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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 ___________________________________
FORM 10-Q
___________________________________
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number 1-14387
Commission File Number 1-13663
___________________________________ 
United Rentals, Inc.
United Rentals (North America), Inc.
(Exact Names of Registrants as Specified in Their Charters)
 ___________________________________
Delaware06-1522496
Delaware86-0933835
(States of Incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Nos.)
100 First Stamford Place, Suite 700

Stamford
Connecticut06902
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrants’ Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (203622-3131
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value, of United Rentals, Inc.
 URINew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    x  Yes    o  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


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Large Accelerated Filer Accelerated Filer 
Non-Accelerated Filer Smaller Reporting Company 
Emerging Growth Company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    x   No
As of October 23, 2023, there were 67,781,450 shares of United Rentals, Inc. common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding. There is no market for the common stock of United Rentals (North America), Inc., all outstanding shares of which are owned by United Rentals, Inc.
This combined Form 10-Q is separately filed by (i) United Rentals, Inc. and (ii) United Rentals (North America), Inc. (which is a wholly owned subsidiary of United Rentals, Inc.). United Rentals (North America), Inc. meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction (H)(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-Q and is therefore filing this report with the reduced disclosure format permitted by such instruction.


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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
UNITED RENTALS (NORTH AMERICA), INC.
FORM 10-Q FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2023
INDEX
 
  Page
PART I
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
PART II
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 2
Item 5
Item 6
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This quarterly report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believe,” “expect,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seek,” “on-track,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend” or “anticipate,” or the negative thereof or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy or outlook. You are cautioned that our business and operations are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and, consequently, our actual results may differ materially from those projected.

Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected include, but are not limited to, the following:
the impact of global economic conditions (including inflation, increased interest rates, supply chain constraints, potential trade wars and sanctions and other measures imposed in response to international conflicts) and public health crises and epidemics on us, our customers and our suppliers, in the United States and the rest of the world;
declines in construction or industrial activity, which can adversely impact our revenues and, because many of our costs are fixed, our profitability;
rates we charge and time utilization we achieve being less than anticipated;
changes in customer, fleet, geographic and segment mix;
excess fleet in the equipment rental industry;
inability to benefit from government spending, including spending associated with infrastructure projects;
trends in oil and natural gas, including significant increases in the prices of oil or natural gas, could adversely affect the demand for our services and products;
competition from existing and new competitors;
the cyclical nature of the industry in which we operate and the industries of our customers, such as those in the construction industry;
costs we incur being more than anticipated, including as a result of inflation, and the inability to realize expected savings in the amounts or time frames planned;
our significant indebtedness (which totaled $12.0 billion at September 30, 2023) requires us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow for debt service and can constrain our flexibility in responding to unanticipated or adverse business conditions;
inability to refinance our indebtedness on terms that are favorable to us, including as a result of volatility and uncertainty in capital or credit markets or increases in interest rates, or at all;
incurrence of additional debt, which could exacerbate the risks associated with our current level of indebtedness;
noncompliance with financial or other covenants in our debt agreements, which could result in our lenders terminating the agreements and requiring us to repay outstanding borrowings;
restrictive covenants and the amount of borrowings permitted under our debt instruments, which can limit our financial and operational flexibility;
inability to access the capital that our businesses or growth plans may require, including as a result of uncertainty in capital or credit markets;
the possibility that companies that we have acquired or may acquire could have undiscovered liabilities, or that companies or assets that we have acquired or may acquire could involve other unexpected costs, may strain our management capabilities, or may be difficult to integrate, and that we may not realize the expected benefits from an acquisition over the timeframe we expect, or at all;
incurrence of impairment charges;
fluctuations in the price of our common stock and inability to complete stock repurchases or pay dividends in the time frames and/or on the terms anticipated;
our charter provisions as well as provisions of certain debt agreements and our significant indebtedness may have the effect of making more difficult or otherwise discouraging, delaying or deterring a takeover or other change of control of us;
inability to manage credit risk adequately or to collect on contracts with a large number of customers;
turnover in our management team and inability to attract and retain key personnel, as well as loss, absenteeism or the inability of employees to work or perform key functions in light of public health crises or epidemics;
inability to obtain equipment and other supplies for our business from our key suppliers on acceptable terms or at all, as a result of supply chain disruptions, insolvency, financial difficulties or other factors;
increases in our maintenance and replacement costs and/or decreases in the residual value of our equipment;
inability to sell our new or used fleet in the amounts, or at the prices, we expect;
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risks related to security breaches, cybersecurity attacks, failure to protect personal information, compliance with data protection and cyber incident reporting laws and regulations, and other significant disruptions in our information technology systems;
risks related to climate change and climate change regulation;
risks related to our ability to meet our environmental and social goals, including our greenhouse gas intensity reduction goal;
the fact that our holding company structure requires us to depend in part on distributions from subsidiaries and such distributions could be limited by contractual or legal restrictions;
shortfalls in our insurance coverage;
increases in our loss reserves to address business operations or other claims and any claims that exceed our established levels of reserves;
incurrence of additional expenses (including indemnification obligations) and other costs in connection with litigation, regulatory and investigatory matters;
the costs of complying with environmental, safety and foreign laws and regulations, as well as other risks associated with non-U.S. operations, including currency exchange risk, and tariffs;
the outcome or other potential consequences of regulatory matters and commercial litigation;
labor shortages and/or disputes, work stoppages or other labor difficulties, which may impact our productivity and increase our costs, and changes in law that could affect our labor relations or operations generally; and
the effect of changes in tax law.

