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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________
FORM 10-K
___________________________________________ 
Annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, or
Transition report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number 001-6991.
 ___________________________________________ 
 walmartlogoa03.jpg
WALMART INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________________________ 
DE
 
71-0415188
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
702 S.W. 8th Street
 
72716
Bentonville,
AR
 
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (479273-4000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share
 
WMT
 
NYSE
1.900% Notes Due 2022
 
WMT22
 
NYSE
2.550% Notes Due 2026
 
WMT26
 
NYSE
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    
Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    
Yes  ¨    No  ý



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for at least the past 90 days.    
Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
 
  
Accelerated Filer
 
Non-Accelerated Filer
 
  
Smaller Reporting Company
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging Growth Company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    
Yes      No  
As of July 31, 2019, the aggregate market value of the voting common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing sale price of those shares on the New York Stock Exchange reported on July 31, 2019, was $155,125,468,742. For the purposes of this disclosure only, the registrant has assumed that its directors, executive officers (as defined in Rule 3b-7 under the Exchange Act) and the beneficial owners of 5% or more of the registrant's outstanding common stock are the affiliates of the registrant.
The registrant had 2,832,277,220 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 18, 2020.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Document
  
Parts Into Which Incorporated
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held June 3, 2020 (the "Proxy Statement")
  
Part III




Walmart Inc.
Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2020



Table of Contents
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



WALMART INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JANUARY 31, 2020
All references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the information incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference to information in the Proxy Statement of Walmart Inc. for its Annual Shareholders' Meeting to be held on June 3, 2020 and in the exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "Walmart Inc.," "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.," "Walmart," "the Company," "our Company," "we," "us" and "our" are to the Delaware corporation named "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc." prior to February 1, 2018 and named "Walmart Inc." commencing on February 1, 2018 and, except where expressly noted otherwise or the context otherwise requires, that corporation's consolidated subsidiaries.
PART I
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports, statements, and information that Walmart Inc. (which individually or together with its subsidiaries, as the context otherwise requires, is referred to as "we," "Walmart" or the "Company") has filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") or may file with or furnish to the SEC in the future, and prior or future public announcements and presentations that we or our management have made or may make, include or may include, or incorporate or may incorporate by reference, statements that may be deemed to be "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Act"), that are intended to enjoy the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the Act.
Nature of Forward-Looking Statements
Such forward-looking statements are not statements of historical facts, but instead express our estimates or expectations for our consolidated, or one of our segment's, economic performance or results of operations for future periods or as of future dates or events or developments that may occur in the future or discuss our plans, objectives or goals. These forward-looking statements relate to:
the growth of our business or change in our competitive position in the future or in or over particular periods;
the amount, number, growth, increase, reduction or decrease in or over certain periods, of or in certain financial items or measures or operating measures, including our earnings per share, net sales, comparable store and club sales, our Walmart U.S. operating segment's eCommerce sales, liabilities, expenses of certain categories, expense leverage, returns, capital and operating investments or expenditures of particular types and new store openings;
investments and capital expenditures we will make and how certain of those investments and capital expenditures are expected to be financed;
our increasing investments in eCommerce, technology, supply chain, store remodels and other omni-channel customer initiatives, such as same day pickup and delivery;
volatility in currency exchange rates and fuel prices affecting our or one of our segments' results of operations;
the Company continuing to provide returns to shareholders through share repurchases and dividends, the use of share repurchase authorization over a certain period or the source of funding of a certain portion of our share repurchases;
our sources of liquidity, including our cash, continuing to be adequate or sufficient to fund and finance our operations, expansion activities, dividends and share repurchases, to meet our cash needs and to fund our operations;
the insignificance of ineffective hedges; and reclassification of amounts related to our derivatives;
our effective tax rate for certain periods and the realization of certain net deferred tax assets and the effects of resolutions of tax-related matters;
the effect of adverse decisions in, or settlement of, litigation or other proceedings or investigations to which we are subject;
the effect on the Company's results of operations or financial condition of the Company's adoption of certain new, or amendments to existing, accounting standards; or
our commitments, intentions, plans or goals related to the sustainability of our environment and supply chains, the promotion of economic opportunity or other societal initiatives.
Our forward-looking statements may also include statements of our strategies, plans and objectives for our operations, including areas of future focus in our operations, and the assumptions underlying any of the forward-looking statements we make. The forward-looking statements we make can typically be identified by the use therein of words and phrases such as "aim," "anticipate," "believe," "could be," "could increase," "could occur," "could result," "continue," "estimate," "expansion," "expect," "expectation," "expected to be," "focus," "forecast," "goal," "grow," "guidance," "intend," "invest," "is expected," "may continue," "may fluctuate," "may grow," "may impact," "may result," "objective," "plan," "priority," "project," "strategy," "to be," "we'll," "we will," "will add," "will allow," "will be," "will benefit," "will change," "will come in at," "will continue," "will decrease," "will grow," "will have," "will impact," "will include," "will increase," "will open," "will remain," "will result,"

4



"will stay," "will strengthen," "would be," "would decrease" and "would increase," variations of such words or phrases, other phrases commencing with the word "will" or similar words and phrases denoting anticipated or expected occurrences or results.
Risks Factors and Uncertainties Affecting Our Business
Our business operations are subject to numerous risks, factors and uncertainties, domestically and internationally, outside of our control. One, or a combination, of these risks, factors and uncertainties could materially affect any of those matters as to which we have made forward-looking statements and cause our actual results or an actual event or occurrence to differ materially from those results or an event or occurrence described in a forward-looking statement. These risks, factors and uncertainties, which may be global in their effect or affect only some of the markets in which we operate and which may affect us on a consolidated basis or affect only some of our reportable segments, include, but are not limited to:
Economic Factors
economic, geo-political, capital markets and business conditions, trends and events around the world and in the markets in which Walmart operates;
currency exchange rate fluctuations;
changes in market rates of interest;
changes in market levels of wages;
changes in the size of various markets, including eCommerce markets;
unemployment levels;
inflation or deflation, generally and in certain product categories;
transportation, energy and utility costs;
commodity prices, including the prices of oil and natural gas;
consumer confidence, disposable income, credit availability, spending levels, shopping patterns, debt levels, and demand for certain merchandise;
trends in consumer shopping habits around the world and in the markets in which Walmart operates;
consumer enrollment in health and drug insurance programs and such programs' reimbursement rates and drug formularies; and
initiatives of competitors, competitors' entry into and expansion in Walmart's markets, and competitive pressures;
Operating Factors
the amount of Walmart's net sales and operating expenses denominated in U.S. dollar and various foreign currencies;
the financial performance of Walmart and each of its segments, including the amounts of Walmart's cash flow during various periods;
customer transaction and average ticket in Walmart's stores and clubs and on its eCommerce platforms;
the mix of merchandise Walmart sells and its customers purchase;
the availability of goods from suppliers and the cost of goods acquired from suppliers;
the effectiveness of the implementation and operation of Walmart's strategies, plans, programs and initiatives;
the impact of acquisitions, divestitures, store or club closures and other strategic decisions;
Walmart's ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses, including within the eCommerce space;
unexpected changes in Walmart's objectives and plans;
the amount of shrinkage Walmart experiences;
consumer acceptance of and response to Walmart's stores and clubs, eCommerce platforms, programs, merchandise offerings and delivery methods;
Walmart's gross profit margins, including pharmacy margins and margins of other product categories;
the selling prices of gasoline and diesel fuel;
disruption of seasonal buying patterns in Walmart's markets;
disruptions in Walmart's supply chain;
cybersecurity events affecting Walmart and related costs and impact of any disruption in business;
Walmart's labor costs, including healthcare and other benefit costs;
Walmart's casualty and accident-related costs and insurance costs;
the size of and turnover in Walmart's workforce and the number of associates at various pay levels within that workforce;
the availability of necessary personnel to staff Walmart's stores, clubs and other facilities;
delays in the opening of new, expanded, relocated or remodeled units;
developments in, and the outcome of, legal and regulatory proceedings and investigations to which Walmart is a party or is subject, and the liabilities, obligations and expenses, if any, that Walmart may incur in connection therewith;
changes in the credit ratings assigned to the Company's commercial paper and debt securities by credit rating agencies;
Walmart's effective tax rate; and
unanticipated changes in accounting judgments and estimates;

5



Regulatory and Other Factors
changes in existing tax, labor and other laws and changes in tax rates, including the enactment of laws and the adoption and interpretation of administrative rules and regulations;
the imposition of new taxes on imports and new tariffs and changes in existing tariff rates;
the imposition of new trade restrictions and changes in existing trade restrictions;
adoption or creation of new, and modification of existing, governmental policies, programs and initiatives in the markets in which Walmart operates and elsewhere and actions with respect to such policies, programs and initiatives;
changes in currency control laws;
changes in the level of public assistance payments;
one or more prolonged federal government shutdowns;
the timing and amount of federal income tax refunds;
natural disasters, changes in climate, catastrophic events and global health epidemics or pandemics such as the recent coronavirus outbreak; and
changes in generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
We typically earn a disproportionate part of our annual operating income in the fourth quarter as a result of seasonal buying patterns, which patterns are difficult to forecast with certainty and can be affected by many factors.
Other Risk Factors; No Duty to Update
The above list of factors that may affect the estimates and expectations discussed in or implied or contemplated by forward-looking statements we make or are made on our behalf is not exclusive. We are subject to other risks discussed under "Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors," and that we may discuss in Management's Discussions and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations under "Part II, Item 5," and in risks that may be discussed under "Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Part I, Item 2. Management's Discussions and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" appearing in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or may otherwise be disclosed in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other reports filed with the SEC. Investors and other readers are urged to consider all of these risks, uncertainties and other factors carefully in evaluating our forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements that we make or that are made by others on our behalf are based on our knowledge of our business and our operating environment and assumptions that we believe to be or will believe to be reasonable when such forward-looking statements were or are made. As a consequence of the factors described above, the other risks, uncertainties and factors we disclose below and in the other reports as mentioned above, other risks not known to us at this time, changes in facts, assumptions not being realized or other circumstances, our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in or implied or contemplated by our forward-looking statements. Consequently, this cautionary statement qualifies all forward-looking statements we make or that are made on our behalf, including those made herein and incorporated by reference herein. We cannot assure you that the results or developments expected or anticipated by us will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that those results or developments will result in the expected consequences for us or affect us, our business, our operations or our operating results in the manner or to the extent we expect. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their dates. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any of the forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances except to the extent required by applicable law.

