VALERO ENERGY CORP/TX0001035002FALSE2023FY
Includes excise taxes on sales by certain of our foreign operations of $5,765 million, $5,194 million, and $5,645 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________
Commission file number 001-13175
VLO Logo.jpg
VALERO ENERGY CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware74-1828067
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
One Valero Way
San Antonio, Texas 78249
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (210) 345-2000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareVLONew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $41.4 billion based on the last sales price quoted as of June 30, 2023 on the New York Stock Exchange, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
As of February 16, 2024, 332,481,908 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
We intend to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission a definitive Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled for May 15, 2024, at which directors will be elected. Portions of the 2024 Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference in PART III of this Form 10-K and are deemed to be a part of this report.


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The terms “Valero,” “we,” “our,” and “us,” as used in this report, may refer to Valero Energy Corporation, one or more of its consolidated subsidiaries, or all of them taken as a whole. The term “DGD,” as used in this report, may refer to Diamond Green Diesel Holdings LLC, its wholly owned consolidated subsidiary, or both of them taken as a whole. In this Form 10-K, we make certain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our plans, strategies, objectives, expectations, intentions, and resources under the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You should read our forward-looking statements together with our disclosures beginning on page 39 of this report under the heading “CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR THE PURPOSE OF SAFE HARBOR PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995.” Note references in this report to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements can be found beginning on page 77, under “ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.”

PART I

ITEMS 1. and 2. BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES

OUR BUSINESS

We are a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas. Our corporate offices are at One Valero Way, San Antonio, Texas, 78249, and our telephone number is (210) 345-2000. We were incorporated in Delaware in 1981 under the name Valero Refining and Marketing Company. We changed our name to Valero Energy Corporation in 1997. Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the trading symbol “VLO.”

We are a multinational manufacturer and marketer of petroleum-based and low-carbon liquid transportation fuels and petrochemical products, and we sell our products primarily in the United States (U.S.), Canada, the United Kingdom (U.K.), Ireland, and Latin America. We own 15 petroleum refineries located in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. with a combined throughput capacity of approximately 3.2 million barrels per day (BPD). We are a joint venture member in DGD1, which owns two renewable diesel plants located in the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. with a combined production capacity of approximately 1.2 billion gallons per year, and we own 12 ethanol plants located in the Mid-Continent region of the U.S. with a combined production capacity of approximately 1.6 billion gallons per year. We manage our operations through our Refining, Renewable Diesel, and Ethanol segments. See “OUR OPERATIONS” below for additional information about the operations, products, and properties of each of our reportable segments.

OUR COMPREHENSIVE LIQUID FUELS STRATEGY

Overview
We strive to manage our business to responsibly meet the world’s growing demand for reliable and affordable energy. We believe that liquid transportation fuels—both petroleum-based and low-carbon—help meet that demand, and we expect that they will continue to be an essential source of transportation fuels well into the future. Our strategic actions have enabled us to be a low-cost, efficient, and reliable supplier of these liquid transportation fuels to much of the world.
1 DGD is a joint venture with Darling Ingredients Inc. (Darling) and we consolidate DGD’s financial statements. See Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements regarding our accounting for DGD.

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Most of our petroleum refineries operate in locations with current operating cost and/or other advantages, as described below under “OUR OPERATIONS—Refining,” and we believe our refineries are positioned to meet the strong worldwide demand for petroleum-based products. Through our refining business, we believe that we have developed expertise in liquid fuels manufacturing and a platform for the marketing and distribution of liquid fuels, and we seek to leverage this expertise and platform to expand and optimize our low-carbon fuels businesses. We expect that low-carbon liquid fuels will continue to be a growing part of the energy mix, and we have made multibillion-dollar investments to develop and grow our low-carbon renewable diesel and ethanol businesses, as described below under “OUR OPERATIONS—Renewable Diesel,” and “—Ethanol.” These businesses have made us the world’s largest producer of low-carbon transportation fuels and have helped governments across the world achieve their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets, and we continue to seek low-carbon fuel opportunities.

Regulations, Policies, and Standards Driving Low-Carbon Fuel Demand
Governments across the world have issued, or are considering issuing, low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards to reduce GHG emissions and increase the percentage of low-carbon fuels in the transportation fuel mix. These regulations, policies, and standards include, but are not limited to, the RFS, LCFS, CFR, and similar programs (collectively, the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs). These programs are defined and discussed below under “U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program,” “California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS),” and “Canada Low-Carbon Fuel Programs.” While many of these regulations, policies, and standards result in additional costs to our refining business, they have created opportunities for us to develop our low-carbon fuel businesses, and they should continue to help drive the demand for our low-carbon fuels (such as renewable diesel, ethanol, and other low-carbon fuel products). We believe that our ability to supply these low-carbon fuels can play an important role in helping achieve GHG emissions reduction targets in a reliable manner.

The U.S., California, and Canada low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards discussed below currently have the most significant impact on our business. However, other municipal, state, and national governments across the world, including in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate, have issued, or are considering issuing, similar low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards. See “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS—Legal, Government, and Regulatory Risks—We are subject to risks arising from the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs, and other regulations, policies, international certifications, and standards impacting the demand for and traceability of low-carbon fuels.” In addition, see Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements regarding our accounting for the costs of the blending programs underCosts of Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs,” Note 20 for disclosure of the costs of the blending programs under “Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs Price Risk,” and Note 17 for disclosure of our blender’s tax credits under “Segment Information.”

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program
The EPA created the RFS program pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Under the RFS program, by November 30 of each year, the EPA is required to set annual quotas for the volume of renewable fuels that must be blended into petroleum-based transportation fuels consumed in the U.S. The quotas are set by class of renewable fuel (i.e., biomass-based diesel, cellulosic biofuel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel) and are collectively referred to as the renewable volume obligation (RVO). The RVO must be met by obligated parties, who are the producers and importers of the petroleum-based transportation fuels consumed in the U.S. Obligated parties demonstrate compliance annually by retiring the appropriate number of renewable identification numbers (RINs) associated with each class of renewable fuel to satisfy their RVO. A RIN is effectively a compliance credit that is assigned to each gallon of qualifying renewable fuel produced in, or

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imported into, the U.S. RINs are obtained by blending those renewable fuels into petroleum-based transportation fuels, and obligated parties can also achieve compliance by purchasing RINs in the open market.

We are an obligated party under this program and our Refining segment incurs obligations as a result of being a producer and importer of petroleum-based transportation fuels consumed in the U.S., but we also generate RINs under this program as a result of being a producer of qualifying renewable fuels through our Renewable Diesel and Ethanol segments. Therefore, there is a cost to our refining business from this program because in order to comply with our RVO we must either purchase qualifying renewable fuels for blending or purchase RINs in the open market, but we also generate revenue through our Renewable Diesel and Ethanol segments from this program because we produce and sell qualifying renewable fuels.

California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS)
Under California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) was required to undertake a statewide effort to reduce GHG emissions. One of the programs designed to help achieve those reductions is the LCFS program. The LCFS program is designed to reduce GHG emissions by decreasing the carbon intensity (CI) of transportation fuels consumed in the state. Under this program, each fuel is assigned a CI value, which is intended to represent the GHG emissions associated with the feedstocks from which the fuel was produced, the fuel production and distribution activities, and the use of the finished fuel. CIs are determined using a CARB-developed life cycle GHG emissions analysis model, and CI pathways are certified by the CARB after low-carbon fuel producers submit operational data to demonstrate the life cycle GHG emissions. The certified CIs for both low-carbon and petroleum-based fuels are compared to a declining annual benchmark. Fuels below the benchmark generate credits, while fuels above the benchmark generate deficits. The lower the fuel’s CI score compared to the benchmark, the greater number of credits generated. Each producer or importer of fuel must demonstrate that the overall mix of fuels it supplies for use in California meets the CI benchmarks for each compliance period. A producer or importer with a fuel mix that is above the CI benchmark must purchase LCFS credits sufficient to meet the CI benchmark.

Our Refining segment produces and imports petroleum-based transportation fuels in California and thus must blend low-CI fuels or purchase credits to meet the CI benchmark. However, fuels produced by our Renewable Diesel and Ethanol segments have CI scores that are lower than traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels, and we benefit from the demand from other regulated entities for these low-carbon products. In addition, the demand for some of these low-carbon transportation fuels tends to drive higher values for those fuels compared to petroleum-based transportation fuels due to their lower CI scores. We seek to pursue opportunities to further lower the CI of many of our products, including our low-carbon fuels. See “Our Low-Carbon Projects” below.

Canada Low-Carbon Fuel Programs
In July 2022, Canada’s federal environmental agency issued the Clean Fuel Regulations (CFR) program to require primary suppliers of gasoline or diesel that is produced in or imported into Canada to reduce the CI of those products. Annual CI reduction requirements prescribed by the CFR program can be satisfied by using compliance credits that a primary supplier creates (through blending low CI fuels) or that are purchased by them. The obligation to achieve prescribed CI reduction requirements began on July 1, 2023. The CFR program is in addition to Canada’s provincial programs (such as in Quebec and Ontario), which require the utilization of low-carbon fuels, and is similar to the LCFS program.

As a primary supplier of gasoline and diesel in Canada, our Refining segment is subject to Canada’s low-carbon fuel programs described above and thus must blend low-CI fuels or purchase credits to meet the

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annual CI reduction requirements. As noted above under “California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS),” fuels produced by our Renewable Diesel and Ethanol segments have lower CI scores than traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels, and we benefit from the increased demand for these low-carbon products as a result of Canada’s low-carbon fuel programs.

U.S. Federal Tax Incentives
The U.S. federal government has enacted tax incentives to encourage the production of low-carbon fuels and/or reduce GHG emissions. Section 6426 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the Code) provides a tax credit (generally referred to as the blender’s tax credit) to blenders of certain renewable fuels to encourage the production and blending of those fuels with traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Only blenders that have produced a mixture and either sold or used the fuel mixture as fuel are eligible for the blender’s tax credit. The renewable diesel produced by our Renewable Diesel segment is a liquid fuel derived from biomass that meets the EPA’s fuel registration requirements; therefore, renewable diesel that we produce and blend qualifies for this refundable tax credit of one dollar per gallon. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the IRA) extends Section 6426 through December 31, 2024 and then replaces it with Section 45Z of the Code, which provides a clean fuel production credit for years 2025 through 2027. Tax credits will be able to be claimed under Section 45Z for the production and sale of clean fuels (such as biodiesel, renewable diesel, and alternative fuels, including sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)).2 In addition, Section 45Q of the Code provides federal income tax credits to certain taxpayers who capture and sequester, store, or use qualified carbon oxides (e.g., carbon dioxide).

We continually evaluate such federal tax incentives, and may strategically pursue certain opportunities to optimize the potential benefits therefrom. For example, as discussed below under “Our Low-Carbon Projects,” the carbon capture and sequestration projects under evaluation at certain of our ethanol plants would be expected to increase the value of the ethanol product produced at those plants by helping to decrease its CI score and through the expected generation of Section 45Q tax credits. Our recently announced SAF project is expected to produce low-carbon jet fuel and generate Section 45Z tax credits, which should increase the value of that product.

Our Low-Carbon Projects
As of December 31, 2023, we have invested $5.4 billion3 in our low-carbon fuels businesses, and we expect additional growth opportunities in this area. We completed the expansion of DGD’s first renewable diesel plant in 2021 and, in the fourth quarter of 2022, we completed construction of DGD’s second renewable diesel plant. These expansions increased DGD’s combined production capacity of renewable diesel to approximately 1.2 billion gallons per year and renewable naphtha to approximately 50 million gallons per year. See “OUR OPERATIONS—Renewable Diesel” below for additional information about the expansion of our renewable diesel business.
In January 2023, we announced that DGD approved a large-scale SAF project. The project remains on schedule with completion expected in the first quarter of 2025 for a total cost of $315 million, with half of
2 DGD expects to produce synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), a renewable blending component, using the Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) process. SPK is also commonly referred to as “SAF” or “neat SAF.” Current aviation regulations allow SPK to be blended up to 50 percent with conventional jet fuel for use in an aircraft. This blend is commonly referred to as “SAF” or “blended SAF.” This document refers to both SPK and blended SAF as SAF.
3 Our investment in our low-carbon fuels businesses consists of $3.6 billion in capital investments to build our renewable diesel business (including SAF), and $1.8 billion to build our ethanol business. Capital investments in renewable diesel represent 100 percent of the capital investments made by DGD. See also “ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS—LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES—Our Capital Resources—Capital Investments,” which is incorporated by reference into this item for our definition of capital investments.

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the cost attributable to us. Upon completion, the DGD Port Arthur Plant (as defined below under “OUR OPERATIONS—Renewable Diesel”) will have the optionality to upgrade approximately 50 percent of its current 470 million gallon renewable diesel annual production capacity to SAF. With the completion of this project, DGD is expected to become one of the largest manufacturers of SAF in the world. The production of a lower CI jet fuel should result in the generation of Section 45Z tax credits and a higher value for this product.
We previously announced our participation in a then-proposed large-scale carbon capture and sequestration pipeline system with Navigator Energy Services (Navigator) in the Mid-Continent region of the U.S. that was expected to capture, transport, and store carbon dioxide that results from the ethanol manufacturing process at our eight ethanol plants located in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and South Dakota. In October 2023, Navigator announced that it decided to cancel this project.
We continue to evaluate investments in economic, low-carbon projects, including carbon capture and sequestration, low-carbon hydrogen, and alcohol-to-jet fuel, that are intended to lower the CI of our products. For example, certain of our ethanol plants are located near geology believed to be suitable for sequestering carbon dioxide, and we are evaluating stand-alone projects to sequester carbon dioxide that results from the ethanol manufacturing process at those plants. We also continue to evaluate various other projects to sequester carbon dioxide.

See “ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS—LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES—Our Capital Resources—Capital Investments” for further discussion of our capital investments associated with low-carbon projects.
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

We have well-developed management structures that are central to our decision making and risk management, including three programs that support our environmental management as follows:

Our Commitment to Excellence Management System (CTEMS) is a proprietary systematic approach to planning, executing, checking, and acting to improve everyday work activities at many of our refineries and plants. CTEMS has nine major elements: leadership accountability, protecting people and the environment, people and skills development, operations reliability and mechanical integrity, technical excellence and knowledge management, change management, business competitiveness, external stakeholder relationships, and assurance and review. Risks related to regulatory issues and physical threats to our refineries and plants are among those assessed as we implement CTEMS.

Environmental Excellence and Risk Assessment (EERA) elevates the environmental audit and compliance functions to an environmental excellence vision. Its main goal is to assess the design and effectiveness of environmental performance regarding specific excellence objectives, and to facilitate continuous improvement across our operations. EERA defines more than 100 expectations and involves a proprietary five-step process using due diligence on data and field assessments reviewed by a combination of external and internal subject matter experts.
Our Fuels Management System (FMS) provides operational safeguards, software, training, and protocols for uniformity across our refineries and plants to reinforce our compliance with applicable fuels regulations. Built on the success of FMS, our Low Carbon Assurance Program

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(LCAP) was implemented to further delineate and strengthen our internal processes to assure compliance with applicable low-carbon fuels regulations, policies, and standards. LCAP defines key regulatory requirements, management expectations, and internal regulatory assurances relating to transportation fuels regulated by low-carbon fuels regulations, policies, and standards.

