by Marriott brands. MVW is also the exclusive global developer, marketer, and seller of vacation ownership and related products under The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club brand. The Ritz-Carlton generally provides on-site management for Ritz-Carlton branded properties. We receive license fees under the licensing agreements with MVW for the following brands:
Marriott Vacation Club is MVW’s signature offering in the upscale tier of the vacation ownership industry. Marriott Vacation Club resorts typically combine spacious accommodations with one-, two-, and three-bedroom options, living and dining areas, and in-unit kitchens and laundry facilities, with resort amenities.
Grand Residences by Marriott is an upscale tier vacation ownership and whole ownership residence brand. The ownership structure and physical products for these locations are similar to those MVW offers to Marriott Vacation Club owners, although the time period for each Grand Residences by Marriott ownership interest ranges between three and 13 weeks. MVW also offers whole ownership residential products under this brand.
The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club is MVW’s vacation ownership offering in the luxury tier of the industry. The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club provides luxurious vacation experiences commensurate with The Ritz-Carlton brand. The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club resorts typically feature luxurious two-, three- and four-bedroom units, and luxury resort amenities.
MVW offers Marriott Rewards® Points and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards® Points to its owners or potential owners as sales, tour, and financing incentives, in exchange for vacation ownership usage rights, for customer referrals, and to resolve customer service issues. MVW buys these points from our Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards programs.
At year-end 2015, MVW operated 58 properties, primarily in the United States, but also in other countries and territories. Many of MVW’s resorts are located adjacent to hotels we operate, such as Marriott Hotels and The Ritz-Carlton, and owners have access to certain hotel facilities during their vacation.
Other Activities
Credit Card Programs. At year-end 2015, we had six credit card programs in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, which include both Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards credit cards. We earn licensing fees based on card usage, and the cards are designed to encourage loyalty to our brands.

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Sales and Marketing, Reservation Systems, and Loyalty Programs. We focus on increasing value for the consumer and “selling the way the customer wants to buy.” Our Look No Further® Best Rate Guarantee gives customers access to the same rates whether they book through our telephone reservation system, our website, or any other Marriott reservation channel and ensures best rate integrity, strengthening consumer confidence in our brand. Our strong Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards guest recognition programs and our information-rich and easy-to-use Marriott.com website and mobile app are also integral to our success.
Marriott.com and Marriott Mobile are two of our fastest growing booking channels. Now averaging over 60 million visitors each month, and with updated designs, personalized experiences, and a new direct booking campaign - It Pays to Book Direct - Marriott.com is making it easier and more rewarding for our guests to book directly with us. Beyond the booking, Marriott Mobile also now gives our guests unprecedented access to services on-the-go, like mobile check-in and check-out (one of our most widely-used digital features). In 2015, we also launched mobile service requests at all full-service hotels around the globe where guests can use the Marriott Mobile App to engage in a two-way chat with the hotel prior to their arrival and throughout their stay. Marriott Rewards members now enjoy a superior stay experience thanks to these member-exclusive digital services. We continue to explore and test other digital offerings that could make the hotel booking and the hotel stay experience at any one of our hotels more convenient, easy, and personalized.
At year-end 2015, we operated 17 hotel reservation centers, eight in the United States and Canada and nine in other countries and territories, which handle reservation requests for our lodging brands worldwide, including franchised properties. We own one of the U.S. facilities and either lease the others or share space with an existing Marriott property. While pricing is set by our hotels, our reservation system manages and controls inventory and allows us to utilize third party agents where cost effective. Economies of scale enable us to minimize costs per occupied room, drive profits for our owners and franchisees, and enhance our fee revenue.
We believe our global sales and revenue management organization is a key competitive advantage due to our unrelenting focus on optimizing our investment in people, processes, and systems. Our above-property sales deployment strategy aligns our sales efforts around the customer, reducing duplication of sales efforts by individual hotels and allowing us to cover a larger number of accounts. We also utilize innovative sophisticated revenue management systems, many of which are proprietary, which we believe provide a competitive advantage in pricing decisions, increase efficiency in analysis and decision making, and produce higher property-level revenue for the hotels in our system. Most of the hotels in our system utilize web-based programs to effectively manage the rate set up and modification processes which provides for greater pricing flexibility, reduces time spent on rate program creation and maintenance, and increases the speed to market of new products and services.
Our customer loyalty programs, Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards, had over 54 million members and 16 participating brands as of year-end 2015. MVW and other program partners also participate in our rewards programs. The rewards programs yield repeat guest business by rewarding frequent stays with points toward free hotel stays and other rewards, or airline miles with any of 41 participating airline programs. We believe that our rewards programs generate substantial repeat business that might otherwise go to competing hotels. In 2015, rewards program members purchased over 50 percent of our room nights. We continue to enhance our rewards program offerings and strategically market to this large and growing customer base. Our loyal rewards member base provides a low cost and high impact vehicle for our revenue generation efforts. See the “Rewards Programs” caption in Footnote No. 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for more information.
As we further discuss in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” later in this report, we utilize sophisticated technology and systems in our reservation, revenue management, and property management systems, in our Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards programs, and in other aspects of our business. We also make certain technologies available to our guests. Keeping pace with developments in technology is important for our operations and our competitive position. Furthermore, the integrity and protection of customer, employee, and company data is critical to us as we use such data for business decisions and to maintain operational efficiency.
Environmental Responsibility and Sustainable Hotels. Our sustainability strategy supports business growth, conservation of natural resources, and protecting our planet through wide-reaching environmental initiatives. Marriott’s environmental goals are to: (1) reduce energy and water consumption by 20 percent by 2020; (2) empower our hotel development partners to build sustainable hotels; (3) green our multi-billion dollar supply chain; (4) educate and inspire associates and guests to conserve and preserve; and (5) address environmental challenges through innovative conservation initiatives including rainforest protection and water conservation. We recently achieved our goal of reducing water consumption by 20 percent by 2020 and are continuing to make progress on our other 2020 goals.
We recognize our responsibility to reduce waste as well as water and energy consumption in our hotels and corporate offices. Our focus remains on continually integrating greater environmental sustainability throughout our business. In the year

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ahead, we intend to build upon our progress and begin to set the stage for our next generation of sustainability goals. We were the first major hotel chain to calculate our carbon footprint and launch a plan to improve energy efficiency, conserve water, and support globally significant projects that reduce deforestation. We use Energy and Environmental Action (EEAP) plans, our best-practice auditing tool, to help our properties achieve energy and water reduction goals. Working in partnership with the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) certification, Marriott is empowering our hotel development partners to build sustainable hotels. We developed the first LEED Volume Program (LVP) for the hospitality industry to provide a streamlined path to certification through a pre-certified hotel prototype. The LEED Volume Program can save our owners 25 percent in energy and water consumption for the life of their buildings and should recover their initial investment in two to six years. Marriott has one of the largest portfolios of LEED-certified buildings in the hospitality industry (over 50), with dozens more in the development pipeline.
Global Design Division. Our Global Design division provides design, development, construction, refurbishment, and procurement services to owners and franchisees of lodging properties on a voluntary basis outside the scope of and separate from our management or franchise contracts. Similar to third-party contractors, Global Design provides these services on a fee basis to owners and franchisees of our branded properties.
Marriott Golf. At year-end 2015, Marriott Golf managed 35 golf course facilities as part of our management of hotels and for other golf course owners. In addition, we provide similar services to three facilities operated by others.
Competition
We encounter strong competition both as a lodging operator and as a franchisor. There are approximately 873 lodging management companies in the United States, including approximately 11 that operate more than 100 properties. These operators are primarily private management firms, but also include several large national and international chains that own and operate their own hotels and also franchise their brands. Our management contracts are typically long-term in nature, but most allow the hotel owner to replace the management firm if it does not meet certain financial or performance criteria.
During the last recession, demand for hotel rooms declined significantly, particularly in 2009, and we took steps to reduce operating costs and improve efficiency. Due to the competitive nature of our industry, we focused these efforts on areas that had limited or no impact on the guest experience. While demand trends globally improved from 2010 through 2015, cost reductions could again become necessary if demand trends reverse. We would expect to implement any such efforts in a manner designed to maintain customer loyalty, owner preference, and associate satisfaction, in order to help maintain or increase our market share.
Affiliation with a national or regional brand is common in the U.S. lodging industry, and we believe that our brand recognition assists us in attracting and retaining guests, owners, and franchisees. In 2015, approximately 70 percent of U.S. hotel rooms were brand-affiliated. Most of the branded properties are franchises, under which the operator pays the franchisor a fee for use of its hotel name and reservation system. In the franchising business, we face a number of competitors that have strong brands and customer appeal, including Hilton, Intercontinental Hotels Group, Hyatt, Starwood, Wyndham, Accor, Choice, Carlson Rezidor, Best Western, La Quinta, and others.
Outside the United States, branding is much less prevalent and most markets are served primarily by independent operators, although branding is more common for new hotel development. We believe that chain affiliation will increase in many overseas markets as local economies grow, trade barriers decline, international travel accelerates, and hotel owners seek the economies of centralized reservation systems and marketing programs.
Based on lodging industry data, we have more than a 10 percent share of the U.S. hotel market (based on number of rooms) and we estimate less than a two percent share of the lodging market outside the United States. We believe that our hotel brands are attractive to hotel owners seeking a management company or franchise affiliation because our hotels typically generate higher Revenue per Available Room (“RevPAR”) than our direct competitors in most market areas. We attribute this performance premium to our success in achieving and maintaining strong customer preference. We believe that the location and quality of our lodging facilities, our marketing programs, our reservation systems, and our emphasis on guest service and guest and associate satisfaction contribute to customer preference across all of our brands.
Properties that we operate, franchise, or license are regularly upgraded to maintain their competitiveness. Most of our management agreements provide for the allocation of funds to be set aside, generally a fixed percentage of revenue, for periodic renovation of buildings and replacement of furnishings. These ongoing refurbishment programs, along with periodic brand initiatives, are generally adequate to preserve or enhance the competitive position and earning power of the properties. Properties converting to one of our brands typically complete renovations as needed in conjunction with the conversion.