6



ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
General
Walmart Inc. ("Walmart," the "Company" or "we") helps people around the world save money and live better – anytime and anywhere – by providing the opportunity to shop in retail stores and through eCommerce. Through innovation, we strive to continuously improve a customer-centric experience that seamlessly integrates our eCommerce and retail stores in an omni-channel offering that saves time for our customers. Each week, we serve over 265 million customers who visit approximately 11,500 stores and numerous eCommerce websites under 56 banners in 27 countries.
Our strategy is to make every day easier for busy families, operate with discipline, sharpen our culture and become digital, and make trust a competitive advantage. Making life easier for busy families includes our commitment to price leadership, which has been and will remain a cornerstone of our business, as well as increasing convenience to save our customers time. By leading on price, we earn the trust of our customers every day by providing a broad assortment of quality merchandise and services at everyday low prices ("EDLP"). EDLP is our pricing philosophy under which we price items at a low price every day so our customers trust that our prices will not change under frequent promotional activity. Everyday low cost ("EDLC") is our commitment to control expenses so our cost savings can be passed along to our customers.
Our operations comprise three reportable segments: Walmart U.S., Walmart International and Sam's Club. Our fiscal year ends on January 31 for our United States ("U.S.") and Canadian operations. We consolidate all other operations generally using a one-month lag and on a calendar year basis. Our discussion is as of and for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2020 ("fiscal 2020"), January 31, 2019 ("fiscal 2019") and January 31, 2018 ("fiscal 2018"). During fiscal 2020, we generated total revenues of $524.0 billion, which primarily comprised net sales of $519.9 billion.
We maintain our principal offices at 702 S.W. 8th Street, Bentonville, Arkansas 72716, USA. Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "WMT."
The Development of Our Company
Although Walmart was incorporated in Delaware in October 1969, the businesses conducted by our founders began in 1945 when Sam M. Walton opened a franchise Ben Franklin variety store in Newport, Arkansas. In 1946, his brother, James L. Walton, opened a similar store in Versailles, Missouri. Until 1962, our founders' business was devoted entirely to the operation of variety stores. In that year, the first Wal-Mart Discount City, which was a discount store, opened in Rogers, Arkansas. In 1983, we opened our first Sam's Club, and in 1988, we opened our first supercenter. In 1998, we opened our first Walmart Neighborhood Market. In 1991, we began our first international initiative when we entered into a joint venture in Mexico. Since then, our international presence has expanded and, as of January 31, 2020, our Walmart International segment conducted business in 26 countries.
In 2000, we began our first eCommerce initiative by creating walmart.com and then later that year, adding samsclub.com. Since then, our eCommerce presence has continued to grow. In 2007, leveraging our physical stores, walmart.com launched its Site to Store service, enabling customers to make a purchase online and pick up merchandise in stores. Since 2016, we have made several eCommerce acquisitions which have enabled us to leverage technology, talent and expertise, as well as incubate digitally-native brands and expand our assortment on walmart.com and in stores. In fiscal 2017, walmart.com launched free two-day shipping and we created Store No 8, a technology incubator with a focus to drive eCommerce innovation. Then in fiscal 2019, we continued to enhance our eCommerce initiatives with the acquisition of a majority stake of Flipkart Private Limited ("Flipkart"), an Indian-based eCommerce marketplace, with an ecosystem that includes eCommerce platforms of Flipkart and Myntra as well as PhonePe, a digital transaction platform.
In fiscal 2020, we launched NextDay Delivery to more than 75 percent of the U.S. population, launched Delivery Unlimited from 1,600 locations in the U.S. and expanded Same Day Pickup to nearly 3,200 locations. Our eCommerce efforts and innovation have also led to omni-channel offerings in many of our markets including grocery pick up and/or delivery in nearly a dozen countries outside the U.S. To date, we now have more than 6,100 grocery pick up and delivery locations globally. We are enhancing our ecosystem with our omni-channel capabilities, stores, services, eCommerce sites, supply chain combined with our more than 2.2 million associates to better serve our customers. Together, we believe these elements produce a flywheel effect which creates customer relationships where customers view Walmart as their primary destination.


7



Information About Our Segments
We are engaged in global operations of retail, wholesale and other units, as well as eCommerce, located throughout the U.S., Africa, Argentina, Canada, Central America, Chile, China, India, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom. Our operations are conducted in three reportable segments: Walmart U.S., Walmart International and Sam's Club. We define our segments as those operations whose results the chief operating decision maker ("CODM") regularly reviews to analyze performance and allocate resources. Each of our segments contributes to the Company's operating results differently. Each, however, has generally maintained a consistent contribution rate to the Company's net sales and operating income in recent years other than minor changes to the contribution rate for the Walmart International segment due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. We sell similar individual products and services in each of our segments. It is impracticable to segregate and identify revenues for each of these individual products and services.
We measure the results of our segments using, among other measures, each segment's net sales and operating income, which includes certain corporate overhead allocations. From time to time, we revise the measurement of each segment's operating income, including any corporate overhead allocations, as determined by the information regularly reviewed by our CODM. When the measurement of a segment changes, previous period amounts and balances are reclassified to be comparable to the current period's presentation.
Walmart U.S. Segment
Walmart U.S. is our largest segment and operates in the U.S., including in all 50 states, Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. Walmart U.S. is a mass merchandiser of consumer products, operating under the "Walmart" and "Walmart Neighborhood Market" brands, as well as walmart.com and other eCommerce brands. Walmart U.S. had net sales of $341.0 billion for fiscal 2020, representing 66% of our fiscal 2020 consolidated net sales, and had net sales of $331.7 billion and $318.5 billion for fiscal 2019 and 2018, respectively. Of our three segments, Walmart U.S. has historically had the highest gross profit as a percentage of net sales ("gross profit rate"). In addition, Walmart U.S. has historically contributed the greatest amount to the Company's net sales and operating income.
Omni-channel. Walmart U.S. provides an omni-channel experience to customers, integrating retail stores and eCommerce, through services such as "Same Day Pickup," "Same Day Delivery," "Delivery Unlimited," "NextDay Delivery," and "Endless Aisle." As of January 31, 2020, we had nearly 3,200 grocery pickup locations and over 1,600 delivery locations. We have several eCommerce websites, the largest of which is walmart.com. We define eCommerce sales as sales initiated online through our websites or through a mobile app. eCommerce sales may be fulfilled by a number of methods including our dedicated eCommerce fulfillment centers or our stores. The following table provides the approximate size of our retail stores as of January 31, 2020:
 
 
Minimum Square Feet
 
Maximum Square Feet
 
Average Square Feet
Supercenters (general merchandise and grocery)
 
69,000

 
260,000

 
178,000

Discount stores (general merchandise and limited grocery)
 
30,000

 
206,000

 
105,000

Neighborhood markets(1) (grocery)
 
28,000

 
65,000

 
42,000

(1)
Excludes other small formats.
Merchandise. Walmart U.S. does business in three strategic merchandise units, listed below:
Grocery consists of a full line of grocery items, including meat, produce, natural & organics, deli & bakery, dairy, frozen foods, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, floral and dry grocery, as well as consumables such as health and beauty aids, baby products, household chemicals, paper goods and pet supplies;
Health and wellness includes pharmacy, optical services, clinical services, and over-the-counter drugs and other medical products;
General merchandise includes:
Entertainment (e.g., electronics, cameras and supplies, photo processing services, wireless, movies, music, video games and books);
Hardlines (e.g., stationery, automotive, hardware and paint, sporting goods, outdoor living and horticulture);
Apparel (e.g., apparel for women, girls, men, boys and infants, as well as shoes, jewelry and accessories); and
Home/Seasonal (e.g., home furnishings, housewares and small appliances, bedding, home decor, toys, fabrics and crafts and seasonal merchandise).
Walmart U.S. recently launched Walmart Media Group, an in-house advertising offering, to work with brands to influence shoppers. Walmart U.S. also offers fuel and financial services and related products, including money orders, prepaid cards, money (wire) transfers, check cashing and bill payment. Combined, these offerings total less than 1% of annual net sales.

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Brand name merchandise represents a significant portion of the merchandise sold in Walmart U.S. We also market lines of merchandise under our private-label brands, including brands such as: "Allswell," "Athletic Works," "Bonobos," "Equate," "EV1," "Everstart," "George," "Great Value," "Holiday Time," "Mainstays," "Marketside," "No Boundaries," "Onn," "Ozark Trail," "Parent's Choice," "Scoop," "SwissTech," "Time and Tru" and "Wonder Nation." The Company also markets lines of merchandise under licensed brands, some of which include: "Better Homes & Gardens," "Farberware" and "Russell."
Periodically, revisions are made to the categorization of the components comprising our strategic merchandise units. When revisions are made, the previous periods' presentation is adjusted to maintain comparability.
Operations. Many supercenters, discount stores and neighborhood markets are open 24 hours each day. A variety of payment methods are accepted. Consistent with its strategy, Walmart U.S. continues to develop technology tools that help better serve customers and be more efficient in stores, such as shelf-scanning robots, autonomous floor scrubbers, and automated unloading conveyor systems.
Seasonal Aspects of Operations. Walmart U.S.'s business is seasonal to a certain extent due to calendar events and national and religious holidays, as well as different weather patterns. Historically, its highest sales volume and segment operating income have occurred in the fiscal quarter ending January 31.
Competition. Walmart U.S. competes with omni-channel retailers operating discount, department, retail and wholesale grocers, drug, dollar, variety and specialty stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets and supercenter-type stores, as well as eCommerce retailers. Our ability to develop and operate units at the right locations and to deliver a customer-centric omni-channel experience largely determines our competitive position within the retail industry. We employ many programs designed to meet competitive pressures within our industry. These programs include the following:
EDLP: our pricing philosophy under which we price items at everyday low prices so our customers trust that our prices will not change under frequent promotional activity;
EDLC: everyday low cost is our commitment to control expenses so our cost savings can be passed along to our customers; and
Omni-channel offerings such as Same Day Pickup and Same Day Delivery, where a customer places an order online and picks it up for free from a store or has it delivered; Delivery Unlimited, where a customer can receive unlimited grocery delivery for an annual fee; as well as free two-day shipping without an annual membership fee and free NextDay Delivery on an assortment of best-selling items.
Distribution. For fiscal 2020, approximately 79% of Walmart U.S.'s purchases of store merchandise were shipped through our 162 distribution facilities, which are located strategically throughout the U.S. The remaining store merchandise we purchased was shipped directly from suppliers. General merchandise and dry grocery merchandise is transported primarily through the segment's private truck fleet; however, we contract with common carriers to transport the majority of our perishable grocery merchandise. We ship merchandise purchased by customers on our eCommerce platforms by a number of methods from multiple locations including from our 40 dedicated eCommerce fulfillment centers which includes eight temporary fulfillment centers.
Walmart International Segment
Walmart International is our second largest segment and operates in 26 countries outside of the U.S. Walmart International operates through our wholly-owned subsidiaries in Argentina, Canada, Chile, China, India, Japan and the United Kingdom, and our majority-owned subsidiaries in Africa (which includes Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia), Central America (which includes Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua), India and Mexico. Walmart International previously operated in Brazil prior to the sale of the majority stake of Walmart Brazil in fiscal 2019, as discussed in Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Walmart International includes numerous formats divided into three major categories: retail, wholesale and other. These categories consist of many formats, including: supercenters, supermarkets, hypermarkets, warehouse clubs (including Sam's Clubs) and cash & carry, as well as eCommerce through walmart.com.mx, asda.com, walmart.ca, flipkart.com and other sites. Walmart International had net sales of $120.1 billion for fiscal 2020, representing 23% of our fiscal 2020 consolidated net sales, and had net sales of $120.8 billion and $118.1 billion for fiscal 2019 and 2018, respectively. The segment's net sales were negatively impacted by currency exchange rate fluctuations for all years presented. The gross profit rate is lower than that of Walmart U.S. primarily because of its merchandise mix.