For a more complete description of these and other possible risks and uncertainties, please refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as well as to our subsequent filings with the SEC. Our forward-looking statements contained herein speak only as of the date hereof, and we make no commitment to update or publicly release any revisions to forward-looking statements in order to reflect new information or subsequent events, circumstances or changes in expectations.

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.Financial Statements

UNITED RENTALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except share data)
 
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
(unaudited)
ASSETS
Cash and cash equivalents$284 $106 
Accounts receivable, net2,277 2,004 
Inventory201 232 
Prepaid expenses and other assets216 381 
Total current assets2,978 2,723 
Rental equipment, net14,314 13,277 
Property and equipment, net881 839 
Goodwill5,792 6,026 
Other intangible assets, net728 452 
Operating lease right-of-use assets1,091 819 
Other long-term assets48 47 
Total assets$25,832 $24,183 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt$1,448 $161 
Accounts payable1,121 1,139 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities1,104 1,145 
Total current liabilities3,673 2,445 
Long-term debt10,580 11,209 
Deferred taxes2,757 2,671 
Operating lease liabilities890 642 
Other long-term liabilities176 154 
Total liabilities18,076 17,121 
Common stock—$0.01 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized, 114,957,299 and 67,733,679 shares issued and outstanding, respectively, at September 30, 2023 and 114,758,508 and 69,356,981 shares issued and outstanding, respectively, at December 31, 2022
1 1 
Additional paid-in capital2,642 2,626 
Retained earnings11,094 9,656 
Treasury stock at cost—47,223,620 and 45,401,527 shares at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
(5,713)(4,957)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(268)(264)
Total stockholders’ equity7,756 7,062 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$25,832 $24,183 
See accompanying notes.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
(In millions, except per share amounts)
 
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 September 30,September 30,
 2023202220232022
Revenues:
Equipment rentals$3,224 $2,732 $8,945 $7,369 
Sales of rental equipment366 181 1,136 556 
Sales of new equipment52 32 166 115 
Contractor supplies sales39 32 110 94 
Service and other revenues84 74 247 212 
Total revenues3,765 3,051 10,604 8,346 
Cost of revenues:
Cost of equipment rentals, excluding depreciation1,286 1,053 3,664 2,961 
Depreciation of rental equipment588 470 1,755 1,362 
Cost of rental equipment sales185 69 569 231 
Cost of new equipment sales43 25 137 93 
Cost of contractor supplies sales28 23 78 66 
Cost of service and other revenues50 45 150 125 
Total cost of revenues2,180 1,685 6,353 4,838 
Gross profit1,585 1,366 4,251 3,508 
Selling, general and administrative expenses374 356 1,134 1,022 
Restructuring charge5 (1)24  
Non-rental depreciation and amortization107 90 329 278 
Operating income1,099 921 2,764 2,208 
Interest expense, net163 106 474 313 
Other income, net(7)(1)(19)(12)
Income before provision for income taxes943 816 2,309 1,907 
Provision for income taxes240 210 564 441 
Net income$703 $606 $1,745 $1,466 
Basic earnings per share$10.30 $8.69 $25.37 $20.61 
Diluted earnings per share$10.29 $8.66 $25.30 $20.56 
See accompanying notes.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UNAUDITED)
(In millions)
 
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 September 30,September 30,
 2023202220232022
 Net income$703 $606 $1,745 $1,466 
 Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:
 Foreign currency translation adjustments (1)(27)(92)(3)(141)
 Fixed price diesel swaps (3)(1) 
 Other comprehensive (loss) income (1)(27)(95)(4)(141)
 Comprehensive income$676 $511 $1,741 $1,325 
(1)There were no material reclassifications from accumulated other comprehensive loss reflected in other comprehensive income (loss) during 2023 or 2022. There was no material tax impact related to the foreign currency translation adjustments. In 2021, we remitted the cumulative amount of identified cash in our foreign operations in excess of near-term working capital needs. We continue to expect that the remaining balance of our undistributed foreign earnings will be indefinitely reinvested. If we determine that all or a portion of such foreign earnings are no longer indefinitely reinvested, we may be subject to additional foreign withholding taxes and U.S. state income taxes. There were no material taxes associated with other comprehensive income (loss) during 2023 or 2022.


See accompanying notes.

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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (UNAUDITED)
(In millions) 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023
 Common Stock Treasury Stock
 Number of
Shares (1) (2)
AmountAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Retained EarningsNumber of
Shares
AmountAccumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (3)
Balance at June 30, 202368 $1 $2,621 $10,493 47 $(5,460)$(241)
Net income703 
Dividends declared (4)(102)
Foreign currency translation adjustments(27)
Stock compensation expense, net— 23 
Tax withholding for share based compensation— (2)
Repurchase of common stock— — (253)
Balance at September 30, 202368 $1 $2,642 $11,094 47 $(5,713)$(268)
Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
 Common Stock Treasury Stock
 Number of
Shares (1) (2)
AmountAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Retained EarningsNumber of
Shares
AmountAccumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (3)
Balance at June 30, 202270 $1 $2,570 $8,411 45 $(4,719)$(217)
Net income606 
Foreign currency translation adjustments(92)
Fixed price diesel swaps(3)
Stock compensation expense, net— 35 
Tax withholding for share based compensation— (1)
Repurchase of common stock— — (238)
Balance at September 30, 202269 $1 $2,604 $9,017 45 $(4,957)$(312)
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Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
 Common Stock Treasury Stock
 Number of
Shares (1) (2)
AmountAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Retained EarningsNumber of
Shares
AmountAccumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (3)
Balance at December 31, 202269 $1 $2,626 $9,656 45 $(4,957)$(264)
Net income1,745 
Dividends declared (4)(307)
Foreign currency translation adjustments (3)
Fixed price diesel swaps(1)
Stock compensation expense, net1 72 
Tax withholding for share based compensation— (56)
Repurchase of common stock(2)2 (756)
Balance at September 30, 202368 $1 $2,642 $11,094 47 $(5,713)$(268)
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
 Common Stock Treasury Stock
 Number of
Shares (1) (2)
AmountAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Retained EarningsNumber of
Shares
AmountAccumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (3)
Balance at December 31, 202172 $1 $2,567 $7,551 42 $(3,957)$(171)
Net income1,466 
Foreign currency translation adjustments(141)
Stock compensation expense, net— 95 
Tax withholding for share based compensation— (58)
Repurchase of common stock(3)3 (1,000)
Balance at September 30, 202269 $1 $2,604 $9,017 45 $(4,957)$(312)
 