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Employee Relations
At year-end 2015, we had approximately 127,500 employees, approximately 11,000 of whom were represented by labor unions. We believe relations with our employees are positive.
Environmental Compliance
The properties we operate or develop are subject to national, state, and local laws and regulations that govern the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relate to protecting the environment. Those environmental provisions include requirements that address health and safety; the use, management, and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes; and emission or discharge of wastes or other materials. We believe that our operation and development of properties complies, in all material respects, with environmental laws and regulations. Compliance with such provisions has not materially impacted our capital expenditures, earnings, or competitive position, and we do not anticipate that it will have a material impact in the future.
Internet Address and Company SEC Filings
Our Internet address is Marriott.com. On the investor relations portion of our website, Marriott.com/investor, we provide a link to our electronic filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports. We make all such filings available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after filing. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
Forward-Looking Statements
We make forward-looking statements in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere in this report based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management and on information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements include information about our possible or assumed future results of operations, which follow under the headings “Business and Overview,” “Liquidity and Capital Resources,” and other statements throughout this report preceded by, followed by or that include the words “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates” or similar expressions.
Any number of risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to differ materially from those we express in our forward-looking statements, including the risks and uncertainties we describe below and other factors we describe from time to time in our periodic filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We therefore caution you not to rely unduly on any forward-looking statement. The forward-looking statements in this report speak only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise.
Risks and Uncertainties
We are subject to various risks that could have a negative effect on us or on our financial condition. You should understand that these risks could cause results to differ materially from those we express in forward-looking statements contained in this report or in other Company communications. Because there is no way to determine in advance whether, or to what extent, any present uncertainty will ultimately impact our business, you should give equal weight to each of the following:
Our industry is highly competitive, which may impact our ability to compete successfully with other hotel properties and home and apartment sharing services for customers. We operate in markets that contain many competitors. Each of our hotel brands competes with major hotel chains, as well as home and apartment sharing services, in national and international venues and with independent companies in regional markets. Our ability to remain competitive and to attract and retain business and leisure travelers depends on our success in distinguishing the quality, value, and efficiency of our lodging products and services, including our loyalty programs and consumer-facing technology platforms and services, from those offered by others. If we cannot compete successfully in these areas, our operating margins could contract, our market share could decrease, and our earnings could decline. Further, new lodging supply in individual markets could have a negative impact on the hotel industry and hamper our ability to increase room rates or occupancy in those markets.
Economic uncertainty could continue to impact our financial results and growth. Weak economic conditions in Europe and other parts of the world, the strength or continuation of recovery in countries that have experienced improved economic conditions, changes in oil prices and currency values, potential disruptions in the U.S. economy as a result of governmental action or inaction on the federal deficit, budget, and related issues, political instability in some areas, and the uncertainty over how long any of these conditions will continue, could continue to have a negative impact on the lodging industry. U.S. government travel is also a significant part of our business, and this aspect of our business may continue to suffer due to U.S. federal spending cuts and any further limitations that may result from congressional action or inaction. As a result of such current economic conditions and uncertainty, we continue to experience weakened demand for our hotel rooms in some markets. Recent improvements in demand trends in other markets may not continue, and our future financial results and growth could be further harmed or constrained if the recovery stalls or conditions worsen.
Risks Relating to the Starwood Combination
We will be subject to various uncertainties and contractual restrictions, including the risk of litigation, while the Starwood Combination is pending that could cause disruption and may make it more difficult to maintain relationships with employees, hotel owners, hotel franchisees, suppliers or customers. Uncertainty about the effect of the Starwood Combination on employees, hotel owners, hotel franchisees, suppliers and customers may have an adverse effect on our business. Although we intend to take steps designed to reduce any adverse effects, these uncertainties could impair our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel until the Starwood Combination is completed and for a period of time after that, and could cause customers, suppliers and others that deal with us to seek to change our existing business relationships.
The pursuit of the Starwood Combination and the preparation for the integration may place a significant burden on our management and internal resources. The diversion of management’s attention away from day-to-day business concerns and any difficulties encountered in the transition and integration process could adversely affect our financial results.

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In addition, the Merger Agreement restricts each company, without the other’s consent, from making certain acquisitions and taking other specified actions until the Starwood Combination closes or the Merger Agreement terminates. These restrictions could prevent us from pursuing otherwise attractive business opportunities and making other changes to our business before completion of the Starwood Combination or termination of the Merger Agreement.
A number of lawsuits challenging the Starwood Combination were filed on behalf of purported shareholders of Starwood, naming various combinations of Starwood’s directors, Starwood, Marriott, and others, as defendants. Although Marriott was dismissed from these lawsuits, an adverse ruling in any pending or future actions may prevent or delay the Starwood Combination from being completed. Starwood’s board of directors has also received demand letters from purported shareholders alleging that Starwood’s board of directors breached its fiduciary duties in connection with its approval of the Starwood Combination and demanding that Starwood’s board of directors conduct an investigation and take other actions. Similar lawsuits could be filed and similar demand letters could in the future be received by Starwood, Marriott, and their respective boards of directors. One of the conditions to the closing of the Starwood Combination is the absence of any judgment, order, law or other legal restraint by a court or other governmental entity of competent jurisdiction that prevents the consummation of the Starwood Combination. Accordingly, if any of the plaintiffs is successful in obtaining an injunction prohibiting the consummation of the Starwood Combination, then such injunction could prevent the Starwood Combination from becoming effective, or delay its becoming effective within the expected time frame.
Failure to complete the Starwood Combination could negatively impact our stock price and our future business and financial results. If we do not complete the Starwood Combination, our ongoing business could be adversely affected, and we may be subject to several risks, including the following:
being required to pay a termination fee under certain circumstances as provided in the Merger Agreement;
having to pay certain costs relating to the Starwood Combination, such as legal, accounting, financial advisor and other fees and expenses;
our stock price could decline to the extent that the current market prices reflect a market assumption that the Starwood Combination will be completed; and
having had our management focus on the Starwood Combination instead of on pursuing other opportunities that could have been beneficial to us.
If the Starwood Combination is not completed, we cannot assure you that these risks will not materialize and will not materially adversely affect our business, financial results and stock price.
Our ability to complete the Starwood Combination is subject to certain closing conditions and the receipt of consents and approvals from government entities which may impose conditions that could adversely affect us or cause the Starwood Combination to be abandoned. The Merger Agreement contains certain closing conditions, including, among others:
the approval by the holders of a majority of all outstanding shares of Starwood common stock of the transactions;
the approval by the holders of a majority of the votes cast at the special meeting of Marriott shareholders in favor of the proposal to issue shares of Marriott common stock to Starwood shareholders;
the absence of any judgment, order, law or other legal restraint by a court or other governmental entity of competent jurisdiction that prevents the consummation of the Starwood Combination;
the approval for listing by NASDAQ of the shares of Marriott common stock issuable in the Starwood Combination; and
the spin-off of Starwood’s Vistana vacation ownership business (“Vistana”), or, if the spin-off of Vistana and Vistana’s subsequent merger with a wholly owned subsidiary of Interval Leisure Group, Inc. is not consummated, the completion of another spin-off, split-off or analogous distribution of Vistana or the sale of Vistana by Starwood.
We cannot assure you that the various closing conditions will be satisfied, or that any required conditions will not materially adversely affect the combined company after the Starwood Combination closes, or will not result in the abandonment or delay of the Starwood Combination. For instance, the consummation of the disposition of Starwood’s Vistana business may be delayed or not occur, which could cause the Starwood Combination to be delayed or abandoned.
In addition, before the Starwood Combination may be completed, various approvals and declarations of non-objection must be obtained from certain regulatory and governmental authorities, including the expiration or termination of the applicable waiting period under the Hart-Scott Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act and receipt of consents and approvals from the

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European Commission and various other governmental entities. These regulatory and governmental entities could impose conditions on the granting of such approvals. Such conditions and the process of obtaining regulatory approvals could have the effect of delaying closing of the Starwood Combination or of imposing additional costs or limitations on the combined company following the closing. The regulatory approvals may not be received at all, may not be received in a timely fashion, or may contain conditions. In addition, Starwood’s and Marriott’s respective obligations to complete the Starwood Combination are conditioned on the receipt of certain regulatory approvals or waiver by the other party of such condition.
Any delay in completing the Starwood Combination could reduce or eliminate the benefits that we expect to achieve. As discussed above, the Starwood Combination is subject to a number of conditions beyond Starwood’s and our control that could prevent, delay or otherwise materially adversely affect the completion of the combination. We cannot predict whether and when these conditions will be satisfied. Any delay in completing the Starwood Combination could cause the combined company not to realize some or all of the synergies that we expect to achieve if the Starwood Combination is successfully completed within the expected time frame.
The combined company may not be able to integrate successfully and many of the anticipated benefits of combining Starwood and Marriott may not be realized. We entered into the Merger Agreement with the expectation that the Starwood Combination will result in various benefits, including, among other things, operating efficiencies. Achieving those anticipated benefits is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether we can integrate the business of Starwood in an efficient and effective manner.
The integration process could also take longer than we anticipate and could result in the loss of valuable employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses, processes and systems or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, practices, policies and compensation arrangements, any of which could adversely affect the combined company’s ability to achieve the benefits we anticipate. The combined company’s resulting portfolio of approximately 30 brands could be challenging for us to maintain and grow, and the harmonization of our different reservations and other systems and business practices could be more difficult, disruptive, and time consuming than we anticipate. The combined company’s results of operations could also be adversely affected by any issues attributable to either company’s operations that arise or are based on events or actions that occur before the Starwood Combination closes. The combined company may also have difficulty addressing possible differences in corporate cultures and management philosophies. The integration process is subject to a number of uncertainties, and we cannot assure you that the benefits we anticipate will be realized at all or as quickly as we expect. If we don’t achieve those benefits, our costs could increase, our expected net income could decrease, and the combined company’s future business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could suffer.
We will incur substantial transaction costs in connection with the Starwood Combination. We expect to incur a number of non-recurring expenses both before and after completing the Starwood Combination, including in obtaining necessary consents and approvals and combining the operations of the two companies. These fees and costs will be substantial. We may also incur unanticipated costs in the integration of the businesses of Starwood and Marriott. Although we expect that the elimination of certain duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the two businesses, will offset the incremental transaction-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all. Further, if the Starwood Combination is not completed, we would have to recognize certain of these expenses without realizing the expected benefits of the combination.
Our shareholders will be diluted by the Starwood Combination. The Starwood Combination will dilute the ownership position of our current shareholders. We currently estimate that, upon completion of the combination, our shareholders before the merger will own approximately 61% and former Starwood shareholders will own approximately 39% of the combined company’s outstanding common stock. Because of this, our current shareholders may have less influence on the management and policies of the combined company than they now have on us.
Our future results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations following the completion of the Starwood Combination. Following the completion of the Starwood Combination, the size of the business of the combined company will increase significantly beyond the current size of our business. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, which will pose substantial challenges for management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new operations and associated increased costs and complexity. We cannot assure you that we will be successful or that we will realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings and other benefits from the combination that we currently anticipate.
The combined company may not be able to retain Marriott and/or Starwood personnel successfully after the Starwood Combination is completed. The success of the Starwood Combination will depend in part on the combined company’s ability to retain the talents and dedication of key employees that Marriott and Starwood currently employ. It is possible that these employees may decide not to remain with Marriott or Starwood, as applicable, while the Starwood Combination is pending or

