10-K 1 wgl-930201510k.htm 10-K 10-K



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2015
  Commission
  File Number
 
Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter and
principal office address and telephone number
  
State of
Incorporation
  
I.R.S.
Employer Identification No.
1-16163
 
WGL Holdings, Inc.
101 Constitution Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20080
(703) 750-2000
  
Virginia
  
52-2210912
0-49807
 
Washington Gas Light Company
101 Constitution Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20080
(703) 750-4440
  
District of
Columbia
and Virginia
  
53-0162882
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act (as of September 30, 2015):
Title of each class
  
Name of each exchange on which registered
WGL Holdings, Inc. common stock, no par value
  
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act (as of September 30, 2015):
Title of each class
  
Name of each exchange on which registered
Washington Gas Light Company preferred stock,
cumulative, without par value:
  
 
$4.25 Series
  
Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board
$4.80 Series
  
Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board
$5.00 Series
  
Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board
Indicate by check mark if each registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
WGL Holdings, Inc.
  
Yes [ü]  No [   ]
Washington Gas Light Company
  
Yes [   ]  No [ü]
Indicate by check mark if each registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes [   ]  No [ü]
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes [ü]  No [   ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes [ü]  No [   ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrants’ knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
WGL Holdings, Inc.:
Large Accelerated Filer [ü]
  
Accelerated Filer [   ]
  
Non-Accelerated Filer [   ]
  
Smaller Reporting Company [   ]
 
  
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Washington Gas Light Company:
Large Accelerated Filer [   ]
  
Accelerated Filer [   ]
  
Non-Accelerated Filer [ü]
  
Smaller Reporting Company [   ]
 
  
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act):  Yes [   ]  No [ü]
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, WGL Holdings, Inc., amounted to $2,785,557,535 as of March 31, 2015.
WGL Holdings, Inc. common stock, no par value outstanding as of October 31, 2015: 49,831,775 shares.
All of the outstanding shares of common stock ($1 par value) of Washington Gas Light Company were held by WGL Holdings, Inc. as of October 31, 2015.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of WGL Holdings, Inc.’s definitive Proxy Statement and Washington Gas Light Company’s definitive Information Statement in connection with the 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A and 14C not later than 120 days after September 30, 2015, are incorporated in Part III of this report.





WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2015

Table of Contents
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
 
 
 
 
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.

(i)


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company

INTRODUCTION
 
FILING FORMAT
This annual report on Form 10-K is a combined report being filed by two separate registrants: WGL Holdings, Inc. (WGL) and Washington Gas Light Company (Washington Gas). Except where the content clearly indicates otherwise, any reference in the report to “WGL,” “we,” “us” or “our” is to the holding company or the consolidated entity of WGL Holdings and all of its subsidiaries, including Washington Gas which is a distinct registrant that is a wholly owned subsidiary of WGL.
The Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Management’s Discussion) included under Item 7 is divided into two major sections for WGL and Washington Gas. The Consolidated Financial Statements of WGL and the Financial Statements of Washington Gas are included under Item 8 as well as the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements that are presented on a combined basis for both WGL and Washington Gas.
SAFE HARBOR FOR FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain matters discussed in this report, excluding historical information, include forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 with respect to the outlook for earnings, revenues and other future financial business performance or strategies and expectations. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words such as, but not limited to, “estimates,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “believes,” “plans,” and similar expressions, or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “should,” “would” and “could.” Although the registrants believe such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, they cannot give assurance that every objective will be achieved. Forward-looking statements speak only as of today, and the registrants assume no duty to update them. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements or historical performance include those discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors and may include, but are not limited to the following:
the level and rate at which we incur costs and expenses, and the extent to which we are allowed to recover from customers, through the regulatory process, such costs and expenses relating to constructing, operating and maintaining Washington Gas’ distribution system;

the availability of natural gas and electricity supply, interstate pipeline transportation and storage capacity;

factors beyond our control that affect the ability of natural gas producers, pipeline gatherers and natural gas processors to deliver natural gas into interstate pipelines for delivery to the entrance points of Washington Gas’ distribution system;

security breaches of our information technology infrastructure, including cyber attacks and cyber-terrorism;

leaks, mechanical problems, incidents or other operational issues in our natural gas distribution system, including the effectiveness of our efforts to mitigate the effects of receiving low-HHC natural gas;

changes and developments in economic, competitive, political and regulatory conditions;

unusual weather conditions and changes in natural gas consumption patterns;

changes in energy commodity market conditions, including the relative prices of alternative forms of energy such as electricity, fuel oil and propane;

changes in the value of derivative contracts and the availability of suitable derivative counterparties;

changes in our credit ratings, disruptions in credit market and equity capital market conditions or other factors that may affect our access to and cost of capital;

factors affecting the timing of construction and the effective operation of pipelines in which we have invested;

the creditworthiness of customers; suppliers and derivatives counterparties;

1




changes in laws and regulations, including tax, environmental, pipeline integrity and employment laws and regulations;

legislative, regulatory and judicial mandates or decisions affecting our business operations;

the timing and success of business and product development efforts and technological improvements;

the level of demand from government agencies and the private sector for commercial energy systems, and delays in federal government budget appropriations;

the pace of deregulation of energy markets and the availability of other competitive alternatives to our products and services;

changes in accounting principles;

our ability to manage the outsourcing of several business processes, including the transition of certain processes to new third party vendors;

strikes or work stoppages by unionized employees;

acts of nature and catastrophic events, including terrorist acts and

decisions made by management and co-investors in non-controlled investees.
All such factors are difficult to predict accurately and are generally beyond the direct control of the registrants. Readers are urged to use care and consider the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could affect the registrants’ business as described in this annual report on Form 10-K.
 

2

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I



GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
 
Accelerated Pipe Replacement Programs: Programs focused on replacement activities, targeting specific piping materials, installed years and/or locations which are undertaken on an expedited basis in an effort to improve safety, system reliability and to reduce potential greenhouse gas emissions. 

Active Customer Meters: Natural gas meters that are physically connected to a building structure within the Washington Gas distribution system and that receive active service.

Asset Optimization Program: A program to optimize the value of Washington Gas’ long-term natural gas transportation and storage capacity resources during periods when these resources are not being used to physically serve customers.

Bundled Service: Service in which customers purchase both the natural gas commodity and the distribution or delivery of the commodity from the local regulated utility. When customers purchase bundled service from Washington Gas, no mark-up is applied to the cost of the natural gas commodity that is passed through to customers. 

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Agreement: An agreement whereby a service provider performs certain ongoing support functions.

CARE Ratemaking Adjustment (CRA): A billing mechanism in the state of Virginia that is designed to minimize the effect of factors such as conservation on utility net revenues.

City Gate: A point or measuring station at which a gas distribution company such as Washington Gas receives natural gas from an unaffiliated pipeline or transmission system.

Competitive Service Provider (CSP): Also referred to as Third Party Marketer (see definition below).

Commercial Energy Systems: Includes the operations of WGL Energy Systems, Inc. and WGSW, Inc.

Conservation and Ratemaking Efficiency (CARE Plan): Provides for the CRA as well as cost effective conservation and energy efficient programs.

Cooling Degree Day (CDD): A measure of the variation in weather based on the extent to which the daily average temperature is above 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

 
Crab Run: Crab Run Gas Company was the limited partner in the Western/Crab Run Limited Partnership which was formed to manage oil and gas properties. WGL owns all of the shares of common stock of Crab Run Gas Company but sold its interest in the limited partnership to the managing partner on February 5, 2015.

Delivery Service: The regulated distribution or delivery of natural gas to retail customers. Washington Gas provides delivery service to retail customers in Washington, D.C. and parts of Maryland and Virginia.

Design Day: Washington Gas’ design day represents the maximum anticipated demand on Washington Gas’ distribution system during a 24-hour period assuming a five-degree Fahrenheit average temperature and 17 miles per hour average wind, considered to be the coldest conditions expected to be experienced in the Washington, D.C. region.

Distributed Generation Assets: Assets that use renewable energy sources including Solar Photovoltaic (Solar PV) systems, combined heat and power plants, and natural gas fuel cells to generate electricity near the point of consumption. 

Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT): A performance measure that includes operating income, other income (expense) and earnings from unconsolidated affiliates. EBIT is used in assessing the results of each segment's operations.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): An independent agency of the federal government that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil. The FERC also reviews proposals to build liquefied natural gas terminals and interstate natural gas pipelines.

Financial Contract: A contract in which no commodity is transferred between parties and only cash payments are exchanged in amounts equal to the financial benefit of holding the contract.

Firm Customers: Customers whose natural gas supply will not be disrupted by the regulated utility to meet the needs of other customers. Typically, this class of customer comprises residential customers and most commercial customers.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP): A standard framework of accounting rules used to prepare, present and report financial statements in the United States of America.
 


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WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I



Gross Margin: A non-GAAP measure calculated as operating revenues, less the associated cost of energy and applicable revenue taxes. Gross margin is used to measure the success of the retail energy-marketing segment’s core strategy for the sale of natural gas and electricity.

Hampshire: Hampshire Gas Company provides regulated interstate natural gas storage services to Washington Gas under a FERC approved interstate storage service tariff. 

Heating Degree Day (HDD): A measure of the variation in weather based on the extent to which the daily average temperature falls below 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

Heavy Hydrocarbons (HHCs): Compounds, such as hexane, that Washington Gas is injecting into its distribution system to treat vaporized liquefied natural gas or domestic sources of gas that have had such HHCs removed as a result of liquids processing.

Interruptible Customers: Large commercial customers whose service can be temporarily interrupted in order for the regulated utility to meet the needs of firm customers. These customers pay a lower delivery rate than firm customers and they must be able to readily substitute an alternate fuel for natural gas. 

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): The liquid form of natural gas.

Lower-of-Cost or Market: The process of adjusting the value of inventory to reflect the lesser of its original cost or its current market value. 

Mark-to-Market: The process of adjusting the carrying value of an asset or liability to reflect its current fair value.

Midstream Energy Services: The midstream energy services segment includes the operations of WGL Midstream, Inc.

New Customer Meters Added: Natural gas meters that are newly connected to a building structure within the Washington Gas distribution system. Service may or may not have been activated. 

Normal Weather: A forecast of expected HDDs or CDDs based on historical HDD or CDD data.

PSC of DC: The Public Service Commission of the District of Columbia is a three-member board that regulates Washington Gas’ distribution operations in the District of Columbia.
 
PSC of MD: The Maryland Public Service Commission is a five-member board that regulates Washington Gas’ distribution operations in Maryland.
 
 
Purchased Gas Charge (PGC): The purchased gas charge represents the cost of gas, gas transportation, gas storage services purchased and other gas related costs. The purchased gas charge is collected from customers through tariffs established by the regulatory commissions that have jurisdiction over Washington Gas.
 
Regulated Utility Segment: Includes the operations of Washington Gas the operations of Hampshire.

Renewable Energy Credits (RECs): a certificate representing the “green attributes” of one megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity generated from renewable energy.

Retail Energy-Marketing Segment: Sales of natural gas and electricity to end users by our subsidiary, WGL Energy Services, Inc. that are not price regulated.
 
Return on Average Common Equity: Net income divided by average common shareholders’ equity.
 
Revenue Normalization Adjustment (RNA): A regulatory billing mechanism in the state of Maryland designed to stabilize the level of net revenues collected from customers by eliminating the effect of deviations in customer usage caused by variations in weather from normal levels, and other factors such as conservation.

SCC of VA: The Commonwealth of Virginia State Corporation Commission is a three-member board that regulates Washington Gas’ distribution operations in Virginia.

Sendout: The total amount of gas that flows into Washington Gas' distribution system within a certain interval of time.

Service Area: The region in which Washington Gas operates. The service area includes the District of Columbia, and the surrounding metropolitan areas in Maryland and Virginia.

Steps to Advance Virginia’s Energy Plan (SAVE Plan): An accelerated pipe replacement plan that provides a recovery mechanism for costs of eligible infrastructure replacements in the state of Virginia.

Strategic Infrastructure Development and Enhancement Plan (STRIDE Plan): An accelerated pipe replacement plan that provides a recovery mechanism for reasonable and prudent costs associated with infrastructure replacements in the state of Maryland.
 
Tariffs: Documents approved by the regulatory commission in each jurisdiction that set the prices Washington Gas may charge and the practices it must follow when providing utility service to its customers.



4

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I



Therm: A natural gas unit of measurement that includes a standard measure for heating value. We report our natural gas sales and deliveries in therms. A therm of gas contains 100,000 British thermal units of heat, or the energy equivalent of burning approximately 100 cubic feet of natural gas under normal conditions. Ten million therms equal approximately one billion cubic feet of natural gas. A dekatherm is 10 therms and is abbreviated Dth.

Third Party Marketer: Unregulated companies that sell natural gas and electricity directly to retail customers. WGL Energy Services, an affiliate of Washington Gas and a wholly owned subsidiary company of Washington Gas Resources Corporation, is a third-party marketer.

Unbundling: The separation of the delivery of natural gas or electricity from the sale of these commodities and related services that, in the past, were provided only by a regulated utility.

Utility Net Revenues: A measure used by the regulated utility segment which is calculated as operating revenues less the associated cost of gas and applicable revenue taxes. For the regulated utility, the cost of gas associated with sales to customers and revenue taxes are generally pass through amounts.

Value-At-Risk: A risk measurement that estimates the largest expected loss over a specified period of time under normal market conditions within a specified probabilistic confidence interval.

Washington Gas: Washington Gas Light Company is a subsidiary of WGL Holdings, Inc. that sells and delivers natural gas primarily to retail customers in accordance with tariffs approved by the PSC of DC, the PSC of MD and the SCC of VA.

Washington Gas Resources: Washington Gas Resources Corporation is a subsidiary of WGL Holdings, Inc. that owns the majority of the non-utility subsidiaries.

 Weather Normalization Adjustment (WNA): A billing adjustment mechanism in Virginia that is designed to minimize the effect of variations from normal weather on utility net revenues.

WGL: WGL Holdings, Inc. is a holding company that is the parent company of Washington Gas Light Company and other subsidiaries.

WGL Energy Services: WGL Energy Services, Inc. is a subsidiary of Washington Gas Resources Corporation that sells natural gas and electricity to retail customers on an unregulated basis.
 
WGL Energy SystemsWGL Energy Systems, Inc. is a subsidiary of Washington Gas Resources Corporation, which provides commercial energy efficient and
 
sustainable solutions to government and commercial clients.

WGL Midstream: WGL Midstream, Inc. is a subsidiary of Washington Gas Resources that engages in acquiring and optimizing natural gas storage and transportation assets.
 