OUR OPERATIONS

Our operations are managed through the following reportable segments:

our Refining segment, which includes the operations of our petroleum refineries, the associated activities to market our refined petroleum products, and the logistics assets that support those operations;

our Renewable Diesel segment, which includes the operations of DGD and the associated activities to market renewable diesel and renewable naphtha; and

our Ethanol segment, which includes the operations of our ethanol plants and the associated activities to market our ethanol and co-products.

Financial information about these segments is presented in Note 17 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference into this item.

See “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS—Risks Related to Our Business, Industry, and Operations—Our financial results are affected by volatile margins, which are dependent upon factors beyond our control, including the price of feedstocks and the market price at which we can sell our products,”—“We are subject to risks arising from industry and market developments that could decrease the demand for our products,”—“We are subject to risks arising from the potential disruption of our ability to obtain feedstocks,”—“Our investments in joint ventures and other entities decrease our ability to manage risk,” and —“Legal, Government, and Regulatory Risks—We are subject to risks arising from the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs, and other regulations, policies, international certifications, and standards impacting the demand for and traceability of low-carbon fuels,” which are incorporated by reference into this item.


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Refining
Refineries
Overview
Our 15 petroleum refineries are located in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K., and they have a combined feedstock throughput capacity of approximately 3.2 million BPD. The following table presents the locations of these refineries and their feedstock throughput capacities as of December 31, 2023.
RefineryLocationThroughput
Capacity (a)
(BPD)
U.S.:
BeniciaCalifornia170,000 
WilmingtonCalifornia135,000 
MerauxLouisiana135,000 
St. CharlesLouisiana340,000 
ArdmoreOklahoma90,000 
MemphisTennessee195,000 
Corpus Christi (b)Texas370,000 
HoustonTexas255,000 
McKeeTexas200,000 
Port ArthurTexas410,000 
Texas CityTexas260,000 
Three RiversTexas100,000 
Canada:
Quebec CityQuebec235,000 
U.K.:
PembrokeWales270,000 
Total3,165,000 
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(a)Throughput capacity represents estimated capacity for processing crude oil, intermediates, and other feedstocks. Total estimated crude oil capacity is approximately 2.6 million BPD.
(b)Represents the combined capacities of two refineries – the Corpus Christi East and Corpus Christi West Refineries.

California
Benicia Refinery. Our Benicia Refinery is located northeast of San Francisco on the Carquinez Straits of San Francisco Bay. It processes sour crude oils into California Reformulated Gasoline Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CARBOB) and Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) gasolines, CARB diesel, diesel, jet fuel, and asphalt. Gasoline production is primarily CARBOB, which meets CARB specifications when blended with ethanol. The refinery receives feedstocks via a marine dock and pipelines and distributes most of its products via pipeline and truck.

Wilmington Refinery. Our Wilmington Refinery is located near Los Angeles. It processes a blend of heavy and high-sulfur crude oils and produces CARBOB and CBOB gasolines, CARB diesel, diesel, jet fuel, and asphalt. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipelines connected to marine terminals and docks and distributes its products via pipeline to various terminals.

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Louisiana
Meraux Refinery. Our Meraux Refinery is located approximately 15 miles southeast of New Orleans on the Mississippi River. It processes sour and sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and high-sulfur fuel oil. The refinery receives feedstocks at its dock and has access to the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port and distributes its products via its dock and the Colonial Pipeline. The refinery is located about 40 miles from our St. Charles Refinery, allowing for integration of feedstocks and refined petroleum product blending.

St. Charles Refinery. Our St. Charles Refinery is located approximately 25 miles west of New Orleans on the Mississippi River. It processes sour crude oils and other feedstocks and produces gasoline and diesel. The refinery receives feedstocks via its docks and has access to the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port and distributes its products via its docks and our Parkway Pipeline and the Bengal Pipeline, both of which access the Plantation Pipeline and Colonial Pipeline.

Oklahoma
Ardmore Refinery. Our Ardmore Refinery is located approximately 100 miles south of Oklahoma City. It processes primarily sweet crude oils and produces gasoline and diesel. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipelines and distributes its products via rail, truck, and the Magellan Pipeline system.

Tennessee
Memphis Refinery. Our Memphis Refinery is located on the Mississippi River. It processes primarily sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The refinery receives feedstocks via the Diamond Pipeline, the Dakota Access Pipeline, and barge and distributes its products via truck, barge, and the Shorthorn Pipeline.

Texas
Corpus Christi East and West Refineries. Our Corpus Christi East and West Refineries are located on the Corpus Christi Ship Channel. The East Refinery processes sour crude oil and the West Refinery processes sweet crude oil, sour crude oil, and residual fuel oil, and both refineries produce gasoline, aromatics, jet fuel, diesel, and asphalt. The refineries receive feedstocks via docks on the Corpus Christi Ship Channel and pipelines. The refineries’ physical locations allow for the transfer of various feedstocks and blending components between them. The refineries distribute their products via truck, ship, barge, and pipeline.

Houston Refinery. Our Houston Refinery is located on the Houston Ship Channel. It processes sweet crude and intermediate oils and produces gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipeline, ship, and barge and distributes its products via pipeline, including the Colonial Pipeline and Explorer Pipeline.
McKee Refinery. Our McKee Refinery is located in the Texas Panhandle. It processes primarily sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and asphalt. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipeline and distributes its products primarily via pipeline and rail.

Port Arthur Refinery. Our Port Arthur Refinery is located on the Texas Gulf Coast approximately 90 miles east of Houston. It processes heavy sour crude oils and other feedstocks and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and residual fuel oil. The refinery receives feedstocks via rail, ship, barge, and pipeline and distributes its products via pipeline, including the Colonial Pipeline and

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Explorer Pipeline, and via ship and barge. The refinery’s new coker was completed in the second quarter of 2023.

Texas City Refinery. Our Texas City Refinery is located southeast of Houston on the Texas City Ship Channel. It processes crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipeline and by ship and barge using docks on the Texas City Ship Channel and distributes its products via ship and barge, as well as via pipeline, including the Colonial Pipeline and Explorer Pipeline.

Three Rivers Refinery. Our Three Rivers Refinery is located in South Texas between Corpus Christi and San Antonio. It primarily processes sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and aromatics. The refinery receives feedstocks via pipeline and truck and distributes its products primarily via pipeline.

Canada
Quebec Refinery. Our Quebec Refinery is located in Lévis (near Quebec City). It processes sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, and low-sulfur fuel oil. The refinery receives feedstocks via ship at its marine dock on the St. Lawrence River (some of which is sourced from our crude oil terminal in Montreal that receives crude oil from western Canada) and distributes its products via our pipeline to our Montreal East terminal and other terminals and via rail, ship, and truck.

U.K.
Pembroke Refinery. Our Pembroke Refinery is located in the County of Pembrokeshire in South West Wales. It processes primarily sweet crude oils and produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, and low-sulfur fuel oil. The refinery receives its feedstocks via ship and barge through docks on the Milford Haven Waterway and distributes its products via ship, barge, truck, and our Mainline Pipeline.

Feedstock Supply
Our crude oil and other feedstocks are purchased through a combination of term and spot contracts. Our term supply contracts are at market-related prices and feedstocks are purchased directly or indirectly from various national oil companies as well as international and U.S. oil companies. The contracts generally permit the parties to amend the contracts (or terminate them), effective as of the next scheduled renewal date, by giving the other party proper notice within a prescribed period of time (e.g., 60 days, 6 months) before expiration of the current term. The majority of the crude oil purchased under our term contracts is purchased at the producer’s official stated price (i.e., the “market” price established by the seller for all purchasers) and not at a negotiated price specific to us.


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Marketing
Overview
We sell refined petroleum products in both the wholesale rack and bulk markets. These sales include products that are manufactured in our refining operations, as well as products purchased or received on exchange from third parties. Most of our refineries have access to marine facilities, and they interconnect with common-carrier pipeline systems, allowing us to sell products in the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Ireland, Latin America, and other parts of the world.

Wholesale Rack Sales
We sell our products on a wholesale basis through an extensive rack marketing network. The principal purchasers of our products from terminal truck racks are wholesalers, distributors, retailers, and truck-delivered end users throughout the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Ireland, and Latin America.

The majority of our rack volume is sold through unbranded channels. The remainder is sold to distributors and dealers that are members of the Valero family of brands that operate branded sites in the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Ireland, and Mexico. These sites are independently owned and are supplied by us under multi-year contracts. Approximately 7,000 outlets carry our brand names. For branded sites, products are sold under the Valero®, Beacon®, Diamond Shamrock®, and Shamrock® brands in the U.S., the Ultramar® brand in Canada, the Valero® and Texaco® brands in the U.K. and Ireland, and the Valero® brand in Mexico.

Bulk Sales
We also sell our products through bulk sales channels in the U.S. and international markets. Our bulk sales are made to various petroleum companies, traders, and bulk end users, such as railroads, airlines, and utilities. Our bulk sales are distributed primarily via pipeline, ship, and barge to major tank farms and trading hubs.

Logistics
We own logistics assets (crude oil pipelines, product pipelines, terminals, tanks, marine docks, truck rack bays, and other assets) that support our refining operations and export capabilities. Demand for transportation fuels in Latin America is expected to continue to grow. To support our wholesale rack operations in Latin America, we have invested in or grown our access to terminals in Mexico and Peru. Our U.S. Gulf Coast refineries are well positioned to support export growth to Latin America, and all of our refineries with waterborne access are well positioned to support export growth in other countries around the world.


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Renewable Diesel
Our Relationship with DGD
DGD is a joint venture that we consolidate. We entered into the DGD joint venture in 2011 and it began operations in 2013. See Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements regarding our accounting for DGD. We operate DGD’s renewable diesel plants and perform certain management functions for DGD as an independent contractor under an agreement with DGD.

Renewable Diesel Plants
DGD owns two renewable diesel plants. The first DGD plant began operations in 2013 and is located next to our St. Charles Refinery (the DGD St. Charles Plant). The second DGD plant commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2022 and is located next to our Port Arthur Refinery (the DGD Port Arthur Plant, and together with the DGD St. Charles Plant, the DGD Plants). The DGD Plants produce renewable diesel and renewable naphtha. Renewable diesel is a low-carbon liquid transportation fuel that is interchangeable with petroleum-based diesel. Renewable naphtha is used to produce renewable gasoline and renewable plastics. These products are produced from waste and renewable feedstocks using a pre-treatment process and an advanced hydroprocessing-isomerization process. The market value of the renewable diesel can vary based on regional policies, feedstock preferences, and CI scores. Waste feedstocks (predominantly animal fats, used cooking oils, and inedible distillers corn oils) are the preferred feedstocks due to their lower CI scores; however, vegetable oils and other renewable feedstocks are also used. While several other companies have made, or have announced interest in making, investments in renewable diesel projects, the DGD Plants are currently two of only a small number of operational facilities that have the capacity to process 100 percent waste and renewable feedstocks, and this feedstock flexibility currently provides a margin advantage.

The DGD Plants receive waste and renewable feedstocks primarily by rail, trucks, ships, and barges owned by third parties. DGD is party to a raw material supply agreement with Darling under which Darling is obligated to offer to DGD a portion of its feedstock requirements at market pricing, but DGD is not obligated to purchase all or any part of its feedstock from Darling. Therefore, DGD pursues the most optimal feedstock supply available.

DGD began an expansion of the DGD St. Charles Plant in 2019 and operations commenced in the fourth quarter of 2021. This expansion increased the DGD St. Charles Plant’s renewable diesel production capacity by approximately 410 million gallons per year, which, at that time, brought DGD’s renewable diesel production capacity to approximately 700 million gallons per year, and provided DGD with the ability to produce approximately 30 million gallons per year of renewable naphtha.

The DGD Port Arthur Plant, which has a production capacity of approximately 470 million gallons of renewable diesel and approximately 20 million gallons of renewable naphtha per year, commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2022. DGD’s combined renewable diesel and renewable naphtha production capacities increased to approximately 1.2 billion gallons and 50 million gallons, respectively, per year.

Marketing
DGD sells renewable diesel and renewable naphtha under the Diamond Green Diesel® brand primarily to be blended with petroleum-based diesel and gasoline, respectively, and to end users for use in their operations. DGD distributes its renewable diesel and renewable naphtha via ship and rail domestically and to international markets.


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Ethanol
Ethanol Plants
Our ethanol business began in 2009 with the purchase of our first ethanol plants. We have since grown the business by purchasing additional ethanol plants. Our 12 ethanol plants are located in the Mid-Continent region of the U.S., and they have a combined ethanol production capacity of approximately 1.6 billion gallons per year. Our ethanol plants are dry mill facilities that process corn to produce ethanol and various co-products, including livestock feed (dry distillers grains, or DDGs, and syrup) and inedible distillers corn oils.
The following table presents the locations of our ethanol plants, their annual production capacities for ethanol (in millions of gallons) and DDGs (in tons), and their annual corn processing capacities (in millions of bushels) as of December 31, 2023.
StateCityEthanol
Production
Capacity
DDG
Production
Capacity
Corn
Processing
Capacity
IndianaBluffton135355,00047
Linden 135355,00047
Mount Vernon100263,00035
IowaAlbert City 135355,00047
Charles City 140368,00049
Fort Dodge140368,00049
Hartley 140368,00049
Lakota (a)110289,00038
MinnesotaWelcome 140368,00049
NebraskaAlbion135355,00047
OhioBloomingburg135355,00047
South DakotaAurora 140368,00049
Total1,5854,167,000553
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(a)This plant was previously configured to produce a higher-grade ethanol product, as opposed to fuel-grade ethanol, and its production capacity was approximately 55 million gallons per year of ethanol. During the third quarter of 2023, the plant resumed production of fuel-grade ethanol.

We source our corn supply from local farmers and commercial elevators. Our plants receive corn primarily via rail and truck.

Marketing
We sell our ethanol under term and spot contracts in bulk markets in the U.S. We also export our ethanol into the global markets and have access to logistics assets that are well positioned to support export growth. We distribute our ethanol primarily by rail (using some railcars owned by us), truck, ship, and barge. We sell DDGs primarily to animal feed customers in the U.S., Mexico, and Asia, which are distributed primarily via rail, truck, ship, and barge.

Seasonality
Demand for gasoline, diesel, and asphalt is higher during the spring and summer months than during the winter months in most of our markets, primarily due to seasonal increases in highway traffic and construction. The demand for renewable diesel has not significantly fluctuated by season. Ethanol is

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primarily blended into gasoline, and as a result, ethanol demand typically moves in line with the demand for gasoline.
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS

We incorporate by reference into this item the disclosures on government regulations, including environmental regulations, contained in the following sections of this report:

“—OUR COMPREHENSIVE LIQUID FUELS STRATEGY—Regulations, Policies, and Standards Driving Low-Carbon Fuel Demand”;

“ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS—Legal, Government, and Regulatory Risks”; and

“ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS—ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT MATTERS.”

Our business is heavily regulated, and our costs for compliance with government regulations are significant and can be material, especially costs associated with the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs disclosed in Notes 19 and 20 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which are incorporated by reference into this item. In addition, see Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements regarding our accounting for the costs of these programs underCosts of Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs.”