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with the combined company after the combination is consummated. If key employees terminate their employment, or if the combined company cannot maintain a sufficient number of employees to maintain effective operations, the combined company’s business activities could be adversely affected and management’s attention could be diverted from successfully integrating Starwood to hiring suitable replacements, all of which may cause the combined company’s business to suffer. In addition, we may not be able to locate suitable replacements for any key employees who leave either company, or offer employment to potential replacements on reasonable terms.
Risks Relating to Our Business
Operational Risks
Premature termination of our management or franchise agreements could hurt our financial performance. Our hotel management and franchise agreements may be subject to premature termination in certain circumstances, such as the bankruptcy of a hotel owner or franchisee, or a failure under some agreements to meet specified financial or performance criteria that are subject to the risks described in this section, which we fail or elect not to cure. In addition, some courts have applied principles of agency law and related fiduciary standards to managers of third-party hotel properties, including us (or have interpreted hotel management agreements as “personal services contracts”). This means, among other things, that property owners may assert the right to terminate management agreements even where the agreements provide otherwise, and some courts have upheld such assertions about our management agreements and may do so in the future. In addition, some management and franchise agreements may be terminated, or property owners may attempt to terminate such agreements, in connection with the Starwood Combination. If terminations occur for these or other reasons, we may need to enforce our right to damages for breach of contract and related claims, which may cause us to incur significant legal fees and expenses. Any damages we ultimately collect could be less than the projected future value of the fees and other amounts we would have otherwise collected under the management agreement. A significant loss of agreements due to premature terminations could hurt our financial performance or our ability to grow our business.
Our lodging operations are subject to global, regional, and national conditions. Because we conduct our business on a global platform, changes in global and regional economies impact our activities. In recent years, decreases in travel resulting from weak economic conditions and the heightened travel security measures that have resulted from the threat of further terrorism have hurt our business. Our future performance could be similarly affected by the economic environment in each of our operating regions, the resulting unknown pace of business travel, and any future incidents in those regions.
The growing significance of our operations outside of the United States, particularly following the Starwood Combination, makes us increasingly susceptible to the risks of doing business internationally, which could lower our revenues, increase our costs, reduce our profits, disrupt our business, or damage our reputation. We currently operate or franchise hotels and resorts in 87 countries, and our operations outside the United States represented approximately 19 percent of our revenues in 2015. In addition, Starwood reported that as of September 30, 2015 it operated or franchised hotels and resorts in approximately 100 countries, and its operations outside the United States (including operations associated with Starwood’s Vistana vacation ownership business which it is to spin off prior to our combination) represented a majority of Starwood’s revenues in both 2014 and the nine months ending September 30, 2015. We expect that our international revenues will continue to grow, particularly following the Starwood Combination. As a result, we are increasingly exposed to the challenges and risks of doing business outside the United States, many of which are outside of our control, and which could reduce our revenues or profits, increase our costs, result in significant liabilities or sanctions, otherwise disrupt our business, or damage our reputation. These challenges include: (1) compliance with complex and changing laws, regulations and government policies that may impact our operations, such as foreign ownership restrictions, import and export controls, and trade restrictions; (2) compliance with U.S. and foreign laws that affect the activities of companies abroad, such as competition laws, currency regulations, and other laws affecting dealings with certain nations; (3) limitations on our ability to repatriate non-U.S. earnings in a tax effective manner; (4) the difficulties involved in managing an organization doing business in many different countries; (5) uncertainties as to the enforceability of contract and intellectual property rights under local laws; (6) rapid changes in government policy, political or civil unrest in the Middle East and elsewhere, acts of terrorism, or the threat of international boycotts or U.S. anti-boycott legislation; and (7) currency exchange rate fluctuations, which may impact the results and cash flows of our international operations.
Any failure by our international operations to comply with anti-corruption laws or trade sanctions could increase our costs, reduce our profits, limit our growth, harm our reputation, or subject us to broader liability. We are subject to restrictions imposed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and anti-corruption laws and regulations of other countries applicable to our operations, such as the UK Bribery Act. Anti-corruption laws and regulations generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or other persons in order to receive or retain business. The compliance programs, internal controls and policies we maintain and enforce to promote compliance with applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws may not prevent our associates, contractors or agents from acting in ways prohibited by these

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laws and regulations. We are also subject to trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the U.S. Department of Commerce. Our compliance programs and internal controls also may not prevent conduct that is prohibited under these rules. The United States may impose additional sanctions at any time against any country in which or with whom we do business. Depending on the nature of the sanctions imposed, our operations in the relevant country could be restricted or otherwise adversely affected. Any violations of anti-corruption laws and regulations or trade sanctions could result in significant civil and criminal penalties, reduce our profits, disrupt our business or damage our reputation. In addition, an imposition of further restrictions in these areas could increase our cost of operations, reduce our profits or cause us to forgo development opportunities that would otherwise support growth.
Exchange rate fluctuations and foreign exchange hedging arrangements could result in significant foreign currency gains and losses and affect our business results. We earn revenues and incur expenses in foreign currencies as part of our operations outside of the United States. Accordingly, fluctuations in currency exchange rates may significantly increase the amount of U.S. dollars required for foreign currency expenses or significantly decrease the U.S. dollars we receive from foreign currency revenues. We are also exposed to currency translation risk because the results of our business outside of the U.S. are generally reported in local currency, which we then translate to U.S. dollars for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. As a result, changes between the foreign exchange rates and the U.S. dollar affect the amounts we record for our foreign assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and could have a negative effect on our financial results. We expect that our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations will grow as the relative contribution of our non-U.S. operations increases. Our efforts to mitigate some of our foreign currency exposure by entering into foreign exchange hedging agreements with financial institutions to reduce exposures to some of the principal currencies in which we receive management and franchise fees may not be successful. In this regard, these hedging agreements do not cover all currencies in which we do business, do not eliminate foreign currency risk entirely for the currencies that they do cover, and involve costs and risks of their own in the form of transaction costs, credit requirements and counterparty risk.
Some of our management agreements and related contracts require us to make payments to owners if the hotels do not achieve specified levels of operating profit. Some of our contracts with hotel owners require that we fund shortfalls if the hotels do not attain specified levels of operating profit. We may not be able to recover any fundings of such performance guarantees, which could lower our profits and reduce our cash flows.
Our new programs and new branded products may not be successful. We cannot assure you that recently launched, newly acquired, or recently announced brands, such as EDITION, AC Hotels by Marriott in the Americas, Protea Hotels, Moxy Hotels, and Delta Hotels and Resorts, and those expected to be acquired as a result of the Starwood Combination, or any other new programs or products we may launch in the future will be accepted by hotel owners, potential franchisees, or the traveling public or other customers. We also cannot be certain that we will recover the costs we incurred in developing or acquiring the brands or any new programs or products, or that the brands or any new programs or products will be successful. In addition, some of our new brands involve or may involve cooperation and/or consultation with one or more third parties, including some shared control over product design and development, sales and marketing, and brand standards. Disagreements with these third parties could slow the development of these new brands and/or impair our ability to take actions we believe to be advisable for the success and profitability of such brands.
Risks relating to natural or man-made disasters, contagious disease, terrorist activity, and war could reduce the demand for lodging, which may adversely affect our revenues. So called “Acts of God,” such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters, such as Hurricane Sandy in the Northeastern United States, the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, and man-made disasters in recent years as well as the potential spread of contagious diseases such as MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), Zika virus, and Ebola in locations where we own, manage, or franchise significant properties and areas of the world from which we draw a large number of customers, could cause a decline in business or leisure travel and reduce demand for lodging. Actual or threatened war, terrorist activity, political unrest, or civil strife, such as recent events in Ukraine and Russia, the Middle East, and other geopolitical uncertainty could have a similar effect. Any one or more of these events may reduce the overall demand for hotel rooms and corporate apartments or limit the prices that we can obtain for them, both of which could adversely affect our profits.
Disagreements with owners of hotels that we manage or franchise may result in litigation or may delay implementation of product or service initiatives. Consistent with our focus on management and franchising, we own very few of our lodging properties. The nature of our responsibilities under our management agreements to manage each hotel and enforce the standards required for our brands under both management and franchise agreements may be subject to interpretation and will from time to time give rise to disagreements, which may include disagreements over the need for or payment for new product or service initiatives and the timing and amount of capital investments. Such disagreements may be more likely when hotel returns are weaker. We seek to resolve any disagreements in order to develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential hotel owners and joint venture partners, but we are not always able to do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements has resulted in litigation, and could do so in the future. If any such litigation results in a significant adverse judgment, settlement, or court

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order, we could suffer significant losses, our profits could be reduced, or our future ability to operate our business could be constrained.
Our business depends on the quality and reputation of our brands, and any deterioration in the quality or reputation of these brands could have an adverse impact on our market share, reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations. Events that may be beyond our control could affect the reputation of one or more of our properties or more generally impact the reputation of our brands. If the reputation or perceived quality of our brands declines, our market share, reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations could be affected.
Actions by our franchisees and licensees could adversely affect our image and reputation. We franchise and license many of our brand names and trademarks to third parties in connection with lodging, timeshare, residential services, and our credit card programs. Under the terms of their agreements with us, our franchisees and licensees interact directly with customers and other third parties under our brand and trade names. If these franchisees or licensees fail to maintain or act in accordance with applicable brand standards; experience operational problems, including any data breach involving customer information; or project a brand image inconsistent with ours, our image and reputation could suffer. Although our franchise and license agreements provide us with recourse and remedies in the event of a breach by the franchisee or licensee, including termination of the agreements under certain circumstances, pursuing any such recourse, remedy, or termination could be expensive and time consumingIn addition, we cannot assure you that a court would ultimately enforce our contractual termination rights in every instance.
Damage to, or losses involving, properties that we own, manage, or franchise may not be covered by insurance. We have comprehensive property and liability insurance policies for our managed, leased, and owned properties with coverage features and insured limits that we believe are customary, and require our franchisees to maintain similar levels of insurance. Market forces beyond our control may nonetheless limit the scope of the insurance coverage we or our franchisees can obtain, or our or their ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. Certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, or terrorist acts, or liabilities that result from breaches in the security of our information systems, may be uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. As a result, we and our franchisees may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. In addition, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we or our franchisees carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of any lost investment or in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. As a result, we could lose some or all of any capital that we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property, and we could remain obligated for guarantees, debt, or other financial obligations for the property.
Development and Financing Risks
While we are predominantly a manager and franchisor of hotel properties, our hotel owners depend on capital to buy, develop, and improve hotels, and our hotel owners may be unable to access capital when necessary. In order to fund new hotel investments, as well as refurbish and improve existing hotels, both we and current and potential hotel owners must periodically spend money. The availability of funds for new investments and improvement of existing hotels by our current and potential hotel owners depends in large measure on capital markets and liquidity factors, over which we can exert little control. The difficulty of obtaining financing on attractive terms may be constrained by the capital markets for hotel and real estate investments. In addition, owners of existing hotels that we franchise or manage may have difficulty meeting required debt service payments or refinancing loans at maturity.
Our growth strategy depends upon third-party owners/operators, and future arrangements with these third parties may be less favorable. Our growth strategy for development of additional lodging facilities entails entering into and maintaining various arrangements with property owners. The terms of our management agreements, franchise agreements, and leases for each of our lodging facilities are influenced by contract terms offered by our competitors, among other things. We cannot assure you that any of our current arrangements will continue or that we will be able to enter into future collaborations, renew agreements, or enter into new agreements in the future on terms that are as favorable to us as those that exist today.
Our ability to grow our management and franchise systems is subject to the range of risks associated with real estate investments. Our ability to sustain continued growth through management or franchise agreements for new hotels and the conversion of existing facilities to managed or franchised Marriott brands is affected, and may potentially be limited, by a variety of factors influencing real estate development generally. These include site availability, financing, planning, zoning and other local approvals, and other limitations that may be imposed by market and submarket factors, such as projected room occupancy, changes in growth in demand compared to projected supply, territorial restrictions in our management and franchise agreements, costs of construction, and anticipated room rate structure.
Our development activities expose us to project cost, completion, and resale risks. We develop new hotel and residential properties, both directly and through partnerships, joint ventures, and other business structures with third parties. As

