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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark one)

ANNUAL REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _______ to _______.

Commission file number 001-31812

ANI PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

   

58-2301143

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

210 Main Street West

 

Baudette, Minnesota

56623

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(218) 634-3500

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

   

Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

ANIP

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer 

    

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $316.1 million (based upon the last reported sale price of $32.34 per share on June 30, 2020, on The Nasdaq Global Market).

As of March 4, 2021, 12,354,398 shares of common stock and 10,864 shares of Class C Special stock of the registrant were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive proxy statement for the registrant’s 2021 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed within 120 days after the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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ANI PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

    

Page

PART I

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

 

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

14

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

36

Item 2.

Properties

 

36

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

36

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

36

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

36

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

 

39

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

40

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

58

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

59

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

102

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

102

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

103

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

103

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

103

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

103

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

104

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

104

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

104

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

 

109

 

 

Signatures

 

110

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Available Information

ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries (together, “ANI Pharmaceuticals,” “ANI,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We make available free of charge on our website (www.anipharmaceuticals.com) our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and any amendments to those filings as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Also posted on our website in the “Investors – Corporate Governance” section are our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Ethics and the charters for the Audit and Finance, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees. Information on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report or any other SEC filing. Copies of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials are available without charge upon written request to Investor Relations, c/o ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 210 Main Street West, Baudette, Minnesota, 56623.

In this annual report, references to “ANI Pharmaceuticals,” “ANI,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer, unless the context requires otherwise, to ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware c-corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “named executive officers” refer to our current named executive officers, except where the context requires otherwise.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K and certain information incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Such statements include, but are not limited to, the announcement and pendency of the acquisition of Novitium Pharma LLC (“Novitium”), statements about future operations, strategies and growth potential, the revenue potential (licensing, royalty and sales) of products we sell, development timelines, expected timeframe for submission of new drug applications or supplemental new drug applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), pipeline or potential markets for our products, expected pre-launch charges for Cortrophin, impact of accounting principles, litigation expenses, liquidity and capital resources, the impact of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) global pandemic on our business, and other statements that are not historical in nature, particularly those that utilize terminology such as “anticipates,” “will,” “expects,” “plans,” “potential,” “future,” “believes,” “intends,” “continue,” other words of similar meaning, derivations of such words, and the use of future dates. Such forward-looking statements are based on the reasonable beliefs of our management as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to our management. Readers should not put undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified; therefore, our actual results may differ materially from those described in any forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those discussed in our periodic reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including those discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A.of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the following factors:

the ability of the parties to complete the announced acquisition of Novitium or any delay in the completion of the acquisition;
risks that we may face with respect to importing raw materials;
delays or failure in obtaining approvals by the FDA of the products we sell;
changes in policy or actions that may be taken by the FDA and other regulatory agencies, including drug recalls;
the ability of our manufacturing partners to meet our product demands and timelines;

1

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our dependence on single source suppliers of ingredients due to the time and cost to validate a second source of supply;
acceptance of our products at levels that will allow us to achieve profitability;
our ability to develop, license or acquire, and commercialize new products;
the level of competition we face and the legal, regulatory and/or legislative strategies employed by our competitors to prevent or delay competition from generic alternatives to branded products;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
the impact of legislative or regulatory reform on the pricing for pharmaceutical products;
the impact of any litigation to which we are, or may become a party;
our ability, and that of our suppliers, development partners, and manufacturing partners, to comply with laws, regulations and standards that govern or affect the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries;
our ability to maintain the services of our key executives and other personnel; and
general business and economic conditions and the effects and duration of outbreaks of public health emergencies, such as COVID-19.

NOTE REGARDING TRADEMARKS

Cortenema®, Cortrophin® Gel, Cortrophin-Zinc®, Inderal® LA, Inderal® XL, InnoPran XL®, Lithobid®, Reglan®, and Vancocin® are registered trademarks subject to trademark protection and are owned by ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Atacand® and Atacand HCT® are the property of AstraZeneca AB and are licensed to ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for U.S. sales of those products. Arimidex® and Casodex® are the property of AstraZeneca UK Limited and are licensed to ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for U.S. sales of those products.

2

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business

ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, ANIP Acquisition Company and ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. (together, “ANI,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is an integrated specialty pharmaceutical company focused on delivering value to our customers by developing, manufacturing, and marketing high quality branded and generic prescription pharmaceuticals. We focus on niche and high barrier to entry opportunities including controlled substances, oncology products (anti-cancer), hormones and steroids, and complex formulations. Our three pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, of which two are located in Baudette, Minnesota and one is located in Oakville, Ontario, are together capable of producing oral solid dose products, as well as semi-solids, liquids and topicals, controlled substances, and potent products that must be manufactured in a fully-contained environment.

Through product launches, acquisitions of Abbreviated New Drug Applications (“ANDAs”), New Drug Applications (“NDAs”), product rights, and entry into agreements to obtain the distribution rights for various products, we have a commercial portfolio of 65 products as of December 31, 2020. In addition, in January 2016, we acquired the Cortrophin gel and Cortrophin-Zinc NDAs. We continue to focus on the re-commercialization of these products while increasing our portfolio of generic and mature brand products.

On August 6, 2018, our subsidiary, ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. (“ANI Canada”), acquired all the issued and outstanding equity interests of WellSpring Pharma Services Inc. (“WellSpring”), a Canadian company that performs contract development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. In conjunction with the transaction, we acquired WellSpring’s pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, laboratory, and offices, its current book of commercial business, as well as an organized workforce.

Unless otherwise required by the context, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the "Company," "we," us," and "our" refer to ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in April 2001. Our principal executive offices are located at 210 Main Street West, Baudette, Minnesota, 56623, our telephone number is (218) 634-3500, and our website address is www.anipharmaceuticals.com.

Strategy

Our objective is to build a sustainable and growing biopharmaceutical company serving patients in need and creating long-term value for our investors. Our growth strategy is driven by the following key pillars:

Building a successful Cortrophin Gel franchise.

We acquired the NDAs for Cortrophin gel and Cortrophin-Zinc in January 2016; executed long-term supply agreements with a supplier of our primary raw material for corticotrophin active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”), a supplier of corticotrophin API with whom we have advanced the manufacture of commercial scale batches of API, and a Cortrophin gel fill/finish contract manufacturer. In April 2020, the FDA issued a Refusal to File (“RTF”) letter for our Supplemental New Drug Application (“sNDA”) for Cortrophin Gel. Currently, our efforts are focused on the preparation of a complete resubmission of sNDA. We have retained a prominent regulatory consulting firm to support our efforts and augment the capabilities of our restructured internal Cortrophin development team. Together, we have performed a comprehensive review of the original sNDA filing and prepared an internal gap assessment and execution plan to address these gaps. Throughout, we have remained engaged with the FDA and plan to re-submit our supplemental NDA in the second quarter of 2021.

We have invested in leadership and expertise in the areas of commercialization of rare disease therapies to develop a launch strategy and commercial plan for this product.

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Strengthening our generics business with enhanced research and development capability and increased focus on niche opportunities

We have grown our generics business through a combination of market share gains on existing products and new product launches. We have also successfully acquired numerous ANDAs through asset acquisitions, including, most recently, the U.S. portfolio of 23 generic products, including 10 commercial products at the time of the acquisition, from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. We also focus on niche lower competition opportunities such as injectables and Paragraph IV filings. Additionally, we will seek opportunities to enhance our research and development capabilities through strategic partnerships and acquisitions of businesses.

Maximizing the value from our established brands through innovative “go-to-market” (“GTM”) strategies and continued programmatic acquisitions

We have acquired the NDAs for and market Atacand, Atacand HCT, Arimidex, Casodex, Lithobid, Vancocin, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, and InnoPran XL. We are innovating in our GTM strategy through creative partnerships. In addition, we will continue to explore opportunities in acquiring new brands to grow our established brands portfolio.

Expansion of contract development and manufacturing organization (“CDMO”) business by leveraging our unique manufacturing capabilities

We built a CDMO business through our sites in Baudette and grew it through the acquisition of WellSpring Pharma Services Inc. (“ANI Canada”). Our North America based manufacturing and unique capabilities in high-potency, hormonal, steroid, and oncolytic products can be leveraged to expand our CDMO business.

The pillars of our strategy will be enabled by an empowered, collaborative, and purposeful team with high performance-orientation. We will also retain our continued programmatic approach to inorganic growth initiatives.

Product Development Considerations

We consider a variety of criteria in determining which products to develop or acquire, all of which relate to the level of potential competition and expected profitability upon product launch. Below are the principal criteria we consider.

Formulation Complexity. Our development and manufacturing capabilities enable us to manufacture pharmaceuticals that are difficult to produce, including highly potent, extended release, combination, and low dosage products. This ability to manufacture a variety of complex products is a competitive strength that we intend to continue to leverage in selecting products to develop or manufacture.
Patent Status. We seek to develop products whose branded bioequivalents do not have long-term patent protection or existing patent challenges.
Market Size. When determining whether to develop or acquire an individual product, we review the current and expected market size for that product at launch, as well as forecasted price erosion upon conversion from branded to generic pricing. We endeavor to manufacture products with sufficient market size to enable us to enter the market with a strong likelihood of being able to price our products both competitively and at a profit.
Profit Potential. We research the availability and cost of active pharmaceutical ingredients in determining which products to develop or acquire. In determining the potential profit of a product, we forecast our anticipated market share, pricing, including the expected price erosion caused by competition from other generic manufacturers, and the estimated cost to manufacture the products.

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Manufacturing. We generally seek to develop and manufacture products at our own manufacturing plants in order to optimize the utilization of our facilities, ensure quality control in our products, and maximize profit potential.
Competition. When determining whether to develop or acquire a product, we research existing and expected competition. We seek to develop products for which we can obtain sufficient market share and may decline to develop a product if we anticipate significant competition. Our specialized manufacturing facilities provide a means of entering niche markets, such as hormone therapies, in which fewer generic companies are able to compete.

In addition to laboratories that support the requirements of raw material, finished product, and stability testing, we have a 1,000-square foot pilot laboratory offering liquid, suspension and solid dose development capabilities. This pilot laboratory offers a full range of analytical capabilities, including method development, validation and de-formulation, and is licensed by the Drug Enforcement Administration (“DEA”). Finally, a separate development suite located within our high-potency manufacturing facility offers additional capabilities for product development.

Products and Markets

Products

A complete list of our generic and branded pharmaceutical products and descriptions is posted on our website, www.anipharmaceuticals.com.

Markets

In determining which products to pursue for development, we target products that are complex to manufacture and therefore have higher barriers to entry. These factors provide opportunities for growth, utilizing our competitive strengths at the same time that they decrease the number of potential competitors in the markets for these products. These markets currently include controlled substances, oncology products, hormones and steroids, injectables, and complex formulations, including extended release and combination products.

Controlled Substances

Schedule II controlled substances are drugs considered to have a high abuse risk but that also have safe and accepted medical uses. In addition to our four Schedule II products currently on the market, our pipeline includes two ANDAs in this market. One of our manufacturing facilities in Baudette, Minnesota is licensed by the DEA for the manufacture of Schedule II controlled substances. Our manufacturing facility in Oakville, Ontario is licensed by Health Canada for the manufacture of Schedule II controlled substances.

Oncology Products

Due to the capabilities of our containment facility and our expertise in manufacturing segregation, we are focused on developing and manufacturing niche oncology products (anti-cancer). In particular, we are targeting products subject to priority review by the FDA, more specifically those with no blocking patents and no generic competition. We currently have five oncology products on the market.

Hormone and Steroid Drugs

The market for hormone and steroid drugs includes hormone therapy to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women, contraceptives, testosterone replacement therapies for men, and therapies for treating hormone-sensitive cancers.

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Hormone Therapy (“HT”) has been a long-accepted medical treatment for alleviating the symptoms of menopause. Initially, HT consisted of estrogen only but has evolved to include combination therapies of estrogen, progesterone, and androgens. We target niche products in the HT and steroid product market for several reasons, including:

Hormone and steroid products are a core competency based on our manufacturing and product development teams’ long history of manufacturing these types of products; and
The aging “baby boomer” population, of which women represent a majority, is expected to support continued growth in the HT market.

Injectables

Our burgeoning injectable portfolio contains five injectable ANDA products encompassing several key therapeutic areas. Additionally, Cortrophin Gel would be our first branded injectable product if we obtained approval for this product. We work with world-class manufacturing partners to support these efforts.

Complex Formulations

In addition to our 18 complex formulation products currently on the market, our pipeline includes 10 extended-release products and seven combination products.

Contract Manufacturing

We manufacture pharmaceutical products for several branded and generic companies, who outsource production in order to:

Free-up internal resources to focus on sales and marketing as well as research and development;
Employ internal capacity to manufacture higher volume or more critical products; and
Utilize our specialized equipment and expertise.

Given our specialized manufacturing capabilities, we are focused on attracting niche contract manufacturing opportunities that offer high margins.

In conjunction with our acquisition of WellSpring Pharma Services Inc., we acquired WellSpring’s pharmaceutical manufacturing facility. As a result of this transaction, we perform contract manufacturing in both our Baudette, Minnesota and Oakville, Ontario facilities.

Manufacturing, Suppliers, and Raw Materials

We require a supply of quality raw materials, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), and components to manufacture and package our pharmaceutical products. In order to manufacture certain of our products deemed controlled substances, we must submit a request to the DEA for a quota to purchase the amount of API needed for manufacture. Without approved quotas from the DEA, we would not be able to purchase these ingredients from our suppliers.

We source the raw materials for our products from both domestic and international suppliers, which we carefully select. Generally, we qualify only a single source of API for use in each product due to the cost and time required to validate and qualify a second source of supply. Any change in one of our API suppliers must usually be approved through a Prior Approval Supplement (“PAS”) by the FDA. The process of obtaining an approval of such a PAS can require between four and 18 months. While we also generally qualify a single source for non-API raw materials, the process required to qualify an alternative source of a non-API raw material is typically much less rigorous. If we were to change the supplier of a raw material for a product, the cost for the material could be greater than the amount we paid

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with the previous supplier. Changes in suppliers are rare but could occur as a result of a supplier’s business failing, an issue arising from an FDA inspection, or failure to maintain our required standards of quality. As a result, we selectively choose suppliers based on various factors including quality, reliability of supply, and long-term financial stability.

Certain of the APIs for our drug products, including those that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs, are sourced from international suppliers. From time to time, we have experienced temporary disruptions in the supply of certain of such imported API due to FDA inspections. In addition, certain of our products are manufactured, packaged, or manufactured and packaged by third parties.

Government Regulation

The pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. and Canada is highly regulated by multiple U.S. and Canadian government agencies, such as the FDA, the DEA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”), and Health Canada. As a result, we are subject to extensive and complex rules and regulations, which are subject to revision from time to time. While we have experience with these regulations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to fully comply with all applicable regulations.

In April 2020, the FDA issued an RTF letter for our sNDA for Cortrophin Gel. Since this time, our efforts have been focused on the preparation of a complete resubmission of the sNDA. We immediately retained a prominent regulatory consulting firm to support our efforts and augment the capabilities of our internal Cortrophin development team. In addition, we restructured the composition of the internal team. We have performed a comprehensive review of the original sNDA filing and prepared an internal gap assessment and execution plan to address these gaps. The resultant remediation activities are currently in-progress.

Branded and Generic Pharmaceutical Products

All prescription pharmaceutical products distributed in the U.S., whether branded or generic, must be approved by the FDA. All applications for FDA approval must contain information relating to product formulation, raw material suppliers, stability, manufacturing processes, packaging, labeling, and quality control. Information to support the bioequivalence of generic drug products or the safety and effectiveness of new drug products for their intended use is also required to be submitted. There are generally two types of applications used for obtaining FDA approval of new products:

New Drug Application (“NDA”)—An NDA is filed when approval is sought to market a newly developed branded product and, in certain instances, for a new dosage form, a new delivery system, or a new indication for an approved drug.

Abbreviated New Drug Application (“ANDA”)—An ANDA is filed when approval is sought to market a generic equivalent of a drug approved under an NDA.

The ANDA development process is generally less time-consuming and less complex than the NDA development process. It typically does not require new preclinical and clinical studies, because it relies on the studies establishing safety and efficacy conducted for the branded drug approved through the NDA process. The ANDA process, however, typically requires one or more bioequivalence studies to show that the ANDA drug is bioequivalent to the previously approved reference listed drug (“RLD”).

The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the “Hatch-Waxman Act”) provides that generic drugs may enter the market after the approval of an ANDA, which requires (1) that bioequivalence to the branded product be demonstrated through clinical studies, and (2) either the expiration, invalidation or circumvention of any patents or the end of any other relevant market exclusivity periods related to the branded drug.

Accordingly, generic products generally provide a safe, effective, and cost-efficient alternative to users of branded products. Growth in the generic pharmaceutical industry has been driven by the increased market acceptance of generic drugs, as well as the number of branded drugs for which patent terms and/or other market exclusivities have expired.

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Generic products are generally commercialized after the expiration of patent protection for the branded product and after the end of a period of non-patent market exclusivity. In addition to patent exclusivity, the holder of the NDA may be entitled to a period of non-patent market exclusivity, during which the FDA cannot approve an application for a generic product. Also, if the NDA is a new chemical entity (“NCE”), the FDA may not approve an ANDA for a generic product for up to five years following approval of the NDA for the NCE. If an NDA is not an NCE, but the holder of the NDA conducted clinical trials essential to approval of the NDA or a supplement thereto, the FDA may not approve a generic equivalent to the NDA for three years. Certain other periods of exclusivity may be available if the branded drug is indicated for treatment of a rare disease or is studied for pediatric indications.

In order to obtain FDA approval of NDAs and ANDAs, our manufacturing procedures and operations must conform to FDA requirements and guidelines, generally referred to as “cGMP.” The requirements for FDA approval encompass all aspects of the production process, including validation and recordkeeping, the standards around which are continuously changing and evolving. As a result, we must consistently monitor and comply with these changes.

Our facilities, procedures, operations, and testing of products are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA, the DEA, Health Canada, and other authorities. In addition, the FDA and Health Canada conduct pre-approval and post-approval reviews and plant inspections to determine whether our systems and processes are in compliance with cGMP and other FDA and Health Canada regulations. Our suppliers are subject to similar regulations and periodic inspections.

Controlled Substances

The DEA regulates certain drug products containing controlled substances, pursuant to the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”). Certain of our products contain significant components that are classified as controlled substances. CSA and DEA regulations impose specific requirements on manufacturers and other entities that handle these substances including registration, recordkeeping, reporting, storage, security, and distribution. Recordkeeping requirements include accounting for the amount of product received, manufactured, stored, and distributed. Companies handling controlled substances also are required to maintain adequate security and to report suspicious orders, thefts, and significant losses. The DEA periodically inspects facilities for compliance with the CSA and its regulations. Failure to comply with current and future regulations of the DEA could lead to a variety of sanctions, including revocation or denial of renewal of DEA registrations, injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties.