Our capital expenditures attributable to compliance with government regulations, including environmental regulations, did not have a material effect on our total capital expenditures in 2023, and we currently do not expect that compliance with government regulations, including environmental regulations, will have material effects on our total capital expenditures in 2024.

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HUMAN CAPITAL

We believe that our employees provide a competitive advantage for our success. We seek to foster a strong team culture that supports our employees, and we strive to provide a safe, healthy, and rewarding work environment for our employees with opportunities for professional growth and long-term financial stability.

Headcount
On December 31, 2023, we had 9,908 employees. These employees were located in the following countries:
CountryNumber of
Employees
U.S.8,239 
Canada657 
U.K. and Ireland843 
Mexico and Peru169 
Total9,908 

Of our total employees as of December 31, 2023, 1,774 were covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements and 9,886 were in permanent full-time positions. See also “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS—General Risk Factors—Our business may be negatively affected by work stoppages, slowdowns, or strikes, as well as by new legislation or an inability to attract and retain sufficient labor, and increased costs related thereto.”

Company Culture and Human Capital (People) Strategy
Our company culture and our well-defined expectations of ethics and behavior guide the daily work of our employees and support our efforts to produce exceptional company results. The six values that define our culture are Safety, Accountability, Teamwork, Do the Right Thing, Caring, and Excellence.

Our people strategy and programs are designed and implemented in support of our business and strategic objectives. In building and fostering great teams, we are guided by the following:

We strive to hire and promote top-talent employees with team-oriented work ethics and values;

Our pay, benefits, and support programs are designed to attract and retain excellent employees and to reward innovation, ingenuity, and excellence;

We seek to provide a best-in-class work environment built on a foundation of respect, accountability, and trust;

We promote a culture of learning intended to drive excellence at all levels of the organization and to foster career-long growth and development opportunities for employees; and

We continually assess employee performance, organizational structures, and succession plans to support operational excellence, efficiency, and effectiveness.

We believe that having employees from different backgrounds with a variety of talents, experience, education, and perspectives helps create diverse, innovative, and engaged teams, which provide strengths

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and advantages for our success. To this end, we are committed to equal employment opportunity and, as a federal contractor, are committed to engaging in effective outreach and recruitment. Our policy is to ensure equal employment opportunity without illegal discrimination or harassment based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status, physical or mental disability, veteran status, or any other characteristic protected under applicable law. Our outreach and recruiting efforts include analyzing and broadening where we recruit and the business partnerships we foster, and ensuring our recruiting teams are trained on objective hiring, along with the importance of hiring candidates who add to our team culture.

From our intern program to our board of directors (Board), and at all levels in between, we strive to build dynamic and engaged teams. We evaluate the effectiveness of our outreach, recruiting, and retention efforts, in part, by reviewing the demographics of our intern program and of our existing employee population each year, in accordance with our obligations as a federal contractor. Our intern class of 2023 was 39 percent female while 47 percent represented a racial or ethnic minority. Of our total employees as of December 31, 2023, approximately 30 percent of our global professional employees were female, 10 percent of our global hourly employees were female, and 19 percent of total global employees were female. Approximately 38 percent of our U.S. employees represent racial or ethnic minorities. We are also committed to hiring and retaining veterans and reservists of the U.S. Armed Forces, who represented 12 percent of our U.S. employees as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, seven of our 12 current Board members are either female and/or a racial or ethnic minority.

Safety
We believe that safety and reliability are extremely important, not only for the protection of our employees and communities, and the cultural values we aspire to as a company, but also for operational success, as a decrease in the number of employee and process safety events should generally reduce unplanned shutdowns and increase the operational reliability of our refineries and plants. This, in turn, should also translate into a safer workplace with fewer environmental incidents and stronger community relations. We strive to improve safety and reliability performance by offering year-round safety training programs for our employees and contractors and by seeking to promote the same expectations and culture of safety. We also seek to enhance our safety performance by conducting safety audits, quality assurance visits, and comprehensive safety and risk assessments at our refineries and plants.

To assess safety performance, we measure our annual total recordable incident rate (TRIR), which includes data with respect to our employees and contractors and is defined as the number of recordable injuries per 200,000 working hours. We also annually measure our Tier 1 Process Safety Event Rate, which is a metric defined by the American Petroleum Institute that identifies process safety events per 200,000 total employee and contractor working hours. We use these measures and believe they are helpful in assessing our safety performance because they evaluate performance relative to the numbers of hours being worked. These metrics are also used by others in our industry, which allows for a more objective comparison of our performance. Our refinery employee and contractor TRIR for 2023 was 0.39 and 0.24, respectively, and our refinery Tier 1 Process Safety Event Rate for 2023 was 0.05.

Compensation and Benefits
We believe that it is important to provide our employees with competitive compensation and benefits. The benefits we offer to employees, depending on work location and eligibility status, include, among others, healthcare plans that are generally available to all employees, extended sick leave, new-parent leave, access to financial planning, programs to support dual-working parents at different stages of their careers, caregiver support networks (including an on-site child care center at our headquarters) and support for children and parents with disabilities, a company 401(k) matching program, various company-sponsored

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pension plans, on-site employee wellness centers (also available to eligible dependents at our headquarters), tuition reimbursement programs, fitness center access or a stipend, and employee recognition programs.

We believe that it is important to reward employee performance and have an annual bonus program that rewards achievements of various operational, financial, and strategic objectives. While such objectives include typical financial performance metrics, we believe performance in areas such as sustainability, human capital management, environmental stewardship (including health, safety, and environment), compliance, corporate citizenship, and community are also important, and our annual bonus program rewards achievements in these areas.

Our compensation programs are designed with consideration of fair treatment and equal pay concepts, and are built upon a foundational philosophy of market-competitive and performance-based pay. Pay equity of our U.S. professional employees is analyzed biennially by an independent consultant retained by us.

Training and Development
We offer a comprehensive training and development program for our employees in subjects such as engineering and technical excellence, safety, environmental, maintenance and machinery/equipment repair, ethics, leadership, and employee performance. We also require all employees to complete training on technical matters, such as cybersecurity and information technology security, and various compliance and corporate conduct matters, including business ethics, conflicts of interest, and anti-bribery and anti-corruption, among others. Our employee development initiatives include customized professional and technical curriculums, efforts to engage our leadership in the employee’s development process, and providing employee performance discussions. We offer a robust virtual training curriculum, which allows for greater availability and access for employees located across our many facilities and enables timely training.

Wellness
We strive to promote the health and well-being of our employees and their families. Our Total Wellness Program serves as the umbrella program for all aspects of employee wellness and the vehicle through which many of the benefits referenced above are provided. Under our Total Wellness Program, employees’ emotional, physical, and financial well-being are prioritized through comprehensive resources and subsidized services, including an annual wellness assessment, on-site clinics and fitness centers, an employee assistance program, educational sessions on financial wellness, retirement planning, and a variety of other topics.

Our confidential employee assistance program offers a wide range of support to employees and their families, including counseling services, substance abuse and recovery, stress management, child and elder care support, and self-care programs to address behavioral health challenges. We continually evaluate our benefit offerings to support improved health and wellness outcomes for our people and to help determine the most appropriate allocation of company resources.

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PROPERTIES

Our principal properties are described in “OUR OPERATIONS” above and that information is incorporated by reference into this item. We believe that our properties are generally adequate for our operations and that our refineries and plants are maintained in a good state of repair. As of December 31, 2023, we were the lessee under a number of cancelable and noncancelable leases for certain properties. Our leases are discussed in Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference into this item. Financial information about our properties is presented in Note 6 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference into this item.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our website address is www.valero.com. Information (including any presentation or report) on our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this report or any other report or document we may file with or furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), whether made before or after the date of this annual report on Form 10-K and irrespective of any general incorporation language therein, unless specifically identified in such filing as being incorporated by reference in such filing. Furthermore, references to our website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statement, and other filings and reports, as well as any amendments to those filings and reports, filed with or furnished to the SEC are available on our website (under Investors > Financials > SEC Filings) free of charge, soon after we file or furnish such material. In addition, the SEC maintains a website address (http://www.sec.gov) where you may access these filings and reports.

Additionally, on our website (under Investors > ESG), we post our Corporate Governance Guidelines and other governance policies, codes of ethics, and the charters of the committees of our Board. In this same location, we also publish our 2023 ESG Report, which includes our 2023 SASB Report, our report disclosing certain U.S. employment data that corresponds to our 2022 U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Information (EEO-1) Report (filed in 2023), our 2035 GHG emissions reductions and displacement target and other disclosures, and our TCFD Reports. These documents are available in print to any stockholder that makes a written request to Valero Energy Corporation, Attn: Secretary, P.O. Box 696000, San Antonio, Texas 78269-6000. Our ESG Overview is also available on our website (under Responsibility > ESG: Environmental, Social and Governance) and disclosures concerning our political engagement, climate lobbying, and trade associations are available on our website (under Investors > ESG). These reports and disclosures are not a part of this annual report on Form 10-K, are not deemed filed with the SEC, and are not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings with the SEC, whether made before or after the date of this annual report on Form 10-K and irrespective of any general incorporation language therein, unless specifically identified in such filing as being incorporated by reference in such filing.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this report. Each of these risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and/or liquidity, as well as, in certain cases, the value of an investment in our securities. Although the risks are organized by headings and each risk is discussed separately, many are interrelated.

Risks Related to Our Business, Industry, and Operations

Our financial results are affected by volatile margins, which are dependent upon factors beyond our control, including the price of feedstocks and the market price at which we can sell our products.

Our financial results are affected by the relationship, or margin, between our product prices and the prices for crude oil, corn, and other feedstocks that we purchase, which can vary based on global, regional, and local market conditions, as well as by type and class of product. Historically, product margins have been volatile, and we believe they will continue to be volatile in the future. Our cost to acquire feedstocks and the price at which we can ultimately sell products depend upon several factors beyond our control, including regional and global supplies of and demand for feedstocks (such as crude oil, waste and renewable feedstocks, and corn), liquid transportation fuels (such as gasoline, diesel, renewable diesel, and ethanol), and other products. These in turn depend on, among other things, the availability and quantity of feedstocks and liquid transportation fuels imported into the countries in which we operate, the production levels of suppliers, levels of product inventories, productivity and growth (or the lack thereof) of the U.S. and global economies, the U.S. government’s relationships with foreign governments, political affairs, the extent of government regulation, and the events described in many of the other risk factors below. The ability of the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to agree on and to maintain crude oil price and production controls has also had, and is likely to continue to have, a significant impact on the market prices of crude oil and certain of our products. Additionally, the regulations, policies, and standards discussed under “ITEMS 1. and 2. BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES—OUR COMPREHENSIVE LIQUID FUELS STRATEGY—Regulations, Policies, and Standards Driving Low-Carbon Fuel Demand” have had, and are likely to continue to have, a significant impact on the market prices of the feedstocks for, and products produced by, our low-carbon fuels businesses. Any adverse change in these regulations, policies, and standards (including, for example, changes in the price of carbon or other inputs that affect the value of our low-carbon fuels, such as approved fuel pathways, credits, or incentives) could have a material adverse effect on the margins we receive for our low-carbon fuels.

Some of these factors can vary by region and may change quickly, adding to market volatility, while others may have longer-term effects. The longer-term effects of these and other factors on product margins are uncertain. We do not produce crude oil, waste, renewable feedstocks (except inedible distillers corn oils), corn, or other primary feedstocks, and must purchase nearly all of the feedstocks we process. We generally purchase our feedstocks long before we process them and sell the resulting products. Price level changes during the period between purchasing feedstocks and selling the resulting products has had, and could continue to have, a significant effect on our financial results. A decline in market prices for our products and feedstocks has had, and could again have, a negative impact to the carrying value of our inventories. Factors outside of our control, such as economic uncertainty, inflation (and the potential for increased prices to create demand destruction), persistently high interest rates, public health crises (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), and political unrest or hostilities, have affected, and could continue to affect, economic activity and growth levels of the U.S. and other countries. A decrease in the demand for and consumption of our products due to lower economic activity and growth

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levels has caused, and could again cause, declines in our revenues and margins and could negatively impact our growth prospects and capital allocation decisions.

Additionally, a significant portion of our profitability is derived from the ability to purchase and process crude oil feedstocks that historically have been cheaper than benchmark crude oils. These crude oil feedstock differentials vary significantly depending on many factors, including overall economic conditions and trends and conditions within the markets for crude oil and refined petroleum products. Previous declines in such differentials have had, and any future declines will likely again have, a negative impact on our results of operations.

We are subject to risks arising from industry and market developments that could decrease the demand for our products.

A reduction in the demand for our products could result from a transition by consumers to alternative fuel vehicles, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles, whether as a result of government mandates or incentives, industry developments, or consumer or investor sentiment towards fossil fuels and GHG emissions. New developments may make alternative fuel vehicles more affordable or desirable, including improvements in battery and storage technology, increases in driving ranges, increased availability of charging stations and other infrastructure, expanded and more reliable supply chains, and improvements in hydrogen fuel cell technology. Any such developments could increase consumer acceptance and result in greater market penetration of alternative fuel vehicles.

There may be new entrants into the low-carbon fuels industry that could meet demand for lower-carbon transportation fuels and modes of transportation in a more efficient or less costly manner than our technologies and products. For example, several other companies have made, or announced interest in making, investments in renewable diesel, SAF, and other low-carbon projects. As these projects develop, we will face increased competition, including for feedstocks and customers, which could reduce our product margins and limit the growth and profitability of our low-carbon fuels businesses. While it is not currently possible to predict the ultimate form, timing, or extent of any such developments, any such event could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We are subject to risks arising from sentiment towards climate change, fossil fuels, GHG emissions, environmental justice, and other environmental, social, and governance (ESG) matters.

In recent years, a number of advocacy groups, both in the U.S. and internationally, have campaigned for government and private action to promote climate and other ESG-related changes, particularly at public companies, through activities including investment, engagement, and voting practices. These activities have included promoting the divestment of securities of fossil fuel companies, pressuring fossil fuel companies to commit to future output reductions, and pressuring lenders, insurers, and other market participants to limit or curtail activities with fossil fuel companies. As a result, we believe some parties have reduced or ceased lending to, investing in, or insuring fossil fuel companies. If these or similar efforts are continued, our ability to access capital markets, obtain new investment or financing, or to fully insure our operations may be negatively impacted.
These activities have also aimed to increase the attention on and demand for action related to various ESG matters, which has contributed to increasing societal, investor, and legislative focus and pressure on ESG practices and disclosures, including those related to climate change, GHG emissions targets, business resilience under the assumptions of demand-constrained scenarios, net-zero ambitions, GHG reduction

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plans, actions related to human capital management, political activities, environmental justice, racial equity audits, and governance standards. For example, ESG-focused activism has increased in the fossil fuel industry and has resulted in more frequent attempts to effect business or governance changes through mechanisms such as stockholder proposals, vote-no campaigns, and exempt proxy solicitations. As a result, we have faced, and expect to continue to face, increasing pressure regarding our ESG and climate-related disclosures, including our GHG emissions targets and ambition (including our methodologies and timelines with respect thereto), negative publicity, prescriptive stockholder requests, and demands for ESG-focused engagement. ESG has also become an increasingly politically charged issue, and “anti-ESG” sentiment and increased scrutiny and skepticism of ESG policies and practices have resulted in, and could continue to result in, additional demands and strains on companies.

