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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________________ to _______________________
Commission file number: 000-22427
hska-20211231_g1.jpg
HESKA CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware77-0192527
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3760 Rocky Mountain Avenue Loveland, Colorado
80538
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (970493-7272
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par valueHSKAThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company,"



and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.                            

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes   No 

The aggregate market value of voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $2,244,791,831 as of June 30, 2021 based upon the closing price on the Nasdaq Capital Market reported for such date. This calculation does not reflect a determination that certain persons are affiliates of the Registrant for any other purpose.

10,812,985 shares of the Registrant's Public Common Stock, $.01 par value, were outstanding at February 24, 2021.
___________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III incorporate by reference information from the Registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the Registrant's 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on or about May 4, 2022.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
   Page
 
 Item 1.
 Item 1A.
 Item 1B.
 Item 2.
 Item 3.
 Item 4.
 Item 5.
 Item 7.
 Item 7A.
 Item 8.
 Item 9.
 Item 9A.
 Item 9B.
Item 9C.
 Item 10.
 Item 11.
 Item 12.
 Item 13.
 Item 14.
 
 Item 15.
Item 16.
 

HESKA, scil, ALLERCEPT, HemaTrue, Solo Step, Element DC, Element HT5, Element POC, Element i, Element i+, Element COAG, Element DC5X and Element RC, Element RCX, Element RC3X, Element AIM, and scil vet, scil academy, scil vIP, scil ABC are registered trademarks of Heska Corporation. DRI-CHEM is a registered trademark of FUJIFILM Corporation. TRI-HEART is a registered trademark of Intervet Inc., d/b/a Merck Animal Health, formerly known as Schering-Plough Animal Health Corporation ("Merck Animal Health"), which is a unit of Merck & Co., Inc., in the United States and is a registered trademark of Heska Corporation in other countries. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also refers to trademarks and trade names of other organizations.


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Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements
This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). For this purpose, any statements contained herein that are not statements of current or historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, words such as "scheduled," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks," "estimates," variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual results could differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in any such forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors. Such factors are set forth in "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Business" and elsewhere in this Form 10-K and include, among others, risks and uncertainties related to:
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations and financial condition;
the success of third parties in marketing our products;
our reliance on third party suppliers and collaborative partners;
our dependence on key personnel;
our dependence upon a number of significant customers;
competitive conditions in our industry;
our dependence on third parties to successfully develop new products;
our ability to market and sell our products successfully;
expansion of our international operations;
the impact of regulation on our business;
the success of our acquisitions and other strategic development opportunities;
our ability to develop, commercialize and gain market acceptance of our products;
cybersecurity incidents and related disruptions and our ability to protect our stakeholders’ privacy;
product returns or liabilities;
volatility of our stock price;
our ability to service our convertible notes and comply with their terms.
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
Although we believe that expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect the passage of time, any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except as otherwise required by applicable securities laws. These forward-looking statements apply only as of the date of this Form 10-K or for statements incorporated by reference from our 2022 proxy statement on Schedule 14A, as of the date of the Schedule 14A.

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PART I
Item 1. Business
Unless we state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the terms "Heska," "we," "our," "us" and the "Company" refer to Heska Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Charter”), authorizes three classes of stock: Original Common Stock, Public Common Stock, and Preferred Stock.  Pursuant to an NOL Protective Amendment to the Charter adopted in 2010, all shares of Original Common Stock then outstanding were automatically reclassified into shares of Public Common Stock.  Our Public Common Stock trades on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.  In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, references to “Public Common Stock” and “common stock” are references to our Public Common Stock, unless the context otherwise requires.
Overview
We sell veterinary and animal health diagnostic and specialty products. Our offerings include Point of Care diagnostic laboratory instruments and consumables; Point of Care digital imaging diagnostic products; reference laboratory testing; digital cytology services; vaccines; local and cloud-based data services; allergy testing and immunotherapy; single-use offerings such as in-clinic diagnostic tests and heartworm preventive products; and practice information management software and related software. Our core focus is on supporting veterinarians in the canine and feline healthcare space.

On February 22, 2019, the Company acquired 70% of the equity of Optomed. Optomed designs, develops, manufactures and distributes veterinary imaging solutions, with a primary focus and expertise in endoscopy technologies and has a direct sales presence in France. On November 4, 2019 the Company acquired A. DUCHENE IMMO ("SCI Duchene"). SCI Duchene owns real estate in which Optomed operates.

On December 5, 2019, the Company acquired CVM Diagnostico Veterinario, S.L. and CVM Ecografia, jointly known as the CVM Companies ("CVM"). CVM is a Spanish company that primarily sells and performs marketing of medical equipment to veterinary clinics. In 2021, CVM was merged into scil animal care company SL.

On April 1, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of scil animal care company GmbH ("scil") from Covetrus, Inc. scil represents a key milestone in the Company's long-term strategic plan creating a global veterinary diagnostics company with leadership positions in key geographic markets. Scil has operations in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Canada, and Malaysia.

On October 5, 2020 the Company acquired the remaining 30% minority interest in Optomed. The Company had previously acquired 70% of the equity of Optomed in February 2019. The purchase allowed the Company to assume full control of the business operations. In March 2021, the interest in Optomed was sold to scil, and Optomed was immediately merged into scil animal care company sarl.

On February 1, 2021 the Company acquired Lacuna Diagnostics, Inc. ("Lacuna"). Lacuna is a United States based company that specializes in digital cytology services. The purchase allows the Company to broaden our Point of Care diagnostics offering. The Lacuna entity was immediately dissolved on February 1, 2021.

On July 1, 2021, the Company acquired BiEsse A-Laboratorio die Analisi Veterinarie S.r.l. (“BSA”). BSA is based in Milan, Italy and allows the Company to enter into the central reference laboratory market in Europe. In January, 2022, BSA was merged into scil animal care company SRI.

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On September 1, 2021, the Company acquired 65% of the equity of Biotech Laboratories U.S.A. LLC ("Biotech"). Biotech is a developer of rapid assay diagnostic testing.

On January 3, 2022, the Company acquired VetZ GmbH (“VetZ”). VetZ is a European leader in veterinary practice information management software solutions (“PIMS”).

Products and Services
Our business is composed of two operating and reportable segments: North America and International. North America consists of the United States, Canada and Mexico. International consists of geographies outside of North America, primarily our operations in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Spain and Switzerland. The Company's core strategic focus on Point of Care laboratory and imaging products is included in both segments. The North America segment also includes the contract manufacturing of vaccines and pharmaceutical products.
Our major product categories sold in both segments include: Point of Care laboratory instruments and consumables; digital imaging diagnostic instruments, software and services; digital cytology services; local and cloud-based data services; allergy testing and immunotherapy; and single use offerings such as in-clinic diagnostic tests and heartworm preventive products. The North America segment also includes private label vaccine and pharmaceutical production, which are sold by third parties under third party labels.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, our North America and International segments represent approximately 62.6% and 37.4% of our total revenue, respectively.
Point of Care Laboratory and Imaging Diagnostics
We offer a line of veterinary Point of Care (stationary and portable) laboratory diagnostic instruments for testing blood and other biological materials, for use in diagnostic imaging and for other uses, some of which are described below. We also market and sell consumable supplies and services for these instruments. Our line of veterinary instruments includes the following:
Blood Chemistry. Element DC® Veterinary Chemistry Analyzer (the "Element DC") is an easy-to-use, robust system that uses dry slide technology for blood chemistry and electrolyte analysis. The Element DC5x® Veterinary Chemistry Analyzer (the "Element DC5x"), launched during 2018, delivers faster run times, higher throughput, and allows simultaneous staging of five patient samples. The Element DCXTM Veterinary Chemistry Analyzer (the "Element DCX"), launched during 2021, is a new chemistry analyzer that is nestled between the economical Element DC and the ultra-high-capacity Element DC5x. The Element DC, Element DCX, and Element DC5x utilize the same test slides. We are supplied with the Element DC, Element DCX, and Element DC5x, as well as the affiliated test slides and supplies, under a contractual agreement with FUJIFILM Corporation for sale in the North America segment.
We also market and distribute the Element RC®, Element RCXTM, and Element RC3XTM, easy-to-use, compact chemistry systems that utilize load-and-go rotors for blood chemistry and electrolyte analysis. A small volume of whole blood can be loaded on the rotor, eliminating the need for external centrifugation. Rotors of various test menus are available, providing results in some cases for up to 21 measured tests, including additional calculated values. We also market and distribute the scil Element DC®, easy to use, compact chemistry systems that utilize load-and-go dry chemistry tests for blood chemistry. We are supplied with the Element RC, the Element RCX, the Element RC3X, and the scil Element DC under contractual agreements with various suppliers, which are sold and marketed in the International segment.

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Hematology. The Element HT5® Hematology Analyzer (the "HT5") is a true 5-part hematology analyzer which measures key parameters such as white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin levels in animals. The HT5 can generate results in less than a minute with 15 µL of sample. We are supplied with the HT5 and affiliated reagents and supplies under a contractual agreement with Shenzen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co., Ltd. ("Mindray"). We also market the scil Vet abc Plus +TM, a 4-part hematology analyzer that provides results in less than a minute with 10 µL of sample.
Blood Gases and Electrolytes. The Element POC® Blood Gas & Electrolyte Analyzer (the "EPOC") is a handheld, wireless analyzer which delivers rapid blood gas, electrolyte, metabolite and basic blood chemistry testing. The EPOC features test cards with room temperature storage which can offer results with less than 100 µL of sample as well as WiFi and Bluetooth connectivity.
Immunodiagnostics. The Element i® Immunodiagnostic Analyzer (the "Element i") utilizes fluorescence immunoassay technology to ensure sensitivity for accurate in-clinic detection of Total T4, TSH, Cortisol, Bile Acids, and Progesterone. The Element i is a benchtop technology with a test time of 10 minutes or less per analyte. Along with confidence in results, this measurement principle allows for simplified reagents and testing protocols. The Element i+® Immunodiagnostic Analyzer (the "Element i+"), launched during 2020, utilizes patented fluorescence waveguide immunoassay technology with laser evanescent illumination for accurate in-clinic detection of Total T4 and Cortisol. The Element i+ delivers results in as little as 5 minutes from a sample volume of 100ul, using microfluidic cartridges stored at room temperature. The Element i+ analyzer system has capability of high sensitivity and specificity multiplexed assays in a single microfluidic cartridge, offering future menu expansions in endocrine, inflammatory, infectious disease, and other diagnostic target areas. The Cube-VetTM is a compact benchtop analyzer used for the determination of the parameters fibrinogen, cCRP, SAA, T4, fructosamine, pancreas-specific lipase (dog / cat), ammonia, GLDH, lactate, progesterone, bile acids, phenobarbital and SDMA.
Coagulation. The Element COAG® Veterinary Analyzer (the "Element COAG") is a compact benchtop, cartridge-based system used for coagulation and specialty testing. There are five test cartridges offered: the PT/aPTT Coag Combo, Equine Fibrinogen, Canine Fibrinogen, Canine DEA 1 Blood Typing and Feline A and B Blood Typing. Each of these cartridges perform accurate, automated analysis using less than 100 µL of sample in just minutes.
The Element COAG+TM Veterinary Analyzer (the "Element COAG+") is a lightweight, handheld, battery-powered, wifi-capable cartridge-based system used for coagulation testing. The combined PT/aPTT test strips are stored at room temperature and accurate analysis can be achieved in just minutes using only 10ul of fresh or citrated whole blood.
Urine and Fecal Diagnostics. The Element AIM® Veterinary Analyzer (the "Element AIM") is a first in class automated fecal and urine combination point of care laboratory analyzer. Utilizing a novel, proprietary dual-sample type-capable cartridge, on-board centrifugation, sophisticated three-plane precision motion system, superior optical subsystem components, and image capture and processing artificial intelligence, the Element AIM provides accurate automated urine sediment and fecal flotation results in minutes. State of the art quality images are presented for rapid viewing during the patient visit, eliminating manual sample processing and time-consuming microscopic slide review. Cloud image capture and continuous machine learning software capabilities will allow identification, classification, and quantitation improvements over time, as well as additional enhancements in identifying new target objects.
Digital Cytology. The HeskaViewTM Telecytology service provides in-clinic automated microscopic slide scanning and computing equipment that is seamlessly integrated with an online, on-demand network of board-certified clinical pathologists available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Patient samples scanned and submitted can be evaluated and a comprehensive pathology report returned to the veterinarian
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typically within a couple of hours, often within minutes for urgent STAT needs, expediting patient diagnosis and treatment, elevating overall patient care.
IV Pumps. The VET/IV 2.2TM infusion pump is a compact, affordable IV pump that allows veterinarians to easily provide regulated infusion of fluids for their patients.
Digital Radiography. We sell hardware, including digital radiography detectors, acquisition workstation equipment, positioning aides, viewing computers, radiographic generators, anti-scatter grids and other accessories for use in digital radiography imaging diagnostics. With this hardware, we also provide licensed embedded software, support, data hosting, warranty and other services. CloudDRTM solutions combine flat panel digital radiography detectors, acquisition workstations and acquisition software to produce, review, archive and share radiographic image studies, primarily in fixed location companion animal veterinary settings.

We also sell mobile digital radiography products, primarily for equine use, such as the Cuattro Uno, a full powered, portable digital radiography generator integrated with an embedded touchscreen acquisition and review function. In addition to Cuattro Uno, we sell the Cuattro Hub, a mobile digital radiography acquisition console that is capable of operating as a general full field wireless x-ray imager and as the control and display for DentiPodTM, a large format equine intraoral dental sensor, and SonoPod TM, a wireless ultrasound.
Ultrasound Systems. We sell ultrasound products, including affiliated probes and peripherals, with varying features and corresponding price points from various suppliers.
Diagnostic Data and Support. CloudbankTM is an automatic, secure, web-based image storage solution designed to interface with the imaging products we sell. HeskaView+TM is a Picture Archival and Communications Systems (PACS) for web or local viewing, reporting, planning and email sharing of studies on Internet devices, including personal computers, tablet devices and smartphones. SupportCloudTM is a support package including call center voice and remote diagnostics, recovery and other services, such as the provision of warranty-related loaner units, to support customers. Access and operation between our imaging devices, CloudbankTM and SupportCloudTM is supported by the acquisition software used in the equipment we sell.