In addition, we must submit a request to the DEA for a quota to purchase the amount of API needed to manufacture certain of our products deemed controlled substances. Without approved quotas from the DEA, we would not be able to purchase these ingredients from our suppliers. As a result, we are dependent upon the DEA to approve quotas large enough to support our continued manufacture of our controlled substances at commercial level. See “Risk FactorsWe are entirely dependent on periodic approval by the DEA for the supply of the API needed to manufacture our controlled substances. An inability to obtain such approvals would reduce or eliminate our revenues for our controlled substances, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results. In addition, we are subject to strict regulation by the DEA and are subject to sanctions if we are unable to comply with related regulatory requirements.”

Unapproved Products

Two of our products, EEMT and Opium Tincture, are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs. Previously, the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (“FDA’s”) Unapproved Drug Initiative included publication of their policy with respect to the continued marketing of unapproved products in the September 2011 Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100 titled “Marketed New Drugs without Approved NDAs or ANDAs.” Under this policy, the FDA had stated that it would follow a risk-based approach with regard to enforcement against marketing of unapproved products. The guideline allowed the FDA to evaluate whether to initiate enforcement action on a case-by-case basis, while giving higher priority to enforcement action against products in certain categories, such as those with potential safety risks or that lack evidence of effectiveness. In November 2020 (effective December 2020), the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published a notice in the Federal Register to terminate the FDA’s Unapproved Drug Initiative, which would include the withdrawal of this September 2011 Compliance Policy Guide. Neither the HHS nor the FDA has provided any additional guidance, notice or statement regarding how they intend to approach enforcement against

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marketing of unapproved products. We continue to believe that, so long as we comply with applicable manufacturing standards, the FDA will continue to operate on a risk-based approach and will not take action against us. However, we can offer no assurance that the FDA will continue to follow this approach or that it will not take a contrary position with any individual product or group of products. During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, revenues for EEMT were 7%, 9%, and 11% of total revenue, respectively, and revenues from Opium Tincture were 1% of total revenue. See “Risk Factors – Two of our products, which together comprised 8% of our total revenue in 2020, are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs and we can offer no assurances that the FDA will not require us to either seek approval for these products or withdraw them from the market. In either case, our business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.”

Medicaid/Medicare

Medicaid and Medicare, both of which are U.S. federal health care programs administered by CMS, are major purchasers of pharmaceutical products, including those we produce.

Medicaid is administered by the states and jointly funded by the federal and state governments. Its focus is on low income populations. State drug coverage policies under Medicaid may vary significantly state by state. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”), as amended by the Health Care and Education and Reconciliation Act of 2010, together known as the Affordable Care Act ("ACA"), required states to expand their Medicaid programs to individuals with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level. Although the United States Supreme Court in 2011 made the Medicaid expansion optional, many states are expanding their Medicaid programs.

The ACA also made changes to Medicaid law that has negatively impacted our business. In particular, pharmaceutical manufacturers must enter into rebate agreements with state Medicaid agencies, which require manufacturers to pay rebates based on their drugs dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries. The ACA raised the rebate percentages for both generic and branded pharmaceuticals effective January 1, 2010. The required rebate is currently 13% of the average manufacturer price for sales of Medicaid-reimbursed products marketed under ANDAs. Sales of Medicaid-reimbursed products marketed under NDAs require manufacturers to rebate the greater of 23.1% of the average manufacturer price or the difference between the average manufacturer price and the “best price” (as defined in the Medicaid statute) during a specific period. Federal and/or state governments may continue to enact measures aimed at reducing the cost of drugs to the Medicaid program.

Medicare is run by the federal government and is largely focused on the elderly and disabled. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (“MMA”) created Medicare Part D to provide prescription drug coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. The MMA has increased usage of pharmaceuticals, a trend that we believe will continue to benefit the generic pharmaceutical industry. The ACA made some changes to Part D to make it easier for Medicare beneficiaries to obtain drugs, such as reducing coinsurance amounts. The ACA also required pharmaceutical companies to provide discounts to Medicare Part D beneficiaries for the cost of branded prescription drugs. The ACA created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% (increased to 70% pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, or BBA, effective as of 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D. Under the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program, any pharmaceutical product marketed under an NDA, regardless of whether the product is marketed as a “generic,” is subject to the discount requirement. Our Candesartan Hydrochlorothiazide, Fenofibrate, Fluvoxamine, Hydrocortisone Enema, Lithium Carbonate ER, Mesalamine, Propranolol ER, Terbutaline, and Vancomycin products, while marketed as “generics,” are marketed under approved NDAs and, therefore, are subject to the discount requirement.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial, administrative, executive and Congressional legislative challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. For example, the ACA is currently subject to a broad legal challenge in California vs. Azar before the U.S. Supreme Court. Additionally, in November 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court heard argument in Texas v. Azar, which challenges the constitutionality of the ACA. Were the Supreme Court to invalidate the ACA, that could have far-reaching consequences of an uncertain nature for our industry. However, the Biden administration and Democratically-controlled Congress are expected to take significant action to mitigate any ruling against the Affordable

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Care Act. Further, the administration and Congress are expected to take steps towards expanding health care coverage beyond the ACA, which could have ramifications for the pharmaceutical industry.

Most of our products are covered by Medicaid and Medicare. Our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid rebate program and other governmental purchasing and rebate programs are complex and may involve subjective decisions. Any determination that we have failed to comply with those obligations could subject us to penalties and sanctions, and we could be subject to federal or state false claims litigation.

There has also been recent heightened federal governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products. For example, there have been several recent Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, the last Presidential administration released a “Blueprint”, or plan, to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase drug manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products, and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers.

At the state level, individual states are increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. In addition, regional health care authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other health care programs. These measures could reduce the ultimate demand for our products, once approved, or put pressure on our product pricing. We expect that additional state and federal health care reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for health care products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our product candidates or additional pricing pressures.

Patents, Trademarks, and Licenses

We own the trademark names for most of our branded products, including Cortenema, Cortrophin gel, Cortrophin-Zinc, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL, Lithobid, Reglan, and Vancocin. We license the trademark names for Atacand, Atacand HCT, Arimidex, and Casodex. With the exception of a license for patent technology for InnoPran XL and Inderal XL, we do not own or license any patents associated with these products. Further, patent protection and market exclusivity for these branded products have expired, with the exception of the InnoPran XL and Inderal XL products, which have market exclusivity until 2022. Therefore, we consider the trademark names to be of material value and we act to protect these rights from infringement. However, our business is not dependent upon any single trademark. Trademark protection continues in some countries as long as used, and in other countries, as long as registered. Registration is for fixed terms and may be renewed indefinitely. We believe that sales of our branded products have benefited and will continue to benefit from the value of the product name.

In addition, we receive royalties from a license for patent rights initially owned by Cell Genesys, Inc., which merged with BioSante in 2009. The royalties are received as a result of sales and milestones related to the Yescarta® product. In 2020, we recorded $1.4 million of royalties related to the license of these patent rights. See Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Distribution Agreements

In addition to selling products under our own NDAs and ANDAs, we enter into marketing and distribution agreements with third parties in which we sell products under ANDAs or NDAs owned or licensed by these third parties. These products are sold under our own label.

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Customers

Our customers purchase and distribute our products. Our products are sold by three major retail pharmacy chains: CVS, Rite Aid, and Walgreens. Our customers include five major national wholesalers: AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, McKesson, Smith Drug Company, and Morris Dickson. In addition, our customers include national mail order houses, including CVS Caremark, Humana, and ExpressScripts, as well as group purchasing organizations.

In recent years, the wholesale distributor network for pharmaceutical products has been subject to increasing consolidation, which has increased the concentration of our wholesale customers. In addition, the number of retail market chains and, in particular, the number of independent drug stores and small chains, has decreased as retail consolidation has occurred, also increasing the concentration of our retail customers. As a result of this trend toward consolidation, a smaller number of companies each control a larger share of pharmaceutical distribution channels. For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 74% of our net revenues were attributable to three wholesalers: AmerisourceBergen Corporation 31%, McKesson Corporation 24%, and Cardinal Health, Inc. 19%. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, McKesson Corporation, Cardinal Health, Inc., and AmerisourceBergen Corporation, together accounted for approximately 80% and 81% of our net revenues, respectively. In addition, as noted below, our customers also distribute our products. The loss of any of these customers, including in their role as distributors, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Due to a strategic partnership between Amerisource Bergen and Walgreens, Amerisource Bergen handles product distribution for Walgreens. Similarly, Cardinal Health and CVS established a partnership in which Cardinal performs some product distribution for CVS. McKesson also entered into a strategic alliance with both Wal-Mart and Rite Aid. As a result of these strategic partnerships between wholesalers and pharmacy chains, we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, increases in net sales to the wholesalers, with corresponding decreases in net sales to the pharmacy chains.

Consistent with industry practice, we maintain a return policy that allows customers to return product within a specified period prior to and subsequent to the expiration date. Generally, product may be returned for a period beginning six months prior to its expiration date to up to one year after its expiration date. See "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition—Critical Accounting Estimates" for a discussion of our accruals for chargebacks, rebates, returns, and other allowances.

Sales, Marketing, and Distribution

We market, sell, and distribute our products in the United States. Our products are distributed through the following channels:

Wholesalers. We conduct business with five major wholesalers in the United States: AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal, McKesson, Smith Drug Company, and Morris Dickson.
Retail Market Chains. We conduct business with three major retail chains in the United States: CVS, Rite Aid, and Walgreens.
Distributors and Mail Order Pharmacies. We have contracts with several major distributors and mail order pharmacies in the United States, including Anda, CVS Caremark, Humana, and ExpressScripts.
Group Purchasing Organizations. We have contracts with group purchasing organizations in the United States, such as ClarusONE, Rx Sourcing Strategies, Walgreens Boots Alliance Development Group, Red Oak Sourcing, Premier Inc., Managed Health Care Associates Inc., Innovatix, MedAssets, Minnesota Multi-State, Optisource, The Premier Group, and Kaiser Permanente Purchasing Organization.

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Competition

Certain of our products face limited competition due to complexities in formulation, active pharmaceutical ingredient sourcing, materials handling and manufacturing, and regulatory hurdles. Nevertheless, we compete with numerous other pharmaceutical companies, including large, global pharmaceutical manufacturers capable of addressing these complexities and hurdles with respect to products that we currently produce and products that are in our pipeline. In addition, our products are subject to competition from other generic products and non-prescription alternative therapies.

Our branded pharmaceutical products currently face competition from generic products and we expect them to continue to face competition from generic products in the future. In order to launch a generic product, a manufacturer must apply to the FDA for an ANDA showing that the generic product is therapeutically equivalent to the RLD. (See “Government Regulation.”)

The primary means of competition among generic drug manufacturers are pricing, contract terms, service levels, and reliability. To compete effectively, we seek to consistently produce high-quality, reliable, and effective products. We also establish active working relationships with each of our customers, continually gather important market information in order to respond successfully to requests for proposals, maintain sufficient inventories to assure high service levels, and work to reduce product costs by sourcing and qualifying alternative suppliers whenever possible.

Over the past several years, the pharmaceutical industry has experienced significant consolidation, particularly in distribution channels and among generic and brand drug companies.

The wholesale distributor network for pharmaceutical products has been subject to increasing consolidation, which has increased the concentration of our wholesale customers. In addition, the number of retail market chains and, in particular, the number of independent drug stores and small chains, has decreased as retail consolidation has occurred, also increasing the concentration of our retail customers. As a result of this trend toward consolidation, a smaller number of companies each control a larger share of pharmaceutical distribution channels, which results in pricing pressure on our business and can result in a shift in sales to our competitors.

In addition, consolidation among pharmaceutical companies has created opportunities by reducing the number of competitors. However, as competitors grow larger through consolidation, so do their resources. Larger competitors may be able to aggressively decrease prices in order to gain market share on certain products and may have resources that would allow them to market their products more effectively to potential customers.

Our sales can also be impacted by new studies that indicate that a competitor’s product has greater efficacy than one of our products. If competitors introduce new products with therapeutic or cost advantages, our products can be subject to progressive price reductions and/or decreased volume of sales.

Principal competitors for the pharmaceutical market in which we do business include Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Alvogen, Inc., Apotex Inc., Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Hikma Pharmaceuticals plc, Method Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Mylan N.V., Par Pharmaceutical, Inc., Perrigo Company plc, Rising Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.

Product Liability

Product liability litigation represents an inherent risk to all firms in the pharmaceutical industry. We utilize traditional third-party insurance policies with regard to our product liability claims. Such insurance coverage at any given time reflects current market conditions, including cost and availability, when the policy is written.

Human Capital

As of January 2021, we have 369 employees, of which 250 are located in the United States and another 119 are located in Canada. We occasionally use a small number of part-time and consultant resources to meet our operational

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needs and are generally not impacted by significant turnover year-to-year. We are committed to creating a diverse and inclusive work environment within all levels of the business.

Attracting and retaining talented employees is critical to the success of our business, especially at our manufacturing operations in Baudette, Minnesota, which is located in a sparsely populated area of Northern Minnesota, with a population of less than 5,000. As a result, it can be challenging to find sufficiently qualified personnel in all functional areas. To address this, we support remote working arrangements for a number of employees in several functions throughout the business, including at the executive level. Additionally, our compensation plans are designed to be competitive within the pharmaceuticals industry as well as competitive with local employers for jobs of a cross-industry nature. Our approach provides ANI with the resources to recognize and reward employee performance, productivity, and quality commitment. Our total compensation program includes competitive base salaries, comprehensive benefits, and employee equity programs.

Our U.S. and Canada facilities are committed to the safety and health of our employees, patient-customers and the general public. It is critical within our mission to ensure we keep our employees and customers safe while accomplishing our business goals. We accomplish these initiatives through the following:

Health and Safety Management and Training

ANI has established a health and safety program with a focus on continuous improvement and employee engagement. ANI personnel are encouraged to take corrective actions where appropriate and to communicate concerns to management with a “see something, say something” approach. We recognize and reward personnel for contributing to the safety system within our working environment. The overall program continually evolves to reflect regulatory changes and compliance standard industry best practices. As part of onboarding new employees, we provide health and safety training and periodic training programs to maintain and improve employee awareness of safety issues. The goal of the safety training programs is to ensure that our staff are well informed on the subject matters and have the appropriate tools to make sound health and safety decisions in our day-to-day operations.

Environmental Stewardship

ANI is committed to minimizing waste and emissions, promoting reuse and recycling and conserving resources, where feasible, to reduce our environmental footprint on our environment.

COVID-19 Actions

Our U.S. and Canada facilities quickly responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by establishing a COVID-19 action plan to protect the health and safety of our employees as they performed their duties, as all of our facilities have remained open during the pandemic. Measures include social distancing requirements, increased and expanded sanitation for both employees and our property, face covering requirements for employees and visitors, staggered work schedules to minimize contact, flexible and work-from-home schedules, and employee illness and exposure protocols. These measures also seek to comply with all county, state, province, and/or city mandates as they relate to COVID-19. Please refer to Part I, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risk Factor Summary

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K prior to investing in our common stock. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

The conditions under the merger agreement relating to our announced acquisition of Novitium Pharma LLC (“Novitium”) may not be satisfied at all or in the anticipated timeframe.
The uncertain impact that novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) will have on our business and results of operations;
The continuing trend toward consolidation of customer groups that could result in declines in the sales volume and prices of our products, and increased fees charged by customers;
The FDA does not provide guidance on safety labeling for products that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs, which could increase our potential liability with respect to failure-to-warn claims for these products;
If the Drug Enforcement Administration (“DEA”) does not approve supply of the API we need to manufacture our controlled substances, we may be unable to manufacture controlled substances, which would eliminate our revenue on these products.
Pharmaceutical product quality standards are steadily increasing on all products, and if we cannot meet these standards, we may be required to discontinue marketing and/or recall products from the market;
Federal and state false claims litigation brought against us by private individuals and the government could result in civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines and other related actions;
The use of legal, regulatory, and legislative strategies by competitors could result in increased costs to develop and market our products, delay new product introductions and reduce profit potential;
Third-party payer actions may prevent us from effectively marketing our products or cause us to decrease pricing;
Continuing studies of our products could produce results that could have a negative impact on our business;
Healthcare reform legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results;
Barriers in achieving anticipated revenue growth and profitability could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results;
In January 2016, we acquired two New Drug Applications (“NDAs”) for $75.0 million and a percentage of future net sales of products under the NDAs. We have incurred substantial expense and may be unable to obtain FDA approval, successfully market and commercialize the product;
The limited number of suppliers for our API could result in lengthy delays in production if we need to change suppliers;
Several of the products we have acquired cannot be manufactured in our facilities and we must secure and maintain qualified and compliant contract manufacturers. Noncompliance by these contract manufacturers or our inability to find qualified contract manufacturers could result in us being unable to commercialize these products; Several of our products are manufactured and/or packaged by third parties, which we cannot control and could result in us being unable to market and distribute products;

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Future acquisitions and investments could disrupt our business and harm our financial position and operating results;
Our Medicaid rebate accruals have increased and continue to increase due to our acquisitions and subsequent sales of branded products and authorized generics of branded products;
Our accruals for the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program have increased due to growth and acquisitions;
We face vigorous competition from other pharmaceutical manufacturers that threatens the commercial acceptance and pricing of our products;
Our approved products may not achieve commercialization at levels of market acceptance that allow us to achieve profitability;
We expect to spend a significant amount of resources on research and development efforts, and such efforts may not result in marketable products;
Production at any or all of our three manufacturing facilities could be interrupted, which could cause us to fail to deliver product on a timely basis;
We rely on third parties to assist with our clinical studies. If these parties do not perform or are non-compliant, it could negatively impact the clinical trial and potential of regulatory approval; Further, we may be required to audit or redo previously completed trials or recall already-approved commercial products;
Inability to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and foreign countries could negatively affect sales of our branded products;
We have very limited staffing and are dependent upon key employees, the loss of whom could adversely affect our operations;
We rely significantly on information technology and any failure, inadequacy, interruption, or security lapse of that technology could harm our ability to operate the business effectively;
We are involved in and may become involved in legal proceedings from time to time, which may result in substantial losses, government enforcement actions, damage to our business and reputation, and place a strain on our internal resources;
We are susceptible to product liability claims that may not be covered by insurance, which, if successful, could require us to pay substantial sums;
Our policies regarding returns, allowances and chargebacks, and marketing programs adopted by wholesalers may reduce revenues in future fiscal periods;
Making interest and principal payments under our Senior Secured Credit Facility will continue to require a significant amount of cash;
Financial and restrictive covenants on our secured term loan (“Term Loan”), senior secured revolving credit facility (the “Revolver”), and delayed draw term loan (“DDTL”). If we are non-compliant, we will be in default, which could result in the acceleration of our outstanding indebtedness; and
Raising additional funds by issuing additional equity securities may cause dilution to our current stockholders. Raising additional funds by issuing new debt financing may restrict our operations.