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Walmart International's strategy is to create strong local businesses powered by Walmart which means being locally relevant and customer-focused in each of the markets it operates. We are being deliberate about where and how we choose to operate and continue to re-shape the portfolio to best enable long-term, sustainable and profitable growth. As such, we have taken certain strategic actions to strengthen our Walmart International portfolio for the long-term, including:
Acquisition of a majority stake of Flipkart in August 2018.
Divestiture of 80 percent of Walmart Brazil to Advent International (“Advent”) in August 2018. 
Divestiture of the Walmart Chile banking operations in December 2018 and the divestiture of the Walmart Canada banking operations in April 2019.
Omni-channel. Walmart International provides an omni-channel experience to customers, integrating retail stores and eCommerce, such as through services like "Click & Collect" in the United Kingdom, our grocery pick-up and delivery business in several other markets, our marketplaces, such as Flipkart in India, and a digital transaction platform anchored in payments such as PhonePe in India.
Generally, retail units' selling area range in size from 1,400 square feet to 186,000 square feet. Our wholesale stores' selling area generally range in size from 25,000 square feet to 156,000 square feet. As of January 31, 2020, Walmart International had nearly 3,200 grocery pickup and/or delivery locations across its markets.
Merchandise. The merchandising strategy for Walmart International is similar to that of our operations in the U.S. in terms of the breadth and scope of merchandise offered for sale. While brand name merchandise accounts for a majority of our sales, we have both leveraged U.S. private brands and developed market specific private brands to serve our customers with high quality, low priced items. Along with the private brands we market globally, such as "Equate," "George," "Great Value," "Holiday Time," "Mainstays," "Marketside" and "Parent's Choice," our international markets have developed market specific brands including "Aurrera," "Cambridge," "Lider," "Myntra," "PhonePe" and "Extra Special." In addition, we have developed relationships with regional and local suppliers in each market to ensure reliable sources of quality merchandise that is equal to national brands at low prices.
Operations. The hours of operation for operating units in Walmart International vary by country and by individual markets within countries, depending upon local and national ordinances governing hours of operation. Operating units in each country accept a variety of payment methods.
Seasonal Aspects of Operations. Walmart International's business is seasonal to a certain extent. Historically, the segment's highest sales volume and operating income have occurred in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year. The seasonality of the business varies by country due to different national and religious holidays, festivals and customs, as well as different weather patterns.
Competition. Walmart International competes with omni-channel retailers who operate department, drug, discount, variety and specialty stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets and supercenter-type stores, wholesale clubs, home-improvement stores, specialty electronics stores, cash & carry operations and convenience stores, and eCommerce retailers, as well as catalog businesses. Our ability to develop and operate units at the right locations and to deliver a customer-centric omni-channel experience largely determines our competitive position within the retail industry. We believe price leadership is a critical part of our business model and we continue to focus on moving our markets towards an EDLP approach. Additionally, our ability to operate food departments effectively has a significant impact on our competitive position in the markets where we operate.
Distribution. We utilize a total of 221 distribution facilities located in Argentina, Canada, Central America, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, India and the United Kingdom. Certain of these facilities are used to ship merchandise to both our stores and customers on our eCommerce platforms. Through these facilities, we process and distribute both imported and domestic products to the operating units of the Walmart International segment. During fiscal 2020, approximately 85% of Walmart International's purchases passed through these distribution facilities. Suppliers ship the balance of Walmart International's purchases directly to our stores in the various markets in which we operate. We ship merchandise purchased by customers on our eCommerce platforms by a number of methods from multiple locations including from our 88 dedicated eCommerce fulfillment centers, as well as more than 2,500 eCommerce sort centers in India.
Sam's Club Segment
Sam's Club operates in 44 states in the U.S. and in Puerto Rico. Sam's Club is a membership-only warehouse club that also operates samsclub.com. Sam's Club had net sales of $58.8 billion for fiscal 2020, representing 11% of our consolidated fiscal 2020 net sales, and had net sales of $57.8 billion and $59.2 billion for fiscal 2019 and 2018, respectively. As a membership-only warehouse club, membership income is a significant component of the segment's operating income. Sam's Club operates with a lower gross profit rate and lower operating expenses as a percentage of net sales than our other segments.

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Membership. The following two options are available to members:
 
Plus Membership
 
Club Membership
Annual Membership Fee
$100
 
$45
Number of Add-on Memberships ($40 each)
Up to 16
 
Up to 8
Eligible for Cash Rewards
Yes
 
No
All memberships include a spouse/household card at no additional cost. Plus Members are eligible for Cash Rewards, which is a benefit that provides 2% back on qualifying Sam's Club purchases up to a $500 cash reward annually. The amount earned can be used for purchases, membership fees or redeemed for cash. Plus Members are also eligible for Free Shipping on the majority of merchandise, with no minimum order size, and receive discounts on prescriptions and glasses.
Omni-channel. While Sam's Club is a membership-only warehouse club, it provides an omni-channel experience to customers, integrating retail stores and eCommerce. The warehouse facility sizes generally range between 32,000 and 168,000 square feet, with an average size of approximately 134,000 square feet.
Members have access to a broad assortment of merchandise, including products not found in our clubs, and services online at samsclub.com and through our mobile commerce applications, providing services such as "Club Pickup" or the option of delivery direct-to-home.
Merchandise. Sam's Club offers merchandise in the following five merchandise categories:
Grocery and consumables includes dairy, meat, bakery, deli, produce, dry, chilled or frozen packaged foods, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, floral, snack foods, candy, other grocery items, health and beauty aids, paper goods, laundry and home care, baby care, pet supplies and other consumable items;
Fuel, tobacco and other categories consists of gasoline stations, tobacco, tools and power equipment, and tire and battery centers;
Home and apparel includes home improvement, outdoor living, grills, gardening, furniture, apparel, jewelry, housewares, toys, seasonal items, mattresses and small appliances;
Technology, office and entertainment includes electronics, wireless, software, video games, movies, books, music, office supplies, office furniture, photo processing and third-party gift cards; and
Health and wellness includes pharmacy, optical and hearing services and over-the-counter drugs.
In addition, the Member's Mark private label brand continues to expand assortment and deliver member value.
Operations. Operating hours for Sam's Clubs are generally Monday through Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 8:30 p.m., Saturday from 9:00 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. and Sunday from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Additionally, most club locations offer Plus Members the ability to shop before the regular operating hours Monday through Saturday, starting at 7:00 a.m. A variety of payment methods are accepted. Consistent with its strategy, Sam's Club continues to develop technology tools to drive a great member experience in club. For example, Sam's Garage, a new application in its tire and battery business, is leveraging technology in new ways to provide a personalized and efficient shopping experience. Sam's Club also offers "Scan and Go," a mobile checkout and payment solution, which allows members to bypass the checkout line.
Seasonal Aspects of Operations. Sam's Club's business is seasonal to a certain extent due to calendar events and national and religious holidays, as well as different weather patterns. Historically, its highest sales volume has occurred in the fiscal quarter ending January 31.
Competition. Sam's Club competes with other membership-only warehouse clubs, the largest of which is Costco, as well as with discount retailers, retail and wholesale grocers, general merchandise wholesalers and distributors, gasoline stations as well as omni-channel and eCommerce retailers and catalog businesses. At Sam's Club, we provide value at members-only prices, a quality merchandise assortment, and bulk sizing to serve both our Plus and Club members. Our eCommerce website and mobile commerce applications have increasingly become important factors in our ability to compete.
Distribution. During fiscal 2020, approximately 73% of Sam's Club's non-fuel club purchases were shipped from Sam's Club's 25 dedicated distribution facilities, located strategically throughout the U.S., or from some of the Walmart U.S. segment's distribution facilities, which service the Sam's Club segment for certain items. Suppliers shipped the balance of the Sam's Club segment's club purchases directly to Sam's Club locations. Sam's Club ships merchandise purchased on samsclub.com and through its mobile commerce applications by a number of methods including shipments made directly from Clubs, nine dedicated eCommerce fulfillment centers, two dedicated import facilities and other distribution centers.

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Sam's Club uses a combination of our private truck fleet, as well as common carriers, to transport non-perishable merchandise from distribution facilities to clubs. The segment contracts with common carriers to transport perishable grocery merchandise from distribution facilities to clubs.
Intellectual Property
We regard our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, patents, domain names, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as important to our success, and with respect to our associates, customers and others, we rely on trademark, copyright, and patent law, trade-secret protection, and confidentiality and/or license agreements to protect our proprietary rights. We have registered, or applied for the registration of, a number of U.S. and international domain names, trademarks, service marks and copyrights. Additionally, we have filed U.S. and international patent applications covering certain of our proprietary technology. We have licensed in the past, and expect that we may license in the future, certain of our proprietary rights to third parties.
Suppliers and Supply Chain
As a retailer and warehouse club operator, we utilize a global supply chain that includes over 100,000 suppliers located around the world, including in the U.S., from whom we purchase the merchandise that we sell in our stores, clubs and online. In many instances, we purchase merchandise from producers located near the stores and clubs in which such merchandise will be sold, particularly products in the "fresh" category. Our purchases may represent a significant percentage of the annual sales for a number of our suppliers, and the volume of product we acquire from many suppliers allows us to obtain favorable pricing from such suppliers. Our suppliers are subject to standards of conduct, including requirements that they comply with local labor laws, local worker safety laws and other applicable laws. Our ability to acquire from our suppliers the assortment and volume of products we wish to offer to our customer, to receive those products within the required time through our supply chain and to distribute those products to our stores and clubs determines, in part, our in-stock levels in our stores and clubs and the attractiveness of our merchandise assortment we offer to our customers and members.
Employees
As of the end of fiscal 2020, Walmart Inc. and our subsidiaries employed more than 2.2 million employees ("associates") worldwide, with 1.5 million associates in the U.S. and 0.7 million associates internationally. Similar to other retailers, the Company has a large number of part-time, hourly or non-exempt associates. We believe our relationships with our associates are good. A large number of associates turn over each year, although Walmart U.S. turnover has improved in recent years as a result of our focus on increasing wages and providing improved tools, technology and training to associates.
Certain information relating to retirement-related benefits we provide to our associates is included in Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition to retirement-related benefits, in the U.S. we offer a broad range of Company-paid benefits to our associates. These include a store discount card or Sam's Club membership, bonuses based on Company performance, matching a portion of associate purchases of our stock through our Associate Stock Purchase Plan and life insurance. In addition to the health-care benefits for eligible full-time and part-time associates in the U.S., we offer maternity leave and a paid parental leave program to all full-time associates. We also offer a $5,000 benefit to assist eligible associates with adoption. Additionally, we offer eligible associates tuition assistance towards earning a college degree through "Live Better U," which allows associates to earn a college degree or certificate for the equivalent of $1 per day. Similarly, in our operations outside the U.S., we provide a variety of associate benefits that vary based on customary local practices and statutory requirements.

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Information About Our Executive Officers
The following chart names the executive officers of the Company as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC, each of whom is elected by and serves at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The business experience shown for each officer has been his or her principal occupation for at least the past five years, unless otherwise noted.
Name
 
Business Experience
 
Current
Position
Held Since
 
Age
Daniel J. Bartlett
 
Executive Vice President, Corporate Affairs, effective June 2013. From November 2007 to June 2013, he served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of U.S. Operations at Hill & Knowlton, Inc., a public relations company.
 
2013
 
48

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
M. Brett Biggs
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, effective January 2016. From January 2014 to December 2015, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Walmart International.
 
2016
 
51

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rachel Brand
 
Executive Vice President, Global Governance, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary, effective April 2018. From May 2017 to February 2018, she served as Associate Attorney General in the United States Department of Justice. From January 2017 to May 2017, Ms. Brand was an Associate Professor of Law at George Mason University Antonin Scalia Law School. From August 2012 to February 2017, she served as a Board Member on the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board of the U.S. government.
 
2018
 
46

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
David M. Chojnowski
 
Senior Vice President and Controller effective January 2017. From October 2014 to January 2017, he served as Vice President and Controller, Walmart U.S.
 
2017
 
50

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John Furner
 
Executive Vice President, President and Chief Executive Officer, Walmart U.S. effective November 2019. From February 2017 until November 2019, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer, Sam's Club. From October 2015 to January 2017, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Merchandising Officer of Sam's Club.
 
2019
 
45

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Suresh Kumar
 
Executive Vice President, Global Chief Technology Officer and Chief Development Officer effective July 2019. From February 2018 until June 2019, Mr. Kumar was Vice President and General Manager at Google LLC. From May 2014 until February 2018, he was Corporate Vice President at Microsoft Corporation.
 
2019
 
55

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marc Lore
 
Executive Vice President, President and Chief Executive Officer, U.S. eCommerce, effective September 2016. From April 2014 to September 2016, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Jet.com, Inc.
 
2016
 
48

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Judith McKenna
 
Executive Vice President, President and Chief Executive Officer, Walmart International, effective February 2018. From February 2015 to January 2018, she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Walmart U.S.
 
2018
 
53

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kathryn McLay
 
Executive Vice President, President and Chief Executive Officer, Sam's Club effective November 15, 2019. From February 2019 to November 2019, she served as Executive Vice President, Walmart U.S. Neighborhood Markets. From December 2015 until February 2019, she served as Senior Vice President, U.S. Supply Chain. Ms. McLay originally joined the Company in April 2015 as Vice President of U.S. Finance and Strategy.
 
