485BPOS 1 mergedscottsdale.htm SCOTTSDALE mergedscottsdale.htm - Generated by SEC Publisher for SEC Filing
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form N-1A
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 333-11763)  
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [X]
Pre-Effective Amendment No. [ ]
Post-Effective Amendment No. 56 [X]
and
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 811-07803) UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT
OF 1940  
Amendment No. 57 [X]

 

VANGUARD SCOTTSDALE FUNDS
(FORMERLY KNOWN AS VANGUARD TREASURY FUND)
 
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Declaration of Trust)
 
P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
 
Registrant’s Telephone Number (610) 669-1000
 
Anne E. Robinson, Esquire
P.O. Box 876
Valley Forge, PA 19482

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)
[X] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
[] on (date), pursuant to paragraph (b)
[] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[] on (date), pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
[] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485
If appropriate, check the following box:
[ ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a
  previously filed post-effective amendment.

 


Vanguard Total World Bond ETF
Prospectus
 
September 4, 2018
 
Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed
on Nasdaq
Vanguard Total World Bond ETF Shares (BNDW)
 
 
 
 
This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it does not contain any performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard ETF Summary 1 More on the Fund and ETF Shares 9
Investing in Vanguard ETF Shares 6 The Fund and Vanguard 22
Investing in Index Funds 8 Investment Advisor 23
    Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 24
    Share Price and Market Price 26
    Additional Information 27
    Glossary of Investment Terms 29

 


 

ETF Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a broad, market-weighted index that measures the investment return of investment-grade U.S. bonds and investment-grade non-U.S. dollar-denominated bonds.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard
  (Broker fees vary)
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard
  (Broker fees vary)

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees None
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.00%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses 0.09%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1 0.09%
1 The expense information shown in the table reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.  

 

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Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund (based on the fees and expenses of the underlying funds) with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the Fund provides a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses of the Fund and its underlying funds remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years
$9 $29

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and, therefore, has no portfolio turnover information.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund is a fund of funds and employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Float Adjusted Composite Index (Index), which is designed to track the market capitalized weights of the global investment-grade bond market and is comprised of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index and the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged).

The Fund intends to obtain its exposure to the bonds held in the Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in two Vanguard bond index ETFs (underlying funds), rather than in individual securities held in the Index.

The underlying funds are Vanguard Total Bond Market Index Fund (“Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF”) and Vanguard Total International Bond Index Fund (“Vanguard Total International Bond ETF”). The Fund invests in the ETF share class of each underlying fund. The Fund’s indirect bond holdings are a diversified mix of investment-

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grade U.S. and investment-grade non-U.S. government, corporate, and securitized bonds across yield curves and credit risks of multiple countries.

Each of the underlying funds seek to track the performance of an index that represents a subset of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Float Adjusted Composite Index. Together, the two indexes tracked by the underlying funds comprise the Fund’s target index.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, either directly or through its investments in the underlying funds, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Interest rate risk, which is the chance that bond prices will decline because of rising interest rates. Interest rate risk should be moderate for the Fund.

Credit risk, which is the chance that a bond issuer will fail to pay interest or principal in a timely manner or that negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments will cause the price of that bond to decline. Credit risk should be low for the Fund.

Income risk, which is the chance that a fund’s income will decline because of falling interest rates.

Prepayment risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, homeowners will refinance their mortgages before their maturity dates, resulting in prepayment of mortgage-backed securities held indirectly by a fund. A fund would then lose any price appreciation above the mortgage’s principal and would be forced to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the fund’s income. Such prepayments and subsequent reinvestments would also increase a fund’s portfolio turnover rate.

Liquidity risk, which is the chance that a fund may not be able to sell a security in a timely manner at a desired price.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of securities issued by foreign companies, governments, or government agencies. Because the Fund may indirectly invest a large portion of its assets in bonds of issuers located in a particular country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/ regional risk for the Fund is high.

Currency hedging risk, which is the chance that the currency hedging transactions entered into by an underlying fund may not perfectly offset the underlying fund’s foreign currency exposure. An underlying fund may seek to mimic the performance of foreign bonds without regard to currency exchange rate fluctuations. To accomplish this goal, an

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underlying fund may attempt to offset, or hedge, its foreign currency exposure by entering into currency hedging transactions, primarily through the use of foreign currency exchange forward contracts. However, it generally is not possible to perfectly hedge a fund’s foreign currency exposure. An underlying fund will decline in value if it underhedges a currency that has weakened or overhedges a currency that has strengthened relative to the U.S. dollar. In addition, an underlying fund will incur expenses to hedge its foreign currency exposure. By entering into currency hedging transactions, an underlying fund may eliminate any chance to benefit from favorable fluctuations in relevant currency exchange rates. Currency hedging risk for the Fund is low.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for a fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of a fund’s target index.

Call risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, issuers of callable bonds may call (redeem) securities with higher coupon rates or interest rates before their maturity dates. A fund would then lose any price appreciation above the bond’s call price and would be forced to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the fund’s income. Such redemptions and subsequent reinvestments would also increase a fund’s portfolio turnover rate. Call risk should be low for the Fund.

Extension risk, which is the chance that during periods of rising interest rates, certain debt securities will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated, and the value of those securities may fall.

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on Nasdaq and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. The market price of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be affected by the market prices of the underlying funds’ ETF Shares.

• Although the Fund’s and the underlying funds’ ETF Shares are listed for trading on Nasdaq, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained, which could increase the Fund’s risks as disclosed in this prospectus.

• Trading of the Fund’s and the underlying funds’ ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s and the underlying funds’ ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from Nasdaq without first being listed on another exchange or (2) Nasdaq officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors. If trading

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of an underlying fund’s shares is halted, the Fund may not be able to purchase or dispose of underlying fund shares in a timely manner, which could increase the Fund’s risks as disclosed in this prospectus.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

This is the Fund‘s initial prospectus, so it does not contain performance data.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Manager

Joshua C. Barrickman, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Fixed Income Indexing Americas. He has managed the Fund since it commenced operations in September 2018.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 25,000.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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Investing in Vanguard ETF® Shares

What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?

Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks, bonds, or underlying ETFs held by the issuing fund.

How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?

Conventional mutual fund shares can be directly purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed directly from the issuing fund by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).

An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Individual investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that are subject to change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares, changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings, and other factors.

The market price of ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.

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How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?

ETF Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on Nasdaq. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the price a dealer will pay for a security and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer will sell the same security. Because secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/ discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.

Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions, as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

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Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund typically seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies, industries, and government entities.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus dealer markups and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Fund and ETF Shares

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

A Note to Investors

Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by certain authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities) that is expected to be worth several million dollars. Most individual investors, therefore, will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from the Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted from a
fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of the
fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF Shares’ expense ratio would
be 0.09%, or $0.90 per $1,000 of average net assets.

 

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a fund. That is because you, as
a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund and any
transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These costs
can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital appreciation a
fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can, over time,
have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the

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Fund‘s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund‘s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. As a fund of funds, the Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by primarily investing in underlying funds. Through its investments in underlying funds, the Fund indirectly owns a diversified portfolio of fixed income securities. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund‘s assets will be indirectly invested in investment-grade U.S. bonds and investment-grade non-U.S. dollar-denominated bonds. The Fund‘s policy of indirectly investing at least 80% of its assets in investment-grade U.S. bonds and investment-grade non-U.S. dollar-denominated bonds may be changed only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

Through the underlying funds, the Fund indirectly invests its assets in investment-grade U.S. bonds and investment-grade non-U.S. dollar-denominated bonds.


The Fund is subject to interest rate risk, which is the chance that bond prices will decline because of rising interest rates. Interest rate risk should be moderate for the Fund.

Although bonds are often thought to be less risky than stocks, there have been periods when bond prices have fallen significantly because of rising interest rates. For instance, prices of U.S. long-term bonds fell by almost 48% between December 1976 and September 1981. Note that over comparable periods of time, the prices of foreign bonds and U.S. bonds may increase or decrease by different amounts, and in some cases may move in opposite directions.

To illustrate the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, the following table shows the effect of a 1% and a 2% change (both up and down) in interest rates on the values of three noncallable bonds (i.e., bonds that cannot be redeemed by the issuer) of different maturities, each with a face value of $1,000.

How Interest Rate Changes Affect the Value of a $1,000 Bond1    
  After a 1% After a 1% After a 2% After a 2%
Type of Bond (Maturity) Increase Decrease Increase Decrease
Short-Term (2.5 years) $977 $1,024 $954 $1,049
Intermediate-Term (10 years) 922 1,086 851 1,180
Long-Term (20 years) 874 1,150 769 1,328
1 Assuming a 4% coupon rate.        

 

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These figures are for illustration only; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of the bond market as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Plain Talk About Bonds and Interest Rates
 
As a rule, when interest rates rise, bond prices fall. The opposite is also true:
Bond prices go up when interest rates fall. Why do bond prices and interest rates
move in opposite directions? Let’s assume that you hold a bond offering a 4%
yield. A year later, interest rates are on the rise and bonds of comparable quality
and maturity are offered with a 5% yield. With higher-yielding bonds available,
you would have trouble selling your 4% bond for the price you paid—you would
probably have to lower your asking price. On the other hand, if interest rates were
falling and 3% bonds were being offered, you should be able to sell your 4% bond
for more than you paid.
 
How mortgage-backed securities are different: In general, declining interest rates
will not lift the prices of mortgage-backed securities–such as those guaranteed by
the Government National Mortgage Association–as much as the prices of
comparable bonds. Why? Because when interest rates fall, the bond market
tends to discount the prices of mortgage-backed securities for prepayment risk–
the possibility that homeowners will refinance their mortgages at lower rates and
cause the bonds to be paid off prior to maturity. In part to compensate for this
prepayment possibility, mortgage-backed securities tend to offer higher yields
than other bonds of comparable credit quality and maturity. In contrast, when
interest rates rise, prepayments tend to slow down, subjecting mortgage-backed
securities to extension risk–the possibility that homeowners will repay their
mortgages at slower rates. This will lengthen the duration or average life of
mortgage-backed securities held by a fund and delay the fund’s ability to reinvest
proceeds at higher interest rates, making the fund more sensitive to changes in
interest rates.

 

Changes in interest rates can affect bond income as well as bond prices.


The Fund is subject to income risk, which is the chance that a fund’s income will decline because of falling interest rates. A fund holding bonds will experience a decline when interest rates fall because the fund then must invest new cash flow and cash from maturing bonds in lower-yielding bonds.

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Plain Talk About Bond Maturities
 
A bond is issued with a specific maturity date—the date when the issuer must pay
back the bond’s principal (face value). Bond maturities range from less than 1 year
to more than 30 years. Typically, the longer a bond’s maturity, the more price risk
you, as a bond investor, will face as interest rates rise—but also the higher the
potential yield you could receive. Longer-term bonds are more suitable for
investors willing to take a greater risk of price fluctuations to get higher and more
stable interest income. Shorter-term bond investors should be willing to accept
lower yields and greater income variability in return for less fluctuation in the value
of their investment. The stated maturity of a bond may differ from the effective
maturity of a bond, which takes into consideration that an action such as a call or
refunding may cause bonds to be repaid before their stated maturity dates.

 

Although falling interest rates tend to strengthen bond prices, they can cause problems for bond fund investors—bond calls and prepayments.


The Fund is subject to prepayment risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, homeowners will refinance their mortgages before their maturity dates, resulting in prepayment of mortgage-backed securities held by a fund. A fund would then lose any price appreciation above the mortgage’s principal and the underlying fund would be forced to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the fund’s income. Such prepayments and subsequent reinvestments would also increase a fund’s portfolio turnover rate.


The Fund is subject to extension risk, which is the chance that during periods of rising interest rates, certain debt securities will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated, and the value of those securities may fall. This will lengthen the duration or average life of securities held by a fund and delay a fund's ability to reinvest proceeds at higher interest rates, making the fund more sensitive to changes in interest rates. For funds that invest in mortgage-backed securities, extension risk is the chance that during periods of rising interest rates, homeowners will repay their mortgages at slower rates.


The Fund is subject to call risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, issuers of callable bonds may call (redeem) securities with higher coupon rates or interest rates before their maturity dates. A fund would then lose any price appreciation above the bond’s call price and would be forced to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in income.

The index that the Fund seeks to track includes only a limited number of callable bonds. Thus, call risk for the Fund should be low.

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The Fund is subject to credit risk, which is the chance that a bond issuer will fail to pay interest or principal in a timely manner or that negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments will cause the price of that bond to decline, thus reducing a fund’s return. Credit risk should be low for the Fund.

Plain Talk About Credit Quality
 
A bond’s credit-quality rating is an assessment of the issuer’s ability to pay interest
on the bond and, ultimately, to repay the principal. The lower the credit quality, the
greater the chance—in Vanguard’s opinion—that the bond issuer will default, or fail
to meet its payment obligations. All things being equal, the lower a bond’s credit
quality, the higher its yield should be to compensate investors for assuming
additional risk.

 

The underlying funds are expected to have low credit risk as a result of their investments in investment-grade bonds. Investment-grade bonds are those rated BBB/Baa or higher by a credit-rating agency, and therefore are a mixture of high- and medium-quality bonds.


The Fund is subject to liquidity risk, which is the chance that a security may not be sold in a timely manner at a desired price.

To a limited extent, the Fund is subject to event risk, which is the chance that securities held by the underlying funds may suffer a substantial decline in credit quality and market value because of a restructuring of the companies that issued the securities or because of other factors negatively affecting the issuers.


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of securities issued by foreign companies, governments, or government agencies. Because the Fund may indirectly invest a large portion of its assets in bonds of issuers located in a particular country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk for the Fund is high.

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The Fund is subject to currency hedging risk, which is the chance that the currency hedging transactions entered into by an underlying fund may not perfectly offset the underlying fund’s foreign currency exposure. An underlying fund may seek to mimic the performance of foreign bonds without regard to currency exchange rate fluctuations. To accomplish this goal, an underlying fund may attempt to offset, or hedge, its foreign currency exposure by entering into currency hedging transactions, primarily through the use of foreign currency exchange forward contracts. However, it generally is not possible to perfectly hedge an underlying fund’s foreign currency exposure. An underlying fund will decline in value if it underhedges a currency that has weakened or overhedges a currency that has strengthened relative to the U.S. dollar. In addition, an underlying fund will incur expenses to hedge its foreign currency exposure. By entering into currency hedging transactions, an underlying fund may eliminate any chance to benefit from favorable fluctuations in relevant currency exchange rates. Currency hedging risk for the Fund is low.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 

Security Selection

The Vanguard Total World Bond ETF is a fund of funds, which means that it seeks to achieve its objective by investing primarily in a combination of other funds rather than in individual securities. The Fund invests in two Vanguard bond ETFs, which are briefly described in the following paragraphs.

• Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF seeks to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index. This Index represents a wide spectrum of public, investment-grade, taxable, fixed income securities in the United States–including government, corporate, and international dollar-denominated bonds, as well as mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities–all with maturities of more than 1

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year. The Total Bond Market ETF invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a range of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the full Index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. As of December 31, 2017, there were 9,706 bonds in the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index.

• Vanguard Total International Bond ETF seeks to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged). This Index provides a broad-based measure of the global, investment-grade, fixed-rate debt markets. The Index includes government, government agency, corporate, and securitized non-U.S. investment-grade fixed income investments, all issued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and with maturities of more than one year. The Total International Bond ETF invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a range of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the full Index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. The Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged) is capped to comply with investment company diversification standards of the Internal Revenue Code, which state that, at the close of each fiscal quarter, a fund’s (1) exposure to any particular bond issuer may not exceed 25% of the fund’s assets, and (2) aggregate exposure to issuers that individually constitute 5% or more of the fund may not exceed 50% of the fund’s assets. To help enforce these limits, if the Index, on the last business day of any month, were to have greater than 20% exposure to any particular bond issuer, or greater than 48% aggregate exposure to issuers that individually constitute 5% or more of the Index, then the excess would be reallocated to bonds of other issuers represented in the Index. Notwithstanding the fact that the Index is capped, exposure of the Index or the Vanguard Total International Bond ETF to a particular bond issuer may exceed 25%, and issuers that individually constitute 5% or more of the Index or the Vanguard Total International Bond ETF may, in the aggregate, constitute more than 50% of the Index or the Vanguard Total International Bond ETF on any day during the month because of currency and/or price movements. As of October 31, 2017, there were 8,945 bonds in the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged).

Each of the underlying funds seek to track the performance of an index that represents a subset of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Float Adjusted Composite Index. Together, the two indexes comprise the Fund’s target index.

Plain Talk About Funds of Funds
 
The term fund of funds is used to describe a fund that pursues its objective by
investing in other funds. A fund of funds may charge for its own direct expenses,
in addition to bearing a proportionate share of the expenses charged by the
underlying funds in which it invests.

 

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Types of bonds. The Fund’s target index is the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Float Adjusted Composite Index. This Index is designed to track the market capitalized weights of the global investment-grade bond market and is comprised of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index and the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged).

Through its investment in Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF and Vanguard Total International Bond ETF, the Fund indirectly invests in the following types of bonds.

U.S. government and agency bonds represent loans by investors to the U.S.

Treasury or a wide variety of government agencies and instrumentalities. Securities issued by most U.S. government entities are neither guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury nor backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. These entities include, among others, the Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs), the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC).

Securities issued by the U.S. Treasury and a small number of U.S. government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA), are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The market values of U.S. government and agency securities and U.S. Treasury securities are subject to fluctuation.

Corporate bonds are IOUs issued by businesses that want to borrow money for some purpose–often to develop a new product or service, to expand into a new market, or to buy another company. As with other types of bonds, the issuer promises to repay the principal on a specific date and to make interest payments in the meantime. The amount of interest offered depends both on market conditions and on the financial health of the corporation issuing the bonds; a company whose credit rating is not strong will have to offer a higher interest rate to obtain buyers for its bonds. Corporate bonds include securities that are backed by a pool of underlying assets (asset-backed securities) or commercial mortgages (commercial mortgage-backed bonds). The Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF expects to purchase only investment-grade corporate bonds.

Mortgage-backed securities represent interests in underlying pools of mortgages.

Unlike ordinary bonds, which generally pay a fixed rate of interest at regular intervals and then repay principal upon maturity, mortgage-backed securities pass through both interest and principal from underlying mortgages as part of their regular payments. Because the mortgages underlying the securities can be prepaid at any time by homeowners or by corporate borrowers, mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. These types of securities are issued by a number of government agencies, including the GNMA, the FHLMC, and the FNMA. Mortgage-backed securities issued by the GNMA are guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest; those issued by other government agencies or private corporations are not. The Vanguard Total Bond Market

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ETF may also invest in conventional mortgage-backed securities—which are packaged by private corporations and are not guaranteed by the U.S. government—and enter into mortgage-dollar-roll transactions. In a mortgage-dollar-roll transaction, a fund sells mortgage-backed securities to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to purchase similar securities in the future at a predetermined price. These transactions simulate an investment in mortgage-backed securities and have the potential to enhance a fund’s returns and reduce its administrative burdens, compared with holding mortgage-backed securities directly. These transactions may increase a fund’s portfolio turnover rate. Mortgage dollar rolls will be used only to the extent that they are consistent with a fund’s investment objective and risk profile.

International dollar-denominated bonds are bonds denominated in U.S. dollars and issued by foreign governments and companies. To the extent that the Fund indirectly owns foreign bonds, it is subject to country risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of securities issued by companies in foreign countries. In addition, the prices of foreign bonds and the prices of U.S. bonds have, at times, moved in opposite directions. Because the bond’s value is designated in dollars rather than in the currency of the issuer’s country, the investor is not exposed to currency risk; rather, the issuer assumes that risk, usually to attract U.S. investors. Although currency movements do not affect the value of international dollar-denominated bonds directly, they could affect the value indirectly by adversely affecting the issuer’s ability (or the market’s perception of the issuer’s ability) to pay interest or repay principal.

Local currency bonds are government, government agency, corporate, and securitized non-U.S. investment-grade fixed income investments, issued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

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Plain Talk About U.S. Government–Sponsored Entities
 
A variety of U.S. government-sponsored entities (GSEs), such as the Federal
Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), the Federal National Mortgage
Association (FNMA), and the Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs), issue debt and
mortgage-backed securities. Although GSEs may be chartered or sponsored by
acts of Congress, they are not funded by congressional appropriations. In
September of 2008, the U.S. Treasury placed FNMA and FHLMC under
conservatorship and appointed the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to
manage their daily operations. In addition, the U.S. Treasury entered into
purchase agreements with FNMA and FHLMC to provide them with capital in
exchange for senior preferred stock. Generally, a GSE’s securities are neither
issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and are not backed by the full faith
and credit of the U.S. government. In most cases, these securities are supported
only by the credit of the GSE, standing alone. In some cases, a GSE’s securities
may be supported by the ability of the GSE to borrow from the U.S. Treasury or
may be supported by the U.S. government in some other way. Securities issued
by the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA), however, are backed
by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

 

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund’s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.


The Fund and the underlying funds may invest in derivatives. In general, investments in derivatives may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets.

Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). A fund may invest in derivatives only if the expected risks and rewards of the derivatives are consistent with the investment objective, policies, strategies, and risks of a fund as disclosed in its prospectus. In particular, derivatives will be used only when they may help the advisor to accomplish one or more of the following:

• Invest in eligible asset classes with greater efficiency and lower cost than is possible through direct investment.

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  • Add value when these instruments are attractively priced.
  • Adjust sensitivity to changes in interest rates.
  • Hedge foreign currency exposure.

An underlying fund’s derivative investments may include fixed income futures contracts, fixed income options, interest rate swaps, total return swaps, credit default swaps, or other derivatives. Losses (or gains) involving futures contracts can sometimes be substantial—in part because a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in an immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for a fund. Similar risks exist for other types of derivatives.

An underlying fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to hedge its foreign currency exposure. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. These contracts will be used in an effort to offset any changes in the dollar value of foreign bonds attributable to changes in the value of the bonds' local currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Although such contracts can protect a fund from unfavorable fluctuations in currency exchange rates, they also reduce or eliminate any chance for the fund to benefit from favorable exchange rate fluctuations. Notably, foreign currency exchange forward contracts do not prevent a fund’s securities from falling in value for reasons unrelated to currency exchange rates, such as interest rate increases and credit downgrades.

To the extent that an underlying fund enters into currency hedging transactions, the Fund is exposed to counterparty risk. Counterparty risk is the chance that the counterparty to a currency forward contract with a fund is unable or unwilling to meet its financial obligations.

Plain Talk About Derivatives
 
Derivatives can take many forms. Some forms of derivatives—such as exchange-
traded futures and options on securities, commodities, or indexes—have been
trading on regulated exchanges for decades. These types of derivatives are
standardized contracts that can easily be bought and sold and whose market
values are determined and published daily. On the other hand, non-exchange-
traded derivatives—such as certain swap agreements and foreign currency
exchange forward contracts—tend to be more specialized or complex and may be
more difficult to accurately value.

 

The Fund may invest a small portion of its assets in fixed income futures, which are a type of derivative, and/or shares of certain other exchange-traded funds. These fixed

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income futures and exchange-traded funds typically provide returns similar to those of the bonds listed in the Index, or in a subset of the Index, tracked by the Fund. The Fund may purchase futures or other ETF Shares when doing so will reduce the Fund’s transaction costs, facilitate cash management, mitigate risk, or have the potential to add value because the instruments are favorably priced. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in ETF Shares of other Vanguard funds. Fund assets invested in ETF Shares of other Vanguard funds are excluded when allocating to the Fund its share of the costs of Vanguard operations.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts to hedge its foreign currency exposure. Such contracts can protect the Fund from unfavorable fluctuations in currency exchange rates, but they also reduce or eliminate any chance for the Fund to benefit from favorable exchange rate fluctuations.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Redemptions of ETF Shares are typically met through a combination of cash and securities held by the Fund; see “How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?” If cash is used to meet redemptions, the Fund typically obtains such cash through positive cash flows or the sale of Fund holdings consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and strategy. Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information for further information on redemptions of ETF Shares.

Under certain circumstances, the Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments

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are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares


ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by certain authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units, which would cost millions of dollars to assemble. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.


The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.

Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund. The website also discloses, in the Premium/ Discount Analysis section of the Fund’s Price & Performance page, how frequently the Fund traded at a premium or discount to NAV and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.


An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.


Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other

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investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard. The exemptive order is not, however, available to the Fund. Accordingly, investment companies seeking to invest in the Fund must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management, increase the fund’s trading costs, lead to realization of capital gains by the fund, or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. Authorized broker-dealers are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), or are assessed a transaction fee when effected in cash, they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent cash trades. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, it may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an exchange-traded fund sells securities in response to changes in the composition of its target index or in an effort to manage the fund’s duration. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.8 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with

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administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

According to an agreement applicable to Vanguard Total World Bond ETF and Vanguard, the Fund’s direct expenses will be offset by Vanguard for (1) the Fund’s contributions to the costs of operating the underlying funds in which the Fund invests and (2) certain savings in administrative and marketing costs that Vanguard expects to derive from the Fund’s operation.

The Fund’s trustees believe that the offsets should be sufficient to cover most, if not all, of the direct expenses incurred by the Fund. As a result, the Fund is expected to operate at a very low or zero expense ratio. Although the Fund is not expected to incur any net expenses directly, the Fund’s shareholders indirectly bear the expenses of the underlying funds.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Fixed Income Group. As of July 31, 2018, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $4.2 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Fund’s board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor–either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change

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in the Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Fund’s sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to the Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Fund has filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Fund may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended February 28, 2019, which will be available 60 days after that date.

The manager primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund is:

Joshua C. Barrickman, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Fixed Income Indexing Americas. He has been with Vanguard since 1998, has worked in investment management since 1999, has managed investment portfolios since 2005, and has managed the Fund since it commenced operations in September 2018. Education: B.S., Ohio Northern University; M.B.A., Lehigh University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about the portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings or received as dividend or capital gains distributions from the underlying funds. The Fund’s income dividends generally are declared monthly and distributed monthly; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

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Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments. Income consists of
interest the fund earns from its money market and bond investments. Capital
gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for higher prices than it paid
for them. These capital gains are either short-term or long-term, depending on
whether the fund held the securities for one year or less or for more than one
year.

 

Reinvestment of Distributions

In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in the Fund must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.

As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of the Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any income dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.

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• Income and capital gains distributions may vary considerably from month to month or year to year, as applicable, as a result of the Fund‘s (and underlying funds’) normal investment and currency hedging activities and cash flows.

• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on ”net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale of ETF Shares.

Income dividends and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may, directly or indirectly, be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Share Price and Market Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard‘s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. The NAV per share is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, of the Fund by the number of Fund shares outstanding. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

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Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers).

Debt securities held by a Vanguard fund are valued based on information furnished by an independent pricing service or market quotations. When a fund determines that pricing-service information or market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

The Fund’s NAV is calculated based upon the values of the underlying funds in which the Fund invests. The value of the underlying funds’ ETF Shares held by the Fund are based on the market value of the shares. The prospectuses for the underlying funds explain the circumstances under which those funds will use fair-value pricing and the effects of doing so.

Additional Information        
 
 
      Vanguard  
  Inception Newspaper Fund CUSIP
  Date Abbreviation Number Number
 
Total World Bond ETF 9/4/2018 TotWdBdETF 3061 92206C565

 

Certain affiliates of the Fund and the advisor may purchase and resell ETF Shares pursuant to the prospectus.