(1)Amounts may not foot due to rounding.
(2)Common stock outstanding decreased by approximately three million net shares during the year ended December 31, 2022.
(3)The Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss balance primarily reflects foreign currency translation adjustments.
(4)In January 2023, our Board of Directors approved our first-ever quarterly dividend program (accordingly, there were no dividends declared during 2022). We declared dividends of $1.48 and $4.44 per share during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively.
See accompanying notes.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
(In millions)
Nine Months Ended
 September 30,
 20232022
Cash Flows From Operating Activities:
Net income$1,745 $1,466 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization2,084 1,640 
Amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discounts11 9 
Gain on sales of rental equipment(567)(325)
Gain on sales of non-rental equipment(16)(6)
Insurance proceeds from damaged equipment(30)(25)
Stock compensation expense, net72 95 
Restructuring charge24  
Loss on repurchase/redemption of debt securities 17 
Increase in deferred taxes88 130 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of amounts acquired:
Increase in accounts receivable(254)(261)
Decrease (increase) in inventory22 (33)
Decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets183 70 
(Decrease) increase in accounts payable(15)332 
(Decrease) increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities(57)73 
Net cash provided by operating activities3,290 3,182 
Cash Flows From Investing Activities:
Purchases of rental equipment(3,078)(2,456)
Purchases of non-rental equipment and intangible assets(267)(182)
Proceeds from sales of rental equipment1,136 556 
Proceeds from sales of non-rental equipment46 15 
Insurance proceeds from damaged equipment30 25 
Purchases of other companies, net of cash acquired(406)(323)
Purchases of investments (5)
Net cash used in investing activities(2,539)(2,370)
Cash Flows From Financing Activities:
Proceeds from debt6,718 5,219 
Payments of debt(6,175)(5,026)
Common stock repurchased, including tax withholdings for share based compensation(806)(1,058)
Payments of financing costs (9)
Dividends paid(305) 
Net cash used in financing activities(568)(874)
Effect of foreign exchange rates(5)(6)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents178 (68)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period106 144 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$284 $76 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Cash paid for income taxes, net$389 $295 
Cash paid for interest495 339 
See accompanying notes.


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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)



1. Organization, Description of Business and Basis of Presentation
United Rentals, Inc. (“Holdings,” “URI” or the “Company”) is principally a holding company and conducts its operations primarily through its wholly owned subsidiary, United Rentals (North America), Inc. (“URNA”), and subsidiaries of URNA. Holdings’ primary asset is its sole ownership of all issued and outstanding shares of common stock of URNA. URNA’s various credit agreements and debt instruments place restrictions on its ability to transfer funds to its shareholder.
We rent equipment to a diverse customer base that includes construction and industrial companies, manufacturers, utilities, municipalities, homeowners and government entities. We primarily operate in the United States and Canada, and have a limited presence in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In addition to renting equipment, we sell new and used rental equipment, as well as related contractor supplies, parts and service.
We have prepared the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with the accounting policies described in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (the “2022 Form 10-K”) and the interim reporting requirements of Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the 2022 Form 10-K.
In our opinion, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are necessary for a fair presentation of financial condition, operating results and cash flows for the interim periods presented have been made. Interim results of operations are not necessarily indicative of the results of the full year.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Guidance Adopted in 2023
Reference Rate Reform. In March 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions to accounting guidance on contract modifications and hedge accounting to ease entities’ financial reporting burdens as the market transitions from the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and other interbank offered rates to alternative reference rates. This guidance generally allows for contract modifications solely related to the replacement of the reference rate to be accounted for as a continuation of the existing contract instead of as an extinguishment of the contract, without triggering certain accounting impacts that could be required associated with an extinguishment of the contract. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope, to expand the scope of this guidance to include derivatives. In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-06, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848, which extends the period of time entities can utilize the reference rate reform relief guidance under ASU 2020-04 from December 31, 2022, to December 31, 2024. As discussed in note 8 of the condensed consolidated financial statements, in April 2023, our term loan facility was amended to transition to an interest rate based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"). Prior to the amendment, interest on the term loan facility reflected LIBOR plus a margin (or an alternative base rate plus a margin). We applied the above guidance when accounting for the term loan facility amendment (as discussed further in note 8), and adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements. As of September 30, 2023, we have no debt instruments that use LIBOR as a reference rate, and this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on our financial statements in the future.
2. Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition Accounting Standards
We recognize revenue in accordance with two different accounting standards: 1) Topic 606 (which addresses revenue from contracts with customers) and 2) Topic 842 (which addresses lease revenue). Under Topic 606, revenue from contracts with customers is measured based on the consideration specified in the contract with the customer, and excludes any sales incentives and amounts collected on behalf of third parties. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer, and is the unit of account under Topic 606. As reflected below, most of our revenue is accounted for under Topic 842. Our contracts with customers generally do not include multiple performance obligations. We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for such products or services.