2019
 
46

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
C. Douglas McMillon
 
President and Chief Executive Officer, effective February 2014. From February 2009 to January 2014, he served as Executive Vice President, President and Chief Executive Officer, Walmart International.

 
2014
 
53

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Donna Morris
 
Executive Vice President, Global People and Chief People Officer, effective February 2020.  From April 2002 to January 2020, she served at Adobe Inc. in various roles, including most recently, Chief Human Resources Officer and Executive Vice President, Employee Experience.
 
2020
 
52



13



Our Website and Availability of SEC Reports and Other Information
Our corporate website is located at www.stock.walmart.com. We file with or furnish to the SEC Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, amendments to those reports, proxy statements and annual reports to shareholders, and, from time to time, other documents. The reports and other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC are available to investors on or through our corporate website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with or furnish them to the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. Our SEC filings, our Code of Ethics for our CEO and senior financial officers and our Statement of Ethics can be found on our website at www.stock.walmart.com. These documents are available in print to any shareholder who requests a copy by writing or calling our Investor Relations Department, which is located at our principal offices.
A description of any substantive amendment or waiver of Walmart's Code of Ethics for the CEO and senior financial officers or our Statement of Ethics for our chief executive officer, our chief financial officer and our controller, who is our principal accounting officer, will be disclosed on our website at www.stock.walmart.com under the Corporate Governance section. Any such description will be located on our website for a period of 12 months following the amendment or waiver.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
The risks described below could, in ways we may or may not be able to accurately predict, materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Our business operations could also be affected by additional factors that apply to all companies operating in the U.S. and globally. The following risk factors do not identify all risks that we may face.
Strategic Risks
General or macro-economic factors, both domestically and internationally, may materially adversely affect our financial performance.
General economic conditions and other economic factors, globally or in one or more of the markets we serve, may adversely affect our financial performance. Higher interest rates, lower or higher prices of petroleum products, including crude oil, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel fuel, higher costs for electricity and other energy, weakness in the housing market, inflation, deflation, increased costs of essential services, such as medical care and utilities, higher levels of unemployment, decreases in consumer disposable income, unavailability of consumer credit, higher consumer debt levels, changes in consumer spending and shopping patterns, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, higher tax rates, imposition of new taxes or other changes in tax laws, changes in healthcare laws, other regulatory changes, the imposition of tariffs or other measures that create barriers to or increase the costs associated with international trade, overall economic slowdown or recession and other economic factors in the U.S. or in any of the other markets in which we operate could adversely affect consumer demand for the products we sell in the U.S. or such other markets, change the mix of products we sell to one with a lower average gross margin, cause a slowdown in discretionary purchases of goods, adversely affect our net sales and result in slower inventory turnover and greater markdowns of inventory, or otherwise materially adversely affect our operations and operating results and could result in impairment charges to intangible assets, goodwill or other long-lived assets.
In addition, the economic factors listed above, any other economic factors or circumstances resulting in higher transportation, labor, insurance or healthcare costs or commodity prices, and other economic factors in the U.S. and other countries in which we operate can increase our cost of sales and operating, selling, general and administrative expenses and otherwise materially adversely affect our operations and operating results.
The economic factors that affect our operations may also adversely affect the operations of our suppliers, which can result in an increase in the cost to us of the goods we sell to our customers or, in more extreme cases, in certain suppliers not producing goods in the volume typically available to us for sale.
We face strong competition from other retailers and wholesale club operators which could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Each of our segments competes for customers, employees, digital prominence, products and services and in other important aspects of its business with many other local, regional, national and global eCommerce and omni-channel retailers, wholesale club operators and retail intermediaries.
We compete in a variety of ways, including the prices at which we sell our merchandise, merchandise selection and availability, services offered to customers, location, store hours, in-store amenities, the shopping convenience and overall shopping experience we offer, the attractiveness and ease of use of our digital platforms, cost and speed of and options for delivery to customers of merchandise purchased through our digital platforms or through our omni-channel integration of our physical and digital operations.

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A failure to respond effectively to competitive pressures and changes in the retail markets or delays or failure in execution of our strategy could materially adversely affect our financial performance. See "Item 1. Business" above for additional discussion of the competitive situation of each of our reportable segments.
Certain segments of the retail industry are undergoing consolidation, which could result in increased competition and significantly alter the dynamics of the retail marketplace. Other segments are substantially reducing operations which could also result in competition rushing to fill the void created by such corporate actions. Such consolidation, or other business combinations or alliances, or reduction in operation may result in competitors with greatly improved financial resources, improved access to merchandise, greater market penetration than they previously enjoyed and other improvements in their competitive positions. Such business combinations or alliances could result in the provision of a wider variety of products and services at competitive prices by such consolidated or aligned companies, which could adversely affect our financial performance.
If we do not timely identify or effectively respond to consumer trends or preferences, it could negatively affect our relationship with our customers, demand for the products and services we sell, our market share and the growth of our business.
It is difficult to predict consistently and successfully the products and services our customers will demand and changes in their shopping patterns. The success of our business depends in part on how accurately we predict consumer demand, availability of merchandise, the related impact on the demand for existing products and the competitive environment. Price transparency, assortment of products, customer experience, convenience, ease and the speed and cost of shipping are of primary importance to customers and continue to increase in importance, particularly as a result of digital tools and social media available to consumers and the choices available to consumers for purchasing products. Our failure to adequately or effectively respond to changing consumer tastes, preferences and shopping patterns, or any other failure on our part to timely identify or effectively respond to changing consumer tastes, preferences and shopping patterns could negatively affect our relationship with our customers, the demand for the products we sell or services we offer, our market share and the growth of our business.
Failure to successfully execute our omni-channel strategy and the cost of our investments in eCommerce and technology may materially adversely affect our market position, net sales and financial performance.
The retail business continues to rapidly evolve and consumers increasingly embrace digital shopping. As a result, the portion of total consumer expenditures with retailers and wholesale clubs occurring through digital platforms is increasing and the pace of this increase could accelerate.
Our strategy, which includes investments in eCommerce, technology, acquisitions, joint ventures, store remodels and other customer initiatives may not adequately or effectively allow us to grow our eCommerce business, increase comparable store sales, maintain or grow our overall market position or otherwise offset the impact on the growth of our business of a moderated pace of new store and club openings. The success of this strategy will depend in large measure on our ability to continue building and delivering a seamless omni-channel shopping experience for our customers and is further subject to the related risks discussed in this Item 1A. Failure to successfully execute this strategy may adversely affect our market position, net sales and financial performance which could also result in impairment charges to intangible assets or other long-lived assets. In addition, a greater concentration of eCommerce sales, including increasing online grocery sales, could result in a reduction in the amount of traffic in our stores and clubs, which would, in turn, reduce the opportunities for cross-store or cross-club sales of merchandise that such traffic creates and could reduce our sales within our stores and clubs and materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Furthermore, the cost of certain eCommerce and technology investments, including any operating losses incurred, will adversely impact our financial performance in the short-term and failure to realize the benefits of these investments may adversely impact our financial performance over the longer term.
The performance of strategic alliances and other business relationships to support the expansion of our business could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
We may enter into strategic alliances and other business relationships in the countries in which we have existing operations or in other markets to expand our retail operations. These arrangements may not generate the level of sales we anticipate when entering into the arrangement or may otherwise adversely impact our business and competitive position relative to the results we could have achieved in the absence of such alliance. In addition, any investment we make in connection with a strategic alliance or business relationship could materially adversely affect our financial performance.

15



Operational Risks
Natural disasters, changes in climate, and geo-political events and catastrophic events could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
The occurrence of one or more natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tropical storms, floods, fires, earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, typhoons; weather conditions such as major or extended winter storms, droughts and tornadoes, whether as a result of climate change or otherwise; severe changes in climate; geo-political events; global health epidemics or pandemics or other contagious outbreaks such as the recent coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak; and catastrophic events, such as war, civil unrest, terrorist attacks or other acts of violence, including active shooter situations (such as those that have occurred in our U.S. stores), in countries in which we operate or in which our suppliers are located, could adversely affect our operations and financial performance.
Such events could result in physical damage to, or the complete loss of, one or more of our properties, the closure of one or more stores, clubs and distribution facilities, limitations on store or club operating hours, the lack of an adequate work force in a market, the inability of customers and associates to reach or have transportation to our stores and clubs affected by such events, the evacuation of the populace from areas in which our stores, clubs and distribution facilities are located, the unavailability of our digital platforms to our customers, changes in the purchasing patterns of consumers (including the frequency of visits by consumers to physical retail locations, whether as a result of limitations on large gatherings, travel and movement limitations or otherwise) and in consumers' disposable income, the temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of products from some suppliers, the disruption in the transport of goods from overseas, the disruption or delay in the delivery of goods to our distribution facilities or stores within a country in which we are operating, the reduction in the availability of products in our stores, the disruption of utility services to our stores and our facilities, and the disruption in our communications with our stores. For example, our results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020 were negatively impacted by riots and looting in Chile which resulted in us closing a number of our stores until the disruption abated.
We bear the risk of losses incurred as a result of physical damage to, or destruction of, any stores, clubs and distribution facilities, loss or spoilage of inventory and business interruption caused by such events. These events and their impacts could otherwise disrupt and adversely affect our operations in the areas in which they occur and could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Risks associated with our suppliers could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
The products we sell are sourced from a wide variety of domestic and international suppliers. Global sourcing of many of the products we sell is an important factor in our financial performance. We expect our suppliers to comply with applicable laws, including labor, safety, anti-corruption and environmental laws, and to otherwise meet our required supplier standards of conduct. Our ability to find qualified suppliers who uphold our standards, and to access products in a timely and efficient manner, is a significant challenge, especially with respect to suppliers located and goods sourced outside the U.S.
Political and economic instability, as well as other impactful events and circumstances in the countries in which our suppliers and their manufacturers are located (such as the recent coronavirus outbreak which could result in potential disruptions or delays to our global supply chain), the financial instability of suppliers, suppliers' failure to meet our terms and conditions or our supplier standards (including our responsible sourcing standards), labor problems experienced by our suppliers and their manufacturers, the availability of raw materials to suppliers, merchandise safety and quality issues, disruption or delay in the transportation of merchandise from the suppliers and manufacturers to our stores, clubs, and other facilities, including as a result of labor slowdowns at any port at which a material amount of merchandise we purchase enters into the markets in which we operate, currency exchange rates, transport availability and cost, transport security, inflation and other factors relating to the suppliers and the countries in which they are located are beyond our control.
In addition, the U.S. foreign trade policies, tariffs and other impositions on imported goods, trade sanctions imposed on certain countries, the limitation on the importation of certain types of goods or of goods containing certain materials from other countries and other factors relating to foreign trade are beyond our control. These and other factors affecting our suppliers and our access to products could adversely affect our financial performance.
If the products we sell are not safe or otherwise fail to meet our customers' expectations, we could lose customers, incur liability for any injuries suffered by customers using or consuming a product we sell or otherwise experience a material impact to our brand, reputation and financial performance. We are also subject to reputational and other risks related to third-party sales on our digital platforms.
Our customers count on us to provide them with safe products. Concerns regarding the safety of food and non-food products that we source from our suppliers or that we prepare and then sell could cause customers to avoid purchasing certain products from us, or to seek alternative sources of supply for all of their food and non-food needs, even if the basis for the concern is outside of our control. Any lost confidence on the part of our customers would be difficult and costly to reestablish and such products also expose us to product liability or food safety claims. As such, any issue regarding the safety of any food or non-food items we sell, regardless of the cause, could adversely affect our brand, reputation and financial performance. In addition,