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CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

BLOOMBERG is a trademark and service mark of Bloomberg Finance L.P. BARCLAYS is a trademark and service mark of Barclays Bank Plc, used under license. Bloomberg Finance L.P. and its affiliates, including Bloomberg Index Services Limited (BISL) (collectively, Bloomberg), or Bloomberg’s licensors, own all proprietary rights in the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Float Adjusted Composite Index (the Index or Bloomberg Barclays Index).

Neither Barclays Bank Plc, Barclays Capital Inc., or any affiliate (collectively Barclays) or Bloomberg is the issuer or producer of the Total World Bond ETF and neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any responsibilities, obligations or duties to investors in the Total World Bond ETF. The Index is licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard) as the sponsor of the Total World Bond ETF. Bloomberg and Barclays’ only relationship with Vanguard in respect to the Index is the licensing of the Index, which is determined, composed and calculated by BISL, or any successor thereto, without regard to the Issuer or the Total World Bond ETF or the owners of the Total World Bond ETF.

Additionally, Vanguard may for itself execute transaction(s) with Barclays in or relating to the Index in connection with the Total World Bond ETF. Investors acquire the Total World Bond ETF from Vanguard and investors neither acquire any interest in the Index nor enter into any relationship of any kind whatsoever with Bloomberg or Barclays upon making an investment in the Total World Bond ETF. The Total World Bond ETF is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Bloomberg or Barclays. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays makes any representation or warranty, express or implied regarding the advisability of investing in the Total World Bond ETF or the advisability of investing in securities generally or the ability of the Index to track corresponding or relative market performance. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has passed on the legality or suitability of the Total World Bond ETF with respect to any person or entity. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays is responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Total World Bond ETF to be issued. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any obligation to take the needs of the Issuer or the owners of the Total World Bond ETF or any other third party into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any obligation or liability in connection with administration, marketing or trading of the Total World Bond ETF.

The licensing agreement between Bloomberg and Barclays is solely for the benefit of Bloomberg and Barclays and not for the benefit of the owners of the Total World Bond ETF, investors or other third parties. In addition, the licensing agreement between Vanguard and Bloomberg is solely for the benefit of Vanguard and Bloomberg and not for the benefit of the owners of the Total World Bond ETF, investors or other third parties.

NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO THE ISSUER, INVESTORS OR TO OTHER THIRD PARTIES FOR THE QUALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR COMPLETENESS OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN OR FOR INTERRUPTIONS IN THE DELIVERY OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY THE ISSUER, THE INVESTORS OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EACH HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. BLOOMBERG RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE THE METHODS OF CALCULATION OR PUBLICATION, OR TO CEASE THE CALCULATION OR PUBLICATION OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX, AND NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY MISCALCULATION OF OR ANY INCORRECT, DELAYED OR INTERRUPTED PUBLICATION WITH RESPECT TO THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY LOST PROFITS AND EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH, RESULTING FROM THE USE OF A BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN OR WITH RESPECT TO THE TOTAL WORLD BOND ETF.

None of the information supplied by Bloomberg or Barclays and used in this publication may be reproduced in any manner without the prior written permission of both Bloomberg and Barclays Capital, the investment banking division of Barclays Bank Plc. Barclays Bank Plc is registered in England No. 1026167. Registered office 1 Churchill Place London E14 5HP.

28


 

Glossary of Investment Terms

Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.

Average Maturity. The average length of time until bonds held by a fund reach maturity and are repaid. In general, the longer the average maturity, the more a fund’s share price fluctuates in response to changes in market interest rates. In calculating average maturity, a fund uses a bond’s maturity or, if applicable, an earlier date on which the advisor believes it is likely that a maturity-shortening device (such as a call, a put, a refunding, a prepayment, or a redemption provision or an adjustable coupon rate) will cause the bond to be repaid.

Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the price a dealer is willing to pay for a security (the bid price) and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer is willing to sell the same security (the ask price).

Bond. A debt security (IOU) issued by a corporation, a government, or a government agency in exchange for the money the bondholder lends it. In most instances, the issuer agrees to pay back the loan by a specific date and generally to make regular interest payments until that date.

Capital Gains Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Corporate Bond. An IOU issued by a business that wants to borrow money. As with other types of bonds, the issuer promises to repay the borrowed money by a specific date and generally to make interest payments in the meantime.

Coupon Rate. The interest rate paid by the issuer of a debt security until its maturity. It is expressed as an annual percentage of the face value of the security.

Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.

Dividend Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a fund or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution per share (plus or minus any market activity).

29


 

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Face Value. The amount to be paid at a bond’s maturity; also known as the par value or principal.

Fixed Income Security. An investment, such as a bond, representing a debt that must be repaid by a specified date, and on which the borrower must pay a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest.

Float-Adjusted Index. An index that weights its constituent securities based on the value of the constituent securities that are available for public trading, rather than the value of all constituent securities. Some portion of an issuer’s securities may be unavailable for public trading because, for example, those securities are owned by company insiders on a restricted basis or by a government agency. By excluding unavailable securities, float-adjusted indexes can produce a more accurate picture of the returns actually experienced by investors in the measured market.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Investment-Grade Bond. A debt security whose credit quality is considered by independent bond-rating agencies, or through independent analysis conducted by a fund’s advisor, to be sufficient to ensure timely payment of principal and interest under current economic circumstances. Debt securities rated in one of the four highest rating categories are considered investment-grade. Other debt securities may be considered by an advisor to be investment-grade.

Joint Committed Credit Facility. The Fund may participate, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each Vanguard fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the Fund‘s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis. New funds, such as Vanguard Total World Bond ETF, will generally be added to the agreement during the annual renewal process.

30


 

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE.

Principal. The face value of a debt instrument or the amount of money put into an investment.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

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Institutional Division P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com

For More Information

If you would like more information about Vanguard Total World Bond ETF, the following documents are available free upon request:

Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders

Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The SAI provides more detailed information about the Fund’s ETF Shares and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.

To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report (once available) or the SAI, or to request additional information about Vanguard ETF Shares, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:

Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

You can review and copy information about the Fund (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and other information about the Fund are also available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.

Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07803

The Vanguard Group
Institutional Investor Information
P.O. Box 2900
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
Telephone: 866-499-8473

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646; and 8,417,623.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

P 3061 092018


PART B

VANGUARD® SCOTTSDALE FUNDS

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

September 4, 2018

This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus but should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s current prospectus dated September 4, 2018. The Fund’s prospectus and copies of the Annual and Semiannual Reports to Shareholders, when available, may be obtained free of charge by contacting The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard).

Phone: Investor Information Department at 800-662-7447 Online: vanguard.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Description of the Trust B-2
Fundamental Policies B-4
Investment Strategies, Risks, and Nonfundamental Policies B-5
Share Price B-32
Management of the Fund B-32
Investment Advisory and Other Services B-46
Portfolio Transactions B-47
Proxy Voting Guidelines B-48
Information About the ETF Share Class, Purchase and Redemption of Shares B-54
Financial Statements B-67
Description of Bond Ratings B-67

 

B-1


 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST

Vanguard Scottsdale Funds (the Trust) currently offers the following funds and share classes (identified by ticker symbol):

    Share Classes1  
Fund2 Investor Admiral Institutional ETF
Vanguard Explorer ValueTM Fund VEVFX
Vanguard Short-Term Treasury Index Fund3 VSBSX VSBIX VGSH
Vanguard Intermediate-Term Treasury Index Fund4 VSIGX VIIGX VGIT
Vanguard Long-Term Treasury Index Fund5 VLGSX VLGIX VGLT
Vanguard Short-Term Corporate Bond Index Fund VSCSX VSTBX VCSH
Vanguard Intermediate-Term Corporate Bond Index Fund VICSX VICBX VCIT
Vanguard Long-Term Corporate Bond Index Fund VLTCX VLCIX VCLT
Vanguard Mortgage-Backed Securities Index Fund VMBSX VMBIX VMBS
Vanguard Total Corporate Bond ETF VTC
Vanguard Russell 1000 Index Fund VRNIX VONE
Vanguard Russell 1000 Value Index Fund VRVIX VONV
Vanguard Russell 1000 Growth Index Fund VRGWX VONG
Vanguard Russell 2000 Index Fund VRTIX VTWO
Vanguard Russell 2000 Value Index Fund VRTVX VTWV
Vanguard Russell 2000 Growth Index Fund VRTGX VTWG
Vanguard Russell 3000 Index Fund VRTTX VTHR
Vanguard Total World Bond ETF BNDW
1 Individually, a class; collectively, the classes.        
2 Individually, a Fund; collectively, the Funds.        
3 Formerly known as Vanguard Short-Term Government Bond Index Fund.        
4 Formerly known as Vanguard Intermediate-Term Government Bond Index Fund.        
5 Formerly known as Vanguard Long-Term Government Bond Index Fund.        

 

This Statement of Additional Information relates only to Vanguard Total World Bond ETF (“Fund”). A separate Statement of Additional Information dated December 21, 2017, which relates to the Trust’s other funds, can be obtained free of charge by contacting Vanguard.

The Trust has the ability to offer additional funds or classes of shares. There is no limit on the number of full and fractional shares that may be issued for a single fund or class of shares.

Organization

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust in 1996. Prior to 2009, the Trust was known as Vanguard Treasury Funds. The Trust is registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the 1940 Act) as an open-end management investment company. The Fund is classified as diversified within the meaning of the 1940 Act.

Service Providers

Custodian. JPMorgan Chase Bank, 383 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10179, serves as custodian for the Fund. The custodian is responsible for maintaining the Fund’s assets, keeping all necessary accounts and records of Fund assets, and appointing any foreign subcustodians or foreign securities depositories.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Two Commerce Square, Suite 1800, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-7042, serves as the Fund‘s independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm audits the Fund‘s annual financial statements and provides other related services.

Transfer and Dividend-Paying Agent. The Fund’s transfer agent and dividend-paying agent is Vanguard, P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

B-2


 

Characteristics of the Fund‘s Shares

Restrictions on Holding or Disposing of Shares. There are no restrictions on the right of shareholders to retain or dispose of the Fund’s shares, other than those described in the Fund’s current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information. The Fund or class may be terminated by reorganization into another mutual fund or class or by liquidation and distribution of the assets of the Fund or class. Unless terminated by reorganization or liquidation, the Fund and share class will continue indefinitely.

Shareholder Liability. The Trust is organized under Delaware law, which provides that shareholders of a statutory trust are entitled to the same limitations of personal liability as shareholders of a corporation organized under Delaware law. This means that a shareholder of the Fund generally will not be personally liable for payment of the Fund’s debts. Some state courts, however, may not apply Delaware law on this point. We believe that the possibility of such a situation arising is remote.

Dividend Rights. The shareholders of each class of the Fund are entitled to receive any dividends or other distributions declared by the Fund for each such class. No shares of the Fund have priority or preference over any other shares of the Fund with respect to distributions. Distributions will be made from the assets of the Fund and will be paid ratably to all shareholders of a particular class according to the number of shares of the class held by shareholders on the record date. The amount of dividends per share may vary between separate share classes of the Fund based upon differences in the net asset values of the different classes and differences in the way that expenses are allocated between share classes pursuant to a multiple class plan approved by the Fund’s board of trustees.

Voting Rights. Shareholders are entitled to vote on a matter if (1) the matter concerns an amendment to the Declaration of Trust that would adversely affect to a material degree the rights and preferences of the shares of the Fund or any class; (2) the trustees determine that it is necessary or desirable to obtain a shareholder vote; (3) a merger or consolidation, share conversion, share exchange, or sale of assets is proposed and a shareholder vote is required by the 1940 Act to approve the transaction; or (4) a shareholder vote is required under the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act requires a shareholder vote under various circumstances, including to elect or remove trustees upon the written request of shareholders representing 10% or more of the Fund’s net assets, to change any fundamental policy of the Fund (please see Fundamental Policies), and to enter into certain merger transactions. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, shareholders of the Fund receive one vote for each dollar of net asset value owned on the record date and a fractional vote for each fractional dollar of net asset value owned on the record date. However, only the shares of the Fund or class affected by a particular matter are entitled to vote on that matter. In addition, each class has exclusive voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders that relates solely to that class, and each class has separate voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders in which the interests of one class differ from the interests of another. Voting rights are noncumulative and cannot be modified without a majority vote by the shareholders.

Liquidation Rights. In the event that the Fund is liquidated, shareholders will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets. In the event that a class of shares is liquidated, shareholders of that class will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets that are allocated to that class. Shareholders may receive cash, securities, or a combination of the two.

Preemptive Rights. There are no preemptive rights associated with the Fund‘s shares.

Conversion Rights. There are no conversion rights associated with the Fund.

Redemption Provisions. The Fund’s redemption provisions are described in its current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information.

Sinking Fund Provisions. The Fund has no sinking fund provisions.

Calls or Assessment. The Fund’s shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.

Tax Status of the Fund

The Fund intends to elect to be treated as, and expects to qualify each year, as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the IRC). This special tax status means that the Fund will not be liable for federal tax on income and capital gains distributed to shareholders. In order to preserve its tax status, the Fund must comply with certain requirements relating to the source of its income and the diversification of its assets. If the Fund fails to meet these requirements in any taxable year, the Fund will, in some cases, be able to cure

B-3


 

such failure, including by paying a fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, and/or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund is ineligible to or otherwise does not cure such failure for any year, it will be subject to tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before regaining its tax status as a regulated investment company.

Dividends received and distributed by the Fund on shares of stock of domestic corporations (excluding Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)) and certain foreign corporations generally may be eligible to be reported by the Fund, and treated by individual shareholders, as “qualified dividend income” taxed at long-term capital gain rates instead of at higher ordinary income tax rates. Individuals must satisfy holding period and other requirements in order to be eligible for such treatment. Capital gains distributed by the Fund are not eligible for treatment as qualified dividend income.

Under recent tax legislation, individuals (and certain other noncorporate entities) are generally eligible for a 20% deduction with respect to taxable ordinary dividends from REITs and certain taxable income from publicly traded partnerships. Currently, there is not a regulatory mechanism for regulated investment companies to pass through the 20% deduction to shareholders. As a result, in comparison, investors investing directly in REITs or publicly traded partnerships would generally be eligible for the 20% deduction for such taxable income from these investments while investors investing in REITs or publicly traded partnerships indirectly through the Fund would not be eligible for the 20% deduction for their share of such taxable income.

Dividends received and distributed by the Fund on shares of stock of domestic corporations (excluding REITs) may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction applicable to corporate shareholders. Corporations must satisfy certain requirements in order to claim the deduction. Capital gains distributed by the Fund are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction.

The Fund may declare a capital gain dividend consisting of the excess (if any) of net realized long-term capital gains over net realized short-term capital losses. Net capital gains for a fiscal year are computed by taking into account any capital loss carryforwards of the Fund. Capital losses may be carried forward indefinitely and retain their character as either short-term or long-term.

FUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

The Fund is subject to the following fundamental investment policies, which cannot be changed in any material way without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s shares. For these purposes, a “majority” of shares means shares representing the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the Fund’s net assets voted, so long as shares representing more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets are present or represented by proxy or (2) more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets.

Borrowing. The Fund may borrow money only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Commodities. The Fund may invest in commodities only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Industry Concentration. The Fund will not concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except as may be necessary to approximate the composition of its target index.

Loans. The Fund may make loans to another person only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Real Estate. The Fund may not invest directly in real estate unless it is acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments (1) issued by companies that invest, deal, or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate or (2) backed or secured by real estate or interests in real estate.

Senior Securities. The Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

B-4


 

Underwriting. The Fund may not act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 (the 1933 Act), in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

Compliance with the fundamental policies previously described is generally measured at the time the securities are purchased. Unless otherwise required by the 1940 Act (as is the case with borrowing), if a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time the investment is made, a later change in percentage resulting from a change in the market value of assets will not constitute a violation of such restriction. All fundamental policies must comply with applicable regulatory requirements. For more details, see Investment Strategies, Risks, and Nonfundamental Policies.

None of these policies prevents the Fund from having an ownership interest in Vanguard. As a part owner of Vanguard, the Fund may own securities issued by Vanguard, make loans to Vanguard, and contribute to Vanguard’s costs or other financial requirements. See Management of the Fund for more information.

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES, RISKS, AND NONFUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

Some of the investment strategies and policies described on the following pages and in the Fund’s prospectus set forth percentage limitations on the Fund’s investment in, or holdings of, certain securities or other assets. Unless otherwise required by law, compliance with these strategies and policies will be determined immediately after the acquisition of such securities or assets by the Fund. Subsequent changes in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the Fund’s investment strategies and policies.

The following investment strategies, risks, and policies supplement the Fund’s investment strategies, risks, and policies set forth in the prospectus. With respect to the different investments discussed as follows, the Fund may directly or indirectly invest in such investments to the extent consistent with its investment strategies and policies.

Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, pools of underlying assets such as debt securities, bank loans, motor vehicle installment sales contracts, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (i.e., credit card) agreements, and other categories of receivables. These underlying assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose entities. Payment of interest and repayment of principal on asset-backed securities may be largely dependent upon the cash flows generated by the underlying assets backing the securities and, in certain cases, may be supported by letters of credit, surety bonds, or other credit enhancements. The rate of principal payments on asset-backed securities is related to the rate of principal payments, including prepayments, on the underlying assets. The credit quality of asset-backed securities depends primarily on the quality of the underlying assets, the level of credit support, if any, provided for the securities, and the credit quality of the credit-support provider, if any. The value of asset-backed securities may be affected by the various factors described above and other factors, such as changes in interest rates, the availability of information concerning the pool and its structure, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the pool, the originator of the underlying assets, or the entities providing the credit enhancement.

Asset-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate, as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying assets. Prepayments of principal by borrowers or foreclosure or other enforcement action by creditors shortens the term of the underlying assets. The occurrence of prepayments is a function of several factors, such as the level of interest rates, the general economic conditions, the location and age of the underlying obligations, and other social and demographic conditions. A fund’s ability to maintain positions in asset-backed securities is affected by the reductions in the principal amount of the underlying assets because of prepayments. A fund’s ability to reinvest prepayments of principal (as well as interest and other distributions and sale proceeds) at a comparable yield is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. The value of asset-backed securities varies with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of U.S. government securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. In periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the average life of the underlying securities. Conversely, in periods of falling interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the average life of such assets. Because prepayments of principal generally occur when interest rates are declining, an investor, such as a fund, generally has to reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at lower interest rates than those at which the assets were previously invested. Therefore, asset-backed securities have less potential for capital appreciation in periods of falling interest rates than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.

B-5


 

Because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in the underlying assets that is comparable to a mortgage, asset-backed securities present certain additional risks that are not present with mortgage-backed securities. For example, revolving credit receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than by real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying assets. If the servicer of a pool of underlying assets sells them to another party, there is the risk that the purchaser could acquire an interest superior to that of holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issue of asset-backed securities and technical requirements under state law, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the automobiles. Therefore, there is the possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities. Asset-backed securities have been, and may continue to be, subject to greater liquidity risks because of the deterioration of worldwide economic and liquidity conditions that became acute in 2008. In addition, government actions and proposals that affect the terms of underlying home and consumer loans, thereby changing demand for products financed by those loans, as well as the inability of borrowers to refinance existing loans, have had and may continue to have a negative effect on the valuation and liquidity of asset-backed securities.

Borrowing. A fund’s ability to borrow money is limited by its investment policies and limitations; by the 1940 Act; and by applicable exemptions, no-action letters, interpretations, and other pronouncements issued from time to time by the SEC and its staff or any other regulatory authority with jurisdiction. Under the 1940 Act, a fund is required to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets made for temporary or emergency purposes. Any borrowings for temporary purposes in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets must maintain continuous asset coverage. If the 300% asset coverage should decline as a result of market fluctuations or for other reasons, a fund may be required to sell some of its portfolio holdings within three days (excluding Sundays and holidays) to reduce the debt and restore the 300% asset coverage, even though it may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint to sell securities at that time.

Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased with the proceeds of such borrowing. A fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.

The SEC takes the position that transactions that have a leveraging effect on the capital structure of a fund or are economically equivalent to borrowing can be viewed as constituting a form of borrowing by the fund for purposes of the 1940 Act. These transactions can include entering into reverse repurchase agreements; engaging in mortgage-dollar-roll transactions; selling securities short (other than short sales “against-the-box”); buying and selling certain derivatives (such as futures contracts); selling (or writing) put and call options; engaging in sale-buybacks; entering into firm-commitment and standby-commitment agreements; engaging in when-issued, delayed-delivery, or forward-commitment transactions; and participating in other similar trading practices. (Additional discussion about a number of these transactions can be found on the following pages.) A borrowing transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund maintains an offsetting financial position; segregates liquid assets (with such liquidity determined by the advisor in accordance with procedures established by the board of trustees) equal (as determined on a daily mark-to-market basis) in value to the fund’s potential economic exposure under the borrowing transaction; or otherwise “covers” the transaction in accordance with applicable SEC guidance (collectively, “covers” the transaction). A fund may have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price in order to cover a borrowing transaction. In addition, segregated assets may not be available to satisfy redemptions or to fulfill other obligations.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are hybrid securities that combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks. Convertible securities typically consist of debt securities or preferred stock that may be converted (on a voluntary or mandatory basis) within a specified period of time (normally for the entire life of the security) into a certain amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer at a predetermined price. Convertible securities also include debt securities with warrants or common stock attached and

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derivatives combining the features of debt securities and equity securities. Other convertible securities with features and risks not specifically referred to herein may become available in the future. Convertible securities involve risks similar to those of both fixed income and equity securities. In a corporation’s capital structure, convertible securities are senior to common stock but are usually subordinated to senior debt obligations of the issuer.

The market value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” and its “conversion value.” A security’s “investment value” represents the value of the security without its conversion feature (i.e., a nonconvertible debt security). The investment value may be determined by reference to its credit quality and the current value of its yield to maturity or probable call date. At any given time, investment value is dependent upon such factors as the general level of interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer, and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure. A security’s “conversion value” is determined by multiplying the number of shares the holder is entitled to receive upon conversion or exchange by the current price of the underlying security. If the conversion value of a convertible security is significantly below its investment value, the convertible security will trade like nonconvertible debt or preferred stock and its market value will not be influenced greatly by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that circumstance, the convertible security takes on the characteristics of a bond, and its price moves in the opposite direction from interest rates. Conversely, if the conversion value of a convertible security is near or above its investment value, the market value of the convertible security will be more heavily influenced by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that case, the convertible security’s price may be as volatile as that of common stock. Because both interest rates and market movements can influence its value, a convertible security generally is not as sensitive to interest rates as a similar debt security, nor is it as sensitive to changes in share price as its underlying equity security. Convertible securities are often rated below investment-grade or are not rated, and they are generally subject to a high degree of credit risk.

Although all markets are prone to change over time, the generally high rate at which convertible securities are retired (through mandatory or scheduled conversions by issuers or through voluntary redemptions by holders) and replaced with newly issued convertible securities may cause the convertible securities market to change more rapidly than other markets. For example, a concentration of available convertible securities in a few economic sectors could elevate the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the specific risks of those sectors. Moreover, convertible securities with innovative structures, such as mandatory-conversion securities and equity-linked securities, have increased the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the special risks of those innovations, which may include risks different from, and possibly greater than, those associated with traditional convertible securities. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price set in the governing instrument of the convertible security. If a convertible security held by a fund is subject to such redemption option and is called for redemption, the fund must allow the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell the security to a third party.

Cybersecurity Risks. The increased use of technology to conduct business could subject a fund and its third-party service providers (including, but not limited to, investment advisors and custodians) to risks associated with cybersecurity. In general, a cybersecurity incident can occur as a result of a deliberate attack designed to gain unauthorized access to digital systems. If the attack is successful, an unauthorized person or persons could misappropriate assets or sensitive information, corrupt data, or cause operational disruption. A cybersecurity incident could also occur unintentionally if, for example, an authorized person inadvertently released proprietary or confidential information. Vanguard has developed robust technological safeguards and business continuity plans to prevent, or reduce the impact of, potential cybersecurity incidents. Additionally, Vanguard has a process for assessing the information security and/or cybersecurity programs implemented by a fund’s third-party service providers, which helps minimize the risk of potential incidents. Despite these measures, a cybersecurity incident still has the potential to disrupt business operations, which could negatively impact a fund and/or its shareholders. Some examples of negative impacts that could occur as a result of a cybersecurity incident include, but are not limited to, the following: a fund may be unable to calculate its net asset value (NAV), a fund’s shareholders may be unable to transact business, a fund may be unable to process transactions on behalf of its shareholders, or a fund may be unable to safeguard its data or the personal information of its shareholders.

Debt Securities. A debt security, sometimes called a fixed income security, consists of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuing company or governmental body promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero-coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a

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discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call risk, prepayment risk, extension risk, inflation risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, and (in the case of foreign securities) country risk and currency risk. The reorganization of an issuer under the federal bankruptcy laws may result in the issuer’s debt securities being cancelled without repayment, repaid only in part, or repaid in part or in whole through an exchange thereof for any combination of cash, debt securities, convertible securities, equity securities, or other instruments or rights in respect to the same issuer or a related entity.

Debt Securities—Bank Obligations. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable short-term obligations of commercial banks. Variable rate certificates of deposit have an interest rate that is periodically adjusted prior to their stated maturity based upon a specified market rate. As a result of these adjustments, the interest rate on these obligations may be increased or decreased periodically. Frequently, dealers selling variable rate certificates of deposit to a fund will agree to repurchase such instruments, at the fund’s option, at par on or near the coupon dates. The dealers’ obligations to repurchase these instruments are subject to conditions imposed by various dealers; such conditions typically are the continued credit standing of the issuer and the existence of reasonably orderly market conditions. A fund is also able to sell variable rate certificates of deposit on the secondary market. Variable rate certificates of deposit normally carry a higher interest rate than comparable fixed-rate certificates of deposit. A banker’s acceptance is a time draft drawn on a commercial bank by a borrower usually in connection with an international commercial transaction (to finance the import, export, transfer, or storage of goods). The borrower is liable for payment, as is the bank, which unconditionally guarantees to pay the draft at its face amount on the maturity date. Most acceptances have maturities of 6 months or less and are traded in the secondary markets prior to maturity.

Debt Securities—Commercial Paper. Commercial paper refers to short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations to finance short-term credit needs. It is usually sold on a discount basis and has a maturity at the time of issuance not exceeding 9 months. High-quality commercial paper typically has the following characteristics: (1) liquidity ratios are adequate to meet cash requirements; (2) long-term senior debt is also high credit quality; (3) the issuer has access to at least two additional channels of borrowing; (4) basic earnings and cash flow have an upward trend with allowance made for unusual circumstances; (5) typically, the issuer’s industry is well established and the issuer has a strong position within the industry; and (6) the reliability and quality of management are unquestioned. In assessing the credit quality of commercial paper issuers, the following factors may be considered: (1) evaluation of the management of the issuer, (2) economic evaluation of the issuer’s industry or industries and the appraisal of speculative-type risks that may be inherent in certain areas, (3) evaluation of the issuer’s products in relation to competition and customer acceptance, (4) liquidity, (5) amount and quality of long-term debt, (6) trend of earnings over a period of ten years, (7) financial strength of a parent company and the relationships that exist with the issuer, and (8) recognition by the management of obligations that may be present or may arise as a result of public-interest questions and preparations to meet such obligations. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to interest rate risk than longer-term fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Additionally, an issuer may expect to repay commercial paper obligations at maturity from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to the risk the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper payment obligations, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper may suffer from reduced liquidity due to certain circumstances, in particular, during stressed markets. In addition, as with all fixed income securities, an issuer may default on its commercial paper obligation.