Responding to such ESG-focused activism has been, and will likely continue to be, costly and time-consuming. Such response efforts have resulted in, and could continue to result in, the implementation of certain practices and disclosures that may present a heightened level of legal and regulatory risk, or that threaten our credibility with other investors and stakeholders. The methodologies and standards for tracking and reporting on ESG matters are relatively new, have not been standardized, and continue to evolve. As a result, our ESG-related metrics, targets, ambitions, and other disclosures, may not necessarily be calculated or presented in the same manner or be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by us in other contexts, or by other companies or third-party estimates or disclosures, and our interpretation of reporting standards may differ from those of others. While we believe that our ESG disclosures and methodologies reflect our business strategy and are reasonable at the time made or used, as our business or applicable methodologies, standards, or regulations develop and evolve, we may revise or cease reporting or using certain disclosures and methodologies if we determine that they are no longer advisable or appropriate, or are otherwise required to do so.

Our operations depend on the reliable supply of natural gas and electricity, which exposes us to various risks.

Our operations depend on the reliable supply of natural gas and electricity. We consume significant amounts of natural gas and electricity to operate our refineries and plants, and natural gas and electricity prices have a measurable effect on the total cost of our operations. We also purchase other commodities whose prices may vary depending on the prices of natural gas or electricity. The volatility of prices for both natural gas and electricity represent an ongoing challenge to our operating results. Additionally, the availability and cost of natural gas and electricity have been, and could continue to be, affected by numerous events, such as government regulations, weather (e.g., hurricanes and periods of considerable heat or cold, such as Winter Storm Uri in 2021), logistics interruptions, electric grid outages, cybersecurity incidents, intermittent electricity generation (particularly from wind and solar), hostilities, sanctions, human error, and supply and demand imbalances for natural gas and electricity. For example, the real-time market structure of the primary grid provider in Texas exposes many of our refineries and operations located in Texas to “scarcity pricing” during periods of supply and demand imbalance. As electrification continues to grow, or if there are increased restrictions or costs imposed on the ability of utilities or power suppliers to utilize certain energy sources (such as through restrictions on fossil fuel or nuclear-generated electricity or ESG pressure not to use such sources of electricity generation), there will likely be increased strains on and risks to the integrity, reliability, and resilience of electrical grids, and increased volatility and tightness in natural gas and electricity supplies across the world. These events could negatively affect the cost, reliability, and availability of our natural gas and electricity supplies and may cause sporadic outages disrupting our operations. Growing electrification and rapidly developing and increasing technology use (such as artificial intelligence, computer processing, cryptocurrency mining, and cloud storage, and the data centers and power supplies required to support these activities) will also

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likely increase the intermittency and decrease the reliability of electricity supplies, particularly for grids highly dependent upon wind and solar power, which would exacerbate the foregoing challenges. Additionally, increased government regulations and public opposition to pipeline construction and electricity generation and transmission projects have resulted in, and could continue to result in, the underinvestment in, or unavailability of, the infrastructure and logistics assets needed to obtain natural gas feedstocks and electricity in a reliable and cost-efficient manner. Although we actively manage these risks through contracting and hedging our exposure to price volatility as appropriate, and by pursuing projects that reduce our reliance on third parties and fortify the resilience of our assets, increases in prices for natural gas and electricity, or disruptions to our supply thereof, have in the past, and could again, materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We are subject to risks arising from the potential disruption of our ability to obtain feedstocks.

We source our petroleum-based and low-carbon fuels feedstocks from suppliers throughout the world. We are, therefore, subject to the political, geographic, and economic risks attendant to doing business with suppliers located in, and supplies originating from, different areas across the world, including global geopolitical and other conflicts and tensions that may impact trade flows and increase transportation costs. If one or more of our supply contracts were terminated, or if political or other events were to disrupt our traditional feedstock supply, we believe that adequate alternative supplies would be available, but it is possible that we would be unable to find adequate or optimal alternative sources of supply. Our refineries and plants without access to waterborne deliveries or offtake must rely on rail, pipeline, or ground transportation and thus may be more susceptible to such risks. If we are unable to obtain adequate or optimal volumes or are able to obtain such volumes only at unfavorable prices, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected, including from reduced sales volumes of products or higher operating costs. The U.S. government can also prevent or restrict us from doing business in or with other countries. For example, U.S. sanctions targeting Russia, Iran, and Venezuela limit, but do not necessarily ban, the ability of most U.S. companies to engage in petroleum-related transactions involving these countries. U.S. and other government sanctions and actions by governments and private market participants to refrain from purchasing or transporting crude oil and petroleum-based products from particular countries (such as in response to the Russia-Ukraine conflict) have impacted, and may continue to impact, trade flows, and have limited, and may continue to limit, our access to business opportunities in various countries.

Although Darling, the other joint venture member in DGD, supplies some of DGD’s waste feedstock at competitive pricing, DGD must still secure a significant amount of its waste and renewable feedstock requirements from other sources. If Darling’s supply is disrupted or if supply from other sources becomes limited or only available on unfavorable terms, DGD could be required to develop alternate sources of supply, and it could be required to increase its utilization of waste and renewable feedstocks that produce lower-margin products. As the volume of renewable diesel and other low-carbon fuels produced continues to increase, the competition for feedstocks will likely increase, and DGD will also likely be required to source a greater amount of its waste and renewable feedstocks from international sources, which would increase its exposure to the political, geographic, regulatory, and economic risks associated with international sourcing of supplies. A disruption to DGD’s feedstock supply could adversely impact its and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

Our Ethanol segment relies on corn sourced from local farmers and commercial elevators in the Mid-Continent region of the U.S. The corn supply for our Ethanol segment is acutely exposed to the effects that weather and other environmental events occurring in that region can have on the amount or timing of crop production. Crop production is also affected by government policies (such as farming subsidies) and

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by market events (such as changes in fertilizer prices and rail disruptions). Reductions or delays in crop production from these or similar events could reduce and disrupt the supply of, or otherwise increase our costs to obtain, corn for our Ethanol segment, and such events have occurred periodically.

We are subject to risks arising from our operations outside the U.S. and generally to worldwide political and economic developments.

We operate and sell some of our products outside of the U.S., particularly in Canada, the U.K., Ireland, Mexico, and Peru, and are subject to disruptions in any of these markets, including due to actual or alleged violations of law; expropriation or impoundment of assets; failure of foreign governments and state-owned entities to honor their contracts; property disputes; economic instability; restrictions on the transfer of funds; duties and tariffs; profits, windfall, or other taxes or penalties; transportation delays; import and export controls; labor unrest; security issues involving key personnel; government decisions, orders, mandates, investigations, regulations, and issuances or revocations of permits and authorizations; the effects of military conflicts; and changing regulatory and political environments, including changes to U.S. and international laws and treaties governing foreign trade and related matters. The occurrence of any such event could result in the halting, curtailing, or cessation of operations at impacted facilities; commercial restrictions; delay, denial, or cancellation of projects, permits, and authorizations; and increased costs, fines, penalties, and burdens; any of which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. Although we actively seek to manage these risks, we have experienced some of these events in the past and could experience additional events in the future.
We are subject to interruptions and increased costs as a result of logistical disruptions and our reliance on third-party transportation of our feedstocks and products.

In addition to our own logistics assets, we use the services of third parties to transport feedstocks to our refineries and plants and to transport our products to market. If we experience prolonged interruptions of supply or increases in costs to deliver our products to market, or if the ability of the logistics assets used to transport our feedstocks or products is disrupted because of labor issues, weather events, dock availability, water levels of key waterways for trade, rail disruptions, cybersecurity incidents, accidents, derailments, collisions, fires, explosions, spills, public health crises, hostilities, or other government or third-party actions (including protests), it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. Although we actively seek to manage these risks, we have experienced some of these events in the past and could experience additional events in the future.

Competitors that produce their own supply of feedstocks, own their own retail sites, or have greater financial resources may have a competitive advantage.

The refining and marketing industry is highly competitive with respect to both feedstock supply and refined petroleum product markets. We compete with many companies for available supplies of crude oil and other feedstocks, and for third-party retail outlets for our petroleum-based products. We do not produce any of our primary feedstocks (except inedible distillers corn oils) and we do not have a company-owned retail network. Some of our competitors, however, obtain a significant portion of their feedstocks from company-owned production and some have extensive networks of retail sites. Such competitors are at times able to offset losses from liquid transportation fuels production operations with such other operations, and may be better positioned to withstand periods of depressed product margins or feedstock disruptions. Some of our competitors also have materially greater financial and other resources

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than we have and may have a greater ability to bear the economic risks inherent in all phases of our industry.
We are subject to risks arising from an interruption in any of our refineries or plants.

Our refineries, DGD plants, and ethanol plants are our principal operating assets and are subject to planned and unplanned downtime and interruptions. Our operations could also be subject to significant interruption if one or more of our refineries or plants were to experience a major accident or mechanical failure, be damaged by severe weather or natural disasters (such as hurricanes) or man-made disasters (such as cybersecurity incidents or acts of terrorism), or otherwise be forced to shut down or curtail operations. If any refinery or plant, or related logistics assets, were to experience an interruption in operations, our earnings could be materially and adversely affected (to the extent not recoverable through insurance) because of lost productivity and repair and other costs. Significant interruptions in our operations could also lead to increased volatility in the price of our feedstocks and many of our products. We have experienced some of these events in the past, and although we focus on maintaining safe, stable, and reliable operations, we may experience additional events in the future.

Large capital and other strategic projects can take many years to complete, and the political and regulatory environments or other market conditions may change or deteriorate over time.

We engage in capital and other strategic projects based on many factors, including the forecasted project economics, political and regulatory environments, and the expected return on the capital to be employed. Large-scale projects take many years to complete, during which time the political and regulatory environment or other market conditions may change from our forecast. Supply chain disruptions may also delay projects or increase the costs associated therewith. As a result, such projects may not be completed on schedule or budget, or at all, and we may not fully realize our expected returns, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.
In addition, challenges to or opposition of fossil fuel infrastructure projects continue to make the approval and completion of such projects more difficult and costly. Despite government support for and acknowledgement of the importance of certain low-carbon fuels and technologies, such as carbon capture and sequestration, there has also been growing regional political and environmental opposition among various groups in certain geographies to many such projects. Such opposition may be taken into account by government or judicial officials in granting the relevant permits or authorizations, and has previously resulted in, and could again result in, permits and authorizations being challenged, delayed, denied, revoked, appealed, or conditionally granted. In certain instances, this has resulted in, and could again result in, the cancellation or restructuring of projects.

Our investments in joint ventures and other entities decrease our ability to manage risk.

We conduct some of our operations through joint ventures in which we share control over certain economic, legal, and business interests with other joint venture members. We also conduct some of our operations through entities in which we have a minority or no equity ownership interest, such as the variable interest entities (VIEs) described in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The other joint venture members and the third-party equity holders of the VIEs have certain economic, business, or legal interests, opportunities, or goals that are inconsistent with or different from our interests, opportunities, and goals, have different liquidity needs or financial condition characteristics than our own, are subject to different legal or contractual obligations than we are, and may be unable to meet their obligations. For example, while we operate the DGD Plants and perform certain day-to-day

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operating and management functions for DGD, we do not have full control of every aspect of DGD’s business and certain significant decisions concerning DGD, including acquiring or disposing of assets above a certain value threshold, making certain changes to its business plan, raising debt or equity capital, altering its distribution policy, and making certain other transactions, require approval from Darling. While we consolidate certain VIEs, we do not have full control of every aspect of these VIEs, or the actions taken by their third-party equity holders, some of which have affected, and could continue to affect, our business, legal position, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. Failure by us, an entity in which we have a joint venture interest, or the VIEs to adequately manage the risks associated with such entities, and any differences in views among us and other joint venture members or the third-party equity holders in the VIEs, could prevent or delay actions that are in the best interest of us, the joint venture, or the VIE, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We may incur losses and additional costs as a result of our hedging transactions.

We currently use derivative instruments as described in Note 19 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, and we expect to continue their use in the future. If the instruments we use to hedge our exposure to various types of risk are not effective or increase our exposure to unexpected events or risks, we may incur losses, and have experienced certain losses in the past. In addition, we may be required to incur additional costs in connection with any future regulation of derivative instruments applicable to us.

Legal, Government, and Regulatory Risks

We are subject to risks arising from legal, political, and regulatory developments regarding climate, GHG emissions, and the environment.

Many government authorities across the world have imposed, and may impose in the future, policies or regulations designed to facilitate less petroleum-dependent modes of transportation (e.g., increases in fuel economy or efficiency standards, low-carbon fuel standards, restrictions and bans on vehicles using liquid fuels, tariffs, tax incentives, and EV subsidies), which could reduce demand for our petroleum-based products and/or all liquid transportation fuels. For example, CARB has approved a series of regulations designed to phase out sales of internal combustion engine vehicles in California. CARB’s current Scoping Plan identifies strategies to reduce liquid petroleum consumption in California by 94 percent, and CARB is actively engaged in a series of rulemaking efforts intended to fulfill these objectives. The European Union (EU), U.K., Canada, and Quebec have each adopted what they refer to as “zero-emissions vehicle” mandates and other government authorities across the world, such as Mexico, and other U.S. states have also announced, or are considering, plans and/or restrictions regarding the sale of new internal combustion engine vehicles, stricter tailpipe emissions standards, and limitations on or penalties for the use of petroleum-based products and certain biofuel feedstocks.

The U.S. federal government under the current presidential administration has also been aggressive in the scope, magnitude, and number of actions it has taken to address GHG emissions and other environmental matters, including efforts to limit or eliminate petroleum-dependent modes of transportation. For example, the current administration utilizes a “whole of government” approach to climate change and environmental justice that seeks to organize and deploy the full capacity of the U.S. federal government in novel and coordinated ways to limit or eliminate the use of most petroleum-based products. The current administration has also issued a number of related executive orders, including orders requiring agencies to review environmental actions taken by the previous administration and directing the U.S. federal government to use its scale and procurement power to achieve a number of aspirational net-zero

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emissions goals, including seeking to limit or eliminate petroleum-based fuels by imposing mandates of so-called 100 percent zero-emission vehicle acquisitions, such as EVs and other alternative fuel vehicles, by 2035 and 100 percent zero-emission light-duty vehicle acquisitions by 2027.
These actions have contributed to, and may continue to spur, a number of U.S. federal rulemakings and other actions that disfavor petroleum-dependent modes of transportation, many of which ignore or downplay the full life cycle carbon footprint of EVs, and thereby seek to inappropriately advantage them over internal combustion engine vehicles. For example, the EPA issued its “Revised 2023 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards,” revising the GHG emissions standards for light-duty vehicles for 2023 and later model years at a level that cannot be achieved by internal combustion engine vehicles through improvements in combustion efficiency. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) also similarly issued its “CAFE Standards for MY 2024-26 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks,” increasing the corporate average fuel economy and carbon dioxide standards for certain passenger cars and light-duty trucks such that automakers cannot demonstrate compliance without increasing the sales of EVs. Together, these federal regulations seek to increase the market penetration of EVs and other alternative fuel vehicles, such that these vehicles would be expected to comprise 17 percent of model year 2026 passenger vehicle sales. The EPA states that its rule is projected to reduce gasoline consumption by more than 360 billion gallons by 2050, reaching a 15 percent reduction in annual U.S. gasoline consumption in 2050. Moreover, in April 2023, the EPA announced new, more ambitious proposed standards for model years 2027 to 2032 that the agency expects will drive 67 percent of new light- and medium-duty vehicles, 50 percent of heavy-duty vocational vehicles, 35 percent of short-haul tractors, and 25 percent of long-haul tractors sold in the U.S. to be EVs or other alternative fuel vehicles by 2032. In July 2023, NHTSA also proposed increasing both the fuel economy standard for passenger cars and light trucks for model years 2027 to 2032 and the fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans for model years 2030 to 2035. Additionally, in November 2023, the Federal Highway Administration finalized rules that require certain U.S. state departments of transportation and metropolitan planning organizations to establish declining tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions targets for motor vehicles. Most recently, in December 2023, the EPA announced final rules intended to sharply reduce emissions of methane and other air pollution from oil and gas operations. Within such rules, the EPA nearly quadrupled its estimate of the “social cost” of carbon dioxide, a measure that is often used by certain U.S. federal agencies as part of their analyses of the costs and benefits of more stringent climate regulation, which could result in stricter climate rules and regulations that disfavor internal combustion engine vehicles and liquid transportation fuels. The IRA, which was passed in August 2022, also includes substantial subsidies to promote EVs and other alternative fuel vehicles.

