EX-3.1 2 vseby-laws.htm BY-LAWS OF VSE CORPORATION (AMENDED AS OF JULY 31, 2013)
 
 
Exhibit 3.1
BY-LAWS OF VSE CORPORATION
(as amended by the Board of Directors
of VSE Corporation on  July 31, 2013)

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. The registered office of the corporation shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.

Section 2. The corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the board of directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.


ARTICLE II

MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of direc­tors shall be held in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, at such place as may be fixed from time to time by the board of directors, or at such other place as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors and stated in the notice of the meeting. Meetings of stockholders for any other purpose may be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly exe­cuted waiver of notice thereof.

Section 2. Annual meetings of stockholders, commencing with the year 1986, shall be held in the month of May each year at a date and at a time to be fixed by the board of directors and stated in the notice of meeting, at which time they shall elect by a plurality vote a board of directors, and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

Section 3. Written notice of the annual meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote thereat at least ten days before the date of the meeting.

Section 4. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corpo­ration shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city, town or village where the meeting is to be held and which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not specified, at the place where said meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is pre­sent.

Section 5. Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the certificate of in­corporation, may be called by the chairman and shall be called by the chairman or secretary at the request in writing of a majority of the board of directors, or at the re­quest in writing of stockholders owning twenty-five percent (25%) in amount of the entire capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and enti­tled to vote. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the pro­posed meeting.

Section 6. Written notice of a special meeting of stockholders, stating the place, date and hour of the meeting and the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote thereat, at least five days before the date fixed for the meeting.

Section 7. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.

Section 8. The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstand­ing and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transac­tion of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or repre­sented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to ad­journ the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented. At such ad­journed meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as origi­nally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

Section 9. When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation, a different vote is required in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question.

Section 10. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorpora­tion, each stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy for each share of the capital stock having voting power held by such stockholder, but no proxy shall be voted on after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.

Section 11. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorpora­tion, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation, or any action which may be taken at any an­nual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. Prompt notice of the taking of the cor­porate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing.


ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 1. The number of directors which shall constitute the whole board shall be a minimum of six directors and a maximum of ten directors. Within the limits above specified, the number of directors shall be determined by resolution of the board of directors or by the stockholders at the annual meeting. The directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of the stockholders, except as provided in Section 2 of this Article, and each director elected shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified. Directors need not be stockholders.

Section 2. Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remain­ing director, and the directors so chosen shall hold office until the next an­nual election and until their successors are duly elected and shall qualify, unless sooner displaced. If there are no directors in office, then an elec­tion of directors may be held in the manner provided by statute. If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created directorship, the directors then in office shall constitute less than a majority of the whole board (as constituted immediately prior to such increase), the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least ten per­cent of the total number of the shares at the time outstanding having a right to vote for such directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships, or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office.

Section 3. The business of the corporation shall be managed by or shall be under the direction of its board of directors which may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

Section 4. Stockholders of the corporation may recommend persons to be nominated for election as directors of the corporation at the annual meeting of stockholders. To be considered for nomination, such recommendation must be received in writing by the secretary of the corporation no later than ninety (90) days before the date which corresponds to the date on which the annual meeting of stockholders was held during the immediate prior year. Such recom­mendation shall be accompanied by the name of the stockholder proposing the candidate, evidence that stockholder is a beneficial owner of the outstanding stock of the corporation as of the record date established for the determina­tion of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at the annual meeting of stockholders, the name of candidate being proposed for nomination, and the candidate's biographical data and qualifications.

MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 4. The board of directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware.

Section 5. The first meeting of each newly elected board of directors shall be held at such time and place as shall be fixed by the vote of the stockholders at the annual meeting and no notice of such meeting shall be nec­essary to the newly elected directors in order legally to constitute the meet­ing, provided a quorum shall be present. In the event of the failure of the stockholders to fix the time or place of such first meeting of the newly elected board of directors, or in the event such meeting is not held at the time and place so fixed by the stockholders, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the board of directors, or as shall be specified in a written waiver signed by all of the directors.