Nature of goods and services
In the following table, revenue is summarized by type and by the applicable accounting standard.
Three Months Ended September 30,
20232022
Topic 842Topic 606TotalTopic 842Topic 606Total
Revenues:
Owned equipment rentals$2,651 $— $2,651 $2,238 $— $2,238 
Re-rent revenue68687272
Ancillary and other rental revenues:
Delivery and pick-up258258221221
Other2044324716338201
Total ancillary and other rental revenues204 301 505 163 259 422 
Total equipment rentals2,923 301 3,224 2,473 259 2,732 
Sales of rental equipment366366181181
Sales of new equipment52523232
Contractor supplies sales39393232
Service and other revenues84847474
Total revenues$2,923 $842 $3,765 $2,473 $578 $3,051 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
Topic 842Topic 606TotalTopic 842Topic 606Total
Revenues:
Owned equipment rentals$7,378 $— $7,378 $6,053 $— $6,053 
Re-rent revenue176176176176
Ancillary and other rental revenues:
Delivery and pick-up699699583583
Other554138692429128557
Total ancillary and other rental revenues554 837 1,391 429 711 1,140 
Total equipment rentals8,108 837 8,945 6,658 711 7,369 
Sales of rental equipment1,1361,136556556
Sales of new equipment166166115115
Contractor supplies sales1101109494
Service and other revenues247247212212
Total revenues$8,108 $2,496 $10,604 $6,658 $1,688 $8,346 
Revenues by reportable segment are presented in note 4 of the condensed consolidated financial statements, using the revenue captions reflected in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. The majority of our revenue is recognized in our general rentals segment and in the U.S. (for the nine months ended September 30, 2023, 74 percent and 91 percent, respectively). We believe that the disaggregation of our revenue from contracts to customers as reflected above, coupled with the further discussion below and the reportable segment disclosures in note 4, depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of our revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.

Lease revenues (Topic 842)
The accounting for the types of revenue that are accounted for under Topic 842 is discussed below.
Owned equipment rentals represent our most significant revenue type (they accounted for 70 percent of total revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2023) and are governed by our standard rental contract. We account for such rentals as
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

operating leases. The lease terms are included in our contracts, and the determination of whether our contracts contain leases generally does not require significant assumptions or judgments. Our lease revenues do not include material amounts of variable payments.
Owned equipment rentals: Owned equipment rentals represent revenues from renting equipment that we own. We do not generally provide an option for the lessee to purchase the rented equipment at the end of the lease, and do not generate material revenue from sales of equipment under such options.
We recognize revenues from renting equipment on a straight-line basis. Our rental contract periods are hourly, daily, weekly or monthly. By way of example, if a customer were to rent a piece of equipment and the daily, weekly and monthly rental rates for that particular piece were (in actual dollars) $100, $300 and $900, respectively, we would recognize revenue of $32.14 per day. The daily rate for recognition purposes is calculated by dividing the monthly rate of $900 by the monthly term of 28 days. This daily rate assumes that the equipment will be on rent for the full 28 days, as we are unsure of when the customer will return the equipment and therefore unsure of which rental contract period will apply.
As part of this straight-line methodology, when the equipment is returned, we recognize as incremental revenue the excess, if any, between the amount the customer is contractually required to pay, which is based on the rental contract period applicable to the actual number of days the equipment was out on rent, over the cumulative amount of revenue recognized to date. In any given accounting period, we will have customers return equipment and be contractually required to pay us more than the cumulative amount of revenue recognized to date under the straight-line methodology. For instance, continuing the above example, if the customer rented the above piece of equipment on December 29 and returned it at the close of business on January 1, we would recognize incremental revenue on January 1 of $171.44 (in actual dollars, representing the difference between the amount the customer is contractually required to pay, or $300 at the weekly rate, and the cumulative amount recognized to date on a straight-line basis, or $128.56, which represents four days at $32.14 per day).
We record amounts billed to customers in excess of recognizable revenue as deferred revenue on our balance sheet. We had deferred revenue (associated with both Topic 842 and Topic 606) of $153 and $131 as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
As noted above, we are unsure of when the customer will return rented equipment. As such, we do not know how much the customer will owe us upon return of the equipment and cannot provide a maturity analysis of future lease payments. Our equipment is generally rented for short periods of time. Lessees do not provide residual value guarantees on rented equipment.
We expect to derive significant future benefits from our equipment following the end of the rental term. Our rentals are generally short-term in nature, and our equipment is typically rented for the majority of the time that we own it. We additionally recognize revenue from sales of rental equipment when we dispose of the equipment.
Re-rent revenue: Re-rent revenue reflects revenues from equipment that we rent from vendors and then rent to our customers. We account for such rentals as subleases. The accounting for re-rent revenue is the same as the accounting for owned equipment rentals described above.
“Other” equipment rental revenue is primarily comprised of 1) Rental Protection Plan (or "RPP") revenue associated with the damage waiver customers can purchase when they rent our equipment to protect against potential loss or damage, 2) environmental charges associated with the rental of equipment, 3) charges for rented equipment that is damaged by our customers and 4) charges for setup and other services performed on rented equipment.
Revenues from contracts with customers (Topic 606)
The accounting for the types of revenue that are accounted for under Topic 606 is discussed below. Substantially all of our revenues under Topic 606 are recognized at a point-in-time rather than over time.
Delivery and pick-up: Delivery and pick-up revenue associated with renting equipment is recognized when the service is performed.
“Other” equipment rental revenue is primarily comprised of revenues associated with the consumption of fuel by our customers which are recognized when the equipment is returned by the customer (and consumption, if any, can be measured).
Sales of rental equipment, new equipment and contractor supplies are recognized at the time of delivery to, or pick-up by, the customer and when collectibility is probable.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

Service and other revenues primarily represent revenues earned from providing repair and maintenance services on our customers’ fleet (including parts sales). Service revenue is recognized as the services are performed.