Variable-amount master-demand notes are demand obligations that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts at varying market rates of interest pursuant to an arrangement between the issuer and a commercial bank acting as agent for the payees of such notes, whereby both parties have the right to vary the amount of the outstanding indebtedness on the notes. Because variable-amount master-demand notes are direct lending arrangements between a lender and a borrower, it is not generally contemplated that such instruments will be traded, and there is no secondary market for these notes, although they are redeemable (and thus immediately repayable by the borrower) at face value, plus accrued interest, at any time. In connection with a fund’s investment in variable-amount master-demand notes, Vanguard’s

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investment management staff will monitor, on an ongoing basis, the earning power, cash flow, and other liquidity ratios of the issuer, along with the borrower’s ability to pay principal and interest on demand.

Debt Securities—Emerging Market Risk. Investing in emerging market countries involves certain risks not typically associated with investing in the United States, and imposes risks greater than, or in addition to, risks of investing in more developed foreign countries. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following: nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; greater social, economic, and political uncertainty and instability (including amplified risk of war and terrorism); more substantial government involvement in the economy; less government supervision and regulation of the securities markets and participants in those markets; controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital; generally, smaller, less seasoned, and newly organized companies; the difference in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; difficulty in obtaining and/or enforcing a judgment in a court outside the United States; and greater price volatility, substantially less liquidity, and significantly smaller market capitalization of bond markets. Also, any change in the leadership or politics of emerging market countries, or the countries that exercise a significant influence over those countries, may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. Furthermore, high rates of inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and bond markets of certain emerging market countries.

Debt Securities—Foreign Securities. The Fund invests a substantial portion of its assets in foreign debt securities. Typically, foreign debt securities are issued by entities organized, domiciled, or with a principal executive office outside the United States, such as foreign corporations and governments. Foreign securities may trade in U.S. or foreign securities markets. Investing in foreign debt securities involves certain special risk considerations that are not typically associated with investing in debt securities of U.S. companies or governments.

Because foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers, there may be less publicly available information about certain foreign issuers than about U.S. issuers. Evidence of securities ownership may be uncertain in many foreign countries. As a result, there are multiple risks that could result in a loss to the fund, including, but not limited to, the risk that a fund’s trade details could be incorrectly or fraudulently entered at the time of the transaction. Securities of foreign issuers are generally more volatile and less liquid than securities of comparable U.S. issuers, and foreign investments may be effected through structures that may be complex or confusing. In certain countries, there is less government supervision and regulation of bond markets, bond dealers, and bond issuers than in the United States. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political or social instability, war, terrorism, nationalization, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets, or diplomatic developments that could affect U.S. investments in those countries. Additionally, economic or other sanctions imposed on the United States by a foreign country, or imposed on a foreign country by the United States, could impair a fund’s ability to buy, sell, hold, receive, deliver, or otherwise transact in certain investment securities. Sanctions could also affect the value and/or liquidity of a foreign security.

Although an advisor will endeavor to achieve the most favorable execution costs for a fund’s portfolio transactions in foreign securities under the circumstances, mark-ups and other transaction costs are generally higher than those on U.S. securities. In addition, it is expected that the custodian arrangement expenses for a fund that invests primarily in foreign securities will be somewhat greater than the expenses for a fund that invests primarily in domestic securities. Certain foreign governments levy withholding or other taxes against dividend and interest income from or transactions in foreign securities. Although in some countries a portion of these taxes is recoverable by the fund, the nonrecovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from such securities.

The value of the foreign securities held by a fund that are not U.S. dollar-denominated may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The U.S. dollar value of a foreign security generally decreases when the value of the U.S. dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated, and it tends to increase when the value of the U.S. dollar falls against such currency. The Fund will attempt to hedge local currency risk, as discussed under the heading “Foreign Securities—Foreign Currency Transactions.” In addition, the value of fund assets may be affected by losses and other expenses incurred in converting between various currencies in order to purchase and sell foreign securities, as well as by currency restrictions, exchange control regulation, currency devaluations, and political and economic developments.

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Debt Securities—Inflation-Indexed Securities. Inflation-indexed securities are debt securities, the principal value of which is periodically adjusted to reflect the rate of inflation as indicated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inflation-indexed securities may be issued by the U.S. government, by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government, and by corporations. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the CPI accruals as part of a semiannual coupon payment.

The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed securities is tied to the CPI, which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation, and energy. Inflation-indexed securities issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will correlate to the rate of inflation in the United States.

Inflation—a general rise in prices of goods and services—erodes the purchasing power of an investor’s portfolio. For example, if an investment provides a “nominal” total return of 5% in a given year and inflation is 2% during that period, the inflation-adjusted, or real, return is 3%. Inflation, as measured by the CPI, has generally occurred during the past 50 years, so investors should be conscious of both the nominal and real returns of their investments. Investors in inflation-indexed securities funds who do not reinvest the portion of the income distribution that is attributable to inflation adjustments will not maintain the purchasing power of the investment over the long term. This is because interest earned depends on the amount of principal invested, and that principal will not grow with inflation if the investor fails to reinvest the principal adjustment paid out as part of a fund’s income distributions. Although inflation-indexed securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise because of reasons other than inflation (e.g., changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.

If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation (i.e., the CPI) falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed securities will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed securities, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the inflation-indexed securities is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. Other inflation-indexed securities include inflation-related bonds, which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

The value of inflation-indexed securities should change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates, in turn, are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed securities. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed securities.

Coupon payments that a fund receives from inflation-indexed securities are included in the fund’s gross income for the period during which they accrue. Any increase in principal for an inflation-indexed security resulting from inflation adjustments is considered by Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations to be taxable income in the year it occurs. For direct holders of an inflation-indexed security, this means that taxes must be paid on principal adjustments, even though these amounts are not received until the bond matures. By contrast, a fund holding these securities distributes both interest income and the income attributable to principal adjustments each quarter in the form of cash or reinvested shares (which, like principal adjustments, are taxable to shareholders). It may be necessary for the fund to liquidate portfolio positions, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to make required distributions.

Debt Securities—Non-Investment-Grade Securities. Non-investment-grade securities, also referred to as “high-yield securities” or “junk bonds,” are debt securities that are rated lower than the four highest rating categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (e.g., lower than Baa3/P-2 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) or below BBB–/A-2 by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (Standard & Poor’s)) or, if unrated, are determined to be of comparable quality by the fund’s advisor. These securities are generally considered to be, on balance, predominantly speculative with respect to capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation, and they will generally involve more credit risk than securities in the investment-grade categories. Non-investment-grade

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securities generally provide greater income and opportunity for capital appreciation than higher quality securities, but they also typically entail greater price volatility and principal and income risk.

Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high-yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of investment-grade securities. Thus, reliance on credit ratings in making investment decisions entails greater risks for high-yield securities than for investment-grade securities. The success of a fund’s advisor in managing high-yield securities is more dependent upon its own credit analysis than is the case with investment-grade securities.

Some high-yield securities are issued by smaller, less-seasoned companies, while others are issued as part of a corporate restructuring such as an acquisition, a merger, or a leveraged buyout. Companies that issue high-yield securities are often highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. Therefore, the risk associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally is greater than is the case with investment-grade securities. Some high-yield securities were once rated as investment-grade but have been downgraded to junk-bond status because of financial difficulties experienced by their issuers.

The market values of high-yield securities tend to reflect individual issuer developments to a greater extent than do investment-grade securities, which in general react to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. High-yield securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than are investment-grade securities. An actual or anticipated economic downturn or sustained period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in junk bond prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If an issuer of high-yield securities defaults, in addition to risking payment of all or a portion of interest and principal, a fund investing in such securities may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.

The secondary market on which high-yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of a fund’s advisor to sell a high-yield security or the price at which a fund’s advisor could sell a high-yield security, and it could also adversely affect the daily net asset value of fund shares. When secondary markets for high-yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation of the securities.

Except as otherwise provided in a fund’s prospectus, if a credit rating agency changes the rating of a portfolio security held by a fund, the fund may retain the portfolio security if the advisor deems it in the best interests of shareholders.

Debt Securities—Structured and Indexed Securities. Structured securities (also called “structured notes”) and indexed securities are derivative debt securities, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. Indexed securities include structured notes as well as securities other than debt securities. The value of the principal of and/or interest on structured and indexed securities is determined by reference to changes in the value of a specific asset, reference rate, or index (the reference) or the relative change in two or more references. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased, depending upon changes in the applicable reference. The terms of the structured and indexed securities may provide that, in certain circumstances, no principal is due at maturity and, therefore, may result in a loss of invested capital. Structured and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the reference may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rate or the value of the structured or indexed security at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the reference; therefore, the value of such security may be very volatile. Structured and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference. Structured or indexed securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities, which could lead to an overvaluation or an undervaluation of the securities.

Debt Securities—U.S. Government Securities. The term “U.S. government securities” refers to a variety of debt securities that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury, by various agencies of the U.S. government, or by various instrumentalities that have been established or sponsored by the U.S. government. The term also refers to repurchase agreements collateralized by such securities.

U.S. Treasury securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, meaning that the U.S. government is required to repay the principal in the event of default. Other types of securities issued or guaranteed by federal agencies and U.S. government-sponsored instrumentalities may or may not be backed by the full faith and

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credit of the U.S. government. The U.S. government, however, does not guarantee the market price of any U.S. government securities. In the case of securities not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, the investor must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States itself in the event the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitment.

Some of the U.S. government agencies that issue or guarantee securities include the Government National Mortgage Association, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Federal Housing Administration, the Maritime Administration, the Small Business Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. An instrumentality of the U.S. government is a government agency organized under federal charter with government supervision. Instrumentalities issuing or guaranteeing securities include, among others, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Home Loan Banks, and the Federal National Mortgage Association.

Debt Securities—Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate securities are debt securities that provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate paid on the security. Variable rate securities provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the interest rate, while floating rate securities have interest rates that change whenever there is a change in a designated benchmark rate or the issuer’s credit quality. There is a risk that the current interest rate on variable and floating rate securities may not accurately reflect current market interest rates or adequately compensate the holder for the current creditworthiness of the issuer. Some variable or floating rate securities are structured with liquidity features such as (1) put options or tender options that permit holders (sometimes subject to conditions) to demand payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest from the issuers or certain financial intermediaries or (2) auction-rate features, remarketing provisions, or other maturity-shortening devices designed to enable the issuer to refinance or redeem outstanding debt securities (market-dependent liquidity features). Variable or floating rate securities that include market-dependent liquidity features may have greater liquidity risk than other securities. The greater liquidity risk may exist, for example, because of the failure of a market-dependent liquidity feature to operate as intended (as a result of the issuer’s declining creditworthiness, adverse market conditions, or other factors) or the inability or unwillingness of a participating broker-dealer to make a secondary market for such securities. As a result, variable or floating rate securities that include market-dependent liquidity features may lose value, and the holders of such securities may be required to retain them until the later of the repurchase date, the resale date, or the date of maturity. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.

Debt Securities—Zero-Coupon and Pay-in-Kind Securities. Zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities are debt securities that do not make regular cash interest payments. Zero-coupon securities generally do not pay interest. Zero-coupon Treasury bonds are U.S. Treasury notes and bonds that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, or the coupons themselves, and also receipts or certificates representing an interest in such stripped debt obligations and coupons. The timely payment of coupon interest and principal on these instruments remains guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Pay-in-kind securities pay interest through the issuance of additional securities. These securities are generally issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Because such securities do not pay current cash income, the price of these securities can be volatile when interest rates fluctuate. Although these securities do not pay current cash income, federal income tax law requires the holders of zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities to include in income each year the portion of the original issue discount and other noncash income on such securities accrued during that year. Each fund that holds such securities intends to pass along such interest as a component of the fund’s distributions of net investment income. It may be necessary for the fund to liquidate portfolio positions, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to make required distributions.

Depositary Receipts. Depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) are securities that evidence ownership interests in a security or a pool of securities that have been deposited with a “depository.” Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored and include American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), European Depositary Receipts (EDRs), and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs). For ADRs, the depository is typically a U.S. financial institution, and the underlying securities are issued by a foreign issuer. For other depositary receipts, the depository may be a foreign or a U.S. entity, and the underlying securities may have a foreign or a U.S. issuer. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities. Generally, ADRs are issued in registered form, denominated in U.S. dollars, and designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. Other depositary receipts, such as GDRs and EDRs, may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and they are generally designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (sponsored

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and unsponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder’s rights and obligations and the practices of market participants.

A depository may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer; typically, however, the depository requests a letter of nonobjection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depository usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of noncash distributions, and the performance of other services. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depository and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depository, and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depository), although most sponsored depositary receipt holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositories of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions, and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer’s request.

For purposes of a fund’s investment policies, investments in depositary receipts will be deemed to be investments in the underlying securities. Thus, a depositary receipt representing ownership of common stock will be treated as common stock. Depositary receipts do not eliminate all of the risks associated with directly investing in the securities of foreign issuers.

Derivatives. A derivative is a financial instrument that has a value based on—or “derived from”—the values of other assets, reference rates, or indexes. Derivatives may relate to a wide variety of underlying references, such as commodities, stocks, bonds, interest rates, currency exchange rates, and related indexes. Derivatives include futures contracts and options on futures contracts, certain forward-commitment transactions, options on securities, caps, floors, collars, swap agreements, and certain other financial instruments. Some derivatives, such as futures contracts and certain options, are traded on U.S. commodity and securities exchanges, while other derivatives, such as swap agreements, may be privately negotiated and entered into in the over-the-counter market (OTC Derivatives) or may be cleared through a clearinghouse (Cleared Derivatives) and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act), certain swap agreements, such as certain standardized credit default and interest rate swap agreements, must be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility. This could result in an increase in the overall costs of such transactions. While the intent of derivatives regulatory reform is to mitigate risks associated with derivatives markets, the new regulations could, among other things, increase liquidity and decrease pricing for more standardized products while decreasing liquidity and increasing pricing for less standardized products. The risks associated with the use of derivatives are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities or assets on which the derivatives are based.

Derivatives may be used for a variety of purposes, including—but not limited to—hedging, managing risk, seeking to stay fully invested, seeking to reduce transaction costs, seeking to simulate an investment in equity or debt securities or other investments, and seeking to add value by using derivatives to more efficiently implement portfolio positions when derivatives are favorably priced relative to equity or debt securities or other investments. Some investors may use derivatives primarily for speculative purposes while other uses of derivatives may not constitute speculation. There is no assurance that any derivatives strategy used by a fund’s advisor will succeed. The other parties to the funds’ OTC Derivatives contracts (usually referred to as “counterparties”) will not be considered the issuers thereof for purposes of certain provisions of the 1940 Act and the IRC, although such OTC Derivatives may qualify as securities or investments under such laws. The funds’ advisors, however, will monitor and adjust, as appropriate, the funds’ credit risk exposure to OTC Derivative counterparties.

Derivative products are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of a derivative requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions.

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When the fund enters into a Cleared Derivative, an initial margin deposit with a Futures Commission Merchant (FCM) is required. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a Cleared Derivative over a fixed period. If the value of the fund’s Cleared Derivatives declines, the fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. If the value of the fund’s Cleared Derivatives increases, the FCM will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the fund to settle the change in value. This process is known as “marking-to-market” and is calculated on a daily basis.

For OTC Derivatives, the fund is subject to the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the contract. Additionally, the use of credit derivatives can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit derivative is based.

Derivatives may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular derivative is difficult to purchase or sell. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with certain OTC Derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.

Derivatives may be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when a particular derivative becomes extraordinarily expensive relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity.

Because certain derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A derivative transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, derivative instruments are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other financial or economic factors in establishing derivative positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use a derivative as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the derivative will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many derivatives (in particular, OTC Derivatives) are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

Exchange-Traded Funds. A fund may purchase shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Typically, a fund would purchase ETF shares for the same reason it would purchase (and as an alternative to purchasing) futures contracts: to obtain exposure to all or a portion of the stock or bond market. ETF shares enjoy several advantages over futures. Depending on the market, the holding period, and other factors, ETF shares can be less costly and more tax-efficient than futures. In addition, ETF shares can be purchased for smaller sums, offer exposure to market sectors and styles for which there is no suitable or liquid futures contract, and do not involve leverage.

An investment in an ETF generally presents the same principal risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and a fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (1) the market price of an ETF’s shares may trade at a discount or a premium to their net asset value; (2) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (3) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of an ETF’s shares may also be halted if the shares are delisted from the exchange without first being listed on another exchange or if the listing exchange’s officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

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Most ETFs are investment companies. Therefore, a fund’s purchases of ETF shares generally are subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.”

Vanguard ETF®* Shares are exchange-traded shares that represent an interest in an investment portfolio held by Vanguard funds. A fund’s investments in Vanguard ETF Shares are also generally subject to the descriptions, limitations, and risks described under the heading “Other Investment Companies,” except as provided by an exemption granted by the SEC that permits registered investment companies to invest in a Vanguard fund that issues ETF Shares beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions.

* U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646; and 8,417,623.

Foreign Securities. Typically, foreign securities are considered to be equity or debt securities issued by entities organized, domiciled, or with a principal executive office outside the United States, such as foreign corporations and governments. Securities issued by certain companies organized outside the United States may not be deemed to be foreign securities if the company’s principal operations are conducted from the United States or when the company’s equity securities trade principally on a U.S. stock exchange. Foreign securities may trade in U.S. or foreign securities markets. A fund may make foreign investments either directly by purchasing foreign securities or indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts or depositary shares of similar instruments (depositary receipts) for foreign securities. Direct investments in foreign securities may be made either on foreign securities exchanges or in the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Investing in foreign securities involves certain special risk considerations that are not typically associated with investing in securities of U.S. companies or governments.

Because foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers, there may be less publicly available information about certain foreign issuers than about U.S. issuers. Evidence of securities ownership may be uncertain in many foreign countries. As a result, there are multiple risks that could result in a loss to the fund, including, but not limited to, the risk that a fund’s trade details could be incorrectly or fraudulently entered at the time of a transaction. Securities of foreign issuers are generally more volatile and less liquid than securities of comparable U.S. issuers, and foreign investments may be effected through structures that may be complex or confusing. In certain countries, there is less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the United States. The risk that securities traded on foreign exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange, or by government authorities, is also heightened. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political or social instability, war, terrorism, nationalization, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets, or diplomatic developments that could affect U.S. investments in those countries. Additionally, economic or other sanctions imposed on the United States by a foreign country, or imposed on a foreign country or issuer by the United States, could impair a fund’s ability to buy, sell, hold, receive, deliver, or otherwise transact in certain investment securities. Sanctions could also affect the value and/or liquidity of a foreign security.

Although an advisor will endeavor to achieve the most favorable execution costs for a fund’s portfolio transactions in foreign securities under the circumstances, commissions and other transaction costs are generally higher than those on U.S. securities. In addition, it is expected that the custodian arrangement expenses for a fund that invests primarily in foreign securities will be somewhat greater than the expenses for a fund that invests primarily in domestic securities. Additionally, bankruptcy laws vary by jurisdiction and cash deposits may be subject to a custodian’s creditors. Certain foreign governments levy withholding or other taxes against dividend and interest income from, capital gains on the sale of, or transactions in foreign securities. Although in some countries a portion of these taxes is recoverable by the fund, the nonrecovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from such securities.

The value of the foreign securities held by a fund that are not U.S. dollar-denominated may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The U.S. dollar value of a foreign security generally decreases when the value of the U.S. dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated, and it tends to increase when the value of the U.S. dollar falls against such currency (as discussed under the heading “Foreign Securities—Foreign Currency Transactions,” a fund may attempt to hedge its currency risks). In addition, the value of fund assets may be affected by losses and other expenses incurred from converting between various currencies in order to purchase and sell foreign securities, as well as by currency restrictions, exchange control regulations, currency devaluations, and political and economic developments.

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Foreign Securities—Foreign Currency Transactions. The value in U.S. dollars of a fund’s non-dollar-denominated foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and the fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. To seek to minimize the impact of such factors on net asset values, a fund may engage in foreign currency transactions in connection with its investments in foreign securities. A fund will enter into foreign currency transactions only to attempt to “hedge” the currency risk associated with investing in foreign securities. Although such transactions tend to minimize the risk of loss that would result from a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also may limit any potential gain that might result should the value of such currency increase.

Currency exchange transactions may be conducted either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the rate prevailing in the currency exchange market or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are entered into with large commercial banks or other currency traders who are participants in the interbank market. Currency exchange transactions also may be effected through the use of swap agreements or other derivatives.

Currency exchange transactions may be considered borrowings. A currency exchange transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale of foreign currency involved in underlying security transactions, a fund may be able to protect itself against part or all of the possible loss between trade and settlement dates for that purchase or sale resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “transaction hedging.” In addition, when the advisor reasonably believes that a particular foreign currency may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, a fund may enter into a forward contract to sell an amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “portfolio hedging.” Similarly, when the advisor reasonably believes that the U.S. dollar may suffer a substantial decline against a foreign currency, a fund may enter into a forward contract to buy that foreign currency for a fixed dollar amount.

A fund may also attempt to hedge its foreign currency exchange rate risk by engaging in currency futures, options, and “cross-hedge” transactions. In cross-hedge transactions, a fund holding securities denominated in one foreign currency will enter into a forward currency contract to buy or sell a different foreign currency (one that the advisor reasonably believes generally tracks the currency being hedged with regard to price movements). The advisor may select the tracking (or substitute) currency rather than the currency in which the security is denominated for various reasons, including in order to take advantage of pricing or other opportunities presented by the tracking currency or to take advantage of a more liquid or more efficient market for the tracking currency. Such cross-hedges are expected to help protect a fund against an increase or decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar against certain foreign currencies.

A fund may hold a portion of its assets in bank deposits denominated in foreign currencies so as to facilitate investment in foreign securities as well as protect against currency fluctuations and the need to convert such assets into U.S. dollars (thereby also reducing transaction costs). To the extent these assets are converted back into U.S. dollars, the value of the assets so maintained will be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations.

The forecasting of currency market movement is extremely difficult, and whether any hedging strategy will be successful is highly uncertain. Moreover, it is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a forward currency contract. Accordingly, a fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such transaction) if its advisor’s predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate. In addition, the use of cross-hedging transactions may involve special risks and may leave a fund in a less advantageous position than if such a hedge had not been established. Because forward currency contracts are privately negotiated transactions, there can be no assurance that a fund will have flexibility to roll over a forward currency contract upon its expiration if it desires to do so. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the other party to the contract will perform its services thereunder.

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Foreign Securities—Foreign Investment Companies. Some of the countries in which a fund may invest may not permit, or may place economic restrictions on, direct investment by outside investors. Fund investments in such countries may be permitted only through foreign government-approved or authorized investment vehicles, which may include other investment companies. Such investments may be made through registered or unregistered closed-end investment companies that invest in foreign securities. Investing through such vehicles may involve layered fees or expenses and may also be subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.

Foreign Securities—Russian Market Risk. There are significant risks inherent in investing in Russian securities. The underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking system subjects the settlement, clearing, and registration of securities transactions to significant risks. In March of 2013, the National Settlement Depository (NSD) began acting as a central depository for the majority of Russian equity securities; the NSD is now recognized as the Central Securities Depository in Russia.

For Russian issuers with fewer than 50 shareholders, ownership records are maintained only by registrars who are under contract with the issuers and are currently not settled with the NSD. Although a Russian subcustodian will maintain copies of the registrar’s records (Share Extracts) on its premises, such Share Extracts are not recorded with the NSD and may not be legally sufficient to establish ownership of securities. The registrars may not be independent from the issuer, are not necessarily subject to effective state supervision, and may not be licensed with any governmental entity. A fund will endeavor to ensure by itself or through a custodian or other agent that the fund’s interest continues to be appropriately recorded for Russian issuers with fewer than 50 shareholders by inspecting the share register and by obtaining extracts of share registers through regular confirmations. However, these extracts have no legal enforceability, and the possibility exists that a subsequent illegal amendment or other fraudulent act may deprive the fund of its ownership rights or may improperly dilute its interest. In addition, although applicable Russian regulations impose liability on registrars for losses resulting from their errors, a fund may find it difficult to enforce any rights it may have against the registrar or issuer of the securities in the event of loss of share registration.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are derivatives. A futures contract is a standardized agreement between two parties to buy or sell at a specific time in the future a specific quantity of a commodity at a specific price. The commodity may consist of an asset, a reference rate, or an index. A security futures contract relates to the sale of a specific quantity of shares of a single equity security or a narrow-based securities index. The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying commodity. The buyer of a futures contract enters into an agreement to purchase the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “long” the contract. The seller of a futures contract enters into an agreement to sell the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “short” the contract. The price at which a futures contract is entered into is established either in the electronic marketplace or by open outcry on the floor of an exchange between exchange members acting as traders or brokers. Open futures contracts can be liquidated or closed out by physical delivery of the underlying commodity or payment of the cash settlement amount on the settlement date, depending on the terms of the particular contract. Some financial futures contracts (such as security futures) provide for physical settlement at maturity. Other financial futures contracts (such as those relating to interest rates, foreign currencies, and broad-based securities indexes) generally provide for cash settlement at maturity. In the case of cash-settled futures contracts, the cash settlement amount is equal to the difference between the final settlement or market price for the relevant commodity on the last trading day of the contract and the price for the relevant commodity agreed upon at the outset of the contract. Most futures contracts, however, are not held until maturity but instead are “offset” before the settlement date through the establishment of an opposite and equal futures position.

The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying commodity unless the contract is held until the settlement date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant (FCM) when the futures contract is entered into. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a contract over a fixed period. If the value of the fund’s position declines, the fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. If the value of the fund’s position increases, the FCM will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the fund to settle the change in value. This process is known as “marking-to-market” and is calculated on a daily basis. A futures transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the

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300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

An option on a futures contract (or futures option) conveys the right, but not the obligation, to purchase (in the case of a call option) or sell (in the case of a put option) a specific futures contract at a specific price (called the “exercise” or “strike” price) any time before the option expires. The seller of an option is called an option writer. The purchase price of an option is called the premium. The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case, for example, if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying futures contract exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying futures contract. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for the option writer.

A fund that takes the position of a writer of a futures option is required to deposit and maintain initial and variation margin with respect to the option, as previously described in the case of futures contracts. A futures option transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

The Fund intends to comply with Rule 4.5 under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA), under which a mutual fund may be excluded from the definition of the term Commodity Pool Operator (CPO) if the fund meets certain conditions such as limiting its investments in certain CEA-regulated instruments (e.g., futures, options, or swaps) and complying with certain marketing restrictions. Accordingly, Vanguard is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO with respect to the Fund under the CEA. A Fund will only enter into futures contracts and futures options that are traded on a U.S. or foreign exchange, board of trade, or similar entity or that are quoted on an automated quotation system.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts—Risks. The risk of loss in trading futures contracts and in writing futures options can be substantial because of the low margin deposits required, the extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures and options pricing, and the potential high volatility of the futures markets. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures position may result in immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for the investor. For example, if at the time of purchase, 10% of the value of the futures contract is deposited as margin, a subsequent 10% decrease in the value of the futures contract would result in a total loss of the margin deposit, before any deduction for the transaction costs, if the account were then closed out. A 15% decrease would result in a loss equal to 150% of the original margin deposit if the contract were closed out. Thus, a purchase or sale of a futures contract, and the writing of a futures option, may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the position. In the event of adverse price movements, a fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if the fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements (and segregation requirements, if applicable) at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, on the settlement date, a fund may be required to make delivery of the instruments underlying the futures positions it holds.