HeskaView and Heska’s Data Capture Utility (DCU) are modern and intuitively operated practice information software applications for Point of Care devices. The HeskaView software can be used as independent practice information reporting software for Heska analyzers. HeskaView and the DCU can be used as a middleware to bi-directionally connect Heska’s analyzers to a wide variety of Veterinary Practice Management Software platforms used throughout North America.

scil vIP® is a modern and intuitively operated practice information software for Point of Care devices. The software can be used as independent practice information software or as middleware to connect POC equipment throughout Europe. It further provides a web interface allowing the users to access the software even more easily.
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Point of Care Rapid Assay Diagnostic Tests
We sell rapid point-of-care tests to detect antigens and antibodies associated with infectious and parasitic diseases of animals. The trūRapid™ line of lateral flow tests are fast, accurate, and convenient for veterinarians. There are over 20 different tests available to detect antigens and antibodies for a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases. Both individual and multiplex rapids are available to give clinics the ultimate flexibility in testing options. trūRapids™ can be used on a variety of samples, including feces, whole blood, serum, or plasma and are stored at room temperature providing convenience for any practice. With strong sensitivity and specificity, trūRapid™ tests afford clinics the confidence to make the correct clinical decisions to diagnose and treat pets.
Heartworm Preventive Products
We have an agreement with Merck Animal Health, a unit of Merck & Co., Inc., granting Merck Animal Health the exclusive distribution and marketing rights for our canine heartworm prevention product, Tri-Heart® Plus Chewable Tablets, ultimately sold to or through veterinarians in the U.S. Tri-Heart Plus Chewable Tablets (ivermectin/pyrantel) are indicated for use as a monthly preventive treatment of canine heartworm infection and for treatment and control of ascarid and hookworm infections. We manufacture Tri-Heart Plus Chewable Tablets at our Des Moines, Iowa production facility.
Allergy Products and Services
Allergy is common in companion animals. Clinical symptoms of allergy are variable, but are often manifested as persistent and serious skin disease in dogs and cats. Clinical management of allergic disease is problematic, as there are a large number of allergens that may give rise to these conditions. Although skin testing is often regarded as the most accurate diagnostic procedure, such tests can be painful, subjective and inconvenient. The effectiveness of the immunotherapy that is prescribed to treat symptoms of allergic disease is inherently limited by inaccuracies in the diagnostic process.
We believe that our ALLERCEPT® Definitive Allergen Panels provide the most accurate determination of which we are aware of the specific allergens to which an animal, such as a dog, cat or horse, is reacting. The panels use a highly specific recombinant version of the natural IgE receptor to test the serum of potentially allergic animals for IgE directed against a panel of known allergens. A typical test panel consists primarily of various pollen, grass, mold, insect and mite allergens. The test results serve as the basis for prescription ALLERCEPT® Therapy Shots and ALLERCEPT® Therapy Drops. We operate veterinary laboratories in Loveland, Colorado and Fribourg, Switzerland which both offer blood testing using our ALLERCEPT® Definitive Allergen Panels.

We sell kits to conduct blood testing using our ALLERCEPT® Definitive Allergen Panels to third party veterinary diagnostic laboratories outside of the U.S. We also sell products to screen for the presence of allergen-specific IgE to these customers. Animals testing positive for allergen-specific IgE using these screening tests are candidates for further evaluation using our ALLERCEPT® Definitive Allergen Panels.

Veterinarians who use our ALLERCEPT® Definitive Allergen Panels often purchase our ALLERCEPT® Therapy Shots or ALLERCEPT® Therapy Drops. These prescription immunotherapy treatment sets are formulated specifically for each allergic animal and contain only the allergens to which the animal has significant levels of IgE antibodies. The prescription formulations are administered in a series of subcutaneous injections (Shots) or by daily sublingual (under the tongue) administration (Drops), with doses increasing over several months, to ameliorate the allergic condition of the animal. Immunotherapy is generally continued for an extended time. We offer canine, feline and equine subcutaneous and sublingual
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immunotherapy treatment products. We believe our ALLERCEPT® Therapy Drops offer a convenient alternative to subcutaneous injection, thereby increasing the likelihood of pet owner compliance.
Other Vaccines and Pharmaceuticals ("OVP")
We developed a line of bovine vaccines that are licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture ("USDA"). In January 2015, we signed a long-term Master Supply Agreement related to these vaccines with Elanco.
We manufacture biological and pharmaceutical products for a number of other animal health companies. We manufacture products for animals other than cattle including horses, pigs, chickens, cats and dogs. Our offerings range from providing complete turnkey services which include research, licensing, production, labeling and packaging of products to providing any one of these services as needed by our customers as well as validation support and distribution services.
Marketing, Sales and Customer Support
We currently market our products to veterinarians through an outside field organization, a telephone sales force and independent third-party distributors, as well as through trade shows, print advertising and through other distribution relationships, such as Merck Animal Health in the case of our heartworm preventive. As of December 31, 2021, our customer facing sales, installed base support and utilization organization consisted of 144 and 125 individuals in various parts of our North America and International segments, respectively.
Veterinarians may obtain our products directly from us or indirectly through others. All of our products ultimately are sold primarily to or through veterinarians. The acceptance of our products by veterinarians is critical to our success. Internationally, we market our products to veterinarians primarily through our recent acquisitions of scil, Optomed and CVM, and through organic efforts in Australia we have begun to market directly. We also market internationally outside our key countries through third-party veterinary diagnostic laboratories and independent third party distributors.
We have a staff dedicated to customer and product support including veterinarians, technical support specialists and service technicians. Individuals from our product development group may also be used as a resource in responding to certain product inquiries.
All OVP products are marketed and sold by third parties under third-party labels.
We grant third parties rights to our intellectual property as well as our products, with our compensation often taking the form of royalties and/or milestone payments.
Manufacturing
The majority of our revenue is from proprietary products manufactured by third parties. Third parties manufacture our veterinary instruments, including affiliated consumables and supplies.
Our facility in Des Moines, Iowa is a USDA, Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") and Drug Enforcement Agency ("DEA") licensed biological and pharmaceutical manufacturing facility. This facility currently has the capacity to manufacture more than 50 million doses of vaccine each year. We expect that we will, for the foreseeable future, manufacture most, or all of our pharmaceutical and biological products at this facility, as well as most, or all, of our recombinant proteins and other proprietary reagents for our diagnostic tests. We currently manufacture our canine heartworm prevention product, our allergy treatment products and all our OVP products at this facility.
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The OVP products for our North America segment are purchased in both finished and bulk format, and we perform all phases of manufacturing, including growth of the active bacterial and viral agents, sterile filling, lyophilization and packaging at this facility. We manufacture our various allergy products at our Des Moines facility, our Loveland facility and our Fribourg facility. We believe the raw materials for most of the products we manufacture are readily available from more than one source.
Product Development
We are committed to providing innovative products to address the health needs of companion animals. We may obtain such products from external sources, external collaboration or internal research and development.
We are committed to identifying external product opportunities and creating business and technical collaborations that lead to high value veterinary products. We believe that our active participation in scientific networks and our reputation for investing in research enhances our ability to acquire external product opportunities. We have collaborated, and intend to continue to do so, with a number of companies and universities.
Internal research and development is managed on a case-by-case basis. We employ individuals with expertise in various applicable areas and will form multidisciplinary product-associated teams as appropriate.
Intellectual Property
We believe that patents, trademarks, copyrights and other proprietary rights represent opportunities to grow our business and maintain or enhance our competitive position. We also rely upon trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovations and licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our competitive position. The proprietary technologies of our OVP products are primarily protected through trade secret protection of, for example, our manufacturing processes in this area.

We actively seek patent protection both in the U.S. and abroad. Our issued patent portfolios primarily relate to allergy, diagnostic and detection tests, and vaccine delivery technologies. As of December 31, 2021, we owned, co-owned or had rights to 2 issued U.S. patents expiring at various dates from May 2022 to April 2024 and had 1 pending U.S. patent application. Our corresponding foreign patent portfolio as of December 31, 2021 included 2 issued patents in various foreign countries expiring at various dates from March 2022 to August 2024 and no pending applications.
We also have obtained exclusive and non-exclusive licenses for numerous other patents held by academic institutions and for-profit companies.
Seasonality
While we do not experience significant seasonal fluctuations in our sales throughout the year, we generally experience higher sales in the fourth quarter due to industry trade shows and other similar activities.
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Government Regulation
Although the majority of our revenue is from the sale of unregulated items, many of our products or products that we may develop are, or may be, subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the U.S., including the USDA and the FDA and by similar agencies in other countries. These regulations govern, among other things, the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, pre-market approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of our products. Satisfaction of these requirements can take several years to achieve and the time needed to satisfy them may vary substantially, based on the type, complexity and novelty of the product. Any product that we develop must receive all relevant regulatory approval or clearances, if required, before it may be marketed in a particular country. The following summarizes the major U.S. government agencies that regulate animal health products:

USDA.  Vaccines and certain single use, point-of-care diagnostics are considered veterinary biologics and are therefore regulated by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, or CVB, of the USDA. In contrast to vaccines, single use, point-of-care diagnostics can typically be licensed by the USDA in about two years, at considerably less cost. However, vaccines or diagnostics that use innovative materials, such as those resulting from recombinant DNA technology, usually require additional time to license. The USDA licensing process involves the submission of several data packages. These packages include information on how the product will be manufactured, information on the efficacy and safety of the product in laboratory and target animal studies and information on performance of the product in field conditions.

FDA.  Pharmaceutical products, which typically include synthetic compounds, are approved and monitored by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the FDA. Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the same statutory standard for FDA approval applies to both human and animal drugs: demonstrated safety, efficacy and compliance with FDA manufacturing standards. However, unlike human drugs, neither preclinical studies nor a sequential phase system of studies are required. Rather, for animal drugs, studies for safety and efficacy may be conducted immediately in the species for which the drug is intended. Thus, there is no required phased evaluation of drug performance, and the Center for Veterinary Medicine will review data at appropriate times in the drug development process. The time and cost for developing companion animal drugs may be significantly less than for drugs for livestock animals, which generally have enhanced standards designed to ensure safety in the food chain.

EPA.  Products that are applied topically to animals or to premises to control external parasites are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA.
After we have received regulatory licensing or approval for our products, numerous regulatory requirements typically apply. Among the conditions for certain regulatory approvals is the requirement that our manufacturing facilities or those of our third-party manufacturers conform to current Good Manufacturing Practices or other manufacturing regulations, which include requirements relating to quality control and quality assurance as well as maintenance of records and documentation. The USDA, FDA and foreign regulatory authorities strictly enforce manufacturing regulatory requirements through periodic inspections and/or reports.
A number of our animal health products are not regulated. For example, certain products such as our ALLERCEPT® panels are not regulated by either the USDA or FDA. Similarly, none of our veterinary instruments requires regulatory approval to be marketed and sold in the U.S.

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We have pursued Conformité Européene (CE)Marking for imaging equipment and regulatory approval outside the U.S. based on market demographics of foreign countries. For marketing outside the U.S., we are subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing regulatory licensing and approval for many of our products. Licensing and approval by comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries must be obtained before we can market products in those countries. Product licensing approval processes and requirements vary from country to country and the time required for such approvals may differ substantially from that required in the U.S. We cannot be certain that approval of any of our products in one country will result in approvals in any other country.
To date, we or our distributors have sought regulatory approval for certain of our products from the Canadian Center for Veterinary Biologics, or CCVB (Canada); the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, or MAFF (Japan); the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, or ADAFF (Australia); the Republic of South Africa Department of Agriculture, or RSADA (South Africa); the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, or ADCD (Hong Kong); the Macau Animal Health Division of Animal Control and Inspection, or IACM (Macau); the Spanish Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; and from the relevant regulatory authorities in certain other countries requiring such approval.
The heartworm and allergy products previously discussed which have received regulatory approval in the U.S. and/or elsewhere are summarized below:
ProductsCountryRegulatedAgencyStatus
ALLERCEPT Allergy Treatment SetsU.S.
Canada
Yes
Yes
USDA
CCVB
Licensed
Licensed
SOLO STEP CHU.S.
EU
Canada
Yes
No-in most countries
Yes
USDA

CCVB
Licensed
 
Licensed
SOLO STEP FHU.S.
Canada
Yes
Yes
USDA
CCVB
Licensed
Licensed
TRI-HEART Plus Heartworm PreventiveU.S.
Hong Kong
Macau
Yes
Yes
Yes
FDA
AFCD
IACM
Licensed
Licensed
Licensed
Customer Concentration

The information concerning our significant customers included in our Risk Factors section of this Annual Report under the caption “The loss of significant customers who, for example, are historically large purchasers or who are considered leaders in their field could damage our business and financial results” is incorporated herein by reference thereto.
Competition
Our market is intensely competitive. Our competitors include independent animal health companies and major pharmaceutical companies that have animal health divisions. We also compete with independent, third-party distributors, including distributors who sell products under their own private labels. In the Point of Care diagnostic testing market, our major competitors include IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. ("IDEXX") and Zoetis Inc. ("Zoetis"). Idexx has a larger veterinary product and service offering than we do and a large sales infrastructure network and a well-established brand name. Zoetis also has a large sales infrastructure network.
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In our North America segment, the OVP products we manufacture for sale by third parties compete with similar products offered by a number of other companies, some of which have substantially greater financial, technical, research and other resources than us and may have more established marketing, sales, distribution and service organizations than we do. Companies with a significant presence in the animal health market such as CEVA Santé Animale, Elanco, Merck, Sanofi, Vétoquinol S.A., Virbac S.A. and Zoetis may be marketing or developing products that compete with our products or would compete with them if successfully developed. These and other competitors and potential competitors may have substantially greater financial, technical, research and other resources and larger, more established marketing, sales, distribution and service organizations than we do. Our competitors may offer broader product lines and have greater name recognition than we do.
Environmental Regulation
In connection with our product development activities and manufacturing of our biological, pharmaceutical, diagnostic and detection products, we are subject to federal, state and local laws, rules, regulations and policies governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of certain materials, biological specimens and wastes. Although we believe that we have complied with these laws, regulations and policies in all material respects and have not been required to take any significant action to correct any noncompliance, we may be required to incur significant costs to comply with environmental and health and safety regulations in the future. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials comply with the standards prescribed by state and federal regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be eliminated. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any such liability could exceed our resources.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2021, we employed approximately 655 persons, 396 of which resided in North America and 259 internationally. We employ temporary workers on a need only basis to maintain business flexibility and a dynamic workforce. We are committed to employee diversity and inclusion and the support of traditionally underrepresented groups in management. Our workforce is approximately 53% women and 47% men with 40% of our U.S. management team (defined as Director, Vice President, Senior Vice President and Executive Vice President) represented by women. In 2021, we experienced an employee turnover rate of approximately 15% globally.
We believe that the current and future success of our company’s ability to execute on its strategic initiatives is highly dependent upon our ability to recruit, retain and reward our employees. We engage in targeted recruitment strategies to fill highly skilled positions. Our employees enjoy competitive compensation plans including market rate targeted salaries, robust benefits including retirement plans and employee stock purchase plan opportunities, and the opportunity for participation in short- and long-term incentive programs. Our compensation philosophy is designed to provide an appealing, market-based and rewarding compensation program that encourages high personal and company performance, strong cultural and ethical behavior, and incentives aligned with shareholder interests. Our aim is to attract, engage and retain highly qualified, motivated, and creative people who will fulfill our mission to be the “voice of the pet,” while delivering on Heska goals in a healthy, honest, and sustainable manner.

We are committed to providing a workplace that protects the health and well-being of our employees. All employees are required to abide by our Code of Conduct and Ethics, company health and safety parameters and contribute to a positive and friendly company culture. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and in consideration of our employees’ safety, in March 2020, we implemented work from home policies for all employees with the ability to work remotely, along with targeted on-site attendance for employees whose job requires their physical presence. At our Des Moines, Iowa manufacturing facility, we instituted staggered start
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times, designated building entry/exit protocols and closed common areas to maximize “social distancing” guidelines. As of December 31, 2021, we continue to enforce these safety precautions and abide by Center for Disease Control (“CDC”) guidelines, while tentatively planning limited return to work procedures in the second half of 2022.