16



third-parties sell goods on some of our digital platforms, which we refer to as marketplace transactions. Whether laws related to such sales apply to us is currently unsettled and any unfavorable changes could expose us to loss of sales, reduction in transactions and deterioration of our competitive position. In addition, we may face reputational, financial and other risks, including liability, for third-party sales of goods that are controversial, counterfeit or otherwise fail to comply with applicable law. Although we impose contractual terms on sellers that are intended to prohibit sales of certain type of products, we may not be able to detect, enforce, or collect sufficient damages for breaches of such agreements. Any of these events could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations and impede the execution of our eCommerce growth strategy.
We rely extensively on information systems to process transactions, summarize results and manage our business. Disruptions in our systems could harm our ability to conduct our operations.
Given the number of individual transactions we have each year, it is crucial that we maintain uninterrupted operation of our business-critical information systems. Our information systems are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, worms, other malicious computer programs, denial-of-service attacks, security breaches (through cyber-attacks from cyber-attackers and sophisticated organizations including nation states), catastrophic events such as fires, tornadoes, earthquakes and hurricanes, and usage errors by our associates or contractors. Our information systems are essential to our business operations, including the processing of transactions, management of our associates, facilities, logistics, inventories, physical stores and clubs and our online operations. Our information systems are not fully redundant and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. If our systems are damaged, breached or cease to function properly, we may have to make a significant investment to repair or replace them, and may experience loss or corruption of critical data as well as suffer interruptions in our business operations in the interim. Any interruption to our information systems may have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations. In addition, we are constantly updating our information technology processes and systems. The risk of system disruption is increased when significant system changes are undertaken. If we fail to timely integrate and update our information systems and processes, we may fail to realize the cost savings or operational benefits anticipated to be derived from these initiatives.
If the technology-based systems that give our customers the ability to shop with us online do not function effectively, our operating results, as well as our ability to grow our omni-channel business globally, could be materially adversely affected.
Increasingly, customers are using computers, tablets, and smart phones to shop with us and with our competitors and to do comparison shopping. We use social media, online advertising, and email to interact with our customers and as a means to enhance their shopping experience. As a part of our omni-channel sales strategy, in addition to home delivery, we offer various pickup and delivery programs under which many products available for purchase online can be picked up by the customer or member at a local Walmart store or Sam's Club, which provides additional customer traffic at such stores and clubs. Omni-channel retailing is a rapidly evolving part of the retail industry and of our operations around the world. We must anticipate and meet our customers' changing expectations while adjusting for technology investments and developments in our competitors' operations through focusing on the building and delivery of a seamless shopping experience across all channels by each operating segment. Any failure on our part to provide attractive, user-friendly secure digital platforms that offer a wide assortment of merchandise at competitive prices and with low cost and rapid delivery options and that continually meet the changing expectations of online shoppers and developments in online and digital platform merchandising and related technology could place us at a competitive disadvantage, result in the loss of eCommerce and other sales, harm our reputation with customers, have a material adverse impact on the growth of our eCommerce business globally and have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Our digital platforms, which are increasingly important to our business and continue to grow in complexity and scope, and the systems on which they run, including those applications and systems in our acquired eCommerce businesses, are regularly subject to cyber-attacks. Those attacks involve attempts to gain unauthorized access to our eCommerce websites (including marketplace platforms) or mobile commerce applications to obtain and misuse customers' or members' information including payment information and related risks discussed in this Item 1A. Such attacks, if successful, in addition to potential data misuse, may also create denials of service or otherwise disable, degrade or sabotage one or more of our digital platforms or otherwise significantly disrupt our customers' and members' shopping experience. If we are unable to maintain the security of our digital platforms and keep them operating within acceptable parameters, we could suffer loss of sales, reductions in transactions, reputational damage and deterioration of our competitive position and incur liability for any damage to customers or others whose personal or confidential information is unlawfully obtained and misused, any of which events could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations and impede the execution of our strategy for the growth of our business.

17



Any failure to maintain the security of the information relating to our company, customers, members, associates and vendors, whether as a result of cybersecurity attacks on our information systems or otherwise, could damage our reputation, result in litigation or other legal actions against us, cause us to incur substantial additional costs, and materially adversely affect our business and operating results.
Like most retailers, we receive and store in our information systems personal information about our customers and members, and we receive and store personal information concerning our associates and vendors. Some of that information is stored digitally in connection with our digital platforms. We also utilize third-party service providers for a variety of reasons, including, without limitation, for digital storage technology, content delivery to customers and members, back-office support, and other functions. Such providers may have access to information we hold about our customers, members, associates or vendors. In addition, our eCommerce operations depend upon the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks, including information permitting cashless payments.
Cyber threats are rapidly evolving and those threats and the means for obtaining access to information in digital and other storage media are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Cyber threats and cyber-attackers can be sponsored by countries or sophisticated criminal organizations or be the work of hackers with a wide range of motives and expertise. We and the businesses with which we interact have experienced and continue to experience threats to data and systems, including by perpetrators of random or targeted malicious cyber-attacks, computer viruses, worms, bot attacks or other destructive or disruptive software and attempts to misappropriate customer information, including credit card information, and cause system failures and disruptions. Some of our systems have experienced limited security breaches and although they did not have a material adverse effect on our operating results, there can be no assurance of a similar result in the future.
Associate error or malfeasance, faulty password management, social engineering or other irregularities may also result in a defeat of our or our third-party service providers' security measures and a breach of our or their information systems. Moreover, hardware, software or applications we use may have inherent vulnerabilities or defects of design, manufacture or operations or could be inadvertently or intentionally implemented or used in a manner that could compromise information security.
Any compromise of our data security systems or of those of businesses with which we interact, which results in confidential information being accessed, obtained, damaged, modified, lost or used by unauthorized or improper persons, could harm our reputation and expose us to regulatory actions, customer attrition, remediation expenses, and claims from customers, members, associates, vendors, financial institutions, payment card networks and other persons, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business operations, financial condition and results of operations. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may not immediately produce signs of a compromise, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures and we or our third-party service providers may not discover any security breach, vulnerability or compromise of information for a significant period of time after the security incident occurs.
In addition, such events could be widely publicized and could materially adversely affect our reputation with our customers, members, associates, vendors and shareholders, could harm our competitive position particularly with respect to our eCommerce operations, and could result in a material reduction in our net sales in our eCommerce operations, as well as in our stores thereby materially adversely affecting our operations, net sales, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and liquidity. Such events could also result in the release to the public of confidential information about our operations and financial condition and performance and could result in litigation or other legal actions against us or the imposition of penalties, fines, fees or liabilities, which may not be covered by our insurance policies. Moreover, a security compromise could require us to devote significant management resources to address the problems created by the issue and to expend significant additional resources to upgrade further the security measures we employ to guard personal and confidential information against cyber-attacks and other attempts to access or otherwise compromise such information and could result in a disruption of our operations, particularly our digital operations.
We accept payments using a variety of methods, including cash, checks, credit and debit cards, and our private label credit cards and gift cards, and we may offer new payment options over time, which may have information security risk implications. As a retailer accepting debit and credit cards for payment, we are subject to various industry data protection standards and protocols, such as payment network security operating guidelines and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. We cannot be certain that the security measures we maintain to protect all of our information technology systems are able to prevent, contain or detect cyber-attacks, cyber terrorism, security breaches or other compromises from known malware or other threats that may be developed in the future. To the extent that any cyber-attack or incursion in our or one of our third-party service provider's information systems results in the loss, damage, misappropriation or other compromise of information, we may be materially adversely affected by claims from customers, financial institutions, regulatory authorities, payment card networks and others. In certain circumstances, our contracts with payment card processors and payment card networks (such as Visa, Mastercard, American Express and Discover) generally require us to adhere to payment card network rules which could make us liable to payment card issuers and others if information in connection with payment cards and payment card transactions that we process is compromised, which liabilities could be substantial.

18



Additionally, we offer money (wire) transfer services, digital payment platforms, bill payment, money orders and check cashing and we sell prepaid cards and gift cards. We further offer co-branded credit cards and installment loans through financial services partners. These products and services require us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, including global anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations as well as international, federal and state consumer financial laws and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in fines, sanctions, penalties and harm to our reputation.
The Company also has compliance obligations associated with new privacy laws enacted to protect personal information. The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, (CCPA), grants California consumers certain rights over their personal information and imposes stringent requirements on the collection, use and sharing of “personal information” of California consumers. Other U.S. states are proposing similar laws related to the protection of personal information and the U.S. federal government is also considering federal privacy legislation. Outside the U.S., the European Union’s (“EU”) General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) greatly increases the jurisdictional reach of EU law and adds a broad array of requirements related to personal data. Complying with changing regulatory requirements requires us to incur additional costs and expenses. If we fail to comply with CCPA, GDPR or other privacy related regulations, or if regulators assert we have failed to comply with them, it could lead to regulatory enforcement action, monetary fines or penalties (up to 4% of worldwide revenue in the case of GDPR), lawsuits or reputational damage and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Changes in the results of our retail pharmacy business could adversely affect our overall results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Walmart has retail pharmacy operations in our Walmart U.S. and Sam's Club segments, as well as the recent addition of Walmart Health Centers to some of our U.S. stores. A large majority of our retail pharmacy net sales are generated by filling prescriptions for which we receive payment through established contractual relationships with third-party payers and payment administrators, such as private insurers, governmental agencies and pharmacy benefit managers ("PBMs").
Our retail pharmacy operations are subject to numerous risks, including: reductions in the third-party reimbursement rates for drugs; changes in our payer mix (i.e., shifts in the relative distribution of our pharmacy customers across drug insurance plans and programs toward plans and programs with less favorable reimbursement terms); changes in third-party payer drug formularies (i.e., the schedule of prescription drugs approved for reimbursement or which otherwise receive preferential coverage treatment); growth in, and our participation in or exclusion from, exclusive and preferred pharmacy network arrangements operated by PBMs and/or any insurance plan or program; increases in the prices we pay for brand name and generic prescription drugs we sell; increases in the administrative burdens associated with seeking third-party reimbursement; changes in the frequency with which new brand name pharmaceuticals become available to consumers; introduction of lower cost generic drugs as substitutes for existing brand name drugs for which there was no prior generic drug competition; changes in drug mix (i.e., the relative distribution of drugs customers purchase at our pharmacies between brands and generics); changes in the health insurance market generally; changes in the scope of or the elimination of Medicare Part D or Medicaid drug programs; increased competition from other retail pharmacy operations; further consolidation and strategic alliances among third-party payers, PBMs or purchasers of drugs; overall economic conditions and the ability of our pharmacy customers to pay for drugs prescribed for them to the extent the costs are not reimbursed by a third-party; failure to meet any performance or incentive thresholds to which our level of third-party reimbursement may be subject; and changes in the regulatory environment for the retail pharmacy industry and the pharmaceutical industry, including as a result of restrictions on the further implementation of or the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or the enactment and implementation of a law replacing such act, and other changes in laws, rules and regulations that affect our retail pharmacy business.
If the supply of certain pharmaceuticals provided by one or more of our vendors were to be disrupted for any reason, our pharmacy operations could be severely affected until at least such time as we could obtain a new supplier for such pharmaceuticals. Any such disruption could cause reputational damage and result in a significant number of our pharmacy customers transferring their prescriptions to other pharmacies.
One or a combination of such factors may adversely affect the volumes of brand name and generic pharmaceuticals we sell, our cost of sales associated with our retail pharmacy operations, and the net sales and gross margin of those operations or result in the loss of cross-store or cross-club selling opportunities and, in turn, adversely affect our overall net sales, other results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our failure to attract and retain qualified associates, increases in wage and benefit costs, changes in laws and other labor issues could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Our ability to continue to conduct and expand our operations depends on our ability to attract and retain a large and growing number of qualified associates globally. Our ability to meet our labor needs, including our ability to find qualified personnel to fill positions that become vacant at our existing stores, clubs, distribution centers and corporate offices, while controlling our associate wage and related labor costs, is generally subject to numerous external factors, including the availability of a sufficient number of qualified persons in the work force of the markets in which we operate, unemployment levels within those markets, prevailing wage rates, changing demographics, health and other insurance costs and adoption of new or revised