17


demonstrated by the impairment charges that we recorded in 2015 and 2014 in connection with our development and construction of three EDITION hotels and residences, our ongoing involvement in the development of properties presents a number of risks, including that: (1) continued weakness in the capital markets may limit our ability, or that of third parties with whom we do business, to raise capital for completion of projects that have commenced or for development of future properties; (2) properties that we develop could become less attractive due to decreases in demand for hotel and residential properties, market absorption or oversupply, with the result that we may not be able to sell such properties for a profit or at the prices or selling pace we anticipate, potentially requiring additional changes in our pricing strategy that could result in further charges; (3) construction delays, cost overruns, lender financial defaults, or so called “Acts of God” such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, or fires may increase overall project costs or result in project cancellations; and (4) we may be unable to recover development costs we incur for any projects that we do not pursue to completion.
Development activities that involve our co-investment with third parties may result in disputes that could increase project costs, impair project operations, or increase project completion risks. Partnerships, joint ventures, and other business structures involving our co-investment with third parties generally include some form of shared control over the operations of the business and create added risks, including the possibility that other investors in such ventures could become bankrupt or otherwise lack the financial resources to meet their obligations, or could have or develop business interests, policies, or objectives that are inconsistent with ours. Although we actively seek to minimize such risks before investing in partnerships, joint ventures, or similar structures, actions by another investor may present additional risks of project delay, increased project costs, or operational difficulties following project completion. Such disputes may also be more likely in difficult business environments.
Risks associated with development and sale of residential properties associated with our lodging properties or brands may reduce our profits. In certain hotel and timeshare projects we participate, directly or through noncontrolling interests and/or licensing agreements, in the development and sale of residential properties associated with our brands, including residences and condominiums under our The Ritz-Carlton, EDITION, JW Marriott, Autograph Collection, and Marriott brand names and trademarks. Such projects pose further risks beyond those generally associated with our lodging business, which may reduce our profits or compromise our brand equity, including the following: (1) weakness in residential real estate and demand generally may reduce our profits and could make it more difficult to convince future hotel development partners of the value added by our brands; (2) increases in interest rates, reductions in mortgage availability, or increases in the costs of residential ownership could prevent potential customers from buying residential products or reduce the prices they are willing to pay; and (3) residential construction may be subject to warranty and liability claims, and the costs of resolving such claims may be significant.
Some hotel openings in our existing development pipeline and approved projects may be delayed or not result in new hotels, which could adversely affect our growth prospects. We report a significant number of hotels in our development pipeline, including hotels under construction and under signed contracts, as well as hotels approved for development but not yet under signed contracts. The eventual opening of such pipeline hotels and, in particular, the hotels approved for development that are not yet under contract, is subject to numerous risks, including in some cases the owner’s or developer’s ability to obtain adequate financing or governmental or regulatory approvals. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that our development pipeline, and in particular hotels not yet under contract, will result in new hotels that enter our system, or that those hotels will open when we anticipate.
If we incur losses on loans or loan guarantees that we have made to third parties, our profits could decline. At times, we make loans for hotel development or renovation expenditures in connection with entering into or amending management or franchise agreements. From time to time we also provide third-party lenders financial guarantees for the timely repayment of all or a portion of debt related to hotels that we manage or franchise, generally subject to an obligation that the owner reimburse us for any fundings. We could suffer losses if hotel owners or franchisees default on loans that we provide or fail to reimburse us for loan guarantees that we have funded.
If owners of hotels that we manage or franchise cannot repay or refinance mortgage loans secured by their properties, our revenues and profits could decrease and our business could be harmed. The owners of many of our managed or franchised properties have pledged their hotels as collateral for mortgage loans that they entered into when those properties were purchased or refinanced. If those owners cannot repay or refinance maturing indebtedness on favorable terms or at all, the lenders could declare a default, accelerate the related debt, and repossess the property. Such sales or repossessions could, in some cases, result in the termination of our management or franchise agreements and eliminate our anticipated income and cash flows, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
Planned transactions we announce may be delayed, not occur at all, or involve unanticipated costs. From time to time we announce transactions that we expect will close at a future date, such as our anticipated acquisition of Starwood Hotels &

18


Resorts. If the conditions to consummating these transactions are neither satisfied nor waived by the time we expect, the closings could be delayed or not occur at all.
Technology, Information Protection, and Privacy Risks
A failure to keep pace with developments in technology could impair our operations or competitive position. The lodging industry continues to demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems, including those used for our reservation, revenue management, and property management systems, our Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards programs, and technologies we make available to our guests. These technologies and systems must be refined, updated, and/or replaced with more advanced systems on a regular basis, and if we cannot do so as quickly as our competitors or within budgeted costs and time frames, our business could suffer. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new technology or system, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or could impair our operating results.
An increase in the use of third-party Internet services to book online hotel reservations could adversely impact our business. Some of our hotel rooms are booked through Internet travel intermediaries such as Expedia.com®, Priceline.com®, Booking.com™, Travelocity.com®, and Orbitz.com®, as well as lesser-known online travel service providers. These intermediaries initially focused on leisure travel, but now also provide offerings for corporate travel and group meetings. Although Marriott’s Look No Further® Best Rate Guarantee has helped prevent customer preference shift to the intermediaries and greatly reduced the ability of intermediaries to undercut the published rates at our hotels, intermediaries continue to use a variety of aggressive online marketing methods to attract customers, including the purchase, by certain companies, of trademarked online keywords such as “Marriott” from Internet search engines such as Google®, Bing®, Yahoo®, and Baidu® to steer customers toward their websites (a practice that has been challenged by various trademark owners in federal court). Although Marriott has successfully limited these practices through contracts with key online intermediaries, the number of intermediaries and related companies that drive traffic to intermediaries’ websites is too large to permit us to eliminate this risk entirely. Our business and profitability could be harmed if online intermediaries succeed in significantly shifting loyalties from our lodging brands to their travel services, diverting bookings away from Marriott.com, or through their fees increasing the overall cost of Internet bookings for our hotels. In addition, if we fail to reach satisfactory agreements with intermediaries as our contracts with them come up for periodic renewal, our hotels might no longer appear on their websites and we could lose business as a result.
We are exposed to risks and costs associated with protecting the integrity and security of internal and customer data. Our businesses process, use, and transmit large volumes of internal employee and customer data, including credit card numbers and other personal information in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third parties, including our owners, franchisees and licensees, as well as our service providers, in areas such as human resources outsourcing, website hosting, and various forms of electronic communications. The integrity and protection of that customer, employee, and company data is critical to our business. If that data is inaccurate or incomplete, we could make faulty decisions.
Our customers and employees also have a high expectation that we, as well as our owners, franchisees, licensees, and service providers, will adequately protect their personal information. The information, security, and privacy requirements imposed by governmental regulation and the requirements of the payment card industry are also increasingly demanding, in both the United States and other jurisdictions where we operate. Our systems and the systems maintained or used by our owners, franchisees, licensees, and service providers may not be able to satisfy these changing requirements and employee and customer expectations, or may require significant additional investments or time in order to do so.
Cyber-attacks could have a disruptive effect on our business. Efforts to hack or breach security measures, failures of systems or software to operate as designed or intended, viruses, operator error, or inadvertent releases of data may materially impact our, including our owners’, franchisees’, licensees’, or service providers’, information systems and records. Our reliance on computer, Internet-based and mobile systems and communications and the frequency and sophistication of efforts by hackers to gain unauthorized access to such systems have increased significantly in recent years. A significant theft, loss, or fraudulent use of customer, employee, or company data could adversely impact our reputation and could result in remedial and other expenses, fines, or litigation. Breaches in the security of our information systems or those of our owners, franchisees, licensees, or service providers or other disruptions in data services could lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems, resulting in operational inefficiencies and a loss of profits. In addition, although we carry cyber/privacy liability insurance that is designed to protect us against certain losses related to cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise in connection with cyber-attacks, security breaches, and other related breaches.
Changes in privacy law could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively. We are subject to numerous laws, regulations, and contractual obligations designed to protect personal information, including foreign data protection laws, various U.S. federal and state laws, and credit card industry security standards and other

19


applicable information privacy and security standards. Compliance with changes in applicable privacy regulations may increase our operating costs.
Additionally, we rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including email marketing, online advertising, and postal mailings. Any further restrictions in laws such as the CANSPAM Act, and various U.S. state laws, or new federal laws on marketing and solicitation or international data protection laws that govern these activities could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of email, online advertising, and postal mailing techniques and could force further changes in our marketing strategy. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact the amount and timing of our sales of certain products. We also obtain access to potential customers from travel service providers or other companies with whom we have substantial relationships and market to some individuals on these lists directly or by including our marketing message in the other company’s marketing materials. If access to these lists was prohibited or otherwise restricted, our ability to develop new customers and introduce them to our products could be impaired.
Any disruption in the functioning of our reservation system, such as in connection with the Starwood Combination, could adversely affect our performance and results. We manage a global reservation system that communicates reservations to our branded hotels that individuals make directly with us online, through our mobile app, or through our telephone call centers, or through intermediaries like travel agents, Internet travel web sites and other distribution channels. The cost, speed, accuracy and efficiency of our reservation system are critical aspects of our business and are important considerations for hotel owners when choosing our brands. Our business may suffer if we fail to maintain, upgrade, or prevent disruption to our reservation system. In addition, the risk of disruption in the functioning of our global reservation system could increase in connection with the system integration that we anticipate undertaking following consummation of the Starwood Combination. Disruptions in or changes to our reservation system could result in a disruption to our business and the loss of important data.
Other Risks
Changes in laws and regulations could reduce our profits or increase our costs. We are subject to a wide variety of laws, regulations, and policies in jurisdictions around the world, including those for financial reporting, taxes, healthcare, and the environment. Changes to these laws, regulations, or policies, including those associated with health care, tax or financial reforms, could reduce our profits. We also anticipate that many of the jurisdictions where we do business will continue to review taxes and other revenue raising measures, and any resulting changes could impose new restrictions, costs, or prohibitions on our current practices or reduce our profits. In particular, governments may revise tax laws, regulations, or official interpretations in ways that could significantly impact us, including modifications that could reduce the profits that we can effectively realize from our non-U.S. operations, or that could require costly changes to those operations, or the way in which they are structured. For example, most U.S. company effective tax rates reflect the fact that income earned and reinvested outside the United States is generally taxed at local rates, which are often much lower than U.S. tax rates. If changes in tax laws, regulations, or interpretations significantly increase the tax rates on non-U.S. income, our effective tax rate could increase and our profits could be reduced. If such increases resulted from our status as a U.S. company, those changes could place us at a disadvantage to our non-U.S. competitors if those competitors remain subject to lower local tax rates.
If we cannot attract and retain talented associates, our business could suffer. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel. If we cannot recruit, train, develop, and retain sufficient numbers of talented associates, we could experience increased associate turnover, decreased guest satisfaction, low morale, inefficiency, or internal control failures. Insufficient numbers of talented associates could also limit our ability to grow and expand our businesses. Any shortage of skilled labor could also require higher wages that would increase our labor costs, which could reduce our profits.
Delaware law and our governing corporate documents contain, and our Board of Directors could implement, anti-takeover provisions that could deter takeover attempts. Under the Delaware business combination statute, a shareholder holding 15 percent or more of our outstanding voting stock could not acquire us without Board of Director consent for at least three years after the date the shareholder first held 15 percent or more of the voting stock. Our governing corporate documents also, among other things, require supermajority votes for mergers and similar transactions. In addition, our Board of Directors could, without shareholder approval, implement other anti-takeover defenses, such as a shareholder rights plan.
Item 1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2.
Properties.
We describe our company-operated properties in Part I, Item 1. “Business” earlier in this report, and under the “Properties by Segment ” caption in Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of

20


Operations.” We believe our properties are in generally good physical condition with the need for only routine repairs and maintenance and periodic capital improvements. Most of our regional offices and reservation centers are located in leased facilities. We also lease space in a number of buildings with combined space of approximately 1.1 million square feet in Maryland where our corporate and The Ritz-Carlton headquarters are located.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings.
See the information under “Legal Proceedings” in Footnote No. 7, “Commitments and Contingencies” which we incorporate here by reference.
From time to time, we are also subject to other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, including adjustments proposed during governmental examinations of the various tax returns we file. While management presently believes that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, individually and in the aggregate, will not materially harm our financial position, cash flows, or overall trends in results of operations, legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and unfavorable rulings could, individually or in aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
See the information under “Executive Officers of the Registrant” in Part III, Item 10 of this report for information about our executive officers, which we incorporate here by reference.