A fund could suffer losses if it is unable to close out a futures contract or a futures option because of an illiquid secondary market. Futures contracts and futures options may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for such products. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures product at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close a futures or option position. Moreover, most futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day, and therefore does not limit potential losses because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of future positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses. The inability to close futures and options positions also could have

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an adverse impact on the ability to hedge a portfolio investment or to establish a substitute for a portfolio investment.

U.S.      Treasury futures are generally not subject to such daily limits.
A      fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use a futures

contract or a futures option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the futures position will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving futures products can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments.

A fund could lose margin payments it has deposited with its FCM if, for example, the FCM breaches its agreement with the fund or becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In that event, the fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the fund.

Hybrid Instruments. A hybrid instrument, or hybrid, is an interest in an issuer that combines the characteristics of an equity security, a debt security, a commodity, and/or a derivative. A hybrid may have characteristics that, on the whole, more strongly suggest the existence of a bond, stock, or other traditional investment, but a hybrid may also have prominent features that are normally associated with a different type of investment. Moreover, hybrid instruments may be treated as a particular type of investment for one regulatory purpose (such as taxation) and may be simultaneously treated as a different type of investment for a different regulatory purpose (such as securities or commodity regulation). Hybrids can be used as an efficient means of pursuing a variety of investment goals, including increased total return, duration management, and currency hedging. Because hybrids combine features of two or more traditional investments and may involve the use of innovative structures, hybrids present risks that may be similar to, different from, or greater than those associated with traditional investments with similar characteristics.

Examples of hybrid instruments include convertible securities, which combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks; perpetual bonds, which are structured like fixed income securities, have no maturity date, and may be characterized as debt or equity for certain regulatory purposes; contingent convertible securities, which are fixed income securities that, under certain circumstances, either convert into common stock of the issuer or undergo a principal write-down by a predetermined percentage if the issuer’s capital ratio falls below a predetermined trigger level; and trust-preferred securities, which are preferred stocks of a special-purpose trust that holds subordinated debt of the corporate parent. Another example of a hybrid is a commodity-linked bond, such as a bond issued by an oil company that pays a small base level of interest with additional interest that accrues in correlation to the extent to which oil prices exceed a certain predetermined level. Such a hybrid would be a combination of a bond and a call option on oil.

In the case of hybrids that are structured like fixed income securities (such as structured notes), the principal amount or the interest rate is generally tied (positively or negatively) to the price of some commodity, currency, securities index, interest rate, or other economic factor (each, a benchmark). For some hybrids, the principal amount payable at maturity or the interest rate may be increased or decreased, depending on changes in the value of the benchmark. Other hybrids do not bear interest or pay dividends. The value of a hybrid or its interest rate may be a multiple of a benchmark and, as a result, may be leveraged and move (up or down) more steeply and rapidly than the benchmark, thus magnifying movements within the benchmark. These benchmarks may be sensitive to economic and political events, such as commodity shortages and currency devaluations, which cannot be readily foreseen by the purchaser of a hybrid. Under certain conditions, the redemption value of a hybrid could be zero. Thus, an investment in a hybrid may entail significant market risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional, U.S. dollar-denominated bond with a fixed principal amount that pays a fixed rate or floating rate of interest. The purchase of hybrids also exposes a fund to the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrids. Depending on the level of a fund’s investment in hybrids, these risks may cause significant fluctuations in the fund’s net asset value. Hybrid instruments may also carry liquidity risk since the instruments are often “customized” to meet the needs of an issuer or, sometimes, the portfolio needs of a particular investor, and therefore the number of investors that are willing and able to buy such instruments in the secondary market may be smaller than that for more traditional debt securities.

Certain issuers of hybrid instruments known as structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, the funds’ investments in these products may be subject to the limitations described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.”

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Interfund Borrowing and Lending. The SEC has granted an exemption permitting registered open-end Vanguard funds to participate in Vanguard’s interfund lending program. This program allows the Vanguard funds to borrow money from and lend money to each other for temporary or emergency purposes. The program is subject to a number of conditions, including, among other things, the requirements that (1) no fund may borrow or lend money through the program unless it receives a more favorable interest rate than is typically available from a bank for a comparable transaction, (2) no fund may lend money if the loan would cause its aggregate outstanding loans through the program to exceed 15% of its net assets at the time of the loan, and (3) a fund’s interfund loans to any one fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending fund’s net assets. In addition, a Vanguard fund may participate in the program only if and to the extent that such participation is consistent with the fund’s investment objective and investment policies. The boards of trustees of the Vanguard funds are responsible for overseeing the interfund lending program. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.

Investing for Control. Each Vanguard fund invests in securities and other instruments for the sole purpose of achieving a specific investment objective. As such, a Vanguard fund does not seek to acquire, individually or collectively with any other Vanguard fund, enough of a company’s outstanding voting stock to have control over management decisions. A Vanguard fund does not invest for the purpose of controlling a company’s management.

Loan Interests and Direct Debt Instruments. Loan interests and direct debt instruments are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to lenders or lending syndicates (in the case of loans and loan participations); to suppliers of goods or services (in the case of trade claims or other receivables); or to other parties. These investments involve a risk of loss in case of the default, the insolvency, or the bankruptcy of the borrower and may offer less legal protection to the purchaser in the event of fraud or misrepresentation, or there may be a requirement that a purchaser supply additional cash to a borrower on demand.

Purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of interest and repayment of principal. Direct debt instruments may not be rated by a rating agency. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, or are not made in a timely manner, the value of the instrument may be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured loans in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower’s obligation or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or they may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Direct indebtedness of developing countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and repay principal when due.

Corporate loans and other forms of direct corporate indebtedness in which a fund may invest generally are made to finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancing of existing debt, leveraged buyouts, and other corporate activities. A significant portion of the corporate indebtedness purchased by a fund may represent interests in loans or debt made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions (known as “leveraged buyout” transactions), leveraged recapitalization loans, and other types of acquisition financing. Another portion may also represent loans incurred in restructuring or “work-out” scenarios, including super-priority debtor-in-possession facilities in bankruptcy and acquisition of assets out of bankruptcy. Loans in restructuring or work-out scenarios may be especially vulnerable to the inherent uncertainties in restructuring processes. In addition, the highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in any such transactions, whether in acquisition financing or restructuring, may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse or unusual economic or market conditions.

Loans and other forms of direct indebtedness generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and only limited opportunities may exist to sell them in secondary markets. As a result, a fund may be unable to sell loans and other forms of direct indebtedness at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or may be able to sell them only at a price that is less than their fair value.

Investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution’s interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the purchaser could become part owner of any collateral and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In addition, it is at least conceivable that, under emerging legal theories of lender liability, a purchaser could be held liable as a co-lender. Direct debt instruments may also involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary.

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A loan is often administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless the purchaser has direct recourse against the borrower, the purchaser may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of a purchaser were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent’s general creditors, the purchaser might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal and/or interest.

Direct indebtedness may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments that obligate purchasers to make additional cash payments on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring a purchaser to increase its investment in a borrower when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower’s condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

A fund’s investment policies will govern the amount of total assets that it may invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry. For purposes of these limitations, a fund generally will treat the borrower as the “issuer” of indebtedness held by the fund. In the case of loan participations in which a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between a fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require the fund, in some circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as “issuers” for purposes of the fund’s investment policies. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund’s ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participation in, or are collateralized by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property or instruments derived from such loans and may be based on different types of mortgages, including those on residential properties or commercial real estate. Mortgage-backed securities include various types of securities, such as government stripped mortgage-backed securities, adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities, and collateralized mortgage obligations.

Generally, mortgage-backed securities represent partial interests in pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various governmental agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA); by government-related organizations, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC); and by private issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, and mortgage bankers. The average maturity of pass-through pools of mortgage-backed securities in which a fund may invest varies with the maturities of the underlying mortgage instruments. In addition, a pool’s average maturity may be shortened by unscheduled payments on the underlying mortgages. Factors affecting mortgage prepayments include the level of interest rates, the general economic and social conditions, the location of the mortgaged property, and the age of the mortgage. Because prepayment rates of individual mortgage pools vary widely, the average life of a particular pool cannot be predicted accurately.

Mortgage-backed securities may be classified as private, government, or government-related, depending on the issuer or guarantor. Private mortgage-backed securities represent interest in pass-through pools consisting principally of conventional residential or commercial mortgage loans created by nongovernment issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan associations, and private mortgage insurance companies. Private mortgage-backed securities may not be readily marketable. In addition, mortgage-backed securities have been subject to greater liquidity risk because of the deterioration of worldwide economic and liquidity conditions that became especially severe in 2008. U.S. government mortgage-backed securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. GNMA, the principal U.S. guarantor of these securities, is a wholly owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Government-related mortgage-backed securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Issuers include FNMA and FHLMC, which are congressionally chartered corporations. In September 2008, the U.S. Treasury placed FNMA and FHLMC under conservatorship and appointed the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to manage their daily operations. In addition, the U.S. Treasury entered into purchase agreements with FNMA and FHLMC to provide them with capital in exchange for senior preferred stock. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA. Participation certificates representing interests in mortgages from FHLMC’s national portfolio are guaranteed as to the timely payment of interest and principal by FHLMC. Private, government, or government-related entities may create mortgage loan pools offering pass-through investments in addition to those described above. The mortgages underlying these securities may be alternative

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mortgage instruments (i.e., mortgage instruments whose principal or interest payments may vary or whose terms to maturity may be shorter than customary).

Mortgage-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. Prepayments of principal by mortgagors or mortgage foreclosures shorten the term of the mortgage pool underlying the mortgage-backed security. A fund’s ability to maintain positions in mortgage-backed securities is affected by the reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments. A fund’s ability to reinvest prepayments of principal at comparable yield is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. The values of mortgage-backed securities vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of government securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. In periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the average life of a pool of mortgages supporting a mortgage-backed security. Conversely, in periods of falling interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the average life of such a pool. Because prepayments of principal generally occur when interest rates are declining, an investor, such as a fund, generally has to reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at lower interest rates than those at which its assets were previously invested. Therefore, mortgage-backed securities have less potential for capital appreciation in periods of falling interest rates than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—Adjustable Rate Mortgage-Backed Securities. Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (ARMBSs) have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMBSs permits a fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMBSs are based. Such ARMBSs generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed income debt securities of comparable rating and maturity. However, because the interest rates on ARMBSs are reset only periodically, changes in market interest rates or in the issuer’s creditworthiness may affect their value. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, a fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMBSs, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, a fund holding an ARMBS does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMBSs behave more like fixed income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are thus subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) are mortgage-backed securities that are collateralized by whole loan mortgages or mortgage pass-through securities. The bonds issued in a CMO transaction are divided into groups, and each group of bonds is referred to as a “tranche.” Under the traditional CMO structure, the cash flows generated by the mortgages or mortgage pass-through securities in the collateral pool are used to first pay interest and then pay principal to the CMO bondholders. The bonds issued under a traditional CMO structure are retired sequentially as opposed to the pro-rata return of principal found in traditional pass-through obligations. Subject to the various provisions of individual CMO issues, the cash flow generated by the underlying collateral (to the extent it exceeds the amount required to pay the stated interest) is used to retire the bonds. Under a CMO structure, the repayment of principal among the different tranches is prioritized in accordance with the terms of the particular CMO issuance. The “fastest-pay” tranches of bonds, as specified in the prospectus for the issuance, would initially receive all principal payments. When those tranches of bonds are retired, the next tranche (or tranches) in the sequence, as specified in the prospectus, receives all of the principal payments until that tranche is retired. The sequential retirement of bond groups continues until the last tranche is retired. Accordingly, the CMO structure allows the issuer to use cash flows of long-maturity, monthly pay collateral to formulate securities with short, intermediate, and long final maturities and expected average lives and risk characteristics.

In recent years, new types of CMO tranches have evolved. These include floating rate CMOs, planned amortization classes, accrual bonds, and CMO residuals. These newer structures affect the amount and timing of principal and interest received by each tranche from the underlying collateral. Under certain of these new structures, given classes of CMOs have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments on the mortgages. Therefore, depending on

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the type of CMOs in which a fund invests, the investment may be subject to a greater or lesser risk of prepayment than other types of mortgage-backed securities.

CMOs may include real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs). REMICs, which were authorized under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, are private entities formed for the purpose of holding a fixed pool of mortgages secured by an interest in real property. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the IRC and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property. Investors may purchase beneficial interests in REMICs, which are known as “regular” interests, or “residual” interests. Guaranteed REMIC pass-through certificates (REMIC Certificates) issued by FNMA or FHLMC represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust consisting principally of mortgage loans or FNMA, FHLMC, or GNMA-guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates. For FHLMC REMIC Certificates, FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and also guarantees the payment of principal, as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates. FNMA REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by FNMA.

The primary risk of CMOs is the uncertainty of the timing of cash flows that results from the rate of prepayments on the underlying mortgages serving as collateral and from the structure of the particular CMO transaction (i.e., the priority of the individual tranches). An increase or decrease in prepayment rates (resulting from a decrease or increase in mortgage interest rates) will affect the yield, the average life, and the price of CMOs. The prices of certain CMOs, depending on their structure and the rate of prepayments, can be volatile. Some CMOs may also not be as liquid as other securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—Hybrid ARMs. A hybrid adjustable rate mortgage (hybrid ARM) is a type of mortgage in which the interest rate is fixed for a specified period and then resets periodically, or floats, for the remaining mortgage term. Hybrid ARMs are usually referred to by their fixed and floating periods. For example, a 5/1 ARM refers to a mortgage with a 5-year fixed interest rate period, followed by a 1-year interest rate adjustment period. During the initial interest period (i.e., the initial five years for a 5/1 hybrid ARM), hybrid ARMs behave more like fixed income securities and are thus subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. All hybrid ARMs have reset dates. A reset date is the date when a hybrid ARM changes from a fixed interest rate to a floating interest rate. At the reset date, a hybrid ARM can adjust by a maximum specified amount based on a margin over an identified index. Like ARMBSs, hybrid ARMs have periodic and lifetime limitations on the increases that can be made to the interest rates that mortgagors pay. Therefore, if during a floating rate period interest rates rise above the interest rate limits of the hybrid ARM, a fund holding the hybrid ARM does not benefit from further increases in interest rates.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—Mortgage Dollar Rolls. A mortgage dollar roll is a transaction in which a fund sells a mortgage-backed security to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to purchase a similar security (but not the same security) in the future at a predetermined price. A mortgage-dollar-roll program may be structured to simulate an investment in mortgage-backed securities at a potentially lower cost, or with potentially reduced administrative burdens, than directly holding mortgage-backed securities. For accounting purposes, each transaction in a mortgage dollar roll is viewed as a separate purchase and sale of a mortgage-backed security. These transactions may increase a fund’s portfolio turnover rate. The fund receives cash for a mortgage-backed security in the initial transaction and enters into an agreement that requires the fund to purchase a similar mortgage-backed security in the future.

The counterparty with which a fund enters into a mortgage-dollar-roll transaction is obligated to provide the fund with similar securities to purchase as those originally sold by the fund. These securities generally must (1) be issued by the same agency and be part of the same program; (2) have similar original stated maturities; (3) have identical net coupon rates; and (4) satisfy “good delivery” requirements, meaning that the aggregate principal amounts of the securities delivered and received back must be within a certain percentage of the initial amount delivered. Mortgage dollar rolls will be used only if consistent with a fund’s investment objective and strategies and will not be used to change a fund’s risk profile.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBSs) are derivative multiclass mortgage-backed securities. SMBSs may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, and special purpose entities formed or sponsored by any of the foregoing.

SMBSs are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the “IO” class), while the other class will

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receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). The price and yield to maturity on an IO class are extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on a fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, a fund may fail to recoup some or all of its initial investment in these securities, even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories.

Although SMBSs are purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers, these securities were only recently developed. As a result, established trading markets have not yet developed, and accordingly, these securities may be deemed “illiquid” and thus subject to a fund’s limitations on investment in illiquid securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities—To Be Announced (TBA) Securities. A TBA securities transaction, which is a type of forward-commitment transaction, represents an agreement to buy or sell mortgage-backed securities with agreed-upon characteristics for a fixed unit price, with settlement on a scheduled future date, typically within 30 calendar days of the trade date. With TBA transactions, the particular securities (i.e., specified mortgage pools) to be delivered or received are not identified at the trade date; however, securities delivered to a purchaser must meet specified criteria, including face value, coupon rate, and maturity, and be within industry-accepted “good delivery” standards. A fund may sell TBA securities to hedge its portfolio positions or to dispose of mortgage-backed securities it owns under delayed-delivery arrangements. Proceeds of TBA securities sold are not received until the contractual settlement date. For TBA purchases, a fund will maintain sufficient liquid assets (e.g., cash or marketable securities) until settlement date in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price. Unsettled TBA securities are valued by an independent pricing service based on the characteristics of the securities to be delivered or received. A risk associated with TBA transactions is that at settlement, either the buyer fails to pay the agreed price for the securities or the seller fails to deliver the agreed securities. As the value of such unsettled TBA securities is assessed on a daily basis, parties mitigate such risk by, among other things, exchanging collateral as security for performance, performing a credit analysis of the counterparty, allocating transactions among numerous counterparties, and monitoring its exposure to each counterparty.

Options. An option is a derivative. An option on a security (or index) is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for the payment of a “premium,” the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (in the case of a call option) or sell to (in the case of a put option) the writer of the option the security underlying the option (or the cash value of the index) at a specified exercise price prior to the expiration date of the option. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security upon payment of the exercise price (in the case of a call option) or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security (in the case of a put option). The writer of an option on an index has the obligation upon exercise of the option to pay an amount equal to the cash value of the index minus the exercise price, multiplied by the specified multiplier for the index option. The multiplier for an index option determines the size of the investment position the option represents. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of over-the-counter (OTC) options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. Although this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally involve credit risk to the counterparty, whereas for exchange-traded, centrally cleared options, credit risk is mutualized through the involvement of the applicable clearing house.

The buyer (or holder) of an option is said to be “long” the option, while the seller (or writer) of an option is said to be “short” the option. A call option grants to the holder the right to buy (and obligates the writer to sell) the underlying security at the strike price, which is the predetermined price at which the option may be exercised. A put option grants to the holder the right to sell (and obligates the writer to buy) the underlying security at the strike price. The purchase price of an option is called the “premium.” The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer, but that person could also seek to profit from an anticipated rise or decline in option prices. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying position exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying position. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for

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the option writer. The writing of an option will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

If a trading market, in particular options, were to become unavailable, investors in those options (such as the funds) would be unable to close out their positions until trading resumes, and they may be faced with substantial losses if the value of the underlying instrument moves adversely during that time. Even if the market were to remain available, there may be times when options prices will not maintain their customary or anticipated relationships to the prices of the underlying instruments and related instruments. Lack of investor interest, changes in volatility, or other factors or conditions might adversely affect the liquidity, efficiency, continuity, or even the orderliness of the market for particular options.

A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use an option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the option will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment, which could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving options can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many options, in particular OTC options, are complex and often valued based on subjective factors. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

OTC Swap Agreements. An over-the-counter (OTC) swap agreement, which is a type of derivative, is an agreement between two parties (counterparties) to exchange payments at specified dates (periodic payment dates) on the basis of a specified amount (notional amount) with the payments calculated with reference to a specified asset, reference rate, or index.

Examples of OTC swap agreements include, but are not limited to, interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, equity swaps, commodity swaps, foreign currency swaps, index swaps, excess return swaps, and total return swaps. Most OTC swap agreements provide that when the periodic payment dates for both parties are the same, payments are netted and only the net amount is paid to the counterparty entitled to receive the net payment. Consequently, a fund’s current obligations (or rights) under an OTC swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty. OTC swap agreements allow for a wide variety of transactions. For example, fixed rate payments may be exchanged for floating rate payments; U.S. dollar-denominated payments may be exchanged for payments denominated in a different currency; and payments tied to the price of one asset, reference rate, or index may be exchanged for payments tied to the price of another asset, reference rate, or index.

An OTC option on an OTC swap agreement, also called a “swaption,” is an option that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to enter into a swap on a future date in exchange for paying a market-based “premium.” A receiver swaption gives the owner the right to receive the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. A payer swaption gives the owner the right to pay the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. Swaptions also include options that allow an existing swap to be terminated or extended by one of the counterparties.

The use of OTC swap agreements by a fund entails certain risks, which may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities and other investments that are the referenced asset for the swap agreement. OTC swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques, risk analyses, and tax planning different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of an OTC swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions.

OTC swap agreements may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular swap is difficult to purchase or sell. If an OTC swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many OTC swaps), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. In addition, OTC swap transactions may be subject to a fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities.

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OTC swap agreements may be subject to pricing risk, which exists when a particular swap becomes extraordinarily expensive or inexpensive relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity or to realize the intrinsic value of the OTC swap agreement.

Because certain OTC swap agreements have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain OTC swaps have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A leveraged OTC swap transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, OTC swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing OTC swap positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use an OTC swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the OTC swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving OTC swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many OTC swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

The use of an OTC swap agreement also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. Additionally, the use of credit default swaps can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit swap is based.

The market for OTC swaps and swaptions is a relatively new market. It is possible that developments in the market could adversely affect a fund, including its ability to terminate existing OTC swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements. As previously noted under the heading “Derivatives,” under the Dodd-Frank Act, certain swaps that may be used by a fund may be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility.

Other Investment Companies. A fund may invest in other investment companies to the extent permitted by applicable law or SEC exemption. Under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, a fund generally may invest up to 10% of its assets in shares of investment companies and up to 5% of its assets in any one investment company, as long as no investment represents more than 3% of the voting stock of an acquired investment company. In addition, no funds for which Vanguard acts as an advisor may, in the aggregate, own more than 10% of the voting stock of a closed-end investment company. The 1940 Act and related rules provide certain exemptions from these restrictions, for example, for funds that invest in other funds within the same group of investment companies. If a fund invests in other investment companies, shareholders will bear not only their proportionate share of the fund’s expenses (including operating expenses and the fees of the advisor), but they also may indirectly bear similar expenses of the underlying investment companies. Certain investment companies, such as business development companies (BDCs), are more akin to operating companies and, as such, their expenses are not direct expenses paid by fund shareholders and are not used to calculate the fund’s net asset value. SEC rules nevertheless require that any expenses incurred by a BDC be included in a fund’s expense ratio as “Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses.” The expense ratio of a fund that holds a BDC will thus overstate what the fund actually spends on portfolio management, administrative services, and other shareholder services by an amount equal to these Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses. The Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are not included in a fund’s financial statements, which provide a clearer picture of a fund’s actual operating expenses. Shareholders would also be exposed to the risks associated not only with the investments of the fund but also with the portfolio investments of the underlying investment companies. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that typically trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or discount to their net asset value. Others are continuously offered at net asset value but also may be traded on the secondary market.

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Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). An equity REIT owns real estate properties directly and generates income from rental and lease payments. Equity REITs also have the potential to generate capital gains as properties are sold at a profit. A mortgage REIT makes construction, development, and long-term mortgage loans to commercial real estate developers and earns interest income on these loans. A hybrid REIT holds both properties and mortgages. To avoid taxation at the corporate level, REITs must distribute most of their earnings to shareholders.

Investments in REITs are subject to many of the same risks as direct investments in real estate. In general, real estate values can be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, supply and demand for properties, general or local economic conditions, and the strength of specific industries that rent properties. Ultimately, a REIT’s performance depends on the types and locations of the properties it owns and on how well the REIT manages its properties. For example, rental income could decline because of extended vacancies, increased competition from nearby properties, tenants’ failure to pay rent, regulatory limitations on rents, fluctuations in rental income, variations in market rental rates, or incompetent management. Property values could decrease because of overbuilding in the area, environmental liabilities, uninsured damages caused by natural disasters, a general decline in the neighborhood, losses because of casualty or condemnation, increases in property taxes, or changes in zoning laws.

The value of a REIT may also be affected by changes in interest rates. Rising interest rates generally increase the cost of financing for real estate projects, which could cause the value of an equity REIT to decline. During periods of declining interest rates, mortgagors may elect to prepay mortgages held by mortgage REITs, which could lower or diminish the yield on the REIT. REITs are also subject to heavy cash-flow dependency, default by borrowers, and changes in tax and regulatory requirements. In addition, a REIT may fail to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the IRC and/or fail to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act.

Repurchase Agreements. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which a fund acquires a debt security (generally a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance, or a certificate of deposit) from a bank, a broker, or a dealer and simultaneously agrees to resell such security to the seller at an agreed-upon price and date (normally, the next business day). Because the security purchased constitutes collateral for the repurchase obligation, a repurchase agreement may be considered a loan that is collateralized by the security purchased. The resale price reflects an agreed-upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by a fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument. In these transactions, the securities acquired by a fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and be held by a custodian bank until repurchased. In addition, the investment advisor will monitor a fund’s repurchase agreement transactions generally and will evaluate the creditworthiness of any bank, broker, or dealer party to a repurchase agreement relating to a fund. The aggregate amount of any such agreements is not limited, except to the extent required by law.

The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. One risk is the seller’s ability to pay the agreed-upon repurchase price on the repurchase date. If the seller defaults, the fund may incur costs in disposing of the collateral, which would reduce the amount realized thereon. If the seller seeks relief under bankruptcy laws, the disposition of the collateral may be delayed or limited. For example, if the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under bankruptcy or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the fund not within its control, and therefore the realization by the fund on such collateral may be automatically stayed. Finally, it is possible that the fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities. Illiquid securities are securities that cannot be sold or disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which they are valued. The SEC generally limits aggregate holdings of illiquid securities by a mutual fund to 15% of its net assets (5% for money market funds). A fund may experience difficulty valuing and selling illiquid securities and, in some cases, may be unable to value or sell certain illiquid securities for an indefinite period of time. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of investments, such as (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (unless the agreements have demand/redemption features), (2) OTC options contracts and certain other derivatives (including certain swap agreements), (3) fixed time deposits that are not subject to prepayment or do not provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits), (4) certain loan interests and other direct debt instruments, (5) certain municipal lease obligations, (6) private equity investments, (7) commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act, and (8) securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws. Illiquid securities include restricted, privately placed

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securities that, under the federal securities laws, generally may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers. If a substantial market develops for a restricted security held by a fund, it may be treated as a liquid security in accordance with procedures and guidelines approved by the board of trustees. This generally includes securities that are unregistered, that can be sold to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, or that are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act, such as commercial paper. Although a fund’s advisor monitors the liquidity of restricted securities, the board of trustees oversees and retains ultimate responsibility for the advisor’s liquidity determinations. Several factors that the trustees consider in monitoring these decisions include the valuation of a security; the availability of qualified institutional buyers, brokers, and dealers that trade in the security; and the availability of information about the security’s issuer.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a fund sells a security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at an agreed-upon price and time. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, the fund continues to receive any principal and interest payments on the underlying security during the term of the agreement. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of securities retained by the fund may decline below the repurchase price of the securities sold by the fund that it is obligated to repurchase. In addition to the risk of such a loss, fees charged to the fund may exceed the return the fund earns from investing the proceeds received from the reverse repurchase agreement transaction. A reverse repurchase agreement may be considered a borrowing transaction for purposes of the 1940 Act. A reverse repurchase agreement transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.” A fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the advisor. If the buyer in a reverse repurchase agreement becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, a fund’s use of proceeds from the sale may be restricted while the other party or its trustee or receiver determines if it will honor the fund’s right to repurchase the securities. If the fund is unable to recover the securities it sold in a reverse repurchase agreement, it would realize a loss equal to the difference between the value of the securities and the payment it received for them.