In addition to these U.S. federal measures, in March 2022, the EPA reinstated a waiver of preemption under federal law authorizing California to implement its “Advanced Clean Cars I” rule requiring sales of increasing percentages of alternative fuel vehicles, thereby also reviving other U.S. states’ ability to adopt standards identical to California’s. In November 2022, California approved its “Advanced Clean Cars II” rulemaking, which similarly requires an increasing percentage of “zero-emission” light-duty vehicle sales through 2035, at which time 100 percent of light-duty vehicle sales in California must be zero-emission vehicles. In May 2023, CARB requested the EPA grant a waiver of preemption for Advanced Clean Cars II, and the EPA opened CARB’s request for public hearing and comment in December 2023. Several other states have already adopted, or are expected to adopt, similar regulations or mandates. California is also pursuing similar zero-emission vehicle mandates for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles via its “Advanced Clean Trucks” rulemaking, which received a preemption waiver from the EPA in March 2023, and its “Advanced Clean Fleets” rulemaking, for which CARB applied to the EPA for a preemption waiver in November 2023, and it is foreseeable that the EPA may waive preemption to allow Advanced

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Clean Fleets to take effect in California and in those states that elect to follow the California program. Additionally, in July 2023, CARB announced a “Clean Truck Partnership” with various U.S. truck and engine manufacturers and the Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association that is aimed at advancing the development of EVs or other alternative fuel vehicles for the commercial trucking industry regardless of whether the regulatory mandate survives legal challenge. While these measures are being litigated, we face a risk that automakers will move forward with changing their manufacturing and marketing based on their expectations that they will be forced to transition to electrification in the transportation sector.

Moreover, there have been various international climate accords and multilateral agreements aimed at reducing GHG emissions, including the Kyoto Protocol in 2005, the Paris Agreement in 2015, and the United Nations Climate Summit in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (COP 28) in 2023, which, although not legally binding, have in certain instances resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, additional government, regulatory, and private industry actions that are adverse to our industry. Incentives to conserve energy or use renewable energy sources in many locations where we currently operate, or may operate in the future, could also negatively impact our industry. Government authorities across the world have also announced, or are considering, profits or windfall taxes or penalties on fossil fuel companies, or have announced or imposed GHG emissions fees and other regulations that are adverse to refinery operations, could increase costs, and limit profitability. For example, in September 2022, the EU passed legislation imposing a profits tax and penalty on certain fossil fuel companies. Similar taxes and penalties have been proposed or adopted in California, such as Senate Bill No. 2 (such statute, together with any regulations contemplated or issued thereunder, SBx 1-2), which authorizes California to set a maximum gross gasoline refining margin and a penalty for refiners that exceed it.

These legal, political, and regulatory developments, as well as other similarly focused laws and regulations, such as, among others, the California and Quebec cap-and-trade programs, the U.K. Emissions Trading Scheme, the U.K. Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s Rule 1109.1 – Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen from Petroleum Refineries and Related Operations, CARB’s Control Measure for Ocean-Going Vessels At Berth Rule, reductions in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, bans or restrictions on certain chemicals, feedstocks, products, or processes, and other laws related to climate, GHG emissions, or environmental, health, or safety matters, have resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, increased costs and capital expenditures, among other impacts, to (i) operate and maintain our facilities (including restrictions on certain refinery operations and requirements to modify our operations), (ii) install new emission controls or other equipment at our facilities, and (iii) administer and manage any emissions or blending programs, including obtaining emission credits, allowances, or allotments. Such risks are particularly acute in California due to the pace and scope of anti-fossil fuel developments there.

Many of these legal, political, regulatory, and international accord matters and developments are subject to considerable uncertainty due to a number of factors, including technological and economic feasibility, pending or anticipated legal challenges, and potential changes in law, regulation, or policy, and it is not currently possible to predict the ultimate effects of many of these matters and developments on us. However, such events could adversely restrict or affect our refinery operations and limit our profitability; cause us to make changes with respect to our business plan, strategy, operations, and assets, including our current financial and accounting estimates and assumptions; cause a reduction in demand for our products; and result in negative publicity and litigation; each of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.


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We are subject to risks arising from the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs, and other regulations, policies, international certifications, and standards impacting the demand for and traceability of low-carbon fuels.

As described under “ITEMS 1. and 2. BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES—OUR COMPREHENSIVE LIQUID FUELS STRATEGY—Regulations, Policies, and Standards Driving Low-Carbon Fuel Demand,” government authorities across the world have issued, or are considering issuing, low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards to help reduce GHG emissions and increase the percentage of low-carbon fuels in the transportation fuel mix. We strategically market our low-carbon fuels based on regional policies, regulations, feedstock preferences, CI scores, and our ability to obtain fuel pathways, credits, certifications, and incentives. A significant portion of our low-carbon fuels are sold in California, Canada, and the U.K. Regarding the RFS, in June 2023, the EPA announced final rules that increase RVOs for 2023, 2024, and 2025. While the final rules did not adopt the “eRIN” provisions included in its December 2022 proposal, which would have allocated RINs from renewable electricity used to power EVs and other alternative fuel vehicles to the vehicle manufacturer, the EPA noted that it will continue to work on potential paths forward for an eRIN program.

We are exposed to the volatility in the market price of RINs, LCFS credits, and other credits, as described in Note 20 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. We cannot predict the future prices of RINs, LCFS credits, or other credits. Prices for RINs, LCFS credits, and other credits are dependent upon a variety of factors, including, as applicable, EPA and state regulations, regulations of other countries and jurisdictions, the availability of RINs, LCFS credits, and other credits for purchase, transportation fuel production levels (which can vary significantly each quarter), approved CI pathways, and CI scores. Future RVOs, RFS changes, and small refinery exemption petition denials may also affect RIN prices. For example, if the RVOs for cellulosic biofuel are high relative to D3 RIN generation, RIN prices may rise, and the EPA may or may not issue cellulosic waiver credits in time to moderate price spikes, if at all. If an insufficient number of RINs, LCFS credits, or other credits are available for purchase (or available only at increased prices), or if we are otherwise unable to meet the EPA’s RFS mandates or our other obligations under the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs (for example, if there were to be demand destruction for gasoline, diesel, and renewable fuels resulting from displacement of internal combustion engine vehicles with EVs that results in production falling short of established RVOs, an acceleration of the blendwall, or other significant deviations from projected volumes), our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity could be adversely affected. The adoption of an eRIN program could also increase RIN price volatility and result in other adverse impacts that cannot be fully predicted at this time.

In addition to the RFS and LCFS, we operate in multiple jurisdictions that have issued, or are considering issuing, similar low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards, such as the CFR. The RFS, LCFS, and similar U.S. state and international low-carbon fuel regulations, policies, and standards are extremely complex, often have different or conflicting requirements or methodologies, and are frequently evolving, requiring us to periodically update our systems and controls to maintain compliance and monitoring, which impose substantial administrative burdens. In addition to regulation, demand is growing for renewable fuels certified through voluntary certification bodies such as the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification system, which presents business opportunities, but also entails additional administrative burdens. Our low-carbon fuels businesses could be materially and adversely affected if (i) these regulations, policies, and standards are adversely changed, not enforced, or discontinued, (ii) the benefits therefrom (such as Section 45Q, Section 45Z, and the blender’s tax credits) are reduced or discontinued, (iii) any of the products we produce are deemed not to qualify for compliance therewith or are not in sufficient demand, or (iv) we are unable to satisfy or maintain the conditions of any approved

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pathways or certifications. Such changes could also negatively impact the plans, expectations, assumptions, and projections with respect to our low-carbon projects and our GHG emissions targets and ambition, and could have a material adverse impact on the timing of completion, project returns, and other outcomes with respect to such projects.

Applicable environmental, health, and safety laws expose us to various risks.

Our operations are subject to extensive environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, including those relating to the discharge of materials into the environment, waste management, pollution prevention measures, GHG emissions, and characteristics and composition of fuels. Certain of these laws and regulations have in the past imposed, and could again impose, obligations on us to conduct assessment or remediation efforts at our refineries and plants, as well as at formerly owned properties or third-party sites where we have taken wastes for disposal or where our wastes may have migrated. The principal environmental risks associated with our operations are emissions into the air, handling of waste, and releases into the soil, surface water, or groundwater. Such laws have imposed, and may again impose, liability on us for the conduct of third parties or for actions that complied with applicable requirements when taken, regardless of negligence or fault.

Because environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations are becoming more stringent and new environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed, and are being interpreted and applied in new and controversial ways, the level of costs required for environmental matters has increased and is expected to continue to increase in the future. Additionally, U.S. and state regulatory agencies have become increasingly aggressive in the scope and frequency of, and the magnitude and type of the relief sought by, the enforcement and investigative actions they have pursued under applicable environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, particularly with respect to fossil fuel companies. This has been particularly acute in California. Such enforcement and investigative actions have resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, increased costs, expenses, and negative publicity. Despite our efforts to maintain safe and environmentally responsible operations, in certain instances we have faced, and may continue to face, changing regulatory interpretations, regulatory fines or penalties, and liability for personal injury, property, and natural resource damage, environmental justice impacts, and assessment and remediation costs due to actual or alleged emissions, pollution, and/or contamination. We are also exposed to potential liability and costs related to regulated chemicals and other regulated materials, such as various perfluorinated compounds, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, benzene, MTBE, and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or from our current and formerly owned facilities (and new or additional regulations with respect to such materials may arise in the near future). Such liabilities and costs could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We are subject to risks arising from litigation, regulatory proceedings, and mandatory disclosure requirements related to climate change and other ESG matters, or aimed at the fossil fuel industry.

We could face increased climate‐related litigation with respect to our operations, disclosures, or products. Governments and private parties across the world have filed lawsuits or initiated regulatory action against fossil fuel companies. Such lawsuits and actions often allege non-compliance with applicable laws or regulations, or damages as a result of climate change, and seek damages and/or abatement under various tort and other theories, including under human rights or constitutional provisions. We have been named as a co-defendant in a lawsuit in state court by a county in Oregon seeking significant damages and abatement under various tort theories (including deceptive disclosures). We intend to vigorously defend against the allegations. However, the ultimate outcome and impact to us of such litigation cannot be

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predicted with certainty at this time, and we could incur substantial legal costs and reputational damage associated with defending such matter, and an adverse ruling could require us to pay significant damages. Similar lawsuits may be filed in other jurisdictions.

Governments and private parties are also increasingly filing lawsuits or initiating regulatory action based on allegations that certain public statements and disclosures by companies regarding climate change and other ESG matters are false or misleading “greenwashing” that violate deceptive trade practices, consumer protection statutes, or other similar laws and regulations, or are fraudulent or misleading under applicable corporate, securities, stock exchange, or other similar laws and regulations. Similar issues can also arise relating to aspirational statements, such as net-zero or carbon neutrality targets, or alignment with certain third-party frameworks or standards that are made without an adequate basis to support such statements. Governments, such as the states of New York and Vermont, have also sought to establish various climate change adaptation cost recovery programs, under which “responsible parties” could bear the costs of climate mitigation investments. These lawsuits and actions present a high degree of uncertainty regarding the extent to which fossil fuel companies face an increased risk of liability and reputational damage stemming from climate change or other ESG matters.

In addition to voluntary disclosures in response to investor and stakeholder requests, many governments have also proposed or adopted regulations that impose disclosure obligations with respect to various climate change and other ESG matters. For example, in March 2022, the SEC proposed sweeping and novel disclosure obligations with respect to climate change and GHG emissions reporting for U.S. publicly-traded companies. Also, in November 2022, various U.S. federal agencies jointly proposed an amendment to the Federal Acquisition Regulation that would require government contractors to publicly disclose their GHG emissions, respond to a climate disclosure questionnaire, and set and disclose GHG emissions reduction goals, in each case based on or utilizing specified private third-party frameworks or standards that have not been widely adopted. In addition, in October 2023, California adopted the (i) Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act (SB 253), (ii) Climate-Related Financial Risk Act (SB 261), and (iii) voluntary Carbon Market Disclosures Business Regulation Act (AB 1305), which impose a host of different broad and far-reaching climate disclosure obligations, including with respect to GHG emissions, climate financial-risk reporting, and statements regarding GHG emissions reductions. Other U.S. states have announced or proposed similar regulations. Other countries where we operate or do business, such as the U.K., have also passed laws requiring, or announced their intention to mandate, various climate disclosures and targets by companies. Some governments have also adopted regulations, or are launching investigations and requesting information, based on pricing practices in the fossil fuel industry. For example, in September 2022, California adopted the Oil Refinery Cost Disclosure Act (SB 1322), which requires refineries in California to report monthly on the volume and cost of the crude oil they buy, the quantity and price of the wholesale gasoline they sell, and the gross gasoline margin per barrel, among other information, some or all of which data could become publicly available. Some customers and third parties we do business with have begun requesting product-specific GHG emissions disclosures from us in connection with their own GHG emissions reporting. Our efforts to comply with these and other requests and regulations expose us to risk by requiring disclosure of information that (i) may be protected trade secrets and/or competitively sensitive information, (ii) exposes us to litigation and government regulatory actions and investigations, (iii) is inconsistent with other government regulations or our current disclosures that may utilize different methodologies or standards, (iv) is subject to many assumptions and inherent calculation difficulties, such as accuracy and completeness, and (v) may impact our business relationships, credibility, and reputation.

As described in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, in March 2023, California adopted SBx 1-2, which imposes increased and substantial reporting requirements on our business, including

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daily, weekly, monthly, and annual reporting of detailed operational and financial data on all aspects of our operations in California, much of it at the transaction level. In October 2023, in response to Governor Newsom’s direction, the California Energy Commission (CEC) voted to start both a proceeding to evaluate whether to establish a maximum margin and associated penalty and a rulemaking process focused on rules relating to the timing of refinery turnarounds and maintenance, among other things. While the CEC has not yet established a maximum margin, imposed a financial penalty for profits above a maximum margin, or imposed restrictions on turnaround and maintenance activities, the potential implementation of a financial penalty, maximum margin, or any restrictions or delays on our ability to undertake turnaround or maintenance activities, could adversely restrict or affect our refinery operations and limit our profitability, cause us to make changes with respect to our business plan, strategy, operations, and assets (including our current financial and accounting estimates and assumptions), and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We are subject to risks arising from compliance with and changes in tax laws.