Our Chief Administrative Officer is responsible for developing and executing the Company’s human capital strategy and updates the Board on human capital matters.
Where You Can Find Additional Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 3760 Rocky Mountain Avenue, Loveland, Colorado 80538. Our telephone number is 970-493-7272 and our Internet address is www.heska.com. References to our website in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are inactive textual references only and the content of our website should not be deemed incorporated by reference for any purpose.
Because we believe it provides useful information in a cost-effective manner to interested investors, we make available free of charge, via a link on our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").
In addition, you may also review and download a copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including any exhibits and any schedules filed therewith, and our other periodic and current reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file with the SEC, without charge, by visiting the SEC's website (http://www.sec.gov).

Information About Our Executive Officers
Our executive officers and their ages as of February 28, 2022 are as follows:
 
NameAgePosition
Kevin S. Wilson49Chief Executive Officer and President
Catherine Grassman46Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Nancy Wisnewski, Ph.D.59Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer
Steven M. Eyl56Executive Vice President, Chief Commercial Officer, and President, scil animal care company
Christopher Sveen39Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Heska and President, Diamond Animal Health
Eleanor Baker37Executive Vice President, Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer scil animal care company
Kevin S. Wilson was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer effective March 31, 2014. He previously served as our President and Chief Operating Officer from February 2013. Mr. Wilson became a member of our Board of Directors in May 2014. Mr. Wilson is a founder, member and officer of Cuattro, LLC, an imaging and software company. Since 2008, he has been involved in developing technologies for radiographic imaging with Cuattro, LLC and as a founder of Cuattro Software, LLC, Cuattro Medical, LLC and Cuattro Veterinary, LLC. Mr. Wilson served on the board of various private, non-profit and educational organizations from 2005 to 2011. He was a founder of Sound Technologies, Inc., a diagnostic imaging
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company, in 1996. After Sound Technologies, Inc. was sold to VCA Antech, Inc. in 2004, Mr. Wilson served as Chief Strategy Officer for VCA Antech, Inc. until 2006. Mr. Wilson attended Saddleback College. 
Catherine Grassman, CPA, was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer on May 6, 2019. She previously served as Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from December 2017 to May 2019 and as Corporate Controller from January 2017 to December 2017. Prior to joining Heska, Ms. Grassman was Corporate Controller of KeyPoint Government Solutions, a mid-sized private-equity backed, background investigation services company. She also spent more than 15 years with PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP as a senior manager in the audit practice. She is licensed in Colorado as a Certified Public Accountant and possesses a Master of Accountancy and a Bachelor of Business Administration from Stetson University.
Nancy Wisnewski, Ph.D. was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer in August 2019. She previously served as Executive Vice President, Diagnostic Operations and Product Development from September 2016 to August 2019, as Executive Vice President, Product Development and Customer Service from April 2011 to September 2016 and as Vice President, Product Development and Technical Customer Service from December 2006 to April 2011. From January 2006 to November 2006, Dr. Wisnewski was Vice President, Research and Development. Dr. Wisnewski held various positions in Heska's Research and Development organization between 1993 and 2005. She holds a Ph.D. in Parasitology/Biochemistry from the University of Notre Dame and a BS in Biology from Lafayette College.
Steven M. Eyl was appointed Executive Vice President, Global Sales and Marketing in September 2016. He previously served as our Executive Vice President, Commercial Operations from May 2013 to September 2016. Mr. Eyl was a principal of Eyl Business Services, a consulting firm, from January 2012 to May 2013. He was President of Sound Technologies, Inc. ("Sound") from 2000 to 2011, including after Sound's acquisition by VCA Antech, Inc. in 2004. Mr. Eyl has an extensive background in medical technology sales. He is a graduate of Indiana University.
Christopher Sveen, Esq. was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Heska Corporation and President, Diamond Animal Health in April 2020, previously serving as Vice President, General Counsel from December 2018 to April 2020. Before joining Heska, Mr. Sveen served as a Private Banker at J.P. Morgan Private Bank in Chicago from August 2015 to May 2018 and prior to that as a civil litigation and trial attorney at a boutique litigation firm. Mr. Sveen received his Juris Doctor from Chicago-Kent College of Law in 2009 and his Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University in 2015. He is licensed to practice law in Illinois and Colorado.

Eleanor Baker, Esq. was appointed Executive Vice President, Managing Director of scil in April 2020, previously serving as Vice President, General Counsel since November 2017. Previously, Ms. Baker worked at KPMG, LLP as a technology and innovation solutions consultant from 2015 to November 2017. Ms. Baker received her Juris Doctor from Wake Forest School of Law, a Master of Laws from University of Houston and her undergraduate degree from Texas A&M University. She is licensed to practice law in Texas and Colorado.
Item 1A.Risk Factors

Risk Factors Summary

Pursuant to Item 105(b) of Regulation S-K, the following represents a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together
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with other information in this Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

Risks related to our business and industry

Uncertainty regarding the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If third parties with substantial marketing rights for certain of our historical products, existing products, or future products under development are not successful in marketing those products, then our sales and financial position may suffer.
We rely substantially on third party suppliers and rights under contracts with third parties. The loss of products, or rights under contracts, or delays in product availability from one or more third party suppliers could substantially harm our business.
We depend on key personnel for our future success. If we lose our key personnel or are unable to attract and retain additional personnel, we may be unable to achieve our goals.
The loss of significant customers who, for example, are historically large purchasers or who are considered leaders in their field could damage our business and financial results.
We operate in a highly competitive industry, which could render our products obsolete or substantially limit the volume of products that we sell. This would limit our ability to compete and maintain sustained profitability.
We often depend on third parties for products we intend to introduce in the future. If our current relationships and collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to introduce the products we intend to introduce in the future.
We may be unable to market and sell our products successfully.
We face risks associated with our international operations and our international expansion may not generate the results we anticipate.
We may face costly legal disputes, including disputes related to our intellectual property or technology or that of our suppliers or collaborators.
Interpretation of existing legislation, regulations and rules, including financial accounting standards, or implementation of future legislation, regulations and rules could cause our costs to increase or could harm us in other ways.
We are currently evaluating, and we intend to pursue, acquisitions, investments, licenses, joint ventures, and other strategic development opportunities, which may not have desired results and could be detrimental to our financial position.
Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals in order to market our products may be costly and could delay the marketing and sales of our products. Failure to meet all regulatory requirements could cause significant losses from affected inventory and the loss of market share.
Our future revenues depend on successful product development, direct manufacturing, contract manufacturing, commercialization and/or market acceptance, any of which can be slower than we expect or may not occur.
Many of our expenses are fixed and if factors beyond our control cause our revenue to fluctuate, this fluctuation could cause greater than expected losses, cash flow and liquidity shortfalls.
Cyberattack related breaches of our information technology systems could have an adverse effect on our business.
We may be unable to protect our stakeholders’ privacy or we may fail to comply with privacy laws.
We may not be able to achieve sustained profitability or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
We may face product returns and product liability litigation in excess of, or not covered by, our insurance coverage or indemnities and/or warranties from our suppliers. If we become subject to
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product liability claims resulting from defects in our products, we may fail to achieve market acceptance of our products and our sales could substantially decline.
We may be held liable for the release of hazardous materials, which could result in extensive remediation costs or otherwise harm our business.

Risks related to our common stock

Our stock price has historically experienced high volatility, and could do so in the future, including experiencing a material price decline resulting from a large sale in a short period of time. This volatility could affect the value of our common stock.
Our NOL Protective Amendment could adversely impact the value and trading liquidity of our common stock.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade our stock, the price of our stock could decline.
We have not declared or paid any dividends on our common stock since 2012 and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
We have fewer than 300 holders of record, which could allow us to terminate voluntarily the registration of our common stock with the SEC and after which we would no longer be eligible to maintain the listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We may also be unable to otherwise maintain our listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market.
Provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws and under Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Risks related to the outstanding Notes

Servicing our debt will require a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of our convertible notes (the "Notes") in cash or to repurchase the Notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain, limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the Notes.
The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Risk Factors

Our future operating results may vary substantially from period to period due to a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. The following discussion highlights the material factors and the possible impact of these factors on future results of operations. If any of the following factors actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed. In that case, the price of our Public Common Stock could decline and investors in our Public Common Stock could experience losses on their investment.

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Risks related to our business and industry

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition is uncertain.

The global spread of the coronavirus and its variants (the “COVID-19 pandemic”) has created significant uncertainty and economic disruption in the markets in which we operate, both near-term and potentially long-term. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will affect our business, results of operation and financial condition is difficult to predict and depends on numerous rapidly evolving factors, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus, the emergence and spread of variants, infection rates in areas where we operate, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, including the continued availability and effectiveness of vaccines in the markets where we operate, the impact of actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic, and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, and suppliers. Although difficult to determine the full scope of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, we have experienced and continue to experience supply chain disruptions, which may result in manufacturing delays and increased component costs. We also expect that we may incur increased compensation expenses and higher-than-normal employee turnover as we attempt to attract and retain skilled employees during a macro working environment where qualified labor is in short supply, job-mobility is high in part because of remote working arrangements, and the benefits of company culture and personal relationships are more difficult to realize outside of the traditional office setting. We are also monitoring the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the operation of veterinary clinics, consumer discretionary spending on their pets’ health and wellbeing, research and development trends regarding animal health vis a vis human health, and the ability of our sales staff to travel and our manufacturing staff to operate in their normal capacities. However, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the foregoing issues and numerous other potential issues is difficult to predict, both in the short-term and in the long-term, and any one of them could cause a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and financial condition. The COVID-19 pandemic could also have the effect of heightening other risk factors described in this report.

If third parties with substantial marketing rights for certain historical products, existing products or future products under development are not successful in marketing those products, then our sales and financial position may suffer.

We are party to agreements with Merck Animal Health (“MAH”) for our canine heartworm preventive product, TRI-HEART Plus Chewable Tablets, and Elanco for certain bovine vaccines, which have been sold primarily under the Titanium and MasterGuard brands. Either of these marketing partners may not devote sufficient resources to marketing our products and our sales and financial position could suffer significantly as a result. For example, in 2019, MAH failed to market, sell and support our heartworm preventive product, which resulted in depressed PVD product annual revenue in our North America segment. Furthermore, there may be nothing to prevent these partners from pursuing alternative technologies, products or supply arrangements, including as part of mergers, acquisitions or divestitures. Third party marketing assistance may not be available in the future on reasonable terms, if at all. If the third parties with marketing rights for our products were to merge or go out of business, the sale and promotion of our products could be diminished.

We rely substantially on third party suppliers and rights under contracts with third parties. The loss of products, or rights under contracts, or delays in product availability from one or more third party suppliers could substantially harm our business.

To be successful, we must contract for the supply of, or manufacture ourselves, current and future products of appropriate quantity, quality and cost. Such products must be available on a timely basis and be in compliance with any regulatory requirements. Similarly, we must provide ourselves, or contract for the supply of, certain services. Such services must be provided in a timely and appropriate manner. Failure to do any of the above could substantially harm our business.
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We rely on third party suppliers to manufacture those products we do not manufacture ourselves and to provide services we do not provide ourselves. Proprietary products provided by these suppliers represent a majority of our revenue. We currently rely on these suppliers for our Point of Care laboratory instruments and consumable supplies for these instruments, for our imaging products and related software and services, for key components of our point-of-care diagnostic tests as well as for the manufacture of other products.

The loss of access to products from one or more suppliers could have a significant, negative impact on our business. Major suppliers that sell us proprietary products are FUJIFILM Corporation and Shenzen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co., Ltd. We often purchase products from our suppliers under agreements that are of limited duration or potentially can be terminated on short notice subsequent to unfavorable legal action. In the case of our Point of Care laboratory instruments and our digital radiography solutions, post-termination, we are typically entitled to non-exclusive access to consumable supplies, or ongoing non-exclusive access to products and services to meet the needs of an existing customer base, respectively, for a defined period upon expiration of exclusive rights, which could subject us to competitive pressures in the period of non-exclusive access. There can be no assurance that our suppliers will meet their obligations under any agreements we may have in place with them or that we will be able to compel them to do so. Risks of relying on suppliers include:

Inability to meet minimum obligations. Current agreements, or agreements we may negotiate in the future, may commit us to certain minimum purchase or other spending obligations. It is possible we will not be able to create the market demand to meet such obligations, which could create a drain on our financial resources and liquidity. Some agreements may require minimum purchases and/or sales to maintain product rights and we may be significantly harmed if we are unable to meet such requirements and lose product rights.
Loss of exclusivity. In the case of our Point of Care laboratory instruments, if we are entitled to non-exclusive access to consumable supplies for a defined period upon expiration of exclusive rights, we may face increased competition from a third party with similar non-exclusive access or our former supplier, which could cause us to lose customers and/or significantly decrease our margins and could significantly affect our financial results. In addition, current agreements, or agreements we may negotiate in the future, with suppliers may require us to meet minimum annual sales levels to maintain our position as the exclusive distributor of these products. We may not meet these minimum sales levels and maintain exclusivity over the distribution and sale of these products. If we are not the exclusive distributor of these products, competition may increase significantly, reducing our revenues and/or decreasing our margins.
Changes in economics. An underlying change in the economics with a supplier, such as a large price increase or new requirement of large minimum purchase amounts, could have a significant, adverse effect on our business, particularly if we are unable to identify and implement an alternative source of supply in a timely manner.
Supply chain constraints in raw materials to suppliers. Our suppliers rely on sourcing raw materials, instrument components and other items necessary to produce the supply of products we offer our customers. Supply chain constraints faced by our suppliers may delay a supplier’s ability to produce our products, which could create an interruption in our ability to fulfill orders.
The loss of product rights upon expiration or termination of an existing agreement. Unless we are able to find an alternate supply of a similar product, we would not be able to continue to offer our customers the same breadth of products and our sales and operating results would likely suffer. In the case of an instrument supplier, we could also potentially suffer the loss of sales of consumable supplies, which would be significant in cases where we have built a significant installed base, further harming our sales prospects
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and opportunities. Even if we were able to find an alternate supply for a product to which we lost rights, we would likely face increased competition from the product whose rights we lost being marketed by a third party or the former supplier and it may take us additional time and expense to gain the necessary approvals and launch an alternative product.
High switching costs. In our Point of Care laboratory instrument products, we could face significant competition and lose all or some of the consumable revenues from the installed base of those instruments if we were to switch to a competitive instrument. If we need to change to other commercial manufacturing contractors for certain of our regulated products, additional regulatory licenses or approvals generally must be obtained for these contractors prior to our use. This would require new testing and compliance inspections prior to sale, thus resulting in potential delays. Any new manufacturer would have to be educated in, or develop, substantially equivalent processes necessary for the production of our products. We likely would have to train our sales force, distribution network employees and customer support organization on the new product and spend significant funds marketing the new product to our customer base.
The involuntary or voluntary discontinuation of a product line. Unless we are able to find an alternate supply of a similar product in this or similar circumstances with any product, we would not be able to continue to offer our customers the same breadth of products and our sales would likely suffer. Even if we are able to identify an alternate supply, it may take us additional time and expense to gain the necessary approvals and launch an alternative product, especially if the product is discontinued unexpectedly.
Inconsistent or inadequate quality control. We may not be able to control or adequately monitor the quality of products we receive from our suppliers. Poor quality items could damage our reputation with our customers.
Limited capacity or ability to scale capacity. If market demand for our products increases suddenly, our current suppliers might not be able to fulfill our commercial needs, which would require us to seek new manufacturing arrangements and may result in substantial delays in meeting market demand. If we consistently generate more demand for a product than a given supplier is capable of handling, it could lead to large backorders and potentially lost sales to competitive products that are readily available. This could require us to seek or fund new sources of supply, which may be difficult to find or may require terms that are less advantageous if available at all.
Regulatory risk. Our manufacturing facility and those of some of our third party suppliers are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection by regulatory authorities, including the FDA, USDA and other federal, state and foreign agencies for compliance with strictly enforced Good Manufacturing Practices, regulations and similar foreign standards. We do not have control over our suppliers’ compliance with these regulations and standards. Regulatory violations could potentially lead to interruptions in supply that could cause us to lose sales to readily available competitive products. If one of our suppliers is unable to provide a raw material or finished product due to regulatory issues, it could have a material adverse financial impact on our business and could expose us to legal action if we are unable to perform on contracts to our customers involving related products.
Developmental delays. We may experience delays in the scale-up quantities needed for product development that could delay regulatory submissions and commercialization of our products in development, causing us to miss key opportunities.
Limited geographic rights. We typically do not have global geographic rights to products supplied by third parties. If we were to determine a market opportunity in a geography where we did not have distribution
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rights and were unable to obtain such rights from the supplier, it might hamper our ability to succeed in such geography and our sales and profits would be lower than they otherwise would have been.
Limited intellectual property rights. We typically do not have intellectual property rights, or may have to share intellectual property rights, to the products supplied by third parties and any improvements to the manufacturing processes or new manufacturing processes for these products.
Changes to United States tariff and import/export regulations. Changes to United States trade policies, treaties and tariffs could have a material adverse effect on global trade. These changes could result in increased costs of goods imported into the United States for the Company and our third party suppliers. Our third party suppliers may limit their trade with companies in the United States, including us.
Global human and animal health risk. Several of our suppliers have operations in areas that may be susceptible to public health emergencies that could restrict global trade generally, and our access to consumables and product, specifically. The risk of infectious disease in humans and animals may limit trade and product access with third party suppliers with companies inside and outside the United States, including us. In particular, the use of animal bi-product may affect our consumable supply as a result of global animal health risks.
Potential problems with suppliers such as those discussed above could substantially decrease sales, lead to higher costs and/or damage our reputation with our customers due to factors such as poor quality goods or delays in order fulfillment, resulting in our being unable to sell our products effectively and substantially harming our business.
We depend on key personnel for our future success. If we lose our key personnel or are unable to attract and retain additional personnel, we may be unable to achieve our goals.

Our future success is substantially dependent on the efforts of our senior management and other key personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and President, Kevin Wilson. The loss of the services of members of our senior management or other key personnel may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Although we have employment agreements with many of these individuals, all are at-will employees, which means that either the employee or Heska may terminate employment at any time without prior notice. If we lose the services of, or fail to recruit, key personnel, the growth of our business could be substantially impaired. We do not maintain key person life insurance for any of our senior management or key personnel.

The loss of significant customers who, for example, are historically large purchasers or who are considered leaders in their field could damage our business and financial results.

Revenue from Covetrus, Inc., formerly known as Henry Schein Animal Health ("Covetrus"), represented approximately 8%, 6% and 14% of our consolidated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. No other customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 or 2019. No customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated accounts receivable at December 31, 2021 or 2020. The loss of, or material reduction in business from, any of our significant customers could adversely affect our business and financial results.

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We operate in a highly competitive industry, which could render our products obsolete or substantially limit the volume of products that we sell. This would limit our ability to compete and maintain sustained profitability.

The market in which we compete is intensely competitive. Our competitors include independent animal health companies and major pharmaceutical companies that have animal health divisions. We also compete with independent, third party distributors, including distributors that sell products under their own private labels. In the point-of-care diagnostic testing market, our major competitors include IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and Zoetis Inc.. The OVP products manufactured by our North America segment for sale by third parties compete with similar products offered by a number of other companies, some of which have substantially greater financial, technical, research and other resources than us and may have more established marketing, sales, distribution and service organizations than those of our OVP product customers. Competitors may have facilities with similar capabilities to our Des Moines, Iowa facility, which they may operate and sell at a lower unit price to customers than we sell our OVP products for, which could cause us to lose customers. Companies with a significant presence in the companion animal health market, such as CEVA Sante´ Animale, Elanco, Merck, Sanofi, Vétoquinol S.A. and Virbac S.A. may be marketing or developing products that compete with our products or would compete with them if developed. These and other competitors and potential competitors may have substantially greater financial, technical, research and other resources and larger, more established marketing, sales and service organizations than we do. For example, if Zoetis devotes its significant commercial and financial resources to growing its market share in the veterinary allergy market, our allergy-related sales could suffer significantly. Our competitors may offer broader product lines and have greater name recognition than we do. Our competitors may also develop or market technologies or products that are more effective or commercially attractive than our current or future products or that would render our technologies and products obsolete. Further, additional competition could come from new entrants to the animal health care market. Moreover, we may not have the financial resources, technical expertise or marketing, sales or support capabilities to compete successfully.

If we fail to compete successfully, our ability to achieve sustained profitability will be limited and sustained profitability, or profitability at all, may not be possible.

We benefit from relationships or collaboration with third parties, including but not limited to, companies, buying groups, veterinary hospital groups and reference laboratory entities that operate in our markets. Beneficial third party, semi-competitive, directly competitive and cooperative relationships that affect how we go to market, develop products, generate leads and other commercial efforts of Heska may be negatively affected as a result of consolidation, acquisition, merger, exclusive arrangement or other agreements or activities between and amongst those third parties and others.

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We may depend on third parties for products we intend to introduce in the future. If our current relationships and collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to introduce the products we intend to introduce in the future.

We are occasionally dependent on third parties and collaborative partners to perform research and development activities to successfully develop new products. We routinely discuss Heska marketing in the veterinary market instruments being developed by third parties for use in the human health care market. In the future, one or more of these third parties or collaborative partners may not complete research and development activities in a timely fashion, or at all. Even if these third parties are successful in their research and development activities, we may not be able to come to an economic agreement with them. If these third parties or collaborative partners fail to complete research and development activities or fail to complete them in a timely fashion, or if we are unable to negotiate economic agreements with such third parties or collaborative partners, our ability to introduce new products may be impacted negatively and our revenues may decline.
We may be unable to market and sell our products successfully.

We may not develop and maintain marketing and/or sales capabilities successfully, and we may not be able to make arrangements with third parties to perform these activities on satisfactory terms, or at all. If our marketing and sales strategy is unsuccessful, our ability to sell our products will be negatively impacted and our revenues will decrease. This could result in the loss of distribution rights for products or failure to gain access to new products and could cause damage to our reputation and adversely affect our business and future prospects. The market for companion animal healthcare products is highly fragmented. Because our proprietary products are generally available only to veterinarians or by prescription and our medical instruments require technical training to operate, we ultimately sell all our products primarily to or through veterinarians. The acceptance of our products by veterinarians is critical to our success. Changes in our ability to obtain or maintain such acceptance or changes in veterinary medical practice could significantly decrease our anticipated sales. As the vast majority of cash flow to veterinarians ultimately is funded by pet owners without private insurance or government support, our business may be more susceptible to severe economic downturns than other health care businesses that rely less on individual consumers.

For our Point of Care laboratory blood diagnostics products, we primarily rely on contracts with our veterinary customers for their use of our owned equipment and our consumable supplies over a multiple year period. If veterinarians under these contracts experience a significant downturn in their business, they may not fulfill their use and financial obligations under these contracts. If veterinarians breach our contracts, and we are unable to collect on default payment provisions or otherwise enforce the terms of our contracts, our business will be adversely affected. If we have to litigate against customer(s) to enforce our contracts, our expenses may increase, our sales may decrease to those customers, and our reputation may suffer. If significant numbers of our customers under contracts for use of our equipment and consumable supplies do not renew their contracts, our business will be adversely affected.

We have entered into agreements with independent third party distributors who we anticipate will market and sell our products to a greater degree than in the recent past. Independent third party distributors may be effective in increasing sales of our products to veterinarians, although we would expect a corresponding lower gross margin as such distributors typically buy products from us at a discount to end user prices. It is possible new or existing independent third party distributors could cannibalize our direct sales efforts and lower our total gross margin. For us to be effective when working with an independent third party distributor, the distributor must agree to market and/or sell our products and we must provide proper economic incentives to the distributor as well as contend effectively for the time, energy and focus of the employees of such distributor given other products the distributor may be carrying, potentially including those of our
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competitors. If we fail to be effective with new or existing independent third party distributors, our financial performance may suffer.

We face risks associated with our international operations and our international expansion may not generate the results we anticipate.

A core component of our future growth strategy is international expansion. As we continue to expand our international footprint, we will be increasingly susceptible to the risks associated with international operations including, but not limited to, the following:

uncertain political and economic climates and fluctuations in exchange rates that may increase the volatility of foreign-based revenue and expense;
burdens of complying with and unexpected changes in foreign laws, accounting and legal standards, regulatory requirements, taxes, tariffs and other barriers or trade restrictions;
lack of experience in connection with the customs, cultures, languages and sales cycle;
reduced or altered protection for intellectual property rights; and
data privacy laws in foreign countries, which require that data storage and processing be subject to laws different than the United States.

As a result of these and other factors, international expansion may be more difficult and not generate the results we anticipate, which could negatively impact our business.

We may face costly legal disputes, including disputes related to our intellectual property or technology or that of our suppliers or collaborators.

We have faced, and may face in the future, legal disputes related to our business. Even if meritless, these disputes may require significant expenditures on our part and could entail a significant distraction to members of our management team or other key employees. Insurance coverage may not cover any costs required to litigate a legal dispute or an unfavorable ruling or settlement. A legal dispute leading to an unfavorable ruling or settlement, whether or not insurance coverage may be available for any portion thereof, could have material adverse consequences on our business. Moreover, we may have to use legal means and incur affiliated costs to secure the benefits to which we are entitled under third party agreements, such as to collect payment for goods shipped to third parties, which would reduce our income as compared to what it otherwise would have been.

We may become subject to patent infringement claims and litigation in the United States or other countries or interference proceedings conducted in the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, to determine the priority of inventions. The defense and prosecution of intellectual property suits, USPTO interference proceedings and related legal and administrative proceedings are likely to be costly, time-consuming and distracting. As is typical in our industry, from time to time we and our collaborators and suppliers have received, and may in the future receive, notices from third parties claiming infringement and invitations to take licenses under third-party patents. Any legal action against us or our collaborators or suppliers may require us or our collaborators or suppliers to obtain one or more licenses in order to market or manufacture affected products or services. We or our collaborators or suppliers may not, however, be able to obtain licenses for technology patented by others on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or to develop alternative approaches to access or replace such technology if we or they are unable to obtain such licenses or if current and future licenses prove inadequate, any of which could substantially harm our business.

We may also need to pursue litigation to enforce any contractual rights or patents issued to us or our collaborative partners, to protect trade secrets or know-how owned by us or our collaborative partners, or to
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determine the enforceability, scope and validity of our contractual rights or the proprietary rights of others. Any litigation or interference proceedings will likely result in substantial expense to us and significant diversion of the efforts of our technical and management personnel. Any adverse determination in litigation or interference proceedings could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties. Further, as a result of litigation or other proceedings, we may be required to seek licenses from third parties which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Interpretation of existing legislation, regulations and rules, including financial accounting standards, or implementation of future legislation, regulations and rules could cause our costs to increase or could harm us in other ways.

As a public company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses due to our compliance with regulations and disclosure obligations applicable to us, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Stock Market. We prepare our financial statements in conformance with GAAP. These accounting principles are established by and are subject to interpretation by the SEC, the FASB and others which interpret and create accounting policies. These rules and regulations will continue to cause us to incur significant legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. A change in those policies or how those policies are interpreted can have a significant effect on our reported results and may affect our reporting of transactions completed before a change is made effective. Such changes may require us to incur additional compliance costs, adversely affect our reported financial results and the way we conduct our business or have a negative impact on us if we fail to track such changes.

If our regulators and/or auditors adopt or interpret more stringent standards than we anticipate, we could experience unanticipated changes in our reported financial statements, including but not limited to restatements, which could adversely affect our business due to litigation and investor confidence in our financial statements. In addition, changes in the underlying circumstances to which we apply given accounting standards and principles may affect our results of operations and have a negative impact on us. For example, we review goodwill recognized on our consolidated balance sheets at least annually and if we were to conclude there was an impairment of goodwill, we would reduce the corresponding goodwill to its estimated fair value and recognize a corresponding expense in our statement of operations. This impairment and corresponding expense could be as large as the total amount of goodwill recognized on our consolidated balance sheets, which was $118.8 million at December 31, 2021 and $88.3 million at December 31, 2020. There can be no assurance that future goodwill impairments will not occur if projected financial results are not met, or otherwise.

We are currently evaluating, and we intend to pursue, acquisitions, investments, licenses, joint ventures, and other strategic development opportunities, which may not have desired results and could be detrimental to our financial position.

We continue to evaluate, and we intend to pursue, acquisitions and other strategic development opportunities, including minority investments where strategic, such as our acquisition of scil in 2020, our acquisitions of Lacuna, BiEsseA, and Biotech in 2021, and our acquisition of VetZ in 2022. The ultimate business and financial performance of these opportunities may not create, and may end up adversely affecting materially, the value we hope to enhance by pursuing them. Any acquisition may significantly underperform relative to our financial expectations and may serve to diminish rather than enhance shareholder value. We may also diminish our cash resources or dilute stockholders in order to finance any such acquisition or other strategic transaction.

The success of any acquisition will depend on, among other things, our ability to integrate assets and personnel acquired in these transactions and to apply our internal controls process to these acquired
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businesses. The integration of acquisitions is likely to require significant attention from our management, and the diversion of management’s attention and resources could have a material adverse effect on our ability to manage our business. Furthermore, we may not realize the degree or timing of benefits we anticipated when we first entered into the acquisition transaction. If actual integration costs are higher than amounts originally anticipated, if we are unable to integrate the assets and personnel acquired in an acquisition as anticipated, or if we are unable to fully benefit from anticipated synergies, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. Furthermore, it is possible we will use management time and resources to pursue opportunities we ultimately are unable or decide not to consummate, in which case, we may not be able to utilize such management time and resources on what may have proved to be more productive matters in other areas of our business.

We make investments into licenses, third parties, and contracts with legal, development and commercial rights and obligations. These investments may not produce positive results, economic or strategic value, or any benefits and may decline in value or have no value.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals in order to market our products may be costly and could delay the marketing and sales of our products. Failure to meet all regulatory requirements could cause significant losses from affected inventory and the loss of market share.