Securities Lending. A fund may lend its investment securities to qualified institutional investors (typically brokers, dealers, banks, or other financial institutions) who may need to borrow securities in order to complete certain transactions, such as covering short sales, avoiding failures to deliver securities, or completing arbitrage operations. By lending its investment securities, a fund attempts to increase its net investment income through the receipt of interest on the securities lent. Any gain or loss in the market price of the securities lent that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the fund. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities lent because of insolvency or other reasons, a fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities lent or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. Currently, Vanguard funds that lend securities invest the cash collateral received in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds.

The terms and the structure of the loan arrangements, as well as the aggregate amount of securities loans, must be consistent with the 1940 Act and the rules or interpretations of the SEC thereunder. These provisions limit the amount of securities a fund may lend to 33 1/3% of the fund’s total assets and require that (1) the borrower pledge and maintain with the fund collateral consisting of cash, an irrevocable letter of credit, or securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government having at all times not less than 100% of the value of the securities lent; (2) the borrower add to such collateral whenever the price of the securities lent rises (i.e., the borrower “marks to market” on a daily basis); (3) the loan be made subject to termination by the fund at any time; and (4) the fund receives reasonable interest on the loan (which may include the fund investing any cash collateral in interest-bearing short-term investments), any distribution on the lent securities, and any increase in their market value. Loan arrangements made by a fund will comply with all other applicable regulatory requirements, including the requirement to redeliver the securities within the standard settlement time applicable to the relevant trading market. The advisor will consider the creditworthiness of the borrower, among other things, in making decisions with respect to the lending of securities, subject to oversight by the board of trustees. At the present time, the SEC does not object if an investment company pays reasonable negotiated fees in connection

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with lent securities, so long as such fees are set forth in a written contract and approved by the investment company’s trustees. In addition, voting rights pass with the lent securities, but if a fund has knowledge that a material event will occur affecting securities on loan, and in respect to which the holder of the securities will be entitled to vote or consent, the lender must be entitled to call the loaned securities in time to vote or consent. A fund bears the risk that there may be a delay in the return of the securities, which may impair the fund’s ability to vote on such a matter.

Pursuant to Vanguard’s securities lending policy, Vanguard’s fixed income and money market funds are not permitted to, and do not, lend their investment securities.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Discussion. Discussion herein of U.S. federal income tax matters summarizes some of the important, generally applicable U.S. federal tax considerations relevant to investment in a fund based on the IRC, U.S. Treasury regulations, and other applicable authorities. These authorities are subject to change by legislative, administrative, or judicial action, possibly with retroactive effect. The Fund has not requested and will not request an advance ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as to the U.S. federal income tax matters discussed in this Statement of Additional Information. In some cases, a fund’s tax position may be uncertain under current tax law and an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to such a position could adversely affect the fund and its shareholders, including the fund’s ability to continue to qualify as a regulated investment company or to continue to pursue its current investment strategy. A shareholder should consult his or her tax professional for information regarding the particular situation and the possible application of U.S. federal, state, local, foreign, and other taxes.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions. A fund’s transactions in derivative instruments (including, but not limited to, options, futures, forward contracts, and swap agreements), as well as any of the fund’s hedging, short sale, securities loan, or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules that accelerate income to the fund, defer losses to the fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the fund’s securities, convert long-term capital gains into short-term capital gains, or convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders.

Because these and other tax rules applicable to these types of transactions are in some cases uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether a fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid a fund-level tax.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Futures Contracts. For federal income tax purposes, a fund generally must recognize, as of the end of each taxable year, any net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts, as well as any gains and losses actually realized during the year. In these cases, any gain or loss recognized with respect to a futures contract is considered to be 60% long-term capital gain or loss and 40% short-term capital gain or loss, without regard to the holding period of the contract. Gains and losses on certain other futures contracts (primarily non-U.S. futures contracts) are not recognized until the contracts are closed and are treated as long-term or short-term, depending on the holding period of the contract. Sales of futures contracts that are intended to hedge against a change in the value of securities held by a fund may affect the holding period of such securities and, consequently, the nature of the gain or loss on such securities upon disposition. A fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on one position, such as futures contracts, to the extent of any unrecognized gains on a related offsetting position held by the fund.

A fund will distribute to shareholders annually any net capital gains that have been recognized for federal income tax purposes on futures transactions. Such distributions will be combined with distributions of capital gains realized on the fund’s other investments, and shareholders will be advised on the nature of the distributions.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Non-U.S. Currency Transactions. Special rules generally govern the federal income tax treatment of a fund’s transactions in the following: non-U.S. currencies; non-U.S. currency-denominated debt obligations; and certain non-U.S. currency options, futures contracts, forward contracts, and similar instruments. Accordingly, if a fund engages in these types of transactions it may have ordinary income or loss to the extent that such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the non-U.S. currency concerned. Such ordinary income could accelerate fund distributions to shareholders and increase the distributions taxed to shareholders as ordinary income. Any ordinary loss so created will generally reduce ordinary income distributions and, in some cases, could require the recharacterization of prior ordinary income distributions. Net ordinary losses cannot be carried forward by the fund to offset income or gains realized in subsequent taxable years.

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Any gain or loss attributable to the non-U.S. currency component of a transaction engaged in by a fund that is not subject to these special currency rules (such as foreign equity investments other than certain preferred stocks) will generally be treated as a capital gain or loss and will not be segregated from the gain or loss on the underlying transaction.

To the extent a fund engages in non-U.S. currency hedging, the fund may elect or be required to apply other rules that could affect the character, timing, or amount of the fund’s gains and losses. For more information, see “Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions.”

Tax Matters—Foreign Tax Credit. Foreign governments may withhold taxes on dividends and interest paid with respect to foreign securities held by a fund. Foreign governments may also impose taxes on other payments or gains with respect to foreign securities. If, at the close of its fiscal year, more than 50% of a fund’s total assets are invested in securities of foreign issuers, the fund may elect to pass through to shareholders the ability to deduct or, if they meet certain holding period requirements, take a credit for foreign taxes paid by the fund. Similarly, if at the close of each quarter of a fund’s taxable year, at least 50% of its total assets consist of interests in other regulated investment companies, the fund is permitted to elect to pass through to its shareholders the foreign income taxes paid by the fund in connection with foreign securities held directly by the fund or held by a regulated investment company in which the fund invests that has elected to pass through such taxes to shareholders.

Tax Matters—Market Discount or Premium. The price of a bond purchased after its original issuance may reflect market discount or premium. Depending on the particular circumstances, market discount may affect the tax character and amount of income required to be recognized by a fund holding the bond. In determining whether a bond is purchased with market discount, certain de minimis rules apply. Premium is generally amortizable over the remaining term of the bond. Depending on the type of bond, premium may affect the amount of income required to be recognized by a fund holding the bond and the fund’s basis in the bond.

Tax Matters—Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits. If a fund invests directly or indirectly, including through a REIT or other pass-through entity, in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs) or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools (TMPs), a portion of the fund’s income that is attributable to a residual interest in a REMIC or an equity interest in a TMP (such portion referred to in the IRC as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in all eventsincluding potentially at the fund levelunder a notice issued by the IRS in October 2006 and U.S. Treasury regulations that have yet to be issued but may apply retroactively. This notice also provides, and the regulations are expected to provide, that excess inclusion income of a registered investment company will be allocated to shareholders of the registered investment company in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related interest directly. In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (1) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions); (2) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (UBTI) to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan, or other tax-exempt entity) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity, which otherwise might not be required, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income; and (3) in the case of a non-U.S. investor, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax. A shareholder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such inclusions notwithstanding any exemption from such income tax otherwise available under the IRC. As a result, a fund investing in such interests may not be suitable for charitable remainder trusts. See “Tax Matters—Tax-Exempt Investors.”

Tax Matters—Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Investors. U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments made by non-U.S. investors in Vanguard funds. Certain properly reported distributions of qualifying interest income or short-term capital gain made by a fund to its non-U.S. investors are exempt from U.S. withholding taxes, provided the investors furnish valid tax documentation (i.e., IRS Form W-8) certifying as to their non-U.S. status.

A fund is permitted, but is not required, to report any of its distributions as eligible for such relief, and some distributions (e.g., distributions of interest a fund receives from non-U.S. issuers) are not eligible for this relief. For some funds, Vanguard has chosen to report qualifying distributions and apply the withholding exemption to those distributions when made to non-U.S. shareholders who invest directly with Vanguard. For other funds, Vanguard may choose not to apply the withholding exemption to qualifying fund distributions made to direct shareholders, but may provide the reporting to such shareholders. In these cases, a shareholder may be able to reclaim such withholding tax directly from the IRS.

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If shareholders hold fund shares (including ETF shares) through a broker or intermediary, their broker or intermediary may apply this relief to properly reported qualifying distributions made to shareholders with respect to those shares. If a shareholder’s broker or intermediary instead collects withholding tax where the fund has provided the proper reporting, the shareholder may be able to reclaim such withholding tax from the IRS. Please consult your broker or intermediary regarding the application of these rules.

This relief does not apply to any withholding required under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), which generally requires a fund to obtain information sufficient to identify the status of each of its shareholders. If a shareholder fails to provide this information or otherwise fails to comply with FATCA, a fund may be required to withhold under FATCA at a rate of 30% with respect to that shareholder on fund distributions and on the proceeds of the sale, redemption, or exchange of fund shares. Please consult your tax advisor for more information about these rules.

Tax Matters—Tax-Exempt Investors. Income of a fund that would be UBTI if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity will not generally be attributed as UBTI to a tax-exempt shareholder of the fund. Notwithstanding this “blocking” effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in a fund if shares in the fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of IRC Section 514(b).

A tax-exempt shareholder may also recognize UBTI if a fund recognizes “excess inclusion income” derived from direct or indirect investments in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. See “Tax Matters—Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits.”

In addition, special tax consequences apply to charitable remainder trusts that invest in a fund that invests directly or indirectly in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. Charitable remainder trusts and other tax-exempt investors are urged to consult their tax advisors concerning the consequences of investing in a fund.

Time Deposits. Time deposits are subject to the same risks that pertain to domestic issuers of money market instruments, most notably credit risk (and, to a lesser extent, income risk, market risk, and liquidity risk). Additionally, time deposits of foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign branches of foreign banks may be subject to certain sovereign risks. One such risk is the possibility that a sovereign country might prevent capital, in the form of U.S. dollars, from flowing across its borders. Other risks include adverse political and economic developments, the extent and quality of government regulation of financial markets and institutions, the imposition of foreign withholding taxes, and expropriation or nationalization of foreign issuers. However, time deposits of such issuers will undergo the same type of credit analysis as domestic issuers in which a Vanguard fund invests and will have at least the same financial strength as the domestic issuers approved for the fund.

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

When-Issued, Delayed-Delivery, and Forward-Commitment Transactions. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions involve a commitment to purchase or sell specific securities at a predetermined price or yield in which payment and delivery take place after the customary settlement period for that type of security. Typically, no interest accrues to the purchaser until the security is delivered. When purchasing securities pursuant to one of these transactions, payment for the securities is not required until the delivery date. However, the purchaser assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risks of price and yield fluctuations and the risk that the security will not be issued as anticipated. When a fund has sold a security pursuant to one of these transactions, the fund does not participate in further gains or losses with respect to the security. If the other party to a delayed-delivery transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity or suffer a loss. A fund may renegotiate a when-issued or forward-commitment transaction and may sell the underlying securities before delivery, which may result in capital gains or losses for the fund. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by the fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

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SHARE PRICE

Net asset value, or NAV, is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (the Exchange), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. NAV per share for the Fund is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, of the Fund by the number of Fund shares outstanding. On U.S. holidays or other days when the Exchange is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

The Exchange typically observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr., Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day; Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas Day. Although the Fund expects the same holidays to be observed in the future, the Exchange may modify its holiday schedule or hours of operation at any time.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Vanguard

The Fund is part of the Vanguard group of investment companies, which consists of over 200 funds. Each fund is a series of a Delaware statutory trust, and through the trusts’ jointly owned subsidiary, Vanguard, the funds obtain at cost virtually all of their corporate management, administrative, and distribution services. Vanguard also provides investment advisory services on an at-cost basis to certain Vanguard funds.

Vanguard employs a supporting staff of management and administrative personnel needed to provide the requisite services to the funds and also furnishes the funds with necessary office space, furnishings, and equipment.

The funds’ officers are also employees of Vanguard.

Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation (VMC), the funds, and the funds’ advisors have adopted codes of ethics designed to prevent employees who may have access to nonpublic information about the trading activities of the funds (access persons) from profiting from that information. The codes of ethics permit access persons to invest in securities for their own accounts, including securities that may be held by a fund, but place substantive and procedural restrictions on the trading activities of access persons. For example, the codes of ethics require that access persons receive advance approval for most securities trades to ensure that there is no conflict with the trading activities of the funds.

Vanguard was established and operates under an Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement (the Agreement).

The Agreement provides that the Fund will not contribute to Vanguard’s capitalization or pay for corporate management, administrative, and distribution services provided by Vanguard. However, the Fund will bear its own direct expenses, such as legal, auditing, and custodial fees. In addition, the Agreement further provides that the Fund’s direct expenses will be offset, in whole or in part, by a reimbursement from Vanguard for (1) the Fund’s contributions to the cost of operating the underlying Vanguard funds in which the Fund invests and (2) certain savings in administrative and marketing costs that Vanguard expects to derive from the Fund’s operations. The Fund expects that the reimbursements should be sufficient to offset most or all of the direct expenses incurred by the Fund. Therefore, the Fund is expected to operate at a very low–or zero–direct expense ratio. Of course, there is no guarantee that this will always be the case.

Although the Fund is not expected to incur any net expenses directly, the Fund’s shareholders indirectly bear the expenses of the underlying Vanguard funds in which the Fund invests. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, the Fund had not yet commenced operations and had not incurred any direct expenses or indirectly borne expenses of any underlying funds.

Management. Corporate management and administrative services include (1) executive staff, (2) accounting and financial, (3) legal and regulatory, (4) shareholder account maintenance, (5) monitoring and control of custodian relationships, (6) shareholder reporting, and (7) review and evaluation of advisory and other services provided to the funds by third parties.

Distribution. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, PA 19355, a wholly owned subsidiary of Vanguard, is the principal underwriter for the funds and in that capacity performs and finances marketing, promotional, and distribution activities (collectively, marketing and distribution activities) that are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares. VMC offers shares of each fund for sale on a continuous basis and will use all

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reasonable efforts in connection with the distribution of shares of the funds. VMC performs marketing and distribution activities at cost in accordance with the conditions of a 1981 SEC exemptive order that permits the Vanguard funds to internalize and jointly finance the marketing, promotion, and distribution of their shares. The funds’ trustees review and approve the marketing and distribution expenses incurred by the funds, including the nature and cost of the activities and the desirability of each fund’s continued participation in the joint arrangement.

To ensure that each fund’s participation in the joint arrangement falls within a reasonable range of fairness, each fund contributes to VMC’s marketing and distribution expenses in accordance with an SEC-approved formula. Under that formula, one half of the marketing and distribution expenses are allocated among the funds based upon their relative net assets. The remaining half of those expenses are allocated among the funds based upon each fund’s sales for the preceding 24 months relative to the total sales of the funds as a group, provided, however, that no fund’s aggregate quarterly rate of contribution for marketing and distribution expenses shall exceed 125% of the average marketing and distribution expense rate for Vanguard and that no fund shall incur annual marketing and distribution expenses in excess of 0.20% of its average month-end net assets. Each fund’s contribution to these marketing and distribution expenses helps to maintain and enhance the attractiveness and viability of the Vanguard complex as a whole, which benefits all of the funds and their shareholders.

VMC’s principal marketing and distribution expenses are for advertising, promotional materials, and marketing personnel. Other marketing and distribution activities of an administrative nature that VMC undertakes on behalf of the funds may include, but are not limited to:

  • Conducting or publishing Vanguard-generated research and analysis concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing views, opinions, advice, or commentary concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing analytical, statistical, performance, or other information concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing administrative services in connection with investments in the funds or other investments, including, but not limited to, shareholder services, recordkeeping services, and educational services.
  • Providing products or services that assist investors or financial service providers (as defined below) in the investment decision-making process.
  • Providing promotional discounts, commission-free trading, fee waivers, and other benefits to clients of Vanguard Brokerage Services® who maintain qualifying investments in the funds.
  • Sponsoring, jointly sponsoring, financially supporting, or participating in conferences, programs, seminars, presentations, meetings, or other events involving fund shareholders, financial service providers, or others concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy, such as industry conferences, prospecting trips, due diligence visits, training or education meetings, and sales presentations.

VMC performs most marketing and distribution activities itself. Some activities may be conducted by third parties pursuant to shared marketing arrangements under which VMC agrees to share the costs and performance of marketing and distribution activities in concert with a financial service provider. Financial service providers include, but are not limited to, investment advisors, broker-dealers, financial planners, financial consultants, banks, and insurance companies. Under these cost- and performance-sharing arrangements, VMC may pay or reimburse a financial service provider (or a third party it retains) for marketing and distribution activities that VMC would otherwise perform. VMC’s cost- and performance-sharing arrangements may be established in connection with Vanguard investment products or services offered or provided to or through the financial service providers. VMC’s arrangements for shared marketing and distribution activities may vary among financial service providers, and its payments or reimbursements to financial service providers in connection with shared marketing and distribution activities may be significant. VMC participates in an offshore arrangement established with a third party to provide marketing, promotional, and other services to qualifying Vanguard funds that are distributed in certain foreign countries on a private-placement basis to government-sponsored and other institutional investors. In exchange for such services, the third party receives an annual base (fixed) fee and may also receive discretionary fees or performance adjustments.

In connection with its marketing and distribution activities, VMC may give financial service providers (or their representatives) (1) promotional items of nominal value that display Vanguard’s logo, such as golf balls, shirts, towels, pens, and mouse pads; (2) gifts that do not exceed $100 per person annually and are not preconditioned on achievement

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of a sales target; (3) an occasional meal, a ticket to a sporting event or the theater, or comparable entertainment that is neither so frequent nor so extensive as to raise any question of propriety and is not preconditioned on achievement of a sales target; and (4) reasonable travel and lodging accommodations to facilitate participation in marketing and distribution activities.

VMC, as a matter of policy, does not pay asset-based fees, sales-based fees, or account-based fees to financial service providers in connection with its marketing and distribution activities for the Vanguard funds. VMC policy also prohibits marketing and distribution activities that are intended, designed, or likely to compromise suitability determinations by, or the fulfillment of any fiduciary duties or other obligations that apply to, financial service providers. Nonetheless, VMC’s marketing and distribution activities are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares, and as such, its activities, including shared marketing and distribution activities, may influence participating financial service providers (or their representatives) to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. In addition, Vanguard or any of its subsidiaries may retain a financial service provider to provide consulting or other services, and that financial service provider also may provide services to investors. Investors should consider the possibility that any of these activities or relationships may influence a financial service provider’s (or its representatives’) decision to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. Each financial service provider should consider its suitability determinations, fiduciary duties, and other legal obligations (or those of its representatives) in connection with any decision to consider, recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class.

As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations and had not incurred any annual shared operating expenses.

Officers and Trustees

Each Vanguard fund is governed by the board of trustees of its trust and a single set of officers. Consistent with the board’s corporate governance principles, the trustees believe that their primary responsibility is oversight of the management of each fund for the benefit of its shareholders, not day-to-day management. The trustees set broad policies for the funds; select investment advisors; monitor fund operations, regulatory compliance, performance, and costs; nominate and select new trustees; and elect fund officers. Vanguard manages the day-to-day operations of the funds under the direction of the board of trustees.

The trustees play an active role, as a full board and at the committee level, in overseeing risk management for the funds. The trustees delegate the day-to-day risk management of the funds to various groups, including portfolio review, investment management, risk management, compliance, legal, fund accounting, and fund financial services. These groups provide the trustees with regular reports regarding investment, valuation, liquidity, and compliance, as well as the risks associated with each. The trustees also oversee risk management for the funds through regular interactions with the funds’ internal and external auditors.

The full board participates in the funds’ risk oversight, in part, through the Vanguard funds’ compliance program, which covers the following broad areas of compliance: investment and other operations; recordkeeping; valuation and pricing; communications and disclosure; reporting and accounting; oversight of service providers; fund governance; and codes of ethics, insider trading controls, and protection of nonpublic information. The program seeks to identify and assess risk through various methods, including through regular interdisciplinary communications between compliance professionals and business personnel who participate on a daily basis in risk management on behalf of the funds. The funds’ chief compliance officer regularly provides reports to the board in writing and in person.

The audit committee of the board, which is composed of JoAnn Heffernan Heisen, F. Joseph Loughrey, Mark Loughridge, Sarah Bloom Raskin, and Peter F. Volanakis, each of whom is an independent trustee, oversees management of financial risks and controls. The audit committee serves as the channel of communication between the independent auditors of the funds and the board with respect to financial statements and financial reporting processes, systems of internal control, and the audit process. Vanguard’s head of internal audit reports directly to the audit committee and provides reports to the committee in writing and in person on a regular basis. Although the audit committee is responsible for overseeing the management of financial risks, the entire board is regularly informed of these risks through committee reports.

All of the trustees bring to each fund’s board a wealth of executive leadership experience derived from their service as executives (in many cases chief executive officers), board members, and leaders of diverse public operating companies, academic institutions, and other organizations. In determining whether an individual is qualified to serve as a trustee of

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the funds, the board considers a wide variety of information about the trustee, and multiple factors contribute to the board’s decision. Each trustee is determined to have the experience, skills, and attributes necessary to serve the funds and their shareholders because each trustee demonstrates an exceptional ability to consider complex business and financial matters, evaluate the relative importance and priority of issues, make decisions, and contribute effectively to the deliberations of the board. The board also considers the individual experience of each trustee and determines that the trustee’s professional experience, education, and background contribute to the diversity of perspectives on the board. The business acumen, experience, and objective thinking of the trustees are considered invaluable assets for Vanguard management and, ultimately, the Vanguard funds’ shareholders. The specific roles and experience of each board member that factor into this determination are presented on the following pages. The mailing address of the trustees and officers is P.O. Box 876, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard During the Past Five Years, Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ Outside Directorships, Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held With Fund Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Interested Trustees1        
F. William McNabb III Chairman of the July 2009 Chairman of the board (January 2010–present) of 209
(1957) Board   Vanguard and of each of the investment companies  
      served by Vanguard, trustee (2009–present) of each of  
      the investment companies served by Vanguard, and  
      director (2008–present) of Vanguard. Chief executive  
      officer and president (2008–2017) of Vanguard and of  
      each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard, managing director (1995–2008) of Vanguard,  
      and director (1997–2018) of Vanguard Marketing  
      Corporation. Director (2018–present) of UnitedHealth  
Group.
 
Mortimer J. Buckley Chief Executive January 2018 Chief executive officer (January 2018–present) of 209
(1969) Officer and   Vanguard; chief executive officer, president, and  
  President   trustee (January 2018–present) of each of the  
      investment companies served by Vanguard; president  
      and director (2017–present) of Vanguard; and president  
      (February 2018–present) of Vanguard Marketing  
      Corporation. Chief investment officer (2013–2017),  
      managing director (2002–2017), head of the Retail  
      Investor Group (2006–2012), and chief information  
      officer (2001–2006) of Vanguard. Chairman of the  
      board (2011–2017) of the Children’s Hospital of  
      Philadelphia.  
 
1 Mr. McNabb and Mr. Buckley are considered “interested persons,” as defined in the 1940 Act, because they are officers of the Trust.  
Independent Trustees        
Emerson U. Fullwood Trustee January 2008 Executive chief staff and marketing officer for North 209
(1948)     America and corporate vice president (retired 2008) of  
      Xerox Corporation (document management products  
      and services). Former president of the Worldwide  
      Channels Group, Latin America, and Worldwide  
      Customer Service and executive chief staff officer of  
      Developing Markets of Xerox. Executive in residence  
      and 2009–2010 Distinguished Minett Professor at the  
      Rochester Institute of Technology. Lead director of SPX  
      FLOW, Inc. (multi-industry manufacturing). Director of  
      the University of Rochester Medical Center, the  
      Monroe Community College Foundation, the United  
      Way of Rochester, North Carolina A&T University, and  
      Roberts Wesleyan College. Trustee of the University of  
      Rochester.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard During the Past Five Years, Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ Outside Directorships, Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held With Fund Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Amy Gutmann Trustee June 2006 President (2004–present) of the University of 209
(1949)     Pennsylvania. Christopher H. Browne Distinguished  
      Professor of Political Science, School of Arts and  
      Sciences, and professor of communication,  
      Annenberg School for Communication, with secondary  
      faculty appointments in the Department of Philosophy,  
      School of Arts and Sciences, and at the Graduate  
      School of Education, University of Pennsylvania.  
      Trustee of the National Constitution Center.  
 
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Trustee July 1998 Corporate vice president of Johnson & Johnson 209
(1950)     (pharmaceuticals/medical devices/consumer products)  
      and member of its executive committee (1997–2008).  
      Chief global diversity officer (retired 2008), vice  
      president and chief information officer (1997–2006),  
      controller (1995–1997), treasurer (1991–1995), and  
      assistant treasurer (1989–1991) of Johnson &  
      Johnson. Director of Skytop Lodge Corporation  
      (hotels) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.  
      Member of the advisory board of the Institute for  
      Women’s Leadership at Rutgers University.  
 
F. Joseph Loughrey Trustee October 2009 President and chief operating officer (retired 2009) and 209
(1949)     vice chairman of the board (2008–2009) of Cummins  
      Inc. (industrial machinery). Chairman of the board of  
      Hillenbrand, Inc. (specialized consumer services),  
      Oxfam America, and the Lumina Foundation for  
      Education. Director of the V Foundation for Cancer  
      Research. Member of the advisory council for the  
      College of Arts and Letters and chair of the advisory  
      board to the Kellogg Institute for International Studies,  
      both at the University of Notre Dame.  
 
Mark Loughridge Lead Independent March 2012 Senior vice president and chief financial officer (retired 209
(1953) Trustee   2013) of IBM (information technology services).  
      Fiduciary member of IBM’s Retirement Plan  
      Committee (2004–2013), senior vice president and  
      general manager (2002–2004) of IBM Global  
      Financing, vice president and controller (1998–2002) of  
      IBM, and a variety of other prior management roles at  
      IBM. Member of the Council on Chicago Booth.  
 
Scott C. Malpass Trustee March 2012 Chief investment officer (1989–present) and vice 209
(1962)     president (1996–present) of the University of Notre  
      Dame. Assistant professor of finance at the Mendoza  
      College of Business, University of Notre Dame, and  
      member of the Notre Dame 403(b) Investment  
      Committee. Chairman of the board of TIFF Advisory  
      Services, Inc. Member of the board of Catholic  
      Investment Services, Inc. (investment advisors), the  
      board of advisors for Spruceview Capital Partners, and  
      the board of superintendence of the Institute for the  
      Works of Religion.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard During the Past Five Years, Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ Outside Directorships, Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held With Fund Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Deanna Mulligan Trustee January 2018 President (2010–present) and chief executive officer 209
(1963)     (2011–present) of The Guardian Life Insurance  
      Company of America.2 Chief operating officer (2010–  
      2011) and executive vice president (2008–2010) of  
      Individual Life and Disability of The Guardian Life  
      Insurance Company of America. Member of the board  
      of The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America,  
      the American Council of Life Insurers, the Partnership  
      for New York City (business leadership), and the  
      Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy.  
      Trustee of the Economic Club of New York and the  
      Bruce Museum (arts and science). Member of the  
      Advisory Council for the Stanford Graduate School of  
      Business.  
 