Receivables and contract assets and liabilities
As reflected above, most of our equipment rental revenue is accounted for under Topic 842 (such revenue represented 76 percent of our total revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2023). The customers that are responsible for the remaining revenue that is accounted for under Topic 606 are generally the same customers that rent our equipment. We manage credit risk associated with our accounts receivables at the customer level. Because the same customers generate the revenues that are accounted for under both Topic 606 and Topic 842, the discussions below on credit risk and our allowance for credit losses address receivables arising from revenues from both Topic 606 and Topic 842.
Concentration of credit risk with respect to our receivables is limited because a large number of geographically diverse customers makes up our customer base. Our largest customer accounted for less than one percent of total revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2023, and for each of the last three full years. Our customer with the largest receivable balance represented approximately one percent of total receivables at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. We manage credit risk through credit approvals, credit limits and other monitoring procedures.
Our allowance for credit losses reflects our estimate of the amount of our receivables that we will be unable to collect based on historical write-off experience and, as applicable, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectibility. Our estimate could require change based on changing circumstances, including changes in the economy or in the particular circumstances of individual customers. Accordingly, we may be required to increase or decrease our allowance. Trade receivables that have contractual maturities of one year or less are written-off when they are determined to be uncollectible based on the criteria necessary to qualify as a deduction for federal tax purposes. Write-offs of such receivables require management approval based on specified dollar thresholds. See the table below for a rollforward of our allowance for credit losses.
The measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information from past events, including historical experiences, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectibility. Trade receivables are the only material financial asset we have that is subject to the requirement to measure expected credit losses as noted above, as this requirement does not apply to receivables arising from operating lease revenues. Substantially all of our non-lease trade receivables are due in one year or less. As discussed above, most of our equipment rental revenue is accounted for as lease revenue (such revenue represented 76 percent of our total revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2023, and these revenues account for corresponding portions of the $2.277 billion of net accounts receivable and the associated allowance for credit losses of $158 as of September 30, 2023).
As discussed above, most of our equipment rental revenue is accounted for under Topic 842. The customers that are responsible for the remaining revenue that is accounted for under Topic 606 are generally the same customers that rent our equipment. We manage credit risk associated with our accounts receivables at the customer level. The rollforward of our allowance for credit losses (in total, and associated with revenues arising from both Topic 606 and Topic 842) is shown below.
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023Three Months Ended September 30, 2022Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
Beginning balance$147 $117 $134 $112 
Charged to costs and expenses (1)4 3 9 6 
Charged to revenue (2)16 11 37 28 
Deductions and other (3)(9)(8)(22)(23)
Ending balance$158 $123 $158 $123 
_________________
(1)    Reflects bad debt expenses recognized within selling, general and administrative expenses (associated with Topic 606 revenues).
(2)    Primarily reflects credit losses associated with lease revenues that were recognized as a reduction to equipment rentals revenue (primarily associated with Topic 842 revenues).
(3)    Primarily represents write-offs of accounts, net of immaterial recoveries and other activity.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

We do not have material contract assets, or impairment losses associated therewith, or material contract liabilities, associated with contracts with customers. Our contracts with customers do not generally result in material amounts billed to customers in excess of recognizable revenue. We did not recognize material revenue during the three or nine months ended September 30, 2023 or 2022 that was included in the contract liability balance as of the beginning of such periods.

Performance obligations
Most of our Topic 606 revenue is recognized at a point-in-time, rather than over time. Accordingly, in any particular period, we do not generally recognize a significant amount of revenue from performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in previous periods, and the amounts of such revenue recognized during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 were not material. We also do not expect to recognize material revenue in the future related to performance obligations that were unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) as of September 30, 2023.

Payment terms
Our Topic 606 revenues do not include material amounts of variable consideration. Our payment terms vary by the type and location of our customer and the products or services offered. The time between invoicing and when payment is due is not significant. Our contracts do not generally include a significant financing component. For certain products or services and customer types, we require payment before the products or services are delivered to the customer. Our contracts with customers do not generally result in significant obligations associated with returns, refunds or warranties. See above for a discussion of how we manage credit risk.
Revenue is recognized net of taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.

Contract costs
We do not recognize any assets associated with the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer (for example, a sales commission) that we expect to recover. Most of our revenue is recognized at a point-in-time or over a period of one year or less, and we use the practical expedient that allows us to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset that we otherwise would have recognized is one year or less.

Contract estimates and judgments
Our revenues accounted for under Topic 606 generally do not require significant estimates or judgments, primarily for the following reasons:
The transaction price is generally fixed and stated in our contracts;
As noted above, our contracts generally do not include multiple performance obligations, and accordingly do not generally require estimates of the standalone selling price for each performance obligation;
Our revenues do not include material amounts of variable consideration, or result in significant obligations associated with returns, refunds or warranties; and
Most of our revenue is recognized as of a point-in-time and the timing of the satisfaction of the applicable performance obligations is readily determinable. As noted above, our Topic 606 revenue is generally recognized at the time of delivery to, or pick-up by, the customer.
Our revenues accounted for under Topic 842 also generally do not require significant estimates or judgments. We monitor and review our estimated standalone selling prices on a regular basis.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