Section 6. Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held on two days' written notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the board.

Section 7. Special meetings of the board may be called by the chairman on two days' notice to each director; special meetings shall be called by the chairman or secre­tary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of two directors unless the board consists of only one director; in which case special meetings shall be called by the chairman or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of the sole director.

Section 8. At all meetings of the board a majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a ma­jority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise specif­ically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If a quo­rum shall not be present at any meeting of the board of directors the direc­tors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 9. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorpora­tion or these by-laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if a written consent thereto is signed by all members of the board or of such committee as the case may be, and such written consent is filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board or committee.

Section 10. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorpo­ration or these by-laws, members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by the board of directors, may participate in a meeting of the board of directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or sim­ilar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS

Section 11. (a) The board of directors may, by resolution passed by a ma­jority of the whole board, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation; however, except as required by applicable law or regulation, or as provided by the committee charter or a resolution of the board approved by a majority of the independent directors, no com­mittee shall be empowered by the board to initiate or take any action without prior ratification of such proposed action by the majority of the board of di­rectors then in office.
(b) No such committee or committees of the board of directors shall have the power or authority:
(i) to amend the certificate of incorporation (except that a committee may, to the extent authorized in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of shares of stock adopted by the board of directors as provided in Section 151(a), fix any of the preferences or rights of such shares relat­ing to dividends, redemption, distribution of assets of the corporation or the conversion into, or the exchange of such shares for, shares of any other class or classes or any other series of the same or any other class or classes of stock of the corporation),
(ii) to adopt an agreement of merger or consolidation,
(iii) to recommend to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the corporation's property and assets,
(iv) to recommend to the stockholders a dissolution of the corporation or a revocation of a dissolution, or
(v) to amend the by-laws of the corporation;
and, unless the resolution or certificate of incorporation expressly so pro­vide, no such committee shall have the power or authority
(vi) to declare a dividend or to authorize the issuance of stock or to adopt a certificate of ownership and merger.
(c) Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as may be de­termined from time to time by resolution adopted by the board of directors.

Section 12. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when required.

COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

Section 13. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, the board of directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the board of directors and shall receive such compensation for their services as directors as shall be determined by the board of directors. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefore. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

Section 14. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorpo­ration or by law, any director or the entire board of directors may be re­moved, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of shares entitled to vote at an election of directors.

DIRECTORS EMERITUS

Section 15. Unless otherwise restricted by the corporation's certifi­cate of incorpo­ration or by law, the corporation may have and appoint such di­rectors emeritus as shall seem advisable to the board of directors. To qual­ify for appointment as a director emeritus, the nominee shall be a re­tired di­rector of the corporation. The term "director emeritus" is an hon­orary title entitling the holder thereof to all of the rights and privileges thereunto pertaining. No compensation shall be paid by the corporation to a director emeritus for service as such; however, the board of directors shall have the authority to award honoraria or to reimburse expenses, if any, under specified conditions set forth in a resolution of the board. The holder of the title "director emeritus" shall not act as and shall not be considered a director, officer or otherwise as an employee or agent of the corporation.


ARTICLE IV

NOTICES

Section 1. Whenever, under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these by-laws, notice is required to be given to any director or stockholder, it shall given in writing, by mail, ad­dressed to such director or stockholder, at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Notice to directors may also be given by electronic mail, telegram or telecopy.  Notice to directors shall be given by electronic mail with at least twenty-four hours' notice for any meeting.

Section 2. Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provi­sions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these by-laws, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto.


ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 1. The offices of the corporation shall be a chief executive officer, a president, a chief operating officer, a chief financial officer, one or more vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller, and such other offices as shall seem advisable to the board. Two or more offices may be held by the same person, unless the certificate of in­corporation or these by-laws otherwise provide. The board of directors may designate the chairman of the board as an executive chairman, in which case such executive chairman shall be an officer of the corporation.