André F. Perold Trustee December 2004 George Gund Professor of Finance and Banking, 209
(1952)     Emeritus at the Harvard Business School (retired  
      2011). Chief investment officer and co-managing  
      partner of HighVista Strategies LLC (private  
      investment firm). Overseer of the Museum of Fine  
      Arts Boston.  
 
Sarah Bloom Raskin Trustee January 2018 Deputy secretary (2014–2017) of the United States 209
(1961)     Department of the Treasury. Governor (2010–2014) of  
      the Federal Reserve Board. Commissioner (2007–  
      2010) of financial regulation for the State of Maryland.  
      Member of the board of directors (2012–2014) of  
      Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation. Director of  
      i(x) Investments, LLC.  
 
Peter F. Volanakis Trustee July 2009 President and chief operating officer (retired 2010) of 209
(1955)     Corning Incorporated (communications equipment)  
      and director of Corning Incorporated (2000–2010) and  
      Dow Corning (2001–2010). Director (2012) of SPX  
      Corporation (multi-industry manufacturing). Overseer  
      of the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration,  
      Dartmouth College (2001–2013). Chairman of the  
      board of trustees of Colby-Sawyer College. Member of  
      the Board of Hypertherm Inc. (industrial cutting  
      systems, software, and consumables).  

 

2 Guardian Life provides group insurance and administrative services for employee benefits such as group life, dental, vision, and disability coverage to two advisors, each of which manages one or more of the Vanguard funds. Amounts paid by these advisors to Guardian Life for such insurance and services were less than 0.006% of Guardian Life’s premium revenues in each of 2015 and 2016. Park Avenue Securities (PAS) is an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Guardian Life and a dually registered broker-dealer and investment advisor. From time to time, PAS receives payments related to the sale of certain non-Vanguard mutual funds advised by firms that also advise certain Vanguard funds. In 2016, these payments amounted to less than 0.15% of PAS’ revenues and PAS’ earnings comprised less than 1% of Guardian Life’s pre-tax earnings. Deanna Mulligan is not an officer or director of PAS.

Executive Officers        
Glenn Booraem Investment February 2001 Principal of Vanguard. Investment stewardship officer 209
(1967) Stewardship   (2017–present), treasurer (2015–2017), controller  
  Officer   (2010–2015), and assistant controller (2001–2010) of  
      each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard During the Past Five Years, Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ Outside Directorships, Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held With Fund Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Christine M. Buchanan Treasurer November 2017 Principal of Vanguard and global head of Fund 209
(1970)     Administration at Vanguard. Treasurer (2017–present)  
      of each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard. Partner (2005–2017) at KPMG LLP (audit,  
      tax, and advisory services).  
 
Brian Dvorak Chief Compliance June 2017 Principal of Vanguard. Chief compliance officer (2017– 209
(1973) Officer   present) of Vanguard and of each of the investment  
      companies served by Vanguard. Assistant vice  
      president (2017–present) of Vanguard Marketing  
      Corporation. Vice president and director of Enterprise  
      Risk Management (2011–2013) at Oppenheimer Funds,  
Inc.
 
Thomas J. Higgins Chief Financial July 1998 Principal of Vanguard. Chief financial officer (2008– 209
(1957) Officer   present) and treasurer (1998–2008) of each of the  
      investment companies served by Vanguard.  
 
Peter Mahoney Controller May 2015 Principal of Vanguard. Controller (2015–present) of 209
(1974)     each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard. Head of International Fund Services (2008–  
      2014) at Vanguard.  
 
Anne E. Robinson Secretary September 2016 General counsel (2016–present) of Vanguard. 209
(1970)     Secretary (2016–present) of Vanguard and of each of  
      the investment companies served by Vanguard.  
      Managing director (2016–present) of Vanguard.  
      Director and senior vice president (2016–2018) of  
      Vanguard Marketing Corporation. Managing director  
      and general counsel of Global Cards and Consumer  
      Services (2014–2016) at Citigroup. Counsel (2003–  
      2014) at American Express.  
 
Michael Rollings Finance Director February 2017 Finance director (2017–present) and treasurer (2017) of 209
(1963)     each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard. Managing director (2016–present) of  
      Vanguard. Chief financial officer (2016–present) of  
      Vanguard. Director (2016–present) of Vanguard  
      Marketing Corporation. Executive vice president and  
      chief financial officer (2006–2016) of MassMutual  
      Financial Group.  

 

All but two of the trustees are independent. The independent trustees designate a lead independent trustee and appoint the chairman of the board. The lead independent trustee is a spokesperson and principal point of contact for the independent trustees and is responsible for coordinating the activities of the independent trustees, including calling regular executive sessions of the independent trustees; developing the agenda of each meeting together with the chairman; and chairing the meetings of the independent trustees. The lead independent trustee also chairs the meetings of the audit, compensation, and nominating committees. The board also has two investment committees, which consist of independent trustees and the interested trustees.

Board Committees: The Trust‘s board has the following committees:

  • Audit Committee: This committee oversees the accounting and financial reporting policies, the systems of internal controls, and the independent audits of each fund. The following independent trustees serve as members of the committee: Ms. Heisen, Mr. Loughrey, Mr. Loughridge, Ms. Raskin, and Mr. Volanakis. The committee held six meetings during the Fund‘s fiscal year ended August 31, 2017.

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  • Compensation Committee: This committee oversees the compensation programs established by each fund for the benefit of its trustees. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee. The committee held two meetings during the Fund‘s fiscal year ended August 31, 2017.
  • Investment Committees: These committees assist the board in its oversight of investment advisors to the funds and in the review and evaluation of materials relating to the board’s consideration of investment advisory agreements with the funds. Each trustee serves on one of two investment committees. Each investment committee held three meetings during the Fund‘s fiscal year ended August 31, 2017.
  • Nominating Committee: This committee nominates candidates for election to the board of trustees of each fund. The committee also has the authority to recommend the removal of any trustee. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee. The committee held four meetings during the Fund‘s fiscal year ended August 31, 2017.

The Nominating Committee will consider shareholder recommendations for trustee nominees. Shareholders may send recommendations to Mr. Loughridge, chairman of the committee.

Trustee Compensation

The same individuals serve as trustees of all Vanguard funds and each fund pays a proportionate share of the trustees’ compensation. Vanguard funds also employ their officers on a shared basis; however, officers are compensated by Vanguard, not the funds.

Independent Trustees. The funds compensate their independent trustees (i.e., the ones who are not also officers of the funds) in three ways:

  • The independent trustees receive an annual fee for their service to the funds, which is subject to reduction based on absences from scheduled board meetings.
  • The independent trustees are reimbursed for the travel and other expenses that they incur in attending board meetings.
  • Upon retirement (after attaining age 65 and completing five years of service), the independent trustees who began their service prior to January 1, 2001, receive a retirement benefit under a separate account arrangement. As of January 1, 2001, the opening balance of each eligible trustee’s separate account was generally equal to the net present value of the benefits he or she had accrued under the trustees’ former retirement plan. Each eligible trustee’s separate account will be credited annually with interest at a rate of 7.5% until the trustee receives his or her final distribution. Those independent trustees who began their service on or after January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the plan.

“Interested” Trustees. Mr. McNabb and Mr. Buckley serve as trustees, but are not paid in this capacity. They are, however, paid in their roles as officers of Vanguard.

Compensation Table. The following table provides compensation details for each of the trustees. We list the amounts paid as compensation and accrued as retirement benefits by the Fund for each trustee. In addition, the table shows the total amount of benefits that we expect each trustee to receive from all Vanguard funds upon retirement and the total amount of compensation paid to each trustee by all Vanguard funds.

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VANGUARD SCOTTSDALE FUNDS
TRUSTEES’ COMPENSATION TABLE
 
    Pension or Retirement Accrued Annual Total Compensation
  Aggregate Benefits Accrued Retirement From All Vanguard
  Compensation as Part of the Benefit at Funds Paid
Trustee From the Fund1 Fund’s Expenses1 January 1, 20182 to Trustees3
F. William McNabb III
Mortimer J. Buckley4
Emerson U. Fullwood $244,000
Rajiv L. Gupta5 262,500
Amy Gutmann 244,000
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen $8,073 264,000
F. Joseph Loughrey 264,000
Mark Loughridge 296,000
Scott C. Malpass 237,030
Deanna Mulligan4
André F. Perold 244,000
Sarah Bloom Raskin4
Peter F. Volanakis 264,000

 

1      As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations.
2      Each trustee is eligible to receive retirement benefits only after completing at least 5 years (60 consecutive months) of service as a trustee for the Vanguard funds. The annual retirement benefit will be paid in monthly installments, beginning with the month following the trustee’s retirement from service, and will cease after 10 years of payments (120 monthly installments). Trustees who began their service on or after January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the retirement benefit plan.
3      The amounts reported in this column reflect the total compensation paid to each trustee for his or her service as trustee of 201 Vanguard funds for the 2017 calendar year.
4      Mr. Buckley, Ms. Mulligan, and Ms. Raskin became members of the Fund’s board effective January 1, 2018.
5      Mr. Gupta retired from the Fund’s board effective December 31, 2017.

Ownership of Fund Shares

All current trustees (including Mr. Buckley, Ms. Mulligan, and Ms. Raskin, who began service as trustees effective January 1, 2018) allocate their investments among the various Vanguard funds based on their own investment needs. The following table shows each trustee’s ownership of shares of the Fund and of all Vanguard funds served by the trustee as of December 31, 2017. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations.

    Dollar Range Aggregate Dollar Range of
    of Fund Shares Vanguard Fund Shares
Vanguard Fund Trustee Owned by Trustee Owned by Trustee
Total World Bond ETF Emerson U. Fullwood Over $100,000
  Rajiv L. Gupta Over $100,000
  Amy Gutmann Over $100,000
  JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Over $100,000
  F. Joseph Loughrey Over $100,000
  Mark Loughridge Over $100,000
  Scott C. Malpass Over $100,000
  F. William McNabb III Over $100,000
  André F. Perold Over $100,000
  Peter F. Volanakis Over $100,000

 

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Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures

Introduction

Vanguard and the boards of trustees of the Vanguard funds (Boards) have adopted Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures (Policies and Procedures) to govern the disclosure of the portfolio holdings of each Vanguard fund. Vanguard and the Boards considered each of the circumstances under which Vanguard fund portfolio holdings may be disclosed to different categories of persons under the Policies and Procedures. Vanguard and the Boards also considered actual and potential material conflicts that could arise in such circumstances between the interests of Vanguard fund shareholders, on the one hand, and those of the fund’s investment advisor, distributor, or any affiliated person of the fund, its investment advisor, or its distributor, on the other. After giving due consideration to such matters and after the exercise of their fiduciary duties and reasonable business judgment, Vanguard and the Boards determined that the Vanguard funds have a legitimate business purpose for disclosing portfolio holdings to the persons described in each of the circumstances set forth in the Policies and Procedures and that the Policies and Procedures are reasonably designed to ensure that disclosure of portfolio holdings and information about portfolio holdings is in the best interests of fund shareholders and appropriately addresses the potential for material conflicts of interest.

The Boards exercise continuing oversight of the disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings by (1) overseeing the implementation and enforcement of the Policies and Procedures, the Code of Ethics, and the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information (collectively, the portfolio holdings governing policies) by the chief compliance officer of Vanguard and the Vanguard funds; (2) considering reports and recommendations by the chief compliance officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 206(4)-7 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940) that may arise in connection with any portfolio holdings governing policies; and (3) considering whether to approve or ratify any amendment to any portfolio holdings governing policies. Vanguard and the Boards reserve the right to amend the Policies and Procedures at any time and from time to time without prior notice at their sole discretion. For purposes of the Policies and Procedures, the term “portfolio holdings” means the equity and debt securities (e.g., stocks and bonds) held by a Vanguard fund and does not mean the cash investments, derivatives, and other investment positions (collectively, other investment positions) held by the fund.

Online Disclosure of Ten Largest Stock Holdings

Each actively managed Vanguard fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the percentage of the fund’s total assets that each of these holdings represents as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter (quarter-end ten largest stock holdings with weightings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. Each Vanguard index fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the percentage of the fund’s total assets that each of these holdings represents as of the end of the most recent month (month-end ten largest stock holdings with weightings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the month. In addition, Vanguard funds generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the aggregate percentage of the fund’s total assets (and, for balanced funds, the aggregate percentage of the fund’s equity securities) that these holdings represent as of the end of the most recent month (month-end ten largest stock holdings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 10 business days after the end of the month. Together, the quarter-end and month-end ten largest stock holdings are referred to as the ten largest stock holdings. Online disclosure of the ten largest stock holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons.

Online Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings

Each actively managed Vanguard fund, unless otherwise stated, generally will seek to disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 30 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. Each Vanguard fund relying on exemptive relief from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) permitting the operation of actively-managed ETFs generally will seek to disclose complete portfolio holdings, including other investment positions, at the beginning of each business day. These portfolio holdings, including other investment positions, will be disclosed online at vanguard.com in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page. In accordance with Rule 2a-7

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under the 1940 Act, each of the Vanguard money market funds will disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the last business day of the prior month online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, no later than the fifth business day of the current month. The complete portfolio holdings information for money market funds will remain available online for at least six months after the initial posting. Vanguard Market Neutral Fund and Vanguard Alternative Strategies Fund generally will seek to disclose the Fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the Fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 60 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter.In addition, Vanguard Institutional Short-Term Bond Fund and Vanguard Institutional Intermediate-Term Bond Fund will disclose complete portfolio holdings to the following Service Providers as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: American General Life Insurance Company; Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.; JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.; Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company; Prudential Insurance Company of America; Transamerica Premier Life Insurance Company; and United of Omaha Life Insurance Company. Each Vanguard index fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent month online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the month. Online disclosure of complete portfolio holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons. Vanguard will review complete portfolio holdings before disclosure is made and, except with respect to the complete portfolio holdings of the Vanguard money market funds, may withhold any portion of the fund’s complete portfolio holdings from disclosure when deemed to be in the best interests of the fund after consultation with a Vanguard fund’s investment advisor.

Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Service Providers Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard, for legitimate business purposes, may disclose Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings at times it deems necessary and appropriate to rating and ranking organizations; financial printers; proxy voting service providers; pricing information vendors; issuers of guaranteed investment contracts for stable value portfolios; third parties that deliver analytical, statistical, or consulting services; and other third parties that provide services (collectively, Service Providers) to Vanguard, Vanguard subsidiaries, and/or the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider is conditioned on the Service Provider being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed to a Service Provider, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the Service Provider, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to a Service Provider varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings by Vanguard to a Service Provider must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department or Legal and Compliance Division. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider as previously described may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives.

Currently, Vanguard discloses Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to the following Service Providers as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Abel/Noser Corporation; Advisor Software, Inc.; Alcom Printing Group Inc.; Apple Press, L.C.; Bloomberg L.P.; Brilliant Graphics, Inc.; Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc.; Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.; Canon Business Process Services; FactSet Research Systems Inc.; Innovation Printing & Communications; Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc.; Intelligencer Printing Company; Investment Technology Group, Inc.; Lipper, Inc.; Markit WSO Corporation; McMunn Associates Inc.; Reuters America Inc.; R.R. Donnelley, Inc.; State Street Bank and Trust Company; Trade Informatics LLC; Triune Color Corporation; and Tursack Printing Inc. In addition, Vanguard Institutional Short-Term Bond Fund and Vanguard Institutional Intermediate-Term Bond Fund will disclose complete portfolio holdings to the following Service Providers as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: American General Life Insurance Company; Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.; JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.; Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company; Prudential Insurance Company of America; Transamerica Premier Life Insurance Company; and United of Omaha Life Insurance Company.

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Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Vanguard Affiliates and Certain Fiduciaries Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among the following persons (collectively, Affiliates and Fiduciaries) for legitimate business purposes within the scope of their official duties and responsibilities, subject to such persons’ continuing legal duty of confidentiality and legal duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information, as such duties are imposed under the Code of Ethics, the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information, by agreement, or under applicable laws, rules, and regulations: (1) persons who are subject to the Code of Ethics or the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information; (2) an investment advisor, distributor, administrator, transfer agent, or custodian to a Vanguard fund; (3) an accounting firm, an auditing firm, or outside legal counsel retained by Vanguard, a Vanguard subsidiary, or a Vanguard fund; (4) an investment advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed for due diligence purposes when the advisor is in merger or acquisition talks with a Vanguard fund’s current advisor; and (5) a newly hired investment advisor or sub-advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed prior to the time it commences its duties.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed between and among the Affiliates and Fiduciaries, is determined by such Affiliates and Fiduciaries based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to any Affiliates and Fiduciaries as previously described may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund to Affiliates and Fiduciaries must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Currently, Vanguard discloses Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to the following Affiliates and Fiduciaries as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Vanguard and each investment advisor, custodian, and independent registered public accounting firm identified in each fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings to Broker-Dealers in the Normal Course of Managing a Fund’s Assets

An investment advisor, administrator, or custodian for a Vanguard fund may, for legitimate business purposes within the scope of its official duties and responsibilities, disclose portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up the fund to one or more broker-dealers during the course of, or in connection with, normal day-to-day securities and derivatives transactions with or through such broker-dealers subject to the broker-dealer’s legal obligation not to use or disclose material nonpublic information concerning the fund’s portfolio holdings, other investment positions, securities transactions, or derivatives transactions without the consent of the fund or its agents. The Vanguard funds have not given their consent to any such use or disclosure and no person or agent of Vanguard is authorized to give such consent except as approved in writing by the Boards of the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard to broker-dealers must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Disclosure of Nonmaterial Information

The Policies and Procedures permit Vanguard fund officers, Vanguard fund portfolio managers, and other Vanguard representatives (collectively, Approved Vanguard Representatives) to disclose any views, opinions, judgments, advice, or commentary, or any analytical, statistical, performance, or other information, in connection with or relating to a Vanguard fund or its portfolio holdings and/or other investment positions (collectively, commentary and analysis) or any changes in the portfolio holdings of a Vanguard fund that occurred after the end of the most recent calendar quarter (recent portfolio changes) to any person if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose, (2) such disclosure does not effectively result in the disclosure of the complete portfolio holdings of any Vanguard fund (which can be disclosed only in accordance with the Policies and Procedures), and (3) such information does not constitute material nonpublic

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information. Disclosure of commentary and analysis or recent portfolio changes by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

An Approved Vanguard Representative must make a good faith determination whether the information constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases recent portfolio changes that involve a few or even several securities in a diversified portfolio or commentary and analysis would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to a recipient in making an investment decision concerning a Vanguard fund. Nonexclusive examples of commentary and analysis about a Vanguard fund include (1) the allocation of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions among various asset classes, sectors, industries, and countries; (2) the characteristics of the stock and bond components of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions; (3) the attribution of fund returns by asset class, sector, industry, and country; and (4) the volatility characteristics of the fund. Approved Vanguard Representatives may, at their sole discretion, deny any request for information made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Approved Vanguard Representatives include, for purposes of the Policies and Procedures, persons employed by or associated with Vanguard or a subsidiary of Vanguard who have been authorized by Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department to disclose recent portfolio changes and/or commentary and analysis in accordance with the Policies and Procedures.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings, Including Other Investment Positions, in Accordance with SEC Exemptive Orders

Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose to the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), Authorized Participants, and other market makers the daily portfolio composition files (PCFs) that identify a basket of specified securities that may overlap with the actual or expected portfolio holdings of the Vanguard funds that offer a class of shares known as Vanguard ETF Shares (ETF Funds). Each Vanguard fund relying on exemptive relief from the SEC permitting the operation of actively-managed ETFs generally will seek to disclose complete portfolio holdings, including other investment positions, at the beginning of each business day. These portfolio holdings, including other investment positions, will be disclosed online at vanguard.com in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page. The disclosure of PCFs and portfolio holdings, including other investment positions, will be in accordance with the terms and conditions of related exemptive orders (Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders) issued by the SEC, as described in this section.

Unlike the conventional classes of shares issued by ETF Funds, the ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Each ETF Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units.” To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, an investor must be an “Authorized Participant” or the investor must purchase or redeem through a broker-dealer that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a “Participant Agreement” with Vanguard Marketing Corporation. Each ETF Fund issues Creation Units in exchange for a “portfolio deposit” consisting of a basket of specified securities (Deposit Securities) and a cash payment (Balancing Amount). Each ETF Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of specified securities together with a Balancing Amount.

In connection with the creation and redemption process, and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders, Vanguard makes available to the NSCC (a clearing agency registered with the SEC and affiliated with the DTC), for dissemination to NSCC participants on each business day prior to the opening of trading on the listing exchange, a PCF containing a list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security for each ETF Fund. In addition, the listing exchange disseminates (1) continuously throughout the trading day, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, the market value of an ETF Share; and (2) every 15 seconds throughout the trading day, a calculation of the estimated NAV of an ETF Share (expected to be accurate to within a few basis points). Comparing these two figures allows an investor to determine whether, and to what extent, ETF Shares are selling at a premium or at a discount to NAV. ETF Shares are listed on the exchange and traded on the secondary market in the same manner as other equity securities. The price of ETF Shares trading on the secondary market is based on a current bid/offer market.

In addition to making PCFs available to the NSCC, as previously described, Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose the PCF for any ETF Fund to any person, or online at vanguard.com to all categories of persons, if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose and (2) such disclosure does not constitute material nonpublic information. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit must make a good faith determination whether the PCF for any ETF

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Fund constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases the PCF for any ETF Fund would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to the recipient in making an investment decision concerning the ETF Fund, if sufficient time has passed between the date of the PCF and the date on which the PCF is disclosed. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may, at its sole discretion, determine whether to deny any request for the PCF for any ETF Fund made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Disclosure of a PCF must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings Related Information to the Issuer of a Security for Legitimate Business Purposes

Vanguard, at its sole discretion, may disclose portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security if the issuer presents, to the satisfaction of Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit, convincing evidence that the issuer has a legitimate business purpose for such information. Disclosure of this information to an issuer is conditioned on the issuer being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information. The frequency with which portfolio holdings information concerning a security may be disclosed to the issuer of such security, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the issuer, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to an issuer cannot be determined in advance of a specific request and will vary based upon the particular facts and circumstances and the legitimate business purposes, but in unusual situations could be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department or Legal and Compliance Division.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings as Required by Applicable Law

Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up a fund shall be disclosed to any person as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations. Examples of such required disclosure include, but are not limited to, disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (1) in a filing or submission with the SEC or another regulatory body, (2) in connection with seeking recovery on defaulted bonds in a federal bankruptcy case, (3) in connection with a lawsuit, or (4) as required by court order. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Prohibitions on Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

No person is authorized to disclose Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions (whether online at vanguard.com, in writing, by fax, by e-mail, orally, or by other means) except in accordance with the Policies and Procedures. In addition, no person is authorized to make disclosure pursuant to the Policies and Procedures if such disclosure is otherwise unlawful under the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act). Furthermore, Vanguard’s management, at its sole discretion, may determine not to disclose portfolio holdings or other investment positions that make up a Vanguard fund to any person who would otherwise be eligible to receive such information under the Policies and Procedures, or may determine to make such disclosures publicly as provided by the Policies and Procedures.

Prohibitions on Receipt of Compensation or Other Consideration

The Policies and Procedures prohibit a Vanguard fund, its investment advisor, and any other person or entity from paying or receiving any compensation or other consideration of any type for the purpose of obtaining disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions. “Consideration” includes any agreement to maintain assets in the fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the investment advisor or by any affiliated person of the investment advisor.

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INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES

The Fund receives investment advisory services from Vanguard, through its Fixed Income Group. These services are provided on an at-cost basis by an experienced advisory staff employed directly by Vanguard. The compensation and other expenses of the advisory staff are allocated among the funds utilizing these services. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations and therefore, had not incurred any advisory expenses.

1. Other Accounts Managed

Joshua C. Barrickman manages Vanguard Total World Bond ETF, which as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, had not yet commenced operations. As of July 31, 2018, Mr. Barrickman also managed 7 other registered investment companies with total assets of $401 billion and co-managed all or a portion of 13 other registered investment companies with total assets of $301 billion (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance).

2. Material Conflicts of Interest

At Vanguard, individual portfolio managers may manage multiple accounts for multiple clients. In addition to mutual funds, these accounts may include separate accounts, collective trusts, and offshore funds. Managing multiple funds or accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies and conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities. Vanguard manages potential conflicts between funds or accounts through allocation policies and procedures, internal review processes, and oversight by trustees and independent third parties. Vanguard has developed trade allocation procedures and controls to ensure that no one client, regardless of type, is intentionally favored at the expense of another. Allocation policies are designed to address potential conflicts in situations where two or more funds or accounts participate in investment decisions involving the same securities.

3. Description of Compensation

All Vanguard portfolio managers are Vanguard employees. This section describes the compensation of Vanguard employees who manage Vanguard mutual funds. As of July 31, 2018, a Vanguard portfolio manager’s compensation generally consists of base salary, bonus, and payments under Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation program. In addition, portfolio managers are eligible for the standard retirement benefits and health and welfare benefits available to all Vanguard employees. Also, certain portfolio managers may be eligible for additional retirement benefits under several supplemental retirement plans that Vanguard adopted in the 1980s to restore dollar-for-dollar the benefits of management employees that had been cut back solely as a result of tax law changes. These plans are structured to provide the same retirement benefits as the standard retirement plans.

In the case of portfolio managers responsible for managing multiple Vanguard funds or accounts, the method used to determine their compensation is the same for all funds and investment accounts. A portfolio manager’s base salary is determined by the manager’s experience and performance in the role, taking into account the ongoing compensation benchmark analyses performed by Vanguard’s Human Resources Department. A portfolio manager’s base salary is generally a fixed amount that may change as a result of an annual review, upon assumption of new duties, or in response to a market adjustment of the position.

A portfolio manager’s bonus is determined by a number of factors. One factor is gross, pre-tax performance of the fund relative to expectations for how the fund should have performed, given the fund’s investment objective, policies, strategies, and limitations, and the market environment during the measurement period. This performance factor is not based on the amount of assets held in the fund’s portfolio. The performance factor depends on how closely the portfolio manager tracks the Fund’s benchmark index over a one-year period. Additional factors include the portfolio manager’s contributions to the investment management functions within the sub-asset class, contributions to the development of other investment professionals and supporting staff, and overall contributions to strategic planning and decisions for the investment group. The target bonus is expressed as a percentage of base salary. The actual bonus paid may be more or less than the target bonus, based on how well the manager satisfies the objectives previously described. The bonus is paid on an annual basis.

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Under the long-term incentive compensation program, all full-time employees receive a payment from Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation plan based on their years of service, job level, and, if applicable, management responsibilities. Each year, Vanguard’s independent directors determine the amount of the long-term incentive compensation award for that year based on the investment performance of the Vanguard funds relative to competitors and Vanguard’s operating efficiencies in providing services to the Vanguard funds.

4. Ownership of Securities

As of September 4, 2018, the named portfolio manager did not own any shares of Vanguard Total World Bond ETF.

Duration and Termination of Investment Advisory Agreements

Vanguard provides at-cost investment advisory services to the Fund pursuant to the terms of the Fifth Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement. This agreement will continue in full force and effect until terminated or amended by mutual agreement of the Vanguard funds and Vanguard.