WGSW: WGSW, Inc. is a subsidiary of Washington Gas Resources Corporation that was formed to invest in certain renewable energy projects.




5


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business


ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
 
CORPORATE OVERVIEW
WGL HOLDINGS, INC.
WGL was established on November 1, 2000 as a Virginia corporation. Through our wholly owned subsidiaries, we sell and deliver natural gas and provide energy-related products and services to customers primarily in the District of Columbia and the surrounding metropolitan areas in Maryland and Virginia, although our non-utility segments provide various energy services across the United States. WGL promotes the efficient use of clean natural gas and renewable energy to improve the environment for the benefit of customers, investors, employees, and the communities it serves. WGL owns all of the shares of common stock of Washington Gas, Washington Gas Resources, Hampshire and Crab Run. Washington Gas Resources owns four unregulated subsidiaries that include WGL Energy Services, WGL Energy Systems, WGL Midstream and WGSW. Additionally, several subsidiaries of WGL own interests in other entities, some of which are disregarded and others of which are treated as partnerships for tax purposes.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WGL*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Washington Gas
Regulated Utility
 
 
Hampshire
Regulated Utility
 
 
Washington Gas Resources*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WGL Energy Services Retail
Energy-Marketing
 
WGL Energy Systems
Commercial Energy Systems
 
WGSW
Commercial Energy Systems
 
WGL Midstream
Midstream Energy Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*Holding company whose stand alone results are reported in "other activities".
Industry Segments
Our segments include regulated utility, retail energy-marketing, commercial energy systems and midstream energy services. Transactions and activities not specifically identified in one of these four segments are reported as “Other Activities.” The four segments are described below.
REGULATED UTILITY SEGMENT
Washington Gas Light Company
The regulated utility segment consists of Washington Gas and Hampshire and represents approximately 80% of WGL’s total assets. Washington Gas is a regulated public utility that sells and delivers natural gas to retail customers in accordance with tariffs approved by regulatory commissions in the District of Columbia and adjoining areas in Maryland, Virginia and several cities and towns in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Washington Gas has been engaged in the natural gas distribution business since its incorporation by an Act of Congress in 1848. Washington Gas has been a Virginia corporation since 1953 and a corporation of the District of Columbia since 1957.
Washington Gas provides regulated distribution or delivery of natural gas to retail customers under tariff rates designed to provide for a return on and return of the investment used in providing that service. The rates are also designed to provide for recovery of operating expenses and taxes incurred in providing that service. Washington Gas also sells natural gas to customers who have not elected to purchase natural gas from unregulated third party marketers (refer to the section entitled “Natural Gas Unbundling”). Washington Gas recovers the cost of the natural gas purchased to serve firm customers through recovery mechanisms as approved in jurisdictional tariffs. Any difference between gas costs incurred on behalf of firm customers and the gas costs recovered from those customers is deferred on the balance sheet as an amount to be collected from or refunded to

6


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

customers in future periods. Therefore, increases or decreases in the cost of gas associated with sales made to firm customers have no direct effect on Washington Gas’ net revenues and net income. However, to the extent Washington Gas does not have regulatory mechanisms in place to mitigate the indirect effects of higher gas prices, such as: (i) lower natural gas consumption caused by customer conservation; (ii) increased short-term interest expense to finance a higher natural gas storage and accounts receivables balances and (iii) higher expenses for uncollectible accounts, its net income may decrease.
Washington Gas, under its asset optimization program, makes use of storage and transportation capacity resources when those assets are not required to serve utility customers. The objective of this program is to derive a profit to be shared with its utility customers by entering into commodity-related physical and financial contracts with third parties (refer to the section entitled “Asset Optimization” for further discussion of the asset optimization program). Unless otherwise noted, therm deliveries reported for the regulated utility segment do not include deliveries related to the asset optimization program.
At September 30, 2015, Washington Gas’ service area had a population estimated at 5.5 million and included approximately 2.0 million households and commercial structures. Washington Gas operations are such that the loss of any one customer or group of customers would not have a significant adverse effect on its business. The following table lists the number of active customer meters and therms delivered by jurisdiction as of and for the year ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
 
Active Customer Meters and Therms Delivered by Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Active Customer
Meters as of
  September 30, 2015  
 
Millions of Therms
Delivered
Fiscal Year Ended
  September  30, 2015  
 
Active Customer
Meters as of
  September 30, 2014  
 
Millions of Therms
Delivered
Fiscal Year Ended
   September  30, 2014   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
District of Columbia
157,010

 
316.3

 
155,993

 
317.8

Maryland
460,745

 
930.7

 
454,273

 
891.7

Virginia
512,110

 
684.9

 
506,777

 
679.4

Total
1,129,865

 
1,931.9

 
1,117,043

 
1,888.9

For additional information about gas deliveries and meter statistics, refer to the section entitled “Results of Operations” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis for Washington Gas.
Hampshire Gas Company
Hampshire owns full and partial interests in underground natural gas storage facilities, including pipeline delivery facilities located in and around Hampshire County, West Virginia, and operates those facilities to serve Washington Gas, which purchases all of the storage services of Hampshire. Washington Gas includes the cost of these services in the bills sent to its customers. Hampshire operates under a “pass-through” cost of service-based tariff approved by the FERC, and adjusts its billing rates to Washington Gas on a periodic basis to account for changes in its investment in utility plant and associated expenses.
The regulated utility segment reported total operating revenues related to gas sales and deliveries to external customers of approximately $1.3 billion, $1.4 billion, and $1.2 billion in fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Regulatory Environment
Washington Gas is regulated by the PSC of DC, the PSC of MD and the SCC of VA which approve its terms of service and the billing rates that it charges to its customers. Hampshire is regulated by the FERC. The rates charged to utility customers are designed to recover Washington Gas’ operating expenses and natural gas commodity costs and to provide a return on its investment in the net assets used in its firm gas sales and delivery service. For a discussion of current rates and regulatory matters, refer to the section entitled “Rates and Regulatory Matters” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis for Washington Gas.
 

7


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

District of Columbia Jurisdiction
The PSC of DC consists of three full-time members who are appointed by the Mayor with the advice and consent of the District of Columbia City Council. The term of each commissioner is four years with no limitations on the number of terms that can be served. The PSC of DC has no time limitation within which it must make decisions regarding modifications to base rates charged by Washington Gas to its customers; however, it targets resolving pending rate cases within three months of the close of record.
Maryland Jurisdiction
The PSC of MD consists of five full-time members who are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate of Maryland. Each commissioner is appointed to a five-year term, with no limit on the number of terms that can be served.
When Washington Gas files for a rate increase, the PSC of MD may initially suspend the proposed increase for 180 days, and then has the option to extend the suspension for an additional 30 days. If action has not been taken after 210 days, the requested rates become effective subject to refund.
Virginia Jurisdiction
The SCC of VA consists of three full-time members who are elected by the General Assembly of Virginia. Each commissioner has a six-year term with no limitation on the number of terms that can be served.
Either of two methods may be used to request a modification of existing rates. Washington Gas may file an application for a general rate increase, in which it may propose new adjustments to the cost of service that are different from those previously approved for Washington Gas by the SCC of VA, as well as a revised return on equity. The proposed rates under this process may take effect 150 days after the filing, subject to refund pending the outcome of the SCC of VA’s action on the application.
Alternatively, an expedited rate case procedure allows proposed rate increases to be effective 30 days after the filing date, subject to refund. Under this procedure, Washington Gas may not propose new adjustments for issues not approved in its last general rate case, or request a change in its authorized return on common equity. Once filed, other parties may propose new adjustments or a change in the cost of capital from the level authorized in its last general rate case. The expedited rate case procedure may not be available if the SCC of VA decides that there has been a substantial change in circumstances since the last general rate case filed by Washington Gas.
Seasonality of Business Operations
Washington Gas’ business is weather-sensitive and seasonal because the majority of its business is derived from residential and small commercial customers who use natural gas for space heating. Excluding deliveries for electric generation, in fiscal year 2015 and 2014, approximately 80% and 79%, respectively, of the total therms delivered in Washington Gas’ service area occurred during its first and second fiscal quarters. Washington Gas’ earnings are typically generated during these two quarters, and Washington Gas typically incurs net losses in the third and fourth fiscal quarters. The seasonal nature of the business creates large variations in short-term cash requirements, primarily due to the season-to-season fluctuations in the level of customer accounts receivable, unbilled revenues and storage gas inventories. Washington Gas finances these seasonal requirements primarily through the sale of commercial paper and unsecured short-term bank loans. For information on our management of weather risk, refer to the section entitled “Weather Risk” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis. For information about management of cash requirements, refer to the section entitled “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
Non-Weather Related Changes in Natural Gas Consumption Patterns
Natural gas supply requirements for the utility are affected by changes in the natural gas consumption patterns of our customers that are driven by factors other than weather. Natural gas usage per customer may decline as customers change their consumption patterns in response to: (i) more volatile and higher natural gas prices; (ii) customer upgrades to more energy efficient appliances and building structures and (iii) a decline in the economy in the region in which we operate.
For each jurisdiction in which Washington Gas operates, changes in customer usage profiles are reflected in rate case proceedings and rates are adjusted accordingly. Changes in customer usage by existing customers that occur subsequent to rate case proceedings in Maryland generally will not change revenues because the RNA mechanism stabilizes the level of delivery charge revenues received from customers.

8


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

In Virginia, decoupling rate mechanisms for residential, small commercial and industrial and group metered apartment customers permit Washington Gas to adjust revenues for non-weather related changes in customer usage. The WNA and the CRA are billing mechanisms that together eliminate the effects of both weather and other factors such as conservation.
In the District of Columbia, decrease in customer usage that occurs subsequent to rate case proceeding would have the effect of reducing revenues, which could be offset by additions of new customers.
Natural Gas Supply and Capacity
Capacity and Supply Requirements
Washington Gas must contract for reliable and adequate natural gas supplies, interstate pipeline capacity and storage capacity to provide natural gas to its distribution system, while considering: (i) the dynamics of the commodity supply and interstate pipeline and storage capacity markets; (ii) its own on-system natural gas peaking facilities and (iii) the characteristics of its customer base. Energy-marketing companies that sell natural gas to customers located within Washington Gas’ service territory are responsible for acquiring natural gas for their customers; however, Washington Gas allocates certain storage and pipeline capacity related to these customers in accordance with regulatory requirements.
Washington Gas has adopted a diversified portfolio approach designed to address constraints on supply by using multiple supply receipt points, dependable interstate pipeline transportation and storage arrangements, and its own substantial storage and peak shaving capabilities. Washington Gas’ supply and pipeline capacity plan is based on forecasted system requirements, and takes into account estimated load growth, attrition, conservation, geographic location, interstate pipeline and storage capacity and contractual limitations and the forecasted movement of customers between bundled service and delivery service. Under reduced supply conditions, Washington Gas may implement contingency plans in order to maximize the number of customers served. Contingency plans include requests to the general population to conserve and target curtailments to specific sections of the system, consistent with curtailment tariffs approved by regulators in each of Washington Gas’ three jurisdictions.
 
Washington Gas obtains natural gas supplies that originate from multiple regions throughout the United States. At September 30, 2015 and 2014, Washington Gas had service agreements with four pipeline companies that provided firm transportation and/or storage services directly to Washington Gas’ city gate. For fiscal year 2015, these contracts have expiration dates ranging from fiscal years 2016 to 2034. Additionally, Washington Gas has contracted with various interstate pipeline and storage companies to add to its storage and transportation capacity starting in fiscal years 2016-2019 and continues to monitor other opportunities to acquire or participate in obtaining additional pipeline and storage capacity that will support customer growth and improve or maintain the high level of service expected by its customer base.
Asset Optimization Derivative Contracts
Under the asset optimization program, Washington Gas utilizes its storage and transportation capacity resources when they are not being used to serve its utility customers. Washington Gas executes commodity-related physical and financial contracts in the form of forwards, futures and options as part of an asset optimization program that is managed by its internal staff. These transactions are accounted for as derivatives. The objective of this program is to derive a profit to be shared with Washington Gas' utility customers. Washington Gas enters into these derivative transaction contracts to lock in operating margins that will ultimately be shared between Washington Gas customers and shareholders. Because these sharing mechanisms are approved by our regulators in all three jurisdictions, any changes in fair value of the derivatives are recorded through earnings or as regulatory assets or liabilities if realized gains and losses will be included in the rates charged to customers.
The derivatives used under this program are subject to fair value accounting treatment which may cause significant period-to-period volatility in earnings from unrealized gains and losses associated with changes in fair value for the portion of net profits attributed to shareholders. However, this volatility does not change the locked in operating margins that Washington Gas expects to realize from these transactions. All physically and financially settled contracts under our asset optimization program are reported on a net basis in the statements of income in “Utility cost of gas.” Total net margins including unrealized gains and losses recorded to “Utility cost of gas” after sharing and management fees associated with all asset optimization transactions for the years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013 was a net gain of $27.9 million and net losses of $35.4 million and $33.2 million, respectively.
Refer to the sections entitled “Results of Operations — Regulated Utility” and “Market Risk” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis for further discussion of the asset optimization program and its effect on earnings.


9


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

Annual Sendout
As reflected in the table below, Washington Gas received natural gas from multiple sources in fiscal year 2015 and expects to use those same sources to satisfy customer demand in fiscal year 2016. Firm transportation denotes gas transported directly to the entry point of Washington Gas’ distribution system in contractual volumes. Transportation storage denotes volumes stored by a pipeline during the spring, summer and fall for withdrawal and delivery to the Washington Gas distribution system during the winter heating season to meet load requirements. Peak load requirements are met by: (i) underground natural gas storage at the Hampshire storage field; (ii) the local production of propane air plants located at Washington Gas-owned facilities in Rockville, Maryland (Rockville Station) and in Springfield, Virginia (Ravensworth Station) and (iii) other peak-shaving resources. Unregulated third party marketers acquire interstate pipeline and storage capacity and the natural gas commodity on behalf of Washington Gas’ delivery service customers under customer choice programs. Washington Gas also provides transportation, storage and peaking resources to unregulated third party marketers (refer to the section entitled “Natural Gas Unbundling”). These retail marketers have natural gas delivered to the entry point of Washington Gas’ distribution system on behalf of those utility customers that have decided to acquire their natural gas commodity on an unbundled basis, as discussed below.
 
Excluding the sendout of sales and deliveries of natural gas used for electric generation, the following table outlines total sendout of the system. The sources of delivery and related volumes that were used to satisfy the requirements of fiscal year 2015 and those projected for pipeline year 2016 are shown in the following table.
 