21


PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information and Dividends
The table below presents the price range of our Class A Common Stock (our “common stock”) and the per share cash dividends we declared for each fiscal quarter during the last two years.
 
 
 
Stock Price
 
Dividends
Declared per
Share
 
 
High
 
Low
 
2015
First Quarter
$
85.00


$
72.77


$
0.2000

 
Second Quarter
84.33


73.77


0.2500

 
Third Quarter
78.76


63.95


0.2500

 
Fourth Quarter
79.88


64.64


0.2500

 
 
 
Stock Price
 
Dividends
Declared per
Share 
 
 
High
 
Low
 
2014
First Quarter
$
56.20

 
$
47.21

 
$
0.1700

 
Second Quarter
64.31

 
55.00

 
0.2000

 
Third Quarter
73.28

 
63.37

 
0.2000

 
Fourth Quarter
79.25

 
59.61

 
0.2000

At February 5, 2016, 253,481,935 shares of our common stock were outstanding and were held by 32,947 shareholders of record. Since October 21, 2013, our common stock has traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) and the Chicago Stock Exchange. Before October 21, 2013, our common stock traded on the New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Stock Exchange. The fiscal year-end closing price for our stock was $67.04 on December 31, 2015, and $78.03 on December 31, 2014. All prices are reported on the consolidated transaction reporting system.
Fourth Quarter 2015 Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average Price
per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
(1)
 
Maximum Number
of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs
(1)
October 1, 2015-October 31, 2015
0.7

 
74.24

 
0.7

 
15.0

November 1, 2015-November 30, 2015

 

 

 
15.0

December 1, 2015-December 31, 2015
0.6

 
68.54

 
0.6

 
14.4

(1) 
On February 12, 2015, we announced that our Board of Directors had increased the authorization to repurchase our common stock by 25 million shares as part of an ongoing share repurchase program. At year-end 2015, 14.4 million shares remained available for repurchase under previous authorizations. In addition, on February 11, 2016, we announced that our Board of Directors further increased our common stock repurchase authorization by 25 million shares. We repurchase shares in the open market and in privately negotiated transactions.

22


Item 6.     Selected Financial Data.
The following table presents a summary of our selected historical financial data derived from our last 10 years of Financial Statements. Because this information is only a summary and does not provide all of the information contained in our Financial Statements, including the related notes, you should read “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our Financial Statements for each year for more detailed information including, among other items, restructuring costs and other charges we incurred in 2008 and 2009, timeshare strategy-impairment charges we incurred in 2009 and 2011, and our 2011 spin-off of our former timeshare operations and timeshare development business. For periods before the 2011 spin-off, we continue to include our former Timeshare segment in our historical financial results as a component of continuing operations because of our significant continuing involvement in MVW’s future operations.
 
Fiscal Year (1)
($ in millions, except per share data)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
2008
 
2007
 
2006
Income Statement Data:
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (2)
$
14,486

 
$
13,796

 
$
12,784

 
$
11,814

 
$
12,317

 
$
11,691

 
$
10,908

 
$
12,879

 
$
12,990

 
$
11,995

Operating income (loss) (2)
$
1,350

 
$
1,159

 
$
988

 
$
940

 
$
526

 
$
695

 
$
(152
)
 
$
765

 
$
1,183

 
$
1,089

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Marriott
$
859

 
$
753

 
$
626

 
$
571

 
$
198

 
$
458

 
$
(346
)
 
$
359

 
$
697

 
$
712

Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(109
)
Discontinued operations (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
3

 
(1
)
 
5

Net income (loss) attributable to Marriott
$
859

 
$
753

 
$
626

 
$
571

 
$
198

 
$
458

 
$
(346
)
 
$
362

 
$
696

 
$
608

Per Share Data (5):

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings (losses) per share from continuing operations attributable to Marriott shareholders
$
3.15

 
$
2.54

 
$
2.00

 
$
1.72

 
$
0.55

 
$
1.21

 
$
(0.97
)
 
$
0.97

 
$
1.73

 
$
1.64

Diluted losses per share from cumulative effect of accounting change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(0.25
)
Diluted earnings per share from discontinued operations attributable to Marriott shareholders

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
0.01

 

 
0.01

Diluted earnings (losses) per share attributable to Marriott shareholders
$
3.15

 
$
2.54

 
$
2.00

 
$
1.72

 
$
0.55

 
$
1.21

 
$
(0.97
)
 
$
0.98

 
$
1.73

 
$
1.40

Cash dividends declared per share
$
0.9500

 
$
0.7700

 
$
0.6400

 
$
0.4900

 
$
0.3875

 
$
0.2075

 
$
0.0866

 
$
0.3339

 
$
0.2844

 
$
0.2374

Balance Sheet Data (at year-end):

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets (8)
$
6,082

 
$
6,833

 
$
6,794

 
$
6,342

 
$
5,910

 
$
8,983

 
$
7,933

 
$
8,903

 
$
8,942

 
$
8,588

Long-term debt (8)
3,807

 
3,447

 
3,147

 
2,528

 
1,816

 
2,691

 
2,234

 
2,975

 
2,790

 
1,818

 Shareholders’ (deficit) equity
(3,590
)
 
(2,200
)
 
(1,415
)
 
(1,285
)
 
(781
)
 
1,585

 
1,142

 
1,380

 
1,429

 
2,618

Other Data:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Base management fees
$
698

 
$
672

 
$
621

 
$
581

 
$
602

 
$
562

 
$
530

 
$
635

 
$
620

 
$
553

Franchise fees
853

 
745

 
666

 
607

 
506

 
441

 
400

 
451

 
439

 
390

Incentive management fees
319

 
302

 
256

 
232

 
195

 
182

 
154

 
311

 
369

 
281

Total fees
$
1,870

 
$
1,719

 
$
1,543

 
$
1,420

 
$
1,303

 
$
1,185

 
$
1,084

 
$
1,397

 
$
1,428

 
$
1,224

Fee Revenue-Source:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North America (6)
$
1,458

 
$
1,319

 
$
1,186

 
$
1,074

 
$
970

 
$
878

 
$
806

 
$
1,038

 
$
1,115

 
$
955

 Total Outside North America (7)
412

 
400

 
357

 
346

 
333

 
307

 
278

 
359

 
313

 
269

Total fees
$
1,870

 
$
1,719

 
$
1,543

 
$
1,420

 
$
1,303

 
$
1,185

 
$
1,084

 
$
1,397

 
$
1,428

 
$
1,224

(1) 
In 2013, we changed to a calendar year-end reporting cycle. All fiscal years presented before 2013 included 52 weeks, except for 2008 which included 53 weeks.
(2) 
Balances do not reflect the impact of discontinued operations. Also, for periods prior to 2009, we reclassified our provision for loan losses associated with our lodging operations to the “General, administrative, and other” caption of our Income Statements to conform to our presentation for periods beginning in 2009. This reclassification only affected operating income.
(3) 
We adopted certain provisions of Accounting Standards Certification Topic 978 (previously Statement of Position 04-2, “Accounting for Real Estate Time Sharing Transactions”), in 2006, which we reported in our Income Statements as a cumulative effect of change in accounting principle.
(4) 
The following businesses became discontinued operations in the year we announced that we would sell or exit them: synthetic fuel (2007).
(5) 
We issued stock dividends in the third and fourth quarters of 2009, and a stock split in the form of a stock dividend on June 9, 2006. We have adjusted all per share data retroactively to reflect those stock dividends.
(6) 
Represents fee revenue from the United States (but not Hawaii before 2011) and Canada.
(7) 
Represents fee revenue outside of North America, as defined in footnote (6) above.
(8) 
Effective year-end 2014, we adopted ASU No. 2015-03, which changes the presentation of debt issuance costs, and ASU No. 2015-17, which changes the classification of deferred taxes. Prior periods have not been adjusted for these new accounting standards.

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Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
BUSINESS AND OVERVIEW
Overview
We are a worldwide operator, franchisor, and licensor of hotels and timeshare properties in 87 countries and territories under 19 brand names. We also develop, operate, and market residential properties and provide services to home/condominium owner associations. Under our business model, we typically manage or franchise hotels, rather than own them. We group our operations into three business segments: North American Full-Service, North American Limited-Service, and International.
We earn base management fees and in many cases incentive management fees from the properties that we manage, and we earn franchise fees on the properties that others operate under franchise agreements with us. Base fees typically consist of a percentage of property-level revenue while incentive fees typically consist of a percentage of net house profit adjusted for a specified owner return. Net house profit is calculated as gross operating profit (house profit) less non-controllable expenses such as insurance, real estate taxes, and capital spending reserves.
Our emphasis on long-term management contracts and franchising tends to provide more stable earnings in periods of economic softness, while adding new hotels to our system generates growth, typically with little or no investment by the Company. This strategy has driven substantial growth while minimizing financial leverage and risk in a cyclical industry. In addition, we believe minimizing our capital investments and adopting a strategy of recycling the investments that we do make maximizes and maintains our financial flexibility.
We remain focused on doing the things that we do well; that is, selling rooms, taking care of our guests, and making sure we control costs both at company-operated properties and at the corporate level (“above-property”). Our brands remain strong as a result of skilled management teams, dedicated associates, superior customer service with an emphasis on guest and associate satisfaction, significant distribution, our Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards loyalty programs, a multichannel reservations system, and desirable property amenities. We strive to effectively leverage our size and broad distribution.
We, along with owners and franchisees, continue to invest in our brands by means of new, refreshed, and reinvented properties, new room and public space designs, and enhanced amenities and technology offerings. We address, through various means, hotels in our system that do not meet standards. We continue to enhance the appeal of our proprietary, information-rich, and easy-to-use website, Marriott.com, and of our associated mobile smartphone applications and mobile website that connect to Marriott.com, through functionality and service improvements, and we expect to continue capturing an increasing proportion of property-level reservations via this cost-efficient channel.
Our profitability, as well as that of owners and franchisees, has benefited from our approach to property-level and above-property productivity. Properties in our system continue to maintain very tight cost controls. We also control above-property costs, some of which we allocate to hotels, by remaining focused on systems, processing, and support areas.