19



employment and labor laws and regulations. Additionally, our ability to successfully execute organizational changes, including management transitions within the Company's senior leadership, such as our recent leadership changes, and to effectively motivate and retain associates are critical to our business success. If we are unable to locate, attract or retain qualified personnel, or manage leadership transition successfully, the quality of service we provide to our customers may decrease and our financial performance may be adversely affected.
In addition, if our costs of labor or related costs increase for other reasons or if new or revised labor laws, rules or regulations or healthcare laws are adopted or implemented that further increase our labor costs, our financial performance could be materially adversely affected.
Financial Risks
Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates may materially adversely affect our financial performance and our reported results of operations.
Our operations in countries other than the U.S. are conducted primarily in the local currencies of those countries. Our consolidated financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars, and to prepare those financial statements we must translate the amounts of the assets, liabilities, net sales, other revenues and expenses of our operations outside of the U.S. from local currencies into U.S. dollars using exchange rates for the current period. In recent years, fluctuations in currency exchange rates that were unfavorable have had adverse effects on our reported results of operations.
As a result of such translations, fluctuations in currency exchange rates from period-to-period that are unfavorable to us may also result in our consolidated financial statements reflecting significant adverse period-over-period changes in our financial performance or reflecting a period-over-period improvement in our financial performance that is not as robust as it would be without such fluctuations in the currency exchange rates. Such unfavorable currency exchange rate fluctuations will adversely affect the reported performance of our Walmart International operating segment and have a corresponding adverse effect on our reported consolidated results of operations.
We may pay for products we purchase for sale in our stores and clubs around the world with a currency other than the local currency of the country in which the goods will be sold. When we must acquire the currency to pay for such products and the exchange rates for the payment currency fluctuate in a manner unfavorable to us, our cost of sales may increase and we may be unable or unwilling to change the prices at which we sell those goods to address that increase in our costs, with a corresponding adverse effect on our gross profit. Consequently, unfavorable fluctuations in currency exchange rates have and may continue to adversely affect our results of operations.
Failure to meet market expectations for our financial performance could adversely affect the market price and volatility of our stock.
We believe that the price of our stock generally reflects high market expectations for our future operating results. Any failure to meet or delay in meeting these expectations, including our comparable store and club sales growth rates, eCommerce growth rates, gross margin, or earnings and earnings per share could cause the market price of our stock to decline, as could changes in our dividend or stock repurchase programs or policies. Additionally, failure of Walmart's performance to compare favorably to that of other retailers may have a negative effect on the price of our stock.
Legal, Tax, Regulatory, Compliance, Reputational and Other Risks
Our international operations subject us to legislative, judicial, accounting, legal, regulatory, tax, political and economic risks and conditions specific to the countries or regions in which we operate, which could materially adversely affect our business or financial performance.
In addition to our U.S. operations, we operate our retail business in Africa, Argentina, Canada, Central America, Chile, China, India, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom.
During fiscal 2020, our Walmart International operations generated approximately 23% of our consolidated net sales. Walmart International's operations in various countries also source goods and services from other countries. Our future operating results in these countries could be negatively affected by a variety of factors, most of which are beyond our control. These factors include political conditions, including political instability, local and global economic conditions, legal and regulatory constraints (such as regulation of product and service offerings including regulatory restrictions (such as foreign ownership restrictions) on eCommerce and retail operations in international markets, such as India), restrictive governmental actions (such as trade protection measures), local product safety and environmental laws, tax regulations, local labor laws, anti-money laundering laws and regulations, trade policies, currency regulations, laws and regulations regarding consumer and data protection, and other matters in any of the countries or regions in which we operate, now or in the future.
For example, during the current transition period following the UK’s recent exit from the European Union, we face continued uncertainty regarding the impact on our UK business of potential changes in tariffs, trade practices and other regulations while the UK and EU work to put in place alternative trade and other arrangements.

20



The economies of some of the countries in which we have operations have in the past suffered from high rates of inflation and currency devaluations, which, if they occurred again, could adversely affect our financial performance. Other factors which may impact our international operations include foreign trade, monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. and of other countries, laws, regulations and other activities of foreign governments, agencies and similar organizations, and risks associated with having numerous facilities located in countries that have historically been less stable than the U.S.. Additional risks inherent in our international operations generally include, among others, the costs and difficulties of managing international operations, adverse tax consequences and greater difficulty in enforcing intellectual property rights in countries other than the U.S.. The various risks inherent in doing business in the U.S. generally also exist when doing business outside of the U.S., and may be exaggerated by the difficulty of doing business in numerous sovereign jurisdictions due to differences in culture, laws and regulations.
In foreign countries in which we have operations, a risk exists that our associates, contractors or agents could, in contravention of our policies, engage in business practices prohibited by U.S. laws and regulations applicable to us, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), or the laws and regulations of other countries, such as the UK Bribery Act. We maintain a global policy prohibiting such business practices and have in place a global anti-corruption compliance program designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations. Nevertheless, we remain subject to the risk that one or more of our associates, contractors or agents, including those based in or from countries where practices that violate such U.S. laws and regulations or the laws and regulations of other countries may be customary, will engage in business practices that are prohibited by our policies, circumvent our compliance programs and, by doing so, violate such laws and regulations. Any such violations, even if prohibited by our internal policies, could adversely affect our business or financial performance and our reputation.
Changes in tax and trade laws and regulations could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
In fiscal 2020, our Walmart U.S. and Sam's Club operating segments generated approximately 77% of our consolidated net sales. The federal government has created the potential for significant changes in trade policies, including tariffs and government regulations affecting trade between the U.S. and other countries where we source many of the products we sell in our stores and clubs. Potential changes which have been discussed include the renegotiation or termination of trade agreements and the imposition of higher tariffs on imports into the U.S. A significant portion of the general merchandise we sell in our U.S. stores and clubs is manufactured in other countries. Any such actions including the imposition of further tariffs on imports could increase the cost to us of such merchandise (whether imported directly or indirectly) and cause increases in the prices at which we sell such merchandise to our customers, which could materially adversely affect the financial performance of our U.S. operations and our business.
We are subject to income taxes and other taxes in both the U.S. and the foreign jurisdictions in which we currently operate or have historically operated. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and current and deferred tax assets and liabilities requires judgment and estimation. Our income taxes could be materially adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or by changes in worldwide tax laws, tax rates, regulations or accounting principles.
For example, in December 2019, India enacted a bill which significantly reduced the corporate income tax for certain companies with operations in India. In the U.S., the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "Tax Act") significantly changed income tax laws that affect U.S. corporations with additional guidance from the U.S. tax authority still pending. As further guidance is issued by the U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies, any resulting changes in our estimates will be treated in accordance with the relevant accounting guidance. Compliance with the Tax Act, including collecting information not regularly produced by the Company or unexpected changes in our estimates, may require us to incur additional costs and could affect our results of operations.
In addition, we are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities as well as subject to the prospective and retrospective effects of changing tax regulations and legislation. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may materially differ from the tax amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our income tax provision, net income, or cash flows in the period or periods for which such determination and settlement is made.

21



Changes in and/or failure to comply with other laws and regulations specific to the environments in which we operate could materially adversely affect our reputation, market position, or our business and financial performance.
We operate in complex regulated environments in the U.S. and in the other countries in which we operate and could be adversely affected by changes to existing legal requirements including the related interpretations and enforcement practices, new legal requirements and/or any failure to comply with applicable regulations.
Our pharmacy and other healthcare operations in the U.S. are subject to numerous federal, state and local regulations including licensing and other requirements and reimbursement arrangements. The regulations to which we are subject include, but are not limited to: federal and state registration and regulation of pharmacies; dispensing and sale of controlled substances and products containing pseudoephedrine; applicable governmental payer regulations including Medicare and Medicaid; data privacy and security laws and regulations including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Affordable Care Act, laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and health and safety matters, including those governing exposure to, and the management and disposal of, hazardous substances; regulations regarding food and drug safety including those of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA") and the Drug Enforcement Administration (the "DEA"), trade regulations including those of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, and consumer protection and safety regulations including those of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, as well as state regulatory authorities, governing the availability, sale, advertisement and promotion of products we sell and the financial services we offer; anti-kickback laws; false claims laws; and federal and state laws governing health care fraud and abuse and the practice of the professions of pharmacy, optical care and nurse practitioner services.
For example, in the U.S. the DEA and various other regulatory authorities regulate the distribution and dispensing of pharmaceuticals and controlled substances. We are required to hold valid DEA and state-level licenses, meet various security and operating standards and comply with the federal and various state controlled substance acts and related regulations governing the sale, dispensing, disposal and holding of controlled substances. The DEA, the FDA and state regulatory authorities have broad enforcement powers, including the ability to seize or recall products and impose significant criminal, civil and administrative sanctions for violations of these laws and regulations.
We are also governed by foreign, national and state laws and regulations of general applicability, including laws and regulations related to working conditions, health and safety, equal employment opportunity, employee benefit and other labor and employment matters, laws and regulations related to competition, and antitrust matters, and health and wellness related regulations for our pharmacy operations outside of the U.S. In addition, certain financial services we offer or make available, such as our money transfer agent services, are subject to legal and regulatory requirements, including those intended to help detect and prevent money laundering, sanctions, fraud and other illicit activity as well as consumer financial protection. The impact of new laws, regulations and policies and the related interpretations, as well as changes in enforcement practices or regulatory scrutiny generally cannot be predicted, and changes in applicable laws, regulations and policies and the related interpretations and enforcement practices may require extensive system and operational changes, be difficult to implement, increase our operating costs, require significant capital expenditures, or adversely impact the cost or attractiveness of the products or services we offer.
Untimely compliance or noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties that could adversely affect the continued operation of our businesses, including: suspension of payments from government programs; loss of required government certifications; loss of authorizations to participate in or exclusion from government programs, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs in the U.S.; loss of licenses; and significant fines or monetary damages and/or penalties. In addition, failure to comply with applicable legal or regulatory requirements in the U.S. or in any of the countries in which we operate could result in significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, and have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

22



We are subject to certain legal proceedings that may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We are involved in a number of legal proceedings, which include consumer, employment, tort and other litigation. In particular, we are currently a defendant in a number of cases containing class-action allegations in which the plaintiffs have brought claims under federal and state wage and hour laws, as well as a number of cases containing class-action allegations in which the plaintiffs have brought claims under federal and state consumer laws.
In addition, ASDA Stores, Ltd. ("Asda"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, has been named as a defendant in numerous "equal value" claims pending in the Manchester Employment Tribunal (the "Employment Tribunal") in the United Kingdom. The claimants, who are current and former Asda store employees, allege that the work performed by employees in Asda's retail stores is of equal value in terms of, among other things, the demands of their jobs to that of employees working in Asda's warehouses and distribution facilities, and that the difference in pay between these job positions disparately impacts women because more women work in retail stores while more men work in warehouses and distribution facilities, and that the pay difference is not objectively justified. The claimants are seeking differential back pay based on higher wage rates in the warehouses and distribution facilities and higher wage rates on a prospective basis. At present, we cannot predict the number of such claims that may be filed, and cannot reasonably estimate any loss or range of loss that may arise from these matters.
The Company has been responding to subpoenas, information requests and investigations from governmental entities related to nationwide controlled substance dispensing and distribution practices involving opioids and is also a defendant in numerous litigation proceedings related to opioids including the consolidated multidistrict litigation entitled In re National Prescription Opiate Litigation (MDL No. 2804), currently pending in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. Similar cases that name the Company have also been filed in state courts by state, local and tribal governments, health care providers and other plaintiffs. Plaintiffs are seeking compensatory and punitive damages, as well as injunctive relief including abatement. The Company cannot predict the number of such claims that may be filed, and cannot reasonably estimate any loss or range of loss that may arise from such claims and the related opioid matters.
We discuss these cases and other litigation to which we are party below under the caption "Item 3. Legal Proceedings" and in Note 10 in the "Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements," which are part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or shareholders in such capacity.
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for claims, including derivative claims that are based upon a violation of a duty by a current or former director, officer, employee or shareholder in such capacity or as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction upon the Court of Chancery. This exclusive forum provision may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the shareholder finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or shareholders in such capacity, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and such persons. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our bylaws inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, the claims as to which they are intended to apply, then we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
United States
The Walmart U.S. and Sam's Club segments comprise the Company's operations in the U.S. As of January 31, 2020, unit counts for Walmart U.S. and Sam's Club are summarized by format for each state and territory as follows:
 
 
Walmart U.S.
 