Section 2. The board of directors at its first meeting after each an­nual meeting of stockholders shall choose a chairman from among the directors, and shall choose a chief executive offi­cer, a president, a chief operating officer, a chief financial officer, a one or more vice-presidents, secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller, none of whom need be a member of the board. The board may also choose such additional vice-presidents and assistant secre­taries, treasurers, and comptrollers as shall seem advisable to the board.

Section 3. The board of directors may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the board.

Section 4. The salary of the chief executive officer and of the executive chairman, if one is designated, shall be reviewed annually, with changes recommended by the Compensation Committee. The salaries of all officers of the cor­poration (other than the chief executive officer and the executive chairman, if one is designated) shall be re­viewed by the Compensation Committee, with changes recommended by the chief exec­utive officer. The chairman of the Compensation Committee will present the recommendations of the Compensation Committee to the board of direc­tors for ratification and approval.

Section 5. The officers of the corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualify. Any officer elected or appointed by the board of directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the board of directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the board of directors.

THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

Section 6. The chairman of the board shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the board of directors. He shall perform all such other duties as are properly required of him by the board of directors.

Section 7. The board of directors may designate the chairman of the board as an executive chairman, in which case such person shall be an officer of the corporation. He shall advise and counsel with the chief executive officer and, in his absence, with other officers of the corporation, and he shall perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the board of directors. A chairman of the board designated as an executive chairman need not be an employee of the corporation.

THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

Section 8. The chief executive officer of the corporation shall have general and active management of the business of the corporation, shall see that all orders and resolutions of the board of directors are carried into effect, and, unless otherwise provided by the board of directors, shall in the absence of the chairman of the board preside at all meetings of the stockholders.

Section 9. He shall execute bonds, mortgages and other contracts re­quiring a seal, under the seal of the corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the board of di­rectors to some other officer or agent of the corporation.

Section 10. He shall, as chief executive officer, be vested with authority to perform, singly or together with other officers of the cor­poration, all of the duties given or imposed by these by-laws or the board of directors on the other officers or employees of the corporation.

Section 11. In the absence or disability of the president, chief operating offi­cer, or chief financial officer, the chief executive officer shall select and recommend to the board of directors for approval a candidate to fill the office of president, chief operating offi­cer, or chief financial officer. Candidates may be selected from the board of directors, officers or employees of the corporation, or from sources outside of the corporation. The chief executive officer will perform the duties of the president, chief operating officer, or chief financial officer until a candi­date is chosen and approved by the board of directors and has qualified to perform the duties of the office of president, chief operating officer, or chief financial officer.

In addition to the chief executive's above-referenced powers and authorities, the chief executive officer shall have the power and authority to select and appoint, without the board of directors' prior approval, employees of the corporation as officers of a group, division or unit of the corporation, with such powers and duties as determined, from time to time, by the chief executive officer, provided, however that no such appointed officer of a group, division or unit shall be an officer of the corporation or otherwise have any authority to enter into any contract or agreement in the corporation's name and behalf or otherwise to obligate the corporation to a third party unless the board of directors has appointed the employee as an officer of the corporation. 

THE PRESIDENT

Section 12. The president shall be the chief administra­tive officer of the corporation and shall have such other powers as may be prescribed by the board of directors or chief executive officer, under whose supervision he shall be.

Section 13. In the absence or disability of the chief executive officer, or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, the president shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chief executive officer, and when so doing, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions on the chief executive offi­cer.


CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

Section 14. The chief financial officer of the corporation shall have the financial management of the business and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or chief executive officer, un­der whose supervision he shall be.

THE VICE-PRESIDENTS

Section 15. The vice-president, or if there shall be more than one, the vice presidents in the order determined by the board of directors (such as ex­ecutive vice president, senior vice president, vice president, and assistant vice president, or in the absence of any determination, then in the order of their election), shall perform such duties and have such powers as prescribed by the chief executive officer under whose supervision they will be.