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

The advisor decides which securities to buy and sell on behalf of the Fund and then selects the brokers or dealers that will execute the trades on an agency basis or the dealers with whom the trades will be effected on a principal basis. For each trade, the advisor must select a broker-dealer that it believes will provide “best execution.” Best execution does not necessarily mean paying the lowest spread or commission rate available. In seeking best execution, the SEC has said that an advisor should consider the full range of a broker-dealer’s services. The factors considered by the advisor in seeking best execution include, but are not limited to, the broker-dealer’s execution capability, clearance and settlement services, commission rate, trading expertise, willingness and ability to commit capital, ability to provide anonymity, financial responsibility, reputation and integrity, responsiveness, access to underwritten offerings and secondary markets, and access to company management, as well as the value of any research provided by the broker-dealer. In assessing which broker-dealer can provide best execution for a particular trade, the advisor also may consider the timing and size of the order and available liquidity and current market conditions. Subject to applicable legal requirements, the advisor may select a broker based partly on brokerage or research services provided to the advisor and its clients, including the Fund. The advisor may cause the Fund to pay a higher commission than other brokers would charge if the advisor determines in good faith that the amount of the commission is reasonable in relation to the value of services provided. The advisor also may receive brokerage or research services from broker-dealers that are provided at no charge in recognition of the volume of trades directed to the broker. To the extent research services or products may be a factor in selecting brokers, services and products may include written research reports analyzing performance or securities, discussions with research analysts, meetings with corporate executives to obtain oral reports on company performance, market data, and other products and services that will assist the advisor in its investment decision-making process. The research services provided by brokers through which the Fund effects securities transactions may be used by the advisor in servicing all of its accounts, and some of the services may not be used by the advisor in connection with the Fund.

Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, and therefore, had not incurred any brokerage commissions to date.

Some securities that are considered for investment by the Fund may also be appropriate for other Vanguard funds or for other clients served by the advisors. If such securities are compatible with the investment policies of the Fund and one or more of an advisor’s other clients and are considered for purchase or sale at or about the same time, then transactions in such securities may be aggregated by the advisor, and the purchased securities or sale proceeds may be allocated among the participating Vanguard funds and the other participating clients of the advisor in a manner deemed equitable by the advisor. Although there may be no specified formula for allocating such transactions, the allocation methods used, and the results of such allocations, will be subject to periodic review by the Fund‘s board of trustees.

The ability of Vanguard and external advisors to purchase or dispose of investments in regulated industries, certain derivatives markets, certain international markets, and certain issuers that limit ownership by a single shareholder or group of related shareholders, or to exercise rights on behalf of the Fund, may be restricted or impaired because of limitations on the aggregate level of investment unless regulatory or corporate consents or ownership waivers are obtained. As a result, Vanguard and external advisors on behalf of the Fund may be required to limit purchases, sell

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existing investments, or otherwise restrict or limit the exercise of shareholder rights by the Fund, including voting rights. If the Fund is required to limit its investment in a particular issuer, the Fund may seek to obtain economic exposure to that issuer through alternative means, such as through a derivative, which may be more costly than owning securities of the issuer directly.

As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations, and therefore, had not held securities of its “regular brokers or dealers,” as that term is defined in Rule 10b-1 of the 1940 Act.

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

The Board of Trustees (the Board) of each Vanguard fund has adopted proxy voting procedures and guidelines to govern proxy voting by the fund. The Board has delegated responsibility for monitoring proxy voting activities to the Investment Stewardship Oversight Committee (the Committee), made up of senior officers of Vanguard and subject to the operating procedures and guidelines described below. The Committee reports directly to the Board. Vanguard is subject to these procedures and guidelines to the extent that they call for Vanguard to administer the voting process and implement the resulting voting decisions, and for these purposes the guidelines have also been approved by the Board of Directors of Vanguard.

The overarching objective in voting is simple: to support proposals and director nominees that maximize the value of a fund’s investments—and those of fund shareholders—over the long term. Although the goal is simple, the proposals the funds receive are varied and frequently complex. As such, the guidelines adopted by the Board provide a rigorous framework for assessing each proposal. Under the guidelines, each proposal must be evaluated on its merits, based on the particular facts and circumstances as presented.

For ease of reference, the procedures and guidelines often refer to all funds. However, our processes and practices seek to ensure that proxy voting decisions are suitable for individual funds. For most proxy proposals, particularly those involving corporate governance, the evaluation will result in the same position being taken across all of the funds and the funds voting as a block. In some cases, however, a fund may vote differently, depending upon the nature and objective of the fund, the composition of its portfolio, and other factors.

The guidelines do not permit the Board to delegate voting responsibility to a third party that does not serve as a fiduciary for the funds. Because many factors bear on each decision, the guidelines incorporate factors the Committee should consider in each voting decision. A fund may refrain from voting some or all of its shares or vote in a particular way if doing so would be in the fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests. These circumstances may arise, for example, if the expected cost of voting exceeds the expected benefits of voting, if exercising the vote would result in the imposition of trading or other restrictions, or if a fund (or all Vanguard funds in the aggregate) were to own more than the permissible maximum percentage of a company’s stock (as determined by the company’s governing documents or by applicable law, regulation, or regulatory agreement).

In evaluating proxy proposals, we consider information from many sources, including, but not limited to, the investment advisor for the fund, the management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal, and independent proxy research services. We will give substantial weight to the recommendations of the company’s board, absent guidelines or other specific facts that would support a vote against management. In all cases, however, the ultimate decision rests with the members of the Committee, who are accountable to the fund’s Board.

While serving as a framework, the following guidelines cannot contemplate all possible proposals with which a fund may be presented. In the absence of a specific guideline for a particular proposal (e.g., in the case of a transactional issue or contested proxy), the Committee will evaluate the issue and cast the fund’s vote in a manner that, in the Committee’s view, will maximize the value of the fund’s investment, subject to the individual circumstances of the fund.

I.      The Board of Directors
A.      Election of directors

Good governance starts with a majority-independent board, whose key committees are made up entirely of independent directors. As such, companies should attest to the independence of directors who serve on the Compensation,

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Nominating, and Audit committees. In any instance in which a director is not categorically independent, the basis for the independence determination should be clearly explained in the proxy statement.

Although the funds will generally support the board’s nominees, the following factors will be taken into account in determining each fund’s vote:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of
independent directors. non-independent directors.
All members of Audit, Nominating, and Compensation Audit, Nominating, and/or Compensation committees include
committees are independent of management. non-independent members.
  Incumbent board member failed to attend at least 75% of meetings
  in the previous year.
  Actions of committee(s) on which nominee serves are inconsistent with
  other guidelines (e.g., excessive equity grants, substantial non-audit fees,
  lack of board independence).
  Actions of committee(s) on which nominee serves demonstrate serious
  failures of governance (e.g., unilaterally acting to significantly reduce
  shareholder rights, failure to respond to previous vote results for directors
  and shareholder proposals).

 

B. Contested director elections

In the case of contested board elections, we will evaluate the nominees’ qualifications, the performance of the incumbent board, and the rationale behind the dissidents’ campaign, to determine the outcome that we believe will maximize shareholder value.

C. Classified boards

The funds will generally support proposals to declassify existing boards (whether proposed by management or shareholders), and will block efforts by companies to adopt classified board structures in which only part of the board is elected each year.

D. Proxy access

We believe that long-term investors may benefit from having proxy access, or the opportunity to place director nominees on a company’s proxy ballot. In our view, this improves shareholders’ ability to participate in director elections while potentially enhancing boards’ accountability and responsiveness to shareholders.

That said, we also believe that proxy access provisions should be appropriately limited to avoid abuse by investors who lack a meaningful long-term interest in the company. As such, we generally believe that a shareholder or group of shareholders representing 3% of a company’s outstanding shares held for at least three years should be able to nominate directors for up to 20% of the seats on the board.

We will review proposals regarding proxy access case by case. The funds will be most likely to support access provisions with the terms described above, but they may support different thresholds based on a company’s other governance provisions, as well as other relevant factors.

II. Approval of Independent Auditors

The relationship between the company and its auditors should be limited primarily to the audit, although it may include certain closely related activities that do not, in the aggregate, raise any appearance of impaired independence. The funds will generally support management’s recommendation for the ratification of the auditor, except in instances in which audit and audit-related fees make up less than 50% of the total fees paid by the company to the audit firm. We will evaluate on a case-by-case basis instances in which the audit firm has a substantial non-audit relationship with the company (regardless of its size relative to the audit fee) to determine whether independence has been compromised.

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III.      Compensation Issues

A. Stock-based compensation plans

Appropriately designed stock-based compensation plans, administered by an independent committee of the board and approved by shareholders, can be an effective way to align the interests of long-term shareholders with the interests of management, employees, and directors. The funds oppose plans that substantially dilute their ownership interest in the company, provide participants with excessive awards, or have inherently objectionable structural features.

An independent compensation committee should have significant latitude to deliver varied compensation to motivate the company’s employees. However, we will evaluate compensation proposals in the context of several factors (a company’s industry, market capitalization, competitors for talent, etc.) to determine whether a particular plan or proposal balances the perspectives of employees and the company’s other shareholders. We will evaluate each proposal on a case-by-case basis, taking all material facts and circumstances into account.

The following factors will be among those considered in evaluating these proposals:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Company requires senior executives to hold a minimum amount Total potential dilution (including all stock-based plans) exceeds 15% of
of company stock (frequently expressed as a multiple of salary). shares outstanding.
Company requires stock acquired through equity awards to be Annual equity grants have exceeded 2% of shares outstanding.
held for a certain period of time.  
Compensation program includes performance-vesting awards, Plan permits repricing or replacement of options without
indexed options, or other performance-linked grants. shareholder approval.
Concentration of equity grants to senior executives is limited Plan provides for the issuance of reload options.
(indicating that the plan is very broad-based).  
Stock-based compensation is clearly used as a substitute for Plan contains automatic share replenishment (evergreen) feature.
cash in delivering market-competitive total pay.  

 

B. Bonus plans

Bonus plans, which must be periodically submitted for shareholder approval to qualify for deductibility under Section 162(m) of the IRC, should have clearly defined performance criteria and maximum awards expressed in dollars. Bonus plans with awards that are excessive, in both absolute terms and relative to a comparative group, generally will not be supported.

C. Employee stock purchase plans

The funds will generally support the use of employee stock purchase plans to increase company stock ownership by employees, provided that shares purchased under the plan are acquired for no less than 85% of their market value and that shares reserved under the plan amount to less than 5% of the outstanding shares.

D. Advisory votes on executive compensation (Say on Pay)

In addition to proposals on specific equity or bonus plans, the funds are required to cast advisory votes approving many companies’ overall executive compensation plans (so-called Say on Pay votes). In evaluating these proposals, we consider a number of factors, including the amount of compensation that is at risk, the amount of equity-based compensation that is linked to the company’s performance, and the level of compensation as compared to industry peers. The funds will generally support pay programs that demonstrate effective linkage between pay and performance over time and that provide compensation opportunities that are competitive relative to industry peers. On the other hand, pay programs in which significant compensation is guaranteed or insufficiently linked to performance will be less likely to earn our support.

E. Executive severance agreements (golden parachutes)

Although executives’ incentives for continued employment should be more significant than severance benefits, there are instances—particularly in the event of a change in control—in which severance arrangements may be appropriate. Severance benefits payable upon a change of control AND an executive’s termination (so-called “double trigger” plans) are generally acceptable to the extent that benefits paid do not exceed three times salary and bonus. Arrangements in which the benefits exceed three times salary and bonus should be justified and submitted for shareholder approval. We

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do not generally support guaranteed severance absent a change in control or arrangements that do not require the termination of the executive (so-called “single trigger” plans).

IV. Corporate Structure and Shareholder Rights

The exercise of shareholder rights, in proportion to economic ownership, is a fundamental privilege of stock ownership that should not be unnecessarily limited. Such limits may be placed on shareholders’ ability to act by corporate charter or by-law provisions, or by the adoption of certain takeover provisions. In general, the market for corporate control should be allowed to function without undue interference from these artificial barriers.

The funds’ positions on a number of the most commonly presented issues in this area are as follows:

A.      Shareholder rights plans (poison pills)
A      company’s adoption of a so-called poison pill effectively limits a potential acquirer’s ability to buy a controlling interest

without the approval of the target’s board of directors. Such a plan, in conjunction with other takeover defenses, may serve to entrench incumbent management and directors. However, in other cases, a poison pill may force a suitor to negotiate with the board and result in the payment of a higher acquisition premium.

In general, shareholders should be afforded the opportunity to approve shareholder rights plans within a year of their adoption. This provides the board with the ability to put a poison pill in place for legitimate defensive purposes, subject to subsequent approval by shareholders. In evaluating the approval of proposed shareholder rights plans, we will consider the following factors:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval

Plan is relatively short term (3-5 years). Plan is long term (>5 years).
Plan requires shareholder approval for renewal. Renewal of plan is automatic or does not require shareholder approval.
Plan incorporates review by a committee of independent Board with limited independence.
directors at least every three years (so-called TIDE provisions).
Ownership trigger is reasonable (15-20%). Ownership trigger is less than 15%.
Highly independent, non-classified board. Classified board.
Plan includes permitted-bid/qualified-offer feature (chewable
pill) that mandates a shareholder vote in certain situations.

B. Increase in authorized shares

The funds are supportive of companies seeking to increase authorized share amounts that do not potentially expose shareholders to excessive dilution. We will generally approve increases of up to 50% of the current share authorization, but will also consider a company’s specific circumstances and market practices.

C. Cumulative voting

The funds are generally opposed to cumulative voting under the premise that it allows shareholders a voice in director elections that is disproportionate to their economic investment in the corporation.

D. Supermajority vote requirements

The funds support shareholders’ ability to approve or reject matters presented for a vote based on a simple majority. Accordingly, the funds will support proposals to remove supermajority requirements and oppose proposals to impose them.

E. Right to call meetings and act by written consent

The funds support shareholders’ right to call special meetings of the board (for good cause and with ample representation) and to act by written consent. The funds will generally vote for proposals to grant these rights to shareholders and against proposals to abridge them.

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F. Confidential voting

The integrity of the voting process is enhanced substantially when shareholders (both institutions and individuals) can vote without fear of coercion or retribution based on their votes. As such, the funds support proposals to provide confidential voting.

G. Dual classes of stock

We are opposed to dual class capitalization structures that provide disparate voting rights to different groups of shareholders with similar economic investments. We will oppose the creation of separate classes with different voting rights and will support the dissolution of such classes.

V. Corporate and Social Policy Issues

We vote case by case on all environmental and social proposals. We evaluate these resolutions in the context of our view that a company’s board has ultimate responsibility for providing effective ongoing oversight of relevant sector- and company-specific risks, including those related to environmental and social matters. We evaluate each proposal on its merits and support those where we believe there is a logically demonstrable linkage between the specific proposal and long-term shareholder value. Some of the factors considered when evaluating these proposals include the materiality of the issue, the quality of the current disclosure and business practices, and any progress by the company toward the adoption of best practices and/or industry norms.

VI. Voting in Foreign Markets

Corporate governance standards, disclosure requirements, and voting mechanics vary greatly among the markets outside the United States in which the funds may invest. Each fund’s votes will be used, where applicable, to advocate for improvements in governance and disclosure by each fund’s portfolio companies. We will evaluate issues presented to shareholders for each fund’s foreign holdings in the context with the guidelines described above, as well as local market standards and best practices. The funds will cast their votes in a manner believed to be philosophically consistent with these guidelines, while taking into account differing practices by market. In addition, there may be instances in which the funds elect not to vote, as described below.

Many foreign markets require that securities be “blocked” or reregistered to vote at a company’s meeting. Absent an issue of compelling economic importance, we will generally not subject the fund to the loss of liquidity imposed by these requirements.

The costs of voting (e.g., custodian fees, vote agency fees) in foreign markets may be substantially higher than for U.S. holdings. As such, the fund may limit its voting on foreign holdings in instances in which the issues presented are unlikely to have a material impact on shareholder value.

VII. Voting Shares of a Company that has an Ownership Limitation

Certain companies have provisions in their governing documents that restrict stock ownership in excess of a specified limit. Typically, these ownership restrictions are included in the governing documents of real estate investment trusts, but may be included in other companies’ governing documents.

A company’s governing documents normally allow the company to grant a waiver of these ownership limits, which would allow a fund (or all Vanguard-advised funds) to exceed the stated ownership limit. Sometimes a company will grant a waiver without restriction. From time to time, a company may grant a waiver only if a fund (or funds) agrees to not vote the company’s shares in excess of the normal specified limit. In such a circumstance, a fund may refrain from voting shares if owning the shares beyond the company’s specified limit is in the best interests of the fund and its shareholders.

In addition, applicable law may require prior regulatory approval to permit ownership of certain regulated issuer’s voting securities above certain limits or may impose other restrictions on owners of more than a certain percentage of a regulated issuer’s voting shares. The Board has authorized the funds to vote shares above these limits in the same proportion as votes cast by the issuer’s entire shareholder base (i.e., mirror vote) or to refrain from voting excess shares if mirror voting is not practicable. For example, rules administered by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the FRB) generally require that a person seeking to own more than 10% of a bank regulated by the FRB seek

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prior approval. Vanguard has obtained regulatory approval that allows Vanguard funds to own up to 15% of a class of a bank’s outstanding voting shares without seeking prior regulatory approval, provided the funds’ shares in excess of 10% are mirror voted or not voted at all.

These ownership limits may be applied at the individual fund level, across all Vanguard-advised funds, or across all Vanguard funds, regardless of whether they are advised by Vanguard.

VIII. Voting on a Fund’s Holdings of Other Vanguard Funds

Certain Vanguard funds (owner funds) may, from time to time, own shares of other Vanguard funds (underlying funds). If an underlying fund submits a matter to a vote of its shareholders, votes for and against such matters on behalf of the owner funds will be cast in the same proportion as the votes of the other shareholders in the underlying fund.

IX. Investment Stewardship

The Board has delegated the day-to-day operation of the funds’ proxy voting process to the Investment Stewardship team (Investment Stewardship), which the Committee oversees. Although most votes will be determined, subject to the individual circumstances of each fund, by reference to the guidelines as separately adopted by each of the funds, there may be circumstances when Investment Stewardship will refer proxy issues to the Committee for consideration. In addition, at any time, the Board has the authority to vote proxies, when, at the Board’s or the Committee’s discretion, such action is warranted.

Investment Stewardship performs the following functions: (1) managing and conducting due diligence of proxy voting vendors; (2) reconciling share positions; (3) analyzing proxy proposals using factors described in the guidelines; (4) determining and addressing potential or actual conflicts of interest that may be presented by a particular proxy; and (5) voting proxies. Investment Stewardship also prepares periodic and special reports to the Board, and any proposed amendments to the procedures and guidelines.

X. The Investment Stewardship Oversight Committee

The Board, including a majority of the independent trustees, appoints the members of the Committee who are senior officers of Vanguard.

The Committee does not include anyone whose primary duties include external client relationship management or sales. This clear separation between the proxy voting and client relationship functions is intended to eliminate any potential conflict of interest in the proxy voting process. In the unlikely event that a member of the Committee believes he or she might have a conflict of interest regarding a proxy vote, that member must recuse himself or herself from the committee meeting at which the matter is addressed, and not participate in the voting decision.

The Committee works with Investment Stewardship to provide reports and other guidance to the Board regarding proxy voting by the funds. The Committee has an obligation to conduct its meetings and exercise its decision-making authority subject to the fiduciary standards of good faith, fairness, and Vanguard’s Code of Ethics. The Committee shall authorize proxy votes that the Committee determines, at its sole discretion, to be in the best interests of each fund’s shareholders. In determining how to apply the guidelines to a particular factual situation, the Committee may not take into account any interest that would conflict with the interest of fund shareholders in maximizing the value of their investments.

The Board may review these procedures and guidelines and modify them from time to time. A summary of the procedures and guidelines is available on Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com.

You may obtain a free copy of a report that details how the funds voted the proxies relating to the portfolio securities held by the funds for the prior 12-month period ended June 30 by logging on to Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com or the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

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INFORMATION ABOUT THE ETF SHARE CLASS, PURCHASE AND

REDEMPTION OF SHARES

The Vanguard Total World Bond ETF (“Fund”) offers and issues an exchange-traded class of shares called ETF Shares. The Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units”. The number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 25,000.

To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, you must be an Authorized Participant or you must transact through a broker that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a Participant Agreement with Vanguard Marketing Corporation, the Fund’s Distributor (the Distributor). For a current list of Authorized Participants, contact the Distributor.

Investors that are not Authorized Participants must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. As with any stock traded on an exchange through a broker, purchases and sales of ETF Shares will be subject to usual and customary brokerage commissions.

The Fund issues Creation Units in kind in exchange for a basket of securities that are part of—or soon to be part of—its target index (Deposit Securities). The Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of securities that are part of the Fund’s portfolio holdings (Redemption Securities). As part of any creation or redemption transaction, the investor will either pay or receive some cash in addition to the securities, as described more fully on the following pages. The Fund reserves the right to issue Creation Units for cash, rather than in kind.

Exchange Listing and Trading

The ETF Shares have been approved for listing on a national securities exchange and will trade on the exchange at market prices that may differ from net asset value (NAV). There can be no assurance that, in the future, ETF Shares will continue to meet all of the exchange’s listing requirements. The exchange will institute procedures to delist the Fund’s ETF Shares if the Fund’s ETF Shares do not continuously comply with the exchange’s listing rules. The exchange will also delist the Fund’s ETF Shares upon termination of the ETF Share class.

The exchange disseminates, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, an updated “indicative optimized portfolio value” (IOPV) for the Fund as calculated by an information provider. The Fund is not involved with or responsible for the calculation or dissemination of the IOPVs, and makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPVs. An IOPV for the Fund’s ETF Shares is disseminated every 15 seconds during regular exchange trading hours. An IOPV has a securities value component and a cash component. The securities values included in an IOPV are based on the real-time market prices of the Deposit Securities for the Fund’s ETF Shares. The IOPV is designed as an estimate of the Fund’s NAV at a particular point in time, but it is only an estimate and should not be viewed as the actual NAV, which is calculated once each day.

Conversions and Exchanges

The Fund offers only one class of shares, ETF shares. ETF shares cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF shares of another fund.

Book Entry Only System

ETF Shares issued by the Fund are registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and are deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC. The DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (DTC Participants) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions among them through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. The DTC is a subsidiary of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC), which is owned by certain participants of the DTCC’s subsidiaries, including the DTC. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (Indirect Participants).

Beneficial ownership of ETF Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in ETF Shares (owners of such

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beneficial interests are referred to herein as Beneficial Owners) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from, or through, the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of ETF Shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in ETF Shares.

The Fund recognizes the DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all ETF Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares are not entitled to have ETF Shares registered in their names and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of the DTC and any DTC Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests to exercise any rights of a holder of ETF Shares.

Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. The DTC will make available to the Fund, upon request and for a fee, a listing of the ETF Shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Fund shall obtain from each DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding ETF Shares, directly or indirectly, through the DTC Participant. The Fund shall provide each DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in form, in number, and at such place as the DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that these communications may be transmitted by the DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to the Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Fund shall pay to each DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee as the registered holder of all ETF Shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit the DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in ETF Shares of the Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

The Fund has no responsibility or liability for any aspects of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners; for payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such ETF Shares; for maintenance, supervision, or review of any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests; or for any other aspect of the relationship between the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

The DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to ETF Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Fund and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Fund shall take action either to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of ETF Shares, unless the Fund makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the exchange.

Purchase and Issuance of ETF Shares in Creation Units

The Fund issues and sells ETF Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at their NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any business day. The Fund does not issue fractional Creation Units.

A business day is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, the NYSE observes the following U.S. holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr., Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day (observed); Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas Day.

Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit from a Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (Deposit Securities) and an amount of cash (Cash Component) consisting of a purchase balancing amount and a transaction fee (both described in the following paragraphs). Together, the Deposit

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Securities and the Cash Component constitute the fund deposit.

The purchase balancing amount is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of a Creation Unit and the market value of the Deposit Securities (Deposit Amount). It ensures that the NAV of a fund deposit (not including the transaction fee) is identical to the NAV of the Creation Unit it is used to purchase. If the purchase balancing amount is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by the purchaser to a Fund in cash. If the purchase balancing amount is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by a Fund to the purchaser in cash (except as offset by the transaction fee).

Vanguard, through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), makes available after the close of each business day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Deposit Security to be included in the next business day’s fund deposit for the Fund (subject to possible amendment or correction). The Fund reserves the right to accept a nonconforming fund deposit.

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities required for a fund deposit may change from one day to another to reflect rebalancing adjustments and corporate actions, to reflect interest payments on underlying bonds, or to respond to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities of the relevant target index.

In addition, the Fund reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash—referred to as “cash in lieu”—to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. This might occur, for example, if a Deposit Security is not available in sufficient quantity for delivery, is not eligible for transfer through the applicable clearance and settlement system, or is not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor for which an Authorized Participant is acting. Trading costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the purchase of Deposit Securities with cash-in-lieu amounts will be an expense of the Fund. However, Vanguard may adjust the transaction fee to protect existing shareholders from this expense.

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility, and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund, and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

Procedures for Purchasing Creation Units. To initiate a purchase order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an order in proper form to the Distributor and such order must be received by the Distributor prior to the closing time of regular trading on the NYSE (Closing Time) (ordinarily 4 p.m., Eastern time) to receive that day‘s NAV. The date on which an order to purchase (or redeem) Creation Units is placed is referred to as the transmittal date. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

The Authorized Participant placing orders should ascertain the deadlines applicable to the DTC and the Federal Reserve Bank wire system by contacting the operations department of the broker or depository institution effectuating such transfer of Deposit Securities and Cash Component.

Neither the Trust, the Fund, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a purchase order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g., the Distributor‘s phone or email systems were not operating properly).

If you are not an Authorized Participant, you must place your purchase order in an acceptable form with an Authorized Participant. The Authorized Participant may request that you make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order (e.g., to provide for payments of cash when required).

Placement of Purchase Orders. An Authorized Participant must deliver the cash and government securities portion of a fund deposit through the Federal Reserve’s Fedwire System and the securities portion of a fund deposit through the DTC. If a fund deposit is incomplete on the second business day after the trade date (the trade date is the date on which a trade actually takes place, or “T”; two business days after the trade date is known as “T+2”) because of the failed delivery of one or more of the Deposit Securities, the Fund shall be entitled to cancel the purchase order.

The Fund may issue Creation Units in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing Deposit Securities at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in an amount determined by the Fund in accordance with the terms of the Participant Agreement.

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Rejection of Purchase Orders. The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a purchase order. By way of example, and not limitation, a Fund will reject a purchase order if:

  • The order is not in proper form.
  • The Deposit Securities delivered are not the same (in name or amount) as the published basket.
  • Acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund.
  • Acceptance of the fund deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful.
  • Acceptance of the fund deposit would otherwise, at the discretion of the Fund or Vanguard, have an adverse effect on the Fund or any of its shareholders.
  • Circumstances outside the control of the Fund, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard make it for all practical purposes impossible to process the order. Examples include, but are not limited to, natural disasters, public service disruptions, or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions, and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy, and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the aforementioned parties as well as the DTC, the NSCC, the Federal Reserve, or any other participant in the purchase process; and similar extraordinary events.

If the purchase order is rejected, the Distributor shall notify the Authorized Participant that submitted the order. The Fund, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of a fund deposit, nor shall any of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

Transaction Fee on Purchases of Creation Units. The Fund may impose a transaction fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The amount of the fee, which may be changed by Vanguard from time to time at its sole discretion, is made available daily to Authorized Participants, market makers, and other interested parties through Vanguard’s proprietary portal system. When the Fund permits (or requires) a purchaser to substitute cash in lieu of depositing one or more Deposit Securities, the purchaser may be assessed an additional charge on the cash-in-lieu portion of the investment. The amount of this charge will be disclosed to investors before they place their orders. The amount will be determined by the Fund at its sole discretion but will not be more than the Fund’s good faith estimate of the costs it will incur investing the cash in lieu, which may include, if applicable, market-impact costs. The maximum transaction fee on purchases of Creation Units, including any additional charges as described, shall be 2% of the value of the Creation Units.