24


Pending Combination with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc.
On November 15, 2015, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) to combine with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. (“Starwood”). The Merger Agreement provides for the Company to combine with Starwood in a series of transactions after which Starwood will be an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Starwood Combination”). If these transactions are completed, shareholders of Starwood will receive 0.920 shares of our Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, and $2.00 in cash, without interest, for each share of Starwood common stock, par value $0.01 per share, that they own immediately before these transactions. We expect that the combination will close in mid-2016, after customary conditions are satisfied, including shareholder approvals, required antitrust approvals, and the completion of Starwood’s previously announced spin-off of its vacation ownership business, or another spin-off, split-off, analogous disposition, or sale of its vacation ownership business.
Performance Measures
We believe Revenue per Available Room (“RevPAR”), which we calculate by dividing room sales for comparable properties by room nights available for the period, is a meaningful indicator of our performance because it measures the period-over-period change in room revenues for comparable properties. RevPAR may not be comparable to similarly titled measures, such as revenues. We also believe occupancy and average daily rate (“ADR”), which are components of calculating RevPAR, are meaningful indicators of our performance. Occupancy, which we calculate by dividing occupied rooms by total rooms available, measures the utilization of a property’s available capacity. ADR, which we calculate by dividing property room revenue by total rooms sold, measures average room price and is useful in assessing pricing levels.
References to year-end 2015 RevPAR statistics throughout this report, including occupancy and ADR, reflect the twelve months ended December 31, 2015, as compared to the twelve months ended December 31, 2014. For the properties located in countries that use currencies other than the U.S. dollar, the comparisons to the prior year period are on a constant U.S. dollar basis. We calculate constant dollar statistics by applying exchange rates for the current period to the prior comparable period.
We define our comparable properties as those that were open and operating under one of our brands since the beginning of the last full calendar year (since January 1, 2014 for the current period), and have not, in either the current or previous year: (i) undergone significant room or public space renovations or expansions, (ii) been converted between company-operated and franchised, or (iii) sustained substantial property damage or business interruption. Comparable properties represented the following percentages of our properties for each year indicated: (1) 86% of North American properties (87% excluding Delta Hotels and Resorts) in 2015, 87% in 2014, and 89% in 2013; (2) 57% of International properties (68% excluding Protea Hotels) in 2015, 57% (71% excluding Protea Hotels) in 2014, and 75% in 2013; and (3) 82% of total properties (85% excluding Protea Hotels and Delta Hotels and Resorts) in 2015, 82% of total properties (85% excluding Protea Hotels) in 2014, and 87% in 2013.
We also believe company-operated house profit margin, which is the ratio of property-level gross operating profit to total property-level revenue, is a meaningful indicator of our performance because this ratio measures our overall ability as the operator to produce property-level profits by generating sales and controlling the operating expenses over which we have the most direct control. House profit includes room, food and beverage, and other revenue and the related expenses including payroll and benefits expenses, as well as repairs and maintenance, utility, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses. House profit does not include the impact of management fees, furniture, fixtures and equipment replacement reserves, insurance, taxes, or other fixed expenses.
Business Trends
Our 2015 results reflected a favorable economic climate and demand for our brands in many markets around the world, reflecting generally low supply growth in the U.S. and Europe, moderate GDP growth in North America, improved pricing in most North American markets, and a year-over-year increase in the number of properties in our system. Comparable worldwide systemwide RevPAR for 2015 increased 5.2 percent to $112.25, average daily rates increased 4.1 percent on a constant dollar basis to $152.30, and occupancy increased 0.8 percentage points to 73.7 percent, compared to 2014.
Generally strong U.S. group business and transient demand contributed to increased room rate growth in 2015, allowing us to eliminate discounts, shift business into higher rated price categories, and raise room rates. The growth was partially constrained by new select-service lodging supply and moderating GDP growth late in the year.
In 2015, bookings for future group business in the U.S. improved. New group business booked in 2015 for any period in the future increased 9 percent year over year. The 2016 group revenue pace for systemwide full-service hotels (Marriott, JW Marriott, Renaissance, The Ritz-Carlton, and Gaylord brands) in North America was up more than 6 percent as of year-end 2015, compared to the 2015 group booking pace measured as of year-end 2014. In North America, RevPAR from transient

25


guests increased 5 percent in 2015 reflecting strong demand from professional services, technology, and defense firms moderated somewhat by weaker demand from manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and energy companies.
The Europe region experienced higher demand in 2015 across most countries, primarily due to increased group and transient business driven by special events and the weak currency, partially constrained by weaker demand in France, particularly late in the year. Results improved in Russia due to increased domestic travel. In the Asia Pacific region, demand increased led by growth from corporate and other transient business in Japan, India, Thailand, and Indonesia. The growth was partially offset by weaker results in South Korea. RevPAR in Greater China moderated in 2015 due to the impact of supply growth in certain Southern China markets, continued austerity in Beijing, and lower inbound travel to Hong Kong, while demand in Shanghai remained strong. Middle East demand was weaker in 2015, reflecting the region’s instability and lower oil prices, partially offset by strong government and group demand in Saudi Arabia. Demand in the United Arab Emirates was constrained mainly by new supply and, to a lesser extent, a reduction in travelers from Russia. In Africa, results were favorable in 2015. In the Caribbean and Latin America, strong performance in the region in 2015 was driven by greater demand in Mexico and increased leisure travel to our Caribbean and Mexican resorts for most of the year, constrained somewhat by oversupply of hotels in Panama and weaker economies in Brazil and Puerto Rico.
We monitor market conditions and provide the tools for our hotels to price rooms daily in accordance with individual property demand levels, generally adjusting room rates as demand changes. Our hotels modify the mix of business to improve revenue as demand changes. Demand for higher rated rooms improved in most markets in 2015, which allowed our hotels to reduce discounting and special offers for transient business in many markets. This mix improvement benefited ADR. For our company-operated properties, we continue to focus on enhancing property-level house profit margins and making productivity improvements.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS
The following discussion presents an analysis of results of our operations for 2015, 2014, and 2013.
Revenues
2015 Compared to 2014
($ in millions)
December 31,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
 
Increase (decrease) from prior year
 
Percentage change from prior year
Base management fees
$
698

 
$
672

 
$
26

 
4
 %
Franchise fees
853

 
745

 
108

 
14
 %
Incentive management fees
319

 
302

 
17

 
6
 %
 
1,870

 
1,719

 
151

 
9
 %
Owned, leased, and other revenue
986

 
1,022

 
(36
)
 
(4
)%
Cost reimbursements
11,630

 
11,055

 
575

 
5
 %
 
$
14,486

 
$
13,796

 
$
690

 
5
 %
    
The $26 million increase in base management fees reflected stronger RevPAR ($29 million) and the impact of unit growth across our system ($25 million), partially offset by the impact of unfavorable foreign exchange rates ($11 million), lower fees due to properties that converted from managed to franchised ($7 million), and decreased recognition of previously deferred fees ($8 million).
The $108 million increase in total franchise fees reflected the impact of unit growth across our system ($55 million), stronger RevPAR due to increased demand ($31 million), increased relicensing and application fees ($22 million), and higher fees from properties that converted to franchised from managed ($7 million), partially offset by the impact of unfavorable foreign exchange rates ($7 million).
The $17 million increase in incentive management fees reflected higher RevPAR and house profit margins primarily at company-managed North American properties, particularly at a few large portfolios of managed hotels whose improved net house profits allowed them to reach their owners priority threshold and begin to record incentive fees. Higher incentive fees also reflected the addition of hotels included in the Delta Hotels and Resorts acquisition, partially offset by $15 million in unfavorable foreign exchange rates and $7 million of lower incentive fees from properties under renovation.
The $36 million decrease in owned, leased, and other revenue reflected $44 million of lower owned and leased revenue, partially offset by $8 million in higher other revenue predominantly from branding fees and hotel service programs that we

26


acquired as part of our acquisition of Protea Hotels in the 2014 second quarter. Lower owned and leased revenue reflected net weaker performance impacted by unfavorable foreign exchange rates, a decrease of $27 million attributable to properties that converted to managed or franchised or left our system, and $16 million net unfavorable impact of properties under renovation, partially offset by increases of $10 million from Protea Hotel leases we acquired in the 2014 second quarter and $6 million from The Miami Beach EDITION hotel, which opened in the 2014 fourth quarter and which we subsequently sold in the 2015 first quarter as discussed in Footnote No. 3, “Acquisitions and Dispositions.”
Cost reimbursements revenue represents reimbursements of costs incurred on behalf of managed and franchised properties and relates, predominantly, to payroll costs at managed properties where we are the employer but also includes reimbursements for other costs, such as those associated with our rewards programs, reservations, and marketing programs. As we record cost reimbursements based upon costs incurred with no added markup, this revenue and related expense has no impact on either our operating or net income. The $575 million increase in total cost reimbursements revenue reflected the impact of higher occupancies and growth across our system. Since the end of 2014, our managed rooms increased by 12,668 rooms and our franchised rooms increased by 31,883 rooms, net of rooms at hotels exiting our system.
2014 Compared to 2013
($ in millions)
December 31,
2014
 
December 31,
2013
 
Increase from prior year
 
Percentage change from prior year
Base management fees
$
672

 
$
621

 
$
51

 
8
%
Franchise fees
745

 
666

 
79

 
12
%
Incentive management fees
302

 
256

 
46

 
18
%
 
1,719

 
1,543

 
176

 
11
%
Owned, leased, and other revenue
1,022

 
950

 
72

 
8
%
Cost reimbursements
11,055

 
10,291

 
764

 
7
%
 
$
13,796

 
$
12,784

 
$
1,012

 
8
%
The $51 million increase in total base management fees, largely reflected stronger RevPAR due to increased demand ($34 million), the impact of unit growth across our system ($21 million), and increased recognition of previously deferred fees ($16 million), partially offset by a decrease in fees from terminated units ($8 million), decreased fees due to properties that converted from managed to franchised ($8 million), unfavorable foreign exchange rates ($6 million), and three fewer days of activity ($2 million).
The $79 million increase in total franchise fees, reflected stronger RevPAR due to increased demand ($35 million), new unit growth across our system ($35 million), increased relicensing fees ($10 million), and fees from properties that converted to franchised from managed ($7 million), partially offset by a decrease in fees from terminated units ($4 million) and three fewer days of activity ($3 million).
The $46 million increase in incentive management fees largely reflected higher net house profit at our North American and International managed hotels in addition to unit growth in International markets, partially offset by the impact of unfavorable foreign exchange rates ($5 million) and higher North American Full-Service deferred fees recognized in 2013 ($5 million). We estimate that the three fewer days of activity in 2014 compared to 2013 reduced fee revenues by approximately $5 million.
The $72 million increase in owned, leased, and other revenue, predominantly reflected $56 million of higher owned and leased revenue, $17 million in revenue from various Protea Hotels programs, $9 million in higher branding fees, and $2 million in other program revenue, partially offset by $14 million lower termination fee revenue in 2014. Higher owned and leased revenue reflected $43 million from Protea Hotel leases associated with the acquisition, $30 million in revenue from a North American Full-Service managed property that we acquired in the 2013 fourth quarter, and stronger performance across our new and existing owned and leased International properties, partially offset by $37 million attributable to five International properties that converted to managed or franchised properties. Combined branding fees for credit card endorsements and the sale of branded residential real estate by others totaled $127 million in 2014 and $118 million in 2013.
The $764 million increase in total cost reimbursements revenue reflected the impact of higher occupancies at our properties and growth across our system.