Sources of Delivery for Annual Sendout
(In millions of therms)
 
Fiscal Year       
 
Sources of Delivery
 
Actual
2014 
 
Actual
2015 
 
  Projected  
2016 (a)
Firm Transportation
 
622

 
683

 
604

Transportation Storage
 
269

 
314

 
267

Hampshire Storage, Company-Owned Propane-Air Plants, and other Peak-Shaving Resources
 
20

 
26

 
21

Unregulated Third Party Marketers
 
851

 
841

 
786

Total
 
1,762

 
1,864

 
1,678

(a) Based on normal weather.
Design Day Sendout
The effectiveness of Washington Gas’ capacity resource plan is largely dependent on the sources used to satisfy forecasted and actual customer demand requirements for its design day. For planning purposes, Washington Gas assumes that all interruptible customers will be curtailed on the design day. Washington Gas’ forecasted design day demand for the 2015-2016 winter season is 19.6 million therms and Washington Gas’ projected sources of delivery for design day sendout is 20.6 million therms. This provides a reserve margin of approximately 6.3%. Washington Gas plans for the optimal utilization of its storage and peaking capacity to reduce its dependency on firm transportation and to lower pipeline capacity costs. The following table reflects the sources of delivery that are projected to be used to satisfy the forecasted design day sendout estimate for fiscal year 2016.
Projected Sources of Delivery for Design Day Sendout
(In millions of therms)
Fiscal Year 2016
Sources of Delivery
Volumes
 
Percent    
Firm Transportation
6.1

 
29
%
Transportation Storage
8.5

 
41
%
Hampshire Storage, Company-Owned Propane-Air Plants and other Peak-Shaving Resources
5.9

 
29
%
Unregulated Third Party Marketers
0.1

 
1
%
Total
20.6

 
100
%
Natural Gas Unbundling

10


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

At September 30, 2015, customer choice programs for natural gas customers were available to all of Washington Gas’ regulated utility customers in the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia. These programs allow customers to purchase their natural gas from unregulated third party marketers, rather than purchasing this commodity as part of a bundled service from the local utility. Of Washington Gas’ 1.1 million active customers at September 30, 2015, approximately 184,900 customers purchased their natural gas commodity from unregulated third party marketers.
 
The following table provides the status of customer choice programs in Washington Gas’ jurisdictions at September 30, 2015.
 
Participation in Customer Choice Programs
At September 30, 2015
Jurisdiction
Customer Class  
Eligible Customers
 
 
Total      
 
% Participating  
  District of Columbia
Firm:
 
 
 
 
Residential
144,336

 
11
%
 
Commercial
12,504

 
34
%
 
Interruptible
170

 
92
%
Maryland
Firm:
 
 
 
 
Residential
430,353

 
22
%
 
Commercial
30,196

 
45
%
 
Interruptible
194

 
99
%
 
Electric Generation
2

 
100
%
Virginia
Firm:
 
 
 
 
Residential
483,033

 
10
%
 
Commercial
28,847

 
33
%
 
Interruptible
230

 
79
%
Total
 
1,129,865

 
 
When customers choose to purchase the natural gas commodity from unregulated third party marketers, Washington Gas’ net income is not affected because Washington Gas charges its customers the cost of gas without any mark-up. When customers select an unregulated third party marketer as their gas supplier, Washington Gas continues to charge these customers to deliver natural gas through its distribution system at rates identical to the delivery portion of the bundled sales service customers.
Safety and Reliability of the Natural Gas Distribution System
Maintaining and improving the public safety and reliability of Washington Gas’ distribution system is our highest priority providing benefits to both customers and investors through improved customer service. Washington Gas continually monitors and reviews changes in requirements of the codes and regulations that govern the operation of the distribution system and refines its safety practices, with a particular focus on design, construction, maintenance, operation, replacement, inspection and monitoring practices to meet or exceed these requirements. Significant changes in regulations can impact the cost of operating and maintaining the system. Operational issues that affect public safety and the reliability of Washington distribution system that are not addressed within a timely and adequate manner could adversely affect our future earnings and cash flows, as well as result in a loss of customer confidence.
Competition
The Natural Gas Delivery Function
The natural gas delivery function, the core business of Washington Gas, continues to be regulated by local and state regulatory commissions. In developing this core business, Washington Gas has invested $4.5 billion as of September 30, 2015 to construct and operate a safe and reliable distribution system. Because of the high fixed costs and significant safety and environmental considerations associated with building and operating a distribution system, Washington Gas expects to continue being the only owner and operator of a distribution system in its current franchise area for the foreseeable future. The nature of Washington Gas’ customer base and the distance of most customers from interstate pipelines mitigate the threat of bypass of its facilities by other potential delivery service providers.

11


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

Competition with Other Energy Products
Washington Gas faces competition based on customers’ preference for other energy products and the prices of those products compared to natural gas. In the residential market, which generates a significant portion of Washington Gas’ net income, the most significant product competition occurs between natural gas and electricity. Because the cost of electricity is affected by the cost of fuel used to generate electricity, such as natural gas, Washington Gas generally maintains a price advantage over competitive electricity supply in its service area for traditional residential uses of energy such as heating, water heating and cooking. Washington Gas continues to attract the majority of the new residential construction market in its service territory, and consumers’ continuing preference for natural gas allows Washington Gas to maintain a strong market presence. The following table lists the new customer meters added by jurisdiction and major rate class for the year ended September 30, 2015.
 
New Customer Meters by Area
  
 
Residential
 
 
Commercial and
Interruptible
 
Group Metered
Apartments
 
Total      
Maryland
 
5,391

 
297

 
20

 
5,708

Virginia
 
5,116

 
430

 

 
5,546

District of Columbia
 
716

 
101

 
28

 
845

Total
 
11,223

 
828

 
48

 
12,099

In the interruptible market, fuel oil is the prevalent energy alternative to natural gas. Washington Gas’ success in this market depends largely on the relationship between natural gas and oil prices. The supply of natural gas primarily is derived from domestic sources, and the relationship between supply and demand generally has the greatest impact on natural gas prices. Since the source of a large portion of oil comes from foreign countries, political events and foreign currency conversion rates can influence oil supplies and prices to domestic consumers.
Critical Factors
Factors critical to the success of the regulated utility segment include: (i) operating a safe and reliable natural gas distribution system; (ii) having sufficient natural gas supplies to meet customer demands; (iii) being competitive with other sources of energy such as electricity, fuel oil and propane; (iv) having access to sources of liquidity; (v) recovering the costs and expenses of this business in the rates charged to customers and (vi) earning a just and reasonable rate of return on invested capital.
RETAIL ENERGY-MARKETING SEGMENT
Description
The retail energy-marketing segment consists of the operations of WGL Energy Services, which competes with regulated utilities and other unregulated third party marketers to sell natural gas and/or electricity directly to residential, commercial and industrial customers in Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. WGL Energy Services is subject to regulation by the public service regulatory commissions of the states in which the company is authorized as a competitive service provider. These regulatory commissions: (i) authorize WGL Energy Services to provide service, (ii) review certain terms and conditions of service, (iii) establish the regulatory rules for interactions between the utility and the competitive service provider and (iv) issue orders and promulgate rules that establish the broad structure and conduct of retail energy markets. Changes to the rules, rates and orders by the regulatory commissions may affect WGL Energy Services’ financial performance.
WGL Energy Services buys natural gas and electricity with the objective of earning a profit through competitively priced sales contracts with end-users. These commodities are delivered to retail customers through the distribution systems owned by regulated utilities. Washington Gas is one of several utilities that deliver gas to, and on behalf of, WGL Energy Services. Unaffiliated electric utilities deliver all of the electricity sold. Additionally, WGL Energy Services bills its customers either independently or through the billing services of the regulated utilities that deliver its commodities. Refer to Note 18—Related Party Transactions of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of our purchase of receivables program.

12


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

WGL Energy Services also sells wind and other RECs and carbon offsets to retail customers. WGL Energy Services owns five solar generating assets which are dedicated to specific customers. The results of operations for these assets are reported within the Commercial Energy Systems segment. WGL Energy Services does not own or operate any other electric generation, transmission or distribution assets.
At September 30, 2015, WGL Energy Services served approximately 143,800 residential, commercial and industrial natural gas customer accounts and approximately 138,000 residential, commercial and industrial electricity customer accounts located in Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. Its customer concentration is such that the loss of any one customer or group of customers would not have a significant adverse effect on its business.
The retail energy-marketing segment’s total operating revenues were $1.3 billion for each of the fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
Seasonality of Business Operations
The operations of WGL Energy Services are seasonal, with larger amounts of electricity being sold in the summer months and larger amounts of natural gas being sold in the winter months. Working capital requirements can vary significantly during the year and these variations are financed through internally generated funds and WGL’s issuance of commercial paper and unsecured short-term bank loans. WGL Energy Services accesses these funds through the WGL money pool. For a discussion of the WGL money pool, refer to the section entitled “Money Pool” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
Natural Gas and Electricity Supply
WGL Energy Services contracts for storage and pipeline capacity to meet its customers’ needs primarily through transportation releases and storage services allocated from the utility companies in the various service territories in which it provides retail energy commodity.
On February 20, 2013, WGL Energy Services entered into a five-year secured supply arrangement with Shell Energy North America (US), LP (Shell Energy). Under this arrangement, WGL Energy Services has the ability to purchase the majority of its power, natural gas and related products from Shell Energy in a structure that reduces WGL Energy Services’ cash flow risk from collateral posting requirements. While Shell is intended to be the majority provider of natural gas and electricity, WGL Energy Services retains the right to purchase supply from other providers.
Natural gas supplies are delivered to WGL Energy Services’ market territories through several interstate natural gas pipelines. To supplement WGL Energy Services’ natural gas supplies during periods of high customer demand, WGL Energy Services maintains gas storage inventory in storage facilities that are assigned by natural gas utilities such as Washington Gas. This storage inventory enables WGL Energy Services to meet daily and monthly fluctuations in demand and to minimize the effect of market price volatility.
The PJM Interconnection (PJM) is a regional transmission organization that regulates and coordinates generation supply and the wholesale delivery of electricity in the states and jurisdictions where WGL Energy Services operates. WGL Energy Services buys wholesale and sells retail electricity in the PJM market territory, subject to its rules and regulations. PJM requires that its market participants have sufficient load capacity to serve their customers’ load requirements.
Competition
Natural Gas
WGL Energy Services competes with regulated gas utilities and other third party marketers to sell natural gas to customers both inside and outside of the Washington Gas service area. Marketers of natural gas compete largely on price; therefore, gross margins are relatively small. To provide competitive pricing to its retail customers and in adherence to its risk management policies and procedures, WGL Energy Services manages its natural gas contract portfolio by attempting to closely match the commitments for gas deliveries from wholesale suppliers with requirements to serve retail sales customers. For a discussion of WGL Energy Services’ exposure to and management of price risk, refer to the section entitled “Market Risk—Price Risk Related to the Retail Energy-Marketing Segment” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis.



13


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

Electricity
WGL Energy Services competes with regulated electric utilities and other third party marketers to sell electricity to customers. Marketers of electric supply compete largely on price; therefore, gross margins are relatively small. To provide competitive pricing to its retail customers and in adherence to its risk management policies and procedures, WGL Energy Services manages its electricity contract portfolio by attempting to closely match the commitment for electricity deliveries from suppliers with requirements to serve sales customers. For a discussion of WGL Energy Services’ exposure to and management of price risk, refer to the section entitled “Market Risk—Price Risk Related to the Retail Energy-Marketing Segment” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
WGL Energy Services’ residential and small commercial electric customer growth opportunities are significantly affected by the price for Standard Offer Service (SOS) offered by electric utilities. These rates are periodically reset for each customer class based on the regulatory requirements in each jurisdiction. Customer growth opportunities either expand or contract due to the relationship of these SOS rates to current market prices.
Critical Factors
Factors critical to managing the retail energy-marketing segment include:
managing the market risk of the difference between the price committed to customers under sales contracts and the cost of natural gas and electricity needed to satisfy these commitments, including PJM costs and costs to meet renewable portfolio standards;
managing credit risks associated with customers and suppliers;
having sufficient deliverability of natural gas and electric supplies and transportation to serve the demand of its customers, which can be affected by the ability of natural gas producers, pipeline gatherers, natural gas processors, interstate pipelines, electricity generators and regional electric transmission operators to deliver the respective commodities;
access to sources of financial liquidity;
controlling the level of selling, general and administrative expenses, including customer acquisition expenses and
access to markets through customer choice programs or other forms of deregulation.
COMMERCIAL ENERGY SYSTEMS SEGMENT
Description
The commercial energy systems segment consists of the operations of WGL Energy Systems, WGSW and the results of operations of affiliate owned commercial distributed energy projects. This segment focuses on clean and energy efficient solutions for its customers, driving earnings through (i) owning and operating distributed generation assets such as Solar Photovoltaic (solar PV) systems, combined heat and power plants, and natural gas fuel cells and (ii) operating as a general contractor to upgrade the mechanical, electrical, water and energy-related infrastructure of large governmental and commercial facilities by implementing both traditional and alternative energy technologies. This segment has assets and activities across the United States.
 