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The following are significant factors known to us that could materially harm our business, financial position, or operating results or could cause our actual results to differ materially from our anticipated results or other expectations, including those expressed in any forward-looking statement made in this report. The risks described are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, also may adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial position, and operating results could suffer significantly. As a result, the market price of our common stock could decline and investors could lose all or part of their investment.

Risks Related to our Business

Our proposed acquisition of Novitium Pharma LLC may not be completed or the closing of the acquisition may be delayed, and if completed, we may not realize any or all of the anticipated benefits of the acquisition or within the timeframe we anticipate.

As previously announced, on March 8, 2021, ANI entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Nile Merger Sub LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and our wholly-owned subsidiary (“Merger Sub”), Novitium, and certain other parties under which Merger Sub will merge with and into Novitium, with Novitium surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of ANI. While we expect to complete the proposed transaction in the second half of 2021, the proposed merger is subject to a number of conditions that must be satisfied in order for the transaction to be consummated, including, among others, the approval by our stockholders of the issuance of shares of our common stock in connection with the merger, and the closing of the new equity and debt arrangements related to the acquisition.

We cannot guarantee that the acquisition will be consummated on the terms or timeline currently contemplated or at all. Any delay in completing the acquisition could diminish the anticipated benefits of the acquisition and result in additional transaction costs, and failure to complete the acquisition could adversely impact the market price of our stock as well as our business and operating results.

If completed, the success of the Novitium acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine and integrate Novitium into our businesses and realize the anticipated benefits from the transaction. If we are unable to achieve these objectives within the anticipated time frame, or at all, the anticipated benefits may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected.

If the acquisition is not completed for any reason, including as a result of our shareholders declining to approve the issuance of shares of our common stock in connection with the merger, our ongoing business may be adversely affected and, without realizing any of the benefits of having completed the merger, we would be subject to a number of risks, including the following:

we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on our stock price;
we may experience negative reactions from our customers, vendors and employees;
we will have incurred substantial expenses and will be required to pay certain costs relating to the acquisition, whether or not the acquisition is completed; and
we will have spent substantial commitment of time and resources by management on matters relating to the acquisition, which would otherwise have been devoted to day-to-day operations and other opportunities that may have been beneficial to us.

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Our anticipated revenue growth and profitability, if achieved, is dependent upon our ability to develop, license or acquire, and commercialize new products on a timely basis in relation to our competitors’ product introductions, and to address all regulatory requirements applicable to the development and commercialization of new products. Our failure to do so successfully could impair our growth strategy and plans and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our future revenues and profitability are dependent upon our ability to successfully develop, license or acquire, and commercialize pharmaceutical products in a timely manner. Product development is inherently risky and time-consuming. Likewise, product licensing involves inherent risks, including uncertainties due to matters that may affect the achievement of milestones, as well as the possibility of contractual disagreements with regard to the supply of product meeting specifications and terms such as license scope or termination rights. The development and commercialization process also requires substantial time, effort, and financial resources. We may not be successful in commercializing products on a timely basis, if at all, which could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results.

The FDA must approve any new prescription product before it can be marketed in the U.S. The process of obtaining regulatory approval to manufacture and market branded and generic pharmaceutical products is rigorous, time consuming, costly, and largely unpredictable. We may be unable to obtain requisite approvals on a timely basis for branded or generic products that we may develop, license, or acquire. Moreover, if we obtain regulatory approval for a drug, we may be limited with respect to the indicated uses and delivery methods for which the drug may be marketed, which in turn could restrict the potential market for the drug. Also, for products pending approval, we may obtain raw materials or produce batches of inventory. In the event that regulatory approval is denied or delayed, we could be exposed to the risk of any such inventory becoming obsolete. The timing and cost of obtaining regulatory approvals could adversely affect our product introduction plans, business, financial position, and operating results.

The approval process for generic pharmaceutical products often results in the FDA granting simultaneous final approval to a number of generic pharmaceutical products at the time a patent claim for a corresponding branded product or other market exclusivity expires. This often forces a generic firm to face immediate competition when it introduces a generic product into the market. Additionally, further generic approvals often continue to be granted for a given product subsequent to the initial launch of the generic product. These circumstances generally result in significantly lower prices, as well as reduced margins, for generic products compared to branded products. New generic market entrants generally cause continued price and margin erosion over the generic product life cycle. As a result, we could be unable to grow or maintain market share with respect to our generic pharmaceutical products, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to market that product profitably and on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Furthermore, if we are unable to address all regulatory requirements applicable to the development and commercialization of new products in a timely manner, our product introduction plans, business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

The FDA regulates and monitors all promotion and advertising of prescription drugs after approval. All promotion must be consistent with the conditions of approval and submitted to the agency. Failure to adhere to FDA promotional requirements can result in enforcement letters, warning letters, changes to existing promotional material, and corrective notices to healthcare professionals. Promotion of a prescription drug for uses not approved by the FDA can have serious consequences and result in lawsuits by private parties, state governments and the federal government, significant civil and criminal penalties, and compliance agreements that require a company to change current practices and prevent unlawful activity in the future.

In January 2016, we acquired two NDAs for $75.0 million and a percentage of future net sales of products under the NDAs. We continue to invest in the NDAs and if we are unable to commercialize these products, it could have a material adverse effect on our future business, financial position, and operating results.

In January 2016, we acquired the right, title, and interest in the NDAs for Cortrophin Gel, 40 units/mL and 80 units/mL and Cortrophin Zinc, 40 units/mL, along with certain documentation and trademark applications, from Merck for $75.0 million and a percentage of future net sales of the products under the NDAs. We have incurred and intend to continue to incur research and development expenses with respect to approval of sNDA of Cortrophin Gel. We have

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made significant progress, including validation of drug substance and drug product manufacturing processes and initiation of manufacturing of commercial batches to prepare for a future product launch. We continue to press forward with the resubmission process and have developed a detailed plan for the completion of all activities related to the remediation efforts. Our internal team has been consolidated to ensure the appropriate expertise and headcount have been dedicated to this effort. Our team is working closely with prominent consultants in the industry and have remained engaged with the FDA throughout to ensure this submission meets current FDA expectations. However, in the instance where we may be unable to commercialize the products this could have a material adverse effect on our future business, financial position, and operating results.

We depend on a limited number of suppliers for API. Generally, only a single source of API is qualified for use in each product due to the costs and time required to validate a second source of supply. We may experience lengthy delays if we need to change an API supplier, which could have a material impact on business and results of operations.

Our ability to manufacture and distribute products is dependent, in part, upon ingredients and components supplied by others, including entities based outside the U.S. We purchased approximately 10% of our inventory from one supplier during the year ended December 31, 2020. We purchased approximately 13% of our inventory from one supplier during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Any disruption in the supply of these ingredients or components or any problems in their quality could materially affect our ability to manufacture and distribute our products and could result in legal liabilities that could materially affect our ability to realize profits or otherwise harm our business, financial, and operating results. Virtually all of our contracts for the supply of pharmaceutical products to customers contain "failure to supply" clauses. Under these clauses, if we are unable to supply the requested quantity of product within a certain period after receipt of a customer’s purchase order, the customer is entitled to procure a substitute product elsewhere and we must reimburse the customer for the difference between our contract price and the price the customer was forced to pay to procure the substitute product. Therefore, our ability to source sufficient quantities of API for manufacturing is critical. We source the raw materials for our products from both domestic and international suppliers, which we carefully select. Generally, we qualify only a single source of API for use in each product due to the cost and time required to validate and qualify a second source of supply. Any change in one of our API suppliers must usually be approved through a PAS by the FDA. The process of obtaining an approval of such a PAS can require between four and 18 months. While we also generally qualify a single source for non-API raw materials, the process required to qualify an alternative source of a non-API raw material is typically much less rigorous. If we were to change the supplier of a raw material for a product, the cost for the material could be greater than the amount we paid with the previous supplier. Changes in suppliers are rare but could occur as a result of a supplier’s business failing, an issue arising from an FDA inspection, or failure to maintain our required standards of quality. As a result, we select suppliers with great care, based on various factors including quality, reliability of supply, and long-term financial stability. Certain of the APIs for our drug products, including those that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs, are sourced from international suppliers. From time to time, we have experienced temporary disruptions in the supply of certain of such imported API due to FDA inspections.

Several of the products we have acquired cannot be manufactured in our facilities and are manufactured and/or packaged by third parties, which we cannot control. If we are unable to secure or maintain qualified contract manufacturers for those products or if a contract manufacturer fails to comply with federal, state, and local laws and regulations, our business, financial position, and operating results could be materially, adversely affected.

We have acquired, and may continue to acquire, a variety of products that we seek to commercialize. Some of these products, including injectables and softgel capsules, are products that we cannot manufacture in our facilities. As a result, we may seek partners to contract manufacture the products on our behalf. Like our company, these firms must comply with cGMPs and other federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding pharmaceutical manufacturing. Noncompliance by those firms may result in warning letters, fines, product recalls, and partial or total suspension of production and distribution. If we are unable to find qualified contract manufacturers or if a contract manufacturer fails to comply with federal, state, and local laws and regulations, we may be unable to commercialize these products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results, including an impairment of the acquired product.

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We rely on third parties to manufacture and/or package many of our products. We expect our reliance on third party manufacturers to continue to increase in the future as we receive approvals for new products to be manufactured through our collaborative arrangements, and as we seek additional growth opportunities outside of the capabilities of our current manufacturing facilities. If we are unable to secure third-party manufacturers for these products on commercially acceptable terms, we may not be able to market and distribute such products at a profit. Any delays or difficulties with third-party manufacturers could adversely affect the marketing and distribution of these products, or future products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our branded products may become subject to increased generic competition.

Many of our branded products have not been patent-protected for several years and no longer have market exclusivity. As a result, trends moving toward increased substitution and reimbursement of generics for cost-containment purposes may reduce and limit the sales of our mature brand products. Additionally, increased focus by the FDA on approval of generic products may accelerate this trend. If generic products are substituted for these branded products, our revenue from these products will decrease, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Future acquisitions and investments could disrupt our business and harm our financial position and operating results.

Our growth will depend, in part, on our continued ability to develop, commercialize, and expand our products, including in response to changing regulatory and competitive pressures. In some circumstances, we have and may continue to grow our business through the acquisition of complementary businesses and technologies rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates or products can be difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete or successfully execute strategies for identified acquisitions. The risks faced in connection with acquisitions include:

diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition and/or product integration challenges;
coordination of research and development and sales and marketing functions;
retention of key employees from the acquired company;
integration of the acquired company’s accounting information, management, human resources, and other administrative systems;
the need to implement or improve controls, procedures, and policies at a business that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures and policies;
difficulties relating to integrating the acquired business;
liability for activities of the acquired company and/or products before the acquisition, including patent infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities;
unanticipated write-offs or charges; and
litigation or other claims in connection with the acquired company or product, including claims from product users, former stockholders, or other third parties.

In any acquisition that we may undertake, our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with any acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally.

Our Medicaid rebate accruals have increased and continue to increase due to our acquisitions and subsequent sales of branded products and authorized generics of branded products, and the estimates on which our accruals are based are subject to change. Any such change could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our Medicaid rebate accruals have increased significantly due to our acquisitions and subsequent sales of branded products and authorized generics of branded products. We accrue for these rebates at the time of sale based on our

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estimates of the amount of our product that will be prescribed to Medicaid beneficiaries. The resulting accruals are significant, and as Medicaid utilization trends change, we may need to change our estimates accordingly. We cannot guarantee that actual results will not differ from our estimates. In addition, the PPACA included a significant expansion of state Medicaid programs. As more individuals become eligible for coverage under these programs, Medicaid utilization of our products could increase, resulting in a corresponding increase in our rebate payments. Increases in Medicaid rebate payments could decrease our revenues from product sales, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our accruals for the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program have increased due to growth and acquisitions. Any such change could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our accruals for the rebates under the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program have increased due to growth and acquisitions. We accrue for these rebates at the time of sale based on our estimates of the amount of product that will be prescribed to patients in the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount program, which is primarily for the benefit of persons aged 65 years and over. As our products are often used by patients in this age range, our estimates of these rebates have grown. Increases in Medicare Coverage Gap Discount rebates could decrease our revenues from product sales, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results.

We have entered into distribution agreements under which we market products under ANDAs and NDAs owned by third parties. Any changes to these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We have entered into several distribution agreements to market and distribute products under our own label that are sold under ANDAs and NDAs owned by third parties, over which we have no control. Generally, the responsibility for maintaining the ANDAs and NDAs lies with these third parties. If any regulatory issues were to arise with the underlying ANDA or NDA for one of these products, we could be required to discontinue sales of the product, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We face vigorous competition from other pharmaceutical manufacturers that may adversely impact commercial acceptance and pricing of our products. If we are unable to successfully compete, such competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

The generic pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. We face intense competition from U.S. and foreign manufacturers, many of whom are significantly larger than us. Our competitors may be able to develop products and processes competitive with or superior to ours for many reasons, including but not limited to the possibility that they may have:

greater financial resources;
proprietary processes or delivery systems;
larger research and development and marketing staffs;
larger production capabilities;
more products; or
more experience in developing new drugs.

Any of our significant competitors, due to one or more of these and other factors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our approved products may not achieve commercialization at levels of market acceptance that allow us to achieve profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We seek to develop, license, or acquire products that we can commercialize at levels of market acceptance that would allow us to recoup our costs, grow market share, and achieve profitability. Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approvals for our pharmaceutical products, if we fail to predict accurately demand for such products, our business,

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financial position, and operating results could be adversely affected. Levels of market acceptance for our products could be impacted by several factors, including but not limited to:

availability of alternative products from our competitors;
our products’ pricing relative to that of our competitors;
our marketing effectiveness relative to that of our competitors;
timing of our market entry;
our ability to market our products effectively to the retail level; and
acceptance of our products by government and private formularies.

Some of these factors are outside of our control and, if any arise, our profitability, business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

We have entered into several collaborative arrangements that may not result in marketable products.

We have entered into several collaborative arrangements to develop generic products for us to market in the U.S. We can offer no assurances that these arrangements will result in additional approved products, or that we will be able to market the products at a profit. In addition, any expenses related to clinical trials, or additional studies required by the FDA, that we may incur in connection with these collaborative arrangements may negatively affect our business, financial position, and operating results. Specifically:

clinical trials could be more costly than we anticipate;
formulation development could take longer and be more costly than we expect;
we may be required to obtain specialized equipment in order to manufacture products on a commercial scale; and
we may be subject to milestone payments to collaborative partners, the timing of which we may be unable to predict.

Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We expect to spend a significant amount of resources on research and development efforts, and such efforts may not result in marketable products. Failure to successfully introduce products into the market could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We conduct research and development primarily to enable us to manufacture and market approved products in accordance with applicable regulations. Research and development is expensive and time-consuming. As we seek to develop new products, or re-commercialize products that were previously approved, our research expenses will increase, potentially significantly, and we cannot be certain that we will recover our investment in a product, even if that product is commercialized. If we spend significant resources on research and development efforts and are not able to introduce new products, our business, financial position, and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

We own three manufacturing facilities that produce the majority of our products. Production at any or all of these facilities could be interrupted, which could cause us to fail to deliver sufficient product to customers on a timely basis and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our manufacturing operations are based in three facilities. While these facilities are sufficient for our current needs, the facilities are highly specialized and any damage to or need for replacement of all or any significant function of our facilities could be very costly and time-consuming and could impair or prohibit production and shipping. A significant disruption at any of the facilities, even on a short-term basis, whether due to a labor strike, adverse quality or compliance observation, vandalism, natural disaster, storm or other environmental damage, or other events could impair our ability to produce and ship products on a timely basis and, among other consequences, could subject us to “failure to supply” claims from our customers, as discussed below. Although we believe we carry commercially reasonable business interruption and liability insurance, we might suffer losses because of business interruptions that exceed the coverage

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available under our insurance policies or for which we do not have coverage. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Virtually all our contracts for the supply of products to our customers contain "failure to supply" clauses which require us to reimburse the customer for the difference between our contract price and the price the customer was forced to pay to procure the substitute product in the event we failed to deliver the requested quantity within a specified period of time. This difference can be substantial because of the much higher spot price at which the customer must cover its requirements and can be far in excess of the revenue that we would otherwise have received on the sale of our own product. Therefore, our ability to produce and ship a sufficient quantity of product on a consistent basis is critical. Failure to deliver products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We rely on third parties to assist with our clinical studies. If these third parties do not perform as required or expected, or if they are not in compliance with FDA rules and regulations, our clinical studies may be extended, delayed or terminated, or may need to be repeated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize the products being tested in such studies. Further, we may be required to audit or redo previously completed trials or recall already-approved commercial products.

We rely on third parties, such as medical institutions, clinical investigators, and contract laboratories, to assist with our clinical studies. We are responsible for confirming that our studies are conducted in accordance with applicable regulations and that each of our clinical studies is conducted in accordance with our general investigational plan and protocol. The FDA requires us to comply with regulations and standards, commonly referred to as good clinical practices for conducting, monitoring, recording, and reporting the results of clinical studies, to assure that data and reported results are accurate and that the clinical study participants are adequately protected. Our reliance on these third parties does not relieve us of these responsibilities. If the third parties assisting us with our clinical studies do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, do not meet expected deadlines, fail to comply with the FDA’s good clinical practice regulations, do not adhere to our protocols or otherwise fail to generate reliable clinical data, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties and our clinical studies may be extended, delayed or terminated or may need to be repeated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize the products being tested in such studies. For our already-approved commercial products, we may be required to audit or redo previously completed trials or recall our products from the market, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

With the exception of a license for patent technology for Inderal XL and InnoPran XL, we do not own or license any material patents associated with our products, and our ability to protect and control unpatented trade secrets, know-how, and other technological innovation is limited.

Generally, the branded pharmaceutical business relies upon patent protection to ensure market exclusivity for the life of the patent. Except for a license for patent technology for Inderal XL and InnoPran XL, we do not own or license any material patents associated with our products and therefore do not enjoy the same level of intellectual property protection with respect to such products as would a pharmaceutical manufacturer that markets a patented product. We have limited ability to protect and control trade secrets, know-how, and other technological innovation, all of which are unpatented. Others independently may develop similar or better proprietary information and techniques and disclose them publicly. In addition, others may gain access to our trade secrets, and we may not be able to protect our rights to our unpatented trade secrets. In addition, confidentiality agreements and other measures may not provide protection for our trade secrets in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of such information. Failure to protect and control such trade secrets, know-how and innovation could harm the value of our trade secrets, know-how and other technological innovation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Inability to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and foreign countries could negatively affect sales of our branded products.