27


Operating Income
2015 Compared to 2014
Operating income increased by $191 million to $1,350 million in 2015 from $1,159 million in 2014. The $191 million increase in operating income reflected a $108 million increase in franchise fees, a $26 million increase in base management fees, a $25 million decrease in general, administrative, and other expenses, a $17 million increase in incentive management fees, a $9 million decrease in depreciation, amortization, and other expense, and $6 million of higher owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses. We discuss the reasons for the increases in base management fees, franchise fees, and incentive management fees compared to 2014 in the preceding “Revenues” section.
The $6 million (2 percent) increase in owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses was largely attributable to $4 million in higher branding fees. Owned and leased revenue, net of direct expenses was unchanged as stronger results at several of our International properties, including $4 million of lower lease payments for properties that moved to managed, franchised, or left our system, were offset by $10 million of weaker performance due to renovations.
Depreciation, amortization and other expense decreased by $9 million (6 percent) to $139 million in 2015 from $148 million in 2014. The decrease reflected a $25 million favorable variance to the 2014 impairment charge on the EDITION hotels, partially offset by the 2015 impairment charges of $6 million for The Miami Beach EDITION residences and $6 million for The New York (Madison Square Park) EDITION, which are both discussed in Footnote No. 3, “Acquisitions and Dispositions,” and a $4 million impairment charge on corporate equipment.
General, administrative, and other expenses decreased by $25 million (4 percent) to $634 million in 2015 from $659 million in 2014. The decrease largely reflected a $28 million net favorable impact to our legal expenses associated with litigation resolutions, $24 million of development costs that we deferred in 2015 related to our growing franchise pipeline, and $5 million in lower foreign exchange losses compared to the 2014 devaluation of assets denominated in Venezuelan Bolivars, partially offset by $20 million of higher costs incurred to grow our brands globally, $5 million of transaction costs related to the Starwood Combination, and $5 million from the Delta Hotels and Resorts acquisition.
2014 Compared to 2013
Operating income increased by $171 million to $1,159 million in 2014 from $988 million in 2013. The $171 million increase in operating income reflected a $79 million increase in franchise fees, a $51 million increase in base management fees, a $46 million increase in incentive management fees, and $26 million of higher owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses, partially offset by a $21 million increase in depreciation, amortization, and other expense, and a $10 million increase in general, administrative, and other expenses. We discuss the reasons for the increases in base management fees, franchise fees, and incentive management fees compared to 2013 in the preceding “Revenues” section.
The $26 million (12 percent) increase in owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses was largely attributable to $23 million of higher owned and leased revenue, net of direct expenses, $9 million in higher branding fees, $4 million from various programs at Protea Hotels, and $2 million in other program revenue, partially offset by $14 million in higher termination fees in 2013. Higher owned and leased revenue, net of direct expenses of $23 million primarily reflects $14 million in net favorable results at several leased properties, $10 million of revenue, net of direct expenses for a North American Full-Service managed property that we acquired in the 2013 fourth quarter, and $7 million of revenue, net of direct expenses for new Protea Hotel leases, partially offset by $6 million attributable to International properties that converted to managed or franchised.
Depreciation, amortization and other expense increased by $21 million (17 percent) to $148 million in 2014 from $127 million in 2013. The increase reflected the $25 million net impairment charge on the EDITION hotels discussed in Footnote No. 3, “Acquisitions and Dispositions,” $5 million in accelerated amortization related to contract terminations, $5 million in higher contract amortization primarily from Protea Hotels, and $3 million in higher depreciation related to a North American Full-Service property that we acquired in the 2013 fourth quarter, partially offset by $13 million of accelerated amortization related to contract terminations in 2013 and $5 million of 2013 depreciation for two International properties that converted to managed contracts.
General, administrative, and other expenses increased by $10 million (2 percent) to $659 million in 2014 from $649 million in 2013. The increase largely reflected $9 million from the addition of Protea Hotels and related transition costs, $7 million from net unfavorable foreign exchange rates, primarily from the devaluation of assets denominated in Venezuelan Bolivars, and $6 million of increased guarantee funding, partially offset by $8 million litigation settlements recognized in 2013, and a $5 million performance cure payment in 2013 for an International property.

28


Gains and Other Income, Net
2015 Compared to 2014
Gains and other income, net increased by $19 million (238 percent) to $27 million in 2015 compared to $8 million in 2014. The increase primarily reflects the $41 million gain on the redemption of our preferred equity ownership interest, discussed in Footnote No. 14, “Fair Value of Financial Instruments.” The increase was partially offset by an $11 million disposal loss for an International property and a $4 million expected disposal loss for a North American Limited-Service segment plot of land, both discussed in Footnote No. 3, “Acquisitions and Dispositions.”
2014 Compared to 2013
Gains and other income, net decreased by $3 million (27 percent) to $8 million in 2014 compared to $11 million in 2013. This decrease in gains and other income, net reflected a gain of $8 million on the sale of a portion of our shares of a publicly traded company in the 2013 second quarter, partially offset by $4 million in net distribution from cost method investments (not allocated to any of our segments) in 2014.
Interest Expense
2015 Compared to 2014
Interest expense increased by $52 million (45 percent) to $167 million in 2015 compared to $115 million in 2014. The increase was due to net lower capitalized interest expense as a result of the completion of The Miami Beach EDITION in the 2014 fourth quarter and The New York (Madison Square Park) EDITION in the 2015 second quarter ($25 million), interest on the Series O Notes and Series P Notes that we issued in the 2015 third quarter and the Series N Notes that we issued in the 2014 fourth quarter ($17 million), and an unfavorable variance to the 2014 debt premium accretion true-up ($7 million).
2014 Compared to 2013
Interest expense decreased by $5 million (4 percent) to $115 million in 2014 compared to $120 million in 2013. This decrease was principally from $8 million in higher debt premium accretion which included a true-up, $2 million in lower interest on an exited lease obligation, $2 million decrease due to lower interest rates on our Marriott Rewards program, and a $2 million increase in capitalized interest primarily related to development of EDITION hotels in Miami Beach and New York, offset by completion of The London EDITION in the 2013 fourth quarter. This was partially offset by a net $8 million increase due to the issuance of higher net senior note borrowings.
Interest Income
2015 Compared to 2014
Interest income decreased by $1 million (3 percent) to $29 million in 2015 compared to $30 million in 2014. This decrease was primarily due to lower interest income on the preferred equity ownership interest that was redeemed in the 2015 second quarter ($5 million), partially offset by higher interest income on the $85 million mezzanine loan (net of a $15 million discount) we provided to an owner in conjunction with entering into a franchise agreement for an International property in the 2014 second quarter ($5 million).
2014 Compared to 2013
Interest income increased by $7 million (30 percent) to $30 million in 2014 compared to $23 million in 2013. The increase was primarily due to $6 million earned on the $85 million mezzanine loan (net of a $15 million discount) provided to an owner in conjunction with entering into a franchise agreement for an International property in the 2014 second quarter, and $2 million earned on the mandatorily redeemable preferred equity ownership interest acquired in the 2013 second quarter. See Footnote No. 13, “Notes Receivable” for more information on the mezzanine loan.
Equity in Earnings (Losses)
2015 Compared to 2014
Equity in earnings of $16 million in 2015 increased by $10 million from equity in earnings of $6 million in 2014. The increase reflects a $22 million year-over-year impact from the reversal in 2015 of an $11 million litigation reserve that was recorded in 2014 and associated with an equity investment and a $5 million benefit recorded in 2015 following an adjustment to an International investee’s liabilities. The increase was partially offset by a $6 million impairment charge relating to an

29


International joint venture and an unfavorable variance to a $9 million benefit recorded in 2014 for two of our International investments, following the reversal of their liabilities associated with a tax law change in a country in which they operate.
2014 Compared to 2013
Equity in earnings of $6 million in 2014 improved by $11 million from equity in losses of $5 million in 2013. The increase was driven by a $9 million reversal of deferred tax liabilities associated with a tax law change in a country in which two of our International joint ventures operate, $9 million in higher earnings from three of our International and one of our North American Full-Service joint ventures, and a favorable variance from a $4 million impairment charge in the 2013 second quarter associated with a corporate investment (not allocated to any of our segments) that we determined was fully impaired because we do not expect to recover the investment. This was partially offset by an $11 million litigation reserve associated with another equity investment discussed above (not allocated to any of our segments).
Provision for Income Tax
2015 Compared to 2014
Our tax provision increased by $61 million (18 percent) to $396 million in 2015 from $335 million in 2014. The increase was primarily due to higher pre-tax earnings and unfavorable comparisons to the 2014 resolution of a U.S. federal tax issue relating to a guest marketing program, the 2014 release of an international valuation allowance, and the 2014 resolution of an international financing activity tax issue. The increase was partially offset by a favorable IRS settlement relating to share-based compensation ($12 million), a tax benefit from an International property disposition ($7 million), and a favorable comparison to the 2014 tax on unrealized foreign exchange gains that were taxed within a foreign jurisdiction ($5 million).
2014 Compared to 2013
Our tax provision increased by $64 million (24 percent) to $335 million in 2014 from $271 million in 2013. The increase was primarily due to higher pre-tax earnings, unrealized foreign exchange gains that were taxed within a foreign jurisdiction, and non-recurring favorable foreign true-ups in 2013. The increase was partially offset by the favorable resolution of a U.S. federal tax issue relating to a guest marketing program ($21 million), the release of an international valuation allowance ($7 million), and the resolution of an international financing activity tax issue ($5 million).
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest Expense, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”)
Earnings Before Interest Expense, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“EBITDA”), a financial measure not required by, or presented in accordance with, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), reflects net income excluding the impact of interest expense, provision for income taxes, and depreciation and amortization. Our non-GAAP measure of Adjusted EBITDA further adjusts EBITDA to exclude (1) the pre-tax EDITION impairment charges of $12 million in 2015 and $25 million in 2014, which we recorded in the “Depreciation, amortization, and other” caption of our Income Statements following an evaluation of our EDITION hotels and residences for recovery; (2) the $15 million pre-tax loss on dispositions of real estate, which we recorded in the “Gains and other income, net” caption of our Income Statements in 2015; (3) the $41 million pre-tax gain triggered by a mandatory redemption feature of a preferred equity investment in 2015; and (4) share-based compensation expense for all periods presented.
We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is a meaningful indicator of our operating performance because it permits period-over-period comparisons of our ongoing core operations before the excluded items and facilitates our comparison of results before these items with results from other lodging companies, and because it excludes certain items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the lodging industry. For example, interest expense can be dependent on a company’s capital structure, debt levels, and credit ratings, and accordingly interest expense’s impact on earnings varies significantly among companies. Similarly, tax positions will vary among companies as a result of their differing abilities to take advantage of tax benefits and the tax policies of the jurisdictions in which they operate. As a result, effective tax rates and provision for income taxes can vary considerably among companies. Our Adjusted EBITDA also excludes depreciation and amortization expense which we report under “Depreciation, amortization, and other,” as well as depreciation included under “Reimbursed costs” in our Income Statements, because companies utilize productive assets of different ages and use different methods of both acquiring and depreciating productive assets. These differences can result in considerable variability in the relative costs of productive assets and the depreciation and amortization expense among companies. We also exclude share-based compensation expense to address the considerable variability among companies in recording compensation expense because companies use share-based payment awards differently, both in the type and quantity of awards granted.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations and should not be considered in isolation or a substitute for performance measures calculated under GAAP. This non-GAAP measure excludes certain cash expenses that we are obligated to make. In addition,

30


other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do or may not calculate it at all, which limits the usefulness of Adjusted EBITDA as a comparative measure.
We present our 2015 and 2014 Adjusted EBITDA calculations that reflect the changes we describe above and reconcile this measure with Net Income in the following table:
($ in millions)
2015
 
2014
Net Income
$
859

 
$
753

Interest expense
167

 
115

Tax provision
396

 
335

Depreciation and amortization
127

 
123

Depreciation classified in Reimbursed costs
58

 
51

Interest expense from unconsolidated joint ventures
2

 
3

Depreciation and amortization from unconsolidated joint ventures
10

 
10

EBITDA
$
1,619

 
$
1,390

EDITION impairment charge
12

 
25

Loss on dispositions of real estate
15

 

Gain on redemption of preferred equity ownership interest
(41
)
 

Share-based compensation (including share-based compensation reimbursed by third-party owners)
113

 
109

Adjusted EBITDA
$
1,718

 
$
1,524

BUSINESS SEGMENTS
We are a diversified global lodging company with operations in three reportable business segments: North American Full-Service, North American Limited-Service, and International. See Footnote No. 16, “Business Segments,” to our Financial Statements for other information about each segment, including revenues and a reconciliation of segment profits to net income.