3. Acquisitions
On December 7, 2022, we completed the acquisition of assets of Ahern Rentals, Inc. ("Ahern Rentals"), which was accounted for as a business combination. Ahern Rentals was the eighth largest equipment rental company in North America and served customers primarily in the construction and industrial sectors across 30 states. The acquisition:
• Increased capacity in key geographies, with concentrations on both U.S. coasts and in the Gulf region;
• Increased availability of high-demand aerial and material handling equipment for our customers; and
• Created immediate cross-sell opportunities to an expanded customer base.
The aggregate consideration paid to acquire Ahern Rentals was $1.988 billion. The acquisition and related fees and expenses were funded through the issuance of $1.5 billion principal amount of 6 percent Senior Secured Notes and drawings on our senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility (“ABL facility”).
The table below summarizes the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The purchase price allocations for these assets and liabilities are based on preliminary valuations and are subject to change as we obtain additional information during the acquisition measurement period. The accounting for the acquisition that has not yet been completed principally relates to finalizing the valuations of the acquired rental equipment and intangible assets. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, we recognized measurement period adjustments primarily to establish preliminary values for intangible assets and lease assets and liabilities. These adjustments resulted in a substantial reduction to goodwill versus the previously reported amount (see note 6 to the condensed consolidated financial statements for further discussion of goodwill changes). Non-rental depreciation and amortization for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 includes $7 of intangible asset amortization that would have been recognized in 2022 if the intangible asset values had been preliminarily established as of December 31, 2022.
 Inventory$24 
 Rental equipment1,244 
 Property and equipment186 
 Intangible assets (1)428 
 Operating lease right-of-use assets211 
 Other assets10 
 Total identifiable assets acquired2,103 
 Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities(25)
 Operating lease liabilities(199)
 Debt (finance leases)(38)
 Total liabilities assumed(262)
 Net identifiable assets acquired1,841 
 Goodwill (2)147 
 Net assets acquired$1,988 
(1)The following table reflects the fair values and useful lives of the acquired intangible assets identified based on our preliminary purchase accounting assessments:
Fair value Life (years)
 Customer relationships$330 9
 Non-compete agreements98 5
 Total$428 
(2)All of the goodwill was assigned to our general rentals segment. As noted above, we have not yet obtained all the information required to finalize the valuations of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. As such, goodwill could change from the amount noted above. Once finalized, we expect that the goodwill that results from the acquisition will be primarily reflective of Ahern Rentals' going-concern value, the value of Ahern Rentals' assembled workforce and new customer relationships expected to arise from the acquisition. All of the goodwill is expected to be deductible for income tax purposes
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

(because the acquisition is a purchase of assets, the goodwill that is deductible for income tax purposes equals the total acquired goodwill. As noted above, goodwill could change from the amount above).
The debt issuance costs associated with the issuance of debt to partially fund the acquisition are reflected, net of amortization subsequent to the acquisition date, in long-term debt in our consolidated balance sheets. Additionally, in the first quarter of 2023, we initiated a restructuring program following the closing of the Ahern Rentals acquisition, and the costs under this program are included in “Restructuring charge” in our condensed consolidated statements of income. The restructuring charges generally involve the closure of a large number of branches over a short period of time, often in periods following a major acquisition.
It is not practicable to reasonably estimate the amounts of revenue and earnings of Ahern Rentals since the acquisition date, primarily due to the movement of fleet between URI locations and the acquired Ahern Rentals locations, as well as our corporate structure and the allocation of corporate costs.
Pro forma financial information
The pro forma information below gives effect to the Ahern Rentals acquisition as if it had been completed on January 1, 2021. The pro forma information is not necessarily indicative of our results had the acquisition been completed on the above date, nor is it necessarily indicative of our future results. The pro forma information reflects Ahern Rentals’ historic revenue presented in accordance with our revenue mapping, does not reflect any cost savings from operating efficiencies or synergies that could result from the acquisition, and also does not reflect additional revenue opportunities following the acquisition. The pro forma information includes adjustments to record the acquired assets and liabilities of Ahern Rentals at their respective fair values and to give effect to the financing for the acquisition. The pro forma adjustments reflected in the table below are subject to change as additional analysis is performed. The purchase price allocations for the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on preliminary valuations and are subject to change as we obtain additional information during the acquisition measurement period. Increases or decreases in the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired may impact our statements of income in future periods. We expect that the values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed will be finalized during the one-year measurement period following the acquisition date. The table below presents unaudited pro forma consolidated income statement information as if Ahern Rentals had been included in our consolidated results for the entire periods reflected:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 September 30,September 30,
 20222022
United Rentals historic revenues$3,051 $8,346 
Ahern Rentals historic revenues226 654 
Pro forma revenues3,277 9,000 
United Rentals historic pretax income816 1,907 
Ahern Rentals historic pretax income (loss)1 (5)
Combined pretax income817 1,902 
Pro forma adjustments to combined pretax income:
Impact of fair value mark-ups/useful life changes on depreciation (1)(26)(76)
Impact of the fair value mark-up of acquired fleet on cost of rental equipment sales (2)(4)(26)
Intangible asset amortization (3)(20)(59)
Interest expense (4)(27)(77)
Elimination of historic interest (5)15 42 
Elimination of historic legal and financing costs (6)
4 8 
Pro forma pretax income$759 $1,714 
________________
(1) Depreciation of rental equipment and non-rental depreciation were adjusted for the fair value mark-ups, and the changes in useful lives and salvage values, of the equipment acquired in the Ahern Rentals acquisition.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)

(2) Cost of rental equipment sales was adjusted for the fair value mark-ups, and the changes in useful lives and salvage values, of rental equipment acquired in the Ahern Rentals acquisition.
(3) Intangible asset amortization was adjusted to include amortization of the acquired intangible assets.
(4) As discussed above, the acquisition and related fees and expenses were funded through the issuance of senior notes and drawings on our ABL facility. Interest expense was adjusted to reflect interest on the debt used to finance the acquisition.
(5) Historic interest on debt that is not part of the combined entity was eliminated.
(6) Reflects legal and financing costs incurred by Ahern Rentals that do not relate to the combined entity (specifically, legal costs related to a particular lawsuit and costs related to an attempted financing).
During 2023 and 2022, we completed other acquisitions that were not significant individually or in the aggregate. See the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the total cash outflow for purchases of other companies, net of cash acquired.