As of September 30, 2015 and 2014, this segment owned $369.3 million and $242.7 million, respectively, of operating distributed generation assets, generating a total of 147,451 megawatt hours in fiscal year 2015 and 85,141 megawatt hours in fiscal year 2014, respectively. Additionally, as of September 30, 2015, there was $107.0 million of signed projects under construction. These distributed generation assets drive revenue through the sale of renewable power generation under long-term power purchase agreements and the sale of renewable energy credits. As of September 30, 2015, the assets in service have generated $122.7 million in investment tax credits and grants for eligible projects. These credits and grants are recognized as reductions in tax expense by amortizing them over the useful life of the underlying assets, typically 30 years.
Competition
There are many competitors in this business segment. In the renewable energy and distributed generation market, competitors primarily include other developers, tax equity investors, distributed generation asset owner firms and lending institutions. Within the government sector, competitors primarily include companies contracting with customers under Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) as well as utilities providing services under Utility Energy Saving Contracts (UESC). WGL Energy Systems competes on the basis of strong customer relationships developed over many years of implementing successful projects, developing and maintaining strong supplier relationships, and focusing in areas where it can bring relevant expertise.
Critical Factors

14


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (continued)

Factors critical to the success of the commercial energy systems segment include: (i) generating adequate sales commitments from distributed generation channel partners and customers; (ii) generating adequate sales commitments from the government and private sectors in the facility construction and retrofit markets; (iii) building a stable base of customer relationships; (iv) estimating and managing fixed-price contracts with contractors; (v) managing selling, general and administrative expenses; (vi) managing price and operational risk associated with distributed energy projects and (vii) successful operation and optimization of commercial assets.
MIDSTREAM ENERGY SERVICES SEGMENT
Description
The Midstream Energy Services segment, which consists of the operations of WGL Midstream, engages in investing in and optimizing natural gas pipelines and storage facilities in the Midwest and Eastern United States. At September 30, 2015, WGL Midstream had pipeline investments totaling $73.4 million. For a discussion of WGL Midstream's pipeline investments, refer to the section entitled "Liquidity and Capital Resources--Pipeline Investments" in Management's Discussion and Analysis.
WGL Midstream provides natural gas related solutions to its customers and counterparties including producers, utilities, local distribution companies, power generators, wholesale energy suppliers, LNG exporters, pipelines and storage facilities. Moreover, WGL Midstream contracts for storage and pipeline capacity in its asset optimization activities through both long term contracts and short term transportation releases. WGL Midstream also contracts for physical natural gas sales and purchases on both a long term and short term basis.
WGL Midstream enters into both physical and financial derivative transactions to mitigate risks while seeking to maximize potential profits from the optimization of the transportation and storage assets it has under contract. These derivatives may cause significant period-to-period volatility in earnings as recorded under GAAP; however, this volatility will not change the operating margins that WGL Midstream expects to realize from sales to customers or counterparties.
WGL Midstream seeks to manage price risk exposure under its risk management policy by matching its forward physical and financial positions with its asset base. For a discussion of WGL Midstream’s exposure to and management of price risk, refer to the section entitled “Market Risk-Price Risk Related to the Other Non-Utility Segment” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
 
Competition
WGL Midstream competes with other midstream infrastructure and energy services companies, wholesale energy suppliers, producers and other non-utility affiliates of regulated utilities for the acquisition of natural gas storage and transportation assets.
Price Volatility
WGL Midstream can be positively or negatively affected by significant volatility in the wholesale price of natural gas. WGL Midstream risk management policies and procedures are designed to minimize the risk that purchase commitments and the related sale commitments do not closely match. In general, opportunities for asset optimization activities are increased for WGL Midstream with increased volatility in natural gas prices. These opportunities are primarily in short term transportation and storage spreads, seasonal storage spreads and long term supply or basis transactions.
Critical Factors
Factors critical to the success of WGL Midstream’s operations include: (i) ensuring pipeline investment projects are on time and on budget within set parameters; (ii) internal risk management policies; (iii) winning business in a competitive marketplace; (iv) managing credit risks associated with customers and counterparties; (v) maintaining and leveraging expertise in managing and optimizing natural gas related contracts; (vi) access to sources of financial liquidity and (vii) the level of general and administrative expenses.
OTHER ACTIVITIES
Activities and transactions that are not significant enough on a stand-alone basis to warrant treatment as an operating segment, and that do not fit into one of our other operating segments, are aggregated as “Other activities” and are included as part of non-utility operations in the operating segment financial information. Administrative and business development activity costs associated with WGL and Washington Gas Resources are included in this segment.

15


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1. Business (concluded)


ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations related to environmental matters. These laws and regulations may require expenditures over a long timeframe to control environmental effects. Almost all of the environmental liabilities we have recorded are for costs expected to be incurred to remediate sites where we or a predecessor affiliate operated manufactured gas plants (MGPs). Estimates of liabilities for environmental response costs are difficult to determine with precision because of the various factors that can affect their ultimate level. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
the complexity of the site;
changes in environmental laws and regulations at the federal, state and local levels;
the number of regulatory agencies or other parties involved;
new technology that renders previous technology obsolete or experience with existing technology that proves ineffective;
the level of remediation required and
variation between the estimated and actual period of time required to respond to an environmentally-contaminated site.
Washington Gas has identified up to ten sites where it or its predecessors may have operated MGPs. Washington Gas’ last use of an MGP was in 1984. In connection with these operations, we are aware that coal tar and certain other by-products of the gas manufacturing process are present at or near some former sites, and may be present at others. Based on the information available to us, we have concluded that none of the sites are likely to present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment, and either the appropriate remediation is being undertaken, or Washington Gas believes no remediation is necessary. The impact of these matters is not expected to have a material effect on Washington Gas’ financial position, cash flows, capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. See Note 12—Environmental Matters of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of environmental response costs.
OTHER INFORMATION
At September 30, 2015, we had 1,529 employees comprising 1,420 utility and 109 non-utility employees.
WGL has determined that none of its entities, either separately or in the aggregate, will be classified as swap dealers or major swap participants under the Dodd-Frank Act.
Our code of conduct, corporate governance guidelines, and charters for the governance, audit and human resources committees of the Board of Directors are available on the corporate Web site www.wglholdings.com under the “Corporate Governance” link, and any changes or amendments to these documents will also be posted to this section of our Web site. Copies may be obtained by request to the Corporate Secretary at WGL Holdings, Inc., 101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20080. Also on the corporate web site is additional information about WGL Holdings and free access to our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer certified to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on March 24, 2015 that, as of that date, he was unaware of any violation by WGL of the NYSE’s corporate governance listing standards.
Our research and development costs during fiscal years 2015, 2014 and 2013 were not material.


16


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
The risk factors described below should be read in conjunction with other information included or incorporated by reference in this annual report on Form 10-K, including an in-depth discussion of these risks in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
All of the risk factors discussed below affect the consolidated entity of WGL Holdings and all of its subsidiaries. The risk factors affecting Washington Gas are included under both the subheadings “Risks Relating to WGL and All of Its Subsidiaries” (to the extent that such factors describe risks related to the subsidiaries of WGL) and “Risks Affecting Washington Gas,” below.

RISKS RELATING TO WGL AND ALL OF ITS SUBSIDIARIES

WGL is a holding company and we depend on the receipt of dividends and other payments from our subsidiaries to pay dividends on our common stock and to pay principal and interest on our outstanding debt.
WGL is a holding company whose assets consist primarily of investments in subsidiaries. Accordingly, we conduct all of our operations through our subsidiaries. Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock and to pay principal and accrued interest on our outstanding debt depends on the payment of dividends to us by certain of our subsidiaries or the repayment of funds to us by our subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries, in turn, may be restricted from paying dividends, making repayments or making other distributions to us for financial, regulatory, legal or other reasons. The extent to which our subsidiaries are not able to pay dividends or repay funds to us may adversely affect our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common stock and principal and interest to holders of our debt, which could negatively affect WGL’s stock price.

If we are unable to access sources of liquidity or capital, or if the cost of funds increases significantly, our business, financial results and strategic growth plans may be adversely affected.
WGL and Washington Gas require access to sources of liquidity to fund our operations and to support our growth strategy. Our ability to obtain adequate and cost effective financing depends on the credit ratings of WGL and Washington Gas and the liquidity of financial markets. A material downgrade in WGL’s or Washington Gas’ credit ratings or disruptions in the capital or credit markets, including as a result of natural disasters and catastrophic events (including terrorist acts), could adversely affect our access to sources of liquidity and capital and increase our borrowing costs.
Our strategic growth plans assume that we will have continued access to liquidity and capital. In addition, the ability of our non-utility subsidiaries to purchase natural gas and electricity from their suppliers is partly dependent upon the creditworthiness of WGL, and upon access to cash collateral through the issuance of commercial paper and unsecured short-term bank loans by WGL. If WGL’s credit ratings are downgraded, we may be required to provide additional credit support. If we are required to provide significant additional credit support, or if there is significant disruption in the credit markets, our ability to implement our strategic plans and the ability of our non-utility subsidiaries to make commodity purchases at reasonable prices may be impaired.
In addition, as a wholly-owned subsidiary of WGL, Washington Gas depends solely on WGL to raise new common equity capital and to contribute that common equity to Washington Gas. If WGL is unable to raise common equity capital, this also could adversely affect Washington Gas’ credit ratings and its ability to earn its authorized rate of return. An increase in the interest rates Washington Gas pays without the recognition of the higher cost of debt in rates charged to its customers could materially affect future net income and cash flows.

Cyber attacks, including cyber-terrorism or other information technology security breaches, may disrupt our business operations, increase our costs, lead to the disclosure of confidential information and damage our reputation.
Security breaches of our information technology infrastructure, including cyber attacks and cyber-terrorism, could lead to disruptions of our natural gas distribution operations and otherwise adversely impact our ability to safely operate our pipeline and distributed generation systems and serve our customers effectively. In addition, an attack on or failure of information technology systems could result in the unauthorized release of customer, employee or Company data that is crucial to our operational security or could adversely affect our ability to deliver and collect on customer bills. Such events could adversely affect our business reputation, diminish customer confidence, subject us to financial liability or increased regulation, increase our costs and expose us to material legal claims and liability and adversely affect our operations and financial results. We have

17


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


implemented preventive and detective measures to manage these risks, and we maintain cyber risk insurance to mitigate the effects of these events. Nevertheless, our preventive and detective measures may not be effective. To the extent that the occurrence of any of these cyber events is not fully covered by insurance, it could adversely affect WGL’s financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to meet our customers’ requirements may be impaired if contracted supply is not available, if supplies are not delivered in a timely manner, if we lose key suppliers or if we are not able to obtain additional supplies during significant spikes in demand.

Washington Gas must acquire adequate natural gas supply and pipeline and storage capacity to meet current and future customers’ annual and seasonal natural gas requirements. Similarly, WGL Energy Services requires adequate natural gas and electric supplies to serve the demands of its customers and WGL Midstream requires storage and pipeline capacity to meet its delivery obligations to its customers. We depend on the ability of natural gas producers, pipeline gatherers, natural gas processors, interstate pipelines, suppliers of electricity and regional electric transmission operators to meet these requirements. If we are unable to secure adequate supplies in a timely manner because of a failure of our suppliers to deliver the contracted commodity, capacity or storage, if we are unable to secure additional quantities during significant abnormal weather conditions, or if Washington Gas' or WGL Energy Services' interruptible customers fail to comply with requests to curtail their gas usage during periods of sustained cold weather, we may be unable to meet our customers’ requirements. Such inability could result in defaults under contracts with customers, penalties and financial damage payments, costs relating to procedures to recover from a disruption of service, the loss of key licenses and operating authorities, and the loss of customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Natural disasters and catastrophic events, including terrorist acts, may adversely affect our business.
Natural disasters and catastrophic events such as fires, earthquakes, explosions, floods, tornados, terrorist acts, and other similar occurrences, could damage our operational assets, including utility facilities, information technology infrastructure, distributed generation assets and pipeline assets owned by investees of our non-utility subsidiaries. Such events could likewise damage the operational assets of our suppliers or customers. These events could disrupt our ability to meet customer requirements, significantly increase our response costs, and significantly decrease our revenues. Unanticipated events or a combination of events, failure in resources needed to respond to events, or a slow or inadequate response to events may have an adverse impact on our operations, financial condition, and results of operations. The availability of insurance covering catastrophic events, sabotage and terrorism may be limited or may result in higher deductibles, higher premiums, and more restrictive policy terms.

We are exposed to credit risk that could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
We extend credit to counterparties, including other utilities, holding companies, banks, gas exploration and production companies, government-backed utilities and other participants in the energy industry. Although we believe we have prudent policies in place to manage our credit risk, including credit policies, netting arrangements and margining provisions incorporated in contractual agreements, we may not be able to collect amounts owed to us, which could adversely affect our liquidity and results of operations.

Our risk management strategies and related hedging activities may not be effective in managing risks and may cause increased volatility in our earnings and, in our utility segment, may result in costs and losses for which rate recovery may be disallowed.
We are exposed to commodity price, weather and interest rate risks. In addition, WGL Energy Services is exposed to pricing of certain ancillary services provided by the power pool in which it operates.
For gas purchases to serve utility customers, Washington Gas attempts to manage its exposure to these risks, in part, through regulatory recovery mechanisms. WGL Energy Services primarily seeks to manage these risks by matching its natural gas and electricity purchase obligations with their sales commitments in terms of volume and pricing. In addition, all of our subsidiaries attempt to mitigate these risks by hedging, setting risk limits and employing other risk management tools and procedures. These risk management activities may not be effective, and cannot eliminate these risks in their entirety. If these tools and procedures are ineffective, we could incur significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and liquidity. In addition, although Washington Gas generally anticipates rate recovery of its costs or losses

18


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


incurred in connection with these risk management activities, a regulator could subsequently disallow these costs or losses from the determination of revenues, which could adversely affect our financial results and increase the volatility of our earnings.

Derivatives legislation and implementing rules could have an adverse impact on our ability to hedge risks associated with our business.
The Dodd-Frank Act regulates derivative transactions, which include certain instruments, such as interest rate swaps, forward contracts, option contracts, financial contracts and other contracts, used in our risk management activities. The Dodd-Frank Act requires that most swaps be cleared through a registered clearing facility and that they be traded on a designated exchange or swap execution facility, with certain exceptions for entities that use swaps to hedge or mitigate commercial risk. The Dodd-Frank requirements relating to derivative transactions have not been fully implemented by the SEC and the Commodities Futures Trading Commission. When fully implemented, the law and any new regulations could increase the operational and transactional cost of derivatives contracts and affect the number and/or creditworthiness of available counterparties.
In addition, we may transact with counterparties based in the European Union, Canada or other jurisdictions which, like the U.S., are in the process of implementing regulations to regulate derivatives transactions, some of which are currently in effect and impose costs on our derivatives activities.

Our business, earnings and cash requirements are highly weather sensitive and seasonal.
The earnings of Washington Gas can vary from year to year depending, in part, on weather conditions. Warmer-than-normal weather can reduce our utility margins as customer consumption declines. In Maryland and Virginia, we have in place regulatory mechanisms and rate designs intended to stabilize the level of net revenues that we collect from customers by eliminating the effect of deviations in customer usage caused by variations in weather from normal levels, and other factors such as conservation. If our rates and tariffs are modified to eliminate these provisions, then we would be exposed to significant risk associated with weather.
The operations of WGL Energy Services, our retail energy-marketing subsidiary, are weather sensitive and seasonal, with a significant portion of revenues derived from the sale of natural gas to retail customers for space heating during the winter months, and from the sale of electricity to retail customers for cooling during the summer months. Weather conditions directly influence the volume of natural gas and electricity delivered to customers. Weather conditions can also affect the short-term pricing of energy supplies that WGL Energy Services may need to procure to meet the needs of its customers. Similarly, the business of WGL Midstream is seasonal due to the tendency of storage and transportation spreads to increase during the winter. Deviations from normal weather conditions and the seasonal nature of these businesses can create large fluctuations in these subsidiaries’ short-term cash requirements and earnings.