Many of the products we develop, market or manufacture may subject us to extensive regulation by one or more of the USDA, the FDA, the EPA and foreign and other regulatory authorities. These regulations govern, among other things, the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, pre-market approval, advertising, promotion and sale of some of our products. Satisfaction of these requirements can take several years and time needed to satisfy them may vary substantially, based on the type, complexity and novelty of the product. The decision by a regulatory authority to regulate a currently non-regulated product or product area could significantly impact our revenue and have a corresponding adverse impact on our financial performance and position while we attempt to comply with the new regulation, if such compliance is possible at all.

The effect of government regulation may be to delay or to prevent marketing of our products for a considerable period of time and to impose costly procedures upon our activities. We may not be able to estimate the time to obtain required regulatory approvals accurately and such approvals may require significantly more time than we anticipate. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, difficulties that could delay or prevent us from obtaining the regulatory approval or license necessary to introduce or market our products. Such delays in approval may cause us to forego a significant portion of a new product’s sales in its first year due to seasonality and advanced booking periods associated with certain products. Regulatory approval of our products may also impose limitations on the indicated or intended uses for which our products may be marketed.

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Difficulties in making established products to all regulatory specifications may lead to significant losses related to affected inventory as well as market share. Among the conditions for certain regulatory approvals is the requirement that our facilities and/or the facilities of our third party manufacturers conform to current Good Manufacturing Practices and other analogous or additional requirements. If any regulatory authority determines that our manufacturing facilities or those of our third party manufacturers do not conform to appropriate manufacturing requirements, we or the manufacturers of our products may be subject to sanctions, including, but not limited to, warning letters, manufacturing suspensions, product recalls or seizures, injunctions, refusal to permit products to be imported into or exported out of the United States, refusals of regulatory authorities to grant approval or to allow us to enter into government supply contracts, withdrawals of previously approved marketing applications, civil fines and criminal prosecutions. Furthermore, third parties may perceive procedures required to obtain regulatory approval objectionable and may attempt to disrupt or otherwise damage our business as a result. In addition, certain of our agreements may require us to pay penalties if we are unable to supply products, including for failure to maintain regulatory approvals.

Any of these events, alone or in combination with others, could significantly damage our business or results of operations.

Our future revenues depend on successful product development, direct manufacturing, contract manufacturing, commercialization and/or market acceptance, any of which can be slower than we expect or may not occur.

The product development and regulatory approval and maintenance process for many of our current and potential products is extensive and may take substantially longer than we anticipate. Research projects may fail. New products that we may be developing for the veterinary marketplace may not perform consistently within our expectations. Because we have limited resources to devote to product development and commercialization, any delay in the development of one product or reallocation of resources to product development efforts that prove unsuccessful may delay or jeopardize the development of other product candidates. If we fail to successfully develop new products and bring them to market in a timely manner, our ability to generate additional revenue will decrease.

Even if we are successful in the development of a product or obtain rights to a product from a third party supplier, we may experience delays or shortfalls in commercialization and/or market acceptance of the product. For example, veterinarians may be slow to adopt a product, a product may not achieve the anticipated technical performance in field use or there may be delays in producing large volumes of a product. The former is particularly likely where there is no comparable product available or historical precedent for such a product. The ultimate adoption of a new product by veterinarians, the rate of such adoption and the extent veterinarians choose to integrate such a product into their practice are all important factors in the economic success of any new products and are factors that we do not control to a large extent. If our products do not achieve a significant level of market acceptance, demand for our products will not develop as expected and our revenues will be lower than we anticipate.

Even if we are successful in the development of a product or obtain rights to a product from a third party supplier, we may not be able to, ourselves or through a third party, manufacture such product or continue to manufacture such product on an ongoing basis necessary to realize economic value or service customers, or manufacture such product economically or to the standard necessary to realize economic value or service customers.

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Many of our expenses are fixed and if factors beyond our control cause our revenue to fluctuate, this fluctuation could cause greater than expected losses, cash flow and liquidity shortfalls.

We believe that our future operating results will fluctuate on a quarterly basis due to a variety of factors which are generally beyond our control, including:

supply of products and components, including minimum purchase agreements, from third party suppliers or termination, cancellation or expiration of such relationships;
competition and pricing pressures from competitive products;
the introduction of new products or services by our competitors or by us;
large customers failing to purchase at historical levels;
fundamental shifts in market demand;
manufacturing delays;
shipment problems;
information technology problems, which may prevent us from conducting our business effectively, or at all, and may also raise our costs;
regulatory and other delays in product development;
product recalls or other issues which may raise our costs;
changes in our reputation and/or market acceptance of our current or new products; and
changes in the mix of products sold.

We have high operating expenses, including those related to personnel. Many of these expenses are fixed in the short term and may increase over time. If any of the factors listed above cause our revenues to decline, our operating results could be substantially harmed.

Cyberattack related breaches of our information technology systems could have an adverse effect on our business.

Cyberattacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect and defend against, notwithstanding our ongoing evaluation of and improvements to the preventive measures we take on to reduce the risks associated with these threats based on our own experience and those observed in the broader market. Cyberattacks, ranging from the use of malware, computer viruses, dedicated denial of services attacks, credential harvesting, social engineering and other means for obtaining unauthorized access to our Company's confidential information or assets or disrupting our Company’s ability to operate normally, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Cyberattacks may cause equipment failures, loss of information or assets, including sensitive personal information of third-party vendors, customers or employees, or valuable technical and marketing information, as well as disruptions to our or our vendor or customers’ operations. These attacks may be committed by company employees or external actors operating in any geography, including jurisdictions where law enforcement measures to address such attacks are unavailable or ineffective. Cyberattacks may occur alone or in conjunction with physical attacks, especially where disruption of service is an objective of the attacker. The preventive actions we take on an ongoing basis to reduce the risks and mitigate the potential damages associated with cyberattacks, including protection of our systems, networks and assets and the retention of cybersecurity insurance policies, may be insufficient to repel or mitigate entirely the effects of a cyberattack.

We devote significant resources to network security, data encryption and other security measures to protect our systems and data, but these security measures cannot provide absolute security. To the extent we were to experience a breach of our systems and were unable to protect sensitive data in the wake of the breach, such a breach could materially damage business partner and customer relationships and reduce or otherwise negatively impact access to online services. Moreover, if a computer security breach affects our systems or
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results in the unauthorized release of Personally Identifiable Information (“PII”), our reputation and brand could be materially damaged; use of our products and services could decrease, we could suffer from reputational harm impacting sales revenue, and we could be faced with unforeseen regulatory investigation, remediation and litigation costs. Our cybersecurity insurance policies may not cover the full extent, or any, of the potential financial harm that could be caused by a breach of our systems, including in respect of theft or possible damages claims that may be brought against us by our business partners and customers in respect of any such breach.

The frequently changing attack techniques, along with the increased volume and sophistication of the attacks, create additional potential for us to be adversely impacted by this activity. This impact could result in reputational, competitive, operational or other business harm as well as management distraction, financial losses and costs, and regulatory action.

We may be unable to protect our stakeholders’ privacy or we may fail to comply with privacy laws.

The protection of customer, employee, supplier and company data is critical and the regulatory environment surrounding information security, storage, use, processing, disclosure and privacy is demanding, with the frequent imposition of new and changing requirements. In addition, our customers, employees and suppliers expect that we will protect their personal information. Any actual or perceived significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, cyberattack or corruption of customer, employee or supplier data or our failure to comply with federal, state, local and foreign privacy laws, including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, could result in lost sales, remediation costs, and legal liability including severe penalties, regulatory action and reputational harm. GDPR became effective in 2018, for example, and requires companies to meet new and enhanced requirements regarding the handling of personal data, including its use, protection and the rights of data subjects to request correction or deletion of their personal data. Failure to meet GDPR requirements could result in penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue. Despite our efforts and investments in technology to secure our computer network, security could be compromised, confidential information could be misappropriated or system disruptions could occur. Failure to comply with the security requirements or rectify a security issue may result in fines and the imposition of restrictions on our ability to accept payment by credit or debit cards. In addition, the payment card industry (“PCI”) is controlled by a limited number of vendors that have the ability to impose changes in PCI’s fee structure and operational requirements on us without negotiation. Such changes in fees and operational requirements may result in our failure to comply with PCI security standards, as well as significant unanticipated expenses. Such failures could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, we maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage at levels that we believe are appropriate for our business. The costs related to significant security breaches or disruptions, however, could be material and exceed the limits of the cybersecurity insurance we maintain against such risks. If the amounts of our insurance coverage are inadequate to satisfy any damages and losses in the event of a cybersecurity incident, we may have to expend significant resources to mitigate the impact of such an incident, and to develop and implement protections to prevent future incidents of this nature from occurring. Such financial exposure could have a material adverse effect on our business.
    
We may not be able to achieve sustained profitability or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Prior to 2005, we incurred net losses on an annual basis since our inception in 1988 and, as of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $148.6 million. Relatively small differences in our performance metrics may cause us to generate an operating or net loss in future periods. Our ability to be profitable in future periods will depend, in part, on our ability to increase sales, including maintaining and growing our installed base of instruments and related consumables, to maintain or increase gross margins and to limit the
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increase in our operating expenses to a reasonable level as well as avoid or effectively manage any unanticipated issues. We may not be able to generate, sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. If we cannot achieve or sustain profitability for an extended period, we may not be able to fund our expected cash needs, including the repayment of debt as it comes due, or continue our operations.

We may face product returns and product liability litigation in excess of, or not covered by, our insurance coverage or indemnities and/or warranties from our suppliers. If we become subject to product liability claims resulting from defects in our products, we may fail to achieve market acceptance of our products and our sales could substantially decline.

The testing, manufacturing and marketing of our current products as well as those currently under development entail an inherent risk of product liability claims and associated adverse publicity. Following the introduction of a product, adverse side effects may be discovered. Adverse publicity regarding such effects could affect sales of our other products for an indeterminate time period. To date, we have not experienced any material product liability claims, but any claim arising in the future could substantially harm our business. Potential product liability claims may exceed the amount of our insurance coverage or may be excluded from coverage under the terms of the policy. We may not be able to continue to obtain adequate insurance at a reasonable cost, if at all. In the event that we are held liable for a claim against which we are not indemnified or for damages exceeding the $10 million limit of our insurance coverage or which results in significant adverse publicity against us, we may lose revenue, be required to make substantial payments which could exceed our financial capacity and/or lose or fail to achieve market acceptance.
We may be held liable for the release of hazardous materials, which could result in extensive remediation costs or otherwise harm our business.
Certain of our products and development programs produced at our Des Moines, Iowa facility involve the controlled use of hazardous and biohazardous materials, including chemicals and infectious disease agents. We cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any fines, penalties, remediation costs or other damages that result. Our liability for the release of hazardous materials could exceed our resources, which could lead to a shutdown of our operations, significant remediation costs and potential legal liability. In addition, we may incur substantial costs to comply with environmental regulations if we choose to expand our manufacturing capacity.

Risks related to our common stock

Our stock price has historically experienced high volatility, and could do so in the future, including experiencing a material price decline resulting from a large sale in a short period of time. This volatility could affect the value of our common stock.

Should a relatively large stockholder decide to sell a large number of shares in a short period of time, it could lead to an excess supply of our shares available for sale and correspondingly result in a significant decline in our stock price.

The securities markets have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations and the market prices of securities of many small cap companies have in the past been, and can in the future be expected to be, especially volatile. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the closing stock price of our common stock has ranged from a low of $143.93 to a high of $274.20, and the closing sale price of our common stock on February 24, 2022 was $137.17 per share. Fluctuations in the trading price or liquidity of our common stock
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may adversely affect our ability to raise capital through future equity financings. Factors that may have a significant impact on the market price and marketability of our common stock include:

stock sales by large stockholders or by insiders;
changes in the outlook for our business;
our quarterly operating results, including as compared to expected revenue or earnings and in comparison to historical results;
termination, cancellation or expiration of our third-party supplier relationships;
announcements of technological innovations or new products by our competitors or by us;
litigation;
regulatory developments, including delays in product introductions;
developments or disputes concerning patents or proprietary rights;
availability of our revolving line of credit and compliance with debt covenants;
releases of reports by securities analysts;
economic and other external factors;
issuances of equity or equity-linked securities by us; and
general market conditions

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted. If a securities class action suit is filed against us, it is likely we would incur substantial legal fees and our management’s attention and resources would be diverted from operating our business in order to respond to the litigation.

Our NOL Protective Amendment could adversely impact the value and trading liquidity of our common stock.

On May 4, 2010, our stockholders approved an amendment (the “NOL Protective Amendment”) to our Certificate of Incorporation. The NOL Protective Amendment places restrictions on the transfer of our common stock that could adversely affect our ability to use our domestic Federal Net Operating Loss carryforward (“NOL”). In particular, the NOL Protective Amendment prevents the transfer of shares without the approval of our board of directors if, as a consequence, an individual, entity or groups of individuals or entities would become a 5-percent holder under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the related Treasury regulations, and also prevents any existing 5-percent holder from increasing his or her ownership position in the Company without the approval of our board of directors. Any transfer of shares in violation of the NOL Protective Amendment (a “Transfer Violation”) shall be void ab initio under the our Certificate of Incorporation and our board of directors has procedures under our Certificate of Incorporation to remedy a Transfer Violation including requiring the shares causing such Transfer Violation to be sold and any profit resulting from such sale to be transferred to a charitable entity chosen by the Company’s board of directors in specified circumstances. The NOL Protective Amendment could have an adverse impact on the value and trading liquidity of our stock if certain buyers who would otherwise have bid on or purchased our stock, including buyers who may not be comfortable owning stock with transfer restrictions, do not bid on or purchase our stock as a result of the NOL Protective Amendment. In addition, because some corporate takeovers occur through the acquirer’s purchase, in the public market or otherwise, of sufficient shares to give it control of a company, any provision that restricts the transfer of shares can have the effect of preventing a takeover. The NOL Protective Amendment could discourage or otherwise prevent accumulations of substantial blocks of shares in which our stockholders might receive a substantial premium above market value and might tend to insulate management and the board of directors against the possibility of removal to a greater degree than had the NOL Protective Amendment not passed.