We own the trademark names for most of our branded products, including, Cortenema, Cortrophin Gel, Cortrophin-Zinc, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL, Lithobid, Reglan, and Vancocin. We license the trademark names for Atacand, Atacand HCT, Arimidex, and Casodex. While we will seek to protect those trademarks through timely renewal in applicable jurisdictions, we may not be able to renew our trademarks in a timely manner or to prevent third parties

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from using our trademarks, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We have very limited staffing and are dependent upon key employees, the loss of whom could adversely affect our operations. Competition for talent is intense, especially in northern Minnesota, where the population is small. If we cannot attract and retain qualified personnel, the growth and success of our business could be adversely affected.

Our success is dependent upon the efforts of a relatively small management team and staff. We have employment arrangements in place with our executive and other officers, but none of these executive and other officers are bound legally to remain employed with ANI for any specific term. We do not have key person life insurance policies covering our executive and other officers or any of our other employees. If key individuals were to leave ANI, our business could be affected adversely if suitable replacement personnel are not recruited quickly. The population in northern Minnesota, where two of our manufacturing facilities are located, is small, and as a result, there is a limited number of qualified personnel available in all functional areas, which could make it difficult to retain and attract the qualified personnel necessary for the development and growth of our business. If we were unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

We rely significantly on information technology and any failure, inadequacy, interruption, or security lapse of that technology, including any cybersecurity incidents, could harm our ability to operate the business effectively.

We rely significantly on our information technology and manufacturing infrastructure to effectively manage and maintain inventory and financial reports, manufacture and ship products, and invoice customers in a timely manner. While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology, any failure, accidents, inadequacy, or interruption of that infrastructure or security lapse of that technology, including cybersecurity incidents, could harm our ability to operate our business effectively. Our ability to manage and maintain inventory and financial reports, manufacture and ship products, and invoice customers timely depends significantly on our general ledger, our contracted electronic data interface system, and other information systems. Cybersecurity attacks in particular are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, misappropriation of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. Cybersecurity incidents resulting in the failure of our information systems to operate effectively or to integrate with other systems, or a breach in security or other unauthorized access of these systems, may affect our ability to manage and maintain inventory and financial reports, and result in delays in product fulfillment and reduced efficiency of operations. A breach in security, unauthorized access resulting in misappropriation, theft, or sabotage with respect to proprietary and confidential information, including research or clinical data could require significant capital investments to remediate any such failure, problem or breach, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results.

We are currently involved in and may from time to time become involved in legal proceedings, some of which may result in substantial losses, government enforcement actions, damage to our business and reputation, and place a strain on our internal resources.

We are currently involved in and in the future may become involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business, , as a party or non-party witness, with both private parties and certain government agencies. We may incur substantial time and expenses participating in these types of lawsuits and investigations, which could also divert management’s attention from ongoing business concerns and normal operations. In addition, these matters and any other substantial litigation may result in verdicts against us or government enforcement actions, which may include significant monetary awards, and preventing the manufacture, marketing and sale of our products. Any dispute resolved unfavorably, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results. For a description of legal proceedings which are currently pending, see Note 12. Commitments and Contingencies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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We are susceptible to product liability claims that may not be covered by insurance, which, if successful, could require us to pay substantial sums.

Like all pharmaceutical companies, we face of the risk of loss resulting from, and the adverse publicity associated with, product liability lawsuits, whether or not such claims are valid. We likely cannot avoid such claims. Unanticipated side effects or unfavorable publicity concerning any of our products or product candidates would likely have an adverse effect on our ability to achieve acceptance by prescribing physicians, managed care providers, pharmacies and other retailers, customers, patients and clinical trial participants. Even unsuccessful product liability claims could require us to spend money on litigation, divert management’s time, damage our reputation and impair the marketability of our products. In addition, although we believe that we have adequate product liability insurance coverage, we cannot be certain that our insurance will, in fact, be sufficient to cover such claims or that we will be able to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage in the future at acceptable prices. A successful product liability claim that is excluded from coverage or exceeds our policy limits could require us to pay substantial sums. Additionally, insurance coverage for product liability may become prohibitively expensive in the future or may not be available at all, and as a result, we may not be able to maintain adequate product liability insurance coverage to mitigate the risk of large claims, or we may be required to maintain a larger self-insured retention that we would otherwise choose.

Currency fluctuations and changes in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

A portion of our transactions are denominated in a foreign currency, the Canadian dollar. Because we engage in certain transactions in a foreign currency, we are subject to the effects of exchange rate fluctuations. If the U.S. dollar depreciates against the Canadian dollar, the expenses we recognize from Canadian-denominated transactions made by our Canadian subsidiary could be translated at an unfavorable rate, leading to foreign exchange losses. Foreign exchange gains or losses as a result of exchange rate fluctuations in any given period could harm our operating results and negatively impact our financial position and results of operations.

Risks Related to our Industry

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant financial market volatility, and its impact on the global economy and our operations remains uncertain. A continuation or worsening of the pandemic could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition and on the market price of our common stock.

On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. In an effort to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States and Canada, imposed unprecedented restrictions on travel, and there were business closures and a substantial reduction in economic activity in countries that have had significant outbreaks of COVID-19. Significant uncertainty remains as to the continued potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and on the global economy as a whole.

Demand for the products we sell was negatively impacted by COVID-19 during the year ended December 31, 2020, and most significantly during the three month period ended June 30, 2020, as fewer patients visited physicians for conditions treated by our products, fewer elective surgeries occurred and visits to pharmacies declined due to government-mandated “shelter-in-place” orders and closures of or restrictions placed on visits to medical offices and facilities. This situation could continue or worsen depending on the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of success in implementing mitigation measures, such as vaccines, the length of time it takes for normal economic and operating conditions to resume, additional governmental actions that may be taken and/or extensions of time for restrictions that been imposed to date, and numerous other uncertainties.

While many of government-mandated “shelter-in-place” or similar orders have elapsed or become less restrictive, it is possible future similar orders could be reinstituted due to uncertainty regarding the virus that causes COVID-19, including the emergence of new strains, which could negatively impact in future product sales.

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It is currently not possible to predict how long the pandemic will last, whether “shelter-in-place” orders will be reinstituted, the availability of vaccines to the general population or the time that it will take for economic activity to return to pre-pandemic levels. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant financial market volatility and uncertainty. A continuation or worsening of the levels of market disruption and volatility seen in the recent past could have an adverse effect on our ability to access capital, our pharmaceutical supply chain, our business, results of operations and financial condition, and the market price of our common stock.

The continuing trend toward consolidation of customer groups could result in declines in the sales volume and prices of our products, and increased fees charged by customers, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Consolidation and the formation of strategic partnerships among and between wholesale distributors, chain drug stores, and group purchasing organizations has resulted in a smaller number of companies, each controlling a larger share of pharmaceutical distribution channels. For example, our net revenues are concentrated among three customers representing 34%, 24%, and 19% of net revenues, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, accounts receivable from these three customers was approximately 81% of our accounts receivable, net. Drug wholesalers and retail pharmacy chains, which represent an essential part of the distribution chain for generic pharmaceutical products, have undergone, and are continuing to undergo, significant consolidation. This consolidation may result in declines in our sales volumes if a customer is consolidated into another company that purchases products from a competitor. In addition, the consolidation of drug wholesalers and retail pharmacy chains could result in these groups gaining additional purchasing leverage and consequently increasing the product pricing pressures facing our business and enabling those groups to charge us increased fees. Additionally, the emergence of large buying groups representing independent retail pharmacies and the prevalence and influence of managed care organizations and similar institutions potentially enable those groups to extract price discounts on our products. The result of these developments or the loss of our relationship with one or more of these wholesalers, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid rebate program and other governmental purchasing and rebate programs are complex and may involve subjective decisions. Any determination that we have failed to comply with those obligations could subject us to penalties and sanctions, which could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results.

The regulations regarding reporting and payment obligations with respect to Medicaid rebates and other governmental programs are complex. Because our processes for these calculations and the judgments involved in making these calculations involve subjective decisions and complex methodologies, these calculations are subject to the risk of errors. Our calculations and methodologies are subject to review and challenge by governmental agencies, and it is possible that such reviews could result in changes. Any determination by governmental agencies that we have failed to comply with our reporting and payment obligations could subject us to penalties and sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Two of our products, which together comprised 8% of our total revenue in 2020, are marketed without approved NDAs or Abbreviated New Drug Applications (“ANDAs”) and we can offer no assurances that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) will not require us to either seek approval for these products or withdraw them from the market. In either case, our business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

Two of our products, Esterified Estrogen with Methyltestosterone (“EEMT”) and Opium Tincture, are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs.

Previously, the FDA’s Unapproved Drug Initiative included publication of their policy with respect to the continued marketing of unapproved products in the September 2011 Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100 titled “Marketed New Drugs without Approved NDAs or ANDAs.” Under this policy, the FDA had stated that it would follow a risk-based approach with regard to enforcement against marketing of unapproved products. The guideline allowed the FDA to evaluate whether to initiate enforcement action on a case-by-case basis, while giving higher priority to enforcement action against products in certain categories, such as those with potential safety risks or that lack evidence of

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effectiveness. In November 2020 (effective December 2020), the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published a notice in the Federal Register to terminate the FDA’s Unapproved Drug Initiative, which would include the withdrawal of this September 2011 Compliance Policy Guide. Neither the HHS nor the FDA has provided any additional guidance, notice or statement regarding how they intend to approach enforcement against marketing of unapproved products.

We continue to believe that, so long as we comply with applicable manufacturing standards, the FDA will continue to operate on a risk-based approach and will not take action against us. However, we can offer no assurance that the FDA will continue to follow this approach or that it will not take a contrary position with any individual product or group of products.

Additionally, our EEMT products are related to an outstanding Notice of Opportunity for Hearing on estrogen-androgen products. The hearing relates to the FDA's intent to reclassify certain estrogen-androgen combination drugs as lacking substantial evidence of their effectiveness for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the menopause in those patients not improved by estrogen alone.

If the FDA were to move away from the risk-based approach to enforcement against marketing of unapproved products, we may be required to seek FDA approval for these products or withdraw such products from the market. If we decide to withdraw the products from the market, our net revenues for generic pharmaceutical products would decline materially, and if we decide to seek FDA approval, we would face increased expenses and might need to suspend sales of the products until such approval was obtained, and there are no assurances that we would receive such approval.

Imported API are subject to inspection by the FDA and the FDA can refuse to permit the importation of API for use in products that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs. We are dependent on imported API to make certain of our products. If the FDA detained or refused to allow the importation of such API, our revenues from certain of our products would be reduced or eliminated and our business, financial position, and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

We source some of the API for our products, including those that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs, from international suppliers. From time to time, due to FDA inspections, we have experienced temporary disruptions in the supply of imported API. Any prolonged disruption in the supply of imported API could materially affect our ability to manufacture and distribute our products, reduce or eliminate our revenues, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results. In addition, as regulatory fees and compliance oversight of API manufacturers increase, this could result in certain companies discontinuing their supply of API to ANI, which would materially affect ANI’s ability to manufacture its products.

The FDA does not provide guidance on safety labeling for products that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs. As a result, we are dependent on our internal post-approval drug safety surveillance program to identify necessary safety-related changes to the labels for EEMT and Opium Tincture.

Pharmaceutical product labels contain important safety information including Black Box warnings, contraindications, dosing and administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions, use in specific populations such as pregnant women, pediatric, and geriatric patients, and other warnings and precautions. Pharmaceutical manufacturers may change product labels when post-approval drug safety surveillance programs identify previously unknown side-effects, drug interactions, and other risks. Manufacturers may also change product labels after conducting post-approval clinical studies and may receive or seek guidance from the FDA regarding updating safety labeling information. However, the FDA does not provide guidance on labeling for products that are marketed without approved NDAs or ANDAs. As a result, we are dependent on our internal post-approval drug safety surveillance program to identify necessary safety-related changes to the labels for EEMT and Opium Tincture. Additionally, because the FDA does not review and approve labeling for the products without approved NDAs or ANDAs, it would be difficult to make a claim for preemption due to the FDA’s approval of the labeling and this could increase our potential liability with respect to failure-to-warn claims for these products. Such claims, even if successfully defended, could have an adverse impact on our business, financial position, and operating results.

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We are entirely dependent on periodic approval by the DEA for the supply of the API needed to manufacture our controlled substances. An inability to obtain such approvals would reduce or eliminate our revenues for our controlled substances, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results. In addition, we are subject to strict regulation by the DEA and are subject to sanctions if we are unable to comply with related regulatory requirements.

The DEA regulates products containing controlled substances, such as opiates, pursuant to the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”). The CSA and DEA regulations impose specific requirements on manufacturers and other entities that handle these substances including registration, recordkeeping, reporting, storage, security, and distribution. Recordkeeping requirements include accounting for the amount of product received, manufactured, stored, and distributed. Companies handling controlled substances also are required to maintain adequate security and to report suspicious orders, thefts and significant losses. The DEA periodically inspects facilities for compliance with the CSA and its regulations. Failure to comply with current and future regulations of the DEA could lead to a variety of sanctions, including revocation or denial of renewal of DEA registrations, injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties.

In addition, each year, we must submit a request to the DEA for a procurement quota in order to purchase the amount of API needed to manufacture our Schedule II controlled substances. Without approved procurement quotas from the DEA, we would not be able to purchase these ingredients from our suppliers. As a result, we are entirely dependent upon the DEA to approve, on an annual basis, a quota of API that is sufficiently large to support our plans for the continued manufacture of our controlled substances at commercial levels. In 2017, the DEA announced that the administration would decrease the total quotas approved for Schedule II opioid painkillers. In 2018, the DEA decreased quotas approved for Schedule II opioid painkillers. The DEA continues to closely monitor quotas of certain opioids and as a result there may be a reduction from what was requested; however, firms may file an application for a quota adjustment at any time during the calendar year. If the DEA does not approve our requested procurement quotas, we may be unable to obtain sufficient API to manufacture these products at levels required by our customers, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Pharmaceutical product quality standards are steadily increasing and all products, including those already approved, may need to meet current standards. If our products are not able to meet these standards, we may be required to discontinue marketing and/or recall such products from the market.

Steadily increasing quality standards are applicable to pharmaceutical products still under development and those already approved and on the market. These standards result from product quality initiatives implemented by the FDA, such as criteria for residual solvents, periodic guidance from the FDA regarding testing for impurities, such as nitrosamine, in our products, and updated U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (“USP”) Reference Standards. The USP is a scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed, and consumed worldwide. Pharmaceutical products approved prior to the implementation of new quality standards, including those produced by us, may not meet these standards, which could require us to discontinue marketing and/or recall such products from the market, either of which could adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results. In addition, results of periodic testing we conduct on our products may indicate the presence of substances at levels above which are acceptable under FDA or other standards, which will require a recall of the product. For example, during the fourth quarter of 2019, testing of the API used in our ranitidine drug product, as well as testing of the drug product itself, indicated a level of a nitrosamine impurity called N-nitrosdimethylamine (“NDMA”) above acceptable thresholds. NDMA is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Appco Pharma, LLC, with whom we had partnered to develop and market the product, initiated a voluntary recall, and we elected to exit the market for Ranitidine in 2019. In July 2020, we were served with a complaint brought by the Office of the Attorney General of the State of New Mexico against manufacturers and sellers of ranitidine products. The complaint asserts a public nuisance claim and a negligence claim against the generic ranitidine manufacturer defendants, including us. The public nuisance claim asserts that the widespread sale of ranitidine products in the state created a public nuisance that requires a state-wide medical monitoring program of New Mexico residents for the development of colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, gastrointestinal disorders and liver disease.

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We may become subject to federal and state false claims litigation brought by private individuals and the government.

We are subject to state and federal laws that govern the submission of claims for reimbursement. The Federal False Claims Act (“FFCA”), also known as Qui Tam, imposes civil liability and criminal fines on individuals or entities that knowingly submit, or cause to be submitted, false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government. Violations of the FFCA and other similar laws may result in criminal fines, imprisonment, and civil penalties for each false claim submitted and exclusion from federally funded health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid. The FFCA also allows private individuals to bring a suit on behalf of the government against an individual or entity for violations of the FFCA. These suits, also known as Qui Tam actions, may be brought by, with only a few exceptions, any private citizen who has material information of a false claim that has not yet been previously disclosed. These suits have increased significantly in recent years because the FFCA allows an individual to share in any amounts paid to the federal government from a successful Qui Tam action. If our past or present operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or other applicable governmental regulations, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from federal health care programs, and/or the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial position, and operating results. Actions brought against ANI for violations of these laws, even if successfully defended, could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

The use of legal, regulatory, and legislative strategies by competitors, both branded and generic, including "authorized generics," citizen’s petitions, and legislative proposals, may increase the costs to develop and market our generic products, could delay or prevent new product introductions, and could significantly reduce our profit potential. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our competitors, both branded and generic, often pursue legal, regulatory, and/or legislative strategies to prevent or delay competition from generic alternatives to branded products. These strategies include, but are not limited to:

entering into agreements whereby other generic companies will begin to market an authorized generic, a generic equivalent of a branded product, at the same time generic competition initially enters the market;
launching a generic version of their own branded product at the same time generic competition initially enters the market;
filing citizen petitions with the FDA or other regulatory bodies, including timing the filings so as to thwart generic competition by causing delays of generic product approvals;
seeking to establish regulatory and legal obstacles that would make it more difficult to demonstrate bioequivalence or meet other approval requirements;
initiating legislative and regulatory efforts to limit the substitution of generic versions of branded pharmaceuticals;
filing suits for patent infringement that may delay regulatory approval of generic products;
introducing "next-generation" products prior to the expiration of market exclusivity for the reference product, which often materially reduces the demand for the first generic product;
obtaining extensions of market exclusivity by conducting clinical trials of branded drugs in pediatric populations or by other potential methods;
persuading regulatory bodies to withdraw the approval of branded name drugs for which the patents are about to expire, thus allowing the branded company to obtain new patented products serving as substitutes for the products withdrawn; and
seeking to obtain new patents on drugs for which patent protection is about to expire.

If we cannot compete with such strategies, our business, financial position, and operating results could be adversely impacted.

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If third-party payers deny coverage, substitute another company’s product for our product, or offer inadequate levels of reimbursement, we may not be able to market our products effectively or we may be required to offer our products at prices lower than anticipated.

Third-party payers are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services. For example, third-party payers may deny coverage, choose to provide coverage for a competitor’s bioequivalent product rather than our product, or offer limited reimbursement if they determine that a prescribed product has not received appropriate clearances from the FDA, is not used in accordance with cost-effective treatment methods as determined by the third-party payer, or is experimental, unnecessary, or inappropriate. Prices also could be driven down by health maintenance organizations that control or significantly influence purchases of healthcare services and products. If third-party payers deny coverage or limit reimbursement, we may not be able to market our products effectively or we may be required to offer our products at prices lower than anticipated.