Washington Gas and WGL Midstream may face regulatory and financial risks related to pipeline safety legislation.
A number of proposals to require increased oversight over pipeline operations and increased investment in and inspections of pipeline facilities are pending or have previously been proposed in the United States Congress. Additional operating expenses and capital expenditures may be necessary to remain in compliance with the increased federal oversight resulting from such proposals. While we cannot predict with certainty the extent of these expenses and expenditures or when they will become effective, the adoption of such proposals could result in significant additional costs to Washington Gas’ and WGL Midstream’s businesses. Washington Gas may be unable to recover from customers through the regulatory process all or some of these costs and may be unable to earn its authorized rate of return on these costs.

Failure of our service providers, including in connection with the transition of certain outsourcing relationships to new vendors, could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Certain of our information technology, customer service, supply chain, payroll and human resources functions that we rely on are provided by third party vendors, some of which provide services from centers located outside of the United States. Services provided pursuant to these agreements could be disrupted due to events and circumstances beyond our control. Furthermore, we are in the process of transferring some of these services to new vendors. The transition of services between providers could lead to a loss of institutional knowledge, service disruptions and decreased customer satisfaction. Our reliance on these service providers could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.


19


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


RISKS RELATING TO WASHINGTON GAS

Changes in the regulatory environment or unfavorable rate regulation may restrict or delay Washington Gas’ ability to earn a reasonable rate of return on its capital invested to provide utility service and to recover fully its operating costs.
Washington Gas is regulated by several regulatory commissions and agencies. These regulatory commissions generally have authority over many of the activities of Washington Gas’ business including, but not limited to, the rates it charges to its customers, the amount and type of securities it can issue, the nature of investments it can make, the nature and quality of services it provides, safety standards, collection practices and other matters. These regulators also may modify Washington Gas’ rates to change the level, type and methods that it utilizes to recover its costs, including the costs to acquire, store, transport and deliver natural gas. In addition, the regulatory environment and rate regulation can be affected by new laws and political considerations. Most significantly, we incur both planned and unplanned costs to operate, improve, maintain and repair our operational assets. The amount of these costs may vary from our expectations due to significant unanticipated repairs, maintenance and remediation of our assets, changes in legal and regulatory requirements, natural disasters, terrorism, changes in interest rates of our indebtedness and other events. To the extent these costs are not included in approved rates or tariffs, we seek our recovery through rate cases; however, the regulatory process may be lengthy and costs may be disallowed, causing us to suffer the negative financial effects of costs incurred without the benefit of rate relief. Additionally, the actions of regulatory commissions may restrict or delay Washington Gas’ ability to earn a reasonable rate of return on invested capital.

Washington Gas must acquire additional capacity to deliver natural gas into growth areas and it may not be able to do so in a timely manner.
Washington Gas must acquire additional interstate pipeline transportation or storage capacity and construct transmission and distribution pipe to deliver additional capacity into growth areas on our system. The availability of these options may be limited by market supply and demand, the timing of Washington Gas’ participation in new interstate pipeline construction projects and local permitting requirements as well as the acquisition of rights of way. These limitations could result in an interruption in Washington Gas’ ability to satisfy the needs of some of its customers.

Leaks, mechanical problems, incidents or other operational issues could affect public safety and the reliability of Washington Gas’ distribution system, which could materially affect Washington Gas’ results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Washington Gas’ business is exposed to operational issues, hazards and risks inherent in storing and transporting natural gas that could affect the public safety and reliability of its distribution system. Operating issues such as leaks, equipment problems and incidents, including explosions, could result in legal liability, repair and remediation costs, increased operating costs, significant increased capital expenditures, regulatory fines and penalties and other costs and a loss of customer confidence.
Washington Gas has experienced increased leak rates as a consequence of receiving an increasing volume of natural gas containing low concentration of HHCs into a portion of its distribution system. Although Washington Gas has implemented preventive and remedial measures to address this issue, its distribution system could experience a leakage rate of mechanical couplings on certain small diameter steel and copper piping that would compromise our ability to respond to these leaks in a timely manner, which could affect safety in portions of our distribution system. Any liabilities resulting from the occurrence of these events may not be fully covered by insurance, and Washington Gas may be unable to recover from customers through the regulatory process all of these repair, remediation and other costs and earn its authorized rate of return on these costs.

Current and future environmental regulations may adversely affect Washington Gas’ operations and financial results.
Washington Gas is subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations related to environmental matters. These evolving laws and regulations may require expenditures over a long timeframe. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may expose Washington Gas to fines, penalties and operational interruptions that could adversely affect its financial results. Moreover, new environmental requirements, revisions and reinterpretations of existing environmental requirements and changes in environmental enforcement policies and practices may stretch Washington Gas’ operational resources and adversely affect its financial results.
In the past, the United States Congress has considered legislative proposals to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Future proposals to limit GHG emissions could adversely affect our operating and service costs and demand for our product.

20


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


Should future proposals become law, operating and service costs may increase and demand for our product could decrease, and utility costs and prices charged to utility customers may increase, which would adversely affect our financial results.

Changes in the relative prices of alternative forms of energy may weaken the competitive position of Washington Gas’ delivery service, which could reduce growth in natural gas customers, reduce the volume of natural gas delivered and negatively affect Washington Gas’ cash flows and earnings.
The price of natural gas delivery service that Washington Gas provides competes with the price of other forms of energy such as electricity, oil and propane. An increase in the price of natural gas compared to other sources of energy may cause the competitive position of our natural gas delivery service to decline. A decline in the competitive position of natural gas service may lead to fewer natural gas customers, lower volumes of natural gas delivered, lower cash flows and lower earnings.

A decline in the local economy in which Washington Gas operates may reduce net revenue growth and reduce future earnings and cash flows.
Approximately 80% of our assets are attributable to our regulated utility businesses, and the dividends paid by Washington Gas to WGL constituted approximately 87% of the amount of WGL Holdings' dividends paid for fiscal year 2015. Further, substantially all of our natural gas utility customers are located in Virginia, Maryland and the District of Columbia. A decline in the economy of the region in which Washington Gas operates or a change in the usage patterns and financial condition of customers in the region might adversely affect Washington Gas’ ability to grow its customer base and collect revenues from existing customers, which may negatively affect net revenue growth and increase costs.

Washington Gas’ business and financial condition could be adversely impacted by strikes or work stoppages by its unionized employees.
Washington Gas’ business is dependent upon employees who are represented by unions and are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Disputes with the unions could result in work stoppages that could impact the delivery of natural gas and other services, which could affect our relationships with customers, vendors and regulators and adversely affect Washington Gas’ business and financial condition.

The availability of adequate interstate pipeline transportation capacity and natural gas supply may decrease.
We purchase almost all of our natural gas supply from interstate sources that must then be transported to our service territory. In particular, while the Marcellus Shale region is rapidly developing as a premier gas formation, the interstate pipeline transportation capacity may limit the availability of gas from Marcellus in the near term. A significant disruption to or reduction in interstate pipeline capacity due to events such as operational failures or disruptions, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, freeze off of natural gas wells, terrorist or cyber-attacks or other acts of war, or legislative or regulatory actions or requirements, including remediation related to integrity inspections, could reduce our normal interstate supply of gas, which may affect our ability to serve customer demand and may reduce our earnings.

The cost of providing retirement plan benefits to eligible current and former employees is subject to changes in the performance of investments, demographics, and other factors and assumptions. These changes may have a material adverse effect on us.
The cost of providing retirement plan benefits to eligible current and former employees is subject to changes in the market value of our retirement plan assets, changing bond yields, changing demographics and changing assumptions. Any sustained declines in equity markets, reductions in bond yields, increases in health care cost trends, or increases in life expectancy of beneficiaries may have an adverse effect on our retirement plan liabilities assets and benefit costs. Additionally, we may be required to increase our contributions in future periods in order to preserve the current level of benefits under the plans and/or due to federal funding requirements.

RISKS RELATING TO THE NON-UTILITY SUBSIDIARIES OF WGL

Legislative and regulatory developments and other uncertainties, delays or cost overruns may negatively affect WGL Energy Services and WGL Midstream.
Legislation or changes in the regulations that govern the conduct of competitive energy marketers could reduce customer growth opportunities for WGL Energy Services and could reduce the profit opportunities associated with existing customers. In

21


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


addition, WGL Midstream’s business plans involve making substantial investments in pipeline construction projects, which are subject to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state agency regulation and approval. These construction projects are also subject to environmental, political and legal uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Should these agencies deny or delay approval for the midstream projects or enact additional regulations related to these activities, or should other events delay these projects or require us to spend significant unanticipated amounts of capital, the value of those investments and the opportunity to grow our midstream business may decrease. In addition, the implementation of the federal Clean Power Plan that was announced in 2015 could adversely affect the businesses of all of our non-utility businesses in ways that we cannot yet anticipate. Finally, our non-utility subsidiaries hold investments in natural gas related businesses that are subject to laws and regulations that could adversely affect their performance.

Competition may negatively affect our non-utility subsidiaries.
We face strong competition in our non-utility segments. WGL Energy Services competes with other non-regulated retail suppliers of natural gas and electricity, as well as with the commodity rate offerings of electric and gas utilities. Increases in competition, including utility commodity rate offers that are below prevailing market rates, may result in a loss of sales volumes or a reduction in growth opportunities. WGL Midstream competes with other midstream infrastructure and energy services companies, wholesale energy suppliers and other non-utility affiliates of regulated utilities to acquire natural gas storage and transportation assets. For WGL Energy Systems, there are many competitors in the commercial energy systems segment, including, for government customers, companies that contract with customers under Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) and other utilities providing services under Utility Energy Saving Contracts (UESC) and, in the renewable energy and distributed generation market, other developers, tax equity investors, distributed generation asset owner firms and lending institutions. These competitors may have diversified energy platforms with multiple marketing approaches, broader geographic coverage, greater access to credit and other financial resources, or lower cost structures, and may make strategic acquisitions or establish alliances among themselves. There can be no assurances that we can compete successfully, and our failure to do so could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flow.

WGL subsidiaries invest in non-controlling interests in investments, and may have limited ability to manage risks associated with these investments.
We own, and may acquire additional, non-controlling interests in investments. We may not have the right or power to direct the management of these interests in investments, and other investors may take action that is contrary to our interests. In addition, other participants may become bankrupt or have other economic or business objectives that could negatively impact the value and performance of our investments.

Returns on our non-utility subsidiaries’ investments in renewable energy projects are dependent upon regulatory and tax incentives, which may expire or be reduced or modified.
WGL Energy Systems derives a significant portion of its revenues from the sale of solar renewable energy credits (SRECs), which are produced as a result of owning and operating commercial distributed energy systems. The value of these SRECs is determined by markets in the states where the distributed energy systems are installed, which are driven by state legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards or alternative compliance payment requirements for renewable energy. Overbuilding of distributed energy systems in these states or legislative changes reducing renewable portfolio standards or alternative compliance payment requirements could negatively impact the price of SRECs that we sell and the value of the SRECs that we hold in our portfolio.
In addition, WGL Energy Systems and WGSW’s investment strategy to own and operate energy assets and sell energy to customers is based on the current investment tax credit (ITC) provision in the federal tax code, which allows WGL to reduce its tax burden by investing in renewable and alternative energy assets, such as distributed energy, ductless heat pumps and fuel cells. The amount of the ITC relating to investments in certain energy assets is scheduled to decrease or to expire on December 31, 2016.
The expiration, reduction or modification of the ITC incentives may have an adverse effect on the potential for future growth in this area.

The construction and operations activities of WGL Midstream’s pipeline assets are subject to operational hazards, equipment failures, supply chain disruptions and personnel issues, which could delay their in-service dates and negatively affect our results of operations.

22


WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors (continued)


 
The construction and operation of WGL Midstream’s pipeline assets involves the risk of potential breakdown or failure of equipment or processes due to pipeline integrity, fuel supply or transportation disruptions, accidents, labor disputes or work stoppages, construction delays or cost overruns, and shortages of or delays in obtaining equipment, material and labor. Because these assets are interconnected with facilities of third parties, the operation of these facilities could also be adversely affected by unexpected or uncontrollable events occurring on the systems of such third parties. These events could delay the in-service date of WGL Midstream’s projects or disrupt operations on these projects, which could have an adverse effect on its financial results.

Delays in federal government budget appropriations may negatively impact WGL Energy Systems’ earnings.

The Energy Efficiency and Energy Management operations of WGL Energy Systems are sensitive to federal government agencies’ receipt of funding in a timely manner. A significant portion of WGL Energy Systems revenues is derived from implementing projects related to energy efficiency and energy conservation measures for federal government agencies in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. A delay in funding for these federal agencies directly impacts completion of ongoing projects and may harm WGL Energy Systems’ ability to obtain new contracts, which may negatively impact earnings.
 


23

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I



ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
At September 30, 2015, Washington Gas provided services in various areas of the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia, and held certificates of convenience and necessity, licenses and permits necessary to maintain and operate its properties and businesses. The regulated utility segment is the only segment where property, plant and equipment are significant assets.
At September 30, 2015, Washington Gas had approximately 577 miles of transmission mains, 12,865 miles of distribution mains and 12,675 miles of distribution services.
Washington Gas owns approximately 40 acres of land and three buildings (two completed in 2012 and one in 1970, respectively) at 6801, 6803 and 6805 Industrial Road in Springfield, Virginia. The Springfield site houses both operating and certain administrative functions of the utility. Washington Gas also holds title to land and buildings used as substations for its utility operations. The property at 6801 Industrial Road (Springfield Operations Center) is classified as held for sale.
Washington Gas also has peak shaving facilities in Springfield, Virginia (Ravensworth Plant) and Rockville, Maryland (Rockville Plant). At September 30, 2015, Hampshire owns full and partial interests in, and operates, underground natural gas storage facilities in Hampshire County, West Virginia. Hampshire owns certain exploration and development rights in West Virginia principally in the Oriskany Sandstone, the Marcellus Shale and other shale formations. These rights are predominately owned by lease and they are applicable to approximately 26,000 gross acres for the storage facilities of which 12,200 acres may be subject to exploration in addition to its storage function. Hampshire also operates a compressor station utilized to increase line pressure for injection of gas into storage.
Washington Gas owns a 12-acre parcel of land located in Southeast Washington, D.C. Washington Gas entered into an agreement with a national developer to develop this land in phases. The development, Maritime Plaza, is intended to be a mixed-use commercial project that will be implemented in five phases. The first two phases have been developed, with Washington Gas retaining a 99-year ground lease on each phase.
In addition, WGL Energy Systems owns 104.1 megawatts of installed solar capacity across the United States at September 30, 2015.
Facilities utilized by our corporate headquarters, as well as by the retail energy-marketing and commercial energy systems segments, are located in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan area and are leased.
The Mortgage of Washington Gas dated January 1, 1933 (Mortgage), as supplemented and amended, securing any First Mortgage Bonds (FMBs) it issues, constitutes a direct lien on substantially all property and franchises owned by Washington Gas other than a small amount of property that is expressly excluded. At September 30, 2015 and 2014, there was no debt outstanding under the Mortgage.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
The nature of our business ordinarily results in periodic regulatory proceedings before various state and federal authorities. For information regarding pending federal and state regulatory matters, see Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not Applicable.