THE SECRETARY

Section 16. The secretary shall attend all meetings of the board of di­rectors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the corporation and of the board of directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing commit­tees when required. He shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meet­ings of the stockholders and special meetings of the board of directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or chief executive officer, under whose supervision he shall be. He shall keep in safe custody the seal of the corporation and he, or an assis­tant secretary, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument re­quiring it and, when so affixed, it may be attested by his signature or by the signature of such assistant secretary. The board of directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.



ARTICLE VI

CERTIFICATES OF STOCK

Section 1. Every holder of stock in the corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the chairman, the chief executive officer, the president, or a vice-president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation, bearing the corporate seal or a facsimile thereof certifying the number of shares owned by him in the corporation.

Section 2. Where a certificate is signed (1) by a transfer agent or an assistant transfer agent or (2) by a transfer clerk acting on behalf of the corporation and a registrar, the signature of any such chairman, chief ex­ecutive officer, president, vice-president, treasurer, assistant treasurer, secretary, or assistant secretary may be facsimile. In case any officer or officers who have signed, or whose facsimile signature or signatures have been used on, any such certificate or certificates shall cease to be such officer or officers of the corporation, whether because of death, resignation or oth­erwise, before such certificate or certificates have been delivered by the corporation, such certificate or certificates may nevertheless be adopted by the corporation and be issued and delivered as though the person or persons who signed such certificate or certificates or whose facsimile signature or signatures have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer or offi­cers of the corporation.

LOST CERTIFICATES

Section 3. The Secretary or Treasurer who has charge of the transfer and issuance of stock of the corporation shall issue a new certificate or cer­tificates in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation allegedly lost, upon the submission by the owner of such lost or destroyed certificate, or his legal representative, to the corporation of a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost or destroyed.


TRANSFERS OF STOCK

Section 4. Upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person enti­tled thereto, cancel the old certificate, and record the transaction upon its books.

FIXING RECORD DATE

               Section 5. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any ad­journment thereof, or to express consent to corporate action in writing with­out a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distri­bution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in re­spect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which  record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty days prior to any other action. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS

Section 6. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assess­ments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

UNCERTIFICATED SHARES

Section 7. The board of directors of the corporation may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the corporation.


ARTICLE VII

GENERAL PROVISIONS

DIVIDENDS

Section 1. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, if any, may be declared by the board of directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

Section 2. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose as the directors shall think conducive to the interest of the corporation, and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

ANNUAL STATEMENT

Section 3. The board of directors shall present at each annual meeting, and at any special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders, a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the corporation.

FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES

Section 4. Unless a corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the corporation to the corporation or the corporation's stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 4.

FISCAL YEAR

Section 5. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolu­tion of the board of directors.

SEAL

Section 6. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the corporation, the year of its organization and the words "Corporate Seal, Delaware". The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 7. The corporation shall indemnify its officers, directors, em­ployees and agents to the extent permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

INVALID PROVISIONS

Section 8. If any provision of these by-laws is held to be illegal, invalid or unenforceable under any current or future law, and if the rights or obligations of the stockholders would not be materially and adversely affected thereby, such provision shall be fully separable,  and these by-laws shall be construed and enforced as if such illegal, invalid or unenforceable provision had never comprised a part hereof, the remaining provisions of these by-laws shall remain in full force and effect and shall not be affected by the illegal, invalid or unenforceable provision or by its severance herefrom, and in lieu of such illegal, invalid or unenforceable provision, there shall be added automatically as a part of these by-laws, a legal, valid and enforceable provision as similar in terms to such illegal, invalid or unenforceable provision as may be possible.


ARTICLE VIII

AMENDMENTS

Section 1. These by-laws may be altered, amended or repealed or new by-laws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the board of directors, when such power is conferred upon the board of directors by the certificate of in­corporation at any regular meeting of the stockholders or of the board of di­rectors or at any special meeting of the stockholders or of the board of di­rectors if notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption be con­tained in the notice of such special meeting. If the power to adopt, amend or repeal by-laws is conferred upon the board of directors by the certificate of incorporation it shall not divest or limit the power of the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal by-laws.