We are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations, and complying with these may cause us to incur significant additional costs.

The pharmaceutical industry is subject to regulation by various federal authorities, including the FDA, the DEA, and state governmental authorities. Federal and state statutes and regulations govern or influence the testing, manufacturing, packing, labeling, storing, record keeping, safety, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution of our products. Noncompliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements can have a broad range of consequences, including warning letters, fines, seizure of products, product recalls, total or partial suspension of production and distribution, refusal to approve NDAs or other applications or revocation of approvals previously granted, withdrawal of product from marketing, injunctions, withdrawal of licenses or registrations necessary to conduct business, disqualification from supply contracts with the government, civil penalties, debarment, and criminal prosecution.

All U.S. facilities where prescription drugs are manufactured, tested, packaged, stored, or distributed must comply with FDA current good manufacturing practices (“cGMPs”). All of our products are manufactured, tested, packaged, stored, and distributed according to cGMP regulations. The FDA performs periodic audits to ensure that our facilities remain in compliance with all applicable regulations. If it finds violations of cGMP, the FDA could make its concerns public and could impose sanctions including, among others, fines, product recalls, total or partial suspension of production and/or distribution, suspension of the FDA’s review of product applications, injunctions, and civil or criminal prosecution. If imposed, enforcement actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results. Under certain circumstances, the FDA also has the authority to revoke previously granted drug approvals. Although we have internal compliance programs in place that we believe are adequate, the FDA may conclude that these programs do not meet regulatory standards. If compliance is deemed deficient in any significant way, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The U.S. government has enacted the Federal Drug Supply Chain Security Act ("DSCSA") that requires development of an electronic pedigree to track and trace each prescription drug at the salable unit level through the distribution system, which will be effective incrementally over a 10-year period. All prescription pharmaceutical products distributed in the U.S. must be serialized with unique product identifiers. ANI started manufacturing serialization-compliant products in November 2018. The final requirement for tracking the products will commence on November 27, 2023. Compliance with DSCSA and future U.S. federal or state electronic pedigree requirements may increase the Company’s operational expenses and impose significant administrative burdens. In addition, if we are unable to comply with DSCSA as of the required dates, we could face penalties or be unable to sell our products.

Our research, product development, and manufacturing activities involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, and we may incur significant costs in complying with numerous laws and regulations. We are subject to laws and regulations enforced by the FDA, the DEA, and other regulatory statutes including the Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”), the Environmental Protection Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and other current and potential federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling, and disposal of our products, materials used to develop and manufacture such products, and resulting waste products.

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We cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury, by accident or as the result of intentional acts, from these materials. In the event of an accident, we could be held liable for any damages that result, and any resulting liability could exceed our resources. We may also incur significant costs in complying with environmental laws and regulations in the future. We are also subject to laws generally applicable to businesses, including but not limited to, federal, state, and local regulations relating to wage and hour matters, employee classification, mandatory healthcare benefits, unlawful workplace discrimination, and whistle-blowing. Any actual or alleged failure to comply with any regulation applicable to our business or any whistle-blowing claim, even if without merit, could result in costly litigation, regulatory action or otherwise harm our business, financial position, and operating results.

Our operations in an international market subject us to additional regulatory oversight both in the international market and in the U.S., as well as, social, and political uncertainties, which could cause a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

We are subject to certain risks associated with having assets and operations located in a foreign jurisdiction, including our operations in Canada. Our Canadian operations are subject to regulation by Health Canada and other federal, provincial, and local regulatory authorities. Health Canada regulates the testing, manufacture, labeling, marketing, and sale of pharmaceutical products manufactured and distributed in Canada. Our operations in this jurisdiction may be adversely affected by general economic conditions and economic and fiscal policy, including changes in exchange rates and controls, interest rates and taxation policies, and increased government regulation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Continuing studies of our products could produce negative results, which could require us to implement risk management programs, or discontinue product marketing. In addition, ongoing post-approval drug safety surveillance of our products could result in the submission of adverse event reports to the FDA.

Studies of the proper utilization, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products are being conducted by the industry, government agencies, and others on a continuous basis. Such studies, which increasingly employ sophisticated methods and techniques, can call into question the utilization, safety, and efficacy of current and previously marketed products, including those that we produce. In addition, we are required by the FDA to submit reports of adverse events involving the use of our products. In some cases, studies and safety surveillance programs have resulted, and in the future may result, in the one or more of the following:

product label changes including FDA-mandated Black Box warnings;
risk management programs such as patient registries;
reduced product sales due to concerns among patients and physicians; and
discontinuance of product marketing.

These situations, should they occur with respect to any of our products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Healthcare reform legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

In recent years, there have been numerous initiatives on the federal and state levels for comprehensive reforms affecting the payment for, the availability of, and reimbursement for healthcare services in the U.S., and it is likely that federal and state legislatures and health agencies will continue to focus on healthcare reform in the future. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) and the Health Care and Education and Reconciliation Act of 2010, which amends the PPACA (collectively, “the ACA”) substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. While the ACA may increase the number of patients who have insurance coverage for our products and may otherwise increase drug coverage, it also includes provisions such as, among others, the assessment of a pharmaceutical manufacturer fee, the requirement that manufacturers provide discounts to Medicare beneficiaries through the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount program, and an increase in the amount of rebates that manufacturers pay for coverage of their drugs by Medicaid programs.

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The constitutionality of the PPACA is currently under review by the U.S. Supreme Court, and it is unclear when a decision will be reached. We expect that the PPACA, as currently enacted or as it may be amended in the future, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on our ability to maintain or increase sales of our existing products.

The cost-containment measures that government programs and healthcare insurers are instituting both as a result of general cost pressure in the industry and healthcare reforms contained in the ACA may adversely affect the demand for our products and prevent us from maintaining prices for our products that are sufficient for us to realize profits and may otherwise harm our business, financial position, and operating results.

In addition, to the extent that our products are marketed outside of the U.S., foreign government pricing controls and other regulations may prevent us from maintaining prices for such products that are sufficient for us to realize profits and may otherwise harm our business, financial position, and operating results. We expect that legislators, policymakers and healthcare insurance funds in Europe will continue to propose and implement cost-containing measures to keep healthcare costs down. These measures could include limitations on the prices we will be able to charge for our products or the level of reimbursement available for these products from governmental authorities or third party payors. Further, an increasing number of European and other foreign countries use prices for medicinal products established in other countries as “reference prices” to help determine the price of the product in their own territory. Consequently, a downward trend in prices of medicinal products in some countries could contribute to similar downward trends elsewhere.

Additionally, if we become the subject of any future government investigation or U.S. Congressional oversight with respect to drug pricing or other business practices, we could incur significant expense and could be distracted from operation of our business and execution of our strategy. Any such investigation or hearing could also result in reduced market acceptance and demand for our products, could harm our reputation and our ability to market our products in the future, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Risks Related to Accounting, Tax, and SEC Rules and Regulations

We have increased exposure to tax liabilities, including foreign tax liabilities.

As a company based in the U.S. with a subsidiary in Canada, we are subject to, or potentially subject to, income taxes as well as non-income based taxes in this jurisdiction as well as the U.S. Significant judgment is required in determining our international provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. Changes in tax laws or tax rulings may have a significantly adverse impact on our effective tax rate. In addition, we have potential tax exposures resulting from the varying application of statutes, regulations, and interpretations, which include exposures on intercompany terms of cross-border arrangements between our U.S. operations and our Canadian subsidiary in relation to various aspects of our business, including tech transfers and contract manufacturing. Tax authorities in various jurisdictions may disagree with, and subsequently challenge, the amount of profits taxed in such jurisdictions; such challenges may result in increased tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties, which would cause our tax expense to increase and which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations and our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.

Failure to comply with applicable transfer pricing and similar regulations could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and operating results.

We are subject to complex transfer pricing and other tax regulations in the United States and Canada designed to ensure that appropriate levels of income are reported as earned and are taxed in the appropriate taxing jurisdictions. Although we believe that we are in substantial compliance with all applicable U.S and Canadian regulations and restrictions, we are subject to the risk that governmental authorities could audit our transfer pricing and related practices and assert that additional taxes are owed. In the event that the audits or assessments are concluded adversely against us, we may or may not be able to offset or mitigate the consolidated effect of any such assessments.

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Changes in estimates regarding the fair value of goodwill or intangible assets may result in an adverse impact to our business, financial position, and operating results.

We test goodwill for impairment annually, or more frequently if changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill might not be recoverable. Judgment is used in determining when these events and circumstances arise. We perform our review of goodwill based on our one reporting unit. If we determine that the carrying value of our assets may not be recoverable, we assess, using judgment and estimates, the fair value of our assets and to determine the amount of any impairment loss, if any. Changes in judgments and estimates may result in the recognition of an impairment loss, which could have a material negative impact on our business, financial position, and operating results. While our testing in fiscal 2020 did not result in an impairment charge related to goodwill, there can be no assurances that our goodwill will not be impaired in the future.

Our material definite-lived intangible assets consist of ANDAs for previously marketed generic products, NDAs and product rights for our branded products, product rights related to certain generic products, and a non-compete agreement. These assets are being amortized over their useful lives of four to 10 years. For these definite-lived intangible assets, we perform an impairment analysis when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized if, based on our impairment analysis, the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable and its carrying amount exceeds its fair value. Any significant change in market conditions, estimates or judgments used to determine expected future cash flows that indicate a reduction in carrying value may give rise to impairment in the period that the change becomes known. An impairment charge could have a material negative impact on our business, financial position, and operating results. We recorded an impairment charge of $0.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, in relation to a marketing and distribution right asset, and there can be no assurances that our remaining intangible assets will not be impaired in the future. We recorded an impairment charge of $75 thousand in the year ended December 31, 2019, in relation to a separate product right asset.

Our management is required to devote substantial time to comply with public company regulations. If we are unable to comply with these regulations, investors could lose confidence in us, which could have a material adverse effect on our stock price, business, financial position, and operating results.

As a public company, we are required to comply with significant legal, accounting, and other requirements, and as a result, we incur significant regulatory compliance-related expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act as well as rules implemented by the SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market, impose various requirements on public companies, including those related to corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to these requirements. Some members of management do not have significant experience in addressing these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs relative to those of previous years and make some activities more time consuming and costly.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) provides a framework for companies to assess and improve their internal control systems. Our compliance with these requirements has required that we incur substantial accounting and related expenses and expend significant management efforts. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or identify deficiencies that are deemed to be material weaknesses, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by The Nasdaq Stock Market, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

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Our policies regarding returns, allowances and chargebacks, and marketing programs adopted by wholesalers may reduce revenues in future fiscal periods.

We, like other generic drug manufacturers, have agreements with customers allowing chargebacks, product returns, administrative fees, and other rebates. Under many of these arrangements, we may match lower prices offered to customers by competitors. If we choose to lower our prices, we generally give the customer a credit on the products that the customer is holding in inventory, which could reduce sales revenue for the period the credit is provided. Like our competitors, we also give credits for chargebacks to wholesalers with whom we have contracts for their sales to hospitals, group purchasing organizations, pharmacies, or other customers. A chargeback is the difference between the price at which we invoice the wholesaler and the price that the wholesaler’s end-customer pays for a product. Although we establish reserves based on prior experience and our best estimates of the impact that these policies may have in subsequent periods, we cannot ensure that our reserves are adequate or that actual product returns, allowances, and chargebacks will not exceed our estimates.

Risks Related to our Debt

Making interest and principal payments under our Senior Secured Credit Facility will continue to require a significant amount of cash.

Our ability to continue to make scheduled interest payments and to make future principal payments on our debt, including our Term Loan and Delayed Draw Term Loan under our Senior Secured Credit Facility, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flows from operations sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flows, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive.

Our Senior Secured Credit Facility contain restrictive and financial covenants. If we are unable to comply with these covenants, we will be in default. A default could result in the acceleration of our outstanding indebtedness, which would have an adverse effect on our business and stock price.

The Senior Secured Credit Facility contains customary covenants that require maintenance of certain specified financial ratios and restricts our ability to make certain distributions with respect to our capital stock, prepay other debt, encumber our assets, incur additional indebtedness, make capital expenditures, engage in certain business combinations, transfer, lease or dispose of our assets, alter the character of our business in any material respect or undertake various other corporate activities. Therefore, as a practical matter, these covenants restrict our ability to engage in or benefit from such activities. Further, we must limit our total and senior secured leverage ratios and maintain our fixed charge coverage ratio at or above specified thresholds. In addition, we pledged our assets in order to secure our repayment obligations under the Credit Facility. This pledge may reduce our operating flexibility because it restricts our ability to dispose of our assets or engage in other transactions that may be beneficial to us.

If we are unable to comply with the covenants in the Senior Secured Credit Facility, we will be in default, which could result in the acceleration of our outstanding indebtedness. If such an acceleration occurs, we may not be able to repay our debt and we may not be able to borrow sufficient additional funds to refinance our debt, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Changes in the method of determining London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest expense related to outstanding debt.

Amounts drawn under the Credit Facility may bear interest rates in relation to LIBOR, depending on our selection of repayment options. On July 27, 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) in the United Kingdom announced that it would phase out LIBOR as a benchmark by the end of 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S.-dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), a new index calculated

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by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. When LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to renegotiate the Credit Facility and may not able to do so with terms that are favorable to us. The overall financial market may be disrupted as a result of the phase-out or replacement of LIBOR. Disruption in the financial market or the inability to renegotiate the Credit Facility with favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

Our principal stockholders, directors, and executive officers own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise meaningful influence over our business.

Our current principal stockholders, directors, and executive officers beneficially own approximately 22% of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote as of December 31, 2020. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, would be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions, or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from stockholders generally and may vote in a way with which other stockholders disagree and which may be adverse to their interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing, or deterring a change of control of ANI, could deprive stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of ANI, and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.

Raising additional funds by issuing additional equity securities may cause dilution to our current stockholders. Raising additional funds by issuing new debt financing may restrict our operations.

We may seek to raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or equity-linked securities. If we were to raise funds through the issuance of equity or equity-linked securities, the percentage ownership of our stockholders could be diluted, potentially significantly, and these newly issued securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of our existing stockholders. In addition, the issuance of any equity securities could be at a discount to the then-prevailing market price of our common stock.

If we require new debt financing, there is no assurance that such a transaction will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, we could be subject to onerous repayment terms or covenants that restrict our ability to operate our business and make distributions to our stockholders. These restrictive covenants may include limitations on additional borrowing and specific restrictions on the use of our assets, as well as prohibitions on our ability to create liens, pay dividends, redeem our stock, or make investments. We can offer no assurance that any equity or debt financing transaction will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage or prevent a takeover, even if such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire ANI, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions include:

authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred shares that could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would otherwise allow less than a majority of stockholders to elect director candidates;
advance notice provisions in connection with stockholder proposals and director nominations that may prevent or hinder any attempt by our stockholders to bring business to be considered by our stockholders at a meeting or replace our board of directors; and
as a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law, which prevents certain stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock not held by such 15% or greater stockholder.

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Any provision of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing, or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

General Risk Factors

We use a variety of estimates, judgments, and assumptions in preparing our consolidated financial statements. Estimates, judgments, and assumptions are inherently subject to change, and any such changes could result in corresponding changes to the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and income. Any such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires us to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the period. There are inherent uncertainties involved in estimates, judgments and assumptions, and any changes in estimates, judgments and assumptions used could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

In the consolidated financial statements included in the periodic reports filed with the SEC, estimates, judgments, and assumptions are used for, but not limited to, revenue recognition, allowance for credit losses, accruals for chargebacks, rebates, returns and other allowances, allowance for inventory obsolescence, stock-based compensation, valuation of financial instruments and intangible assets, allowances for contingencies and litigation, deferred tax assets and liabilities, deferred tax valuation allowance, and the depreciable lives of fixed and intangible assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates, judgments, and assumptions are inherently subject to change in the future, and any such changes could result in corresponding changes to the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and income. Any such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.

The market price of our common stock has been volatile, and an investment in our common stock could decline in value.

The market price of our common stock has increased and decreased significantly and is likely to continue to fluctuate in the future. From time to time, the securities of small capitalization pharmaceutical companies, including ANI, experience significant market price fluctuations, often unrelated to these companies’ operating performance. In particular, the market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory or legal developments with respect to our industry, variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us, and rumors or new announcements by third parties, many of which are beyond our control and that may not be related to our operating performance.

In addition, the occurrence of any of the risks described in this report or in subsequent reports we file with the SEC could have a material adverse impact on the market price of our common stock. Securities class action litigation is sometimes brought against a company following periods of volatility in the market price of its securities or for other reasons. Securities litigation, whether with or without merit, could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business, financial position, and operating results, as well as the market price of our common stock.

Shares of our common stock are relatively illiquid which may affect the market price of our common stock.

For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, the average daily trading volume of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market was approximately 99,000 shares. Because of our relatively small public float, our common stock may be less liquid than the stock of companies with broader public ownership and trading of a relatively small volume of our common stock may have a greater impact on the market price for our shares than would be the case if our public float were larger.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our corporate offices are located at 210 Main Street West, Baudette, Minnesota 56623. The facility, which we own, includes oral solid dose and liquid manufacturing and packaging, warehouse facilities, analytical, stability, and microbiological laboratory space, and employee office and mechanical space. We also own a manufacturing facility that includes oral solid dose manufacturing and packaging for pharmaceutical products that must be manufactured in a fully contained environment, warehouse facilities, and employee office and mechanical space. This facility is also located in Baudette, Minnesota. We also own a cold storage facility located in Baudette, Minnesota. In addition, we own a manufacturing facility located in Oakville, Ontario that includes oral solid dose, semi-solids, and non-sterile liquid manufacturing and packaging, warehouse facilities, analytical, stability, and microbiological laboratory space, and employee office and mechanical space.

We lease spaces for finance employees in Minnetonka, Minnesota and Baudette, Minnesota. The leases will expire in 2022 and 2025, respectively. We also lease space for a regulatory affairs office in Raleigh, North Carolina. The lease will expire in April 2021.

We consider our leased and owned properties suitable and adequate for our current and foreseeable needs.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Our legal proceedings are discussed in Note 12. Commitments and Contingencies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ANIP.”

Stockholder Information

As of March 4, 2021, there were approximately 123 shareholders of record of our common stock, which does not include stockholders that beneficially own shares held in a “nominee” or in “street” name, and six holders of record of Class C stock.

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Dividends

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

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Performance Graph

The graph below compares the five-year cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock, the Nasdaq Stock Market (US) Index, and the Nasdaq Pharmaceuticals Index, assuming the investment of $100.00 on December 31, 2015, with dividends being reinvested. The stock price performance in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.