We are subject to extensive tax liabilities imposed by multiple jurisdictions, including income taxes; indirect taxes (excise/duty, sales/use, gross receipts, and value-added taxes); and payroll, franchise, withholding, and ad valorem taxes. New tax laws and regulations and changes in existing tax laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed that could result in increased expenditures for tax liabilities in the future. For example, the IRA contains significant changes to U.S. tax law including, but not limited to, a corporate minimum tax and a one percent excise tax on the purchase by companies of their own stock.

Many of these tax liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authorities. Although we believe we have used reasonable interpretations and assumptions in calculating our tax liabilities, the final determination of these tax audits and any related proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty. Any adverse outcome of any of such tax audits or related proceedings could result in unforeseen tax-related liabilities that may, individually or in the aggregate, materially affect our cash tax liabilities, or create issues with respect to certain of our business permits, authorizations, and registrations, and, as a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. Tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which we operate may change significantly as a result of political or economic factors beyond our control. It is also possible that future changes to tax laws or tax treaties, or interpretations thereof, could impact our ability to realize the tax savings recorded to date and adversely affect our future effective tax rates.

Cybersecurity and Privacy Related Risks

We are subject to risks arising from a significant breach of our information systems.

Our information systems and network infrastructure may be subject to unauthorized access or attack (and we are frequently subject to such attempts), including ransom-related incidents that could result in increased costs to prevent, and be prepared to respond to or mitigate such events, such as deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third-party experts and consultants. Such unauthorized events could also result in (i) a loss of intellectual property, proprietary information, or employee, customer, supplier, or vendor data, (ii) public disclosure of sensitive information, (iii) systems interruption, (iv) disruption of our business operations, (v) remediation costs and repairs of system damage, (vi) reputational damage that adversely affects customer, supplier, or investor confidence, and (vii) damage to our business and competitiveness. A breach could also originate from or compromise our customers’, vendors’, suppliers’, or other third-party networks outside of our

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control that could impact our business and operations, as occurred with the Colonial Pipeline cybersecurity incident in May 2021. Although we implement internal controls on the connectivity of third parties to our systems that attempt to prevent or mitigate the impact from incidents affecting third-party systems, we have limited control over ensuring that third parties themselves are consistently enforcing strong cybersecurity controls over their systems. Increased risks of such attacks and disruptions also exist because of global geopolitical and other conflicts and tensions. A breach may also result in legal claims or proceedings against us by our stockholders, employees, customers, vendors, and government authorities. There can be no assurance that our current or future infrastructure protection technologies and disaster recovery plans can prevent or mitigate such breaches, cyber, and ransom-related incidents, or systems failures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. The continuing and evolving threat of cybersecurity incidents has also resulted in increased regulatory focus on prevention and disclosure, such as the directive issued by the U.S. Transportation Security Administration following the Colonial Pipeline cybersecurity incident, the obligations imposed by the U.S. Cyber Incident Reporting for Critical Infrastructure Act adopted in March 2022, and the SEC’s cybersecurity and governance disclosure rules issued in 2023. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to comply with such laws and regulations, incur fines for noncompliance, and otherwise be exposed to litigation and regulatory action as a result thereof.

Increasing legal and regulatory focus on data privacy and security issues could expose us to increased liability and operational changes and costs.

Along with our own data and information in the normal course of our business, we collect and retain certain data that is subject to specific laws and regulations. The compliant processing of this data domestically and transferring of this data across international borders continues to increase in complexity. This data is subject to regulation at various levels of government in many areas of our business and in jurisdictions across the world, including data privacy and security laws such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, the California Privacy Rights Act, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the U.K. and General Data Protection Regulation (U.K. GDPR), the standard contractual clauses adopted by the European Commission and the U.K. Parliament for the processing and transfer of personal data in compliance with the GDPR and/or the U.K. GDPR, and Quebec’s Bill 64. We also operate in other jurisdictions (such as Mexico and Peru) that have issued, or are considering issuing, data privacy laws and regulations. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission recently adopted rules requiring the reporting of certain data breaches. As the number and complexities of such laws and regulations continue to increase, we will face increasingly complex compliance, monitoring, and control obligations. As the implementation, interpretation, and enforcement of such laws continues to progress and evolve, there may also be developments that amplify such risks. Any failure by us to comply with these laws and regulations, including as a result of a security or privacy breach, or otherwise, could expose us to litigation and enforcement, and result in significant penalties, fines, and other liabilities.

General Risk Factors

Uncertainty and illiquidity in financial markets, or changes in our credit profile or ratings, can adversely affect our ability to obtain credit and capital, increase our costs, and limit our flexibility.

Our ability to obtain credit and capital depends in large measure on capital markets and liquidity factors that we do not control. Our ability to access credit and capital markets may be restricted at a time when we would like, or need, to access those markets, which could have an impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions. In addition, the cost and availability of debt and equity financing may be adversely impacted by persistently high interest rates, inflation, unstable or illiquid

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market conditions, or adverse changes in our credit profile or to our credit ratings. These factors could adversely impact and limit our ability to obtain favorable credit and debt financing, raise our cost of capital, or require us to provide collateral or other forms of security, which would increase our costs and restrict operational and financial flexibility. Unstable or illiquid market conditions could also negatively impact our pension plans’ assets and funding requirements.

From time to time, we may need to supplement our cash generated from operations with proceeds from financing activities or obtain letters of credit in certain commercial transactions. In addition, we rely on the counterparties to our commodity hedging and derivative instruments to fund their obligations under such arrangements. Uncertainty and illiquidity in financial markets could have an adverse impact on the costs or availability of the financial, commercial, and other services provided by such parties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

We are subject to risks arising from severe weather events.

Severe weather events, such as storms, hurricanes, droughts, or floods, could have an adverse effect on our operations and could increase our costs. For example, severe weather events can have an impact on crop production and reduce the supply of, or increase our costs to obtain, feedstocks for our Ethanol and Renewable Diesel segments. We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, costs and expenses associated with severe weather, such as to keep our facilities performing and to mitigate and reduce the risk of severe weather to our operations. If more intense or frequent severe weather events occur, the physical and disruptive effects could have a material adverse impact on our operations and assets.

Our business may be negatively affected by work stoppages, slowdowns, or strikes, as well as by new legislation or an inability to attract and retain sufficient labor, and increased costs related thereto.

Certain employees at five of our U.S. refineries, as well as at each of our Canada and U.K. refineries, are covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements, which generally have unique and independent expiration dates. To the extent we are in negotiations for labor agreements expiring in the future, there is no assurance an agreement will be reached without a strike, work stoppage, or other labor action. Any prolonged strike, work stoppage, or other labor action at our facilities or at facilities owned or operated by third parties that support our operations could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. Future U.S. federal, state, or international labor legislation could result in labor shortages and higher costs. An inability to recruit, train, and retain adequate personnel, or the loss or departure of personnel with key skills or deep institutional knowledge, may negatively impact our business. Inflation has also caused, and may in the future cause, increases in employee-related costs.

Our ability to fully insure losses arising from our operating hazards exposes us to various risks.

Our operations are subject to various hazards common to the industry, including explosions, fires, toxic emissions, maritime hazards, and natural catastrophes. As protection against these hazards, we maintain insurance coverage against some, but not all, potential losses and liabilities. We may not be able to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we need, or at acceptable rates. Premiums and deductibles for certain insurance policies could increase substantially based on market conditions. In some instances, certain insurance could become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. For example, coverage for hurricane damage is limited, and coverage for terrorism and cyber risks have broad exclusions. If we incur a significant loss or liability for which we are not adequately insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

RISK MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGY

We take an enterprise approach to information security risk management and governance. Our information security program and framework comprise processes, policies, practices, systems, and technologies that are designed to identify, assess, prioritize, manage, and monitor risks to our information systems, including risks from cybersecurity threats and events and risks associated with the use of third-party service providers.

Our established recovery approach is designed to provide for the ready availability and use of our business-critical processes in the event of any downtime, disaster, or outages. We also seek to identify and mitigate the risks associated with the use of third-party service providers through the review of their security programs prior to our engagement thereof. Additionally, our control environment and internal audit process bring a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate our risk management, control, and governance processes concerning cybersecurity and our information security framework.

We have a cybersecurity Incident Response Plan (IRP) that sets forth a process to obtain information, coordinate activities, assess results, and communicate applicable developments to our employees, law enforcement, other external parties and agencies, and our Board. The IRP includes the following major components: preparation, detection and analysis, containment, eradication, notification, recovery, reporting, and lessons learned. Specific incident response playbooks have also been prepared for data breaches, malware, unauthorized remote access, and ransomware, which include applicable legal protocols. We have also retained certain third-party experts to assist us with various aspects of incident assessment and response in the event those services become necessary or useful.

Typically, we (i) perform periodic tabletop exercises with a company-wide cross-functional team that is facilitated by a third-party expert and is intended to simulate a real-life security incident, (ii) conduct penetration testing as needed and annually conduct Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard testing and firewall reviews, and have periodically engaged a third-party expert to help therewith, (iii) hold annual cybersecurity awareness trainings, and (iv) periodically engage a third-party expert to conduct a review of our information security framework, which helps to identify existing and emerging risks, and mitigate against such risks. These internal efforts and external third-party reviews also support our ability to regularly assess our information security program and framework against emerging risks, market and industry developments and provide opportunities to make adjustments or enhancements when deemed prudent or necessary. To date, there have been no cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected us, or that are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, financial condition, or results of operations.

For additional information on the cybersecurity risks we face, see “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS—Cybersecurity and Privacy Related Risks—We are subject to risks arising from a significant breach of our information systems.


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GOVERNANCE

Our Board’s Role in Cybersecurity Oversight
Oversight of risk management, including with respect to risks from cybersecurity threats, is the responsibility of our Board, which exercises its oversight responsibilities both directly and through its committees. The Audit Committee of our Board has formal oversight responsibilities established in its committee charter concerning our initiatives and strategies respecting cybersecurity and information technology risks. At least once annually, the heads of our information services and internal audit teams provide a report to the Audit Committee on cybersecurity and information technology risks, as well as our information security operations, structure, framework, various cybersecurity and information technology metrics, our cybersecurity and information security management and improvement efforts, future projects, and our governance and assessments related to cybersecurity and information technology. The chair of the Audit Committee reports to the Board a summary of the information presented by the heads of our information services and internal audit teams during their cybersecurity update. Periodically, the Board also receives reports on such matters directly. As noted above, the IRP also contains notification procedures to the Board.

Management’s Role in Assessment and Management of Material Risks from Cybersecurity Threats
We have an Information Security Committee (Infosec Committee) consisting of refining, renewable diesel, ethanol, logistics, and information services personnel that meets weekly to evaluate third-party exchange of data and collaborate on strategy for dealing with information security risks and other related matters. The Infosec Committee reports to our Information Security Oversight Committee (Infosec Oversight Committee) and our Executive Steering Committee on cybersecurity (Executive Steering Committee). Our Infosec Oversight Committee consists of information services, refining, and internal audit personnel and meets quarterly to discuss network threats and the overall security landscape. Our Executive Steering Committee consists of management within our information services, internal audit, refining, renewable diesel, ethanol, legal, and logistics teams, and meets twice per year to review and discuss information security metrics and results of security assessments, among other items. Key members of the Infosec Oversight Committee and the Executive Steering Committee provide a report to the Audit Committee of the Board as discussed above.

Our information services team is led by our Vice President Information Services & Technology, who also chairs the Infosec Oversight Committee and has approximately 25 years of experience in the information technology industry. Collectively, the members of our Infosec Committee, Infosec Oversight Committee, and Executive Steering Committee have decades of experience within the information technology and/or cybersecurity areas. On a monthly basis, our Vice President Information Services & Technology provides executive management with an Information Security Scorecard, which includes any cybersecurity events that have occurred. If a cybersecurity incident is declared under the IRP, we will evaluate whether such incident might have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or reputation, among other considerations, and communicate that discussion to executive management, who will then determine if escalation to the Board is warranted and if further disclosure is required to the SEC and/or other government agencies.

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

LITIGATION

We incorporate by reference into this item our disclosures made in Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under “Legal Contingencies.”

ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT MATTERS

We are reporting the following proceedings to comply with SEC regulations, which require us to disclose certain information about proceedings arising under federal, state, or local provisions regulating the discharge of materials into the environment or primarily for the purpose of protecting the environment if a governmental authority is a party to such proceeding and we reasonably believe that such proceeding will result in monetary sanctions that exceed a specified threshold. Pursuant to SEC regulations, we use a threshold of $1 million for purposes of determining whether disclosure of any such proceeding is required. We believe proceedings less than this threshold are not material to our business and financial condition.

Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) (Benicia Refinery). In our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, we reported that (i) we had received a Notice of Violation (NOV) from the BAAQMD on March 21, 2019 related to atmospheric emissions of hydrogen commingled with non-methane organic compounds at our Benicia Refinery (the 2019 Atmospheric Emissions NOV), (ii) on December 1, 2020, we had received an NOV from the BAAQMD related to pressure relief devices in the Benicia Refinery’s Hydrogen Unit (the 2020 Pressure Relief Device NOV), and (iii) on June 17, 2021, October 11, 2021, and January 26, 2022, we had received certain other compliance-related NOVs related to the 2019 Atmospheric Emissions NOV and the 2020 Pressure Relief Device NOV. We are continuing to work with the BAAQMD to resolve these matters.

BAAQMD (Benicia Refinery). In our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2023, we reported that on May 1, 2023, the BAAQMD issued a compliance-related NOV to our Benicia Refinery related to a pressure relief device. We are continuing to work with the BAAQMD to resolve this matter.

BAAQMD (Benicia Refinery). In our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, we reported that we were in the process of working with the BAAQMD to resolve several other NOVs issued by the BAAQMD to our Benicia Refinery in 2020 and 2019, which primarily relate to various emissions and related compliance issues. We are continuing to work with the BAAQMD to resolve these matters.

Texas Attorney General (Texas AG) (Port Arthur Refinery). In our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, we reported that the Texas AG had filed suit against our Port Arthur Refinery in the 419th Judicial District Court of Travis County, Texas, Cause No. D-1-GN-19-004121, for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act seeking injunctive relief and penalties. We are working with the Texas AG to resolve this matter.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None.


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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The following table lists the names and titles of our executive officers (for purposes of Rule 3b-7 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) as of the date of this report. There is no arrangement or understanding between any executive officer listed below or any other person under which the executive officer was or is to be selected as an officer.
NameCurrent PositionOfficer
Beginning
Age as of
December 31,
2023
R. Lane RiggsChief Executive Officer and President201158
Jason W. FraserExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer201555
Gary K. SimmonsExecutive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer201159
Richard J. WalshSenior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary201658

Mr. Riggs was elected Chief Executive Officer and President, and as a member of our Board effective as of the close of business on June 30, 2023. He previously served as President and Chief Operating Officer (beginning January 23, 2020), and Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (beginning January 1, 2018), and prior to that as Executive Vice President Refining Operations and Engineering (beginning 2014), and Senior Vice President Refining Operations (beginning 2011). He has held several leadership positions with Valero overseeing refining operations, supply optimization and crude and feedstock supply, and planning and economics. Mr. Riggs also previously served on the board of directors of Valero Energy Partners GP LLC (the general partner of Valero Energy Partners LP) from 2014 to 2019.