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In February 2018, our board of directors granted a waiver to a non-affiliated stockholder to allow the purchase, subject to certain limitations, of up to 730,000 shares of our common stock without causing a Transfer Violation. This waiver can be withdrawn by our board of directors at any time, in which case the non-affiliated stockholder is to only sell our stock until the non-affiliated stockholder ceases to be a Five Percent Shareholder (as defined in our Certificate of Incorporation). On August 7, 2019, our board of directors determined to waive the application of any NOL transfer restrictions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation with respect to the issuance and transfer of our Notes, any issuance of shares of the Company’s common stock upon conversion of any of the Notes, and any subsequent and further transfer of any such common stock, to the extent such restrictions would otherwise have been applicable thereto. In January 2020, our board of directors waived the application of any NOL transfer restrictions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation with respect to the issuance and sale of the shares of preferred stock and underlying common stock issued in connection with the financing of the scil acquisition. In February 2021, our board of directors waived the application of any NOL transfer restrictions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation with respect to the issuance and transfer of the shares of common stock in our March 2021 public offering, and any subsequent and further transfer of any such shares, to the extent such restrictions would otherwise have been applicable thereto.These waivers, and any similar waivers that our board of directors may grant in the future, may make it more likely that we have a “change of ownership” as defined under the provisions of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which could place a significant restriction on our ability to utilize our domestic Federal NOL in the future and materially adversely affect our results of operations. State net operating loss carryforwards may be similarly or more stringently limited. Any limitations on our ability to use our pre-change of ownership net operating losses to offset taxable income could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will likely be influenced by research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. In the event securities or industry analysts cover our company and one or more of these analysts downgrades our stock, lowers their price target, or publishes unfavorable or inaccurate research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

We have not declared or paid any dividends on our common stock since 2012 and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

We have not declared or paid any dividends on our common stock since October 2012. We intend to retain any earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the future. As a result, investors in our common stock may only receive a return on their investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.
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We have fewer than 300 holders of record, which could allow us to terminate voluntarily the registration of our common stock with the SEC and after which we would no longer be eligible to maintain the listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We may also be unable to otherwise maintain our listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market.

We have fewer than 300 holders of record as of our latest information, a fact which could make us eligible to terminate voluntarily the registration of our common stock with the SEC and therefore suspend our reporting obligations with the SEC under the Exchange Act and become a non-reporting company. If we were to cease reporting with the SEC, we would no longer be eligible to maintain the listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market, which we would expect to materially adversely affect the liquidity and market price for our common stock. The Nasdaq Capital Market has several additional quantitative and qualitative requirements companies must comply with to maintain this listing. While we believe we are currently in compliance with all Nasdaq requirements, there can be no assurance we will continue to meet Nasdaq listing requirements, that Nasdaq will interpret these requirements in the same manner we do if we believe we meet the requirements, or that Nasdaq will not change such requirements or add new requirements to include requirements we do not meet in the future.

If we were delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market, our common stock may be considered a penny stock under the regulations of the SEC and would therefore be subject to rules that impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell our securities. The additional burdens imposed upon broker-dealers may discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our common stock, which could severely limit market liquidity of the common stock and any stockholder’s ability to sell our securities in the secondary market. This lack of liquidity would also likely make it more difficult for us to raise capital in the future.

Provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws and under Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock by acting to discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions:

place restrictions on the transfer of our common stock that could adversely affect our ability to use our domestic NOL, which can have an effect of preventing a takeover;
provide that our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, issue shares of preferred stock with special voting or economic rights;
prohibit stockholders from calling a special meeting of our stockholders;
provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

Additionally, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder and which may discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our company.
Any provision of our Certificate of Incorporation, bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also negatively affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
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Risks related to the outstanding Notes

Servicing our debt will require a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the amounts payable under the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the Notes in cash or to repurchase the Notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain, limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the Notes.

Holders of the Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of the Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the Notes being converted. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of Notes surrendered therefor or Notes being converted. In addition, our ability to repurchase the Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the Notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our existing and future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the Notes as required by the indenture would constitute a default under the indenture. If a fundamental change occurs, or if the Notes are accelerated due to an event of default under the indenture, such events may lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. Any future indebtedness of ours may contain restrictions on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the Notes. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled to convert the Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share) or by electing an exchange process for the Notes and a designated financial institution delivers the applicable conversion consideration, we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders of Notes do not elect to convert their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal
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of the Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments    
None.
Item 2.Properties
Our principal administrative and research and development activities are located in Loveland, Colorado. We lease approximately 60,000 square feet at a facility in Loveland, Colorado under an agreement that expires in 2023. Our principal production facility located in Des Moines, Iowa, consists of approximately 160,000 square feet of buildings on 34 acres of land, which we own. We also lease a building in Maryland that is used for research, development and manufacturing.
Our principal international administrative and research and development activities are located in Germany, France, Spain, Canada, Italy and Malaysia. In Germany, we own an office space that is approximately 45,000 square feet, and a warehouse that is approximately 15,000 square feet. In France, Spain and Malaysia, we lease office spaces and warehouses. In Canada, we lease an office space and in Italy, we own an office space, a warehouse, and a showroom.
Item 3.Legal Proceedings

From time to time, the Company may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of its operations. The Company records accruals for outstanding legal matters when it believes it is probable that a loss will be incurred, and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
As of December 31, 2021, we were not a party to any legal proceedings that are expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our Public Common Stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "HSKA".
As of February 24, 2022, there were approximately 265 holders of record of our Public Common Stock, and approximately 4,400 beneficial stockholders. We do not anticipate any dividend payments in the foreseeable future.
Unregistered Issuances of Equity Securities
On January 3, 2022, we acquired 100% of the equity of VetZ GmbH (“VetZ”), a European leader in veterinary practice information management software solutions (“PIMS”). Pursuant to the VetZ acquisition agreement, the seller may earn an additional $15.5 million in Heska common stock (91,039 shares) as earn-out payments. The shares will be issued in tranches contingent upon achieving certain future financial and non-financial milestones. The actual number of shares of common stock to be issued as earn-out payments, if any, could vary materially depending on whether and to what extent the future milestones are achieved. As such, we may ultimately issue no or less than the total number of shares of our common stock set forth above. Any such shares will be issued in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as a transaction not involving any public offering.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth information about the Company's purchases of our outstanding Public Common Stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2021:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased (1)Average Price Paid per Share (1)Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under Plans or Programs
October 2021— $— — $— 
November 2021715 $176.25 — $— 
December 2021— $— — $— 
715 $176.25 — $— 
 (1) Shares of Public Common Stock we purchased between October 1, 2021 and December 31, 2021 were solely for the cancellation of shares of stock withheld for related tax obligations.

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STOCK PRICE PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph provides a comparison over the five-year period ended December 31, 2021 of the cumulative total shareholder return from a $100 investment in the Company's common stock with the NASDAQ Medical Supplies Index and the NASDAQ Composite Total Return:

hska-20211231_g2.jpg
Dec-16Dec-17Dec-18Dec-19Dec-20Dec-21
Heska Corporation$100 $112 $120 $134 $203 $255 
NASDAQ Medical Supplies Index$100 $131 $141 $186 $236 $283 
NASDAQ Composite Total Return Index$100 $130 $126 $172 $250 $305 

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Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Part II. Item 8 of this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Rule 175 promulgated thereunder, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that involve risks and uncertainties, and can generally be identified by our use of the words "scheduled," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks," "estimates," and variations of such words and similar expressions. Such statements, which include statements concerning future revenue sources and concentration, international market expansion, gross margin, selling and marketing expenses, remaining minimum performance obligations, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, capital resources, financings or borrowings and additional losses, are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those discussed below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, particularly in Item 1A. "Risk Factors," that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. The forward-looking statements set forth in this Form 10-K are as of the close of business on February 25, 2022, and we undertake no duty and do not intend to update this information, except as required by applicable securities laws. If we updated one or more forward looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements set forth above. See "Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements."
On January 3, 2022, the Company acquired 100% of the equity of VetZ GmbH (“VetZ”), a European leader in veterinary practice information management software solutions (“PIMS”). Refer to Note 19 - Subsequent Events to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
A discussion of significant changes from the periods ending December 31, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019 can be found in Part II. Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Overview
We sell advanced veterinary diagnostic and specialty products. Our offerings include Point of Care laboratory instruments and consumables; Point of Care digital imaging diagnostic instruments; digital cytology services; vaccines; local and cloud-based data services; allergy testing and immunotherapy; and single-use offerings such as in-clinic diagnostic tests and heartworm preventive products. Our core focus is on supporting veterinarians in the canine and feline healthcare space.
Point of Care laboratory instruments and other sales include outright instrument sales, revenue recognized from sales-type lease treatment, and other revenue sources, such as charges for repairs and reference laboratory sales. Revenue from Point of Care laboratory consumables primarily involves placing an instrument under contract in the field and generating future revenue from testing consumables, such as cartridges and reagents, as that instrument is used. Instruments placed under subscription agreements are considered operating or sales-type leases, depending on the duration and other factors of the underlying agreement. A loss of, or disruption in, the supply of consumables we are selling to an installed base of instruments could substantially harm our business. All of our Point of Care laboratory and other non-imaging instruments and consumables are supplied by third parties, who typically own the product rights and supply the product to us under marketing and/or distribution agreements. In many cases, we have collaborated with a
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third party to adapt a human instrument for veterinary use. Major products in this area include our instruments for chemistry, hematology, blood gas and immunodiagnostic testing and their affiliated operating consumable.

Radiography is the largest product offering in Point of Care imaging, which includes digital and computed radiography and ultrasound instruments. Radiography solutions typically consist of a combination of hardware and software placed with a customer, often combined with an ongoing service and support contract. Our experience has been that most of the revenue is generated at the time of sale in this area, in contrast to the Point of Care diagnostic laboratory placements discussed above where ongoing consumable revenue is often a larger component of economic value as a given instrument is used.

Pharmaceuticals, Vaccines and Diagnostic ("PVD") revenue, includes single use diagnostic and other tests, pharmaceuticals and biologicals as well as research and development, licensing and royalty revenue. Since items in this area are often single use by their nature, our typical aim is to build customer satisfaction and loyalty for each product, generate repeat annual sales from existing customers and expand our customer base in the future. Products in this area are both supplied by third parties and provided by us. Major products and services in this area include heartworm diagnostic tests and preventatives, single-use rapid assay diagnostic tests, allergy test kits, allergy immunotherapy and testing, and other diagnostic rapid tests.

Other Vaccines and Pharmaceuticals ("OVP") revenue is generated in our USDA, FDA and DEA licensed production facility in Des Moines, Iowa. We view this facility as an asset which could allow us to control our cost of goods on any pharmaceuticals and vaccines that we may commercialize in the future. We have increased integration of this facility with our operations elsewhere. For example, virtually all of our U.S. inventory, excluding our imaging products, is stored at this facility and related fulfillment logistics are managed there. Our OVP revenue includes vaccines and pharmaceuticals produced for third parties. OVP is attributable only to the North America segment.

All of our products are ultimately sold primarily to or through veterinarians. In many cases, veterinarians will mark up their costs to their customers. The acceptance of our products by veterinarians is critical to our success. These products are sold directly to end users by us as well as through distribution relationships, such as the sale of kits to conduct blood testing to third-party veterinary diagnostic laboratories and sales to independent third-party distributors. Revenue from direct sales and distribution relationships represented 72% and 28%, respectively, of revenue for both the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, and 64% and 36% for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Segment Change

During the second quarter of 2020, following the scil acquisition, the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) changed how he assesses performance and allocates resources based on geographic regions. As a result, the Company determined it has two operating and reportable segments: North America and International. North America consists of the United States, Canada and Mexico. International consists of geographies outside of North America, primarily our operations in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Spain and Switzerland. The Company's core strategic focus on Point of Care laboratory and imaging products is included in both segments. The North America segment also includes the contract manufacturing of vaccines and pharmaceutical products. The Company revised prior comparative periods to conform to the current period segment presentation. Refer to Note 18 - Segment Reporting to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic and Current Economic Environment

Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, to limit the spread of COVID-19, governments took various actions including the issuance of stay-at-home policies and social distancing procedures and guidelines, causing some businesses to adjust, reduce or suspend business and operating activities. Veterinary care is widely recognized as an "essential" service for pet owners, and veterinarians continued to deliver essential medical care for sick and injured pets. The stay-at-home policies deployed early in 2020 to combat the spread of COVID-19 resulted in a decrease in companion animal clinical visits, including delay of elective procedures and wellness visits and as a result, lower demand for diagnostic testing services. Beginning in the second quarter of 2020, certain local, state and federal governments began to ease the stay-at-home policies and allowed more businesses and facilities to re-open, leading to a recovery in companion animal clinical visits and associated demand for our diagnostic products. In some part, and different depending on the geography, due to the introduction and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, restrictions have eased in many of the countries in which we operate. Global diagnostic animal health demand continued throughout 2021. While this trend is encouraging, with the rise in COVID-19 variants, the extent to which the continuation, or another wave, of COVID-19, or an outbreak of other health epidemics could impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including the potential for write-offs or impairments of assets and suspension of capital investments, will depend on future developments. We are unable to predict with certainty the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers, suppliers and vendors, as well as the actions of governments, and when and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume; these effects may differ from those assumed in our projected estimates. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business, mainly in our ability to place new capital equipment, primarily under long-term contracts, as a result of any economic impact that may occur in the future.

Due to our dependence on global suppliers, manufacturers and shipping routes, we are experiencing increased delays in receiving supply, increased shipping costs and some targeted increase in materials cost. Because our long-term subscription programs, the commercial program of our largest revenue category, Point of Care laboratory instruments and consumables, include annual price adjustments at a greater of 4% or the consumer price index, we are able to mitigate some of these costs in this highly inflationary environment.

Our financial position remains strong. On March 5, 2021, we completed a public offering of shares of common stock. As a result, we have sufficient liquidity to sustain our operations. We will continue to actively seek opportunities that are consistent with our strategic direction, which may include a need to raise additional capital.

Critical Accounting Estimates
Note 1 - Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies used in preparation of these consolidated financial statements. We believe the following critical accounting estimates and assumptions may have a material impact on reported financial condition and operating performance and involve significant levels of judgment to account for highly uncertain matters or are susceptible to significant change. In each of these areas, management makes estimates based on historical results, current trends and future projections. Therefore, these are considered to be our critical accounting policies and estimates.
Deferred Tax Assets - Valuation Allowance

We evaluate our ability to realize the tax benefits associated with a deferred tax asset (“DTA”) by analyzing our forecasted taxable income using both historical and projected future operating results, the reversal of
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existing temporary differences, taxable income in prior carry back years (if permitted) and the availability of tax planning strategies. A valuation allowance is required to be established unless management determines that it is more likely than not that we will ultimately realize the tax benefit associated with a deferred tax asset. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had valuation allowances of approximately $2.8 million and $6.4 million, respectively.     

Business Combinations

We account for transactions that represent business combinations under the acquisition method of accounting, which requires us to allocate the total consideration paid for each acquisition to the assets we acquire and liabilities we assume based on their fair values as of the date of acquisition, including identifiable intangible assets. The allocation of the purchase price utilizes significant estimates in determining the fair values of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, especially with respect to intangible assets. We may refine our estimates and make adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed over a measurement period, not to exceed one year. 

The Company has financial liabilities resulting from our business combinations, including contingent consideration arrangements and notes payable. We estimate the fair value of these financial liabilities using Level 3 inputs that require the use of numerous assumptions and a probability-weighted outcome analysis, which may change based on the occurrence of future events and lead to increased or decreased operating income in future periods. Estimating the fair value at an acquisition date and in subsequent periods involves significant judgments, including projecting the future financial and product development performance of the acquired businesses. The Company will update its assumptions each reporting period based on new developments and record such amounts at fair value based on the revised assumptions. Changes in the fair value of these financial liabilities are recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Loss within general and administrative expenses.