24

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part I



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS
 
The names, ages and positions of the executive officers of the registrants at October 31, 2015, are listed below along with their business experience during the past five years. The age of each officer listed is as of the date of filing of this report. There is no family relationship among the officers.
Unless otherwise indicated, all officers have served continuously since the dates indicated, and all positions are executive officers listed with Washington Gas Light Company.
 
Executive Officers
Name, Age and Position with the registrants
  
Date Elected or
Appointed       
 
Vincent L. Ammann, Jr., Age 56(1)
  
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
  
October 1, 2013
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
  
September 30, 2006
 
 
Gautam Chandra, Age 49(1)
  
 
Senior Vice President—Strategy, Business Development and Non-Utility Operations
  
October 1, 2014
Vice President—Business Development, Strategy and Non-Utility Operations
  
October 1, 2011
Vice President—Business Development, Strategy and Business Process Outsourcing and Non-Utility Operations
  
October 1, 2009
 
 
Adrian P. Chapman, Age 58(1)
  
 
President and Chief Operating Officer
  
October 1, 2009
 
 
William R. Ford, Age 60(1)
  
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
  
October 1, 2013
Controller
  
October 1, 2010
 
 
Marcellous P. Frye, Jr., Age 47
  
 
Vice President—Support Services
  
March 21, 2008
 
 
Luanne S. Gutermuth, Age 53(1)
  
 
Senior Vice President—Shared Services and Chief Human Resource Officer
  
October 1, 2014
Vice President—Human Resources and Organization Development
  
October 1, 2010
 
 
 
Louis J. Hutchinson, III, Age 50(1)(2)
  
 
Vice President and Chief Revenue Officer
  
October 1, 2014
 
 
Mark A. Lowe, Age 52
  
 
Vice President—Gas Supply and Engineering
  
October 1, 2014
Division Head—Gas Supply
  
March 10, 2008
 
 
Terry D. McCallister, Age 59(1)
  
 
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
  
October 1, 2009
 
 
 
 
 
Richard H. Moore, Age 47
 
 
 Vice President—Corporate Development
 
October 1, 2015
 Division Head and Chief Operating Officer, Washington Gas Energy Services
 
May 25, 2014
 Division Head—Strategy and Business Development
 
November 30, 2009
 
 
 
Anthony M. Nee, Age 59(1)
  
 
Vice President and Treasurer
  
October 1, 2013
Treasurer
  
February 14, 2009
 
 
Roberta W. Sims, Age 61
  
 
Vice President—Rates and Regulatory Affairs
  
October 1, 2014
Vice President—Regulatory Affairs and Energy Acquisition
  
October 1, 2009
 
 
Douglas A. Staebler, Age 55
  
 
Senior Vice President—Utility Operations
  
October 1, 2014
Vice President—Operations, Engineering, Construction and Safety
  
October 31, 2006
 
 
Leslie T. Thornton, Age 57(1)(3)
  
 
Senior Vice President—General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
  
October 1, 2014
Vice President and General Counsel
  
January 1, 2012
Counsel to the Chairman
  
November 28, 2011
 
 
Tracy L. Townsend, Age 49
  
 
Vice President—Construction, Compliance and Safety
  
October 1, 2014
Division Head—Safety, Compliance, Construction Operations Support and Technology
  
October 1, 2010
(1) At September 30, 2015, Executive Officer of both WGL Holdings, Inc. and Washington Gas Light Company.
(2) Mr. Hutchinson was previously a Senior Vice President at Constellation Energy where he led sales and marketing for the public sector and energy efficiency business lines.
(3) Ms. Thornton was previously a partner at Dickstein Shapiro, LLP where she managed sensitive internal corporate, federal government and state attorney general investigations.


25

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related
Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities



ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
At October 31, 2015, WGL had 9,563 common shareholders of record. During fiscal years 2015 and 2014, WGL’s common stock was listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange and was shown under the ticker symbol “WGL.” We had no significant restrictions on dividends during fiscal years 2015 or 2014. The table below shows quarterly price ranges and quarterly dividends paid for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2015 and 2014.
 
 
Common Stock Price Range and Dividends Paid
 
 
  
 
High  
 
Low  
 
Dividends Paid   
Per Share   
 
Dividend
Payment Date
 
 
Fiscal Year 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth quarter
 
$
58.55

 
$
51.86

 
$
0.4625

 
8/1/2015
 
 
Third quarter
 
58.14

 
52.95

 
0.4625

 
5/1/2015
 
 
Second quarter
 
59.08

 
50.89

 
0.4400

 
2/1/2015
 
 
First quarter
 
56.79

 
42.04

 
0.4400

 
11/1/2014
 
 
Fiscal Year 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth quarter
 
$
44.71

 
$
37.77

 
$
0.4400

 
8/1/2014   
 
 
Third quarter
 
43.12

 
37.94

 
0.4400

 
5/1/2014   
 
 
Second quarter
 
40.72

 
35.35

 
0.4200

 
2/1/2014   
 
 
First quarter
 
45.65

 
37.96

 
0.4200

 
11/1/2013    
 


26

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 6. Selected Financial Data

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA-WGL Holdings, Inc.
 
The following table presents selected financial data for WGL derived from our financial statements as of and for the last five fiscal years. The information should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
  
 
  
 
  
 
  
 
  
Years Ended September 30,
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
SUMMARY OF EARNINGS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility
$
1,303,044

 
$
1,416,951

 
$
1,174,724

 
$
1,109,355

 
$
1,264,580

Non-utility
1,356,786

 
1,363,996

 
1,291,414

 
1,315,955

 
1,486,921

Total operating revenues
$
2,659,830

 
$
2,780,947

 
$
2,466,138

 
$
2,425,310

 
$
2,751,501

Income from continuing operations
$
131,259

 
$
105,940

 
$
80,253

 
$
139,818

 
$
117,050

COMMON STOCK DATA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per average share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
2.64

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.55

 
$
2.71

 
$
2.29

Diluted
$
2.62

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.55

 
$
2.71

 
$
2.28

Dividends declared per share
$
1.8275

 
$
1.7400

 
$
1.6600

 
$
1.5875

 
$
1.5400

Shares outstanding—year end (thousands)
49,729

 
50,657

 
51,774

 
51,612

 
51,365

CAPITALIZATION-YEAR END
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common shareholders’ equity
$
1,243,247

 
$
1,246,576

 
$
1,274,545

 
$
1,269,556

 
$
1,202,715

Washington Gas Light Company preferred stock
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
944,201

 
679,228

 
524,067

 
589,202

 
587,213

Total capitalization
$
2,215,621

 
$
1,953,977

 
$
1,826,785

 
$
1,886,931

 
$
1,818,101

OTHER FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property, plant and equipment-net—year-end
$
3,672,728

 
$
3,314,445

 
$
2,907,463

 
$
2,667,413

 
$
2,489,901

Total assets—year-end
$
5,294,201

 
$
4,856,499

 
$
4,260,060

 
$
4,110,947

 
$
3,809,034



27

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 6. Selected Financial Data

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA-Washington Gas Light Company
 
The following table presents selected financial data for Washington Gas derived from the financial statements as of and for the last five fiscal years. The information should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Years Ended September 30,
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
SUMMARY OF EARNINGS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility
$
1,328,191

 
$
1,443,800

 
$
1,200,357

 
$
1,137,666

 
$
1,288,539

Non-utility

 

 

 

 

Total operating revenues
$
1,328,191

 
$
1,443,800

 
$
1,200,357

 
$
1,137,666

 
$
1,288,539

Income from continuing operations
$
107,358

 
$
97,004

 
$
71,002

 
$
108,726

 
$
68,270

CAPITALIZATION-YEAR END
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common shareholder’s equity
$
1,081,292

 
$
1,050,166

 
$
1,024,583

 
$
1,025,743

 
$
990,135

Preferred stock
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

 
28,173

Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
695,885

 
679,228

 
524,067

 
589,202

 
587,213

Total capitalization
$
1,805,350

 
$
1,757,567

 
$
1,576,823

 
$
1,643,118

 
$
1,605,521

OTHER FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property, plant and equipment-net—year-end
$
3,243,446

 
$
3,022,064

 
$
2,724,882

 
$
2,574,396

 
$
2,448,574

Total assets—year-end
$
4,228,832

 
$
3,965,078

 
$
3,474,389

 
$
3,503,265

 
$
3,379,048

UTILITY GAS SALES AND DELIVERIES 
(thousands of therms)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gas sold and delivered
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential firm
734,874

 
738,963

 
660,424

 
540,206

 
677,558

Commercial and industrial
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Firm
197,543

 
200,153

 
180,942

 
149,515

 
179,207

Interruptible
2,072

 
2,193

 
2,897

 
2,042

 
2,573

Total gas sold and delivered
934,489

 
941,309

 
844,263

 
691,763

 
859,338

Gas delivered for others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Firm
558,125

 
535,503

 
488,182

 
436,698

 
501,187

Interruptible
260,264

 
267,705

 
270,884

 
243,031

 
271,421

Electric generation
179,061

 
144,403

 
177,533

 
343,315

 
140,557

Total gas delivered for others
997,450

 
947,611

 
936,599

 
1,023,044

 
913,165

Total utility gas sales and deliveries
1,931,939

 
1,888,920

 
1,780,862

 
1,714,807

 
1,772,503

OTHER STATISTICS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Active customer meters—year-end
1,129,865

 
1,117,043

 
1,105,123

 
1,094,109

 
1,082,983

New customer meters added
12,099

 
13,327

 
12,468

 
11,250

 
9,868

Heating degree days—actual
3,929

 
4,111

 
3,769

 
3,036

 
3,999

Weather percent colder (warmer) than normal
4.6
%
 
9.6
%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(20.1
)%
 
6.1
%

 

28

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
INTRODUCTION
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Management’s Discussion) analyzes the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of WGL and its subsidiaries. It also includes management’s analysis of past financial results and potential factors that may affect future results, potential future risks and approaches that may be used to manage them. Except where the content clearly indicates otherwise, “WGL,” “we,” “us” or “our” refers to the holding company or the consolidated entity of WGL Holdings, Inc. and all of its subsidiaries.
Management’s Discussion is divided into the following two major sections:
 
WGL—This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of WGL Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. It includes discussions of our regulated operations, including Washington Gas and Hampshire Gas Company (Hampshire), and our non-utility operations.

Washington Gas—This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of Washington Gas, a subsidiary of WGL, which comprises the majority of the regulated utility segment.
Both sections of Management’s Discussion—WGL and Washington Gas—are designed to provide an understanding of our operations and financial performance and should be read in conjunction with the respective company’s financial statements and the combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report.
Unless otherwise noted, earnings per share amounts are presented on a diluted basis, and are based on weighted average common and common equivalent shares outstanding.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
Introduction
WGL, through its subsidiaries, sells and delivers natural gas and provides a variety of energy-related products and services to customers primarily in the District of Columbia and the surrounding metropolitan areas in Maryland and Virginia. In addition to our primary markets, WGL’s non-utility subsidiaries provide customized energy solutions across a much wider footprint, with business activities across the United States.
WGL has four operating segments:
 
regulated utility;

retail energy-marketing;

commercial energy systems; and

midstream energy services.
Refer to the Business section under Item 1 of this report for further discussion of our regulated utility and non-utility business segments.

Regulated Utility Operating Segment
The regulated utility operating segment is composed of our core subsidiary, Washington Gas. Washington Gas engages in the delivery and sale of natural gas that is regulated by regulatory commissions in the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia. During the fiscal year, our utility customer base continued to grow as active customer meters increased by over 12,800 meters when compared to the prior fiscal year. Moreover, we saw positive earnings impacts in the segment from our asset optimization program, as well as from the accelerated pipe replacement plans that are in place in all three of our jurisdictions.

29

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Partially offsetting these favorable effects were higher operating expenses driven primarily by higher labor, outside services and employee incentive costs.
Retail Energy-Marketing Operating Segment
We offer competitively priced natural gas, electricity and energy from renewable sources to customers through WGL Energy Services, our non-utility retail energy-marketing subsidiary. Our retail energy-marketing business performed well, with electric margins significantly higher than the prior fiscal year. Procedural changes introduced by PJM in response to the market dynamics of the last two winters have created more stable market conditions during periods of extremely cold weather. Additionally, our retail energy-marketing business has increased its focus on large commercial and government account relationships.
 
Commercial Energy Systems Operating Segment
Through WGL Energy Systems and WGSW we offer efficient and sustainable commercial energy solutions focused on owning and operating distributed generation assets such as Solar Photovoltaic (Solar PV) systems and upgrading energy related systems of large government and commercial facilities. During the fiscal year, we saw positive earnings impacts in the segment from growth in distributed generation assets in service and higher income from state rebate programs for certain distributed generation projects. Offsetting these favorable effects were higher operating expenses. This segment continues to grow its distributed generation assets in service as well as its federal contracting and investment solar businesses.
Midstream Energy Services Operating Segment
WGL Midstream engages in acquiring and optimizing natural gas storage and transportation assets. During the fiscal year, this segment continued growing its investment in three interstate pipeline projects, each in varying stages of construction. WGL Midstream experienced lower storage values and lower storage and transportation spreads, partially offset by higher mark-to-market valuations on our derivative instruments, lower investment development expenses and higher income related to our pipeline investments.
Other Activities
Activities and transactions that are not significant enough on a stand-alone basis to warrant treatment as an operating segment, and that do not fit into one of our four operating segments, are aggregated as “Other Activities” and are included as part of non-utility operations. Administrative and business development costs associated with WGL and Washington Gas Resources are also included in “Other Activities.” Results for “Other Activities” for fiscal year 2015 include an impairment of our investment in American Solar Direct Holdings Inc. (ASDHI).
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in compliance with GAAP requires the selection and the application of appropriate technical accounting guidance to the relevant facts and circumstances of our operations, as well as our use of estimates to compile the consolidated financial statements. The application of these accounting policies involves judgment regarding estimates and projected outcomes of future events, including the likelihood of success of particular regulatory initiatives, the likelihood of realizing estimates for legal and environmental contingencies, and the probability of recovering costs and investments in both the regulated utility and non-regulated business segments.
We have identified the following critical accounting policies discussed below that require our judgment and estimation, where the resulting estimates have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
Accounting for Unbilled Revenue
For regulated deliveries of natural gas, Washington Gas reads meters and bills customers on a monthly cycle basis. The billing cycles for customers do not coincide with the accounting periods used for financial reporting purposes. Washington Gas accrues unbilled revenues for gas that has been delivered but not yet billed at the end of an accounting period adjusted for estimated gas losses during transmission and distribution to customers. In connection with this accrual, Washington Gas must estimate the amount of gas that has not been accounted for on its delivery system and must estimate the amount of the unbilled revenue by jurisdiction and customer class. A similar computation is made for WGL Energy Services to accrue unbilled revenues for both gas and electricity.