Mr. Fraser was elected Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer effective July 15, 2020. Prior to that he served as Executive Vice President and General Counsel effective January 1, 2019. In 2018, he served as Senior Vice President overseeing Valero’s Public Policy & Strategic Planning, Governmental Affairs, Investor Relations, and External Communications functions. From November 2016 to May 2018, Mr. Fraser served as Vice President Public Policy & Strategic Planning, and from May 2015 to November 2016, he served in London as Vice President Europe, overseeing our European commercial businesses. Prior to his service in London, he held various leadership positions at our San Antonio headquarters, including Senior Vice President & Deputy General Counsel and Senior Vice President Specialty Products in the Valero family of companies.

Mr. Simmons was elected Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer on July 20, 2023. He previously served as Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer (beginning January 23, 2020), and Senior Vice President Supply, International Operations and Systems Optimization (beginning May 2014), and prior to that as Vice President Crude and Feedstock Supply and Trading (2012 to 2014), and Vice President Supply Chain Optimization (2011 to 2012). Mr. Simmons has held many leadership positions with Valero, including Vice President and General Manager of our Ardmore and St. Charles refineries.

Mr. Walsh was elected Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, effective April 22, 2021, and prior to that was elected as Senior Vice President and General Counsel effective July 15, 2020. Mr. Walsh has responsibility for our legal and governmental affairs, health, safety, and environmental, fuels compliance, risk management, ESG, and compliance/ethics teams. He previously served as Vice President and Deputy General Counsel from 2016 to 2020. He joined Valero in 1999 and has served in many different leadership roles within our legal department.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the trading symbol “VLO.”

As of January 31, 2024, there were 4,414 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividends are considered quarterly by the Board, may be paid only when approved by the Board, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, prospects, industry conditions, capital requirements, and other factors and restrictions our Board deems relevant. There can be no assurance that we will pay a dividend in the future at the rates we have paid historically, or at all.

The following table discloses purchases of shares of our common stock made by us or on our behalf during the fourth quarter of 2023.
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased (a)
Average
Price Paid
per Share (b)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs (c)
October 2023611,778 $124.20 559,399 $3.1 billion
November 20231,561,401 $124.24 1,487,134 $2.9 billion
December 20235,324,131 $128.92 5,323,068 $2.2 billion
Total7,497,310 $127.56 7,369,601 $2.2 billion
________________________
(a)The shares reported in this column include 127,709 shares related to our purchases of shares from our employees (including former employees) and non-employee directors in connection with the exercise of stock options, the vesting of restricted stock, and other stock compensation transactions in accordance with the terms of our stock-based compensation plans.
(b)The average price paid per share reported in this column excludes brokerage commissions and a one percent excise tax on share purchases.
(c)On February 23, 2023, we announced that our Board authorized us to purchase shares of our outstanding common stock for a total cost of up to $2.5 billion with no expiration date, and we completed all authorized share purchases under that program during the fourth quarter of 2023. On September 15, 2023, we announced that our Board authorized us to purchase shares of our outstanding common stock for a total cost of up to $2.5 billion with no expiration date (the September 2023 Program). As of December 31, 2023, we had $2.2 billion remaining available for purchase under the September 2023 Program. On February 22, 2024, our Board authorized us to purchase shares of our outstanding common stock for a total cost of up to $2.5 billion with no expiration date, which is in addition to the amount remaining under the September 2023 Program.


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The performance graph below is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC, and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, respectively.
This performance graph and the related textual information are based on historical data and are not indicative of future performance. The following line graph compares the cumulative total return4 on an investment in our common stock against the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Composite Index and an index of peers (that we selected) for the five-year period commencing December 31, 2018 and ending December 31, 2023. Our selected peer group comprises the following eleven members: ConocoPhillips; CVR Energy, Inc.; Delek US Holdings, Inc.; the Energy Select Sector SPDR Fund; EOG Resources, Inc.; HF Sinclair Corporation; LyondellBasell Industries N.V.; Marathon Petroleum Corporation; Occidental Petroleum Corporation; PBF Energy Inc.; and Phillips 66. The Energy Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLE) serves as a proxy for stock price performance of the energy sector and includes energy companies with which we compete for capital. LyondellBasell Industries N.V. was added to the prior year’s peer group because of its similarities to us in size, complexity, and exposure to commodity pricing volatility for both its products and feedstocks. LyondellBasell Industries N.V. also helps to balance the full portfolio of peers by helping ensure accountability of performance both within the core downstream segment of the oil and gas industry, and also in adjacent segments that face similar challenges and opportunities. We believe that our peer group represents a group of companies for making head-to-head performance comparisons in a competitive operating environment that is primarily characterized by U.S.-based companies that have business models predominantly consisting of downstream refining operations, together with similarly sized energy companies that share operating similarities to us, and that are in adjacent segments of the oil and gas industry.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN4
Among Valero, the S&P 500 Index, Old Peer Group, and New Peer Group
5859
As of December 31,
201820192020202120222023
Valero common stock$100.00 $130.36 $83.95 $117.80 $206.18 $218.29 
S&P 500 Index100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
Old Peer Group100.00 103.43 63.56 103.27 180.60 194.27 
New Peer Group100.00 105.09 69.11 106.04 177.48 192.24 
4 Assumes that an investment in Valero common stock, the S&P 500 index, our old peer group, and our new peer group was $100 on December 31, 2018. Cumulative total return is based on share price appreciation plus reinvestment of dividends from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023.

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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis is management’s perspective of our current financial condition and results of operations, and should be read in conjunction with “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS” and “ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA” included in this report. This discussion and analysis includes the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 and comparison between such years. The discussion for the year ended December 31, 2021 and comparison between the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 have been omitted from this annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as such information can be found in “ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS” in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed on February 23, 2023.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR THE PURPOSE OF SAFE HARBOR PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995

This report, including without limitation our disclosures below under “OVERVIEW AND OUTLOOK,” includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. You can identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “plan,” “intend,” “scheduled,” “estimate,” “project,” “projection,” “predict,” “budget,” “forecast,” “goal,” “guidance,” “target,” “ambition,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “may,” “strive,” “seek,” “potential,” “opportunity,” “aimed,” “considering,” “continue,” and similar expressions.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements regarding:

the effect, impact, potential duration or timing, or other implications of global geopolitical and other conflicts and tensions;
future Refining segment margins, including gasoline and distillate margins, and discounts;
future Renewable Diesel segment margins;
future Ethanol segment margins;
expectations regarding feedstock costs, including crude oil differentials, product prices for each of our segments, transportation costs, and operating expenses;
anticipated levels of crude oil and liquid transportation fuel inventories and storage capacity;
expectations regarding the levels of, costs and timing with respect to, the production and operations at our existing refineries and plants, projects under evaluation, construction, or development, and former projects;
our anticipated level of capital investments, including deferred turnaround and catalyst cost expenditures, our expected allocation between, and/or within, growth capital expenditures and sustaining capital expenditures, capital expenditures for environmental and other purposes, and joint venture investments, the expected costs and timing applicable to such capital investments and any related projects, and the effect of those capital investments on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity;
our anticipated level of cash distributions or contributions, such as our dividend payment rate and contributions to our pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans;

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our ability to meet future cash and credit requirements, whether from funds generated from our operations or our ability to access financial markets effectively, and expectations regarding our liquidity;
our evaluation of, and expectations regarding, any future activity under our share purchase program or transactions involving our debt securities;
anticipated trends in the supply of, and demand for, crude oil and other feedstocks and refined petroleum products, renewable diesel, and ethanol and corn related co-products in the regions where we operate, as well as globally;
expectations regarding environmental, tax, and other regulatory matters, including SBx 1-2 and the matters discussed under “ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS” above, the anticipated amounts and timing of payment with respect to our deferred tax liabilities, unrecognized tax benefits, matters impacting our ability to repatriate cash held by our foreign subsidiaries, and the anticipated effect thereof on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity;
the effect of general economic and other conditions, including inflation and economic activity levels, on refining, renewable diesel, and ethanol industry fundamentals;
expectations regarding our risk management activities, including the anticipated effects of our hedge transactions;
expectations regarding our counterparties, including our ability to pass on increased compliance costs and timely collect receivables, and the credit risk within our accounts receivable or accounts payable;
expectations regarding adoptions of new, or changes to existing Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs, blending and tax credits, or efficiency standards that impact demand for renewable fuels; and
expectations regarding our low-carbon fuels strategy, publicly announced GHG emissions reduction/displacement targets and ambitions, and our current, former, and any future low-carbon projects.

We based our forward-looking statements on our current expectations, estimates, and projections about ourselves, our industry, and the global economy and financial markets generally. We caution that these statements are not guarantees of future performance or results and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, the ultimate outcomes of which we cannot predict with certainty. In addition, we based many of these forward-looking statements on assumptions about future events, the ultimate outcomes of which we cannot predict with certainty and which may prove to be inaccurate. Accordingly, actual performance or results may differ materially from the future performance or results that we have expressed, suggested, or forecast in the forward-looking statements. Differences between actual performance or results and any future performance or results expressed, suggested, or forecast in these forward-looking statements could result from a variety of factors, including the following:

the effects arising out of global geopolitical and other conflicts and tensions, including with respect to changes in trade flows and impacts to crude oil and other markets;
demand for, and supplies of, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and petrochemicals), renewable diesel, and ethanol and corn related co-products;
demand for, and supplies of, crude oil and other feedstocks;
the effects of public health threats, pandemics, and epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and variants of the virus, governmental and societal responses thereto, and the adverse impacts of the foregoing on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity, and the global economy and financial markets generally;

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acts of terrorism aimed at either our refineries and plants or third-party facilities that could impair our ability to produce or transport refined petroleum products, renewable diesel, ethanol, or corn related co-products, to receive feedstocks, or otherwise operate efficiently;
the effects of war or hostilities, and political and economic conditions, in countries that produce crude oil or other feedstocks or consume refined petroleum products, renewable diesel, ethanol or corn related co-products;
the ability of the members of OPEC, and other petroleum-producing nations that collectively make up OPEC+, to agree on and to maintain crude oil price and production controls;
the level of consumer demand, consumption, and overall economic activity, including the effects from seasonal fluctuations and market prices;
refinery, renewable diesel plant, or ethanol plant overcapacity or undercapacity;
the risk that any transactions may not provide the anticipated benefits or may result in unforeseen detriments;
the actions taken by competitors, including both pricing and adjustments to refining capacity or renewable fuels production in response to market conditions;
the level of competitors’ imports into markets that we supply;
accidents, unscheduled shutdowns, weather events, civil unrest, expropriation of assets, and other economic, diplomatic, legislative, societal, or political events or developments, terrorism, cyberattacks, or other catastrophes or disruptions affecting our operations, production facilities, machinery, pipelines and other logistics assets, equipment, or information systems, or any of the foregoing of our suppliers, customers, or third-party service providers;
changes in the cost or availability of transportation or storage capacity for feedstocks and our products;
pressure and influence of environmental groups and other stakeholders upon policies and decisions related to the production, transportation, storage, refining, processing, marketing, and sales of crude oil or other feedstocks, refined petroleum products, renewable diesel, ethanol, or corn related co-products;
the price, availability, technology related to, and acceptance of alternative fuels and alternative-fuel vehicles, as well as sentiment and perceptions with respect to low-carbon projects and GHG emissions more generally;
the levels of government subsidies for, and executive orders, mandates, or other policies with respect to, alternative fuels, alternative-fuel vehicles, and other low-carbon technologies or initiatives, including those related to carbon capture, carbon sequestration, and low-carbon fuels, or affecting the price of natural gas and/or electricity;
the volatility in the market price of compliance credits (primarily RINs needed to comply with the RFS) under the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs and emission credits needed under other environmental emissions programs;
delay of, cancellation of, or failure to implement planned capital or other strategic projects and realize the various assumptions and benefits projected for such projects or cost overruns in constructing such planned projects;
earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, winter storms, droughts, floods, wildfires, and other weather events, which can unforeseeably affect the price or availability of electricity, natural gas, crude oil, waste and renewable feedstocks, corn, and other feedstocks, critical supplies, refined petroleum products, renewable diesel, and ethanol;
rulings, judgments, or settlements in litigation or other legal or regulatory matters, such as unexpected environmental remediation or enforcement costs, including those in excess of any reserves or insurance coverage;
legislative or regulatory action, including the introduction or enactment of legislation or rulemakings by government authorities, environmental regulations, changes to income tax rates,

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introduction of a global minimum tax, windfall taxes or penalties, tax changes or restrictions impacting the foreign repatriation of cash, actions implemented under SBx 1-2, actions implemented under the Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Programs and other environmental emissions programs, including changes to volume requirements or other obligations or exemptions under the RFS, and actions arising from the EPA’s or other government agencies’ regulations, policies, or initiatives concerning GHGs, including mandates for or bans of specific technology, which may adversely affect our business or operations;
changing economic, regulatory, and political environments and related events in the various countries in which we operate or otherwise do business, including trade restrictions, expropriation or impoundment of assets, failure of foreign governments and state-owned entities to honor their contracts, property disputes, economic instability, restrictions on the transfer of funds, duties and tariffs, transportation delays, import and export controls, labor unrest, security issues involving key personnel, and decisions, investigations, regulations, issuances or revocations of permits and other authorizations, and other actions, policies, and initiatives by the states, counties, cities, and other jurisdictions in the countries in which we operate or otherwise do business;
changes in the credit ratings assigned to our debt securities and trade credit;
the operating, financing, and distribution decisions of our joint ventures or other joint venture members that we do not control;
changes in currency exchange rates, including the value of the Canadian dollar, the pound sterling, the euro, the Mexican peso, and the Peruvian sol relative to the U.S. dollar;
the adequacy of capital resources and liquidity, including availability, timing, and amounts of cash flow or our ability to borrow or access financial markets;
the costs, disruption, and diversion of resources associated with lawsuits, demands, or investigations, or campaigns and negative publicity commenced by government authorities, investors, stakeholders, or other interested parties;
overall economic conditions, including the stability and liquidity of financial markets, and the effect thereof on consumer demand; and
other factors generally described in the “RISK FACTORS” section included in “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS” in this report.

Any one of these factors, or a combination of these factors, could materially affect our future results of operations and whether any forward-looking statements ultimately prove to be accurate. Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results and future performance may differ materially from those expressed, suggested, or forecast in any forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this annual report on Form 10-K and we do not intend to update these statements unless we are required by applicable securities laws to do so.

All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing, as it may be updated or modified by our future filings with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to any such forward-looking statements that may be made to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events unless we are required by applicable securities laws to do so.