Valuation of Goodwill and Intangibles

A significant portion of the purchase price for acquired businesses is generally assigned to intangible assets. Intangible assets other than goodwill are initially valued at fair value. If a quoted price in an active market for the identical asset is not readily available at the measurement date, the fair value of the intangible asset is estimated based on discounted cash flows using market participant assumptions, which are assumptions that are not specific to Heska. The selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and the estimation of discounted cash flows require significant assumptions about the timing and amounts of future cash flows, risks, appropriate discount rates, and the useful lives of intangible assets. When material, we utilize independent valuation experts to advise and assist us in determining the fair values of the identified intangible assets acquired in connection with a business acquisition and in determining appropriate amortization methods and periods for those intangible assets. Goodwill is initially valued based on the excess of the purchase price of a business combination over the fair value of acquired net assets recognized and represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized.

We assess goodwill for impairment annually, at the reporting unit level, in the fourth quarter and whenever events or circumstances indicate impairment may exist. In evaluating goodwill for impairment, we have the option to first assess the qualitative factors to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the comparison of the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to the carrying value. The more-likely-than-not threshold is defined as having a likelihood of more than 50 percent. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine that is it more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of a reporting is less than its carrying amount, we would then estimate the fair value of
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the reporting unit and compare it to the carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value we would recognize an impairment for the difference; otherwise, no further impairment test would be required. In contrast, we can opt to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to quantitative analysis. Doing so does not preclude us from performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period.

As part of our goodwill testing process, we evaluate factors specific to a reporting unit as well as industry and macroeconomic factors that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the fair value of a reporting unit. Examples of the factors considered in assessing the fair value of a reporting unit include: the results of the most recent impairment test, the competitive environment, the regulatory environment, anticipated changes in product or labor costs, revenue growth trends, the consistency of operating margins and cash flows and current and long-range financial forecasts. The long-range financial forecasts of the reporting units, which are based upon management’s long-term view of our markets, are used by senior management and the Board of Directors to evaluate operating performance.
We performed qualitative assessments in the fourth quarters of 2021, 2020 and 2019 and determined that no indications of impairment existed.

We assess the realizability of intangible assets other than goodwill whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. If an impairment review is triggered, we evaluate the carrying value of intangible assets based on estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining useful life of the primary asset of the asset group and compare that value to the carrying value of the asset group. The cash flows that are used contain our best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the time. If the net carrying value of an intangible asset exceeds the related estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment to adjust the intangible asset to its fair value would be reported as a non-cash charge to earnings. If necessary, we would calculate the fair value of an intangible asset using the present value of the estimated future cash flows to be generated by the intangible asset, and applying a risk-adjusted discount rate. We had no impairments of our intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.

These valuations require the use of management’s assumptions, which would not reflect unanticipated events and circumstances that may occur.

Share-Based Compensation Expense

We utilize share-based compensation arrangements as part of our long-term incentive plan. Our share-based compensation programs provide for grants of many types of awards, but we currently grant stock options, including performance stock options, restricted stock awards, and restricted stock units, along with the issuance of employee stock purchase rights. The total fair value of future awards may vary significantly from past awards based on a number of factors, including our share-based award practices. Therefore, share-based compensation expense is likely to fluctuate, possibly significantly, from year to year.

The majority of our currently issued restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, and performance stock options are tied to Company and market-related performance metrics and generally include a time vesting component. We also grant stock options and restricted stock awards tied to time vesting to employees and directors. All significant inputs into the determination of expense as well as the related expense are discussed further in Note 12 - Capital Stock to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Restricted Stock Awards and Units (Time Vesting)

The fair value of restricted stock awards and restricted stock units with only time-based vesting terms used in our expense recognition method is measured based on the number of shares granted and the closing market price of our common stock on the date of grant. Such value is recognized as an expense over the corresponding requisite service period. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur.

Performance-Based Stock Compensation Awards

We also grant restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, and performance stock options subject to performance vesting criteria, in addition to service, to our executive officers and other key employees. This type of grant consists of the right to receive shares of, or options to purchase, common stock, subject to achievement of time-based criteria and certain Company and market performance-related goals over a specified period, as established by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors. We recognize any related share-based compensation expense ratably over the requisite service period based on the probability assessment on the outcome of the performance condition related to company performance metrics. The fair value used in our expense recognition method is measured based on the number of shares granted and the closing market price of our common stock on the date of grant for restricted stock awards and units and the Black-Scholes model for performance stock options. The amount of share-based compensation expense recognized in any one period can vary based on the attainment or expected attainment of the performance goals. If such performance goals are not ultimately met, no compensation expense is recognized and any previously recognized compensation expense is reversed. We recognize any related share-based compensation expense ratably over the service period based on the most probable outcome of the performance condition related to market performance metrics. For awards related to market performance, the fair value used in our expense recognition method is measured based on the number of shares granted, and a Monte Carlo simulation model, which incorporates the probability of the achievement of the market-related performance goals as part of the grant date fair value. If such performance goals are not ultimately met, the expense is not reversed.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, the FASB or other standard setting bodies issue new accounting pronouncements. Updates to the FASB ASC are communicated through issuance of an ASU. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that recently issued guidance, whether adopted or to be adopted in the future, is not expected to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements upon adoption.
To understand the impact of recently issued guidance, whether adopted or to be adopted, please review the information provided in Note 1 - Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Results of Operations
Our analysis presented below is organized to provide the information we believe will facilitate an understanding of our historical performance and relevant trends going forward. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain data derived from our Consolidated Statements of Loss (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Revenue, net$253,739 $197,323 
Gross profit105,794 81,290 
Operating expenses106,787 89,482 
Operating loss(993)(8,192)
Interest and other expense, net2,448 5,601 
Loss before income taxes and equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates(3,441)(13,793)
Income tax (benefit) expense(3,573)239 
Net income (loss) before equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates132 (14,032)
Equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates(1,280)(720)
Net loss, after equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates(1,148)(14,752)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest— (353)
Net loss attributable to Heska Corporation$(1,148)$(14,399)
Diluted loss per share attributable to Heska Corporation(1)
$(0.11)$(1.66)
Non-GAAP net income per diluted share (1)(2)
$1.61 $0.74 
Adjusted EBITDA (2)
$29,739 $22,319 
Net margin (2)
0.1 %(7.1)%
Adjusted EBITDA margin (2)
11.7 %11.3 %
(1) Shares used in the diluted per share calculation for diluted loss per share attributable to Heska Corporation are (in thousands) 10,015 for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 8,653 for the year ended December 31, 2020. Shares used in the diluted per share calculation for non-GAAP net income per diluted share are (in thousands): 10,407 for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 9,451 for the year ended December 31, 2020.
(2) See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share to Diluted loss per share attributable to Heska Corporation, and Adjusted EBITDA margin to Net margin, the closest comparable GAAP measures, for each of the periods presented.

Revenue
Total revenue increased 28.6% to $253.7 million in 2021 compared to $197.3 million in 2020. The significant increase in revenue is driven primarily by the acquisition of scil, which was completed on April 1, 2020, and which contributed $22.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 that was not included in the prior year period. Excluding the impacts of the acquisition of scil, revenue growth was driven by POC Lab Consumables of $14.4 million or 15.8% in the year ended December 31, 2021, recovery from COVID impacts in the prior year related to capital placements in POC Imaging products of $7.5 million and growth within our contract manufactured product for third parties, including TriHeart, and immunotherapy products
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of $6.5 million. The launch of element AIM in the year ended December 31, 2021 also contributed to growth in the POC Laboratory space.
Gross Profit
Gross profit increased 30.1% to $105.8 million in 2021 compared to $81.3 million in 2020.  Gross margin percent expanded to 41.7% in 2021 compared to 41.2% in 2020. The increase in gross profit is due mainly to the increase in revenue as well as the acquisition of scil, which was not included in the first quarter of the prior year period. The increase in gross margin percentage is due to favorable product mix, primarily as a result of POC Lab Consumables and POC Imaging.
Operating Expenses
Selling and marketing expenses increased 17.7% to $45.3 million in 2021 compared to $38.5 million in 2020. The increase is a direct result of international expansion related to recent acquisitions and is in line with management expectations. The increase is also impacted by higher stock-based compensation expenses of $1.1 million as well as other compensation-related expenses.
Research and development expenses decreased 20.4% to $7.0 million in 2021, compared to $8.8 million in 2020. The decrease is primarily related to lower spending on product development for the urine and fecal diagnostic analyzer and enhanced immunodiagnostic offerings in the current year as these products are now commercialized.
General and administrative expenses increased 29.1% to $54.5 million in 2021, compared to $42.2 million in 2020. The increase is driven primarily by incremental stock-based compensation expense of $7.4 million and other compensation-related increases of $6.0 million as well as increased costs associated with international expansion of $3.5 million, and higher consulting and other professional services of approximately $3.0 million. This is partially offset by lower one-time costs of $8.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2021, as there were significant costs associated with the scil acquisition in the year ended December 31, 2020.
Interest and Other Expense, Net
Interest and other expense, net, was $2.4 million in 2021, compared to $5.6 million in 2020. The decrease was primarily driven by a change in interest expense related to the Notes. Refer to Note 16 - Convertible Notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense

In 2021, we had total income tax benefit of $3.6 million compared to a total income tax expense in 2020 of $0.2 million. See Note 5 - Income Taxes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding our income taxes.

Net (Loss) Attributable to Heska Corporation
Net loss attributable to Heska Corporation was $1.1 million in 2021, compared to net loss attributable to Heska Corporation of $14.4 million in 2020. The difference between this line item and "Net (loss) income after equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates" is the net income or loss attributable to the minority interest in our French subsidiary, Optomed (which has been merged into our French subsidiary scil animal care company sarl), which we purchased in February 2019. The difference between these line items was $0 for 2021, as the Company acquired the remaining 30% minority interest in Optomed in October 2020, and a gain of $0.4 million for 2020.
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Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization ("EBITDA") in 2021 was $29.7 million (11.7% adjusted EBITDA margin), compared to $22.3 million (11.3% adjusted EBITDA margin) in 2020. The increase is driven by increased revenue and gross profit as discussed above. This is partially offset by an increase in operating expenses primarily as a result of the acquisition of scil and compensation-related increases. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net income and adjusted EBITDA margin to net loss margin, the closest comparable GAAP measures, for each of the periods presented.
Earnings Per Share
Diluted loss per share attributable to Heska was $0.11 in 2021 compared to loss of $1.66 per diluted share in 2020. The lower loss is primarily due to higher revenue and gross profit as discussed above, interest and amortization charges relating to the Notes, and income tax benefit.
Non-GAAP Earnings Per Share
Non-GAAP EPS was income of $1.61 per diluted share in 2021 compared to income of $0.74 per diluted share in 2020. The increase is primarily due to higher revenue and gross profit as discussed above. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a reconciliation of non-GAAP EPS to net (loss) income attributable to Heska per diluted share, the closest comparable U.S. GAAP measure, in each of the periods presented.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In addition to financial measures presented on the basis of accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“U.S. GAAP”), we also present EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin, and non-GAAP net income (loss) per diluted share, which are non-GAAP measures.
These measures should be viewed as a supplement to, not substitute for, our results of operations presented under U.S. GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measures presented may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies because they may not calculate their measures in the same manner. Management uses EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin and non-GAAP net income (loss) per diluted share as key profitability measures, which are included in our quarterly analyses of our operating results to our senior management team, our annual budget and related goal setting and other performance measurements. We believe these non-GAAP measures enhance our investors' understanding of our business performance and that not adjusting for the items included in the reconciliations below would hinder comparison of the performance of our businesses on a period-over-period basis or with other businesses.
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The following tables reconcile our most directly comparable as-reported financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP to our non-GAAP financial measures (in thousands, except percentages and per share amounts):
 Year Ended
December 31,
 20212020
Net income (loss) (1)
$132 $(14,032)
Income tax (benefit) expense (3,573)239 
Interest expense, net2,404 5,767 
Depreciation and amortization13,555 11,385 
EBITDA$12,518 $3,359 
Acquisition-related and other one-time costs (2)
$238 $9,837 
Stock-based compensation18,263 9,490 
Equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates(1,280)(720)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest— 353 
Adjusted EBITDA$29,739 $22,319 
Net margin (3)
0.1 %(7.1)%
Adjusted EBITDA margin (3)
11.7 %11.3 %

(1) Net income (loss) used for reconciliation represents the "Net income (loss) before equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates."

(2) To exclude the effect of one-time charges of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. These costs were incurred primarily as a result of acquisition-related charges, partially offset by a reduction of contingent consideration of $1.7 million as well as litigation settlement proceeds of $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

(3) Net margin and adjusted EBITDA margin are calculated as the ratio of net income (loss) and adjusted EBITDA, respectively, to revenue.

 Year Ended
December 31,
 20212020
GAAP net income attributable to Heska per diluted share$(0.11)$(1.66)
Acquisition-related costs and other one-timed costs(1)
0.02 1.04 
Amortization of acquired intangibles(2)
0.60 0.55 
Purchase accounting adjustments related to inventory and fixed asset step-up(3)
0.03 0.08 
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs0.01 0.33 
Stock-based compensation1.75 1.00 
Loss on equity investee transactions0.12 0.08 
Estimated income tax effect of non-GAAP adjustments(4)
(0.81)(0.68)
Non-GAAP net income per diluted share$1.61 $0.74 
Shares used in diluted per share calculations10,407 9,451 

(1) To exclude the effect of one-time charges of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. These costs were incurred primarily as a result of acquisition-related charges, partially offset by a reduction of contingent consideration of $1.7 million as well as litigation settlement proceeds of $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

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(2) To exclude the effect of amortization of acquired intangibles of $6.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $5.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2020. These costs were incurred as part of the purchase accounting adjustments for the acquisitions of scil, Optomed and CVM.

(3) To exclude the effect of purchase accounting adjustments for inventory step up amortization and depreciation related to the step-up of fixed assets of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

(4) Represents income tax expense utilizing an estimated effective tax rate that adjusts for non-GAAP measures including: acquisition-related and other one-time costs (excluding benefits which are not deductible for tax of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $4.0 million expense for the year ended December 31, 2020), amortization of acquired intangibles, purchase accounting adjustments, amortization of debt discount and issuance costs, and stock-based compensation. This incorporates the tax benefit related to stock-based compensation of $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Adjusted effective tax rates are approximately 25% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Analysis by Segment
The North America segment includes sales and costs from the United States, Canada and Mexico. The International segment includes sales and costs from Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Spain and Switzerland.
The North America segment represented 62.6% of our revenue and the International segment represented 37.4% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.

The following sections and tables set forth, for the periods indicated, certain data derived from our Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income (in thousands).

North America Segment
Year Ended December 31,Change
20212020Dollar Change% Change
Point of Care laboratory:$86,841 $72,910 $13,931 19.1 %
Instruments & Other14,837 13,663 1,174 8.6 %
Consumables72,004 59,247 12,757 21.5 %
Point of Care imaging29,512 20,651 8,861 42.9 %
PVD24,939 19,810 5,129 25.9 %
OVP17,606 17,695 (89)(0.5)%
Total North America revenue$158,898 $131,066 $27,832 21.2 %
North America Gross Profit$74,426 $60,903 $13,523 22.2 %
North America Gross Margin46.8 %46.5 %
North America Operating Income (Loss)$650 $(4,977)$5,627 113.1 %
North America Operating Income (Loss) Margin0.4 %(3.8)%
    
North America segment revenue increased 21.2% to $158.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $131.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 in part due to the acquisition of scil, which contributed $4.3 million that was not present in the year ended December 31, 2020. Excluding this, the remaining revenue growth was driven by a 19.7% increase in POC Lab Consumables due to increased price and utilization, a 28.2% increase in sales from Point of Care Imaging as we experienced recovery from COVID-19 restrictions in the prior year, and an increase of 25.9% in PVD driven by Tri-heart and Allergy sales.