30

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 
Accounting for Regulatory Operations—Regulatory Assets and Liabilities
A significant portion of our business is subject to regulation by independent government entities. As the regulated utility industry continues to address competitive market issues, the cost-of-service regulation used to compensate Washington Gas for the cost of its regulated operations will continue to evolve. Non-traditional ratemaking initiatives and market-based pricing of products and services could have additional long-term financial implications for us. The carrying cost of Washington Gas’ investment in fixed assets assumes continued regulatory oversight of our operations.
Washington Gas’ jurisdictional tariffs contain mechanisms that provide for the recovery of the cost of gas applicable to firm customers. Under these mechanisms, Washington Gas periodically adjusts its firm customers’ rates to reflect increases and decreases in the cost of gas. Annually, Washington Gas reconciles the difference between the gas costs collected from firm customers and the cost of gas incurred, defers any difference and either recovers deficiencies from, or refunds excess recoveries to, customers over a period of time authorized by the regulator.
Washington Gas accounts for its regulated operations in accordance with FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 980, Regulated Operations (ASC Topic 980), which results in differences in the application of GAAP between regulated and unregulated businesses. ASC Topic 980 requires recording regulatory assets or liabilities for certain transactions that would have been treated as expense or revenue in unregulated businesses. Washington Gas defers the recognition of an incurred cost and records a regulatory asset when it is probable that these costs will be recovered in future rates. Washington Gas defers the recognition of revenue and records a regulatory liability when it is probable that it will refund an amount previously collected from customers or refund a gain to customers. Additionally, Washington Gas records a regulatory liability when a regulator provides current rates intended to recover costs that will be incurred in the future. Future regulatory changes or changes in the competitive environment could result in WGL and Washington Gas discontinuing the application of ASC Topic 980 for some of its business and require the write-off of the portion of any regulatory asset or liability for which recovery or refund is no longer probable. If Washington Gas were required to discontinue the application of ASC Topic 980 for any of its operations, it would record a non-cash charge or credit to income for the net book value of its regulatory assets and liabilities. Other adjustments might also be required.
The current regulatory environment and Washington Gas’ specific facts and circumstances support both the continued application of ASC Topic 980 for our regulatory activities and the conclusion that all of our regulatory assets and liabilities as of September 30, 2015 are recoverable or refundable through rates charged to customers. See Note 2—Regulated Operations of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of our regulated operations.
Accounting for Income Taxes
We recognize deferred income tax assets and liabilities for all temporary differences between the financial statement basis and the tax basis of assets and liabilities, including those temporary differences that regulators exclude from current rates for ratemaking purposes of Washington Gas. Regulatory assets or liabilities, corresponding to such additional deferred tax assets or liabilities, may be recorded to the extent recoverable from or payable to customers through the ratemaking process in future periods. Amounts applicable to income taxes due from and due to customers primarily represent differences between the book and tax basis of net utility plant in service.
The company is earning investment tax credits on its renewable energy investments. We have elected to amortize investment tax credits to income over the life of the related property.
See Note 9—Income Taxes of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of income taxes.
Accounting for Contingencies
We account for contingent liabilities utilizing ASC Topic 450, Contingencies. By their nature, the amount of the contingency and the timing of a contingent event are subject to our judgment of such events and our estimates of the amounts. Actual results related to contingencies may be difficult to predict and could differ significantly from the estimates included in reported earnings. For a discussion of contingencies, see Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

31

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Accounting for Derivatives
We enter into both physical and financial contracts for the purchase and sale of natural gas and electricity. We designate a portion of our physical contracts related to the purchase of natural gas and electricity to serve our customers as “normal purchases and normal sales” and therefore, they are not subject to the fair value accounting requirements of ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The financial contracts and the portion of the physical contracts that qualify as derivative instruments and are subject to the mark-to-market accounting requirements are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. Certain physical contracts do not qualify as derivative instruments due to the size of the notional amounts relative to the applicable liquid markets. However, future changes related to these markets may result in these physical contracts qualifying as derivative instruments subject to mark-to-market accounting requirements. WGL and Washington Gas also utilize derivative instruments that are designed to minimize the risk of interest-rate volatility associated with planned issuances of debt securities. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments recoverable from or refundable to customers and therefore subject to ASC Topic 980 are recorded as regulatory assets or liabilities, while changes in the fair value of derivative instruments not affected by rate regulation are reflected in income.
The gain or loss on a derivative that qualifies as a cash flow hedge of an exposure to variable cash flows of a forecasted transaction is initially recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) to the extent that the hedge is effective and is subsequently reclassified into earnings, in the same category as the item hedged, when the gain or loss from the forecasted transaction occurs. If it is probable that a forecasted transaction will not occur, the deferred gain or loss in AOCI is immediately reclassified into earnings. Gains or losses related to any ineffective portion of the cash flow hedges are also recognized in earnings immediately.
 
Our judgment is required in determining the appropriate accounting treatment for our derivative instruments. This judgment involves various factors, including our ability to: (i) evaluate contracts and other activities as derivative instruments subject to the accounting guidelines of ASC Topic 815; (ii) determine whether or not our derivative instruments are recoverable from or refundable to customers in future periods and (iii) derive the estimated fair value of our derivative instruments. See Note 14— Derivative and Weather-Related Instruments of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of our derivatives.
Accounting for Fair Value Instruments
Fair value is based on actively quoted market prices when they are available. In the absence of actively quoted market prices, we seek indicative price information from external sources, including broker quotes and industry publications. If pricing information from external sources is not available, internal models are used to estimate prices based on available historical and near-term future price information and/or the use of statistical methods. These inputs are used with industry standard valuation methodologies. See Note 15— Fair Value Measurements of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of our valuation methodologies.
Accounting for Investments
WGL evaluates its interests in other legal entities for consolidation under the variable interest entity (VIE) model or the voting interest model. A VIE is an entity where the total equity investment at risk is not sufficient to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or its equity investors, as a group, lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. WGL would consolidate a VIE when it is the primary beneficiary because it has both the power to direct the activities that have the most significant impact on economic performance and it has the obligation to absorb potentially significant losses or the right to receive potentially significant benefits. If an entity is not a VIE, it is evaluated under the voting interest method and would be consolidated if WGL has a controlling financial interest, which is typically evidenced by an ownership of a voting interest greater than 50% allowing for the control over the operations and policies of the investee.
WGL applies the equity method or cost method of accounting to its investments in which it does not have a controlling financial interest. WGL applies the equity method of accounting to its investments when it can exercise a significant influence over an investee. Under the equity method, Washington Gas reports its interest in the entity and its share of the earnings from the entity as single line items in its financial statements, namely Investments in unconsolidated affiliates. WGL uses the Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value (HLBV) methodology for certain equity method investments when the capital structure of the equity investment results in different liquidation rights and priorities than what is reflected by the underlying percentage ownership interests as defined by an equity investment agreement.

32

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

WGL uses the cost method of accounting for investments where it does not exercise significant influence. Under the cost method, WGL reports its investment at cost and recognizes income only to the extent it receives dividends or distributions.
Accounting for Pension and Other Post-Retirement Benefit Plans
Washington Gas maintains a qualified, trusteed, employee-non-contributory defined benefit pension plan (qualified pension plan) covering most active and vested former employees of Washington Gas and a separate non-funded defined benefit supplemental retirement plan (DB SERP) covering certain executive officers. The qualified pension plan and DB SERP were closed to new entrants on January 1, 2010. As of January 1, 2010, all new employees were entitled to participate in our defined contribution plans, and certain management employees receive benefits under a non-funded defined benefit restoration plan (DB Restoration). The DB Restoration was established for the purpose of providing supplemental pension and pension related benefits. Washington Gas also provides certain healthcare and life insurance benefits for retired employees (health and life benefit plan) which are funded in a trust. Washington Gas accrues the estimated benefit obligation for all of our defined benefit plans as earned by the covered employees. The qualified pension plan and health and life benefit plan benefits are paid out of the respective trusts. For the unfunded DB SERP and DB Restoration, Washington Gas pays, from internal funds, the individual benefits as they are due. The qualified pension plan, DB SERP, DB Restoration and health and life benefit plans are collectively referred to as the “Plans.”
The measurement of the Plans’ obligations and costs is dependent on a variety of factors, such as employee demographics, the level of contributions made to the Plans, earnings on the Plans’ assets and mortality rates. The following assumptions are also critical to this measurement. These assumptions are derived on an annual basis with the assistance of a third party actuarial firm:
 
Discount rate,

Expected long-term return on plan assets,

Rate of compensation increase, and

Healthcare cost trend rate.
We determine the discount rate based on a portfolio of high quality fixed-income investments (AA- as assigned by Standard & Poor’s or Aa3 as assigned by Moody’s or better) whose cash flows would cover our expected benefit payments. We determine the expected long-term rate of return by averaging the expected earnings for the target asset portfolio. In developing the expected rate of return assumption, we evaluate an analysis of historical actual performance and long-term return projections, which gives consideration to the asset mix and anticipated length of obligation of the Plans. Historically, the expected long-term return on plan assets has been lower for the health and life benefit plan than for the qualified pension plan due to differences in the allocation of the assets in the plan trusts and the taxable status of one of the trusts. We calculate the rate of compensation increase based on salary expectations, expected inflation levels, union negotiated salary rates and promotional expectations. The healthcare cost trend rate is determined by working with insurance carriers, reviewing historical claims data for the health and life benefit plan, considering plan provisions and analyzing market expectations.
 

33

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following table illustrates the effect of changing these actuarial assumptions, while holding all other assumptions constant:
 
Effect of Changing Critical Actuarial Assumptions
(In millions)
Pension Benefits
  
Health and Life Benefits
Actuarial Assumptions
Percentage-Point
Change in
Assumption
  
Increase
(Decrease) in
Ending
Obligation
  
Increase
(Decrease) in
Annual Cost
  
Increase
(Decrease) in
Ending
Obligation
  
Increase  
(Decrease) in
Annual Cost  
Expected long-term return on plan assets
+/- 1.00 pt.
  
n/a
  
$(6.6) / $6.6
  
n/a
  
$(3.9) / $3.9
Discount rate
+/- 0.25 pt.
  
$(30.3) / $32.0
  
$(2.2) / $2.4
  
$(9.4) / $9.9
  
$(0.8) / $0.9
Rate of compensation increase
+/- 0.25 pt.
  
$5.5 / $(5.3)
  
$1.0 / $(1.0)
  
n/a
  
n/a
Healthcare cost trend rate
+/- 1.00 pt.
  
n/a
  
n/a
  
$5.7 / $(5.1)
  
$2.1 / $(1.8)
       
We have historically utilized the Society of Actuaries’ (SOA) published mortality data in developing a best estimate of mortality as part of the calculation of the pension and other post-retirement benefit obligations. On October 27, 2014, the SOA published updated mortality tables for U.S. plans (RP-2014) and an updated improvement scale (MP-2014), which both reflect improved longevity. The MP-2014 improvement scale assumes that short-term rates of mortality improvement will converge to 1.00% per annum up to age 85 trending down to 0% between age 85 and age 115 with the ultimate long-term rate of improvement over a 20-year period from 2007 to 2027. Based upon an evaluation of the information provided by the SOA related to the RP-2014 tables and the MP-2014 improvement scale as well as recent additional studies of mortality improvement, we adopted the RP-2014 tables and adopted a modified improvement scale. We have modified the MP-2014 improvement scale to (a) adjust the ultimate long-term rate of mortality improvement from 1.00% to 0.75% per annum up to age 85 trending down to 0% between age 85 and age 115; and (b) shorten the convergence period from short term to ultimate rates of improvement from the 20-year period to a 15-year period. We adopted these new mortality assumptions in fiscal year 2015 to determine the benefit obligations as of September 30, 2015. The change to these revised mortality assumptions increased our pension and other post-retirement obligations by $46.8 million and $15.3 million, respectively at September 30, 2015
Differences between actuarial assumptions and actual plan results are deferred and amortized into cost when the accumulated differences exceed ten percent of the greater of the projected benefit obligation or the market-related value of the plan assets. If necessary, the excess is amortized over the average remaining service period of active employees. At September 30, 2015, the discount rate for the pension, DB SERP and DB Restoration plans increased to 4.5%, 4.1% and 4.1%, from 4.4%, 4.0% and 4.0%, respectively, for the comparable period in the prior year. The health and post-retirement plans discount rate also increased to 4.5% from 4.4% during the same period. The higher discount rates reflect the change in long-term interest rates primarily due to current market conditions. Refer to Note 10 —Pension and Other Post-Retirement Benefit Plans of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a listing of the actuarial assumptions used and for further discussion of the accounting for the Plans.