Graphic

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth selected financial data as of and for the five years ended December 31, 2020. The information has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for each of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016. The data presented below should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the notes to our consolidated financial statements, and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Years Ended December 31, 

(in thousands, except per share data)

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018(1)

    

2017(2)

    

2016

Statement of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net revenues

$

208,475

$

206,547

$

201,576

$

176,842

$

128,622

Total operating expenses

 

224,491

 

190,196

 

166,217

 

148,513

 

108,543

Operating (loss)/income from continuing operations

 

(16,016)

 

16,351

 

35,359

 

28,329

 

20,079

Benefit/(provision) for income taxes

 

3,414

 

2,937

 

(4,557)

 

(17,425)

 

(4,744)

Net (loss)/income from continuing operations

$

(22,548)

$

6,094

$

15,494

$

(1,076)

$

3,934

Basic and diluted (loss)/income from continuing operations per share:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic (loss)/income per share from continuing operations

$

(1.88)

$

0.51

$

1.31

$

(0.09)

$

0.34

Diluted (loss)/income per share from continuing operations

$

(1.88)

$

0.50

$

1.30

$

(0.09)

$

0.34

Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Total assets

$

461,190

$

456,789

$

430,604

$

412,138

$

322,864

Total Convertible Notes, net of deferred financing costs

 

 

 

112,463

 

128,208

 

120,643

Non-current debt, net of deferred financing costs and current component

 

172,443

 

175,808

 

67,296

 

69,946

 

Total stockholder's equity

$

195,700

$

212,791

$

197,263

$

174,756

$

169,648

(1)   On August 6, 2018, our subsidiary, ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. (“ANI Canada”), acquired all the issued and outstanding equity interests of WellSpring Pharma Services Inc. (“WellSpring”), a Canadian company that performs contract development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for a purchase price of $18.0 million, subject to certain customary adjustments. Pursuant to these customary adjustments, the total purchase consideration was $16.7 million. The consideration was paid entirely from cash on hand.

(2)   The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act includes a number of changes to existing U.S. tax laws, most notably the reduction of the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, which began in 2018. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. As a result, we remeasured our deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities to reflect the reduction in the enacted U.S. corporate income tax rate, resulting in a $13.4 million increase in income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2017. See Note 11. Income Taxes, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Please read the following discussion in conjunction with Item 1A. (“Risk Factors”) and our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. Some of the statements in the following discussion are forward-looking statements. See the discussion about forward-looking statements on page 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2020 and 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. Discussions of 2018 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020.

Executive Overview

ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, ANIP Acquisition Company and ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. (together, “ANI,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is an integrated specialty pharmaceutical company focused on delivering value to our customers by developing, manufacturing, and marketing high quality branded and generic prescription pharmaceuticals. We focus on niche and high barrier to entry opportunities, including controlled substances, oncology products (anti-cancer), hormones and steroids, and complex formulations. Our three pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, of which two are located in Baudette, Minnesota and one is located in Oakville, Ontario, are together capable of producing oral solid dose products, as well as semi-solids, liquids and topicals, controlled substances, and potent products that must be manufactured in a fully-contained environment.

Our strategy is to use our assets to develop, acquire, manufacture, and market branded and generic specialty prescription pharmaceuticals. While generic products tend to have higher margins than branded products, margins decrease as the number of companies offering a generic form of a branded drug increases. To address this downward pressure on prices of generic products, we actively seek to acquire new drug products. By executing on this and other strategies, we believe we will be able to continue to grow our business, expand and diversify our product portfolio, and create long-term value for our investors.

In 2018, our subsidiary, ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. (“ANI Canada”), acquired all the issued and outstanding equity interests of WellSpring Pharma Services Inc. (“WellSpring”), a Canadian company that performs contract development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. In conjunction with the transaction, we acquired WellSpring’s pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, laboratory, and offices, its current book of commercial business, as well as an organized workforce. In addition, we acquired the ANDAs for three previously-commercialized generic products, the approved ANDAs for two generic products that had yet to be commercialized at the time of the acquisition, the development package for one generic product, a license, supply, and distribution agreement for a generic product with an ANDA that is pending approval, and certain manufacturing equipment required to manufacture one of the products. We also acquired the ANDAs for 23 previously-marketed generic products and API for four of the acquired products. During the 2018 year, we launched 11 products.

In addition, in December 2018, we refinanced our $125.0 million Credit Agreement by entering into an amended and restated Senior Secured Credit Facility (the “Credit Facility”) for up to $265.2 million. The principal new feature of the Credit Facility was a $118.0 million Delayed Draw Term Loan (the “DDTL”), which could only be drawn on in order to pay down the Company’s remaining 3.0% Convertible Senior Notes, which matured in December 2019. The Credit Facility also extended the maturity of the $72.2 million secured term loan (the “Term Loan”) to December 2023. In addition, the Credit Facility increased the previous $50.0 million line of credit (the “Revolver”) to $75.0 million.

In 2019, we entered into an agreement with Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. to purchase a basket of ANDAs for 35 previously-marketed generic drug products. We also acquired from Coeptis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. seven development stage generic products. During the 2019 year, we launched six products.

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Additionally, on November 29, 2019, we exercised our option to borrow $118.0 million pursuant to the DDTL feature under the existing Credit Facility and the proceeds were used to repay the outstanding 3% Convertible Senior Notes, which matured on December 1, 2019.

In 2020, we acquired the U.S. portfolio of 23 generic products, including 10 commercial products at the time of the acquisition, from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. During the 2020 year, we launched ten products.

Recent Developments

On March 8, 2021, ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Parent”) entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) by and among Parent, Nile Merger Sub LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Parent (“Merger Sub”), Novitium Pharma LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Novitium”), Esjay LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Esjay”), Chali Properties, LLC, a New Jersey limited liability company (“Chali”), Chad Gassert, Muthusamy Shanmugam, and Thorappadi Vijayaraj (collectively, the “Key Persons”, and Muthusamy Shanmugam and Thorappadi Vijayaraj, together with Esjay and Chali, the “Principal Members”) and Shareholder Representative Services LLC, a Colorado limited liability company, as the representative of the equity holders of Novitium.

Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub will merge with and into Novitium, with Novitium surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Parent (the “Merger”). The closing of the Merger (the “Closing”) will occur (a) within five business days after all of the conditions to the Closing set forth in the Merger Agreement are satisfied or waived or (b) at such other time, date and place as may be agreed by Parent and Novitium, subject to the completion of a minimum period.

The Merger consideration will consist of a combination of (i) an estimated cash amount of $89.5 million, subject to various adjustments and expected to be financed in part by a $25.0 million Private Investment in Public Equity (“PIPE Investment”) (as defined below) and in part by new debt financing, (ii) an aggregate of 2,466,667 shares of Parent common stock, and (iii) up to $46.5 million in contingent future earn-out payments.

We will finance the transaction with a new $340.0 million Senior Secured Credit Facility (the “Facility”), consisting of a $300.0 million term loan and a $40.0 million revolving credit facility, the issuance of approximately $74.0 million in equity to the sellers, and a $25.0 million PIPE Investment by Ampersand Capital Partners. The new debt financing will be secured by substantially all the assets of ANI and its subsidiaries and used for the cash portion of the acquisition and to refinance ANI’s existing senior credit facilities.

Concurrently with the execution of the Merger Agreement, on March 8, 2021, Parent entered into an Equity Commitment and Investment Agreement (the “Investment Agreement”) with Ampersand 2020 Limited Partnership (the “PIPE Investor”), an affiliate of Ampersand Capital Partners, pursuant to which we agreed to issue and sell to the PIPE Investor, and the PIPE Investor agreed to purchase, 25,000 shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (the “PIPE Shares”), for a purchase price of $1,000 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $25.0 million, in a private placement (the “PIPE Investment”).

The completion of the Merger transaction is subject to various closing conditions, including approval by ANI stockholders of the issuance of ANI common stock in connection with the Merger. For more information about the pending Merger transaction, please see the Form 8-K filed on March 9, 2021 by ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which is incorporated by reference herein.

Fiscal 2020 Developments

Asset Acquisitions

In July 2020, we acquired an ANDA and certain related inventories from a private company for total consideration of $4.3 million. The transaction was funded using cash on hand.

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In May 2020, we entered into an agreement with a private company to purchase an ANDA and API for one currently marketed generic drug product and certain API for $0.2 million. The transaction was funded using cash on hand.

In January 2020, we completed the acquisition of the U.S. portfolio of 23 generic products and API and finished goods related to certain of those products from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. ("Amerigen") for a purchase consideration of $56.8 million and up to $25.0 million in contingent payments over the next three years. The product portfolio at the time of the acquisition included ten commercial products, three approved products with launches pending, four filed products and four in-development products as well as a license to commercialize two approved products. The transaction was funded using cash on hand and $15.0 million in borrowings under our $75.0 million Revolver.

Product Launches

During 2020, we launched the following products. Refer to our website at www.anipharmaceuticals.com for further information on the products, including indications/treatments.

Product

    

Launch Date

Aminocaproic Acid Tablets USP 500mg

December 2020

Mexiletine Hydrochloride Capsules USP, 150mg, 200mg, and 250mg

June 2020

Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Capsules, 1 gram

April 2020

Polyethylene Glycol 3350, 17g/Packet (PEG-3350)

April 2020

Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Extended-Release Capsules 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg, and 30 mg

April 2020

Memantine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules 7 mg, 14 mg, 21 mg, and 28 mg

March 2020

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Oral Suspension USP 200 mg/40 mg per 5 mL

February 2020

Tolterodine Extended-Release Capsules, 2mg and 4 mg

February 2020

Potassium Citrate Extended-Release Tablets USP 10m Eq and 15 mEq

January 2020

Paliperidone Extended-Release Tablets, 1.5 mg, 3 mg, 6 mg, and 9 mg

January 2020

Cortrophin Gel Re-commercialization Update

In April 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) issued a Refusal to File (“RTF”) letter for our Supplemental New Drug Application (“sNDA”) for Cortrophin Gel. Since this time, our efforts have been focused on the preparation of a complete resubmission of the sNDA. We immediately retained a prominent regulatory consulting firm to support our efforts and augment the capabilities of our internal Cortrophin development team. In addition, we restructured the composition of the internal team. We have performed a comprehensive review of the original sNDA filing and prepared an internal gap assessment. The resultant remediation activities are currently in-progress and we currently anticipate re-submitting the sNDA in the second quarter of 2021.

In addition, in the third quarter of 2019, we began purchasing materials that are intended to be used commercially in anticipation of FDA approval of Cortrophin Gel and the resultant product launch. Under U.S. GAAP, we cannot capitalize these pre-launch purchases of materials as inventory prior to FDA approval, and accordingly, they are charged to expense in the period in which they are incurred. We expect these pre-launch purchases of material to increase significantly in the future as we build raw materials, API and finished goods for the expected launch of this product.

Management Transition

On May 10, 2020, our former President and Chief Executive Officer, Arthur S. Przybyl, departed the Company. Our Board of Directors retained an executive search firm to lead the search for a new President and Chief Executive Officer. In August 2020, we announced that Nikhil Lalwani was named our President and Chief Executive Officer and his employment was effective September 8, 2020, at which time he also joined our Board of Directors.

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COVID-19 Impact

We continue to closely monitor the impact of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic on our business and the geographic regions where we operate. During the three months ended June 30, 2020, per IQVIA/IMS data, total market generic and brand prescriptions in the United States declined when compared to each of the previous calendar quarters during the trailing 12 months. The decline was in part attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, including but not limited to negative impacts from “shelter-in-place” and quarantine orders in certain states, restrictions on travel, the prohibition of elective medical procedures, and the related downstream impact of the global economic activity during this period. The decline in prescriptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted our generic and brand net revenues during the three months ended June 30, 2020. During the three month periods ending September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2020, IQVIA/IMS data indicates both brand and generic total market prescription volume increased when compared to the three month period ended June 30, 2020, in part due to the easing of COVID-19 related restrictions. However, total market prescription volume did not increase to pre-pandemic levels during this period. We have not experienced a significant impact to our manufacturing operations; however, we have seen minor disruptions to our supply chain from the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020. Our manufacturing facilities in Baudette, Minnesota and Oakville, Ontario have remained open throughout the pandemic and have operated in accordance with local, state and national safety guidelines. The pandemic has not impacted our access to capital and has not significantly impacted our use of funds, including but not limited to capital expenditures, spend on research and development activities and business development opportunities.

We are unable to predict the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows due to numerous uncertainties. These uncertainties include the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the level of success of continued actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, including the availability of vaccines, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. The outbreak of COVID-19 in many countries, including the United States and Canada, has had a significant adverse impact on global economic activity and has contributed to significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted almost every industry, either directly or indirectly. Further, the impacts of a potential worsening of global economic conditions and the continued disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets, pharmaceutical supply chains, patient access to healthcare as well as other unanticipated consequences remain unknown.

General

Year Ended

December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

Net revenues

$

208,475

$

206,547

Operating expenses

 

 

  

Cost of sales (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)

 

87,157

 

63,154

Research and development

 

16,001

 

19,806

Selling, general, and administrative

 

64,986

 

55,843

Depreciation and amortization

 

44,638

 

44,612

Cortrophin pre-launch charges

 

11,263

 

6,706

Intangible asset impairment charge

446

75

Operating (loss)/income

 

(16,016)

 

16,351

Interest expense, net

 

(9,452)

 

(12,966)

Other expense, net

 

(494)

 

(228)

(Loss)/income before benefit for income taxes

 

(25,962)

 

3,157

Benefit for income taxes

 

3,414

 

2,937

Net (loss)/income

$

(22,548)

$

6,094

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The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, items in our consolidated statements of operations as a percentage of net revenues.

Year Ended

 

December 31, 

 

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net revenues

 

100.0

%  

100.0

%

Operating expenses

 

  

 

  

Cost of sales (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)

 

41.8

%  

30.6

%

Research and development

 

7.7

%  

9.6

%

Selling, general, and administrative

 

31.2

%  

27.0

%

Depreciation and amortization

 

21.4

%  

21.6

%

Cortrophin pre-launch charges

 

5.4

%  

3.2

%

Intangible asset impairment charge

 

0.2

%  

%

Operating (loss)/income

 

(7.7)

%  

8.0

%

Interest expense, net

 

(4.5)

%  

(6.3)

%

Other expense, net

 

(0.2)

%  

(0.1)

%

(Loss)/income before benefit for income taxes

 

(12.4)

%  

1.6

%

Benefit for income taxes

 

1.6

%  

1.4

%

Net (loss)/income

 

(10.8)

%  

3.0

%

Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

Year Ended December 31, 

 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

    

% Change

 

Generic pharmaceutical products

$

147,257

$

128,729

$

18,528

 

14.4

%

Branded pharmaceutical products

 

47,960

 

63,767

 

(15,807)

 

(24.8)

%

Contract manufacturing

 

9,221

 

11,139

 

(1,918)

 

(17.2)

%

Royalty and other income

 

4,037

 

2,912

 

1,125

 

38.6

%

Total net revenues

$

208,475

$

206,547

$

1,928

 

0.9

%

We derive substantially all of our revenues from sales of generic and branded pharmaceutical products, contract manufacturing, and contract services, which include product development services, laboratory services, and royalties on net sales of certain products.

Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $208.5 million compared to $206.5 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $1.9 million, or 0.9%, primarily as a result of the following factors:

Net revenues for generic pharmaceutical products were $147.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of 14.4% compared to $128.7 million for the same period in 2019. The primary reasons for the increase are the January 2020 launches of Miglustat, Paliperidone, Penicillamine, Mixed Amphetamine Salts, Tolterodine, Bexarotene and other products acquired from Amerigen, the September 2019 launch of Vancomycin Oral Solution, the January 2020 launch of Potassium Citrate ER, and increased revenues of Candesartan. These increases were tempered by decreases in revenues of Ezetimibe Simvastatin, Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate (“EES”), Esterified Estrogen with Methyltestosterone (“EEMT”), Vancomycin Capsules, and Methazolamide. During the year ended December 31, 2020, and primarily during the second quarter ended June 30, 2020, the overall generic pharmaceutical product market and our generic revenue results were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including but not limited to effects from “shelter-in-place” orders and the prohibition of elective medical procedures. These actions resulted in a decline in generic prescriptions during the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily during the second quarter ended June 30, 2020, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Net revenues for branded pharmaceutical products were $48.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of 24.8% compared to $63.8 million for the same period in 2019. The primary reasons for the decrease were lower unit sales of Inderal LA, Inderal XL and InnoPran XL, as well as a decrease in sales of

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Arimidex and Atacand. During the year ended December 31, 2020, and primarily during the second quarter ended June 30, 2020, the overall brand pharmaceutical product market and our brand revenue results were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including but not limited to effects from “shelter-in-place” orders and the prohibition of elective medical procedures. These actions resulted in a decline in brand prescriptions during the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily during the second quarter ended June 30, 2020, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.
Contract manufacturing revenues were $9.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of 17.2% compared to $11.1 million for the same period in 2019, due to a decreased volume of orders from contract manufacturing customers in the period.

Royalty and other were $4.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $1.1 million from $2.9 million for the same period in 2019, primarily due to an increase in product development revenues earned by ANI Canada and an increase in royalty revenues.

Cost of Sales (Excluding Depreciation and Amortization)

Year Ended December 31, 

 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

    

% Change

 

Cost of sales (excl. depreciation and amortization)

$

87,157

$

63,154

$

24,003

 

38.0

%

Cost of sales consists of direct labor, including manufacturing and packaging, active and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients, freight costs, packaging components, and royalties related to profit-sharing arrangements. Cost of sales does not include depreciation and amortization expense, which is reported as a separate component of operating expenses on our consolidated statements of operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, cost of sales increased to $87.2 million from $63.2 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $24.0 million or 38.0%, primarily as a result of increased volumes during 2020, including a shift in product mix toward generic products, a $4.3 million increase in cost of sales representing the excess of fair value over cost for inventory acquired in the Amerigen acquisition and subsequently sold during the period, a $4.6 million increase related to increased sales of products subject to profit-sharing arrangements, and 2020 inventory reserve charges of $5.6 million related to excess inventory on hand, expired product and discontinued projects. The increases were partially offset by the non-recurrence of the January 2019 royalty buy out from the Asset Purchase Agreement Amendment with Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. and the non-recurrence of the fourth quarter 2019 $4.6 million inventory reserve charge primarily related to the exit from the market of Methylphenidate Extended Release. Cost of sales, exclusive of the $4.3 million net impact related to excess of fair value over the cost of inventory sold during the period, as a percentage of net revenues increased to 39.7% during the year ended December 31, 2020, from 30.6% during same period in 2019, primarily as a result of the same factors previously discussed.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we purchased 10% of our inventory from one supplier. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we purchased 13% of our inventory from one supplier.