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NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

The discussions in “OVERVIEW AND OUTLOOK,” “RESULTS OF OPERATIONS,” and “LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES” below include references to financial measures that are not defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). These non-GAAP financial measures include adjusted operating income (including adjusted operating income for each of our reportable segments, as applicable); Refining, Renewable Diesel, and Ethanol segment margin; and capital investments attributable to Valero. We have included these non-GAAP financial measures to help facilitate the comparison of operating results between years, to help assess our cash flows, and because we believe they provide useful information as discussed further below. See the tables in note (h) beginning on page 54 for reconciliations of adjusted operating income (including adjusted operating income for each of our reportable segments, as applicable) and Refining, Renewable Diesel, and Ethanol segment margin to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures. Also in note (h), we disclose the reasons why we believe our use of such non-GAAP financial measures provides useful information. See the table on page 61 for a reconciliation of capital investments attributable to Valero to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure. Also on page 61, we disclose the reasons why we believe our use of this non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information.

OVERVIEW AND OUTLOOK

Overview
Business Operations Update
Our results for the year ended December 31, 2023 were favorably impacted by the continued strong worldwide demand for petroleum-based transportation fuels, while the worldwide supply of those products remained constrained. This global supply and demand imbalance contributed to strong refining margins for 2023.

The strong demand for our products and continued strength in refining margins were the primary contributors to us reporting $8.8 billion of net income attributable to Valero stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our operating results for 2023, including operating results by segment, are described in the summary on the following page, and detailed descriptions can be found below under “RESULTS OF OPERATIONS” beginning on page 46.

Our operations generated $9.2 billion of cash in 2023. This cash was used to make $1.9 billion of capital investments in our business and return $6.6 billion to our stockholders through purchases of common stock for treasury and dividend payments. In addition, we reduced our outstanding debt through the purchase of $199 million of our public debt in 2023. As a result of this and other activity, our cash and cash equivalents increased by $562 million during 2023 to $5.4 billion as of December 31, 2023. We had $10.5 billion in liquidity as of December 31, 2023. The components of our liquidity and descriptions of our cash flows, capital investments, and other matters impacting our liquidity and capital resources can be found below under “LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES” beginning on page 57.


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Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023
For 2023, we reported net income attributable to Valero stockholders of $8.8 billion compared to $11.5 billion for 2022. The decrease of $2.7 billion was primarily due to a decrease in operating income of $3.8 billion, partially offset by an increase in “other income, net” of $323 million and a decrease in income tax expense of $809 million. The details of our operating income and adjusted operating income by segment, where applicable, and in total are reflected in the following table (in millions). Adjusted operating income excludes the adjustments reflected in the tables in note (h) beginning on page 54.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Refining segment:
Operating income
$11,511 $15,803 $(4,292)
Adjusted operating income
11,528 15,762 (4,234)
Renewable Diesel segment:
Operating income
852 774 78 
Ethanol segment:
Operating income
553 110 443 
Adjusted operating income
569 151 418 
Total company:
Operating income
11,858 15,690 (3,832)
Adjusted operating income
11,891 15,710 (3,819)

While our operating income decreased by $3.8 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, adjusted operating income also decreased by $3.8 billion primarily due to the following:

Refining segment. Refining segment adjusted operating income decreased by $4.2 billion primarily due to lower gasoline and distillate (primarily diesel) margins, partially offset by higher discounts on crude oils and other feedstocks and lower operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense).

Renewable Diesel segment. Renewable Diesel segment operating income increased by $78 million primarily due to lower feedstock costs and higher sales volumes, partially offset by lower product prices (primarily renewable diesel), higher operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense), and higher depreciation and amortization expense.
Ethanol segment. Ethanol segment adjusted operating income increased by $418 million primarily due to lower corn prices, higher production volumes, and lower operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense), partially offset by lower ethanol and corn related co-product prices.

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Outlook
Many uncertainties remain with respect to the supply and demand imbalance in the petroleum-based products market worldwide. While it is difficult to predict future worldwide economic activity and its impact on product supply and demand, as well as any effect that the uncertainty described in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements or other political or regulatory developments may have on us, we have noted several factors below that have impacted or may impact our results of operations during the first quarter of 2024.

Gasoline and diesel demand have returned to pre-pandemic levels and are expected to follow typical seasonal patterns. Jet fuel demand continues to improve and is approaching pre-pandemic levels in the U.S.

Combined light product (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) inventories in the U.S. and Europe remain below historical levels reflecting tight global petroleum product balances, which should support continued high utilization of refining capacity.

Crude oil discounts have widened, consistent with typical seasonal patterns and expected industry-wide refinery maintenance activity in the first quarter of 2024; however, continued sour crude oil production cuts by OPEC+ suppliers and the pending start-up of the Trans Mountain Pipeline expansion may dampen some of the seasonal effect. In addition, conflict in the Middle East, including impacts on shipping routes and freight costs, could result in increased volatility in the crude oil market and potentially impact crude oil discounts.

Renewable diesel demand is expected to remain consistent with current levels.

Ethanol demand is expected to follow typical seasonal patterns.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following tables, including the reconciliations of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures in note (h) beginning on page 54, highlight our results of operations, our operating performance, and market reference prices that directly impact our operations. Note references in this section can be found on pages 53 through 56.

Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company
(millions of dollars)
Year Ended December 31, 2023
RefiningRenewable
Diesel
EthanolCorporate
and
Eliminations
Total
Revenues:
Revenues from external customers$136,470 $3,823 $4,473 $— $144,766 
Intersegment revenues18 3,168 1,086 (4,272)— 
Total revenues136,488 6,991 5,559 (4,272)144,766 
Cost of sales:
Cost of materials and other117,401 5,550 4,395 (4,259)123,087 
Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and
amortization expense reflected below)
5,208 358 515 6,089 
Depreciation and amortization expense 2,351 231 80 (4)2,658 
Total cost of sales124,960 6,139 4,990 (4,255)131,834 
Other operating expenses17 — 16 — 33 
General and administrative expenses (excluding
depreciation and amortization expense reflected
below)
— — — 998 998 
Depreciation and amortization expense— — — 43 43 
Operating income by segment
$11,511 $852 $553 $(1,058)11,858 
Other income, net (e)
502 
Interest and debt expense, net of capitalized
interest
(592)
Income before income tax expense
11,768 
Income tax expense
2,619 
Net income
9,149 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling
interests
314 
Net income attributable to
Valero Energy Corporation stockholders
$8,835 


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Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company (continued)
(millions of dollars)
Year Ended December 31, 2022
RefiningRenewable
Diesel
EthanolCorporate
and
Eliminations
Total
Revenues:
Revenues from external customers
$168,154 $3,483 $4,746 $— $176,383 
Intersegment revenues
56 2,018 740 (2,814)— 
Total revenues
168,210 5,501 5,486 (2,814)176,383 
Cost of sales:
Cost of materials and other (a)144,588 4,350 4,628 (2,796)150,770 
Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and
amortization expense reflected below)
5,509 255 625 — 6,389 
Depreciation and amortization expense (b)2,247 122 59 — 2,428 
Total cost of sales
152,344 4,727 5,312 (2,796)159,587 
Asset impairment loss (c)— — 61 — 61 
Other operating expenses63 — — 66 
General and administrative expenses (excluding
depreciation and amortization expense reflected
below) (d)
— — — 934 934 
Depreciation and amortization expense— — — 45 45 
Operating income by segment
$15,803 $774 $110 $(997)15,690 
Other income, net (e)
179 
Interest and debt expense, net of capitalized
interest
(562)
Income before income tax expense
15,307 
Income tax expense (f)
3,428 
Net income
11,879 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling
interests
351 
Net income attributable to
Valero Energy Corporation stockholders
$11,528 


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Average Market Reference Prices and Differentials
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Refining
Feedstocks (dollars per barrel)
Brent crude oil$82.27 $98.86 
Brent less West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil4.60 4.43 
Brent less WTI Houston crude oil3.15 2.82 
Brent less Dated Brent crude oil(0.44)(2.22)
Brent less Argus Sour Crude Index crude oil5.34 7.42 
Brent less Maya crude oil13.33 11.68 
Brent less Western Canadian Select Houston crude oil12.15 15.55 
WTI crude oil77.67 94.43 
Natural gas (dollars per million British thermal units)2.23 5.83 
RVO (dollars per barrel) (g)7.02 7.72 
Product margins (RVO adjusted unless otherwise noted)
(dollars per barrel)
U.S. Gulf Coast:
CBOB gasoline less Brent8.83 9.54 
Ultra-low-sulfur (ULS) diesel less Brent25.06 38.73 
Propylene less Brent (not RVO adjusted)(47.47)(42.73)
U.S. Mid-Continent:
CBOB gasoline less WTI17.70 15.88 
ULS diesel less WTI32.37 44.11 
North Atlantic:
CBOB gasoline less Brent15.61 19.24 
ULS diesel less Brent29.47 49.29 
U.S. West Coast:
CARBOB 87 gasoline less Brent28.45 31.32 
CARB diesel less Brent32.79 40.97 

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Average Market Reference Prices and Differentials (continued)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Renewable Diesel
New York Mercantile Exchange ULS diesel
(dollars per gallon)
$2.81 $3.54 
Biodiesel RIN (dollars per RIN)1.35 1.67 
California LCFS (dollars per metric ton)72.42 98.73 
U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC) used cooking oil (dollars per pound)0.58 0.77 
USGC distillers corn oil (dollars per pound)0.63 0.77 
USGC fancy bleachable tallow (dollars per pound)0.59 0.75 
Ethanol
Chicago Board of Trade corn (dollars per bushel)5.65 6.94 
New York Harbor ethanol (dollars per gallon)2.34 2.57 

2023 Compared to 2022
Total Company, Corporate, and Other
The following table includes selected financial data for the total company, corporate, and other for 2023 and 2022. The selected financial data is derived from the Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company tables, unless otherwise noted.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Revenues$144,766 $176,383 $(31,617)
Cost of sales (see notes (a) and (b))131,834 159,587 (27,753)
Operating income
11,858 15,690 (3,832)
Adjusted operating income (see note (h))
11,891 15,710 (3,819)
Other income, net (see note (e))
502 179 323 
Income tax expense (see note (f))
2,619 3,428 (809)

Revenues decreased by $31.6 billion in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to decreases in product prices for the petroleum-based transportation fuels associated with sales made by our Refining segment. This decrease in revenues was partially offset by a decrease in cost of sales of $27.8 billion primarily due to decreases in crude oil and other feedstock costs. These changes resulted in a $3.8 billion decrease in operating income, from $15.7 billion in 2022 to $11.9 billion in 2023.

Adjusted operating income also decreased by $3.8 billion, from $15.7 billion in 2022 to $11.9 billion in 2023. The components of this $3.8 billion decrease in adjusted operating income are discussed by segment in the segment analyses that follow.


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“Other income, net” increased by $323 million in 2023 compared to 2022 due to the items noted in the following table (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Interest income on cash $293 $105 $188 
Net gain from early retirement of debt (see note (e))11 14 (3)
Pension settlement charge (see note (e))— (58)58 
Equity income on joint ventures and other198 118 80 
Other income, net
$502 $179 $323 

Income tax expense decreased by $809 million in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily as a result of a decrease in income before income tax expense.

Refining Segment Results
The following table includes selected financial and operating data of our Refining segment for 2023 and 2022. The selected financial data is derived from the Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company tables, unless otherwise noted.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Operating income
$11,511 $15,803 $(4,292)
Adjusted operating income (see note (h))
11,528 15,762 (4,234)
Refining margin (see note (h))
19,087 23,518 (4,431)
Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization
expense reflected below)
5,208 5,509 (301)
Depreciation and amortization expense2,351 2,247 104 
Throughput volumes (thousand BPD) (see note (i))
2,979 2,953 26 

Refining segment operating income decreased by $4.3 billion in 2023 compared to 2022; however, Refining segment adjusted operating income, which excludes the adjustments in the table in note (h), decreased by $4.2 billion in 2023 compared to 2022. The components of this decrease in the adjusted results, along with the reasons for the changes in those components, are outlined below.

Refining segment margin decreased by $4.4 billion in 2023 compared to 2022.

Refining segment margin is primarily affected by the prices for the petroleum-based transportation fuels that we sell and the cost of crude oil and other feedstocks that we process. The table on page 48 reflects market reference prices and differentials that we believe impacted our Refining segment margin in 2023 compared to 2022.
The decrease in Refining segment margin was primarily due to the following:

A decrease in distillate (primarily diesel) margins had an unfavorable impact of approximately $5.6 billion.

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A decrease in gasoline margins had an unfavorable impact of approximately $529 million.

Higher discounts on crude oils had a favorable impact of approximately $1.1 billion.

Higher discounts on other feedstocks had a favorable impact of approximately $438 million.

Refining segment operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense) decreased by $301 million primarily due to lower natural gas costs of $438 million, partially offset by increases in chemicals and catalyst costs of $96 million and certain employee compensation expenses of $39 million.

Renewable Diesel Segment Results
The following table includes selected financial and operating data of our Renewable Diesel segment for 2023 and 2022. The selected financial data is derived from the Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company tables, unless otherwise noted.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Operating income
$852 $774 $78 
Renewable Diesel margin (see note (h))
1,441 1,151 290 
Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization
expense reflected below)
358 255 103 
Depreciation and amortization expense231 122 109 
Sales volumes (thousand gallons per day) (see note (i))
3,539 2,175 1,364 

Renewable Diesel segment operating income increased by $78 million in 2023 compared to 2022. The components of this increase, along with the reasons for the changes in those components, are outlined below.

Renewable Diesel segment margin increased by $290 million in 2023 compared to 2022.

Renewable Diesel segment margin is primarily affected by the price for the renewable diesel that we sell and the cost of the feedstocks that we process. The table on page 49 reflects market reference prices that we believe impacted our Renewable Diesel segment margin in 2023 compared to 2022.
The increase in Renewable Diesel segment margin was primarily due to the following:

A decrease in the cost of the feedstocks that we process had a favorable impact of approximately $1.9 billion.

An increase in sales volumes of 1.4 million gallons per day had a favorable impact of approximately $724 million. The increase in sales volumes was primarily due to

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additional production resulting from the completion of the new DGD Port Arthur Plant that commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2022.
A decrease in product prices, primarily renewable diesel, had an unfavorable impact of approximately $2.3 billion.

Renewable Diesel segment operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense) increased by $103 million primarily due to increased costs resulting from the new DGD Port Arthur Plant that commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2022.

Renewable Diesel segment depreciation and amortization expense increased by $109 million primarily due to depreciation expense associated with the new DGD Port Arthur Plant that commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2022.

Ethanol Segment Results
The following table includes selected financial and operating data of our Ethanol segment for 2023 and 2022. The selected financial data is derived from the Financial Highlights by Segment and Total Company tables, unless otherwise noted.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Operating income
$553 $110 $443 
Adjusted operating income (see note (h))
569 151 418 
Ethanol margin (see note (h))
1,164 858 306 
Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization
expense reflected below)
515 625 (110)
Depreciation and amortization expense (see note (b))
80 59 21 
Asset impairment loss (see note (c))
— 61 (61)
Production volumes (thousand gallons per day) (see note (i))
4,367 3,866 501 

Ethanol segment operating income increased by $443 million in 2023 compared to 2022; however, Ethanol segment adjusted operating income, which excludes the adjustments in the table in note (h), increased by $418 million in 2023 compared to 2022. The components of this increase in the adjusted results, along with the reasons for the changes in these components, are outlined below.

Ethanol segment margin increased by $306 million in 2023 compared to 2022.