31


Properties by Segment
At year-end 2015, we operated, franchised, and licensed the following properties by segment and brand:
 
Company-Operated
 
Franchised / Licensed
 
Other (2)
 
Properties
 
Rooms
 
Properties
 
Rooms
 
Properties
 
Rooms
North American Full-Service
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marriott Hotels
132

 
69,954

 
200

 
61,556

 

 

JW Marriott
15

 
9,690

 
10

 
4,469

 

 

Marriott Conference Centers
10

 
2,915

 

 

 

 

Renaissance Hotels
28

 
12,229

 
54

 
15,130

 

 

Autograph Collection Hotels
3

 
1,065

 
52

 
12,070

 

 

Delta Hotels and Resorts
26

 
6,828

 
10

 
2,557

 

 

Gaylord Hotels
5

 
8,098

 

 

 

 

The Ritz-Carlton
39

 
11,410

 
1

 
429

 

 

The Ritz-Carlton Residences (1)
31

 
3,757

 
1

 
55

 

 

EDITION
2

 
568

 

 

 

 

EDITION Residences (1)
1

 
25

 

 

 

 

Total North American Full-Service
292

 
126,539

 
328

 
96,266

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North American Limited-Service
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Courtyard
276

 
43,890

 
640

 
85,151

 

 

Residence Inn
111

 
16,719

 
579

 
67,693

 

 

Fairfield Inn & Suites
5

 
1,324

 
756

 
68,646

 

 

SpringHill Suites
30

 
4,720

 
306

 
35,030

 

 

TownePlace Suites
15

 
1,740

 
255

 
25,388

 

 

AC Hotels by Marriott

 

 

 

 
5

 
911

Total North American Limited-Service
437


68,393


2,536


281,908


5


911

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total North American Locations
729


194,932


2,864


378,174


5


911

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
International
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marriott Hotels
145

 
41,201

 
39

 
11,651

 

 

JW Marriott
48

 
18,789

 
4

 
1,094

 

 

Marriott Executive Apartments
28

 
4,181

 

 

 

 

Renaissance Hotels
53

 
17,194

 
25

 
7,040

 

 

Autograph Collection Hotels
3

 
584

 
32

 
8,741

 
5

 
348

Protea Hotels
47

 
5,680

 
55

 
3,929

 

 

The Ritz-Carlton
52

 
14,713

 

 

 

 

The Ritz-Carlton Residences (1)
8

 
416

 

 

 

 

The Ritz-Carlton Serviced Apartments
4

 
579

 

 

 

 

Bulgari Hotels & Resorts
2

 
117

 
1

 
85

 

 

Bulgari Residences (1)
1

 
5

 

 

 

 

EDITION
1

 
173

 
1

 
78

 

 

Courtyard
73

 
15,354

 
48

 
9,022

 

 

Residence Inn
5

 
517

 
2

 
200

 

 

Fairfield Inn & Suites
5

 
716

 
2

 
386

 

 

AC Hotels by Marriott

 

 

 

 
78

 
9,551

Moxy Hotels

 

 
1

 
162

 

 

Total International
475


120,219


210


42,388


83


9,899

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Timeshare (3)

 

 
58

 
12,807

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
1,204


315,151


3,132


433,369


88


10,810

(1) 
Represents projects where we manage the related owners’ association. We include residential properties once they possess a certificate of occupancy.
(2) 
We present results for all AC Hotels by Marriott properties and five International Autograph Collection properties in the “Equity in earnings (losses)” caption of our Income Statements.
(3) 
Timeshare properties licensed by MVW under the Marriott Vacation Club, The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club, The Ritz-Carlton Residences, and Grand Residences by Marriott brand names. Includes products that are in active sales as well as those sold out. MVW reports its property and room counts on a fiscal year basis for the MVW fiscal year ended January 1, 2016.


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The following discussion reflects all three of our reportable segments. We consider total segment revenues and total segment profits (as defined in Footnote No. 16, “Business Segments”) to be meaningful indicators of our performance because they measure our growth in profitability and enable investors to compare the revenues and profits of our operations to our competitors.
2015 Compared to 2014
We added 300 properties (51,547 rooms) and 51 properties (6,328 rooms) exited our system in 2015.
Total segment revenues increased by $678 million to $14,218 million in 2015, a five percent increase from revenues of $13,540 million in 2014, and total segment profits increased by $111 million to $1,504 million in 2015, an eight percent increase from $1,393 million in 2014.
The year-over-year increase in segment revenues of $678 million was a result of a $572 million increase in cost reimbursements revenue, a $109 million increase in franchise fees, a $26 million increase in base management fees, and a $17 million increase in incentive management fees, partially offset by a $46 million decrease in owned, leased, and other revenue. The year-over-year increase of $111 million in segment profits reflected a $109 million increase in franchise fees, a $26 million increase in base management fees, and a $17 million increase in incentive management fees, partially offset by a $20 million decrease in gains and other income, net, a $12 million decrease in equity in earnings, a $6 million increase in general, administrative, and other expenses, and a $3 million decrease in owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses. For more information on the variances, see the preceding sections beginning with “Revenues.”
In 2015, 68 percent of our managed properties paid incentive management fees to us versus 50 percent in 2014. Managed properties that paid incentive management fees in 2015 represented 63 percent of properties in North America and 74 percent outside of North America, compared to 36 percent in North America and 73 percent outside of North America in 2014. The percentage of North American properties that paid incentive management fees to us increased compared to 2014 due to a few large North American Limited-Service portfolios of properties that paid incentive management fees in 2015 but did not do so in 2014. In addition, in 2015, 51 percent of our incentive fees came from properties outside of North America versus 56 percent in 2014.
Compared to 2014, worldwide comparable company-operated house profit margins in 2015 increased by 80 basis points and worldwide comparable company-operated house profit per available room (“HP-PAR”) increased by 7.5 percent on a constant U.S. dollar basis, reflecting higher occupancy, rate increases, improved productivity, and solid cost controls. These same factors contributed to North American company-operated house profit margins increasing by 80 basis points compared to 2014. HP-PAR at those same properties increased by 7.8 percent. International company-operated house profit margins increased by 70 basis points, and HP-PAR at those properties increased by 6.9 percent reflecting increased demand and higher RevPAR in most locations and improved productivity.
See “Statistics” below for detailed information on Systemwide RevPAR and Company-operated RevPAR by segment, region, and brand.
2014 Compared to 2013
We added 311 properties (46,050 rooms) and 52 properties (6,418 rooms) exited our system in 2014. These figures do not include residential units. During 2014, we also added two residential properties (30 units) and no residential properties or units exited our system.
Total segment revenues increased by $1,022 million to $13,540 million in 2014, an 8 percent increase from revenues of $12,518 million in 2013, and total segment profits increased by $196 million to $1,393 million in 2014 from $1,197 million in 2013.
The year-over-year increase in segment revenues of $1,022 million was a result of a $787 million increase in cost reimbursements revenue, an $80 million increase in franchise fees, a $58 million increase in owned, leased, and other revenue, a $51 million increase in base management fees, and a $46 million increase in incentive management fees. The year-over-year increase of $196 million in segment profits reflected an $80 million increase in franchise fees, a $51 million increase in base management fees, a $46 million increase in incentive management fees, $19 million of lower joint venture equity losses, a $11 million increase in owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses, and $4 million of lower depreciation, amortization, and other expense, partially offset by a $16 million increase in general, administrative, and other expenses. For more information on the variances, see the preceding sections beginning with “Revenues.”
In 2014, 50 percent of our managed properties paid incentive management fees to us versus 38 percent in 2013. Managed properties that paid incentive management fees in 2014 represented 36 percent of properties in North America and 73 percent

33


outside of North America, compared to 21 percent in North America and 70 percent outside of North America in 2013. In addition, in 2014, 56 percent of our incentive fees came from properties outside of North America versus 58 percent in 2013. Further, we earned $24 million in incentive management fees in 2014 from properties that did not earn any incentive management fees in 2013.
Compared to 2013, worldwide comparable company-operated house profit margins in 2014 increased by 120 basis points and HP-PAR increased by 9.7 percent on a constant U.S. dollar basis, reflecting higher occupancy, rate increases, improved productivity, and solid cost controls. These same factors contributed to North American company-operated house profit margins increasing by 150 basis points compared to 2013. HP-PAR at those same properties increased by 11.4 percent. International company-operated house profit margins increased by 70 basis points, and HP-PAR at those properties increased by 6.6 percent reflecting increased demand and higher RevPAR in most locations and improved productivity. Note that 2014 had three fewer days of activity when compared to 2013.
See “Statistics” below for detailed information on Systemwide RevPAR and Company-operated RevPAR by segment, region, and brand.
Development
In 2015, we added 300 properties with 51,547 rooms across our brands, including 9,590 rooms from the acquisition of Delta Hotels and Resorts, and 51 properties (6,328 rooms) left our system. No residential properties entered or left our system. Highlights of the year included:
Converting 39 properties (7,301 rooms), or 14 percent of our gross room additions for the year, to our brands;
Adding approximately 32 percent of all the new rooms outside North America; and
Adding 173 properties (19,712 rooms) to our North American Limited-Service brands.
We have over 270,000 hotel rooms in our development pipeline as of year-end 2015, which includes hotel rooms under construction and under signed contracts, as well as nearly 27,000 hotel rooms approved for development but not yet under signed contracts. We expect the number of our open hotel rooms (gross) to increase approximately 8 percent in 2016. This development pipeline and expected hotel room growth information does not include rooms that will join our system through the Starwood Combination.
We believe that we have access to sufficient financial resources to finance our growth, as well as to support our ongoing operations and meet debt service and other cash requirements. Nonetheless, our ability to develop and update our brands and the ability of hotel developers to build or acquire new Marriott-branded properties, both of which are important parts of our growth plan, depend in part on capital access, availability and cost for other hotel developers and third-party owners. These growth plans are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. See the “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risks and Uncertainties” captions earlier in this report and the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” caption later in this report.
Statistics
The following tables show occupancy, average daily rate, and RevPAR for comparable properties, for each of the brands in our North American Full-Service and North American Limited-Service segments, and for our International properties by region. Systemwide statistics include data from our franchised properties, in addition to our owned, leased, and managed properties.




 

34


 
Comparable Company-Operated
North American Properties
 
Comparable Systemwide
North American Properties
 
 
2015

Change vs. 2014
 
2015

Change vs. 2014
 
Marriott Hotels 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Occupancy
75.4
%
 
0.6
 %
pts. 
72.6
%
 
0.6
 %
pts. 
Average Daily Rate
$
195.28

 
3.8
 %
 
$
175.53

 
4.2
 %