Other Operating Expenses

Year Ended December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

    

% Change

    

Research and development

$

16,001

$

19,806

$

(3,805)

 

(19.2)

%  

Selling, general, and administrative

 

64,986

 

55,843

 

9,143

 

16.4

%  

Depreciation and amortization

 

44,638

 

44,612

 

26

 

0.1

%  

Cortrophin pre-launch charges

 

11,263

 

6,706

 

4,557

 

68.0

%  

Intangible asset impairment charge

446

75

371

494.7

%  

Total other operating expenses

$

137,334

$

127,042

$

10,292

 

8.1

%  

Other operating expenses consist of research and development costs, selling, general, and administrative expenses, depreciation and amortization, impairment charges, and Cortrophin pre-launch charges.

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For the year ended December 31, 2020, other operating expenses increased to $137.3 million from $127.0 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $10.3 million, or 8.1%, primarily as a result of the following factors:

Research and development expenses decreased from $19.8 million to $16.0 million, a decrease of 19.2%, primarily due to a decrease in expense related to the Cortrophin re-commercialization project, the non-recurrence of the $2.3 million of expense related to in-process research and development acquired from Coeptis during the year ended December 31, 2019 and the non-recurrence of 2019 expenses related to Bretylium Tosylate and Methylphenidate Extended Release projects. These decreases were tempered by the $3.8 million in-process research and development expense from the Amerigen acquisition in January 2020.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased from $55.8 million to $65.0 million, an increase of 16.4%, primarily due to $6.5 million of termination benefit expenses related to the departure of our former President and CEO, comprised of $3.4 million of stock-based compensation expense and $3.1 million of expense for salary continuation, bonus, and fringe benefits, increased quality assurance and outside testing expenses, and increased headcount. We also incurred $0.8 million in recruitment and related legal charges associated with our CEO search. The increases were tempered by a decrease in legal fees.
Depreciation and amortization expense was $44.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. In 2020, the non-recurrence of amortization expense related to the January 2019 royalty buy out decreased amortization expense, and this decrease was offset by the amortization of the ANDAs and marketing and distribution rights acquired in January 2020 from Amerigen and the ANDA acquired in July 2020.

As described in Note 13, Cortrophin Pre-Launch Charges, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we recognized Cortrophin pre-launch charges of $11.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2020. We recognized Cortrophin pre-launch charges of $6.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. We currently expect to incur total expense related to this activity of approximately $15.0-$20.0 million for 2021.
We recognized an impairment charge of $0.4 million in relation to a marketing and distribution right intangible asset during the year ended December 31, 2020. We recognized an impairment charge of $75 thousand in relation to our Ranitidine product right intangible asset during the year ended December 31, 2019.

Other Expense, net

Year Ended December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

    

% Change

    

Interest expense, net

$

(9,452)

$

(12,966)

$

3,514

 

(27.1)

%  

Other expense, net

 

(494)

 

(228)

 

(266)

 

116.7

%  

Total other expense, net

$

(9,946)

$

(13,194)

$

3,248

 

(24.6)

%  

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized other expense, net of $9.9 million versus other expense, net of $13.2 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of $3.2 million. Interest expense, net for 2020 consists primarily of interest expense on our Term Loan, DDTL, and Revolver. Interest expense, net for 2019 consists primarily of interest expense on our convertible debt, including amortization of related debt discount, and interest expense on borrowings under our Term Loan and DDTL. For the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there was $0.1 million of interest capitalized into construction in progress. The decrease in expense in 2020 is due primarily to the non-recurrence of amortization of the debt discount related to the convertible debt, which matured and was repaid in November 2019. The decrease was tempered by increased borrowing rates on the Term Loan and DDTL and new borrowings under the Revolver.

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Benefit for Income Taxes

Year Ended December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

    

% Change

 

Benefit for income taxes

$

3,414

$

2,937

$

477

 

16.2

%

Our provision for income taxes consists of current and deferred components, which include changes in our deferred tax assets, our deferred tax liabilities, and our valuation allowance. We measure our deferred tax assets and liabilities using the tax rates that we believe will apply in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or paid. See Note 11. Income Taxes, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized an income tax benefit of $3.4 million, an effective benefit rate of 13.1% of consolidated pre-tax losses reported in the period. Our effective tax rate for 2020 was impacted by changes in state tax rates due to our changing presence in certain states, certain non-deductible expenses, and the impact of current period stock-based compensation, among other items.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized an income tax benefit of $2.9 million, an effective benefit rate of 93.0% of consolidated pre-tax income reported in the period. Our effective tax rate for 2019 was impacted by the use of the research and experimental tax credit in the U.S., changes in state tax rates due to our changing presence in certain states, the release of ANI Canada’s net valuation allowance, application of our newly adopted transfer pricing policy to 2019 and to 2018, and the impact of current period awards of stock-based compensation, stock option exercises, disqualifying dispositions of incentive stock options, among other items.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

The following table highlights selected liquidity and working capital information from our consolidated balance sheets.

December 31, 

December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

Cash and cash equivalents

$

7,864

$

62,332

Accounts receivable, net

 

95,793

 

72,129

Inventories, net

 

60,803

 

48,163

Prepaid income taxes

 

 

1,076

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

5,861

 

3,995

Total current assets

$

170,321

$

187,695

Current debt, net of deferred financing costs

$

13,243

$

9,941

Accounts payable

 

11,261

 

14,606

Accrued expenses and other

 

2,456

 

2,362

Accrued royalties

 

6,407

 

5,084

Accrued compensation and related expenses

 

6,231

 

3,736

Current income taxes payable, net

 

3,906

 

Accrued government rebates

 

7,826

 

8,901

Returned goods reserve

 

27,155

 

16,595

Deferred revenue

 

80

 

451

Total current liabilities

$

78,565

$

61,676

On December 31, 2020, we had $7.9 million in unrestricted cash and cash equivalents. On December 31, 2019, we had $62.3 million in unrestricted cash and cash equivalents. We generated $15.3 million of cash from operations in the year ended December 31, 2020. In January 2020, we acquired the U.S. portfolio of 23 generic products and certain commercial and development inventory and materials from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., for which we have used $57.4 million in cash and could make future payments of up to $25.0 million in contingent profit share payments over

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the next three years. The contingent payments are earned if annual gross profit exceeds a minimum threshold and are earned on a subset of the acquired products. No payment was due to Amerigen for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. At the time of the acquisition, the acquired portfolio included 10 commercial products, three approved products with launches pending, four filed products, and four in-development products as well as a license to commercialize two approved products. The transaction was funded from cash on hand and $15.0 million of borrowings from our Revolver, of which $7.5 million was repaid in the second quarter 2020. In July 2020, we acquired an ANDA and certain inventories from a private company for total consideration of $4.3 million. The transaction was funded using cash on hand. During 2020, we incurred expenses of $11.3 million related to purchases of Cortrophin pre-launch inventory and expect to continue to incur related costs in 2021.

We generated $45.6 million of cash from operations in the year ended December 31, 2019.  In June 2019, we acquired from Coeptis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. seven development stage generic products, as well as active pharmaceutical ingredient API and reference-listed drug inventory related to certain of the products for a payment of $2.3 million using cash on hand. In addition, we could make up to $12.0 million in payments for certain development and commercial milestones. In March 2019, we purchased from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. a basket of ANDAs for 35 previously-marketed generic drug products for $2.5 million using cash on hand. In January 2019, we entered into the Asset Purchase Agreement Amendment, under which all royalty obligations the Company owed to Teva with respect to products associated with ten ANDAs under the original asset purchase agreements ceased being effective as of December 31, 2018. As consideration for the termination of such future royalty obligations, we paid Teva $16.0 million using cash on hand.

We are focused on expanding our business and product pipeline through collaborations, and also through acquisitions of products and companies. We are continually evaluating potential asset acquisitions and business combinations. To finance such acquisitions, we might raise additional equity capital, incur additional debt, or both.

Our working capital ratio, defined as total current assets divided by total current liabilities, is 2.2 as of December 31, 2020. We believe that our financial resources, consisting of current working capital, anticipated future operating cash flows, and $67.5 million of available borrowings under our Revolver as of December 31, 2020, will be sufficient to enable us to meet our working capital requirements and debt obligations for at least the next 12 months. If our assumptions underlying estimated revenue and expenses are wrong, or if our cash requirements change materially as a result of shifts in our business or strategy, we could require additional financing. If we are not profitable or do not generate cash from operations as anticipated and additional capital is needed to support operations, we may be unable to obtain such financing, or obtain it on favorable terms, in which case we may be required to curtail development of new products, limit expansion of operations, or accept financing terms that are not as attractive as desired.

Consolidation among wholesale distributors, chain drug stores, and group purchasing organizations has resulted in a smaller number of companies each controlling a larger share of pharmaceutical distribution channels. Our net revenues were concentrated among three customers representing 31%, 24%, and 19% of net revenues during the year ended December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020 accounts receivable from these three customers totaled approximately 81% of accounts receivable, net. As a result, negotiated payment terms with these customers have a material impact on our liquidity and working capital.

None of our products accounted for 10% or more of our net revenues in 2020 or 2019.

Sources and Uses of Cash

Debt Financing

Our amended and restated Senior Secured Credit Facility for up to $265.2 million consists of a $72.2 million Term Loan, a $118.0 million DDTL, and a $75.0 million Revolver. The Company had previously fully drawn on the Term Loan and DDTL, and in March 2020, drew $15.0 million under the Revolver, of which $7.5 million was repaid during the year ended December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, we had a $186.9 million outstanding balance on the Credit Facility. As of December 31, 2020, we had $67.5 million available for borrowing under the Revolver.

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We may at any time repay borrowings under the term loans, including the initial Term Loan and DDTL, and the Revolver without any premium or penalty, and we must repay all borrowings thereunder by December 27, 2023. We may use the proceeds of the Revolver for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

Amounts drawn under the Revolver, Term Loan, and DDTL bear an interest rate equal to, at our option, either a LIBOR rate plus 1.50% to 2.75% per annum, depending on our total leverage ratio or an alternative base rate plus an applicable base rate margin, which varies within a range of 0.50% to 1.75%, depending on our total leverage ratio. On the Revolver, we incur a commitment fee at a rate per annum that varies within a range of 0.25% to 0.50%, depending on our leverage ratio. We must comply with various customary financial and non-financial covenants under the Credit Facility. The primary financial covenants under the Credit Facility consist of a maximum total leverage ratio, which, as of December 31, 2020, is 3.25 to 1.00, and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio which shall be greater than or equal to 1.25 to 1.00. The primary non-financial covenants under the Credit Agreement limit, subject to various exceptions, the Company’s ability to incur future indebtedness, to place liens on assets, to pay dividends or make other distributions on the Company’s capital stock, to repurchase the Company’s capital stock, to conduct acquisitions, to alter its capital structure and to dispose of assets.

Customer Payments

In addition to the financings in prior years, payments from customers are a significant source of cash in 2020, 2019, and 2018 and were our primary source of cash in 2020 and 2019.

Uses of Cash

Our primary cash requirements are to fund operations, including research and development programs and collaborations, to support general and administrative activities, to purchase equipment and machinery to expand our manufacturing capabilities as our product lines grow, and to expand our business and product pipeline through acquisitions of products and companies. We are continually evaluating potential asset acquisitions and business combinations. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

product mix and pricing for product sales and contract manufacturing;
pricing and payment terms with customers;
costs of raw materials and payment terms with suppliers;
capital expenditures and equipment purchases to support product launches; and
business and product acquisitions.

 In the first quarter of 2020, we acquired the U.S. portfolio of 23 generic products and certain commercial and development inventory and materials from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., for which we have used $57.4 million in cash and could make future payments of up to $25.0 million in contingent profit share payments over the next three years. The contingent payments are earned if annual gross profit exceeds a minimum threshold and are earned on a subset of the acquired products. No payment was due to Amerigen for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. At the time of the acquisition, the acquired portfolio included ten commercial products, three approved products with launches pending, four filed products, and four in-development products as well as a license to commercialize two approved products. The transaction was funded using cash on hand and $15.0 million of borrowings from our Revolver, of which $7.5 million was repaid in the second quarter of 2020. In the third quarter of 2020, we acquired an ANDA and certain inventories from a private company for total consideration of $4.4 million. The transaction was funded using cash on hand. In 2020, we had $6.1 million of capital expenditures.

In the first quarter of 2019, we entered into the Asset Purchase Agreement Amendment, under which all royalty obligations the Company owed to Teva with respect to products associated with ten ANDAs under the original asset purchase agreements ceased being effective as of December 31, 2018. As consideration for the termination of such

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future royalty obligations, we paid Teva $16.0 million using cash on hand. Also in the first quarter of 2019, we purchased from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. a basket of ANDAs for 35 previously-marketed generic drug products for $2.5 million in cash using cash on hand. In the second quarter or 2019, we acquired from Coeptis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. seven development stage generic products, as well as active pharmaceutical ingredient API and reference-listed drug inventory related to certain of the products for a payment of $2.3 million using cash on hand. In addition, we could pay up to $12.0 million in payments for certain development and commercial milestones. In 2019, we had $6.6 million of capital expenditures.

Discussion of Cash Flows

The following table summarizes the net cash and cash equivalents provided by/(used in) operating activities, investing activities and financing activities for the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

Operating Activities

$

15,267

$

45,631

Investing Activities

$

(68,322)

$

(27,549)

Financing Activities

$

(1,439)

$

1,250

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

Net cash provided by operating activities was $15.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $45.6 million provided by operating activities during the same period in 2019, a decrease of $30.3 million. The decrease was due to changes in working capital and the net loss during the year ended December 31, 2020, including payments made for Cortrophin pre-launch materials and increases to trade accounts receivable.

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $68.3 million, principally due to the January 2020 acquisition of 23 generic products and inventory and materials from Amerigen Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. for $57.4 million, cash payments for the July 2020 acquisition of an ANDA and certain inventories of $4.0 million, and $6.1 million of capital expenditures during the period.

Net Cash (Used In) / Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities was $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, principally due to net borrowings of $7.5 million on the Revolver and $0.6 million of proceeds from stock option exercises, offset by $8.0 million of maturity payments on the Term Loan and DDTL and $1.5 million of treasury stock purchased related to restricted stock vests.

Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes our long-term contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2020.

Payments Due by Period

Less than

    

    

More than

(in thousands)

    

Total

    

1 year

    

1-3 years

    

3-5 years

    

5 years

Long-term debt obligations (1)

$

186,946

$

13,691

$

173,255

$

$

Interest on long-term debt obligations (2)

 

21,595

 

7,767

 

13,828

 

 

Operating lease obligations

 

319

 

138

 

150

 

31

 

Purchase obligations (3)

 

7,089

 

5,471

 

1,616

 

2

 

Total

$

215,949

$

27,067

$

188,849

$

33

$

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(1)   Represents our $65.9 million Term Loan due December 27, 2023, our $113.6 million Delayed Draw Term Loan due December 2023, and our $7.5 million Revolver due December 2023. (Note 3, Indebtedness, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.)

(2)   Represents interest due on our Term Loan, Delayed Draw Term Loan and Revolver and commitment fee due on our Revolver. Interest for the Term Loan and Delayed Draw Term Loan is calculated based on our payment schedule as prescribed in the Senior Secured Credit Facility (the “Credit Facility”) and using an estimated interest rate of 4.235%, which is the estimated interest rate on the Term Loan and Delayed Draw Term Loan as fixed by our interest rate swap. Interest on the Revolver is based on the recent 1-month LIBOR rate plus applicable spread per the Credit Facility, which is based on our leverage ratio. The commitment fee is estimated using the applicable rate per the Credit Facility, which is based on our leverage ratio.

(3)   Purchase obligations primarily includes contractual obligations for inventory/material purchase minimums and service agreements. 

Critical Accounting Estimates

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. In our consolidated financial statements, estimates are used for, but not limited to, stock-based compensation, allowance for credit losses, accruals for chargebacks, government rebates, returns, and other allowances, allowance for inventory obsolescence, valuation of financial instruments and intangible assets, accruals for contingent liabilities, fair value of long-lived assets, deferred taxes and valuation allowance, and the depreciable lives of long-lived assets.

Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate these estimates and assumptions, including those described below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates and assumptions form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Due to the estimation processes involved, the following summarized accounting policies and their application are considered to be critical to understanding our business operations, financial condition, and operating results.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenue using the following steps:

Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price, including the identification and estimation of variable consideration;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation.

We derive our revenues primarily from sales of generic and branded pharmaceutical products. Revenue is recognized when our obligations under the terms of our contracts with customers are satisfied, which generally occurs when control of the products we sell is transferred to the customer. We estimate variable consideration after considering applicable information that is reasonably available. We generally do not have incremental costs to obtain or fulfill contracts that would otherwise not have been incurred. We do not adjust revenue for the promised amount of

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consideration for the effects of a significant financing component because our customers’ payment terms are generally fewer than 100 days.

Our revenue recognition accounting methodologies contain uncertainties because they require management to make assumptions and to apply judgment to estimate the amount of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments, returns, chargebacks, and other potential adjustments, which are accounted for as reductions to revenue. We make these estimates based on historical experience. In addition, for our product development services revenue, we recognize revenue on a percentage of completion basis, which requires judgments related to how much work has been completed on various components our projects.

Revenue from Sales of Generic and Branded Pharmaceutical Products

Product sales consist of sales of our generic and brand pharmaceutical products. Our sole performance obligation in our contracts is to provide pharmaceutical products to customers. Our products are sold at pre-determined standalone selling prices and our performance obligation is considered to be satisfied when control of the product is transferred to the customer. Control is generally transferred to the customer upon delivery of the product to the customer, as our pharmaceutical products are generally sold on an FOB destination basis and because inventory risk and risk of ownership passes to the customer upon delivery. Payment terms for these sales are generally fewer than 100 days. We recognized $195.2 million and $192.5 million of revenue related to sales of generic and branded pharmaceutical products in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Revenue from Distribution Agreements

From time to time, we enter into marketing and distribution agreements with third parties in which we sell products under ANDAs or NDAs owned or licensed by these third parties. These products are sold under our own label. We have assessed and determined that we control the products sold under these marketing and distribution agreements and therefore are the principal for sales under each of these marketing and distribution agreements. As a result, we recognize revenue on a gross basis when control has passed to the customer and we have satisfied our performance obligation. Under these agreements, we pay these third parties a specified percentage of the gross profit earned on sales of the products. These profit-sharing percentages are recognized in cost of sales in our consolidated statements of operations and are accrued in accrued royalties in our consolidated balance sheets until payment has occurred.

Chargebacks

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we estimate the amount of chargebacks based our actual historical experience. A number of factors influence current period chargebacks by impacting the average selling price (“ASP”) of products, including customer mix, negotiated terms, volume of off-contract purchases, and wholesale acquisition cost (“WAC”).