 


34

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

WGL HOLDINGS, INC.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Beginning in fiscal year 2015, our chief operating decision maker began utilizing earnings before interest and tax (“EBIT”) as the primary measure of profit and loss in assessing the results of each segment’s operations. EBIT includes operating income, other income (expense) and earnings from unconsolidated affiliates. We believe that our use of EBIT enhances the ability to evaluate segment performance because it excludes interest and income tax expense, which are affected by corporate-wide strategies such as capital financing and tax sharing allocations.
EBIT should not be considered an alternative to, or a more meaningful indicator of our operating performance than, net income. Refer to summary results below for a reconciliation of EBIT to income before income taxes.
Summary Results
WGL reported net income applicable to common stock of $131.3 million, $105.9 million and $80.3 million for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. We earned a return on average common equity of 10.5%, 8.4% and 6.3%, respectively, during each of these three fiscal years.
The following table summarizes our EBIT by operating segment for fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
 
Analysis of Consolidated Results
  
Years Ended September 30,
 
Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
EBIT:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Regulated utility
$
224.0

 
$
184.7

 
$
153.6

 
$
39.3

 
$
31.1

Retail energy-marketing
46.6

 
14.0

 
53.3

 
32.6

 
(39.3
)
Commercial energy systems
9.7

 
6.9

 
3.0

 
2.8

 
3.9

Midstream energy services
(2.7
)
 
8.4

 
(29.3
)
 
(11.1
)
 
37.7

Other activities
(9.7
)
 
(11.6
)
 
(8.7
)
 
1.9

 
(2.9
)
Intersegment eliminations
(1.0
)
 
(0.2
)
 
(2.0
)
 
(0.8
)
 
1.8

  Total
$
266.9

 
$
202.2

 
$
169.9

 
$
64.7

 
$
32.3

Interest expense
50.5

 
37.7

 
36.0

 
12.8

 
1.7

Income before income taxes
$
216.4

 
$
164.5

 
$
133.9

 
$
51.9

 
$
30.6

Income tax expense
83.8

 
57.3

 
52.3

 
26.5

 
5.0

Dividends on Washington Gas preferred stock
1.3

 
1.3

 
1.3

 

 

Net income applicable to common stock
$
131.3

 
$
105.9

 
$
80.3

 
$
25.4

 
$
25.6

EARNINGS PER AVERAGE COMMON SHARE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
2.64

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.55

 
$
0.59

 
$
0.50

Diluted
$
2.62

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.55

 
$
0.57

 
$
0.50

 
Regulated Utility Operating Results
The following table summarizes the regulated utility segment’s financial data for fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
 

35

WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Regulated Utility Financial Data         
  
Years Ended September 30,
 
Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
Utility net revenues(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating revenues
$
1,328.2

 
$
1,443.8

 
$
1,200.4

 
$
(115.6
)
 
$
243.4

Less: Cost of gas
536.0

 
726.9

 
521.5

 
(190.9
)
 
205.4

Revenue taxes
83.5

 
84.3

 
81.4

 
(0.8
)
 
2.9

Total utility net revenues
708.7

 
632.6

 
597.5

 
76.1

 
35.1

Operation and maintenance
320.1

 
291.4

 
292.6

 
28.7

 
(1.2
)
Depreciation and amortization
110.4

 
104.1

 
100.4

 
6.3

 
3.7

General taxes and other assessments
53.7

 
53.4

 
52.3

 
0.3

 
1.1

Other income (expenses)-net
(0.5
)
 
1.0

 
1.4

 
(1.5
)
 
(0.4
)
EBIT
$
224.0

 
$
184.7

 
$
153.6

 
$
39.3

 
$
31.1

(1)We utilize utility net revenues, calculated as revenues less the associated cost of energy and applicable revenue taxes, to assist in the analysis of profitability for the regulated utility segment. The cost of the natural gas commodity and revenue taxes are generally included in the rates that Washington Gas charges to customers as reflected in operating revenues. Accordingly, changes in the cost of gas and revenue taxes associated with sales made to customers generally have no direct effect on utility net revenues, operating income or net income. Utility net revenues should not be considered an alternative, or a more meaningful indicator of our operating performance than operating income. Additionally, utility net revenues may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

Fiscal Year 2015 vs. Fiscal Year 2014.  
The increase in EBIT primarily reflects the following:
higher utility net revenue related to growth of more than 12,700 average active customer meters;
higher revenues due to new base rates in Maryland;
higher realized margins and unrealized mark-to-market valuations associated with our asset optimization program;
rate recovery related to the accelerated pipeline replacement programs and
favorable effects of changes in natural gas consumption patterns in the District of Columbia.

Partially offsetting these favorable variances were:

higher operation and maintenance expenses and
higher depreciation due to the growth in our investment in utility plant.

Fiscal Year 2014 vs. Fiscal Year 2013.
The increase in EBIT primarily reflects the following:
higher net revenues attributed to the colder weather impacts of 2014 that were in excess of our weather protection provisions;
higher revenues due to new base rates in Maryland and the District of Columbia;
an increase in revenues related to the growth of more than 12,200 average active customer meters;
favorable effects of changes in natural gas consumption patterns in the District of Columbia;
rate recovery related to the accelerated pipeline replacement programs;
higher realized margins associated with our asset optimization program; and
lower operations and maintenance expense.
Partially offsetting these favorable variances were:

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WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

higher unrealized losses associated with our asset optimization program; and
higher depreciation expense due to the growth in our investment in utility plant.

Utility Net Revenues. The following table provides the key factors contributing to the changes in the utility net revenues of the regulated utility segment between years.
 
Composition of Changes in Utility Net Revenues
  
Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
Customer growth
$
5.1

 
$
8.1

Estimated effects of weather and consumption patterns
3.3

 
7.1

Impact of rate cases
2.6

 
12.2

Accelerated pipe replacement programs
9.7

 
3.9

Asset optimization:
 
 
 
Realized margins
4.5

 
18.9

Unrealized mark-to-market valuations
59.9

 
(20.8
)
Lower-of-cost or market adjustment
(1.1
)
 
(0.3
)
Storage carrying costs
(1.4
)
 
1.1

Other
(6.5
)
 
4.9

Total
$
76.1

 
$
35.1

Customer growth — Average active customer meters increased by more than 12,700 from fiscal year 2014 to 2015. Average active customer meters increased by more than 12,200 from fiscal year 2013 to 2014. Additionally, the fiscal year 2014 to 2013 comparison reflects changes in the composition of customers by class.
Estimated effects of weather and consumption patterns— Weather, when measured by HDDs, was 4.6% and 9.6% colder than normal during the years ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and 0.2% warmer than normal during the year ended September 30, 2013. The effects of the warmer weather in fiscal year 2015 compared to 2014, were more than offset by changes in natural gas consumption patterns in the District of Columbia, partially due to commercial customers converting from interruptible to firm service. These conversions resulted in additional net revenues of approximately $2.5 million in fiscal year 2015. Additionally, natural gas consumption patterns may be affected by shifts in weather patterns in which customer heating usage may not correlate highly with average historical levels of usage per heating degree days that occur. Natural gas consumption patterns may also be affected by non-weather related factors such as customer conservation. Refer to the section entitled "Weather Risk" for a discussion of billing mechanisms in Maryland and Virginia, which are designed to eliminate the net revenue effects of variations in customer usage caused by weather and other factors such as conservation).
Impact of rate cases — The year over year variance for 2015 and 2014 reflects new base rates that were approved in Maryland, effective November 23, 2013. The year over year variance for 2014 and 2013 reflects new base rates that were approved in the District of Columbia and Maryland, effective June 4, 2013 and November 23, 2013, respectively.
 
Accelerated pipe replacement programs — The positive effect on revenues is primarily due to the continued growth of our accelerated pipe replacement programs in Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia.
Asset optimization — We recorded unrealized losses associated with our energy-related derivatives of $6.3 million, $66.2 million and $45.4 million for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. When these derivatives settle, any unrealized amounts will ultimately reverse and Washington Gas will realize margins in combination with related transactions that these derivatives economically hedge. The large swings in the valuations are primarily due to movements in unobservable inputs used in the valuation of long-dated forward contracts. We believe that these values are not reflective of our ultimate cash flows as these purchases are utilized in the optimization of our long-term natural gas transportation and storage capacity resources, the value of which is not reflected at fair value. Refer to the section entitled “Market Risk—Price Risk Related to the Regulated Utility Segment” for further discussion of our asset optimization program.

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WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Storage Carrying Costs — Each jurisdiction provides for the recovery of carrying costs based on the pre-tax cost of capital, multiplied by the average monthly investment balance of storage gas inventory. The year over year comparisons for 2015 and 2014 reflects lower average storage gas inventory balances primarily due to significantly lower priced gas in inventory. For fiscal year 2014 compared to 2013, the comparison reflects increased storage and related inventory due to adding additional storage capacity.
Operation and Maintenance Expenses. The following table provides the key factors contributing to the changes in operation and maintenance expenses of the regulated utility segment between years.
 
Composition of Changes in Operation and Maintenance Expenses
  
Increase/(Decrease)
(In millions)
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
Employee incentives and direct labor costs
$
15.9

 
$
3.0

Employee benefits
(6.7
)
 
(18.1
)
Business development
6.7

 
0.2

System safety and integrity
2.2

 
7.7

Environment costs, net
1.9

 
2.2

Support services
3.1

 
2.4

Liability insurance
1.7

 
0.6

Uncollectible accounts
0.8

 
4.7

Other
3.1

 
(3.9
)
Total
$
28.7

 
$
(1.2
)

Employee incentives and direct labor costs — Washington Gas incurred increased employee incentives and labor costs for the year ended September 30, 2015 over the previous fiscal year, as a result of an increase in the valuation of our share-based long-term incentive plan as well as increases in employees and merit increases. The increase in expense for fiscal year 2014 compared to fiscal year 2013 is primarily due to higher direct labor costs driven by general wages increases, an increase in the number of employees and an increase in overtime work driven primarily by cold weather.
Employee benefits — The decrease in employee benefits expense in both year-over-year comparisons primarily relates to an amendment to the post-retirement benefits plan in April 2014, that resulted in a re-measurement of the benefit obligation and a reduction in the net periodic expense.
Business development — The increase primarily relates to an increase in customer growth initiatives for Washington Gas and costs related to the potential investment in Virginia gas reserves. Refer to the section entitled “Rates and Regulatory Matters" for a further discussion of this matter.
  System safety and integrity — Washington Gas incurred increased maintenance costs for the year ended September 30, 2015 compared to the previous fiscal year primarily due to weather-related safety and reliability activities. The increase in expense in fiscal year 2014 compared to 2013 year-over year comparison reflects increased maintenance costs driven primarily by cold weather.
Environment costs, net — The increase in expense during fiscal year 2015 reflects an increase in the environmental liability due to a change in the remediation plan at one of the Washington Gas environmental sites. Additionally, during the prior fiscal year, Washington Gas received proceeds from insurance policies for incurred legal costs and past and future environmental expenses. The increase in expense during the year ended September 30, 2014, compared to year ended September 30, 2013, reflects higher proceeds in fiscal year 2013 from an environmental insurance policy for past and future claims.
Support services —  Washington Gas incurred additional costs for the year ended September 30, 2015 compared to the prior fiscal year due to increased project related costs including the implementation of a new customer information system as

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WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

well as infrastructure support costs. The increase in expense during the year ended September 30, 2014, compared to the prior fiscal year is due to higher infrastructure support costs.
Liability insurance — The increase in liability insurance is due to higher excess liability and cyber insurance in fiscal year 2015.
Uncollectible accounts — The difference in expense between fiscal year 2015 compared to fiscal year 2014 relates to a potential refund to customers as a result of an order from the PSC of DC associated with a cash settlement to Competitive Service Providers (CSPs). Refer to Rates and Regulatory Matters for a further discussion. The increase in expense for the fiscal year 2014 to 2013 comparison is due to increased volumes of gas deliveries. In addition, Washington Gas provided an increased number of structured and deferred payment plans to customers in Maryland due to the extremely cold winter in fiscal year 2014.
Depreciation and Amortization.  The following table provides the key factors contributing to the changes in depreciation and amortization of the regulated utility segment between years.
 
Composition of Changes in Depreciation and Amortization
  
Increase (Decrease)        
(In millions)
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
Accelerated pipe replacement programs
$
1.6

 
$
0.8

Other Capital expenditures, net
4.7

 
3.6

Amortization reversal

 
(0.7
)
Total
$
6.3

 
$
3.7

 

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WGL Holdings, Inc.
Washington Gas Light Company
Part II
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Non-Utility Operating Results
Retail Energy-Marketing
The following table depicts the retail energy-marketing segment’s operating results along with selected statistical data.
Retail-Energy Marketing Financial and Statistical Data
 
Years Ended September 30,
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2015
vs. 2014
 
2014
vs. 2013
Operating Results (In millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross margins(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating revenues
$
1,306.8

 
$
1,310.3

 
$
1,279.3

 
$
(3.5
)
 
$
31.0

Less: Cost of energy
1,201.1

 
1,239.0

 
1,164.8

 
(37.9
)
 
74.2

Revenue taxes
9.3

 
8.3

 
6.8

 
1.0

 
1.5

Total gross margins
96.4

 
63.0

 
107.7

 
33.4

 
(44.7
)
Operation expenses
44.7

 
43.8

 
49.6

 
0.9

 
(5.8
)
Depreciation and amortization
0.7

 
0.7

 
0.7

 

 

General taxes and other assessments—other
4.5

 
4.6

 
4.4

 
(0.1
)
 
0.2

   Other income (expenses)-net
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.2

 

 
(0.1
)
EBIT
$
46.6

 
$
14.0

 
$
53.2

 
$
32.6

 
$
(39.2
)
Analysis of gross margins (In millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Natural gas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Realized margins
$
61.0

 
$
59.0

 
$
44.1

 
$
2.0

 
$
14.9

     Unrealized mark-to-market gains (losses)
(12.7
)
 
5.2

 
(1.7
)
 
(17.9
)
 
6.9

     Other
(1.1
)
 

 

 
(1.1
)
 

Total gross margins—natural gas
47.2

 
64.2

 
42.4

 
(17.0
)
 
21.8

Electricity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Realized margins
$
57.2

 
$
0.7

 
$
58.6

 
$
56.5

 
$
(57.9
)
     Unrealized mark-to-market gains (losses)
(8.0
)
 
(1.9
)
 
6.7

 
(6.1
)
 
(8.6
)
Total gross margins—electricity
49.2

 
(1.2
)
 
65.3

 
50.4

 
(66.5
)
Total gross margins
$
96.4

 
$
63.0

 
$
107.7

 
$
33.4

 
$
(44.7
)
Other Retail-Energy Marketing Statistics
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Natural gas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Therm sales (millions of therms)
713.0

 
718.1

 
702.5

 
(5.1
)
 
15.6

Number of customers (end of period)
143,800

 
156,600

 
167,900

 
(12,800
)
 
(11,300
)
Electricity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electricity sales (millions of kWhs)
12,057.0

 
11,692.0

 
12,133.0

 
365.0

 
(441.0
)
Number of accounts (end of period)
138,000

 
162,100

 
179,900

 
(24,100
)
 
(17,800
)
(1)