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Gross profit was $74.4 million compared to $60.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase in gross profit is primarily driven by increased revenue in the current year, specifically related POC Lab Consumables, POC Imaging and PVD sales. Gross margin was 46.8% for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 46.5% in the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is due to favorable mix, specifically increased revenue and margins for consumables due mainly to utilization and price, Imaging and OVP.
North America operating income was $0.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to an operating loss of $(5.0) million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is driven by higher revenue and gross profit in 2021, partially offset by increased operating costs primarily related to stock based compensation in the current year.

International Segment
Year Ended December 31,Change
20212020Dollar Change% Change
Point of Care laboratory:$61,017 $40,136 $20,881 52.0 %
Instruments & Other15,001 7,782 7,219 92.8 %
Consumables46,016 32,354 13,662 42.2 %
Point of Care imaging28,492 22,537 5,955 26.4 %
PVD5,332 3,584 1,748 48.8 %
Total International revenue$94,841 $66,257 $28,584 43.1 %
International Gross Profit$31,368 $20,387 $10,981 53.9 %
International Gross Margin33.1 %30.8 %
International Operating Loss$(1,643)$(3,215)$1,572 48.9 %
International Operating Loss Margin(1.7)%(4.9)%
International revenue was $94.8 million compared to $66.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, in part driven by the acquisition of scil, which contributed $18.0 million that was not present in the year ended December 31, 2020. The remaining revenue growth is driven by increased placements as a result of transitioning to the reset program in Europe, POC consumable growth of 8.5%, excluding the impact of the scil acquisition, fewer COVID-19 impacts for POC Imaging, and higher sales of single-use tests.
Gross profit was $31.4 million compared to $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Gross margin for the International segment was 33.1% for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 30.8% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in gross profit is primarily driven by increase in revenue and lower costs relating mainly to our POC Lab Consumables as we continue to rationalize the product portfolio in Europe. The increase in gross margin is driven by favorable product mix within POC Lab Consumables and POC Imaging.
International operating loss decreased $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the prior year. The decrease in operating loss is driven by increased revenue and gross profit, partially offset by increased operating expenses, as a result of the scil acquisition now being included for the full year and increased compensation costs.
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Liquidity, Capital Resources and Financial Condition
We believe that adequate liquidity and cash generation is important to the execution of our strategic initiatives. Our ability to fund our operations, acquisitions, capital expenditures, and product development efforts may depend on our ability to access other forms of capital as well as our ability to generate cash from operating activities, which is subject to future operating performance, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, and other conditions, some of which may be beyond our control, including but not limited to effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our primary source of liquidity is our available cash of $223.6 million, which includes net proceeds from the issuance of common stock of $164.2 million on March 5, 2021.
A summary of our cash from operating, investing and financing activities is as follows (in thousands):
December 31,
Change
20212020Dollar
Change
%
Change
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$6,247 $(656)$6,903 1,052.3 %
Net cash used in investing activities(35,001)(126,597)91,596 72.4 %
Net cash provided by financing activities166,404 123,764 42,640 34.5 %
Foreign exchange effect on cash and cash equivalents(410)793 (1,203)(151.7)%
Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents137,240 (2,696)139,936 5,190.5 %
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of the period86,334 89,030 (2,696)(3.0)%
Cash and cash equivalents, end of the period$223,574 $86,334 $137,240 159.0 %
For the year ended December 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flow provided by (used in) operations was $6.2 million and $(0.7) million, respectively, which was primarily the result of (in thousands):
December 31,
Change
20212020Dollar
Change
%
Change
Net income, after equity in losses from unconsolidated affiliates$(1,148)$(14,752)$13,604 92.2 %
Non cash expenses and other adjustments30,842 25,652 5,190 20.2 %
Change in accounts receivable2,193 (5,755)7,948 138.1 %
Change in inventories, net(14,905)(5,409)(9,496)(175.6)%
Change in lease receivables, net(5,902)(611)(5,291)(866.0)%
Change in other assets(4,329)340 (4,669)1,373.2 %
Change in accounts payable662 (280)942 336.4 %
Change in other liabilities(1,166)159 (1,325)833.3 %
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$6,247 $(656)$6,903 1052.3 %
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For the year ended December 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flow used in investing activities was $35.0 million and $126.6 million, respectively, which was primarily used for (in thousands):
December 31,
Change
20212020Dollar
Change
%
Change
Acquisition of Biotech$(16,250)$— $(16,250)NM
Acquisition of BiEssA, net of cash acquired(4,513)— (4,513)NM
Acquisition of Lacuna, net of cash acquired(3,882)— (3,882)NM
Acquisition of scil, net of cash acquired — (104,401)104,401 100.0 %
Acquisition of CVM— (14,420)14,420 100.0 %
Promissory note receivable issuance(9,000)— (9,000)NM
Convertible note receivable issuance— (6,650)6,650 100.0 %
Purchase of minority interest— (450)450 100.0 %
Purchases of property and equipment(1,768)(686)(1,082)(157.7)%
Proceeds from disposition of property and equipment412 10 402 (4,020.0)%
Net cash used in investing activities$(35,001)$(126,597)$91,596 72.4 %
For the year ended December 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flow from financing activities was $166.4 million and $123.8 million, respectively, which was the result of (in thousands):
December 31,
Change
20212020Dollar
Change
%
Change
Proceeds from issuance of common stock$169,230 $4,273 $164,957 (3,860.4)%
Purchase of shares withheld for tax obligations(1,629)(1,477)(152)NM
Payment of stock issuance costs(314)(214)(100)46.7 %
Preferred Stock Proceeds— 122,000 (122,000)(100.0)%
Payments of related party debts— (1,140)1,140 100.0 %
Proceeds from line of credit borrowings613 (606)98.9 %
Repayments of line of credit borrowings(890)(291)(599)NM
Net cash provided by financing activities$166,404 $123,764 $42,640 34.5 %
We believe that our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances, as well as the cash flows generated by our operations, will be sufficient to satisfy our anticipated cash needs for working capital and capital expenditures, including selling and marketing team expansion and product development initiatives, for at least the next 12 months. Our belief may prove to be incorrect, however, and we could utilize our available financial resources sooner than we currently expect. For example, we actively seek opportunities that are consistent with our strategic direction, which may require additional capital. Our future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors, including those set forth in Part I. Item 1A, "Risk Factors". We may seek additional equity or debt financing in order to meet these future capital requirements, even in the absence of any acquisitions. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.
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Effect of currency translation on cash
Net effect of foreign currency translations on cash changed $1.2 million to a $0.4 million negative impact in 2021, compared to a $0.8 million positive impact in 2020. The net effect of foreign currency translation on cash changed to a positive $0.8 million from a $0 impact in 2019. These effects are related to changes in exchange rates between the U.S. Dollar and the Swiss Franc, Euro, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, and Malaysian Ringgit which are the functional currencies of our subsidiaries.
Material Cash Requirements
The Company has not entered into any transactions with unconsolidated entities whereby the Company has financial guarantees, subordinated retained interests, derivative instruments, or other contingent arrangements that expose the Company to material continuing risks, contingent liabilities, or any other obligation under a variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provided financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the Company, or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with the Company.
Purchase obligations represent contractual agreements to purchase goods or services that are legally binding; specify a fixed, minimum or range of quantities; specify a fixed, minimum, variable, or indexed price provision; and specify approximate timing of the transaction.
The following table presents certain future payments due by the Company as of December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
TotalLess Than 1 Year1 - 3 Years3 - 5 YearsAfter 5 Years
Purchase obligations$41,126 $19,751 $11,976 $9,399 $— 
Operating lease obligations6,127 2,297 2,964 692 174 
Finance lease obligations565 213 233 113 
Convertible senior notes (1)
86,250 — — 86,250 — 
Future interest obligations (2)
17,010 3,234 7,394 6,382 — 
Total$151,078 $25,495 $22,567 $102,836 $180 
(1) Includes the principal amount of the convertible senior notes. Although the notes mature in 2026, they can be converted into cash and shares of our common stock prior to maturity if certain conditions are met. Any conversion prior to maturity can result in repayments of the principal amounts sooner than the scheduled repayments as indicated in the table. For additional information, refer to Note 16 - Convertible Notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2) Includes interest payments for both the convertible senior notes and other long term borrowings.
Net Operating Loss Carryforwards
 
As of December 31, 2021, we had a net operating loss carryforward (“NOL”) and domestic research and development tax credit carryforward. See Note 5 - Income Taxes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding our carryforwards.

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Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact the financial position, results of operations or cash flows due to adverse changes in financial and commodity market prices and rates. We are exposed to market risk in the areas of changes in U.S. and foreign interest rates and changes in foreign currency exchange rates as measured against the U.S. Dollar. These exposures are directly related to our normal operating and funding activities.
Interest Rate Risk

In September 2019, we issued $86.25 million aggregate principal amount of Notes. The fair market value of the Notes is affected by our common stock price. The fair value of the Notes will generally increase as our common stock price increases and will generally decrease as our common stock price declines in value. In addition, the fair market value of the Notes is exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of our fixed interest rate Notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Additionally, on our balance sheet we carry the Notes at face value less unamortized discount and debt issuance cost and we present the fair value for required disclosure purposes only. For additional information, refer to Note 16 - Convertible Notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and to our consolidated financial statements included herein. We had no interest rate hedge transactions in place on December 31, 2021.
Foreign Currency Risk
Foreign currency risk may impact our revenue and results of operations. In cases where we purchase inventory in one currency and sell corresponding products in another, our gross margin percentage is typically at risk based on foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, in cases where we may be generating operating income in foreign currencies, the magnitude of such operating income when translated into U.S. dollars will be at risk based on foreign currency exchange rates. We had no foreign currency hedge transactions in place on December 31, 2021. We do not currently consider foreign currency risk to be material to our business.
Inflation Risk
Inflation generally impacts us by increasing our costs of labor, material, transportation and general overhead costs. The rates of inflation experienced in recent years have not had a material impact on our financial statements as inflationary cost increases have been more than offset by net realized annual price increases and productivity gains. We cannot reasonably estimate our ability to successfully recover any impact of inflation cost increases into the future.

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Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
HESKA CORPORATION
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 Page
       Note 2, Revenue
       Note 5, Income Taxes
       Note 6, Leases
       Note 10, Inventories

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Board of Directors and Shareholders
Heska Corporation


Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Heska Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of loss, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 28, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion.

Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical audit matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.


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Stock-based compensation – assessment of probability related to stock-based compensation subject to performance-based vesting requirements
As described further in Note 12 to the financial statements, the Company grants restricted stock awards and stock options. Certain restricted stock awards and stock options have performance-based vesting conditions, which vest based on when performance targets are met. Performance based awards are recognized as an expense based on the probability of achieving the underlying performance targets. We identified the probability assessment of achieving the performance targets as a critical audit matter.

The principal consideration for our determination that the probability of achieving the performance targets is a critical audit matter is that the probability is based on a subjective assessment of the Company’s prospective financial information. The probability assessment requires management to estimate the successful development and market acceptance of future product launches, future sales targets, operating performance, and EBITDA. Changes in the subjective probability assessment can materially affect the amount and timing of the recognition of stock-based compensation expense and the probability assessment requires significant auditor subjectivity in evaluating the reasonableness of those judgments and estimates.

Our audit procedures related to the probability of achieving the performance targets included the following, among others.

We tested the design and operating effectiveness of internal controls relating to management’s determination of stock-based compensation expense, including testing management’s review controls over the identification of the terms of the performance conditions and the key inputs used in determining the probability of achieving the performance targets.
We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s prospective financial information by comparing management’s previous forecasts to actual results to assess management’s ability to accurately forecast actual results. We also evaluated the reasonableness of forecasted revenue by comparing sales growth to current market and industry trends; operating performance and EBITDA by comparing to current market and industry trends, historical information, and inquiring of individuals outside of the finance department; and future product introductions by evaluating the status of development, recent placement history, and inquiring of individuals outside of the finance department. We also evaluated the consistency of forecasts used in the probability assessment with other elements of the financial statements that use the forecast as an input.


/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

Denver, Colorado
February 28, 2022



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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Board of Directors and Shareholders
Heska Corporation


Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Heska Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and our report dated February 28, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

Basis for opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting (“Management’s Report”). Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Our audit of, and opinion on, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not include the internal control over financial reporting of Biotech Laboratories U.S.A. LLC and BiEsse A-Laboratorio die Analisi Veterinarie S.r.l., whose financial statements reflect total assets and revenues constituting 7% and less than 1%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. As indicated in Management’s Report, Biotech Laboratories U.S.A. LLC and BiEsse A-Laboratorio die Analisi Veterinarie S.r.l. were acquired during 2021. Management’s assertion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting excluded internal control over financial reporting of Biotech Laboratories U.S.A. LLC and BiEsse A-Laboratorio die Analisi Veterinarie S.r.l.

Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial

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reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

Denver, Colorado
February 28, 2022


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Heska Corporation

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of (loss) income, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity, and cash flows of Heska Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”).

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the results of operations of the Company and its cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2019, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Change in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note 1 to the financial statements, the Company adopted the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 842, “Leases,” using the modified retrospective adoption method on January 1, 2019.

Basis for Opinion

The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.


/s/ Plante & Moran, PLLC


We served as the Company’s auditor from 2006-2020.

Denver, Colorado

February 28, 2020, except for the effects of the change in segments described in Notes 2 and 18, as to which the date is February 26, 2021


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HESKA CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 December 31,
 20212020
ASSETS
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$223,574 $86,334 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for losses of $874 and $769, respectively27,995 31,080 
Inventories49,361 40,037 
Net investment in leases, current, net of allowance for losses of $137 and $192, respectively
6,175 4,794 
Prepaid expenses5,244 3,875 
Other current assets7,206 5,155 
Total current assets319,555 171,275 
Property and equipment, net33,413 35,542 
Operating lease right-of-use assets
5,198 5,457 
Goodwill 118,826 88,276 
Other intangible assets, net56,705 55,992 
Deferred tax asset, net19,429 5,694 
Net investment in leases, non-current
20,128 15,789 
Investments in unconsolidated affiliates 5,424 6,704 
Related party convertible note receivable, net 6,800 6,671 
Promissory note receivable from investee, net8,448  
Other non-current assets10,146 8,439 
Total assets$604,072 $399,839 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$15,374 $15,119 
Accrued liabilities19,424 18,055 
Operating lease liabilities, current
2,227 2,087 
Deferred revenue, current, and other6,901 6,854 
Total current liabilities43,926 42,115 
Convertible note, non-current, net
84,034 48,459 
Notes payable15,900  
Deferred revenue, non-current3,854 4,667 
Other long-term borrowings