Redemption of ETF Shares in Creation Units

To be eligible to place a redemption order, you must be an Authorized Participant. Investors that are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant in order to redeem a Creation Unit.

ETF Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other transaction costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of ETF Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Redemption requests received on a business day in good order will receive the NAV next determined after the request is made.

Unless cash redemptions are available or specified for a fund, an investor tendering a Creation Unit generally will receive redemption proceeds consisting of (1) a basket of Redemption Securities; plus (2) a redemption balancing amount in cash equal to the difference between (x) the NAV of the Creation Unit being redeemed, as next determined after receipt of a request in proper form, and (y) the value of the Redemption Securities; less (3) a transaction fee. If the Redemption Securities have a value greater than the NAV of a Creation Unit, the redeeming investor will pay the redemption balancing amount in cash to the fund rather than receive such amount from the fund.

Vanguard, through the NSCC, makes available after the close of each business day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Redemption Security to be included in the next business day’s redemption basket for the Fund (subject to possible amendment or correction). The basket of Redemption Securities provided to an investor redeeming a Creation Unit may not be identical to the basket of Deposit Securities required of an investor purchasing a Creation Unit. If the

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Fund and a redeeming investor mutually agree, the Fund may provide the investor with a basket of Redemption Securities that differs from the composition of the redemption basket published through the NSCC.

The Fund reserves the right to deliver cash in lieu of any Redemption Security for the same reason it might accept cash in lieu of a Deposit Security, as previously discussed, or if the Fund could not lawfully deliver the security or could not do so without first registering such security under federal or state law.

Neither the Trust, the Fund, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a redemption order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g., the Distributor’s phone or email systems were not operating properly).

Transaction Fee on Redemptions of Creation Units. The Fund may impose a transaction fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The amount of the fee, which may be changed by Vanguard from time to time at its sole discretion, is made available daily to Authorized Participants, market makers, and other interested parties through Vanguard’s proprietary portal system. For Creation Unit redemptions, unlike purchases, the Fund does not impose an additional charge on investors who receive cash in lieu of one or more Redemption Securities. The maximum transaction fee on redemptions of Creation Units shall be 2% of the value of the Creation Units.

Placement of Redemption Orders. To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit such order in proper form to the Distributor before Closing Time in order to receive that day’s NAV. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

If on the settlement date (typically T+2) an Authorized Participant has failed to deliver all of the Vanguard ETF Shares it is seeking to redeem, the Fund shall be entitled to cancel the redemption order. Alternatively, the Fund may deliver to the Authorized Participant the full complement of Redemption Securities and cash in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing ETF Shares at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in accordance with collateral procedures that are part of the Participant Agreement. In all cases the Fund shall be entitled to charge the Authorized Participant for any costs (including investment losses, attorney’s fees, and interest) incurred by the Fund as a result of the late delivery or failure to deliver.

If an Authorized Participant, or a redeeming investor acting through an Authorized Participant, is subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the basket of Redemption Securities, such investor may be paid an equivalent amount of cash in lieu of the security. In addition, the Fund reserves the right to redeem Creation Units partially for cash to the extent that the Fund could not lawfully deliver one or more Redemption Securities or could not do so without first registering such securities under federal or state law.

Suspension of Redemption Rights. The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to a Fund (1) for any period during which the NYSE or listing exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (2) for any period during which trading on the NYSE or listing exchange is suspended or restricted, (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable, or (4) in such other circumstances as the SEC permits.

Right to Change Policies

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions

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will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

The Fund has authorized certain agents to accept on its behalf purchase and redemption orders, and those agents are authorized to designate other intermediaries to accept purchase and redemption orders on the Fund’s behalf (collectively, Authorized Agents). The Fund will be deemed to have received a purchase or redemption order when an Authorized Agent accepts the order in accordance with the Fund’s instructions. In most instances, a customer order that is properly transmitted to an Authorized Agent will be priced at the NAV per share next determined after the order is received by the Authorized Agent

Precautionary Notes

A precautionary note to retail investors: The DTC or its nominee will be the registered owner of all outstanding ETF Shares. Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the DTC and the DTC Participant broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for distributing income and capital gains distributions and for ensuring that you receive shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

A precautionary note to purchasers of Creation Units: You should be aware of certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the issuing fund.

Because new ETF Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of ETF Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that you perform as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in your being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render you a statutory underwriter and subject you to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 (the 1933 Act). For example, you could be deemed a statutory underwriter if you purchase Creation Units from the issuing fund, break them down into the constituent ETF Shares, and sell those shares directly to customers or if you choose to couple the creation of a supply of new ETF Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for ETF Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.

Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with ETF Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the 1933 Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the 1933 Act.

A precautionary note to shareholders redeeming Creation Units: An Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer” as defined in Rule 144A under the 1933 Act will not be able to receive, as part of the redemption basket, restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard. The exemptive order is not, however, available to Vanguard Total World Bond ETF. Accordingly, investment companies seeking to invest in the Fund must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Appendix A—ETF Shares: Foreign Market Information

The security settlement cycles and local market holiday schedules in foreign countries, as well as unscheduled foreign market closings, may result in Vanguard Total World Bond ETF delivering redemption proceeds (either in kind or in cash) more than seven days after receipt of a redemption request in proper form. Listed as a part of this Appendix for the Fund

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are (a) the dates of market holidays in the countries in which the Fund may invest and (b) the dates on which, if a redemption request is submitted, the settlement period in a given country will exceed seven days. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays,” the elimination of existing holidays, or changes in local securities delivery practices could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.

Regular Holidays. For each country in which Vanguard Total World Bond ETF may invest, the calendar year 2018 market holidays are as follows:

Australia—January 1, January 26, March 30, April 02, April 25, June 11, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Austria—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, May 31, August 15, October 26, November 1, December 8, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Belgium—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, December 25, December 26

Bermuda—January 1, March 30, May 24, June 18, August 2, August 3, September 3, November 12, December 25, December 26

Brazil—January 1, January 25, February 12, February 13, February 14, March 30, May 1, May 31, July 9, September 7, October 12, November 2, November 15, November 20, December 25

Bulgaria—January 1, March 5, March 30, April 2, April 6, April 9, May 1, May 7, May 24, September 6, September 24, December 24, December 25, December 26

Canada—January 1, February 19, March 30, May 21, July 2, August 6, September 3, October 8, November 12, December 25, December 26

Chile—January 1, January 16, March 30, May 1, May 21, July 2, July 16, August 15, September 17, September 18, September 19, October 15, November 1, November 2, December 25

China—January 1, February 15, February 16, February 19, February 20, February 21, April 5, April 6, April 30, May 1, June 18, September 24, October 1, October 2, October 3, October 4, October 5

Czech Republic—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 8, July 5, July 6, September 28, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Denmark—January 1, March 29, March 30, April 2, April 27, May 1, May 10, May 11, May 21, June 5, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Finland—January 1, March 3, April 2, May 1, May 10, June 22, December 6, December 24, December 25, December 26 December 31

France—January 1, April 2, May 1, May 8, May 10, May 18, May 21, July 14, November 1, November 11, December 25, December 26

Germany—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, May 31, October 3, December 24, December 25, December 26

Hong Kong—January 1, February 15, February 16, February 19, March 30, April 2, April 5, May 1, May 22, June 18, July 02, September 25, October 1, October 17, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Hungary—January 1, March 10, March 15, March 16, March 30, April 2, April 21, April 30, May 1, May 21, August 20, October 13, October 22, October 23, November 1, November 2. November 10, December 1, December 15, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

India—January 26, February 13, February 19, March 2, March 29, March 30, April 4, April 30, May 1, August 15, August 17, August 22, September 13, September 20, October 2, October 18, November 7, November 8, November 21, November 23, December 25

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Indonesia—January 1, February 16, March 30, May 1, May 10, May 29, June 1, June 13, June 14, June 15, June 18, June 19, August 17, August 22, September 11, September 20, December 24, December 25, December 26

Ireland—January 1, March 19, April 2, May 7, June 4, August 6, October 29, December 25, December 26

Israel—March 1, March 30, April 1, April 2, April 3, April 4, April 5, April 6, April 18, April 19, May 20, July 22, September 9, September 10, September 11, September 18, September 19, September 23, September 24, September 25, September 26, September 27, September 28, September 30, October 1

Italy—January 1, March 30, April 2, April 25, August 15, November 1, December 25, December 26

Japan—January 1, January 2, January 3, January 8, February 12, March 21, April 20, May 3, May 4, May 5, July 16, August 11, September 17, September 24, October 8, November 3, November 23, December 24, December 31

Latvia—January 1, March 30, April 2, April 30, May 1, May 4, May 10, November 19, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Lithuania—January 1, February 16, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, July 6, August 15, November 1, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Luxembourg—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, August 15, November 1, December 25, December 26

Malaysia—January 1, January 31, February 1, February 16, May 1, May 29, June 15, June 16, August 22, August 31, September 10, September 11, September 17, November 6, November 20, December 25

Mexico—January 1, February 5, March 19, March 29, March 30, May 1, November 2, November 19, December 12, December 25

Morocco—January 1, January 11, May 1, June 14, June 15, July 30, August 14, August 20, August 21, August 22, August 23, September 11, November 6, November 18, November 20, November 21

Netherlands—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, December 25, December 26

New Zealand—January 1, January 2, January 29, February 6, March 30, April 2, April 25, June 4, October 22, December 25, December 26

Norway—January 1, March 28, March 29, March 30, April 2, April 13, May 1, May 10, May 17, May 21, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Peru—January 1, January 2, March 29, March 30, April 13, May 1, June 29, August 30, October 8, November 1, December 25

Poland—January 1, April 2, May 1, May 3, May 31, November 1, December 25, December 26

Portugal—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, December 25, December 26

Romania—May 27, May 28, June 1, August 15, November 30, December 1, December 25, December 26

Russia—January 1, January 2, January 3, January 4, January 5, January 8, February 23, March 8, March 9, April 28, April 30, May 1, May 2, May 9, June 9, June 11, June 12, November 5, December 29, December 31

Singapore—January 1, February 16, March 30, May 1, May 29, June 15, August 9, August 22, November 6, December 25

Slovakia—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 8, July 5, August 29, November 1, December 24, December 25, December 26

Slovenia—January 1, January 2, February 8, March 30, April 2, April 27, May 1, May 2, June 25, August 15, October 31, November 1, December 25, December 26

South Africa—January 1, March 21, March 30, April 2, April 27, May 1, August 9, September 24, December 16, December 17, December 25, December 26

B-61


 

South Korea—January 1, February 15, February 16, March 1, May 1, May 7, May 22, June 6, June 13, August 15, September 23, September 24, September 25, September 26, October 3, October 9, December 25, December 31

Spain—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 1, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Sweden—January 1, January 5, March 29, March 30, April 2, April 30, May 1, May 9, May 10, June 22, November 2, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Switzerland—January 1, January 2, March 30, April 2, May 1, May 10, May 21, June 6, August 1, December 25, December 26

Thailand—January 1, January 2, March 1, April 6, April 13, April 16, May 1, May 29, July 27, July 30, August 13, October 15, October 23, December 5, December 10, December 31

United Arab Emirates—January 1, April 13, June 14, June 15, August 21, August 23, August 26, September 11, November 20, November 30, December 2, December 3

United Kingdom—January 1, March 30, April 2, May 7, May 28, August 27, December 24, December 25, December 26, December 31

Redemption. For each country in which Vanguard Total World Bond ETF may invest, a redemption request submitted on the following dates in calendar year 2018 will result in a settlement period that exceeds seven calendar days.

Australia

Redemption Date
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Austria    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7

 

Belgium

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Bermuda    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
7/30/2018 8/6/2018 T+7
7/31/2018 8/7/2018 T+7
8/1/2018 8/8/2018 T+7
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
12/24/2018 12/31/2018 T+7
 
Brazil    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
2/7/2018 2/14/2018 T+7
2/8/2018 2/15/2018 T+7
2/9/2018 2/16/2018 T+7
11/14/2018 11/21/2018 T+7
 
Bulgaria    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7

B-62


 

Canada    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Chile    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
9/13/2018 9/20/2018 T+7
9/14/2018 9/21/2018 T+7
 
China    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
2/12/2018 2/22/2018 T+10
2/13/2018 2/23/2018 T+10
2/14/2018 2/26/2018 T+12
4/2/2018 4/9/2018 T+7
4/3/2018 4/10/2018 T+7
4/4/2018 4/11/2018 T+7
4/25/2018 5/2/2018 T+7
4/26/2018 5/3/2018 T+7
4/27/2018 5/4/2018 T+7
9/26/2018 10/8/2018 T+11
9/27/2018 10/9/2018 T+11
9/28/2018 10/10/2018 T+11
 
Czech Republic    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Denmark    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
3/27/2018 4/3/2018 T+6
3/28/2018 4/4/2018 T+6
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Finland    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
France    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Germany    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Hong Kong    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  

 

B-63


 

Hungary    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7

 

India

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Indonesia    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
5/28/2018 6/4/2018 T+7
6/8/2018 6/20/2018 T+12
6/11/2018 6/21/2018 T+10
6/12/2018 6/22/2018 T+10
8/16/2018 8/23/2018 T+7
12/19/2018 12/27/2018 T+8
12/20/2018 12/28/2018 T+8
12/21/2018 12/31/2018 T+10
 
Ireland    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Israel    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Italy    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Japan    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
4/27/2018 5/7/2018 T+11
5/1/2018 5/8/2018 T+7
5/2/2018 5/10/2018 T+8
 
Latvia    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Lithuania    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Luxembourg    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  

B-64


 

Malaysia    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
1/26/2018 2/2/2018 T+7
1/29/2018 2/5/2018 T+7
1/30/2018 2/6/2018 T+7
9/5/2018 9/12/2018 T+7
9/6/2018 9/13/2018 T+7
9/7/2018 9/14/2018 T+7

Mexico

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Morocco    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
6/11/2018 6/18/2018 T+7
6/12/2018 6/19/2018 T+7
6/13/2018 6/20/2018 T+7
8/15/2018 8/24/2018 T+9
8/16/2018 8/27/2018 T+11
8/17/2018 8/28/2018 T+11
11/15/2018 11/22/2018 T+7
11/16/2018 11/23/2018 T+7
11/19/2018 11/26/2018 T+7
 
Netherlands    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
New Zealand    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Norway    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
3/27/2018 4/3/2018 T+7
3/28/2018 4/4/2018 T+7
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Peru    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Poland    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Portugal    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Romania    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Russia    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  

B-65


 

Singapore    
No settlement cycles (> =): T+7  
 
Slovakia    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
 
Slovenia    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
4/26/2018 5/3/2018 T+7
 
South Africa    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
3/27/2018 4/3/2018 T+7
3/28/2018 4/4/2018 T+7
3/29/2018 4/5/2018 T+7
4/25/2018 5/2/2018 T+7
4/26/2018 5/3/2018 T+7
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7
12/24/2018 12/31/2018 T+7
 
South Korea    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
9/20/2018 9/27/2018 T+7
9/21/2018 9/28/2018 T+7

 

Spain

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Sweden    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
12/20/2018 12/27/2018 T+7
12/21/2018 12/28/2018 T+7

 

Switzerland

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

Thailand    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
4/10/2018 4/17/2018 T+7
4/11/2018 4/18/2018 T+7
4/12/2018 4/19/2018 T+7
7/24/2018 7/31/2018 T+7
7/25/2018 8/1/2018 T+7
7/26/2018 8/2/2018 T+7
12/4/2018 12/11/2018 T+7
 
United Arab Emirates    
Redemption Date Redemption Settlement Date Settlement Period
8/19/2018 8/27/2018 T+8
8/20/2018 8/28/2018 T+8

B-66


 

United Kingdom

No settlement cycles (> =): T+7

In 2018, the maximum number of calendar days necessary to satisfy a redemption request for Vanguard Total World Bond ETF would be 13 days.

Note: Securities in Supranational are traded/held through Euroclear, and securities in Jersey Channel Isle are traded/held through CREST.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, Vanguard Total World Bond ETF had not yet commenced operations; therefore, Financial Statements are not yet available for the Fund.

DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS

Moody’s Rating Symbols

The following describe characteristics of the global long-term (original maturity of 1 year or more) bond ratings provided by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s):

Aaa—Judged to be obligations of the highest quality, they are subject to the lowest level of credit risk.

Aa—Judged to be obligations of high quality, they are subject to very low credit risk. Together with the Aaa group, they make up what are generally known as high-grade bonds.

A—Judged to be upper-medium-grade obligations, they are subject to low credit risk.

Baa—Judged to be medium-grade obligations, subject to moderate credit risk, they may possess certain speculative characteristics.

Ba—Judged to be speculative obligations, they are subject to substantial credit risk.

B—Considered to be speculative obligations, they are subject to high credit risk.

Caa—Judged to be speculative obligations of poor standing, they are subject to very high credit risk.

Ca—Viewed as highly speculative obligations, they are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.

C—Viewed as the lowest rated obligations, they are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal and interest.

Moody’s also supplies numerical indicators (1, 2, and 3) to rating categories. The modifier 1 indicates that the security is in the higher end of its rating category, the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking, and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking toward the lower end of the category.

The following describe characteristics of the global short-term (original maturity of 13 months or less) bond ratings provided by Moody’s. This ratings scale also applies to U.S. municipal tax-exempt commercial paper.

Prime-1 (P-1)—Judged to have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations. Prime-2 (P-2)—Judged to have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations. Prime-3 (P-3)—Judged to have an acceptable ability to repay short-term debt obligations. Not Prime (NP)—Cannot be judged to be in any of the prime rating categories.

B-67


 

The following describe characteristics of the U.S. municipal short-term bond ratings provided by Moody’s:

Moody’s ratings for state and municipal notes and other short-term (up to 3 years) obligations are designated Municipal Investment Grade (MIG).

MIG 1—Indicates superior quality, enjoying the excellent protection of established cash flows, liquidity support, and broad-based access to the market for refinancing.

MIG 2—Indicates strong credit quality with ample margins of protection, although not as large as in the preceding group.

MIG 3—Indicates acceptable credit quality, with narrow liquidity and cash-flow protection and less well-established market access for refinancing.

SG—Indicates speculative credit quality with questionable margins of protection.

Standard and Poor’s Rating Symbols

The following describe characteristics of the long-term (original maturity of 1 year or more) bond ratings provided by Standard and Poor’s:

AAA—These are the highest rated obligations. The capacity to pay interest and repay principal is extremely strong.

AA—These also qualify as high-grade obligations. They have a very strong capacity to pay interest and repay principal, and they differ from AAA issues only in small degree.

A—These are regarded as upper-medium-grade obligations. They have a strong capacity to pay interest and repay principal although they are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than debt in higher-rated categories.

BBB—These are regarded as having an adequate capacity to pay interest and repay principal. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity in this regard. This group is the lowest that qualifies for commercial bank investment.

BB, B, CCC, CC, and C—These obligations range from speculative to significantly speculative with respect to the capacity to pay interest and repay principal. BB indicates the lowest degree of speculation and C the highest.

D—These obligations are in default, and payment of principal and/or interest is likely in arrears.

The ratings from AA to CCC may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (–) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.

The following describe characteristics of short-term (original maturity of 365 days or less) bond and commercial paper ratings designations provided by Standard and Poor’s:

A-1—These are the highest rated obligations. The capacity of the obligor to pay interest and repay principal is strong. The addition of a plus sign (+) would indicate a very strong capacity.

A-2—These obligations are somewhat susceptible to changing economic conditions. The obligor has a satisfactory capacity to pay interest and repay principal.

A-3—These obligations are more susceptible to the adverse effects of changing economic conditions, which could lead to a weakened capacity to pay interest and repay principal.

B—These obligations are vulnerable to nonpayment and are significantly speculative, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments.

C—These obligations are vulnerable to nonpayment, but the obligor must rely on favorable economic conditions to meet its financial commitment.

D—These obligations are in default, and payment of principal and/or interest is likely in arrears.

B-68


 

The following describe characteristics of U.S. municipal short-term (original maturity of 3 years or less) note ratings provided by Standard and Poor’s:

SP-1—This designation indicates a strong capacity to pay principal and interest. SP-2—This designation indicates a satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest. SP-3—This designation indicates a speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.

B-69


 

SAI 3061 092018

B-70


PART C

VANGUARD SCOTTSDALE FUNDS

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits
(a) Articles of Incorporation, Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust, is filed
  herewith.
(b) By-Laws, Amended and Restated By-Laws, filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 51
  dated December 21 2017, is hereby incorporated by reference.
(c) Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders, reference is made to Articles III and V of the
  Registrant’s Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust, refer to Exhibit (a)
  above.
(d) The Vanguard Group, Inc., provides investment advisory services to the Vanguard Total World
  Bond ETF at cost pursuant to the Fifth Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement,
  refer to Exhibit (h) below.
(e) Underwriting Contracts, not applicable.
(f) Bonus or Profit Sharing Contracts, reference is made to the section entitled “Management of
  the Funds” in Part B of this Registration Statement.
(g) Custodian Agreement, for JPMorgan Chase Bank, is filed herewith.
(h) Other Material Contracts, Fifth Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement, filed with
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 29 dated December 29, 2011, and Form of Authorized
  Participant Agreement, filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 26 on August 18, 2010, are
  hereby incorporated by reference.
(i) Legal Opinion, not applicable.
(j) Other Opinions, Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, not applicable.
(k) Omitted Financial Statements, not applicable.
(l) Initial Capital Agreements, not applicable.
(m) Rule 12b-1 Plan, not applicable.
(n) Rule 18f-3 Plan, is filed herewith.
(o) Reserved.
(p) Codes of Ethics, for The Vanguard Group, Inc., filed with Post-Effective Amendment No. 51
  dated December 21 2017, is hereby incorporated by reference.

 

Item 29. Persons Controlled by or under Common Control with Registrant

The Registrant does not control and is not under common control with any person.

Item 30. Indemnification

The Registrant’s organizational documents contain provisions indemnifying Trustees and officers against liability incurred in their official capacities. Article VII, Section 2 of the Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust provides that the Registrant may indemnify and hold harmless each and every Trustee and officer from and against any and all claims, demands, costs, losses, expenses, and damages whatsoever arising out of or related to the performance of his or her duties as a Trustee or officer. Article VI of the By-Laws generally provides that the Registrant shall indemnify its Trustees and officers from any liability arising out of their past or present service in that capacity. Among other things, this provision excludes any liability arising by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or the reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the Trustee’s or officer’s office with the Registrant.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 (the Securities Act) may be permitted for directors, officers, or persons controlling the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the Registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

C-1


 

Item 31. Business and Other Connections of Investment Advisers

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), is an investment adviser registered under the Advisers Act. The list required by this Item 31 of officers and directors of Vanguard, together with any information as to any business, profession, vocation, or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by such officers and directors during the past two years, is incorporated herein by reference from Form ADV filed by Vanguard pursuant to the Advisers Act (SEC File No. 801-11953).

Item 32. Principal Underwriters

(a) Vanguard Marketing Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Vanguard Group, Inc., is the principal underwriter of each fund within the Vanguard group of investment companies, a family of over 200 mutual funds.

(b) The principal business address of each named director and officer of Vanguard Marketing Corporation is 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, PA 19355.

C-2


 

Name   Positions and Office with Underwriter Positions and Office with Funds
Karin A. Risi Director and Chairman and Principal and Chief Executive None
    Officer Designee  
Scott A. Conking Director and Principal None
Kevin Jestice Director and Principal None
Christopher D. McIsaac Director and Principal None
Thomas M.Rampulla Director and Principal None
Michael Rollings Director and Principal Finance Director
John E. Schadl Director and Principal and General Counsel None
Mortimer J. Buckley President Chief Executive Officer, President, and
      Trustee
Brian Dvorak Assistant Vice President Chief Compliance Officer
Caroline Cosby Secretary None
Beth Morales Singh Assistant Secretary None
Aisling Murphy Chief Compliance Officer None
John T. Marcante Chief Information Officer None
Ellen Rinaldi Chief Information Security Officer None
Salvatore L. Pantalone Financial and Operations Principal and Treasurer None
Amy M. Laursen Financial and Operations Principal None
Danielle Corey Annuity and Insurance Officer None
Jeff Seglem Annuity and Insurance Officer None
Matthew Benchener Principal None
John Bendl Principal None
Saundra K. Cusumano Principal None
James M. Delaplane Jr. Principal None
Kathleen A. Graham-Kelly Principal None
Andrew Kadjeski Principal None
Martha G. King Principal None
Mike Lucci Principal None
Alba E. Martinez Principal None
Brian McCarthy Principal None
James M. Norris Principal None
David Petty Principal None
Frank Satterthwaite Principal None
 
(c) Not applicable.  

 

C-3


 

Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records

The books, accounts, and other documents required to be maintained by Section 31(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules promulgated thereunder will be maintained at the offices of the Registrant, 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, PA 19355; the Registrant’s Transfer Agent, The Vanguard Group, Inc., 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, PA 19355; the Registrant’s Custodian (for Vanguard Total World Bond ETF), JPMorgan Chase Bank, 383 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10179.

Item 34. Management Services

Other than as set forth in the section entitled “Management of the Funds” in Part B of this Registration Statement, the Registrant is not a party to any management-related service contract.

Item 35. Undertakings

Not applicable.


 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Registrant hereby certifies that it meets all requirements for effectiveness of this Registration statement pursuant to Rule 485(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the Town of Valley Forge and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 4th day of September, 2018.

VANGUARD SCOTTSDALE FUNDS
BY:___________/s/ Mortimer J. Buckley*
Mortimer J. Buckley
Chief Executive Officer, President, and Trustee

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Post-Effective Amendment to the Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated:

Signature Title Date
/S/ F. WILLIAM MCNABB III* Chairman of the Board of September 4, 2018
  Trustees  
F. William McNabb III    
/S/ MORTIMER J. BUCKLEY* Chief Executive Officer, September 4, 2018
  President, and Trustee  
Mortimer J. Buckley    
/S/ EMERSON U. FULLWOOD* Trustee September 4, 2018
Emerson U. Fullwood    
/S/ AMY GUTMANN* Trustee September 4, 2018
Amy Gutmann    
/S/ JOANN HEFFERNAN HEISEN* Trustee September 4, 2018
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen    
/S/ F. JOSEPH LOUGHREY* Trustee September 4, 2018
F. Joseph Loughrey    
/S/ MARK LOUGHRIDGE* Trustee September 4, 2018
Mark Loughridge    
/S/ SCOTT C. MALPASS* Trustee September 4, 2018
Scott C. Malpass    
/S/ DEANNA MULLIGAN* Trustee September 4, 2018
Deanna Mulligan    
/S/ ANDRÉ F. PEROLD* Trustee September 4, 2018
André F. Perold    
/S/ SARAH BLOOM RASKIN* Trustee September 4, 2018
Sarah Bloom Raskin    
/S/ PETER F. VOLANAKIS* Trustee September 4, 2018
Peter F. Volanakis    
/S/ THOMAS J. HIGGINS* Chief Financial Officer September 4, 2018
Thomas J. Higgins    
 
*By: /s/ Anne E. Robinson    
Anne E. Robinson, pursuant to a Power of Attorney filed on January 18, 2018, see File Number 33-32216,
Incorporated by Reference.    

 


 

INDEX TO EXHIBITS
 
 
Articles of Incorporation, Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust Ex.99.A
Custodian Agreement, JPMorgan Chase Bank Ex.99.G
Rule 18f-3 Plan Ex.99.N