If actual results were not consistent with our estimates, we could be exposed to losses or gains that could be material, as changes to chargeback estimates could cause an increase or decrease in revenue recognized during the year and increase or decrease accounts receivable. If there were a 10% change in the chargeback estimates throughout the year, our net revenues would be affected by $40.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Government Rebates

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our estimates for government rebates are based upon several factors. Our estimates for Medicaid rebates are based upon our average manufacturer price, best price, product mix, levels of inventory in the distribution channel that we expect to be subject to Medicaid rebates, and historical experience, which are invoiced in arrears by state Medicaid programs. Our estimates for Medicare rebates are based on historical experience. While such experience has allowed for reasonable estimation in the past,

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history may not always be an accurate indicator of future rebate experience, and trends in Medicaid and Medicare enrollment and which products are covered by Medicaid and Medicare could change.

If actual results were not consistent with our estimates, we could be exposed to losses or gains that could be material, as changes to government rebate estimates could cause an increase or decrease in revenue recognized during the year and decrease or increase the government rebate reserve. If there were a 10% change in the government rebate estimates throughout the year, our net revenues would be affected by $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Returns

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our estimate for returns is based upon our historical experience with actual returns. While such experience has allowed for reasonable estimation in the past, history may not always be an accurate indicator of future returns.

If actual results were not consistent with our estimates, we could be exposed to losses or gains that could be material, as changes to returns estimates could cause an increase or decrease in revenue recognized during the year and decrease or increase the returned goods reserve. If there were a 10% change in the returns estimates throughout the year, our net revenues would be affected by $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Administrative Fees and Other Rebates

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we accrue for fees and rebates by product by wholesaler, at the time of sale based on contracted rates, ASPs, and on-hand inventory counts obtained from wholesalers.

If actual results were not consistent with our estimates, we could be exposed to losses or gains that could be material, as changes to these estimates could cause an increase or decrease in revenue recognized during the year and increase or decrease accounts receivable. If there were a 10% change in the administrative fees estimates throughout the year, our net revenues would be affected by $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Prompt Payment Discounts

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we reserve for sales discounts based on invoices outstanding, assuming, based on past experience, that 100% of available discounts will be taken.

If customers do not take 100% of available discounts as we estimate, we could need to re-adjust our methodology for calculating the prompt payment discount reserve. If there were a 10% decrease in the prompt payment discounts estimates throughout the year, our net revenues would increase by $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Contract Manufacturing Product Sales Revenue

Contract manufacturing arrangements consist of agreements in which we manufacture a pharmaceutical product on behalf of third party. Our performance obligation is to manufacture and provide pharmaceutical products to customers, typically pharmaceutical companies. The contract manufactured products are sold at pre-determined standalone selling prices and our performance obligations are considered to be satisfied when control of the product is transferred to the customer. Control is transferred to the customer when the product leaves our dock to be shipped to the customer, as our pharmaceutical products are sold on an FOB shipping point basis and the inventory risk and risk of ownership passes to the customer at that time. Payment terms for these sales are generally fewer than two months. We estimate returns based on historical experience. Historically, we have not had material returns for contract manufactured products. We

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recognized $9.2 million and $11.1 million of revenue related to sales of contract manufactured products in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Royalties from Licensing Agreements

From time to time, we enter into transition agreements with the sellers of products we acquire, under which we license to the seller the right to sell the acquired products. Therefore, we recognize the revenue associated with sales of the underlying products as royalties. Because these royalties are sales-based, we recognize the revenue when the underlying sales occur, based on sales and gross profit information received from the sellers. Upon full transition of the products and upon launching the products under our own labels, we recognize revenue for the products as sales of generic or branded pharmaceutical products, as described above.

Pursuant to a 2012 Tripartite Agreement (the “Tripartite Agreement”) between the Company, The Regents of the University of California (“The Regents”), and Cabaret Biotech Ltd., an Israeli corporation (“Cabaret”) (as assignee of Dr. Zelig Eshhar’s rights under the Tripartite Agreement), and subsequent amendments thereto and assignments thereof, we are entitled to receive a percentage of the milestone and sales royalty payments paid to Cabaret by Kite Pharma, Inc. (“Kite”), a subsidiary of Gilead Sciences, Inc., under a license agreement. Under such license agreement, Kite licensed from Dr. Eshhar and Cabaret the patent rights covered by the Tripartite Agreement and agreed to make certain payments to Cabaret based on, among other things, Kite’s sales of Yescarta®. Under the Tripartite Agreement, portions of these payments are to be distributed to The Regents and to us.

We record royalty income related to Yescarta® on an accrual basis utilizing our best estimate of royalties earned based upon information available in the public domain, our understanding of the various agreements governing the royalty, and other information received from time to time from the relevant parties. Generally, cash is received directly from Cabaret once a year. The agreements governing this royalty are subject to multiple litigations in multiple jurisdictions, including litigation between Cabaret and Kite, and separately, the Company and Cabaret. We recently became aware that the litigation between Cabaret and Kite was dismissed and are working with our counsel to determine the potential impact the resolution of that matter may have on our rights under the agreements. In addition, the Israeli Tax Authority has taken the position that any payments from Cabaret to us are subject to mandatory withholding tax. The Company and its tax counsel have disputed this position and are actively seeking to resolve the issue. The ultimate outcome of these matters, either individually or in the aggregate, may impact the amount of cash due to us, and may result in the termination of future payments or further claims that royalties received by us in the past be repaid.

Product Development Services Revenue

We provide product development services to customers, which are performed over time. These services primarily relate to the technical transfer of products to our facility in Oakville, Ontario. Technology transfer refers to the process required to move the manufacture of a product to a new manufacturing site and may include performance obligations such as formulation development, production of small-scale batches, process development, and analytical method development and validation. The duration of these technical transfer projects is generally 18 months to three years. Deposits received from these customers are recorded as deferred revenue until revenue is earned and recognized. For contracts with no deposits and for the remainder of contracts with deposits, we invoice customers as our performance obligations are satisfied. We recognize revenue on a proportional basis, which results in contract assets on our balance sheet. We recognized $1.9 million and $1.1 million of revenue related to product development services in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Intangible Assets

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our definite-lived intangible assets have a carrying value of $188.5 million as of December 31, 2020. These assets include ANDAs, NDAs and product rights, marketing and distribution rights, and a non-compete agreement. These intangible assets were originally recorded at fair value for business combinations and at relative fair value based on the purchase price for asset acquisitions and are stated net of accumulated amortization.

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The ANDAs, NDAs and product rights, marketing and distribution rights, and non-compete agreement are amortized over their remaining estimated useful lives, ranging from seven to 10 years, generally based on the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives directly impact the amount of amortization expense recorded for these assets on a quarterly and annual basis.

In addition, we test for impairment of definite-lived intangible assets when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Judgment is used in determining when these events and circumstances arise. If we determine that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable, judgment and estimates are used to assess the fair value of the assets and to determine the amount of any impairment loss. If the fair value of an intangible asset is determined to be lower than its carrying value, we could be exposed to an impairment charge that could be material.

In March 2018, we entered into an agreement with Appco Pharma, LLC (“Appco”), in which a potential generic product, Ranitidine, was to be developed and marketed. Per the agreement, we paid Appco a series of licensing fees in conjunction with certain development milestones. Ranitidine was launched in the third quarter of 2019, resulting in the final milestone payment of $80 thousand. The $80 thousand milestone payment was capitalized as an intangible asset and determined to have an estimated useful life of eight years. In September 2019, the FDA issued a public statement that some ranitidine medicines contain a nitrosamine impurity called N-nitrosdimethylamine (“NDMA”) at low levels. NDMA is classified as a probable human carcinogen (a substance that could cause cancer) based on results from laboratory tests and the cause of the presence of this impurity in the ranitidine products is not yet fully understood at this time. During the fourth quarter 2019, testing of the API used in our ranitidine drug product, as well as testing of the drug product itself, indicated a level of NDMA above acceptable thresholds and Appco initiated a voluntary recall. We elected to exit the market for Ranitidine and determined that the carrying value of the asset has been impaired. During the fourth quarter 2019, we recognized a full impairment of the remaining $75 thousand carrying value of the asset.

In April 2019, we entered into an agreement with Pharmaceutics International, Inc. (“PII”) and BAS ANDA LLC (“BAS”), under which a previously-commercialized product would be developed and marketed. Per the agreement, we may pay PII a series of licensing fees in conjunction with the achievement of certain development and commercial milestones. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the product was launched, triggering a $0.5 million payment due to PII. The payment was capitalized as an intangible asset. During the fourth quarter 2020, we recognized a full impairment of the remaining $0.4 million carrying value of the asset.

No events or circumstances arose in 2020 that indicated that the carrying value of any of our other definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable. If the fair value of an intangible asset is determined to be lower than its carrying value, we could be exposed to an impairment charge that could be material.

Goodwill

As discussed in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our goodwill balance relates to our 2013 merger with BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the acquisition of WellSpring and represents the excess of the total purchase consideration over the fair value of acquired assets and assumed liabilities, using the purchase method of accounting. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to periodic review for impairment. As a result, the amount of goodwill is directly impacted by the estimates of the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

In addition, goodwill is reviewed annually, as of October 31, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the goodwill might not be recoverable. Judgment is used in determining when these events and circumstances arise. We perform our review of goodwill on our one reporting unit. If we determine that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable, judgment and estimates are used to assess the fair value of the assets and to determine the amount of any impairment loss.

The carrying value of goodwill at December 31, 2020 was $3.6 million. We believe it is unlikely that there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions used to test for impairment losses on goodwill. However, if actual

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results are not consistent with our estimates or assumptions, we could be exposed to an impairment charge that could be material.

Stock-Based Compensation

Our Amended and Restated 2008 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2008 Plan”) includes stock options and restricted stock, which are awarded in exchange for employee and non-employee director services. In July 2016, we commenced administration of our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). We recognize the estimated fair value of stock-based awards and classify the expense where the underlying salaries are classified.

On September 8, 2020, we granted stock options to our Chief Executive Officer, through an inducement grant outside of our 2008 Plan to induce him to accept employment with us (the “Inducement Grant”). The grant was made pursuant to inducement grants outside of our shareholder approved equity plan as permitted under the Nasdaq Stock Market listing rules.

The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense incurred under the 2008 Plan, Inducement Grant, and 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and included in our consolidated statements of operations:

Years Ended December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

Cost of sales

$

137

$

119

$

98

Research and development

 

597

 

785

 

787

Selling, general, and administrative

 

12,202

 

8,313

 

5,897

$

12,936

$

9,217

$

6,782

Stock-based compensation cost for stock options is determined at the grant date using an option pricing model and stock-based compensation cost for restricted stock is based on the closing market price of the stock at the grant date. The value of the award is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the employee’s requisite service period.

Valuation of stock awards requires us to make assumptions and to apply judgment to determine the fair value of the awards. These assumptions and judgments include estimating the future volatility of our stock price and dividend yields. Changes in these assumptions can affect the fair value estimate.

Changes in estimates could affect compensation expense within individual periods. If there were to be a 10% change in our stock-based compensation expense for the year, our Income before Benefit for Income Taxes would be affected by $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Income Taxes

We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the period that such tax rate changes are enacted.

We use a recognition threshold and a measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. We have not identified any uncertain income tax positions that could have a material impact to the consolidated financial statements. We are subject to taxation in various U.S. jurisdictions and Canada and remain subject to examination by taxing jurisdictions for the years 1998 and all subsequent periods due to the availability of net operating loss carryforwards. To the extent we prevail in matters for which a liability has been established, or are required to pay amounts in excess of our established liability, our effective income tax rate in a given financial statement period could be materially affected. An unfavorable tax settlement generally would require use of our cash and may result in an increase in our effective income tax rate in

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the period of resolution. A favorable tax settlement may reduce our effective income tax rate and would be recognized in the period of resolution.

We consider potential tax effects resulting from discontinued operations and gains and losses included in other comprehensive income and record intra-period tax allocations, when those effects are deemed material. Our effective income tax rate is also affected by changes in tax law, our level of earnings, and the results of tax audits.

Although we believe that the judgments and estimates discussed herein are reasonable, actual results could differ, and we may be exposed to losses or gains that could be material.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In November 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance simplifying the accounting for income taxes by removing the following exceptions: 1) exception to the incremental approach for intraperiod tax allocation when there is a loss from continuing operations and income or a gain from other items, 2) exception requirement to recognize a deferred tax liability for equity method investments when a foreign subsidiary becomes an equity method investment, 3) exception to the ability not to recognize a deferred tax liability for a foreign subsidiary when a foreign equity method investment becomes a subsidiary, and 4) exception to the general methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period when a year-to-date loss exceeds the anticipated loss for the year. The amendments also simplify accounting for income taxes by doing the following: 1) requiring that an entity recognize a franchise tax or similar tax that is partially based on income as an income-based tax and account for any incremental amount incurred as a non-income-based tax, 2) requiring that an entity evaluate when a step up in the tax basis of goodwill should be considered part of the business combination in which the book goodwill was originally recognized and when it should be considered a separate transaction, 3) specifying that an entity is not required to allocate the consolidated amount of current and deferred tax expense to a legal entity that is not subject to tax in its separate financial statements, 4) requiring that an entity reflect the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation in the interim period that includes the enactment date, and 5) making minor Codification improvements for income taxes related to employee stock ownership plans and investments in qualified affordable housing projects accounted for using the equity method. The guidance is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption was permitted, including adoption in an interim period. We will adopt this guidance as of January 1, 2021. We expect that the adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

We have evaluated all other issued and unadopted Accounting Standards Updates and believe the adoption of these standards will not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, balance sheets, or cash flows.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In November 2018, the FASB issued guidance clarifying that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account. The guidance was effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. We adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued guidance amending the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The amendments add, modify, and eliminate certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The guidance was effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. We adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

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In June 2016, the FASB issued guidance with respect to measuring credit losses on financial instruments, including trade receivables. The guidance eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold that was previously required prior to recognizing a credit loss on financial instruments. The credit loss estimate now reflects an entity's current estimate of all future expected credit losses. Under the previous guidance, an entity only considered past events and current conditions. In April 2019, the FASB further clarified the scope of the credit losses standard and addressed issues related to accrued interest receivable balances, recoveries, variable interest rates, and prepayment. In May 2019, the FASB issued further guidance to provide entities with an option to irrevocably elect the fair value option applied on an instrument-by-instrument basis for eligible financial instruments. We adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2020 using the modified retrospective method for all financial assets measured at amortized cost. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2020 are presented under the new guidance while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with previously applicable GAAP. We recognized an $8 thousand decrease to retained earnings as of January 1, 2020 for the cumulative effect of adopting the new guidance.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

As of December 31, 2020, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Market risks include interest rate risk, equity risk, foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk, and other relevant market rate or price risks. Of these risks, interest rate risk, equity risk, and foreign currency exchange rate risk could have a significant impact on our results of operations.

In December 2018, we refinanced our previous $125.0 million Credit Agreement by entering into an amended and restated Senior Secured Credit Facility (the “Credit Facility”) for up to $265.2 million. The five-year Credit Facility is comprised of a $72.2 million term loan (the “Term Loan”), a $118.0 million delayed draw term loan (the “DDTL”) and a $75.0 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolver”), all of which mature in December 2023. The Credit Facility has a subjective acceleration clause in case of a material adverse event. In March 2020, we drew $15.0 million under the Revolver, of which $7.5 million was repaid during the nine months ended September 30, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, $67.5 million remained available for borrowing under the Revolver. Amounts drawn on the Term Loan, DDTL, and Revolver bear an interest rate equal to, at our option, either a LIBOR rate plus 1.50% to 2.75% per annum, depending on our total leverage ratio or an alternative base rate plus an applicable base rate margin, which varies within a range of 0.50% to 1.75%, depending on our total leverage ratio. On the Revolver, we incur a commitment fee at a rate per annum that varies within a range of 0.25% to 0.50%, depending on our leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2020, we had a $186.9 million outstanding balance on the Credit Facility.

In April 2020, we entered into an interest rate swap to manage our exposure to the variable interest rate on our Term Loan and DDTL borrowings. The interest rate swap hedges the variable cash flows associated with interest payments on borrowings under the Term Loan and DDTL, effectively providing a fixed rate of interest throughout the life of these borrowings. As a result of the interest rate swap, our exposure to interest rate volatility is minimized.

We are exposed to risks associated with changes in interest rates. The returns from certain of our cash and cash equivalents will vary as short-term interest rates change. A 100 basis-point adverse movement (decrease) in short-term interest rates would decrease the interest income earned on our cash balance in the year ended December 31, 2020 by approximately $3,000.

We are exposed to risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate risks as we remeasure certain Canadian dollar-denominated transactions from our ANI Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. subsidiary from the Canadian dollar to the U.S. dollar. Changes in exchange rates can positively or negatively impact our revenue, income, assets, liabilities, and equity. Currency exchange rates did not have a material impact on our revenue, income, assets, liabilities, or equity during the year ended December 31, 2020.

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Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated March 11, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Evaluation of certain assumptions impacting the chargeback accrual

As described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company records certain variable consideration including discounts, which are estimated at the time of sale generally using the expected value method. Amounts accrued for chargebacks as of December 31, 2020 are approximately $89 million and are evaluated on a quarterly basis. Management’s estimate of chargebacks is based on the inventory levels in the distribution channel as provided by

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wholesalers, as well as the actual average selling price for each product which is impacted by changes in customer mix, changes in negotiated terms with customers, changes in the volume of off-contract purchases, and changes in the wholesaler acquisition cost, in order to estimate the expected provision.

 

The principal consideration for our determination that performing procedures relating to the chargeback reserve is a critical audit matter is that there was significant judgment required by management with respect to measurement uncertainty, as the calculation of the chargeback reserve includes assumptions such as average selling price, purchasing trends of distributors and historical product sales used to predict future sales. This in turn led to a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity and effort in applying the procedures related to those assumptions.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the chargeback reserve, including management’s controls over the assumptions used to estimate the corresponding accruals. We recalculated the chargeback accrual for a selection of products, based on a combination of Company internal data, historical actual information, and executed third-party contracts. We performed a sensitivity analysis of the Company’s accrual by recalculating the accrual using our independent assumptions. We evaluated the Company’s ability to accurately estimate the accrual for chargebacks by comparing historically recorded accruals to the actual amount that was ultimately claimed by the wholesalers. We analyzed year over year trends in the reserve in comparison with revenue trends to further evaluate reasonableness of the estimate and consistency with expectations.

/s/ EisnerAmper LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.  

EISNERAMPER LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

March 11, 2021

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders

ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries’ (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in the Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in the Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated balance sheets of ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and our report dated March 11, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

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Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

An entity’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. An entity’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the entity; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the entity are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the entity; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the entity’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ EisnerAmper LLP

EISNERAMPER LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

March 11, 2021

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ANI PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

    

December 31, 

    

December 31, 

2020

2019

Assets

Current Assets

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

7,864

$

62,332

Accounts receivable, net of $100,328 and $59,946 of adjustments for chargebacks and other allowances at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively

 

95,793

 

72,129

Inventories, net

 

60,803