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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


4. Segment Information
Our reportable segments are i) general rentals and ii) specialty. For general rentals, the divisions discussed below, which are our operating segments, are aggregated into the reportable segment. The specialty segment is a single division that is both an operating segment and a reportable segment. We believe that the divisions that are aggregated into our reportable segments have similar economic characteristics, as each division is capital intensive, offers similar products to similar customers, uses similar methods to distribute its products, and is subject to similar competitive risks. The aggregation of our divisions also reflects the management structure that we use for making operating decisions and assessing performance. We evaluate segment performance primarily based on segment equipment rentals gross profit.
The general rentals segment includes the rental of i) general construction and industrial equipment, such as backhoes, skid-steer loaders, forklifts, earthmoving equipment and material handling equipment, ii) aerial work platforms, such as boom lifts and scissor lifts and iii) general tools and light equipment, such as pressure washers, water pumps and power tools. The general rentals segment reflects the aggregation of four geographic divisions—Central, Northeast, Southeast and West—and operates throughout the United States and Canada.
The specialty segment, which, as noted above, is a single division that is both an operating segment and a reportable segment, includes the rental of specialty construction products such as i) trench safety equipment, such as trench shields, aluminum hydraulic shoring systems, slide rails, crossing plates, construction lasers and line testing equipment for underground work, ii) power and HVAC equipment, such as portable diesel generators, electrical distribution equipment, and temperature control equipment, iii) fluid solutions equipment primarily used for fluid containment, transfer and treatment, and iv) mobile storage equipment and modular office space. The specialty segment’s customers include construction companies involved in infrastructure projects, municipalities and industrial companies. This segment primarily operates in the United States and Canada, and has a limited presence in Europe, Australia and New Zealand.
 
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


The following tables set forth financial information by segment.
General
rentals
SpecialtyTotal
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023
Equipment rentals$2,307 $917 $3,224 
Sales of rental equipment320 46 366 
Sales of new equipment24 28 52 
Contractor supplies sales23 16 39 
Service and other revenues78 6 84 
Total revenue2,752 1,013 3,765 
Depreciation and amortization expense580 115 695 
Equipment rentals gross profit872 478 1,350 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
Equipment rentals$1,942 $790 $2,732 
Sales of rental equipment152 29 181 
Sales of new equipment12 20 32 
Contractor supplies sales20 12 32 
Service and other revenues67 7 74 
Total revenue2,193 858 3,051 
Depreciation and amortization expense450 110 560 
Equipment rentals gross profit797 412 1,209 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
Equipment rentals$6,514 $2,431 $8,945 
Sales of rental equipment1,012 124 1,136 
Sales of new equipment66 100 166 
Contractor supplies sales67 43 110 
Service and other revenues225 22 247 
Total revenue7,884 2,720 10,604 
Depreciation and amortization expense1,737 347 2,084 
Equipment rentals gross profit2,323 1,203 3,526 
Capital expenditures2,663 682 3,345 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
Equipment rentals$5,322 $2,047 $7,369 
Sales of rental equipment474 82 556 
Sales of new equipment58 57 115 
Contractor supplies sales60 34 94 
Service and other revenues188 24 212 
Total revenue6,102 2,244 8,346 
Depreciation and amortization expense1,300 340 1,640 
Equipment rentals gross profit2,063 983 3,046 
Capital expenditures1,995 643 2,638 

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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Total reportable segment assets
General rentals$20,780 $19,604 
Specialty5,052 4,579 
Total assets$25,832 $24,183 
 Equipment rentals gross profit is the primary measure management reviews to make operating decisions and assess segment performance. The following is a reconciliation of equipment rentals gross profit to income before provision for income taxes:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 September 30,September 30,
 2023202220232022
Total equipment rentals gross profit$1,350 $1,209 $3,526 $3,046 
Gross profit from other lines of business235 157 725 462 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(374)(356)(1,134)(1,022)
Restructuring charge (1)(5)1 (24) 
Non-rental depreciation and amortization(107)(90)(329)(278)
Interest expense, net(163)(106)(474)(313)
Other income, net7 1 19 12 
Income before provision for income taxes$943 $816 $2,309 $1,907 
 ___________________
(1)Primarily reflects severance and branch closure charges associated with our restructuring programs. The restructuring charges generally involve the closure of a large number of branches over a short period of time, often in periods following a major acquisition. The increase in 2023 reflects charges associated with a restructuring program initiated following the closing of the Ahern Rentals acquisition.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)




5. Prepaid Expenses and Other Assets
Prepaid expenses and other assets consist of the following:
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Equipment (1)$11 $17 
Insurance9 31 
Advertising reimbursements (2)29 25 
Income taxes (3)102 235 
Other (4)65 73 
Prepaid expenses and other assets$216 $381 
_________________

(1)    Reflects refundable deposits on expected purchases, primarily of rental equipment, pursuant to advance purchase agreements. Such deposits are presented as a component of our cash flow from operations when paid.
(2)    Reflects reimbursements due for advertising that promotes a vendor’s products or services.
(3)    Primarily relates to tax depreciation benefits associated with the Ahern Rentals acquisition discussed in note 3 to the condensed consolidated financial statements. The tax depreciation deductions generated by the Ahern Rentals acquisition resulted in an income tax receivable associated with U.S. federal and state tax payments made prior to the acquisition. The decrease reflected above from December 31, 2022 to September 30, 2023 reflects the use of a portion of the receivable to reduce cash paid for income taxes, and we expect that the remaining receivable will further reduce the cash paid for income taxes throughout the remainder of 2023.
(4)    Includes multiple items, none of which are individually significant.
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


6. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
The following table presents the changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the nine months ended September 30, 2023:
General rentalsSpecialtyTotal
Balance at January 1, 2023 (1)$4,980 $1,046 $6,026 
Goodwill related to acquisitions (2)(223)(11)(234)
Foreign currency translation and other adjustments2 (2) 
Balance at September 30, 2023 (1)$4,759$1,033$5,792
 
_________________
(1)The total carrying amount of goodwill for all periods in the table above is reflected net of $1.557 billion of accumulated impairment charges, which were primarily recorded in our general rentals segment.
(2)Includes goodwill adjustments for the effect on goodwill of changes to net assets acquired during the measurement period. The decrease in goodwill related to acquisitions above primarily reflects measurement period adjustments associated with the December 2022 acquisition of Ahern Rentals. For additional detail on the Ahern Rentals acquisition, see note 3 to our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Other intangible assets were comprised of the following at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:  
September 30, 2023
Weighted-Average Remaining
Amortization Period
Gross
Carrying Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Net
Amount
Non-compete agreements4 years$176 $50 $126 
Customer relationships6 years$2,694 $2,095 $599 
Trade names and associated trademarks2 years$9 $6 $3 
 
December 31, 2022
Weighted-Average Remaining
Amortization Period
Gross
Carrying Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Net
Amount
Non-compete agreements3 years$69 $22 $47 
Customer relationships5 years$2,349 $1,949 $400 
Trade names and associated trademarks3 years$14 $9 $5 
Our other intangibles assets, net at September 30, 2023 include the assets set forth in the table below associated with the acquisition of Ahern Rentals that is discussed in note 3 to our condensed consolidated financial statements. No residual value has been assigned to these assets. The non-compete agreements are being amortized on a straight-line basis and the customer relationships are being amortized using the sum of the years' digits method, and we believe that such methods best reflect the estimated pattern in which the economic benefits will be consumed. The intangible asset values are based on preliminary valuations and are subject to change as we obtain additional information during the acquisition measurement period.
September 30, 2023
Weighted-Average Remaining
Amortization Period 
Net Carrying
Amount
Non-compete agreements4 years$82 
Customer relationships8 years275 
Amortization expense for other intangible assets was $66 and $53 for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $210 and $170 for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The year-over-year increases primarily reflect the impact of the Ahern Rentals acquisition discussed above.
As of September 30, 2023, estimated amortization expense for other intangible assets for each of the next five years and thereafter is as follows:  
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


2023$60 
2024208 
2025166 
2026123 
202781 
Thereafter90 
Total$728 
7. Fair Value Measurements
As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the amounts of our assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value were immaterial.
Fair value measurements are categorized in one of the following three levels based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety:
Level 1- Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2- Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities include:
a)quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets;
b)quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;
c)inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability;
d)inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.
If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3- Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity) and significant to the fair value measure.
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts reported in our condensed consolidated balance sheets for accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities approximate fair value due to the immediate to short-term maturity of these financial instruments. The fair values of our variable rate debt facilities and finance leases approximated their book values as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. The estimated fair values of our other financial instruments, all of which are categorized in Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy, as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 have been calculated based upon available market information, and were as follows: 
 September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 Carrying
Amount
Fair
Value
Carrying
Amount
Fair
Value
Senior notes$7,718 $7,034 $7,712 $7,143 
8. Debt
Debt, net of unamortized original issue discounts or premiums, and unamortized debt issuance costs, consists of the following:
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UNITED RENTALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)


September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Repurchase facility expiring 2024 (1) (2)$100 $100 
Accounts receivable securitization facility expiring 2024 (1) (3)1,283 959 
Term loan facility expiring 2025 (1) (4)947 953 
$4.25 billion ABL facility expiring 2027 (1)
1,792 1,523 
1/2 percent Senior Notes due 2027
498 498 
3 7/8 percent Senior Secured Notes due 2027
745 744 
4 7/8 percent Senior Notes due 2028 (5)
1,664 1,663 
6 percent Senior Secured Notes due 2029
1,487 1,486 
5 1/4 percent Senior Notes due 2030
745 744 
4 percent Senior Notes due 2030
744 743 
3 7/8 percent Senior Notes due 2031
1,091 1,090 
3 3/4 percent Senior Notes due 2032
744 744 
Finance leases188 123 
Total debt12,028 11,370 
Less short-term portion (6)(1,448)(161)
Total long-term debt$10,580 $11,209 
 ___________________

(1)The table below presents financial information associated with our variable rate indebtedness as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2023. There is no borrowing capacity under the repurchase facility because it is an uncommitted facility. We have borrowed the full available amount under the term loan facility. The principal obligation under the term loan facility is required to be repaid in quarterly installments in an aggregate amount equal to 1.0 percent per annum, with the balance due at the maturity of the facility. The average amount of debt outstanding under the term loan facility decreases slightly each quarter due to the requirement to repay a portion of the principal obligation.
ABL facilityAccounts receivable securitization facilityTerm loan facilityRepurchase facility
Borrowing capacity, net of letters of credit
$2,385 $16 $ 
Letters of credit
65 
 Interest rate at September 30, 20236.5 %6.3 %7.1 %6.5 %
Average month-end debt outstanding
1,761 1,129 954