Sam's Club
 
 
State or Territory
 
Supercenters
 
Discount Stores
 
Neighborhood Markets and other small formats
 
Clubs
 
Grand Total
Alabama
 
101

 
1

 
29

 
13

 
144

Alaska
 
7

 
2

 

 

 
9

Arizona
 
83

 
2

 
28

 
12

 
125

Arkansas
 
76

 
5

 
37

 
9

 
127

California
 
142

 
71

 
78

 
29

 
320

Colorado
 
70

 
4

 
18

 
17

 
109

Connecticut
 
12

 
21

 
1

 
1

 
35

Delaware
 
6

 
3

 

 
1

 
10

Florida
 
232

 
9

 
99

 
46

 
386

Georgia
 
154

 
2

 
36

 
24

 
216

Hawaii
 

 
10

 

 
2

 
12

Idaho
 
23

 

 
3

 
1

 
27

Illinois
 
139

 
15

 
12

 
25

 
191

Indiana
 
97

 
6

 
11

 
13

 
127

Iowa
 
58

 
2

 

 
9

 
69

Kansas
 
58

 
2

 
15

 
9

 
84

Kentucky
 
78

 
7

 
9

 
9

 
103

Louisiana
 
88

 
2

 
34

 
14

 
138

Maine
 
19

 
3

 

 
3

 
25

Maryland
 
30

 
18

 
3

 
11

 
62

Massachusetts
 
27

 
21

 
4

 

 
52

Michigan
 
91

 
3

 
11

 
23

 
128

Minnesota
 
65

 
3

 
1

 
12

 
81

Mississippi
 
65

 
3

 
11

 
7

 
86

Missouri
 
112

 
9

 
18

 
19

 
158

Montana
 
14

 

 

 
2

 
16

Nebraska
 
35

 

 
7

 
5

 
47

Nevada
 
30

 
2

 
11

 
7

 
50

New Hampshire
 
19

 
7

 

 
2

 
28

New Jersey
 
34

 
28

 
1

 
8

 
71

New Mexico
 
35

 
2

 
9

 
7

 
53

New York
 
80

 
17

 
10

 
12

 
119

North Carolina
 
144

 
6

 
46

 
22

 
218

North Dakota
 
14

 

 

 
3

 
17

Ohio
 
139

 
6

 
4

 
27

 
176

Oklahoma
 
81

 
8

 
35

 
13

 
137

Oregon
 
29

 
7

 
10

 

 
46

Pennsylvania
 
116

 
20

 
4

 
24

 
164

Puerto Rico
 
13

 
5

 
12

 
7

 
37

Rhode Island
 
5

 
4

 

 

 
9

South Carolina
 
84

 

 
26

 
13

 
123

South Dakota
 
15

 

 

 
2

 
17

Tennessee
 
117

 
1

 
20

 
14

 
152

Texas
 
392

 
18

 
111

 
82

 
603

Utah
 
41

 

 
13

 
8

 
62

Vermont
 
3

 
3

 

 

 
6

Virginia
 
110

 
4

 
22

 
15

 
151

Washington
 
52

 
10

 
5

 

 
67

Washington D.C.
 
3

 

 
2

 

 
5

West Virginia
 
38

 

 
1

 
5

 
44

Wisconsin
 
83

 
4

 
2

 
10

 
99

Wyoming
 
12

 

 

 
2

 
14

U.S. total
 
3,571

 
376

 
809

 
599

 
5,355

Square feet (in thousands)
 
634,287

 
39,557

 
29,474

 
80,239

 
783,557


24




International
The Walmart International segment comprises the Company's operations outside of the U.S. Unit counts as of January 31, 2020(1) for Walmart International are summarized by major category for each geographic market as follows:
Geographic Market
 
Retail
 
Wholesale
 
Other(2)
 
Total
 
Square feet(3)
Africa(4)
 
351

 
91

 

 
442

 
24,754

Argentina
 
92

 

 

 
92

 
8,095

Canada
 
408

 

 

 
408

 
52,936

Central America(5)
 
836

 

 

 
836

 
13,460

Chile
 
362

 
5

 

 
367

 
15,992

China
 
412

 
26

 

 
438

 
70,163

India
 

 
28

 

 
28

 
1,514

Japan
 
333

 

 

 
333

 
19,832

Mexico
 
2,408

 
163

 

 
2,571

 
100,643

United Kingdom
 
613

 

 
18

 
631

 
37,560

International total
 
5,815

 
313

 
18

 
6,146

 
344,949

(1)
Walmart International unit counts, with the exception of Canada, are as of December 31, 2019, to correspond with the balance sheet date of the related geographic market. Canada unit counts are as of January 31, 2020.
(2)
Other includes stand-alone gas stations.
(3)
Square feet reported in thousands.
(4)
Africa unit counts primarily reside in South Africa, with other locations in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
(5)
Central America unit counts reside in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.



25



Owned and Leased Properties
The following table provides further details of our retail units and distribution facilities, including return facilities and dedicated eCommerce fulfillment centers, as of January 31, 2020:
 
 
Owned
 
Leased(1)
 
Total
U.S. properties
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Walmart U.S. retail units
 
4,069

 
687

 
4,756

    Sam's Club retail units
 
513

 
86

 
599

            Total U.S. retail units
 
4,582

 
773

 
5,355

    Walmart U.S. distribution facilities
 
108

 
54

 
162

    Sam's Club distribution facilities
 
11

 
14

 
25

Total U.S. distribution facilities
 
119

 
68

 
187

Total U.S. properties
 
4,701

 
841

 
5,542

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
International properties
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Africa
 
37

 
405

 
442

    Argentina
 
67

 
25

 
92

    Canada
 
124

 
284

 
408

    Central America
 
346

 
490

 
836

    Chile
 
196

 
171

 
367

    China
 
2

 
436

 
438

    India
 
2

 
26

 
28

    Japan
 
54

 
279

 
333

    Mexico
 
693

 
1,878

 
2,571

    United Kingdom
 
432

 
199

 
631

            Total International retail units
 
1,953

 
4,193

 
6,146

International distribution facilities
 
34

 
187

 
221

Total International properties
 
1,987

 
4,380

 
6,367

Total properties
 
6,688

 
5,221

 
11,909

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total retail units
 
6,535

 
4,966

 
11,501

Total distribution facilities
 
153

 
255

 
408

Total properties
 
6,688

 
5,221

 
11,909

(1)
Also includes U.S. and international distribution facilities which are third-party owned and operated.
We own office facilities in Bentonville, Arkansas, that serve as our principal office and own and lease office facilities throughout the U.S. and internationally for operations as well as for field and market management. The land on which our stores are located is either owned or leased by the Company. We use independent contractors to construct our buildings. All store leases provide for annual rentals, some of which escalate during the original lease or provide for additional rent based on sales volume. Substantially all of the Company's store and club leases have renewal options, some of which include rent escalation clauses.
For further information on our distribution centers, see the caption "Distribution" provided for each of our segments under "Item 1. Business."


26



ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
I. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: We discuss certain legal proceedings in Note 10 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, entitled "Contingencies," which is included in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We refer you to that discussion for important information concerning those legal proceedings, including the basis for such actions and, where known, the relief sought.
We provide the following additional information concerning those legal proceedings, including the name of the lawsuit, the court in which the lawsuit is pending, and the date on which the petition commencing the lawsuit was filed.
Asda Equal Value Claims: Ms S Brierley & Others v ASDA Stores Ltd (2406372/2008 & Others - Manchester Employment Tribunal); ASDA Stores Ltd v Brierley & Ors (A2/2016/0973 - United Kingdom Court of Appeal); ASDA Stores Ltd v Ms S Brierley & Others (UKEAT/0059/16/DM - United Kingdom Employment Appeal Tribunal); ASDA Stores Ltd v Ms S Brierley & Others (UKEAT/0009/16/JOJ - United Kingdom Employment Appeal Tribunal).
National Prescription Opiate Litigation: In re National Prescription Opiate Litigation (MDL No. 2804) (the "MDL"). The MDL is pending in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio and includes over 2,000 cases as of March 6, 2020; some cases are in the process of being transferred to the MDL or have remand motions pending; and there are over 200 additional state cases, including those remanded to state court, pending as of March 6, 2020. The case citations for the state cases are listed on Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 10-K.
II. CERTAIN OTHER MATTERS: The Company has received grand jury subpoenas issued by the United States Attorney’s Office for the Middle District of Pennsylvania seeking documents regarding the Company’s consumer fraud program and anti-money laundering compliance related to the Company’s money transfer services, where Walmart is an agent. The most recent subpoena was issued in January 2020. The Company has been responding to these subpoenas. The Company has also been responding to civil investigative demands from the United States Federal Trade Commission related to money transfers and the Company’s anti-fraud program. Due to the investigative stage of these matters, the Company is unable to predict the outcome of the investigations by the governmental entities. While the Company does not currently believe that the outcome of these matters will have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, the Company can provide no assurance as to the scope and outcome of these matters and whether its business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows will not be materially adversely affected.
III. ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS: Item 103 of SEC Regulation S-K requires disclosure of certain environmental matters. The following matters are disclosed in accordance with that requirement. For the matters listed below, management does not believe any possible loss or the range of any possible loss that may be incurred in connection with each matter, individually or in the aggregate, will be material to the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
In September 2018, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) notified the Company that it had initiated an administrative penalty action by issuing a Draft Consent Agreement and Final Order. The letter accompanying the Draft Consent Agreement and Final Order alleges that the Company distributed and/or sold three unregistered pesticide products from March to June, 2017. The EPA is seeking a penalty of $960,000. The manufacturer of the product is responsible for ensuring that a FIFRA-regulated product is properly registered prior to its sale. The Company is cooperating with the EPA.
In January 2018, the Environmental Prosecutor of the State of Chiapas (Procuraduría Ambiental del Estado de Chiapas) in Mexico imposed a fine of approximately $163,000 for the absence of an Environmental Impact Authorization License related to the store Mi Bodega Las Rosas. The Company is challenging the fine.
In April 2017, the California Air Resources Board (the "ARB") notified the Company that it had taken the position that retailers are required to use unclaimed deposits collected on sales of small containers of automotive refrigerant to fund certain consumer education programs. The ARB alleged that the Company had improperly retained approximately $4.2 million in unclaimed deposits and has sought reimbursement. The Company has denied any wrongdoing.
In April 2013, a subsidiary of the Company, Corporacion de Compañias Agroindustriales, operating in Costa Rica, became aware that the Municipality of Curridabat is seeking a penalty of approximately $380,000 in connection with the construction of a retaining wall for a perishables distribution center that is situated along a protected river bank. The subsidiary obtained permits from the Municipality and the Secretaria Técnica Nacional Ambiental at the time of construction, but the Municipality now alleges that the wall is non-conforming.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

27



PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Common Stock
Walmart's common stock is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange, which is the primary market for Walmart's common stock. The common stock trades under the symbol "WMT."
Holders of Record of Common Stock
As of March 18, 2020, there were 217,840 holders of record of Walmart's common stock.
Stock Performance Chart
This graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on Walmart's common stock during the five fiscal years ending through fiscal 2020 to the cumulative total returns on the S&P 500 Retailing Index and the S&P 500 Index. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on February 1, 2015, in shares of our common stock and in each of the indices shown and assumes that all of the dividends were reinvested.

chart-e0136b22e41054aca47.jpg
*Assumes $100 Invested on February 1, 2015
Assumes Dividends Reinvested
Fiscal Year Ending January 31, 2020

 
Fiscal Years Ended January 31,

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020
Walmart Inc.
$
100.00


$
80.25


$
83.06


$
136.08


$
125.24


$
152.65

S&P 500 Index
100.00


99.33


119.24


150.73


147.24


179.17

S&P 500 Retailing Index
100.00


118.07


140.38


203.32


216.05


253.36

Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities
From time to time, we repurchase shares of our common stock under share repurchase programs authorized by the Company's Board of Directors. All repurchases made during fiscal 2020 were made under the current $20.0 billion share repurchase program approved in October 2017, which has no expiration date or other restrictions limiting the period over which the Company can make share repurchases.  As of January 31, 2020, authorization for $5.7 billion of share repurchases remained. Any repurchased shares are constructively retired and returned to an unissued status.

28



Share repurchase activity under our share repurchase programs, on a trade date basis, for each month in the quarter ended January 31, 2020, was as follows:
Fiscal Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Repurchased
 
Average Price Paid
per Share
(in dollars)
 
Total Number of
Shares Repurchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of
Shares that May Yet Be
Repurchased Under the
Plans or Programs(1)
(in billions)
November 1-30, 2019
 
2,396,857

 
$
119.37

 
2,396,857

 
$
6.3

December 1-31, 2019
 
2,494,584

 
119.52

 
2,494,584

 
6.0

January 1-31, 2020
 
2,627,813

 
116.14

 
2,627,813

 
5.7

Total
 
7,519,254

 
 
 
7,519,254

 
 
(1) Represents the approximate dollar value of shares that could have been repurchased at the end of the month.
ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Five-Year Financial Summary
 
Walmart Inc.
 
 
 
As of and for the Fiscal Years Ended January 31,
(Amounts in millions, except per share and unit count data)
 
2020
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Operating results
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
 
$
523,964

 
$
514,405

 
$
500,343

 
$
485,873

 
$
482,130

Percentage change in total revenues from previous fiscal year
 
1.9
%
 
2.8
%
 
3.0
%
 
0.8
%
 
(0.7
)%
Net sales
 
$
519,926

 
$
510,329

 
$
495,761

 
$
481,317

 
$
478,614

Percentage change in net sales from previous fiscal year
 
1.9
%
 
2.9
%
 
3.0
%
 
0.6
%
 
(0.7
)%
Increase (decrease) in calendar comparable sales(1) in the U.S.
 
2.7
%
 
4.0
%
 
2.2
%
 
1.4
%
 
0.3
 %
Walmart U.S.
 
2.9
%
 
3.7
%
 
2.1
%
 
1.6
%
 
1.0
 %
Sam's Club
 
1.6
%
 
5.4
%
 
2.8
%
 
0.5
%
 
(3.2
)%
Gross profit margin
 
24.1
%
 
24.5
%
 
24.7
%
 
24.9
%
 
24.6
 %
Operating, selling, general and administrative expenses, as a percentage of net sales
 
20.9
%
 
21.0
%
 
21.5
%
 
21.2
%
 
20.3
 %
Operating income
 
$
20,568

 
$
21,957

 
$
20,437

 
$
22,764

 
$
24,105

Interest, net
 
2,410

 
2,129

 
2,178

 
2,267

 
2,467

Loss on extinguishment of debt
 

 

 
3,136

 

 

Other (gains) and losses
 
(1,958
)
 
8,368

 

 

 

Consolidated net income attributable to Walmart
 
14,881

 
6,670

 
9,862

 
13,643

 
14,694

Diluted net income per common share attributable to Walmart
 
$
5.19

 
$
2.26

 
$
3.28

 
$
4.38

 
$
4.57

Dividends declared per common share
 
2.12

 
2.08

 
2.04

 
2.00

 
1.96

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial position(2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
236,495

 
$
219,295

 
$
204,522

 
$
198,825

 
$
199,581

Long-term debt and long-term lease obligations (excluding amounts due within one year)
 
64,192

 
50,203

 
36,825

 
42,018

 
44,030

Total Walmart shareholders' equity
 
74,669

 
72,496

 
77,869

 
77,798

 
80,546

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unit counts
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Walmart U.S. segment
 
4,756

 
4,769

 
4,761

 
4,672

 
4,574

Walmart International segment
 
6,146

 
5,993

 
6,360

 
6,363

 
6,299

Sam's Club segment
 
599

 
599

 
597

 
660

 
655

Total units
 
11,501

 
11,361

 
11,718

 
11,695

 
11,528

(1)
Comparable sales include sales from stores and clubs open for the previous 12 months, including sales from acquisitions when such acquisitions have been owned for 12 months. Sales at a store that has changed in format are excluded from comparable sales when the conversion of that store is accompanied by a relocation or expansion that results in a change in the store's retail square feet of more than five percent. Comparable sales include fuel.
(2)
As described in Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, on February 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) under the modified retrospective approach, and thus financial statements prior to fiscal 2020 were not recast for the adoption of this standard.


29




ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
This discussion, which presents our results for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2020 ("fiscal 2020"), January 31, 2019 ("fiscal 2019") and January 31, 2018 ("fiscal 2018") should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. We intend for this discussion to provide the reader with information that will assist in understanding our financial statements, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements from period to period and the primary factors that accounted for those changes. We also discuss certain performance metrics that management uses to assess the Company's performance. Additionally, the discussion provides information about the financial results of each of the three segments to provide a better understanding of how each of those segments and its results of operations affect the financial condition and results of operations of the Company as a whole.
Throughout this Item 7, we discuss segment operating income, comparable store and club sales and other measures.  Management measures the results of the Company's segments using each segment's operating income, including certain corporate overhead allocations, as well as other measures. From time to time, we revise the measurement of each segment's operating income and other measures as determined by the information regularly reviewed by our chief operating decision maker.
Management also measures the results of comparable store and club sales, or comparable sales, a metric that indicates the performance of our existing stores and clubs by measuring the change in sales for such stores and clubs, including eCommerce sales, for a particular period from the corresponding period in the previous year. Walmart's definition of comparable sales includes sales from stores and clubs open for the previous 12 months, including remodels, relocations, expansions and conversions, as well as eCommerce sales. We measure the eCommerce sales impact by including all sales initiated online or through mobile applications, including omni-channel transactions which are fulfilled through our stores and clubs. Sales at a store that has changed in format are excluded from comparable sales when the conversion of that store is accompanied by a relocation or expansion that results in a change in the store's retail square feet of more than five percent. Additionally, sales related to acquisitions are excluded until such acquisitions have been owned for 12 months. Comparable sales are also referred to as "same-store" sales by others within the retail industry. The method of calculating comparable sales varies across the retail industry. As a result, our calculation of comparable sales is not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
Beginning with the first quarter of fiscal 2020, we updated our definition of what was previously referred to as traffic (a component, along with ticket, of comparable sales). Traffic is now referred to as "transactions" and measures a percentage change in the number of sales transactions in our comparable stores, as well as for comparable eCommerce activity.
In discussing our operating results, the term currency exchange rates refers to the currency exchange rates we use to convert the operating results for countries where the functional currency is not the U.S. dollar into U.S. dollars or for countries experiencing hyperinflation. We calculate the effect of changes in currency exchange rates as the difference between current period activity translated using the current period’s currency exchange rates and the comparable prior year period’s currency exchange rates. Additionally, no currency exchange rate fluctuations are calculated for non-USD acquisitions until owned for 12 months. Throughout our discussion, we refer to the results of this calculation as the impact of currency exchange rate fluctuations. Volatility in currency exchange rates may impact the results, including net sales and operating income, of the Company and the Walmart International segment in the future.
Our business is seasonal to a certain extent due to calendar events and national and religious holidays, as well as weather patterns. Generally, our highest sales volume and operating income have occurred in the fiscal quarter ending January 31.
We have taken strategic actions to strengthen our portfolio for the long-term, including:
Acquisition of 81 percent of the outstanding shares, or 77 percent of the diluted shares, of Flipkart Private Limited ("Flipkart") in August 2018, which negatively impacted fiscal 2020 and 2019 net income. Refer to Note 12 for additional information on the transaction.
Divestiture of 80 percent of Walmart Brazil to Advent International ("Advent") in August 2018, for which we recorded a pre-tax loss of $4.8 billion in fiscal 2019. Refer to Note 12 for additional information on the transaction.
Divestiture of banking operations in Walmart Chile and Walmart Canada in December 2018 and April 2019, respectively.
Asda made a $1.0 billion cash contribution to the Asda Group Pension Scheme (the "Plan") in October 2019 which enabled the Plan to purchase a bulk insurance annuity contract for the benefit of Plan participants in anticipation that each Plan participant will be issued an individual annuity contract.  The issuer of the individual annuity insurance contracts will be solely responsible for paying each participant’s benefits in full and will release the Plan and Asda from any future obligations. Once all Plan participants have been issued individual annuity contracts, we currently

30




estimate that we will recognize a total, pre-tax charge of approximately $2.2 billion related to the pension settlement in late fiscal 2021 or early fiscal 2022. Refer to Note 11 for additional information on the transaction.
We operate in the highly competitive omni-channel retail industry in all of the markets we serve. We face strong sales competition from other discount, department, drug, dollar, variety and specialty stores, warehouse clubs and supermarkets, as well as eCommerce businesses. Many of these competitors are national, regional or international chains or have a national or international omni-channel or eCommerce presence. We compete with a number of companies for attracting and retaining quality employees ("associates"). We, along with other retail companies, are influenced by a number of factors including, but not limited to: catastrophic events, weather, global health epidemics, competitive pressures, consumer disposable income, consumer debt levels and buying patterns, consumer credit availability, cost of goods, currency exchange rate fluctuations, customer preferences, deflation, inflation, fuel and energy prices, general economic conditions, insurance costs, interest rates, labor costs, tax rates, the imposition of tariffs, cybersecurity attacks and unemployment. Additionally, we are monitoring the potential impact of the recent coronavirus outbreak to our global business. Its financial impact is unknown at this time. Further information on the factors that can affect our operating results and on certain risks to our Company and an investment in its securities can be found herein under "Item 1A. Risk Factors," and under "Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."
Company Performance Metrics
We are committed to helping customers save money and live better through everyday low prices, supported by everyday low costs.  At times, we adjust our business strategies to maintain and strengthen our competitive positions in the countries in which we operate.  We define our financial framework as:
strong, efficient growth;
consistent operating discipline; and
strategic capital allocation.
As we execute on this financial framework, we believe our returns on capital will improve over time.
Strong, Efficient Growth
Our objective of prioritizing strong, efficient growth means we will focus on the most productive growth opportunities, increasing comparable store and club sales, accelerating eCommerce sales growth and expanding omni-channel initiatives while slowing the rate of growth of new stores and clubs. At times, we make strategic investments which are focused on the long-term growth of the Company.
Comparable sales is a metric that indicates the performance of our existing stores and clubs by measuring the change in sales for such stores and clubs, including eCommerce sales, for a particular period over the corresponding period in the previous year. The retail industry generally reports comparable sales using the retail calendar (also known as the 4-5-4 calendar). To be consistent with the retail industry, we provide comparable sales using the retail calendar in our quarterly earnings releases. However, when we discuss our comparable sales below, we are referring to our calendar comparable sales calculated using our fiscal calendar, which may result in differences when compared to comparable sales using the retail calendar.
Calendar comparable sales, as well as the impact of fuel, for fiscal 2020 and 2019, were as follows:
 
 
Fiscal Years Ended January 31,
 
 
2020
 
2019
 
2020
 
2019
 
 
With Fuel
 
Fuel Impact
Walmart U.S.
 
2.9%
 
3.7%
 
0.0%
 
0.1%
Sam's Club
 
1.6%
 
5.4%
 
0.8%
 
1.6%
Total U.S.
 
2.7%
 
4.0%
 
0.1%
 
0.4%
Walmart U.S. comparable sales increased 2.9% and 3.7% in fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively, driven by ticket and transactions growth. Walmart U.S. eCommerce sales positively contributed approximately 1.7% and 1.3% to comparable sales for fiscal 2020 and